WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 214

  1. CJA 214 NEW Tutorials /cja214dotcom

    ndn58nyt

    2015-01-01

          CJA 214 Entire Course(New) For more course tutorials visit www.cja214.com   CJA 214 Week 1 Individual Assignment Police History Paper CJA 214 Week 2 Individual Assignment Police Department Roles and Functions Paper CJA 214 Week 2 Team Assignment Police Department Organization Presentation CJA 214 Week 3 Individual Assignment Officer Recruitment and Selection Assignment CJA 214 Week 3 Team Assignment Policing Culture Paper CJA 2...

  2. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  3. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  4. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  5. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  6. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  8. CJA 214 NEW UOP Course Tutorial / cja214dotcom

    vasanthi03

    2015-01-01

    CJA 214 Entire Course(New) For more course tutorials visit www.cja214.com   CJA 214 Week 1 Individual Assignment Police History Paper CJA 214 Week 2 Individual Assignment Police Department Roles and Functions Paper CJA 214 Week 2 Team Assignment Police Department Organization Presentation CJA 214 Week 3 Individual Assignment Officer Recruitment and Selection Assignment CJA 214 Week 3 Team Assignment Policing Culture Paper CJA 214 Week 4 Individual Assi...

  9. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  10. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  11. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  12. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  13. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  14. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  15. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  16. 49 CFR 214.323 - Foul time.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foul time. 214.323 Section 214.323 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.323 Foul time. Working limits established on controlled track through the use of foul time procedures shall comply with the...

  17. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    2010-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  18. 49 CFR 214.325 - Train coordination.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train coordination. 214.325 Section 214.325..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.325 Train coordination. Working limits established by a roadway worker through the use of train coordination shall comply with...

  19. 22 CFR 214.34 - Public participation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public participation. 214.34 Section 214.34... Committees § 214.34 Public participation. (a) Each advisory committee meeting is to be open to the public except where: (1) The Director, OMB, has determined that public notice of a meeting would be...

  20. 23 CFR 646.214 - Design.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Design. 646.214 Section 646.214 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... Projects § 646.214 Design. (a) General. (1) Facilities that are the responsibility of the railroad for maintenance and operation shall conform to the specifications and design standards used by the railroad in...

  1. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  2. 40 CFR 94.214 - Production engines.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production engines. 94.214 Section 94...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.214 Production... his/her request, a reasonable number of production engines, as specified by the Administrator....

  3. 24 CFR 214.500 - Audit.

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 214.500 Audit. Housing counseling grant recipients and subrecipients shall be subject to the audit requirements contained in 24 CFR parts 84 and 85. HUD must be provided a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit. 214.500 Section...

  4. 15 CFR 280.214 - Hearings.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearings. 280.214 Section 280.214 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF... proceedings will be taken by reporter or by electronic recording, transcribed and filed with...

  5. 24 CFR 214.300 - Counseling services.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling services. 214.300... HOUSING COUNSELING PROGRAM Program Administration § 214.300 Counseling services. (a) Basic requirements. (1) Agencies must provide counseling to current and potential homeowners and tenants to assist...

  6. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  7. 49 CFR 214.4 - Preemptive effect.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY General § 214.4 Preemptive effect. Under 49 U.S.C... regulations in this part preempts any State law, rule, regulation, order, or standard covering the...

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFL214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFL214 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15510-1 AFL214P (Link to Original ... myhkllnmlkrlfqmdlh mnqmdqfiliq*hfqkhmimvn--- ---lh*imc *tkdkskikfn*cnrrvyhlhflcfrv*pnlqpplq*lvsvplvkviskrr ...

  9. Dicty_cDB: SFI214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFI214 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15046-1 SFI214E (Link to Original ... nikikiffiflilkmklnnsfffmsvifvfliiiqfst atysksxn*il*kiwi *fgnwriysvfttptpttisttttitst**tq*slw**kkiktk si**rl ...

  10. Dicty_cDB: VFI214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFI214 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15456-1 VFI214P (Link to Original ... DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments : (bits) Value VFI214 (VFI214Q) /CSM/VF/VFI2-A/VFI2 ... DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments : (bits) Value N Y16962 |Y16962.1 Dictyostelium dis ...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  12. 48 CFR 5433.214. - Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). 5433.214. Section 5433.214. Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROTESTS, DISPUTES AND APPEALS 5433.214. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)....

  13. 29 CFR 780.214 - Feed sales and other activities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Feed sales and other activities. 780.214 Section 780.214... Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.214 Feed sales and other activities. In some situations, the hatchery also operates a feed store and furnishes feed to the growers. As...

  14. 40 CFR 86.214-94 - Analytical gases.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.214-94 Section 86.214-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.214-94 Analytical gases. The provisions of §...

  15. 49 CFR 214.315 - Supervision and communication.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision and communication. 214.315 Section 214... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.315 Supervision and communication. (a) When an employer assigns duties to a roadway worker that call for...

  16. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  17. 48 CFR 214.202-5 - Descriptive literature.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Descriptive literature. 214.202-5 Section 214.202-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... 214.202-5 Descriptive literature. (c) Requirements of invitation for bids. When brand name or...

  18. 40 CFR 262.214 - Laboratory management plan.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laboratory management plan. 262.214 Section 262.214 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Entities § 262.214 Laboratory management plan. An eligible academic entity must develop and retain...

  19. 25 CFR 214.25 - Forfeiture of lease.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forfeiture of lease. 214.25 Section 214.25 Indians BUREAU..., OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.25 Forfeiture of lease. On the failure of any lessee or assignee to comply with any regulation or any obligation in the lease or assignment, the Secretary of...

  20. Civil works 513 - 289 - 214: traffic disturbance

    Optical Fibre Section

    2005-01-01

    The TS/EL group informs you that, in order to create an optical fibre access for the GEANT2 project, the Rutherford road between buildings 289 and 214 will be closed to the public on the 13th of July 2005. Part of the Sophora parking will be closed during the works (week 28, 11th - 15th July). Please respect the road signs put into place. For more information, please contact 160484. Optical Fibre Section, TS/EL

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - DD Form 214

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 214 A Appendix A to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. A Appendix A to Part 45—DD Form 214 EC23OC91.003 EC23OC91.004 EC23OC91.005 EC23OC91.006...

  2. 48 CFR 2052.214-72 - Bid evaluation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Bid evaluation. 2052.214-72... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.214-72 Bid evaluation. As... invitations for bids (paragraph “(f)” of this provision is optional): Bid Evaluation (JAN 1993) (a) Award...

  3. 5 CFR 179.214 - Interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 3717 and 4 CFR part 101.1 et seq. Penalties and administrative costs will be assessed on all... costs. 179.214 Section 179.214 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... in part 103 of 4 CFR, chapter II, relating to the compromise of claims (without regard to the...

  4. 22 CFR 214.37 - Public access to committee records.

    2010-04-01

    ... available for public inspection and copying pursuant to A.I.D. Regulation 12—Public Information (22 CFR part... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public access to committee records. 214.37... Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.37 Public access to committee records. Records maintained...

  5. Dicty_cDB: AFH214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFH214 (Link to dictyBase) - G00045 DDB0184362 Contig-U16412-1 AFH214P (Lin ... r*rtsstscqrsrnskdsl*snhesnlkryv*kscccsrss*ksinyg*i pkis *cgivklg*nl*ii*kkkikn Frame B: tvgllxfyfifglakyiykk ...

  6. 24 CFR 214.313 - Housing counseling fees.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing counseling fees. 214.313... HOUSING COUNSELING PROGRAM Program Administration § 214.313 Housing counseling fees. (a) Participating agencies may charge reasonable and customary fees for housing education and counseling services, as long...

  7. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  8. 49 CFR 214.302 - Information collection requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.302... the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law...

  9. A novel synthesis of ethanolamine-2-14C

    Ethanolamine-2-14C was prepared by the reduction of benzyloxycarbonyl-glycine-1-14C methyl ester. The reduction was carried out with calcium borohydride and the protecting group was removed by hydrogenolysis. (author)

  10. Automated measurement of radon daughters Bi-214 and Pb-214 in rain water

    Since march 1994 the Institut de Techniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), has been measuring environmental gamma dose rate and the airborne radon concentration levels outdoors, at the ESCRA Station, which is located in Barcelona. ESCRA simultaneously measures several meteorological parameters as well. As it is well known, the gamma dose rate suffers noticeable increments during rain intervals, which in our case range from 10% to 40%, mainly caused by the deposition of the radon daughters 214Bi and 214Pb. These increments do not seem to be correlated with rain rate, rain interval duration, precipitation volume, or other meteorological parameters. In order to develop models that explain the observed dose enhancement, it is interesting to determine the concentration of gamma emitters in rainwater and, due to relative short half life of the two nuclides mentioned above, this must be done as it rains. To this end, we have developed an on-line gamma spectroscopy system for rainwater. The operation of this device, which has been automated by means of a LabView program, consists of the following steps: first, 250 cm3 of water is collected and , if the rain rate is high enough, is transferred to the measurement tank, a Marinelly-like container located underneath a HPGe solid state detector. All the system is surrounded by a lead shield. Preliminary measurements carried out with this device yielded radon daughter concentrations ranging from 50 Bq/l to 1600 Bq/l. (author)

  11. 47 CFR 90.214 - Transient frequency behavior.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transient frequency behavior. 90.214 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.214 Transient frequency behavior... Behavior for Equipment Designed to Operate on 25 kHz Channels t1 4 ±25.0 kHz 5.0 ms 10.0 ms t2 ±12.5 kHz...

  12. 48 CFR 1433.214 - Alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 1433.214 Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). DOI strongly encourages the use of ADR in the resolution of disputes in lieu of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative...

  13. 48 CFR 3033.214 - Alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

    2010-10-01

    ..., DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 3033.214 Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). (c) The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (ADRA) of 1996, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 571, et seq., authorizes and... informal resolution of disputes, and for other purposes. CBCA guidance on ADR may be obtained at...

  14. 16 CFR 1500.214 - Examinations and investigations; samples.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examinations and investigations; samples... § 1500.214 Examinations and investigations; samples. When any officer or employee of the Commission...” includes examinations and tests. (b) The owner of a hazardous substance of which an official sample...

  15. 29 CFR 779.214 - “Business” purpose.

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Common Business Purpose § 779.214 “Business” purpose. The activities described in section 3(r) are included in an enterprise only when they are performed for a “business” purpose. Activities of eleemosynary, religious,...

  16. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  17. 48 CFR 52.214-21 - Descriptive Literature.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Descriptive Literature. 52....214-21 Descriptive Literature. As prescribed in 14.201-6(p)(1), insert the following provision: Descriptive Literature (APR 2002) (a) Descriptive literature, as used in this provision, means...

  18. 48 CFR 852.214-73 - Alternate packaging and packing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate packaging and....214-73 Alternate packaging and packing. As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(3), insert the following provision: Alternate Packaging and Packing (JAN 2008) The bidder's offer must clearly indicate the...

  19. 40 CFR 180.214 - Fenthion; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fenthion; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.214 Fenthion; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  20. 12 CFR 347.214 - Branch established under section 5 of the International Banking Act.

    2010-01-01

    ... (12 CFR 211). ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Branch established under section 5 of the International Banking Act. 347.214 Section 347.214 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE...

  1. 49 CFR 214.335 - On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups. 214.335 Section 214.335 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.335 On-track safety...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - DD Form 214ws

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 214ws B Appendix B to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. B Appendix B to Part 45—DD Form 214ws EC23OC91.007...

  3. 48 CFR 52.214-34 - Submission of Offers in the English Language.

    2010-10-01

    ... the English Language. 52.214-34 Section 52.214-34 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.214-34 Submission of Offers in the English Language. As prescribed in 14.201-6(w), insert the following provision: Submission of Offers in the English Language (APR 1991) Offers...

  4. 40 CFR 2.214 - Defense of Freedom of Information Act suits; participation by affected business.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defense of Freedom of Information Act suits; participation by affected business. 2.214 Section 2.214 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.214 Defense of Freedom of Information Act...

  5. 12 CFR 741.214 - Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. 741.214 Section 741.214 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... Unions § 741.214 Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. Any credit...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.214-70 - Caution to offerors furnishing descriptive literature.

    2010-10-01

    ... furnishing descriptive literature. 1852.214-70 Section 1852.214-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.214-70 Caution to offerors furnishing descriptive literature... Descriptive Literature (DEC 1988) Bidders are cautioned against furnishing as a part of their bids...

  7. Quantification of the 214 Pb and 214 Bi decay products before and after to reach the secular equilibria with the 226 Ra

    In this work a comparison between the 226 Ra concentration and its decay products (214 Pb and 214 Bi) in soil samples is presented before and after that the decay mentioned products reach the equilibria with the radium. Moreover, the obtained daughter/father ratio is presented; and the correction factor for the calculus of the 214 Pb and 214 Bi quantification without being necessary to wait until that the secular equilibria has been established. For the quantification of the concentration of the three radionuclides the gamma spectrometry technique was used. (Author)

  8. Diurnal variations of 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore

    The short-lived radon daughters (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. Their behaviour is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport, removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile (small) ions. Hence the electrical conductivity of air at near the surface of the earth mainly due to 222Rn, 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po concentrations, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. The individual radon progeny concentrations (218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po) are measured using Air Flow meter. The concentration of radon in the atmospheric air is measured using Low Level Radon Detection System. The total energy released due to both radon and its progeny is computed in energy units (eV cm-3s-1) and is converted into ion-pair production rate (No. cm-3 s-1), 32 eV being the energy producing one-ion pair. The atmospheric electrical conductivity (both positive and negative) is measured using a Gerdien's apparatus with two identical tubes. The average values of 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po are respectively 13.70, 1.45 and 1.92 Bq m-3 respectively. The average value of positive and negative electrical conductivity are 5.08 x 10-14U-1 m-1 and 4.67 x 10-14 U-1 m-1. The concentrations of radon, its progeny, and positive and negative conductivity show a similar kind of diurnal variations with maximum in the early morning hours and a minimum during day time. The activity is higher in winter than in summer and rainy season. (author)

  9. MiR-214 inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppression of β-catenin

    Highlights: ► miR-214 is frequently downregulated in human HCC cell lines and tissues. ► miR-214 overexpression inhibits HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. ► miR-214 directly targets β-catenin 3′-UTR in HCC cells. ► miR-214 regulates β-catenin downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: Mounting evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Recent profile studies of miRNA expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-214) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its potential functions and underlying mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that miR-214 is significantly downregulated in HCC cells and specimens. Ectopic overexpression of miR-214 inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Further studies revealed that miR-214 could directly target the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of β-catenin mRNA and suppress its protein expression. Similar to the restoring miR-214 expression, β-catenin downregulation inhibited cell growth, whereas restoring the β-catenin expression abolished the function of miR-214. Moreover, miR-214-mediated reduction of β-catenin resulted in suppression of several downstream genes including c-Myc, cyclinD1, TCF-1, and LEF-1. These findings indicate that miR-214 serves as tumor suppressor and plays substantial roles in inhibiting the tumorigenesis of HCC through suppression of β-catenin. Given these, miR-214 may serve as a useful prognostic or therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

  10. MiR-214 inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppression of {beta}-catenin

    Wang, Xiaojun [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Ji [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Feng [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Lin, Yanting [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhongwei [Department of Interventional Therapy, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Jiaji, E-mail: jiang_jjcn@yahoo.com.cn [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 is frequently downregulated in human HCC cell lines and tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 overexpression inhibits HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 directly targets {beta}-catenin 3 Prime -UTR in HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 regulates {beta}-catenin downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: Mounting evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Recent profile studies of miRNA expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-214) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its potential functions and underlying mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that miR-214 is significantly downregulated in HCC cells and specimens. Ectopic overexpression of miR-214 inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Further studies revealed that miR-214 could directly target the 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) of {beta}-catenin mRNA and suppress its protein expression. Similar to the restoring miR-214 expression, {beta}-catenin downregulation inhibited cell growth, whereas restoring the {beta}-catenin expression abolished the function of miR-214. Moreover, miR-214-mediated reduction of {beta}-catenin resulted in suppression of several downstream genes including c-Myc, cyclinD1, TCF-1, and LEF-1. These findings indicate that miR-214 serves as tumor suppressor and plays substantial roles in inhibiting the tumorigenesis of HCC through suppression of {beta}-catenin. Given these, miR-214 may serve as a useful prognostic or therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

  11. Dicty_cDB: AHA214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AH (Link to library) AHA214 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16495-1 - (Link to Original site) ... omosome 13. 40 1.1 2 AW048636 |AW048636.1 UI-M-BH1-amd -c-12-0-UI.s1 NIH_BMAP_M_S2 Mus musculus cDNA clone ... UI-M-BH1-amd -c-12-0-UI 3', mRNA sequence. 44 2.4 1 AZ941527 |AZ ...

  12. Synthesis of 2-dichloromethyl-2-methyl[2-14C]-1,3-dioxolane

    The labelled compound was prepared by chlorination of [2-14C]acetone obtained from the barium salt of [1-14C]acetic acid by pyrolysis. The reaction product 1,1-dichloro[2-14C]acetone was converted to 2-dichloromethyl-2-methyl[2-14C]-1,3-dioxolane by condensation with ethylene glycol in the presence of thionyl chloride. Radiochemical yield: 62% based on [1-14C]acetic acid. (author) 7 refs

  13. Radon and progeny (214Pb and 214Bi) in urban water-supply systems of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Many water-supply systems in South America utilize the waters of the Guarani aquifer at least as part of their networks. However, there is little present knowledge in Brazil of the factors affecting Rn presence in the water supplied for end-users, despite the economic importance of Guarani aquifer. 222Rn analyzes of 162 water samples were performed at 8 municipalities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of investigating the major factors affecting its presence in solution. The 222Rn activity concentration ranged from 0.04 up to 204.9 Bq/L, with three samples exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq/L. Aeration was confirmed as the most important factor for Rn release, as expected due to its gaseous nature. Accumulation in pipes and stratification in the water column were other significant factors explaining the data obtained in some circumstances. The Rn daughters 214Pb and 214Bi were also determined in a set of selected samples and their presence was directly related to the occurrence of Rn dissolved in water

  14. Low level 14C measurements in freshly prepared benzene samples with simultaneous 214Bi/214Po pairs counting for routine 222Rn contamination correction

    In this paper, we present the application of a known method for simultaneous measurements of the 14C and 222Rn in benzene dating samples. Measurements are performed with a laboratory-made multichannel analyzer that records the height of each pulse and the time interval between the subsequent pulses. This feature is used to detect pairs of pulses from two subsequent decays of 222Rn products, 214Bi and 214Po, what occur in less than 800 μs and have amplitudes corresponding to more than 160 keVe. The measured decay pairs' background count rate is 3.4 day−1 which is much larger than the theoretically expected rate of 0.36 day−1, this suggests a possible source of 222Rn in the LSC cocktails. The 214Bi/214Po pairs count rate is used to correct a count rate in the fixed energy 14C window. Prolonged measurements were performed on a set of 4 test samples starting immediately after the benzene synthesis. The obtained results show good reproducibility and high efficiency in detecting 222Rn presence. The measurements of the chemically prepared benzene from the samples tend to be contaminated with 222Rn are also presented and these clearly show the influence the of 222Rn contamination on the 14C activity measurements. - Highlights: • Delayed coincidence was used for the detection of Bi-214/Po-214 pairs. • Measurement of C-14 activity and Rn-222 activity through Bi-214/Po-214 pairs is performed at the same time. • We report significant Rn-222 contamination of benzene obtained from samples

  15. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of approved spent fuel storage casks. 72.214 Section... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites § 72.214 List of approved...

  16. 42 CFR 431.214 - Notice in cases of probable fraud.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice in cases of probable fraud. 431.214 Section... Hearings for Applicants and Recipients Notice § 431.214 Notice in cases of probable fraud. The agency may... indicating that action should be taken because of probable fraud by the recipient; and (b) The facts...

  17. 25 CFR 214.21 - Inspection of lessees' books and records.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of lessees' books and records. 214.21 Section... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.21 Inspection of lessees' books... premises for the purpose of inspection, and their books and records showing manner of operations...

  18. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.214 Indian lands congestion management...

  19. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must carry at least three immersion suits approved under approval series 160.171 for each lifeboat on...

  20. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and...

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214... Technical Standards § 25.214 Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio...

  1. Octupole coupling and proton-neutron interactions in 214Fr

    Excited states in the odd-odd nucleus 214Fr have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following 208Pb(11B,5n) and 205Tl(13C,4n) reactions. Levels were identified to spins of around 36 h and excitation energies of ∼ 8.6 MeV. A number of isomeric states have been measured and g-factors obtained using the TDPAD method. At low spin, semi-empirical shell-model calculations appear to provide a good description of the states observed. An understanding of the structure of higher spin states in terms of the probable yrast configurations requires the addition of two units of spin at an energy of around 2 MeV. States with spins around 30 h are formed by core-excited configurations, with double core-excitation suggested for the highest states observed. The properties of many of the isomeric states can be understood in terms of multiparticle octupole coupling, with the properties of these states well reproduced by multiparticle octupole-coupled shell-model calculations. (orig.)

  2. Photodissociation dynamics of OCS near 214 nm using ion imaging

    Wei, Wei; Wallace, Colin J.; McBane, George C.; North, Simon W.

    2016-07-01

    The OCS photodissociation dynamics of the dominant S(1D2) channel near 214 nm have been studied using velocity map ion imaging. We report a CO vibrational branching ratio of 0.79:0.21 for v = 0:v = 1, indicating substantially higher vibrational excitation than that observed at slightly longer wavelengths. The CO rotational distribution is bimodal for both v = 0 and v = 1, although the bimodality is less pronounced than at longer wavelengths. Vector correlations, including rotational alignment, indicate that absorption to both the 21A' (A) and 11A″ (B) states is important in the lower-j part of the rotational distribution, while only 21A' state absorption contributes to the upper part; this conclusion is consistent with work at longer wavelengths. Classical trajectory calculations including surface hopping reproduce the measured CO rotational distributions and their dependence on wavelength well, though they underestimate the v = 1 population. The calculations indicate that the higher-j peak in the rotational distribution arises from molecules that begin on the 21A' state but make nonadiabatic transitions to the 11A' (X) state during the dissociation, while the lower-j peak arises from direct photodissociation on either the 21A' or the 11A″ states, as found in previous work.

  3. Diurnal variations of 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India

    The short-lived radon daughters (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by 222Rn, 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of 222Rn, 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m−3 respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m−1 respectively. The radon and

  4. Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.

    Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S

    2014-12-01

    The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1

  5. Cavitation erosion resistance of 13/4 and 21-4-N steels

    Akhilesh K Chauhan

    2013-02-01

    Nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel (termed as 21-4-N steel) in as cast and hot rolled conditions has been investigated as an alternative to 13/4 steel (termed as CA6NM) to overcome the problems of cavitation erosion in hydro turbine underwater parts. The cavitation erosion of 21-4-N and 13/4 steels was investigated by means of an ultrasonic vibration processor. The cavitation erosion is highly dependent on microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that hot rolled 21-4-N steel is more cavitation erosion resistant than the 13/4 and 21-4-N steels in as cast condition. The eroded surfaces were analysed through optical microscope and scanning electron microscope for study of erosion mechanisms.

  6. Oxidation behaviors of porous Haynes 214 alloy at high temperatures

    Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan@csu.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Huiping, E-mail: hptang@c-nin.com [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metals Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Li, Weijie, E-mail: wl347@uowmail.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    The oxidation behaviors of porous Haynes 214 alloy at temperatures from 850 to 1000 °C were investigated. The porous alloys before and after the oxidation were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The oxidation kinetics of the porous alloy approximately follows a parabolic rate law and exhibits two stages controlled by different oxidation courses. Complex oxide scales composed of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are formed on the oxidized porous alloys, and the formation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on its outer layer is promoted with the oxidation proceeding. The rough surface as well as the micropores in the microstructures of the porous alloy caused by the manufacturing process provides fast diffusion paths for oxygen so as to affect the formation of the oxide layers. Both the maximum pore size and the permeability of the porous alloys decrease with the increase of oxidation temperature and exposure time, which may limit its applications. - Highlights: • Two-stage oxidation kinetics controlled by different oxidation courses is showed. • Oxide scale mainly consists of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Rough surface and micropores lead to the formation of uneven oxide structure. • Content of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the outer layer of the scale increases with time at 1000 °C. • Maximum pore size and permeability decrease with increasing temperature and time.

  7. Oxidation behaviors of porous Haynes 214 alloy at high temperatures

    The oxidation behaviors of porous Haynes 214 alloy at temperatures from 850 to 1000 °C were investigated. The porous alloys before and after the oxidation were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The oxidation kinetics of the porous alloy approximately follows a parabolic rate law and exhibits two stages controlled by different oxidation courses. Complex oxide scales composed of Cr2O3, NiCr2O4 and Al2O3 are formed on the oxidized porous alloys, and the formation of Cr2O3 on its outer layer is promoted with the oxidation proceeding. The rough surface as well as the micropores in the microstructures of the porous alloy caused by the manufacturing process provides fast diffusion paths for oxygen so as to affect the formation of the oxide layers. Both the maximum pore size and the permeability of the porous alloys decrease with the increase of oxidation temperature and exposure time, which may limit its applications. - Highlights: • Two-stage oxidation kinetics controlled by different oxidation courses is showed. • Oxide scale mainly consists of Cr2O3, NiCr2O4 and Al2O3. • Rough surface and micropores lead to the formation of uneven oxide structure. • Content of Cr2O3 in the outer layer of the scale increases with time at 1000 °C. • Maximum pore size and permeability decrease with increasing temperature and time

  8. 8 CFR 214.4 - Denial of certification, denial of recertification or withdrawal of SEVP certification.

    2010-01-01

    ... to comply with 8 CFR 214.3(g)(2). (iii) Failure of a DSO to notify SEVP of the attendance of an F-1 transfer student as required by 8 CFR 214.2(f)(8)(ii). (iv) Failure of a DSO to identify on the Form I-20... certification of a school or school system for the attendance of nonimmigrant students, pursuant to sections...

  9. Dynamic regulation of uncoupling protein 2 expression by microRNA-214 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Yu, Guangsheng; Wang, Jianlu; Xu, Kesen; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-07-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM), a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, uses oxidative stress induction as a common effector pathway. However, GEM alone or in combination with oxaliplatin hardly renders any survival benefits to HCC patients. We have recently shown that this is part due to the overexpression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) that in turn mediates resistance to GEM in HCC patients. However, not much is known about regulatory mechanisms underlying UCP2 overexpression in HCC. Differential protein expression in HCC cell lines did not show a concomitant change in UCP2 transcript level, indicating post-transcriptional or post-translational regulatory mechanism. In situ analysis revealed that UCP2 is a putative target of miR-214 miR-214 expression is significantly down-regulated in HCC patient samples as compared with normal adjacent tissues and in cell line, human hepatoblastoma cells (HuH6), with high UCP2 protein expression. We demonstrated using miR-214 mimic and antagomir that the miRNA targeted UCP2 expression by directly targeting the wild-type, but not a miR-214 seed mutant, 3' UTR of UCP2 Overexpression of miR-214 significantly attenuated cell proliferation. Finally, analysis in 20 HCC patients revealed an inverse correlation in expression of UCP2 and miR-214 (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r=-0.9792). Cumulatively, our data indicate that in the context of HCC, miR-214 acts as a putative tumour suppressor by targeting UCP2 and defines a novel mechanism of regulation of UCP2. PMID:27129291

  10. Educational experiment for university students using natural radioactivity. Development of an additional experiment to measure the increase in 214Pb and 214Bi produced from 222Rn

    Although several works have been published to date regarding radiochemistry, most of them have been designed for those who major in subjects related to chemistry or physics and use rather sophisticated methods and apparatus. Education about radiation and radioactivity is also very important for other students because a basic knowledge of radiation and radioactivity is indispensable for understanding environmental problems or energy problems in the future. However, it is not easy to conduct practical work using radioactivity in students' experiments at school or at university because the use of radioactivity is strictly regulated by the law, and equipment such as radiation counters is too expensive for school budgets. From such a viewpoint, we developed several kinds of safe and inexpensive experiments for education using natural radioactivity so that university (or senior high school) students can learn through their practical work without being regulated by the law. For this purpose, radioactive species belonging to the uranium decay series are suitable because these species can be easily obtained from mineral spring water or soil samples. In addition, some of the species such as 214Pb and 214Bi emit beta rays, which are easy to detect, and the half-lives of these which are easy to detect, and the half-lives of these elements can be measured in one or two-hour school activities. This kind of experiment was employed as an ''Educational experiment for radiochemistry'' at Tottori University for nearly fifty students every year. Although the experiment itself was essentially complete, the students did not have the chance to observe how radioactive equilibrium was established. Therefore, we have developed an additional work plan to enable students to observe how 214Pb and 214Bi are produced from 222Rn, and have made this experiment more complete. The educational usefulness of this additional experiment was evaluated and will be presented in section 5. (author)

  11. Measurement of the {sup 214}Po half-life by the DEVIS track setup

    Belov, V. A.; Brakhman, E. V.; Zeldovich, O. Ya.; Karelin, A. K.; Kirichenko, V. V.; Kobyakin, A. S., E-mail: Alexander.Kobyakin@itep.ru; Kozodaeva, O. M.; Kuchenkov, A. V.; Tsvetkova, T. N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    Measurement of the {sup 214}Po half-life with the DEVIS track setup at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) by means of a procedure based on determining lifetimes of individual nuclei is described. The value obtained for the {sup 214}Po half-life is 163.8 {+-} 3.0 Micro-Sign s. The possibility of reaching the accuracy of the measurements that is required for testing the statement that the decay of some nuclei has a nonexponential character and the source intensity necessary for this are discussed.

  12. MiR-214 regulates the function of osteoblast under simulated microgravity by targeting ATF4

    Li, Yingxian; Wang, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Lv, Ke; Wan, Yumin; Li, Yinghui; Bai, Yanqiang

    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small fragments of single-stranded RNA containing 18-24 nucleotides, and are generated from endogenous transcripts. MicroRNAs function in post-transcriptional gene silencing by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs, resulting in translational repression. Growing evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) regu-late various developmental and homeostatic events in vertebrates and invertebrates. Osteoblast differentiation is a key step in proper skeletal development and acquisition of bone mass; How-ever, the physiological role of non-coding small RNAs, especially miRNAs, in osteoblast dif-ferentiation remains elusive. Methods: To study the potential involvement of miRNAs in osteoblast differentiation under stimulated microgravity, we analyzed the expression of 20 bone relative miRNAs using real time PCR platform to find particularly miRNAs whose expression is altered during osteoblast differentiation. TargetScan, miRBase and Miranda were used to predict the target gene of candidate miRNA. To investigate whether ATF4 can be directly targeted by miR-214, we engineered luciferase reporters that have either the wild-type 3'UTRs of these genes, or the mutant UTRs with a 6 base pair (bp) deletion in the target sites. Lastly, to address the in vivo role of miR-214 in bone formation, tail suspension mice model was used to simulate the change of osteoblast function and bone loss. Results: Recent studies have sug-gested that miRNAs might play a role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here, we identify miR-214 in MC3T3-E1 cells, which is a primary mouse osteoblasts cell line, to promote osteoblast differentiation by repressing Activating Transcription Factor4 (ATF4) ex-pression at the posttranscriptional level. What is more, miR-214 was found to be transcribed in C2C12 cells during bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced (BMP2-induced) osteogenesis, and overexpression of miR-214 attenuated BMP2-induced osteoblastogenesis

  13. miR-214 promotes the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells through direct suppression of LZTS1

    Xu, Zhengyu [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtaohappy2010@sohu.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • miR-214 is upregulated in human OS tissues and inversely correlated with LZTS1 expression. • miR-214 directly targets LZTS1 by binding to its 3′-UTR. • miR-214 promotes OS cell proliferation, invasion and tumor growth. • Overexpression of LZTS1 reverses miR-214-induced proliferation and invasion of OS cells. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that miR-214 functions either as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in various human cancer types. The role of this microRNA in osteosarcoma (OS) is presently unclear. Here, we demonstrated that miR-214 is frequently upregulated in OS specimens, compared with noncancerous bone tissues. Bioinformatics analysis further revealed leucine zipper, putative tumor suppressor 1 (LZTS1) as a potential target of miR-214. Expression patterns of miR-214 were inversely correlated with those of LZTS1 mRNA and protein in OS tissues. Data from reporter assays showed that miR-214 directly binds to the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of LZTS1 mRNA and suppresses expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. In functional assays, miR-214 promoted OS cell proliferation, invasion and tumor growth in nude mice, which could be reversed by overexpression of LZTS1. Taken together, our data provide compelling evidence that miR-214 functions as an onco-miRNA in OS, and its oncogenic effects are mediated chiefly through downregulation of LZTS1.

  14. 25 CFR 166.214 - Will the BIA notify the permittee of any change in land title status?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the BIA notify the permittee of any change in land title status? 166.214 Section 166.214 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND... permittee of any change in land title status? Yes. We will notify the permittee if a fee patent is issued...

  15. 8 CFR 214.12 - Preliminary enrollment of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).

    2010-01-01

    ... Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). 214.12 Section 214.12 Aliens and Nationality... of schools in the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). (a) Private elementary and... schools are eligible for preliminary enrollment in Student and Exchange Visitor Information System...

  16. OsCYP21-4, a novel Golgi-resident cyclophilin, increases oxidative stress tolerance in rice

    Hye Sun eCho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OsCYP21-4 is a rice cyclophilin protein that binds to cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant drug. CYP21-4s in Arabidopsis and rice were previously shown to function as mitochondrial cyclophilins, as determined by TargetP analysis. In the current study, we found that OsCYP21-4-GFP localized to the Golgi, rather than mitochondria, in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was confirmed based on its co-localization with cis Golgi α-ManI-mCherry protein. OsCYP21-4 transcript levels increased in response to treatments with various abiotic stresses and the phytohormone abscisic acid, revealing its stress-responsiveness. CYP21-4 homologs do not possess key peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity/cyclosporine A (CsA binding residues, and recombinant OsCYP21-4 protein did not convert the synthetic substrate Suc-AAPF-pNA via cis- trans- isomerization in vitro. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing OsCYP21-4 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity and hydrogen peroxide treatment, along with increased peroxidase activity. These results demonstrate that OsCYP21-4 is a novel Golgi-localized cyclophilin that plays a role in oxidative stress tolerance, possibly by regulating peroxidase activity.

  17. 47 CFR 36.214 - Long distance message revenue-Account 5100.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long distance message revenue-Account 5100. 36... PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Operating Revenues and Certain Income Accounts Operating Revenues § 36.214 Long distance message revenue—Account...

  18. 47 CFR 63.09 - Definitions applicable to international Section 214 authorizations.

    2010-10-01

    ... alliance) affecting the provision or marketing of international basic telecommunications services in the... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions applicable to international Section... Extensions and Supplements § 63.09 Definitions applicable to international Section 214 authorizations....

  19. 22 CFR 214.38 - Submission of reports to the Library of Congress.

    2010-04-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.38 Submission of reports to the Library of Congress. (a) Each advisory committee is to file with the Library of Congress eight copies of each of its reports... Legislative Affairs for transmittal to the Library of Congress....

  20. The LMC HII region N 214C and its peculiar nebular blob

    Meynadier, F; Walborn, N; Meynadier, Frederic; Heydari-Malayeri, Mohammad; Walborn, Nolan

    2005-01-01

    We study the Large Magellanic Cloud HII region N 214C using imaging and spectroscopy obtained at the ESO New Technology Telescope. On the basis of the highest resolution images so far obtained of the OB association LH 110, we show that the main exciting source of the HII region, Sk -71 51, is in fact a tight cluster of massive stars consisting of at least 6 components in an area ~ 4" wide. Spectroscopic observations allow us to revise the spectral type of the main component (# 17) to O2 V ((f*)) + OB, a very rare, hot type. We also classify several other stars associated with N 214C and study the extinction and excitation characteristics of the HII region. Moreover, we obtain BVR photometry and astrometry of 2365 stars and from the corresponding color-magnitude diagram study the stellar content of N 214C and the surrounding LH 110. Furthermore, we discover a striking compact blob of ionized gas in the outer northern part of N 214C. A spherical structure of ~ 5" in radius (~ 1.3 pc), it is split into two lobes...

  1. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...

  2. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means...

  3. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... modes. (2) For portions of the NPS transportation system within transportation management areas...

  4. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What conditions apply for variable....214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest... received the loan application. SBA shall approve the use of a variable interest rate under the...

  5. Half-life of 214Po and 212Po measured with CTF at LNGS

    Polonium isotopes 214Po and 212Po are part of the 238U and 232Th decay chains, respectively. There exist only a few measurements of these two mean lifetimes with precision better than one or two percent. Since we have been studying decay spectra of 214Bi and 212Bi with the purpose of experimentally constraining anti-neutrino spectral shape important for geoneutrino studies, we have a large statistics of decays of 214Po and 212Po collected with the Counting Test Facility (CTF), which was operational in the underground I.N.F.N. Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The apparatus consisted of an external cylindrical water tank (diameter ∼ 11 m, high ∼ 10 m; ∼ 1000 tons of water) serving as passive shielding for 4.8 m3 of liquid organic scintillator contained in an inner spherical vessel with a diameter of ∼ 2 m. The inner vessel was realized with a nylon membrane (∼ 500 ?m thick), with excellent optical clarity, which allowed the effective transmission of the scintillation light to the 100 phototubes (PMTs) forming the optical read-out, anchored on a 7 m diameter support structure inside the water tank. The high purity and low background in CTF allows a favourable signal to background ratio for these measurements. More specifically the ratio of signal to background of the present measurements is more than three orders of magnitude larger than the best existing measurements. We have studied the decays of 214Po into 210Pb and of 212Po into 208Pb tagged by the coincidence with the previously decays from 214Bi and 212Bi by using 222Rn, 232Th and 220Rn sources sealed inside quartz vials and inserted in the CTF

  6. miR-214 protects erythroid cells against oxidative stress by targeting ATF4 and EZH2.

    Gao, Ming; Liu, Yun; Chen, Yue; Yin, Chunyang; Chen, Jane-Jane; Liu, Sijin

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) like 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator in protecting cells against stress by targeting many anti-stress response genes. Recent evidence also reveals that Nrf2 functions partially by targeting mircroRNAs (miRNAs). However, the understanding of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection through miRNA-dependent mechanisms is largely unknown. In the current study, we identified a direct Nrf2 targeting miRNA, miR-214, and demonstrated a protective role of miR-214 in erythroid cells against oxidative stresses generated by radiation, excess iron and arsenic (As) exposure. miR-214 expression was transcriptionally repressed by Nrf2 through a canonical antioxidant response element (ARE) within its promoter region, and this repression is ROS-dependence. The suppression of miR-214 by Nrf2 could antagonize oxidative stress-induced cell death in erythroid cells by two ways. First, miR-214 directly targeted ATF4, a crucial transcriptional factor involved in anti-stress responses, down regulation of miR-214 releases the repression of ATF4 translation and leads to increased ATF4 protein content. Second, miR-214 was able to prevent cell death by targeting EZH2, the catalytic core component of PRC2 complex that is responsible for tri-methylation reaction at lysine 27 (K27) of histone 3 (H3) (H3K27me3), by which As-induced miR-214 reduction resulted in an increased global H3K27me3 level and a compromised overexpression of a pro-apoptotic gene Bim. These two pathways downstream of miR-214 synergistically cooperated to antagonize erythroid cell death upon oxidative stress. Our combined data revealed a protective role of miR-214 signaling in erythroid cells against oxidative stress, and also shed new light on Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective machinery. PMID:26791102

  7. True coincidence summing correction determination for 214Bi principal gamma lines in NORM samples

    The gamma lines 609.3 and 1,120.3 keV are two of the most intensive γ emissions of 214Bi, but they have serious true coincidence summing (TCS) effects due to the complex decay schemes with multi-cascading transitions. TCS effects cause inaccurate count rate and hence erroneous results. A simple and easy experimental method for determination of TCS correction of 214Bi gamma lines was developed in this work using naturally occurring radioactive material samples. Height efficiency and self attenuation corrections were determined as well. The developed method has been formulated theoretically and validated experimentally. The corrections problems were solved simply with neither additional standard source nor simulation skills. (author)

  8. Transient-diffusion measurements of radon. Fick's law confirmation and 218Po/214Po behavior determination

    Usually, radon diffusion coefficients in soils are measured based on the assumption that Fick's law holds true. But, unlike in a free volume, strictly speaking, there is no guarantee that Fick's law holds in soils. Transient-diffusion measurements of radon in soils are best employed in order to confirm Fick's law. Alpha-particles from 218Po/214Po and from 222Rn cannot be distinguished in the course of those measurements. Therefore, the relevant portions of the detector reading must be allocated to each of these nuclides. For that purpose, the behaviors of 218Po and 214Po in the detection volume were determined and their ratios of contribution to the detector reading were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations and a verification test. This information was used to confirm Fick's law for representative Japanese sand and loam samples through indicial transient-diffusion measurements and a theoretical interpretation of the measured data. (author)

  9. Rapid photometry of supernova 1987A: a 2.14 ms pulsar?

    Middleditch, John; Kristian, Jerome A.; Kunkel, William E.; Hill, Kym M.; Watson, Robert D.; Lucinio, Richard; Imamura, James N.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Shearer, Andrew; Butler, Raymond; Redfern, Michael; Danks, Anthony C.

    2000-08-01

    We have monitored Supernova 1987A in optical/near-infrared bands using various high-speed photometers from a few weeks following its birth until early 1996 in order to search for a pulsar remnant. While we have found no clear evidence of any pulsar of constant intensity and stable timing, we have found emission with a complex period modulation near the frequency of 467.5 Hz - a 2.14 ms pulsar candidate. We first detected this signal in data taken on the remnant at the Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) 2.5-m Dupont telescope during 14-16 Feb. 1992 UT. We detected further signals near the 2.14 ms period on numerous occasions over the next four years in data taken with a variety of telescopes, data systems and detectors, at a number of ground- and space-based observatories. In particular, an effort during mid-1993 to monitor this signal with the U. of Tasmania 1-m telescope, when SN1987A was inaccessible to nearly all other observing sites due to high airmass, clearly detected the 2.14 ms signal in the first three nights' observations. The sequence of detections of this signal from Feb. `92 through August `93, prior to its apparent subsequent fading, is highly improbable (analysis techniques necessary for detection, it is difficult to determine the overall probability that all aspects of the signal are real, though it has remained consistent with an astrophysical origin throughout the several year timespan of our study.

  10. Comparison of adsorptions by rice hull and Lewatit TP 214 of platinum in chloride solution

    Morcali M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice hull, a biomass waste product, and Lewatit TP 214, a thiosemicarbazide sorbent, were investigated as adsorbents for the adsorption of platinum (IV ions from synthetically prepared dilute chloroplatinic acid solutions. The rice hull was characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. The effects of the different adsorption parameters, sorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and pH of solution on adsorption percentage were studied in detail on a batch sorption. The adsorption equilibrium data were best fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities, Qmax, at 25°C were found to be 42.02 and 33.22 mg g-1 for the rice hull and Lewatit TP 214, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations using the measured ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° values indicate that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations were investigated; the adsorption of platinum ions for both sorbents was found to be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The kinetic rate, k2, using 30 mg sorbent at 25°C was found to be 0.0289 and 0.0039 g min-1 mg-1 for the rice hull and Lewatit TP 214, respectively. The results indicated that the rice hull can be effectively used for the removal of platinum from aqueous solution.

  11. 49 CFR 214.511 - Required audible warning devices for new on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.511 Required audible warning...) An automatic change-of-direction alarm which provides an audible signal that is at least...

  12. Educational experiment for students using natural radioactivity. 1. Radiochemical analysis of 214Bi in Ena and Ikeda mineral spring water

    A couple of educational experiments have been developed using natural radioactivity contained in mineral spring water and a small GM counter. These experiments are safe and inexpensive enough to be conducted at high school or university, nevertheless they are quantitative enough for learners to observe half-life of 214Pb and 214Bi, and to help them understand the concept of radioactive equilibrium between them. (author)

  13. Degradation of Triazine-2-14C Metsulfuron–Methyl in Soil from an Oil Palm Plantation

    Ismail, B. S.; O K Eng; M A Tayeb

    2015-01-01

    Triazine-2-(14)C metsulfuron-methyl is a selective, systemic sulfonylurea herbicide. Degradation studies in soils are essential for the evaluation of the persistence of pesticides and their breakdown products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degradation of triazine-2-(14)C metsulfuron-methyl in soil under laboratory conditions. A High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with an UV detector and an on-line radio-chemical detector, plus a Supelco Discovery co...

  14. MicroRNA-214 controls skin and hair follicle development by modulating the activity of the Wnt pathway

    Ahmed, Mohammed I.; Alam, Majid; Emelianov, Vladimir U.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Patel, Ankit; Sharov, Andrey A.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin development is governed by complex programs of gene activation and silencing, including microRNA-dependent modulation of gene expression. Here, we show that miR-214 regulates skin morphogenesis and hair follicle (HF) cycling by targeting β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. miR-214 exhibits differential expression patterns in the skin epithelium, and its inducible overexpression in keratinocytes inhibited proliferation, which resulted in formation of fewer HFs with de...

  15. Leukemia-Associated Nup214 Fusion Proteins Disturb the XPO1-Mediated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Pathway and Thereby the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Saito, Shoko; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes is mediated by nuclear transport receptors. Previous reports have suggested that aberrant nuclear-cytoplasmic transport due to mutations or overexpression of nuclear pore complexes and nuclear transport receptors is closely linked to diseases. Nup214, a component of nuclear pore complexes, has been found as chimeric fusion proteins in leukemia. Among various Nup214 fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 have been shown to be engaged in tumorigenesis, but their oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the functions of the Nup214 fusion proteins by focusing on their effects on nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. We found that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 interact with exportin-1 (XPO1)/CRM1 and nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)/TAP, which mediate leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein export and mRNA export, respectively. SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 decreased the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of NES proteins such as cyclin B and proteins involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway by tethering XPO1 onto nuclear dots where Nup214 fusion proteins are localized. We also demonstrated that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 expression inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription by abnormal tethering of the complex containing p65 and its inhibitor, IκB, in the nucleus. These results suggest that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 perturb the regulation of gene expression through alteration of the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system. PMID:27114368

  16. 44Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in comparison to 68Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in pre-clinical investigation. Is 44Sc a potential radionuclide for PET?

    Aim: In the present study we demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo comparison of the 44Sc and 68Ga labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2. 44Sc is a positron emitter with a half life of 3.92 h. Hence it could be used for PET imaging with ligands requiring longer observation time than in the case of 68Ga. Methods: The binding affinity of natSc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and natGa-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 to GRP receptors was studied in competition to [125I-Tyr4]-Bombesin in the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. A preliminary biodistribution in normal rats was performed, while first microPET images were assessed in male Copenhagen rats bearing the androgen-independent Dunning R-3327-AT-1 prostate cancer tumor. Results: The affinity to GRP receptors in the PC-3 cell line was higher for natGa-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 (IC50(nM)=0.85±0.06) than that of natSc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 (IC50 (nM)=6.49±0.13). The internalization rate of 68Ga labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 was slower than that of 44Sc, but their final internalization percents were comparable. 68Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 was externalized faster than 44Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2. The biodistribution of 44Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and 68Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in normal rats revealed a higher uptake in target organs and tissues of the first one while both excreted mainly through urinary tract. In microPET images both tracers were accumulated in the tumor with similar uptake patterns. Conclusions: Despite the differences in the receptor affinity both the 68Ga- and the 44Sc-labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 tracers showed comparable distribution and similar time constants of uptake and elimination. Moreover no differences in tumor accumulation (neither in the overall uptake nor in the dynamics) were observed from the microPet imaging. From that perspective the use of either 44Sc or 68Ga for detecting tumors with GRP receptors is equivalent. - Highlights: ► In vitro and in vivo evaluation of 44Sc- and 68Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in reference to published data. ► Higher in vitro affinity to GRP

  17. Work in the area of buildings 513 - 289 - 214 - Disruption to traffic

    Optical Fibre Section, TS/EL

    2005-01-01

    The TS/EL group wishes to inform you that, in order to create an optical fibre access for the GEANT2 project, Route Rutherford will be closed to the public between Buildings 289 and 214 on 13 July 2005. Part of the Sophora car park will also be closed while the work is in progress (week 28: 11 - 15 July). You are requested to comply with the road signs in place. For more information, please call 160484. Optical Fibre Section, TS/EL

  18. MicroRNA-214 controls skin and hair follicle development by modulating the activity of the Wnt pathway.

    Ahmed, Mohammed I; Alam, Majid; Emelianov, Vladimir U; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Patel, Ankit; Sharov, Andrey A; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2014-11-24

    Skin development is governed by complex programs of gene activation and silencing, including microRNA-dependent modulation of gene expression. Here, we show that miR-214 regulates skin morphogenesis and hair follicle (HF) cycling by targeting β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. miR-214 exhibits differential expression patterns in the skin epithelium, and its inducible overexpression in keratinocytes inhibited proliferation, which resulted in formation of fewer HFs with decreased hair bulb size and thinner hair production. The inhibitory effects of miR-214 on HF development and cycling were associated with altered activities of multiple signaling pathways, including decreased expression of key Wnt signaling mediators β-catenin and Lef-1, and were rescued by treatment with pharmacological Wnt activators. Finally, we identify β-catenin as one of the conserved miR-214 targets in keratinocytes. These data provide an important foundation for further analyses of miR-214 as a key regulator of Wnt pathway activity and stem cell functions during normal tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and aging. PMID:25422376

  19. Evaluation of radium-226 body burden by in vivo measurement of bismuth-214

    An indirect method of estimation of radium-226 body burden has been developed to overcome the difficulties of direct measurement of radium on account of low emission of 186 KeV gamma radiation that too in a region where the background count rate is high. The method is based on in vivo measurement of sup(214)Bi content of the body by a shadow shield whole body counter [102 mm (dia) x 76 mm (thick) NaI(Tl) detector]. sup(214)Bi emits gamma rays of 0.609, 1.120 and 1.764 MeV of which the last one is suitable for whole body counting because in that energy region there is no contribution from naturally occurring radioisotopes in the body (e.g. sup(40)K) and the response is independent of variation in body build. The ratio of the minimum detectable radium body burden for the whole body monitor at Jaduguda uranium mines using the indirect and direct methods for the same counting periods works out to be 0.85, indicating that the indirect method is somewhat superior to the direct method. (M.G.B.)

  20. miR-214 promotes apoptosis and sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by targeting the RFWD2-p53 cascade.

    Zhang, Jiaxuan; Su, Beibei; Gong, Chen; Xi, Qingsongg; Chao, Tengfei

    2016-09-01

    miR-214 is involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes including tumorigenesis. However, the function of miR-214 in the development and treatment of breast cancer remains elusive. In this study, we report that miR-214 is strikingly down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples, particularly, in the doxorubicin resistant tumor tissues. Remarkably, restoration of miR-214 expression induces apoptosis and sensitizes the MCF7 cells sustaining wild-type p53, but not the p53 null MDA-MB-157 cells, to doxorubicin. Furthermore, we reveal that miR-214 directly down-regulates the expression of RFWD2, also known as COP1, an E3 ligase targeting the tumor suppressor p53 for proteasomal degradation. In addition, RFWD2 protein levels are reversely correlated with miR-214 expression levels in breast cancer tissues. Moreover, ectopic expression of RFWD2 markedly abolishes miR-214-triggered apoptosis of MCF7 cells. In conclusion, miR-214 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating the RFWD2-p53 cascade, thus delivery of miR-214 analogs could be a potential adjunct therapy in breast cancer harboring wild type p53. PMID:27422604

  1. Nuclear distributions of NUP62 and NUP214 suggest architectural diversity and spatial patterning among nuclear pore complexes.

    Yayoi Kinoshita

    Full Text Available The shape of nuclei in many adherent cultured cells approximates an oblate ellipsoid, with contralateral flattened surfaces facing the culture plate or the medium. Observations of cultured cell nuclei from orthogonal perspectives revealed that nucleoporin p62 (NUP62 and nucleoporin 214 (NUP214 are differentially distributed between nuclear pore complexes on the flattened surfaces and peripheral rim of the nucleus. High resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED immunofluorescence microscopy resolved individual NPCs, and suggested both heterogeneity and microheterogeneity in NUP62 and NUP214 immunolabeling among in NPC populations. Similar to nuclear domains and interphase chromosome territories, architectural diversity and spatial patterning of NPCs may be an intrinsic property of the nucleus that is linked to the functions and organization of underlying chromatin.

  2. Forced expression of the DEK-NUP214 fusion protein promotes proliferation dependent on upregulation of mTOR

    The t(6;9)(p23;q34) chromosomal translocation is found in 1% of acute myeloid leukemia and encodes the fusion protein DEK-NUP214 (formerly DEK-CAN) with largely uncharacterized functions. We expressed DEK-NUP214 in the myeloid cell lines U937 and PL-21 and studied the effects on cellular functions. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of DEK-NUP214 increases cellular proliferation. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of one of the key proteins regulating proliferation, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, mTOR. This conferred increased mTORC1 but not mTORC2 activity, as determined by the phosphorylation of their substrates, p70 S6 kinase and Akt. The functional importance of the mTOR upregulation was determined by assaying the downstream cellular processes; protein synthesis and glucose metabolism. A global translation assay revealed a substantial increase in the translation rate and a metabolic assay detected a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, as determined by a reduction in lactate production without a concomitant decrease in glucose consumption. Both these effects are in concordance with increased mTORC1 activity. Treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) selectively reversed the DEK-NUP214-induced proliferation, demonstrating that the effect is mTOR-dependent. Our study shows that the DEK-NUP214 fusion gene increases proliferation by upregulation of mTOR, suggesting that patients with leukemias carrying DEK-NUP214 may benefit from treatment with mTOR inhibitors

  3. "Sit u hier maar gaan staan jy daar": Kantaantekeninge by Jakobus 2:1-4

    Jan van der Watt

    2001-01-01

    "You may sit here, but you must stand there" -On James 2:1-4 The question is what the speaker in James 2:2-3. Intended when he said that the rich man may sit "here" on a good place, but that the poor man must stand over "there" or may sit "under" his footstool. It is argued that this episode should be located within a larger ancient house which was used as a gathering place for the Christian community. The poor man is asked to stand in the courtyard or may sit on the ground in  the sittingroo...

  4. Thermodynamic Critical Field and Superconducting Fluctuation of Vortices for High Temperature Cuprate Superconductor: La-214

    Thermodynamics has been studied systematically for the high temperature cuprate superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4-δ, La-214, in the entire superconductive region from strongly underdoped to strongly overdoped regimes. Magnetization studies with H (parallel) c have been made in order to investigate the changes in free energy of the system as the number of carriers is reduced. Above the superconducting transition temperature, the normal-state magnetization exhibits a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic behavior. Below Tc, magnetization data are thermodynamically reversible over large portions of the H-T plane, so the free energy is well defined in these regions. As the Sr concentration is varied over the wide range from 0.060 (strongly underdoped) to 0.234 (strongly overdoped), the free energy change goes through a maximum at the optimum doped in a manner similar to the Tc0 vs. x curve. The density of states, N(0), remains nearly constant in the overdoped and optimum doped regimes, taking a broad maximum around x = 0.188, and then drops abruptly towards zero in the underdoped regime. The La2-xSrxCuO4 (La-214) system displays the fluctuating vortex behavior with the characteristic of either 2D or 3D fluctuations as indicated by clearly identifiable crossing points T* close to Tc. The dimensional character of the fluctuations depends on both applied magnetic fields and the density of charge carriers. The dimensional crossover from 2D to 3D occurs in the strongly underdoped regime when the c-axis coherence distance ξc becomes comparable to the spacing between adjacent CuO2 layers s at sufficiently high magnetic field near Hc2

  5. Thermodynamic Critical Field and Superconducting Fluctuation of Vortices for High Temperature Cuprate Superconductor: La-214

    Douglas K. Finnemore

    2001-06-25

    Thermodynamics has been studied systematically for the high temperature cuprate superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4-{delta}}, La-214, in the entire superconductive region from strongly underdoped to strongly overdoped regimes. Magnetization studies with H {parallel} c have been made in order to investigate the changes in free energy of the system as the number of carriers is reduced. Above the superconducting transition temperature, the normal-state magnetization exhibits a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic behavior. Below T{sub c}, magnetization data are thermodynamically reversible over large portions of the H-T plane, so the free energy is well defined in these regions. As the Sr concentration is varied over the wide range from 0.060 (strongly underdoped) to 0.234 (strongly overdoped), the free energy change goes through a maximum at the optimum doped in a manner similar to the T{sub c0} vs. x curve. The density of states, N(0), remains nearly constant in the overdoped and optimum doped regimes, taking a broad maximum around x = 0.188, and then drops abruptly towards zero in the underdoped regime. The La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (La-214) system displays the fluctuating vortex behavior with the characteristic of either 2D or 3D fluctuations as indicated by clearly identifiable crossing points T* close to T{sub c}. The dimensional character of the fluctuations depends on both applied magnetic fields and the density of charge carriers. The dimensional crossover from 2D to 3D occurs in the strongly underdoped regime when the c-axis coherence distance {xi}{sub c} becomes comparable to the spacing between adjacent CuO{sub 2} layers s at sufficiently high magnetic field near H{sub c2}.

  6. Thermodynamic Critical Field and Superconducting Fluctuation of Vortices for High Temperature Cuprate Superconductor: La-214

    Yung Moo Huh

    2001-05-01

    Thermodynamics has been studied systematically for the high temperature cuprate superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4-{delta}}, La-214, in the entire superconductive region from strongly underdoped to strongly overdoped regimes. Magnetization studies with H{parallel}c have been made in order to investigate the changes in free energy of the system as the number of carriers is reduced. Above the superconducting transition temperature, the normal-state magnetization exhibits a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic behavior. Below T{sub c}, magnetization data are thermodynamically reversible over large portions of the H-T plane, so the free energy is well defined in these regions. As the Sr concentration is varied over the wide range from 0.060 (strongly underdoped) to 0.234 (strongly overdoped), the free energy change goes through a maximum at the optimum doped in a manner similar to the T{sub c0} vs. x curve. The density of states, N(0), remains nearly constant in the overdoped and optimum doped regimes, taking a broad maximum around x = 0.188, and then drops abruptly towards zero in the underdoped regime. The La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (La-214) system displays the fluctuating vortex behavior with the characteristic of either 2D or 3D fluctuations as indicated by clearly identifiable crossing points T* close to T{sub c}. The dimensional character of the fluctuations depends on both applied magnetic fields and the density of charge carriers. The dimensional crossover from 2D to 3D occurs in the strongly underdoped regime when the c-axis coherence distance {zeta}{sub c} becomes comparable to the spacing between adjacent CuO{sub 2} layers s at sufficiently high magnetic fields near H{sub c2}.

  7. Solution structure and dynamics of the I214V mutant of the rabbit prion protein.

    Yi Wen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The conformational conversion of the host-derived cellular prion protein (PrP(C into the disease-associated scrapie isoform (PrP(Sc is responsible for the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Various single-point mutations in PrP(Cs could cause structural changes and thereby distinctly influence the conformational conversion. Elucidation of the differences between the wild-type rabbit PrP(C (RaPrP(C and various mutants would be of great help to understand the ability of RaPrP(C to be resistant to TSE agents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the solution structure of the I214V mutant of RaPrP(C(91-228 and detected the backbone dynamics of its structured C-terminal domain (121-228. The I214V mutant displays a visible shift of surface charge distribution that may have a potential effect on the binding specificity and affinity with other chaperones. The number of hydrogen bonds declines dramatically. Urea-induced transition experiments reveal an obvious decrease in the conformational stability. Furthermore, the NMR dynamics analysis discloses a significant increase in the backbone flexibility on the pico- to nanosecond time scale, indicative of lower energy barrier for structural rearrangement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that both the surface charge distribution and the intrinsic backbone flexibility greatly contribute to species barriers for the transmission of TSEs, and thereby provide valuable hints for understanding the inability of the conformational conversion for RaPrP(C.

  8. 49 CFR 214.353 - Training and qualification of roadway workers who provide on-track safety for roadway work groups.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training and qualification of roadway workers who provide on-track safety for roadway work groups. 214.353 Section 214.353 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway...

  9. 20 CFR 30.214 - How does a claimant establish that the employee is a member of the Special Exposure Cohort?

    2010-04-01

    ... employee is a member of the Special Exposure Cohort? 30.214 Section 30.214 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF... a member of the Special Exposure Cohort? (a) For purposes of establishing eligibility as a member of the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under § 30.210(a)(1), the employee must have been a DOE employee,...

  10. 49 CFR 214.521 - Flagging equipment for on-track roadway maintenance machines and hi-rail vehicles.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flagging equipment for on-track roadway... WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.521 Flagging equipment for... and hi-rail vehicle shall have on board a flagging kit that complies with the operating rules of...

  11. 30 CFR 250.214 - What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the EP?

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geological and geophysical (G&G... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.214 What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the EP? The following G&G information must accompany your EP: (a)...

  12. Structural and Functional Characterization of CRM1-Nup214 Interactions Reveals Multiple FG-Binding Sites Involved in Nuclear Export.

    Port, Sarah A; Monecke, Thomas; Dickmanns, Achim; Spillner, Christiane; Hofele, Romina; Urlaub, Henning; Ficner, Ralf; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2015-10-27

    CRM1 is the major nuclear export receptor. During translocation through the nuclear pore, transport complexes transiently interact with phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats of multiple nucleoporins. On the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore, CRM1 tightly interacts with the nucleoporin Nup214. Here, we present the crystal structure of a 117-amino-acid FG-repeat-containing fragment of Nup214, in complex with CRM1, Snurportin 1, and RanGTP at 2.85 Å resolution. The structure reveals eight binding sites for Nup214 FG motifs on CRM1, with intervening stretches that are loosely attached to the transport receptor. Nup214 binds to N- and C-terminal regions of CRM1, thereby clamping CRM1 in a closed conformation and stabilizing the export complex. The role of conserved hydrophobic pockets for the recognition of FG motifs was analyzed in biochemical and cell-based assays. Comparative studies with RanBP3 and Nup62 shed light on specificities of CRM1-nucleoporin binding, which serves as a paradigm for transport receptor-nucleoporin interactions. PMID:26489467

  13. 49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track...

  14. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  15. SCN1Bb R214Q found in 3 patients: 1 with Brugada syndrome and 2 with lone atrial fibrillation

    Olesen, Morten S; Holst, Anders G; Haunsø, Stig;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SCN1Bb encodes the ß-subunit of the sodium channel. A mutation in SCN1Bb R214Q has recently been shown both to increase the Kv4.3 current and to decrease the sodium current. The variant was suggested to increase the susceptibility to Brugada syndrome (BrS). OBJECTIVE: To sequence a...

  16. Classification of hypothalamic hamartoma according to the clinical manifestations of 214 cases%214例下丘脑错构瘤分型与临床症状

    罗世琪; 李春德; 马振宇; 张玉琪; 甲戈

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the topology and clinical manifestations of hypothalamic hamartoma(HH). Method A retrospective review of 214 patients with HH was performed between August 1994 and May 2008. Statistical analysis were performed using SPSS version 13 and statistical significance was judged to be present at probability values of less than 0.05. A new classification of HH was developed based on topographical and clinical data. Results The HH were diagnosed and divided into four categories( type Ⅰ~Ⅳ) based on MR imaging findings focused on the relationship between HH and hypothalamus or the third ventricle. Type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ defined as HH attached to the floor of third ventricle with a narrow(type Ⅰ) or broad(type Ⅱ) interfaces, type Ⅲ (straddling type) defined as the hamartoma located partially within the hypothalamus and the third ventricle. Type Ⅳ as the HH located totally within the third ventricle. There were 77(36.0%) cases of HH belonging to the type Ⅰ,26(12.1%) cases to the type Ⅱ,87(40.7%) cases to the type Ⅲ and 24(11.2%) cases to the type Ⅳ.The mean age at onset of precocious puberty(PP) was significantly younger than that of epilepsy's. The maximum diameter of HH in type Ⅰ is 13.57 mm,in type Ⅱ is 18.73 ram,in type Ⅲ is 22.08 mm and 11.21 mm in type Ⅳ. The diameter of HH presented with epilepsy is larger than that of HH without epilepsy. The percentage of PP in type Ⅰ to Ⅳ is 54. 8%, 10. 4% ,33.0% and 1.7%, respectively,and PP was mostly common in type Ⅰ and rare in type Ⅳ. The percentage of gelastic seizure in type Ⅰ to Ⅳ is 3.1%, 7.3%, 66.7% and 22.9%, respectively. Gelastic seizures and epilepsy are mostly presented in type Ⅲ and rarely in type Ⅰ. The percentage of asymptomatic HH(14 cases) in the four type is varied as 50%, 35.7%, 7.1% and 7.1%. Conclusions The clinical manifestation is correlated with the topology of HH in relation to the hypothalamus and this correlation is

  17. Impact of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase polymorphism F214L on virological response to thymidine analogue-based regimens in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and ART-experienced patients

    Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Ruiz, Lidia;

    2007-01-01

    A negative association between the polymorphism F214L and type 1 thymidine analogue (TA) mutations (TAMs) has been observed. However, the virological response to TAs according to the detection of F214L has not been evaluated.......A negative association between the polymorphism F214L and type 1 thymidine analogue (TA) mutations (TAMs) has been observed. However, the virological response to TAs according to the detection of F214L has not been evaluated....

  18. Monotonic and cyclic stress-strain response of annealed 21/4Cr--1Mo steel

    The stress-strain response of isothermally annealed 21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel under monotonic and cyclic loadings has been characterized at temperatures from 21 to 5930C (70 to 11000F). Monotonic stress-strain curves were developed for uniaxial tensile loading of specimens at strain rates of 8.33 x 10-5 and 8.33 x 10-6 sec-1 (0.005 and 0.0005 min-1). The cyclic stress-strain response was measured for the first 100 fully reversed strain cycles at strain ranges between 0.4 and 3.0 percent under uniaxial loading at a strain rate of 8.33 x 10-5 sec-1. The effects of creep, stress-relaxation, and thermal-exposure hold periods on the cyclic stress-strain behavior were also investigated at 5100C (9500F). Monotonic stress-strain curves were quantified using a power law relation between stress range and plastic-strain range (a range equals twice the amplitude). Cyclic hardening was observed at temperatures up to 4270C (8000F). A mixture of initial cyclic hardening followed by later cyclic softening was seen at temperatures from 482 to 5380C (900 to 10000F), and cyclic softening was observed at 5930C (11000F). For the strain ranges investigated, the cyclic stress-strain response was analyzed in terms of the ascending path of the stress-strain hysteresis loop for the tenth cycle. These cyclic stress-strain paths were approximated by a translation of the monotonic curve along the elastic modulus line. This empirical model then provides a representation of the monotonic and cyclic stress-strain response of this alloy over a wide range of temperatures and in a form consistent with the constitutive equations presently recommended for use in inelastic design analysis of stainless steel nuclear components. The reported results form part of the data base being used by ORNL in formulating similar general inelastic constitutive equations for analysis of 21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel components

  19. Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells

    Highlights: •We introduced a new mutagenesis strategy named VBIM to the viral research. •This method can identify either host factors or host restriction factors. •Using VBIM system, we identified Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells. -- Abstract: Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication

  20. Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells

    Wang, Bei; Zhang, XiaoYu; Zhao, Zhendong, E-mail: timjszzd@163.com

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •We introduced a new mutagenesis strategy named VBIM to the viral research. •This method can identify either host factors or host restriction factors. •Using VBIM system, we identified Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells. -- Abstract: Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication.

  1. Upregulation of MicroRNA-214 Contributes to the Development of Vascular Remodeling in Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Hypertension Via Targeting CCNL2

    Liu, HaiTao; Tao, Yin; Chen, Mai; Yu, Jin; Li, Wei-Jie; Tao, Ling; Li, Yan; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is characterized by vascular remodeling of blood vessels, is a significant complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we screened 13 candidate miRNAs in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) harvested from COPD patients with PH (n = 18) and normal controls (n = 15) and found that the expression of miR-214 was differentially expressed between these two groups. Additionally, cyclin L2 (CCNL2) was validated as a target of miR-214 in PASMCs using a luciferase assay. Based on real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot, the expression of CCNL2 was substantially downregulated in PASMCs from COPD patients with PH compared with those from normal controls. Moreover, the relationship between miRNA and mRNA expression was confirmed using real-time PCR and western blot in PASMCs transfected with miR-214 mimics. Furthermore, the introduction of miR-214 significantly promoted the proliferation of PASMCs by suppressing cell apoptosis, and this effect was mediated by the downregulation of CCNL2. Exposure of PASMCs to hypoxia significantly increased the expression of miR-214, decreased the expression of CCNL2, and promoted cell proliferation. However, these effects were significantly attenuated by the introduction of miR-214 inhibitors, which significantly downregulated miR-214 expression and upregulated CCNL2 expression. PMID:27381447

  2. Plastic deformation and fracture behaviour of 21/4 Cr-1 Mo pressure-vessel steel

    During the heat treatment of steel plates and forgings of large thicknesses, microstructures with various volume fractions of ferrite appear. Plastic properties and fracture behaviour of these mixed microstructures are a function of ferrite content. The influence of ferrite content in the range from 0% to 54% in the bainitic-ferritic microstructure on mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of 21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel was examined. The yield stress was found to decrease linearly with the volume fraction of ferrite. The tensile strength was independent of ferrite content up to 25%, after which the tensile strength decreased. Using the Charpy test it has been found that the critical ferrite content-25%-exists in a mixed microstructure, at which the propagation and initiation transition temperatures attain the highest values. The fracture toughness tests gave the same results. Increasing the volume fraction of ferrite, the cleavage fracture toughness/temperature curves were shifted to higher temperatures. Simultaneously, the ductile-brittle fracture toughness transition temperature was raised reaching the highest value for the critical ferrite content. The fracture behaviour could be tentatively explained through the influence of ferrite volume fraction on both the cleavage fracture stress and the stress level at the crack tip. (author)

  3. Thermodynamic Critical Field and Superconducting Fluctuation of Vortices for High Temperature Cuprate Superconductor La-214

    Yung Moo Hu

    2001-01-01

    charge carriers. The dimensional crossover from 2D to 3D occurs in the strongly underdoped regime when the c-axis coherence distance zeta sub c becomes comparable to the spacing between adjacent CuO sub 2 layers s at sufficiently high magnetic fields near H sub c sub 2. Thermodynamics has been studied systematically for the high temperature cuprate superconductor La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4 sub - subdelta, La-214, in the entire superconductive region from strongly underdoped to strongly overdoped regimes. Magnetization studies with H(parallel)c have been made in order to investigate the changes in free energy of the system as the number of carriers is reduced. Above the superconducting transition temperature, the normal-state magnetization exhibits a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic behavior. Below T sub c , magnetization data are thermodynamically reversible over large portions of the H-T plane, so the free energy is well defined in these regions. As the Sr concentration is varied ove...

  4. Mapping the Primate Visual System with [2-14C]Deoxyglucose

    Macko, Kathleen A.; Jarvis, Charlene D.; Kennedy, Charles; Miyaoka, Mikoto; Shinohara, Mami; Sokoloff, Louis; Mishkin, Mortimer

    1982-10-01

    The [2-14C]deoxyglucose method was used to identify the cerebral areas related to vision in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This was achieved by comparing glucose utilization in a visually stimulated with that in a visually deafferented hemisphere. The cortical areas related to vision included the entire expanse of striate, prestriate, and inferior temporal cortex as far forward as the temporal pole, the posterior part of the inferior parietal lobule, and the prearcuate and inferior prefrontal cortex. Subcortically, in addition to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and superficial layers of the superior colliculus, the structures related to vision included large parts of the pulvinar, caudate, putamen, claustrum, and amygdala. These results, which are consonant with a model of visual function that postulates an occipito-temporo-prefrontal pathway for object vision and an occipito-parieto-prefrontal pathway for spatial vision, reveal the full extent of those pathways and identify their points of contact with limbic, striatal, and diencephalic structures.

  5. Autoradiographic disposition of [1-methyl-14C]- and [2-14C]caffeine in mice

    Male, C57B1/6J mice received either [1-methyl-14C]caffeine or [2-14C]caffeine via the tail vein at a dose of 0.7 or 11 mg/kg, respectively. At 0.1, 0.33, 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr after treatment, the mice were anesthetized with ether and frozen by immersion in dry ice/hexane. The mice were processed for whole-body autoradiography by the Ullberg technique; this procedure does not allow thawing or contact with solvents. All autoradiographs revealed some retention of radioactivity at early time intervals in the lacrimal glands, seminal vesicle fluid, nasal and olfactory epithelium, and retinal melanocytes. The remaining portion of the animal was densitometrically uniform except for the lower levels noted in the CNS and adipose tissues. Excretion of radioactivity by the liver and kidneys seems to be the major routes of elimination. Localization in the liver at late time intervals was confined principally to the centrilobular region. Late sites of retention, observed only after [1-methyl-14C]caffeine administration, included the pancreas, minor and major salivary glands, splenic red pulp, thymal cortex, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal epithelium. Sites of localization present in both studies included the olfactory epithelium, lacrimal glands, hair follicles, and retinal melanocytes. Further studies are needed to determine whether the localization at these various sites is due to metabolic degradation, active transport, or possibly a specific receptor interaction

  6. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4

    Conrad, O.; Bechtel, B.; Bock, M.; Dietrich, H.; Fischer, E.; Gerlitz, L.; Wehberg, J.; Wichmann, V.; Böhner, J.

    2015-02-01

    The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is an open-source Geographic Information System (GIS), mainly licensed under the GNU General Public License. Since its first release in 2004, SAGA has rapidly developed from a specialized tool for digital terrain analysis to a comprehensive and globally established GIS platform for scientific analysis and modeling. SAGA is coded in C++ in an object oriented design and runs under several operating systems including Windows and Linux. Key functional features of the modular organized software architecture comprise an application programming interface for the development and implementation of new geoscientific methods, an easily approachable graphical user interface with many visualization options, a command line interpreter, and interfaces to scripting and low level programming languages like R and Python. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 700 tools, which are implemented in dynamically loadable libraries or shared objects and represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor and beyond. In this paper, we inform about the system's architecture, functionality, and its current state of development and implementation. Further, we highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies with special emphasis on the core application areas digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, soil science, climatology and meteorology, as well as remote sensing.

  7. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4

    Conrad, O.; Bechtel, B.; Bock, M.; Dietrich, H.; Fischer, E.; Gerlitz, L.; Wehberg, J.; Wichmann, V.; Böhner, J.

    2015-07-01

    The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is an open source geographic information system (GIS), mainly licensed under the GNU General Public License. Since its first release in 2004, SAGA has rapidly developed from a specialized tool for digital terrain analysis to a comprehensive and globally established GIS platform for scientific analysis and modeling. SAGA is coded in C++ in an object oriented design and runs under several operating systems including Windows and Linux. Key functional features of the modular software architecture comprise an application programming interface for the development and implementation of new geoscientific methods, a user friendly graphical user interface with many visualization options, a command line interpreter, and interfaces to interpreted languages like R and Python. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 600 tools, which are implemented in dynamically loadable libraries or shared objects and represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor and beyond. In this paper, we inform about the system's architecture, functionality, and its current state of development and implementation. Furthermore, we highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies, with special emphasis on the core application areas digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, soil science, climatology and meteorology, as well as remote sensing.

  8. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA v. 2.1.4

    O. Conrad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA is an open-source Geographic Information System (GIS, mainly licensed under the GNU General Public License. Since its first release in 2004, SAGA has rapidly developed from a specialized tool for digital terrain analysis to a comprehensive and globally established GIS platform for scientific analysis and modeling. SAGA is coded in C++ in an object oriented design and runs under several operating systems including Windows and Linux. Key functional features of the modular organized software architecture comprise an application programming interface for the development and implementation of new geoscientific methods, an easily approachable graphical user interface with many visualization options, a command line interpreter, and interfaces to scripting and low level programming languages like R and Python. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 700 tools, which are implemented in dynamically loadable libraries or shared objects and represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor and beyond. In this paper, we inform about the system's architecture, functionality, and its current state of development and implementation. Further, we highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies with special emphasis on the core application areas digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, soil science, climatology and meteorology, as well as remote sensing.

  9. MicroRNA-214 acts as a potential oncogene in breast cancer by targeting the PTEN-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Wang, Fang; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Mingzhi; Gu, Yuanting

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer ranks as the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in females worldwide. It has been proven that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), a type of non‑coding RNA, are involved in tumorigenesis. An increasing number of studies has confirmed the critical role of miR‑214 in certain types of cancer. Nevertheless, the biological function of miR‑214, as well as its underlying mechanisms of action in breast cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, the expression of miR‑214 was found to be upregulated in four human breast cancer cell lines in contrast to its expression level in the non‑malignant breast epithelial cell line, MCF‑10A. Moreover, the overexpression of miR‑214 markedly increased cell viability and abrogated the apoptosis triggered by serum starvation, indicating that miR‑214 plays a pivotal role in breast cancer cell growth. Further analysis suggested that the upregulation of miR‑214 markedly induced the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which largely accounted for the protective effects of miR‑124 on cancer cell growth. This was further confimed by pre‑treatment with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, which markedly attenuated the miR‑214‑induced increase in cell viability and resistance to apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was decreased following transfection wtih miR‑214 mimics and PTEN was confirmed as the direct target of miR‑214 by bioinformatics analysis and a dual‑firefly luciferase reporter assay. Importantly, the introduction of PTEN cDNA lacking the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) significantly inhibited the miR‑214‑induced activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and abrogated the protetive effects of miR‑214 on cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR‑214 possesses oncogenic activity and that its effects are mediated through the promotion of cell

  10. Attached and Unattached Activity Size Distribution of Short-Lived Radon Progeny (214Pb) and Evaluation of Deposition Fraction

    Inhalation of 2'22Rn progeny in the domestic environment contributes the greatest fraction of the natural radiation exposure to the public. Dosimetric models are most often used in the assessment of human lung doses due to inhaled radioactivity because of the difficulty in making direct measurements. These models require information about the parameters of activity size distributions of radon progeny. The current study presents measured data on the attached and unattached activity size distributions of radon progeny in indoor air in El-Minia, Egypt. The attached fraction was collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for 222Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of this mode for 214Pb was determined to be 401 nm with relative mean geometric standard deviation of 2.96. The mean value of specific air activity concentration of 214Pb associated with that mode was determined to be 4.74 %0.44 Bq m-3. The relative mean geometric standard deviations of unattached 214Pb was determined to be 1.21 with the mean activity thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) of 1.2 nm. The mean unattached activity concentration of 214Pb was found to be 0.44%0.14 Bq m-3. Based on the obtained results of radon progeny size distributions (unattached and attached), the deposition fractions in each airway generation of the human lung were evaluated by using a lung deposition model

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document

  13. Transport and degradation of 2-14C abscicine acid in the coleus rehneltianus berger sprout

    1 μg ABA-2-14C aqueous solution was injected into the youngest or into a fully grown leaf of young and older coleus plants. The activity quantity in the various sprout parts is investigated after 2, 24 and 72 h; as well as which labelled substances other than abscisic acid (ABA) occur. The activity in the ethanol extracts was detected with the help of liquid scintillation measurements. Thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the radioactive substances. The results show that ABA is degraded into three metabolites which are characterized by their relative Rsub(F) values using chromatography with LM 2 as substance 0.2, 0.5a, 0.5b and 0.8. Comparing with the literature shows that it could be 6'-hydroxy methyl ABA, ABA glucoside, phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid. Young and old leaves in older plants have the same ability to degrade ABA taking the occurence of the 0.8 metabolite as standard. The degradation in younger plants is firstly very slight. However, within 72 h the ability of ABA degradation is induced in older leaves of younger plants, so that finally the degradation rate is as big as in older plants. Activity is essentially exported by adult leaves of older plants. The basipetal transport is considerably greater than the acropetal one. Results show that mainly ABA is transported in the acropetal test, whereas ABA and fraction 0.5 are transported in the basipetal direction. A reversed transport direction is observed after applying ABA to a young leaf. The transport basipetal is polarized in the first two hours, after 72 hours of transport there is a definite acropetal polarity. (orig./MG)

  14. Psychiatric stigma in treatment seeking adults with personality problems: evidence from a sample of 214 patients.

    Kirsten eCatthoor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stigmatization is a major hindrance in adult psychiatric patients with Axis-I diagnoses, as shown consistently in most studies. Significantly fewer studies on the emergence of psychiatric stigma in adult patients with personality disorders exist, although the resulting evidence is conclusive. Some authors consider patients with personality disorders at risk for severe stigmatization because of intense difficulties during interpersonal contact, even in a psychotherapeutic relationship. The aim of this study was primarily the assessment of pre-existing stigma in patients referred for intensive treatment for personality disorders. The study enrolled 214 patients admitted to the adult department of a highly specialized mental health care institute offering psychotherapy for patients with severe and complex personality pathology. All patients underwent a standard assessment with self-report questionnaires and a semi-structured interview to measure Axis II personality disorders. The Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ and the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Questionnaire (DDQ, both validated instruments, were used to measure perceived and actual experiences of stigma. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean total stigma scores for patients both with and without a personality disorder. One-way ANOVA’s were performed to assess the differences between having a borderline personality disorder, another personality disorder, or no personality disorder diagnosis.Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted in order to explore the impact of the different personality disorder diagnosis on the level of stigma. The mean scores across all patient groups were consistent with rather low stigma. No differences were found for patients with or without a personality disorder diagnosis. Level of stigma in general was not associated with an accumulating number of personality disorders.

  15. The causative agents in infective endocarditis: a systematic review comprising 33,214 cases.

    Vogkou, Christiana T; Vlachogiannis, Nikolaos I; Palaiodimos, Leonidas; Kousoulis, Antonis A

    2016-08-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) incidence remains high with considerable fatality rates; guidelines for prophylaxis against IE are currently under review in some settings which highlights the importance of maintaining up-to-date epidemiological estimates about the most common microbial causes. The objective of this systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, was to identify the most common microbial causes of IE in recent years. Medline was searched from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2013 for all articles containing the term "infective endocarditis". All relevant studies reporting diagnostic results were included. Special patient subpopulations were assessed separately. A total of 105 studies were included, from 36 countries, with available data on a total of 33,214 cases. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common microorganism, being the most frequent in 54.3 % of studies (N = 57) (and in 55.4 % of studies using Duke's criteria for diagnosis [N = 51]). Viridans group streptococci (VGS), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Enterococcus spp and Streptococcus bovis were among the most common causes. S. aureus was the most common pathogen in almost all population subgroups; however, this was not the case in patients with implantable devices, prosthetic valves, or immunocompromised non-HIV, as well as in the sub-group from Asia, emphasizing that a global one-size-fits-all approach to the management of suspected IE is not appropriate. This review provides an evidence-based map of the most common causative agents of IE, highlighting S. aureus as the leading cause in the 21st century. The changing epidemiology of IE in some patient sub-groups in the last decade and the very high number of microbiologically undiagnosed cases (26.6 %) suggest the need to revisit IE prophylaxis and diagnostic strategies. PMID:27170145

  16. Educational experiment for students using natural radioactivity. 1. Radiochemical analysis of {sup 214}Bi in Ena and Ikeda mineral spring water

    Kamata, Masahiro [Faculty of Education, Tokyo Gakugei Univ., Koganei, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Mariko; Esaka, Takao

    1999-09-01

    A couple of educational experiments have been developed using natural radioactivity contained in mineral spring water and a small GM counter. These experiments are safe and inexpensive enough to be conducted at high school or university, nevertheless they are quantitative enough for learners to observe half-life of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, and to help them understand the concept of radioactive equilibrium between them. (author)

  17. 结直肠癌中microRNA-214的表达及其与p53的关系

    赵增仁; 樊智彬; 张丽静; 吴晨鹏; 张学明; 刘博

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨结直肠癌中microRNA-214(miR-214)的表达及其与p53的关系.方法 采用实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应的方法检测结直肠癌患者及结肠癌细胞株野生型HCT-116 p53+/+和突变型HCT-116 p53-/-中miR-214的表达情况,同时在结肠癌患者中检测p53的表达.结果 miR-214在癌旁正常黏膜中的表达明显高于癌组织(P=0.021),p53在癌旁正常黏膜中的表达明显低于癌组织;miR-214在HCT-116 p53-/-细胞株中的表达显著高于HCT-116 p53+/+(P=0.028),与p53的表达情况相反;在结直肠癌组织中miR-214与p53无明显相关性(rs=-0.156,P=0.409).结论 在结直肠癌的发生发展中miR-214可能通过调节p53 发挥抑癌基因的功能,但尚未发现miR-214与p53存在明显相关性.

  18. Transfección de la línea celular de salmón CHSE-214 usando un liposoma no comercial Transfection of salmon cellular line CHSE-214 using a non-commercial liposome

    M Aranda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El rápido crecimiento de la acuicultura chilena ha incentivado la exploración de estrategias innovadoras de prevención sanitaria. Las vacunas de ADN se presentan como una alternativa viable para el control de enfermedades, pero existen barreras técnicas, como la vía de administración y los sistemas de transporte y entrega que necesitan ser soslayados. Los liposomas catiónicos son utilizados ampliamente en la incorporación de genes en líneas celulares mamíferas pero su alto costo hace prohibitivo su uso en escala comercial. Con el fin de abordar la problemática económica en la obtención del liposoma y para contribuir con un procedimiento de transfección in vitro en células de salmón, los objetivos de este trabajo fueron formular un liposoma a partir de polvo liofilizado de DOTAP y desarrollar un protocolo de transfección de vectores eucarióticos en la línea celular CHSE-214. Para ello se utilizaron los vectores pcDNA 4.0 HisMax I TOPO y pIRES-EGFP y la línea celular de salmón Chinook CHSE-214 (ATCC 1681, estableciendo tanto las características del liposoma formulado como las condiciones óptimas de transfección. Los resultados indicaron que el liposoma formulado desde polvo liofilizado de DOTAP comparte todas las características de los liposomas comerciales con la ventaja de poseer bajo costo, aproximadamente 10 veces menos. Con este liposoma se logró establecer un protocolo óptimo de transfección de células de peces CHSE-214, con vectores eucarióticos, no mostrando signos de toxicidad y permitiendo la expresión del gen incorporado en ambos vectores.The fast growth of Chilean aquaculture has impelled the exploration of new strategies of sanitary prevention. DNA vaccines appear as a feasible alternative for disease control, however there are technical barriers such as the form of administration and the carrier systems which need to be resolved. Liposomes are widely used for gene delivery in mammalian cell lines, but

  19. A convenient method for 14C-labeling of 2-methylthio-1-[4-N-α-ethoxycarbonylbenzyl)-amino-benzyl] -5-hydroxymethyl-2-[14C]-1H-imidazole and 1-[4-N-α-ethoxy-carbonylbenzyl)-aminobenzyl]-5-hydroxymethyl-2-[14C] -1H-imidazole as potential antihypertensives

    The key synthetic intermediate, (2-mercapto-1-(4-nitrobenzyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methanol-[2-14C], has been synthesized by using one pot procedure from potassium[14C]-thiocyanate. It was converted to two nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists, 2-methylthio-1-[4-N-α-ethoxycarbonyl benzyl)-aminobenzyl]-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-imidazole-[2-14C] and 1-[4-N-α-ethoxy-carbonylbenzyl)-aminobenzyl] -5-hydroxymethyl-1H-imidazole-[2-14C] via a 3-step sequence synthetic pathway. (author)

  20. Adaptation of the quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method for use in freely moving rats.

    Crane, A M; Porrino, L J

    1989-10-01

    A procedure for venous and arterial catheterization is described which allows the quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method to be applied to freely moving animals for behavioral and pharmacological studies. The catheterization method is rapid, minimally invasive, and requires no complicated equipment. Physiological conditions and rates of cerebral glucose utilization in freely moving rats and in restrained rats have been compared. The results demonstrate that local cerebral glucose utilization can readily be measured in freely moving animals engaged in behavioral experiments. PMID:2804673

  1. Impact of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase polymorphism F214L on virological response to thymidine analogue based regimens in ART-naïve and experienced patients

    Silberstein, F; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Ruiz, L;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A negative association between the polymorphism F214L and type 1 thymidine analogue (TA) mutations (TAMs) has been observed. However, the virological response to TAs according to the detection of F214L has not been evaluated. METHODS: We studied 590 patients from EuroSIDA who started TA...... therapy for the first time as part of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and who were tested for genotypic resistance within the past 6 months. End points were median reduction in the week 24 viral load and time to virological failure (2 consecutive VL measurements >400 copies/mL after at...... least 6 months of the TA-containing cART). RESULTS: In ART-naive patients, the prevalence of F214L was 17%. By 48 months after starting TA-based cART, the proportion of patients who experienced virological failure was 16% in patients with 214L and 36% in those with 214F (P=.03). In a multivariable Cox...

  2. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia

    W. P. Lokapirnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-Dglucanase, and β-glucosidase, at optimum temperature and optimum pH of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya Abbatoir, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: To produce enzyme from a single colony of E. cloacae WPL 214, 98 × 1010 CFU/ml of isolates was put into 20 ml of liquid medium and incubated in a shaker incubator for 16 h at 35°C in accordance with growth time and optimum temperature of E. cloacae WPL 214. Further on, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase. Results: Cellulase enzyme of E. cloacae WPL 214 isolates had endoglucanase activity of 0.09 U/ml, exoglucanase of 0.13 U/ml, and cellobiase of 0.10 U/ml at optimum temperature 35°C and optimum pH 5. Conclusion: E. cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste produced cellulose enzyme with activity as cellulolytic enzyme of endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidase.

  3. Evaluation of drought response of two poplar clones (Populus x canadensis Monch 'I-214' and P. deltoides Marsh. 'Dvina') through high resolution analysis of stem growth.

    Giovannelli, Alessio; Deslauriers, Annie; Fragnelli, Giuseppe; Scaletti, Luciano; Castro, Gaetano; Rossi, Sergio; Crivellaro, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Different irrigation effects on stem radius variation (DeltaR) and maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) in Populus deltoides 'Dvina' and Populusxcanadensis 'I-214' were studied to assess differences in drought tolerance between clones. One-year-old trees growing in concrete tanks were submitted to two irrigation regimes (natural rainfall and irrigation) from 24 June to 10 August, and DeltaR was monitored by automatic point dendrometers. Independently of the irrigation regime, 'Dvina' showed a higher stem radial increment than 'I-214'. In both clones, the first response to changed soil water content was a significant increase in MDS, whilst DeltaR decreased about 20 d later when pre-dawn leaf water potential (Psipd) dropped below -0.4 MPa. However, they displayed different strategies to overcome drought. 'Dvina' maintained a positive DeltaR for longer than 'I-214', which had lower leaf Psipd and greater leaf abscission at the end of the drought period. After irrigation resumed, 'Dvina' showed a higher capacity to restore stem growth. 'I-214' was probably unable to recover secondary growth because of higher leaf abscission during drought stress and the production of newly expanded leaves during recovery. It is concluded that the larger radial growth of 'Dvina' derived from a better water use (carbon uptake versus water loss) than 'I-214' under limited water availability. PMID:17545226

  4. Effect of planting density on the development of tree and plantation volume of Populus x euramericana (Dode) Guinier cl. I-214

    Vučković Milivoj; Andrašev Siniša; Rončević Savo; Bobinac Martin

    2005-01-01

    The effect of plantation density on the stem volume development phases of mean trees of Populus x euramericana (Dode) Guinier, cl. I-214 were studied in the test plantation aged 25 years with two different planting densities 4.25x4.25 m (treatment A) and 6.00x6.00 m (treatment B). The modeling of stem volume growth of mean trees enabled the identification of development phases based on biological laws. Different growth dynamics of mean trees of the clone I-214, depending on plantation density...

  5. 214例婴儿缺铁性贫血的特点及其相关因素分析%Analysis on Features and Related Factors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in 214 Infants

    李蕙; 周敏; 曹雪梅; 徐鸣; 李丹; 史宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics and the risk factors of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants.Methods The retrospective study of clinical data involving 214 IDA inpatients aged 4- 12 months old in our hospital from January 2002 to June 2009 was carried out.Results Among 214 infantile cases, infants less than 6 months old accounted 12.62% and infants more than 6 months old accounted for 87.38%.Rural infants with IDA were more prevalent than city infants (61.21% vs.38.79% ).Most of these IDA infants had mild to moderate anemia degree (56.54% and 38.79% ), only 4.67% inpatients were severe anemia.The prevalence rate of IDA in infants with breast- feeding without food supplement on time was 29.44%, which was more than that in infants with artificial feeding and mixed feeding.Most of these infants were full term infants (89.25% ), while only 10.75% were premature or twins.Laboratory examination indicated serum iron decrease (49.06% ), ferritin decrease (56.07%) and serum transferrin receptor increase (33.33%).A hundred and eighty - four cases (85.98%) of these IDA infants were hospitalized because of varied complications such as respiratory infection.Conclusion Infants with IDA are more prevalent in rural infants more than 6 months old, in which the main cause is breast- feeding without food supplement on time.And IDA is often neglected because most of the patients could see a doctor due to complicating diseases.Prevention aiming at high risk groups, early diagnosis and early treatment are very important.%目的 分析医院婴儿缺铁性贫血的特点和相关危险因素.方法 回顾性分析儿童医院2002年1月至2009年6月收治的214例缺铁性贫血患儿的临床资料.结果 214例患儿中,6月龄以下占12.62%,6月龄以上占87.38%;农村患儿占61.21%,城市患儿占38.79% ;轻度贫血占56.54%,中度贫血占38.79%,重度贫血占4.67%;母乳喂养但未按时添加辅食者占29.44%;足月儿占89

  6. Measurement of the Thallium 208 and Bismuth 214 radiopurities of a molybdenum foil with the NEMO detector

    The NEMO 2 detector consists of a tracking volume to reconstruct electron trajectories associated with plastic scintillators. The purpose of the R and D is to aid in studies of neutrinoless double β decay. Using the first nine months of data from the NEMO 2 detector, a method of measurement of the 208Tl and 214Bi radiopurities is presented. These isotopes contribute to the background in the 3 MeV region corresponding to the Q of 2β(0ν) for molybdenum. The channel 1e1γ is used. Monte Carlo simulations with GEANT give the corresponding efficiencies. Radiopurities for a standard Molybdenum foil and for two high purity molybdenum samples have been measured. The results are in good agreement with γ-spectroscopy measurements using an HPGe crystal. 2000 hours of data yields a sensitivity of .3 events/min/kg

  7. Degradation of Triazine-2-(14)C Metsulfuron-Methyl in Soil from an Oil Palm Plantation.

    Ismail, B S; Eng, O K; Tayeb, M A

    2015-01-01

    Triazine-2-(14)C metsulfuron-methyl is a selective, systemic sulfonylurea herbicide. Degradation studies in soils are essential for the evaluation of the persistence of pesticides and their breakdown products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degradation of triazine-2-(14)C metsulfuron-methyl in soil under laboratory conditions. A High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with an UV detector and an on-line radio-chemical detector, plus a Supelco Discovery column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm), and PRP-1 column (305 x 7.0 mm, 10 μm) was used for the HPLC analysis. The radioactivity was determined by a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) in scintillation fluid. The soil used was both sterilized and non-sterilized in order to observe the involvement of soil microbes. The estimated DT50 and DT90 values of metsulfuron-methyl in a non-sterile system were observed to be 13 and 44 days, whereas in sterilized soil, the DT50 and DT90 were 31 and 70 days, respectively. The principal degradation product after 60 days was CO2. The higher cumulative amount of (14)CO2 in (14)C-triazine in the non-sterilized soil compared to that in the sterile system suggests that biological degradation by soil micro-organisms significantly contributes to the dissipation of the compound. The major routes of degradation were O-demethylation, sulfonylurea bridge cleavage and the triazine "ring-opened." PMID:26437264

  8. Degradation of Triazine-2-(14C Metsulfuron-Methyl in Soil from an Oil Palm Plantation.

    B S Ismail

    Full Text Available Triazine-2-(14C metsulfuron-methyl is a selective, systemic sulfonylurea herbicide. Degradation studies in soils are essential for the evaluation of the persistence of pesticides and their breakdown products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degradation of triazine-2-(14C metsulfuron-methyl in soil under laboratory conditions. A High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC equipped with an UV detector and an on-line radio-chemical detector, plus a Supelco Discovery column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm, and PRP-1 column (305 x 7.0 mm, 10 μm was used for the HPLC analysis. The radioactivity was determined by a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC in scintillation fluid. The soil used was both sterilized and non-sterilized in order to observe the involvement of soil microbes. The estimated DT50 and DT90 values of metsulfuron-methyl in a non-sterile system were observed to be 13 and 44 days, whereas in sterilized soil, the DT50 and DT90 were 31 and 70 days, respectively. The principal degradation product after 60 days was CO2. The higher cumulative amount of (14CO2 in (14C-triazine in the non-sterilized soil compared to that in the sterile system suggests that biological degradation by soil micro-organisms significantly contributes to the dissipation of the compound. The major routes of degradation were O-demethylation, sulfonylurea bridge cleavage and the triazine "ring-opened."

  9. Planck intermediate results: VI. The dynamical structure of PLCKG214.6+37.0, a Planck discovered triple system of galaxy clusters

    Castex, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Le Jeune, M.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Hobson, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bond, J.R.; Bernard, J.-P.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Da Silva, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Yvon, D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Frommert, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Bikmaev, I.; Scott, D.; Pierpaoli, E.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Jones, W.C.; Knox, L.; Zonca, A.; Cayón, L.; Matarrese, S.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Nati, F.; Piacentini, F.; Balbi, A.; Bourdin, H.; De Gasperis, G.; Mazzotta, P.; Vittorio, N.; Cabella, P.; Kneissl, R.; Dupac, X.; Jagemann, T.; Leonardi, R.; Mendes, L.; Tauber, J.A.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Colafrancesco, S.; Polenta, G.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Maris, M.; Pasian, F.; Zacchei, A.; Massardi, M.; Burigana, C.; Cuttaia, F.; Finelli, F.; Franceschi, E.; Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Natoli, P.; Paoletti, D.; Ricciardi, S.; Sandri, M.; Terenzi, L.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Bersanelli, M.; Donzelli, S.; Maino, D.; Mennella, A.; Rossetti, M.; Tomasi, M.; Melchiorri, A.; Chamballu, A.; Clements, D.L.; Jaffe, A.H.; Mortlock, D.; Novikov, D.; Rusholme, B.; Benoît, A.; Aghanim, N.; Aumont, J.; Dole, H.; Douspis, M.; Kunz, M.; Lagache, G.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Pajot, F.; Ponthieu, N.; Puget, J.-L.; Remazeilles, M.; Welikala, N.; Moneti, A.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Popa, L.; Marleau, F.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Efstathiou, G.; Dahle, H.; Eriksen, H.K.; Hansen, F.K.; Lilje, P.B.; Génova-Santos, R.T.; Hempel, A.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Barreiro, R.B.; Diego, J.M.; Herranz, D.; López-Caniego, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Toffolatti, L.; Vielva, P.; Bartlett, J.G.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Doré, O.; Holmes, W.A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Mitra, S.; Rocha, G.; Wade, L.A.; Bonaldi, A.; Davis, R.J.; Noviello, F.; Zaroubi, S.; Ashdown, M.; Harrison, D.; Lasenby, A.; Sutton, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Luzzi, G.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Tristram, M.; Coulais, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Arnaud, M.; Démoclès, J.; Marshall, D.J.; Piffaretti, R.; Pratt, G.W.; Starck, J.-L.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Comis, B.; Hurier, G.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Perotto, L.; Renault, C.; Van Tent, B.; Kisner, T.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Dörl, U.; Enßlin, T.A.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Knoche, J.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Riller, T.; Böhringer, H.; Chon, G.; Tuovinen, J.; Murphy, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Naselsky, P.; Novikov, I.; Crill, B.P.; Savini, G.; Baccigalupi, C.; Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.; González-Nuevo, J.; Perrotta, F.; Ade, P.A.R.; Munshi, D.; Sudiwala, R.; Burenin, R.; Gilfanov, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Borrill, J.; Osborne, S.; Khamitov, I.; Heinämäki, P.; Benabed, K.; Bouchet, F.R.; Colombi, S.; Hivon, E.; Prunet, S.; Wandelt, B.D.; Mei, S.; Banday, A.J.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Giard, M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Montier, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ristorcelli, I.; Dolag, K.; Battaner, E.; Górski, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    The survey of galaxy clusters performed by Planck through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect has already discovered many interesting objects, thanks to its full sky coverage. One of the SZ candidates detected inthe early months of the mission near to the signal-to-noise threshold, PLCKG214.6+37.0, was ...

  10. Investigation on drug-resistance of 214 strains of Escherichia coli from various specimens%不同标本大肠埃希菌214株耐药性调查

    赵丽娟; 汤丽霞; 黄干荣; 覃志坚

    2002-01-01

    目的调查不同标本大肠埃希菌(E. Coli)的分布及耐药特点.方法常规方法对临床各种标本进行细菌分离培养,采用FORTUNE2000微生物鉴定仪进行鉴定和药敏试验.结果 214株E. Coli中从尿中分离出96株(44.86%),占各类标本的首位.尿中与非尿中E. Coli的耐药性不同,尿中E. Coli对复合磺胺、氟哌酸、环丙沙星等的耐药率显著高于其他部位分离者(P〈0.05),而尿中E. Coli对呋喃妥因的耐药率明显低于非尿中E. Coli(P<0.05).在22种抗生素中,对5种以上耐药的菌株有162株.结论尿中分离的E. Coli对环丙沙星、氟哌酸、氯霉素、复合磺胺耐药率高于其他标本分离者.

  11. SXP214, an X-ray Pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud, Crossing the Circumstellar Disk of the Companion

    Hong, JaeSub; Zezas, Andreas; Haberl, Frank; Drake, Jeremy J; Plucinsky, Paul P; Gaetz, Terrance; Sasaki, Manami; Williams, Benjamin; Long, Knox S; Blair, William P; Winkler, P Frank; Wright, Nicholas J; Laycock, Silas; Udalski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SXP214 is an X-ray pulsar in a high mass X-ray binary system with a Be-star companion. A recent survey of the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary program found the source in a transition when the X-ray flux was on a steady rise. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed a pulse period of 211.49 +/- 0.42 s, which is significantly (>5sigma) shorter than the previous measurements with XMM-Newton and RXTE. This implies that the system has gone through sudden spin-up episodes recently. The pulse profile shows a sharp eclipse-like feature with a modulation amplitude of >95%. The linear rise of the observed X-ray luminosity from <~2x to 7x10^35 erg s^-1 is correlated with steady softening of the X-ray spectrum, which can be described by the changes in the local absorption from N_H ~ 10^24 to <~10^20 cm^-2 for an absorbed power-law model. The soft X-ray emission below 2 keV was absent in the early part of the observation when only the pulsating hard X-ray component was o...

  12. Physical-mechanical properties and bonding quality of heat treated poplar (I-214 clone and ceiba plywood

    Goli G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the physical and mechanical modifications of both poplar (I-214 clone and ceiba veneers and plywood after heat treatments of different intensities (5 and 7 % of dry mass losses. Plywood panels were glued before and after heat treatment with urea-formaldehyde (UF and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF resins. In order to assess the treatments’ effects on both the wood and the glues, the dry mass, the density, the bending strength, the Young’s modulus and the bonding quality were measured before and after heat treatment. The results of the different treatments were compared as well. Results showed that the loss in cell wall polymers due to the heat treatment caused a significant reduction of the equilibrium moisture content of the samples. From a mechanical point of view the treatment resulted in an important reduction of strength and in a small reduction of stiffness. Bonding quality as well as mechanical properties were widely affected by the heat treatment. The different intensities of the treatments (the treatment range was up to 5% and 7% of dry mass loss did not show significant differences for most of the features assessed. The mechanical performance as well as the bonding quality of treated samples suggested that veneers should be glued after heat treatment. Apparent cohesive wood failure showed that different degradations affect wood and glues with a prominent effect on the glues for UF resins and a prominent effect on the wood for MUF resins.

  13. The XMM-Newton survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud: XMMUJ005011.2-730026 = SXP214, a Be/X-ray binary pulsar

    Coe, M J; Sturm, R; Pietsch, W; Townsend, L J; Bartlett, E S; Filipovic, M; Udalski, A; Corbet, R H D; Tiengo, A; Ehle, M; Payne, J L; Burton, D

    2011-01-01

    In the course of the XMM-Newton survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a region to the east of the emission nebula N19 was observed in November 2009. To search for new candidates for high mass X-ray binaries the EPIC PN and MOS data of the detected point sources were investigated and their spectral and temporal characteristics identified. A new transient (XMMUJ005011.2-730026= SXP214) with a pulse period of 214.05 s was discovered; the source had a hard X-ray spectrum with power-law index of ~0.65. The accurate X-ray source location permits the identification of the X-ray source with a ~15th magnitude Be star, thereby confirming this system as a new Be/X-ray binary.

  14. Novel ZEB2-BCL11B Fusion Gene Identified by RNA-Sequencing in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(2;14(q22;q32.

    Synne Torkildsen

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing of a case of acute myeloid leukemia with the bone marrow karyotype 46,XY,t(2;14(q22;q32[5]/47,XY,idem,+?4,del(6(q13q21[cp6]/46,XY[4] showed that the t(2;14 generated a ZEB2-BCL11B chimera in which exon 2 of ZEB2 (nucleotide 595 in the sequence with accession number NM_014795.3 was fused to exon 2 of BCL11B (nucleotide 554 in the sequence with accession number NM_022898.2. RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of the above-mentioned fusion transcript. All functional domains of BCL11B are retained in the chimeric protein. Abnormal expression of BCL11B coding regions subjected to control by the ZEB2 promoter seems to be the leukemogenic mechanism behind the translocation.

  15. Elements of structure and productivity of clone I-214 (Populus×euramericana (Dode Guinier plantations on the river Sava alluvium

    Andrašev Siniša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental plantations of Euramerican poplar (Populus×euramericana (Dode Guinier - clone I-214 were researched on the river Sava alluvium in Srem. Three sample plots were established in each of the plantations, aged 31 years. The soil type was humofluvisol (alluvial semigley, planting space 6×6 m. The plantations were established with 278 rooted cuttings per hectare, and the number of trees at the age of 31 accounted for 46.5-60.6%. The constructed height curves, mean stand height (hg and upper (hg20% heights show that the study plantations were established on different site classes, which was significantly reflected on other plantation growth elements and productivity. However, there was no significant effect of site class on the variability (sd and cv and shape of diameter structure (α3 and α4. The constructed models of diameter structure for each site class (by Weibull function differ by location parameter (a, and do not differ by parameter of scale (b and shape (c. The tree and plantation growth elements show a high production potential of the clone I-214 which indicates that, on optimal soils and with the provided technological measures in the stage of nursery production and in the stage of plantation establishment, clone I-214 presents the good base for high production effects.

  16. SXP 214: An X-Ray Pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud, Crossing the Circumstellar Disk of the Companion

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Haberl, Frank; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance; Sasaki, Manami; Williams, Benjamin; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Winkler, P. Frank; Wright, Nicholas J.; Laycock, Silas; Udalski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SXP 214 is an X-ray pulsar in a high mass X-ray binary system with a Be-star companion. A recent survey of the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary program found that the source was in a transition when the X-ray flux was on a steady rise. The Lomb–Scargle periodogram revealed a pulse period of 211.49 ± 0.42 s, which is significantly (>5σ) shorter than the previous measurements made with XMM-Newton and RXTE. This implies that the system has gone through sudden spin-up episodes recently. The pulse profile shows a sharp eclipse-like feature with a modulation amplitude of >95%. The linear rise of the observed X-ray luminosity from ≲2× to 7× {10}35 erg s‑1 is correlated with a steady softening of the X-ray spectrum, which can be described by the changes in the local absorption from N H ∼ 1024 to ≲1020 cm‑2 for an absorbed power-law model. The soft X-ray emission below 2 keV was absent in the early part of the observation when only the pulsating hard X-ray component was observed, whereas at later times, both soft and hard X-ray components were observed to be pulsating. A likely explanation is that the neutron star was initially hidden in the circumstellar disk of the companion, and later came out of the disk with the accreted material that continued fueling the observed pulsation.

  17. Twelve-year experience of radioembolization for colorectal hepatic metastases in 214 patients: survival by era and chemotherapy

    Lewandowski, Robert J.; Memon, Khairuddin; Hickey, Ryan; Gates, Vanessa L.; Atassi, Bassel; Vouche, Michael; Atassi, Rohi; Desai, Kush; Hohlastos, Elias; Sato, Kent; Habib, Ali [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F.; Kircher, Sheetal; Newman, Steven B.; Nimeiri, Halla; Benson, Al B. [Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Marshall, Karen; Williams, Melissa; Salzig, Krystina; Salem, Riad [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the safety, treatment characteristics and survival outcomes of Yttrium-90 (Y90) radioembolization for unresectable colorectal carcinoma (CRC) liver metastases refractory to standard of care therapy. A total of 214 patients with CRC metastases were treated with Y90 radioembolization over 12 years. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute common terminology criteria. Overall survival was analyzed from date of diagnosis of primary cancer, hepatic metastases and from the first Y90. Uni/multivariate analyses were performed. Substratification by era of chemotherapeutics was performed. Most patients were male (60 %) and <65 years old (61 %). Of them, 98 % had been exposed to chemotherapy. Grade 3 lymphocyte, bilirubin, albumin, ALP and AST toxicities were observed in 39 %, 11 %, 10 %, 8 % and 4 % of patients, respectively. Grade 4 lymphocyte and ALP toxicities were observed in 5 % and 3 % of patients, respectively. Median overall survival was 43.0, 34.6, and 10.6 months from date of diagnosis of primary cancer, hepatic metastases and first Y90, respectively. Survival was significantly longer in patients: (1) who received ≤2 cytotoxic drugs (n = 104) than those who received 3 (n = 110) (15.2 vs. 7.5 months, p = 0.0001); and (2) who received no biologic agents (n = 52) compared with those that did (n = 162) (18.6 vs. 9.4 months, p = 0.0001). Multivariate analyses identified ≤2 cytotoxic agents, no exposure to biologics, ECOG 0, tumor burden <25 %, lack of extrahepatic disease and albumin >3 g/dL as independent predictors of survival. In this largest metastatic CRC series published to date, Y90 radioembolization was found to be safe; survival varied by prior therapy. Further studies are required to further refine the role of Y90 in metastatic CRC. (orig.)

  18. Study on Bone Mineral Density and its Influencing Factors among 1 214 Older Adults in Xuhui District, Shanghai

    Jian-ping CHEN; Mao-hua MIAO; Li-feng ZHOU; Jie YANG; Guang-hua LU; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Hui-qin YU; Er-sheng GAO

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of the forearm bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults, and to identify the potentialfactors influencing BMD.Methods A total of 1 214 older adults were examined, in Tianlin, Fenglin and Xietu sub-districts, of Xuhui district, Shanghai. BMD was tested at the left forearm,including distal radius and ulna 1/3 total, distalradius where the distance of radius and ulna is 8 mm, ultra-distal radius, by single energy X-ray densitometer.Results The BMD at all of the four sites decreased with the age increased. The average BMD was higher in male than in female for the same age and measured site.Distal radius 1/3 total had the highest BMD among the four sites. The incidence of low BMD and osteoporosis in distal forearm 1/3 radius total ascended with the age increased.Multiplied logistic regression showed that males had a lower risk to be low BMD (OR=0.19) compared with female. Compared with the group aged from 50 to 54, the odds ratio in the group aged from 55 to 59, 60 to 64, and 65 to 70 were respectively 3.17,5.13, 15.03. Compared with those whose monthly salary was less than 1 000, the odds ratio was 0.70 in those whose salary was more than 1 000.Conclusion The incidence of low BMD was high in older adults, and it is related with sex, age, monthly salary.

  19. Ten-year experiences with Tracheostomy at a University teaching hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: A retrospective review of 214 cases

    Gilyoma Japhet M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheostomy remains a very important life saving surgical procedure worldwide and particularly in our environment where patients present late in upper airway obstruction. Little work has been done on this subject in our environment and therefore it was necessary to conduct this study to describe our own experiences with tracheostomy, outlining the common indications and outcome of tracheostomized patients in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. Methods This was a 10-year retrospective study which was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre from January 2001 to December 2010. Data were retrieved from patients' files kept in the Medical record department and analyzed using SPSS computer software version 15.0. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from relevant authority before the commencement of the study. Results A total of 214 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 3.1: 1. The majority of patients were in the 3rd decade of life. The most common indication for tracheostomy was upper airway obstruction secondary to traumatic causes in 55.1% of patients, followed by upper airway obstruction due to neoplastic causes in 39.3% of cases. The majority of tracheostomies (80.4% were performed as an emergency. Transverse skin crease incision was employed in all the cases. Post-tracheostomy complication rate was 21.5%. Complication rate was significantly higher in emergency tracheostomy than in electives (P Conclusion Upper airway obstruction secondary to trauma and laryngeal tumors still remains the most common indication for tracheostomy in our centre and tracheostomy is still a life saving procedure in the surgical management of airway despite complications which are seen more commonly in paediatric patients. Most of tracheostomy related complications can be avoided by meticulous attention to the details of the technique and postoperative tracheostomy care by skilled

  20. Epidote-Bearing Veins in the State 2-14 Drill Hole: Implications for Hydrothermal Fluid Composition

    Caruso, L. J.; Bird, D. K.; Cho, M.; Liou, J. G.

    1988-11-01

    Epidote-bearing veins in State 2-14 drill core from 900 to 2960 m depth were examined using backscattered electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis to characterize the mineralogy, parageneses, texture, and composition of vein minerals. In order of decreasing abundance, minerals in epidote-bearing veins are pyrite, calcite, K-feldspar, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, chlorite, Fe-Cu-Zn sulfides, actinolite, titanite, and allanite. The downhole distribution of minerals in epidote-bearing veins (+ pyrite and quartz) varies as a function of depth and includes: (1) calcite above ˜2000 m, (2) K-feldspar between 1700 and 2745 m, (3) anhydrite between 2195 and 2745 m, (4) hematite ± sulfides above 2773 m, and (5) actinolite below ˜2890 m. Where present, K-feldspar was the first mineral to precipitate in veins followed by epidote. In all other veins, epidote was the earliest vein mineral to form. Calcite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and sulfides were paragenetically later. Compositional zoning, common in most vein epidotes, is typically symmetric with Al-rich cores and Fe3+ -rich rims. The minimum mole fraction of Ca2Fe3Si3O12(OH) (XPs) in vein epidotes decreases systematically with increasing depth from ˜0.33 at 906 m to ˜0.21 at 2900 m, and the maximum XPs at any given depth is greater than 0.33. Thermodynamic analyses of phase relations among vein-filling minerals and aqueous solutions at depths near 1867 m and 300°C indicate that the modern reservoir fluid in the Salton Sea geothermal system is in equilibrium with calcite + hematite + quartz + epidote (XPs = 0.33) ± anhydrite. The predicted fugacity of CO2 (˜14 bars) for the modern Salton Sea brine is in close agreement with the calculated value of fCO2 for the 1867 m production fluid. Theoretical phase diagrams in the system CaO-K2O-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-O2-S2-CO2 demonstrate that the mineralogies and mineral parageneses recorded hi epidote-bearing veins and the observed variations in Al-Fe3+ content of

  1. Measurement of {sup 214} Pb, {sup 212} Pb {sup 210} Pb and {sup 7} Be activities in sizes fractionated aerosols in the lower atmosphere at Sacavem (Lisbon)

    Reis, Mario J.; Brogueira, Alfredo L.; Bettencourt, Antonio O. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Protecao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear; Rosa, Rui N. [Universidade de Evora (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    Aerodynamic size distribution measurements of {sup 214} Pb, {sup 212} Pb {sup 210} Pb and {sup 7} Be were carried out using a five-stage high-volume cascade impactor with effective cut-off diameters of 0.49, 0.95, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.2 {mu}m. The activity of the samples was measured by {gamma}-ray spectrometry using both coaxial and ultra-low background well-type HPGe detectors. The activity size distribution measurements indicate that all radionuclides were associated with submicron aerosol in the accumulation mode, being {sup 210} Pb and {sup 7} Be attached to slightly larger particles, when compared to short-lived radon and thoron daughters. The mass size distributions show a significant contribution from aerosol particles larger than 7.2 {mu}m to the total mass concentration, which indicates the occurrence of resuspension processes. However, since that in most of the samples no {sup 210} Pb and short-lived {sup 214} Pb and {sup 212} Pb were found in association with larger particles, it seems that those nuclides were mostly originated by the decay of atmospheric radon (or thoron in the case of {sup 212} Pb) instead of soil resuspension. On average it was observed that about 80% of the {sup 214} Pb and {sup 212} Pb activity was associated with aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 0.49 {mu}m and about 90% with particles smaller than 0.95 {mu}m. (author)

  2. A Functional Variant at the miR-214 Binding Site in the Methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase Gene Alters Susceptibility to Gastric Cancer in a Chinese Han Population

    Qiaoyun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in miRNA binding sites, which are located in mRNA 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTRs, were recently found to influence microRNA-target interactions. Specifically, such polymorphisms can modulatebinding affinity or create or destroy miRNA-binding sites; such variants have also been found to be associated with cancer risk. In this study, we explored the effect of a functional variant at the miR-214 binding site in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (rs114673809 on gastric cancer (GC risk in a hospital-based case-control study in a Chinese Han population. Methods and Results: We genotyped the rs114673809 polymorphism in 345 gastric cancer patients and 376 cancer-free controls using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. The functions of rs114673809 were investigated using a luciferase activity assay and validated by immunoblotting. We found that participants carrying the rs114673809 AA genotype or A allele had a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR = 1.667, 95% CI = 1.044-2.660, P = 0.034; OR = 1.261, 95% CI = 1.017-1.563, P = 0.037, respectively compared to those carrying the GG genotype and G allele. In addition, rs114673809 modified the binding of hsa-miR-214 to MTHFR as well as MTHFR protein levels in gastric cancer patients. Conclusion: Our data suggested that rs114673809, which is located at the miR-214 binding site in the 3'-UTR of MTHFR, may play an important role in the development of gastric cancer in a Chinese Han population.

  3. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-14-135/136 AND MCU-14-214/215/216: FEBRUARY AND MARCH 2014 MONTHLY SAMPLES

    Fondeur, F.; Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2014-06-30

    SRNL received two sets of SHT samples (MCU-14-135-136 in February 2014 and MCU-14-214-216 in March 2014) for analysis. The samples were analyzed for composition. As with the previous solvent sample results, these analyses indicate that the solvent does not require Isopar® L trimming at this time. However, the addition of TiDG (suppressor) to the blended solvent is recommended. Evidence of possible (slight) isomerization of the solvent, probably Isopar®L or TiDG degradation products, was observed.

  4. Multigenerational effects of whole body exposure to 2.14 GHz W-CDMA cellular phone signals on brain function in rats.

    Shirai, Tomoyuki; Imai, Norio; Wang, Jianqing; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawabe, Mayumi; Wake, Kanako; Kawai, Hiroki; Watanabe, So-Ichi; Furukawa, Fumio; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    The present experimental study was carried out with rats to evaluate the effects of whole body exposure to 2.14 GHz band code division multiple access (W-CDMA) signals for 20 h a day, over three generations. The average specific absorption rate (SAR, in unit of W/kg) for dams was designed at three levels: high (CDMA signals for 20 h/day did not cause any adverse effects on the F1 , F2 , and F3 offspring. PMID:25196377

  5. Structure, magnetic and thermo-mechanic properties of Ni2.14Mn0.81Fe0.05Ga Heusler alloy

    The influence of a strong magnetic field, single-axis pressure and intensive ultrasound on the process of structural (martensitic) transition on polycrystals of ferromagnetic alloy Ni2.14Mn0.81Fe0.05Ga with shape memory was studied experimentally. It is shown that magnetic field up to 8 T shifts without essential distortions the temperature hysteresis loop of martensitic transition to the range of higher temperatures, single-axis pressure blurs the martensitic transition, expanding the temperature hysteresis loop, while ultrasonic vibration may result in contraction of the hysteresis loop

  6. Distribution of radioactivities in sugars from acetate-2-14C incubation and elemental content of some vascular plants in two diverse habitats of Glacier Bay, Alaska

    Essentially six sugars became labeled following acetate-2-14C metabolism in plants distributed in two different communities--pioneer and forest. Of these the bulk of radio-activity resided in glucose, fructose and sucrose. Except for willows, labeled glucose and labeled fructose dominated the plants of the pioneer habitat, while labeled sucrose in addition to labeled glucose and fructose characterized those of the forest. For willows, the radioactivities were present in both monosaccharides and disaccharides. This sugar labeling pattern occurred in the alder which for the two habitats tested, was consistent with the general observation. The relative level of the content of magnesium and phosphorus for various plants in the pioneer habitat were no different from those in the forest habitat. Levels of sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium were generally higher in plants of the forest than in those of the pioneer community. Plants with a low level of K contained a higher level of labeled hexoses; while plants with a high level of K contained both labeled hexoses and disaccharide, indicating that potassium may be involved in the incorporation of the 14C into sugar during acetate-2-14C. (J.P.N.)

  7. Induction of monooxygenases and incorporation of radioactivity from 2-14C-lysine into hepatic microsomes of phenobarbital-treated rats fed a diet deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and vitamine A, C and E

    The effect of diet on induction of monooxygenases and distribution of label from 2-14C-lysine in fractions of liver homogenate, muscle homogenate and blood of male rats treated with phenobarbital (80 mg/rg, three days) was studied. 2-14C-lysine was injected intraperitoneally 24 h before the first injection of phenobarbital. It was demonstrated that monooxygenase induction, increase of relative liver weight and incorporation of label from 2-14C-lysine into fractions of liver homogenate in phenobarbital-treated rats were more pronounced as compared with the similarly trated rats that were fed a balanced diet. The possibility of mobilization of deficient essential components to liver from other organs and tissues for maintenance of monooxygenase induction is discussed

  8. Induction of monooxygenases and incorporation of radioactivity from 2-14C-lysine into hepatic microsomes of phenobarbital-treated rats fed a diet deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and vitamines A, C, E

    The effect of diet on induction of monooxygenases and distribution of radioactivity from 2-14C-lysine in fractions of liver homogenate, muscle homogenate and blood of male rats treated with phenobarbital was studied. 2-14C-lysin was injected intraperitoneally 24 h before the first injection of phenobarbital. It was demonstrated that monooxygenase induction, increase of relative liver weight and incorporation of radioactivity from 2-14C-lysine into fractions of liver homogenate in phenobarbital-treated rats fed diet deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and vitamins A, C, E were more pronounced as compared with the similarly treated rats which were fed a balanced diet. The possibility of mobilization of deficient essencial components to liver from other organs and tissues for maintenance of monooxygenase induction iis discussed

  9. Overexpression of miR-214-3p in esophageal squamous cancer cells enhances sensitivity to cisplatin by targeting survivin directly and indirectly through CUG-BP1.

    Phatak, P; Byrnes, K A; Mansour, D; Liu, L; Cao, S; Li, R; Rao, J N; Turner, D J; Wang, J-Y; Donahue, J M

    2016-04-21

    Based on its marked overexpression in multiple malignancies and its roles in promoting cell survival and proliferation, survivin is an attractive candidate for targeted therapy. Toward this end, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms regulating survivin expression in different cancer cells will be critical. We have previously shown that the RNA-binding protein (RBP) CUG-BP1 is overexpressed in esophageal cancer cells and post-transcriptionally regulates survivin in these cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRs) in regulating survivin expression in esophageal cancer cells. Using miR expression profiling analysis, we found that miR-214-3p is one of the most markedly downregulated miRs in two esophageal squamous cancer cell lines compared with esophageal epithelial cells. Interestingly, using miR target prediction programs, both survivin and CUG-BP1 mRNA were found to contain potential binding sites for miR-214-3p. Forced expression of miR-214-3p in esophageal cancer cells leads to a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of both survivin and CUG-BP1. This effect is due to decreased mRNA stability of both targets. By contrast, silencing miR-214-3p in esophageal epithelial cells leads to an increase in both survivin and CUG-BP1 mRNA and protein. To determine whether the observed effect of miR-214-3p on survivin expression was direct, mediated through CUG-BP1, or both, binding studies utilizing biotin pull-down assays and heterologous luciferase reporter constructs were performed. These demonstrated that the mRNA of survivin and CUG-BP1 each contain two functional miR-214-3p-binding sites as confirmed by mutational analysis. Finally, forced expression of miR-214-3p enhances the sensitivity of esophageal cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. This effect is abrogated with rescue expression of survivin or CUG-BP1. These findings suggest that miR-214-3p acts as a tumor suppressor and that its downregulation contributes

  10. Low-temperature specific heat of BaCuO2 and BaCuO2.14 in magnetic fields to 7 T

    The specific heats of samples of BaCuO2 and BaCuO2.14, on which magnetization and/or neutron-diffraction measurements had been made earlier, were measured for the temperature range 0.35≤T≤30 K in magnetic fields to 7 T. BaCuO2+x has a complex structure with 90 formula units in a bcc unit cell; 6 Cu are ''lone spins,'' 48 are in 8 Cu6O12 ''ring clusters,'' and 36 are in 2 Cu18O24 ''sphere clusters.'' The ring and sphere clusters have ferromagnetically ordered ground states with spins S=3 and 9, respectively. Antiferromagnetic ordering of the ring clusters occurs with a Neel temperature TN(0)∼15 K. The specific heat of BaCuO2 shows a cooperative ordering anomaly associated with the antiferromagnetic ordering of the ring clusters. Schottky-like anomalies, having maxima at ∼5 and ∼0.7 K, are identified with the ordering of the sphere clusters and the lone spins, respectively. Only Schottky-like anomalies are observed for the specific heat of BaCuO2.14. It is suggested that the increase in the Cu oxidation state, due to the addition of 0.14 mol of O, increases Cu-O covalent bonding (spin compensation) and/or produces nonmagnetic Cu3+, which in addition to the known increase in the Cu-O bond lengths, disrupts the superexchange paths that lead to the antiferromagnetic ordering of the ring clusters in BaCuO2. For BaCuO2 the magnetic entropy was 90% of that predicted for the ordering of the three Cu structures. On the other hand, the magnetic entropy for BaCuO2.14 was only 65% of that predicted, which suggests a relative large suppression of some magnetic entities due to the addition of 0.14 mol of O. Although BaCuO2+x is an insulator, the specific heat has a T-proportional component that is magnetic field dependent and is presumably associated with the magnetic degrees of freedom. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Saturation mutagenesis of Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 toluene 4-monooxygenase at alpha-subunit residues proline 101, proline 103, and histidine 214 for regiospecific oxidation of aromatics.

    Yanık-Yıldırım, K Cansu; Vardar-Schara, Gönül

    2014-11-01

    A novel toluene monooxygenase (TMO) six-gene cluster from Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 having an overall 35, 36, and 38 % protein similarity with toluene o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) of Pseudomonas sp. OX1, toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, and toluene-para-monooxygenase (TpMO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, respectively, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli TG1, and its potential activity was investigated for aromatic hydroxylation and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation. The natural substrate toluene was hydroxylated to p-cresol, indicating that the new toluene monooxygenase (T4MO·BTAi1) acts as a para hydroxylating enzyme, similar to T4MO and TpMO. Some shifts in regiospecific hydroxylations were observed compared to the other wild-type TMOs. For example, wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 formed catechol (88 %) and hydroquinone (12 %) from phenol, whereas all the other wild-type TMOs were reported to form only catechol. Furthermore, it was discovered that TG1 cells expressing wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 mineralized TCE at a rate of 0.67 ± 0.10 nmol Cl(-)/h/mg protein. Saturation and site directed mutagenesis were used to generate eight variants of T4MO·BTAi1 at alpha-subunit positions P101, P103, and H214: P101T/P103A, P101S, P101N/P103T, P101V, P103T, P101V/P103T, H214G, and H214G/D278N; by testing the substrates phenol, nitrobenzene, and naphthalene, positions P101 and P103 were found to influence the regiospecific oxidation of aromatics. For example, compared to wild type, variant P103T produced four fold more m-nitrophenol from nitrobenzene as well as produced mainly resorcinol (60 %) from phenol whereas wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 did not. Similarly, variants P101T/P103A and P101S synthesized more 2-naphthol and 2.3-fold and 1.6-fold less 1-naphthol from naphthalene, respectively. PMID:25016343

  12. Inelastic stress-strain response of 2[1]/[4]Cr-1Mo steel under combined tension-torsion at 600 C

    The results of the third-phase activity of the Subcommittee on Inelastic Analysis and Life Prediction of High Temperature Materials, JSMS, are summarized in this series of papers.As the first part, the evaluation of inelastic constitutive models under plasticity-creep interaction conditions is presented in extension of the previous report of the phase 2 activity. Seven types of experiment were performed under multiaxial loading of tension and torsion with normalized and tempered 2[1]/[4]Cr-1Mo steel at 600 C: (i) step-up/down creep, (ii) uniaxial tension with strain rate change, (iii) cruciform stressing, (iv) biaxial mechanical ratcheting, (v) cyclic torsion, (vi) in-phase cyclic straining and (vii) out-of-phase cyclic straining. The experimental results of these benchmark tests are compared with the simulated results by seven types of constitutive models to evaluate their accuracy in simulating the experimental behaviour of the material. ((orig.))

  13. Effect of glutathione modulation of the distribution and transplacental uptake of 2-[14C]-chloroacetonitrile (CAN) quantitative whole-body autoradiographic study in pregnant mice.

    Jacob, S; Abdel-Aziz, A A; Shouman, S A; Ahmed, A E

    1998-01-01

    Chloroacetonitrile (CAN), a drinking water disinfectant by-product, has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. CAN is known to deplete glutathione (GSH), and previous studies reported an enhanced molecular interaction of CAN after GSH depletion in the uterine and fetal tissues of mice. The present report may help to understand the potential mechanisms involved in such molecular interactions by examining the disposition, transplacental uptake and covalent interaction of the chemical in normal and GSH depleted pregnant mice (at 13th day of gestation). Both normal and GSH depleted (by administration of Diethylmaleate (DEM), 0.6 mL/kg, i.p.) pregnant mice were given an equitoxic i.v. dose of 2-[14C]-CAN(333 microCi/kg equivalent to 77 mg/kg). Animals were processed for whole-body autoradiography (WBA) at 1, 8 and 24 hr after treatment. Tissue distribution of radioactivity in the autoradiographs was quantitated using computer aided image analysis. With few exceptions, a rapid high uptake (at 1 hr) of radioactivity was observed in all major maternal (liver, lung, urinary bladder, gastrointestinal mucosa, cerebellum, uterine luminal fluid) and fetal (liver, brain) organs of both normal and GSH depleted mice. This pattern of distribution was observed, with lesser intensity, at 8 hr following treatment. At a later time period (24 hr), there was a significant higher retention and covalent interaction of radioactivity in GSH depleted mouse tissues especially in the liver as compared to normal mouse. This study suggests that 2-[14C]-CAN and/or its metabolites are capable of crossing the placental barrier. The observed higher uptake and retention of the radioactivity in the maternal liver, kidney, cerebellum, nasal turbinates and fetal liver may pose toxicity of the chemical to these organs. The increased covalent interaction of radioactivty in GSH depleted mice liver may indicate the potential utilization of GSH pathway by this organ in the detoxication of CAN derived

  14. Study of the background of the neutrinoless double β decay with the detector NEMO 2: contribution arising from the radon diffusion and internal pollution of the source 214Bi have been estimated

    The NEMO experiment is designed to understand the nature of the neutrino by studying the double beta decay of Mo-100 which is related to the Majorana neutrino effective mass. In this kind of experiment a good understanding of the different sources of background is crucial as only few events are expected per year at the required level of sensitivity. In this thesis we present the main theoretical and experimental aspects of the measurement of the neutrinoless double beta decay of Mo-100 with the prototype detector NEMO2. The goal of this study is to obtain a realistic interpretation of the few events detected at high energy in the two-electron channel as a background to neutrinoless double beta decay. In particular, the contribution arising from Bi-214 has been investigated. These events have been selected and analysed by means of the beta-alpha decays of Bi-214 into Pb-210. The events are characterized by a delayed track in the wire chamber and the corresponding signal is rather clean. The study has demonstrated the diffusion of Rn-222 into the detector and its contribution to Bi-214 pollution has been estimated. A measurement of the Bi-214 internal contamination of the source has been made as well as an estimation of the Bi-214 deposit due to Rn-222. As a result of this study it appears that, under the conditions of the NEMO2 experiment, the Bi and Rn contributions are of the same order of magnitude as the background induced at high energy by two-neutrino double beta decay. In conclusion, the backgrounds of the neutrinoless double beta decay of Mo-100 are well understood in the NEMO2 experiment leading to an extrapolation for the NEMO3 experiment. (authors)

  15. Study of the background of the neutrinoless double {beta} decay with the detector NEMO 2: contribution arising from the radon diffusion and internal pollution of the source {sup 214}Bi have been estimated; Etude du bruit de fond de la double-desintegration {beta} sans emission de neutrino dans le detecteur NEMO 2: contribution du radon ambiant et mesure de la pollution interne de la source en {sup 214}Bi

    Mauger, F.

    1995-02-01

    The NEMO experiment is designed to understand the nature of the neutrino by studying the double beta decay of Mo-100 which is related to the Majorana neutrino effective mass. In this kind of experiment a good understanding of the different sources of background is crucial as only few events are expected per year at the required level of sensitivity. In this thesis we present the main theoretical and experimental aspects of the measurement of the neutrinoless double beta decay of Mo-100 with the prototype detector NEMO2. The goal of this study is to obtain a realistic interpretation of the few events detected at high energy in the two-electron channel as a background to neutrinoless double beta decay. In particular, the contribution arising from Bi-214 has been investigated. These events have been selected and analysed by means of the beta-alpha decays of Bi-214 into Pb-210. The events are characterized by a delayed track in the wire chamber and the corresponding signal is rather clean. The study has demonstrated the diffusion of Rn-222 into the detector and its contribution to Bi-214 pollution has been estimated. A measurement of the Bi-214 internal contamination of the source has been made as well as an estimation of the Bi-214 deposit due to Rn-222. As a result of this study it appears that, under the conditions of the NEMO2 experiment, the Bi and Rn contributions are of the same order of magnitude as the background induced at high energy by two-neutrino double beta decay. In conclusion, the backgrounds of the neutrinoless double beta decay of Mo-100 are well understood in the NEMO2 experiment leading to an extrapolation for the NEMO3 experiment. (authors).

  16. A Strategy for Interpretation of Microearthquake Tomography Results in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field Based upon Rock Physics Interpretations of State 2-14 Borehole Logs

    Bonner, B; Hutchings, L; Kasameyer, P

    2006-06-14

    We devise a strategy for analysis of Vp and Vs microearthquake tomography results in the Salton Sea geothermal field to identify important features of the geothermal reservoir. We first interpret rock properties in State 2-14 borehole based upon logged core through the reservoir. Then, we interpret seismic recordings in the well (Daley et al., 1988) to develop the strategy. We hypothesize that mapping Poisson's ratio has two applications for the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir: (1) to map the top of the reservoir, and (2) as a diagnostic for permeable zones. Poisson's ratio can be obtained from Vp and Vs. In the State 2-14 borehole, Poisson's ratio calculated from large scale averages ({approx} 150 m) shows a monotonic decrease with depth to about 1300 m, at which point it increases with depth. Our model is that the monotonic decrease is due to compaction, and the increase below 1300 m is due to the rocks being hydrothermally altered. We hypothesize we can map the depth to alteration by identifying the transition from decreasing to increasing values; and thus, map the top of the reservoir, which is associated with a known increase in sulfite, chlorite, and epidote alteration that may be indicative of hydrothermal activity. We also observe (from Daley et. al. plots) an anomalous drop in Poisson's ratio at a depth of about 900 m, within a sandstone formation. The sandstone has a P-wave velocity significantly higher than the siltstone above it but a lower velocity in the lower half of the formation relative to the upper half. We interpret the relative decrease in velocity to be due to fracturing and chemical alteration caused by permeability. We conclude that using Vp and Vs tomography results to obtain images of Poisson's ratio has the potential to identify significant features in the geothermal reservoir in this geologic setting. Seismic attenuation tomography results (mapped as Qp and Qs) should also be useful for evaluating geothermal

  17. Novel PSEN1 mutations (H214N and R220P) associated with familial Alzheimer's disease identified by targeted exome sequencing.

    Piccoli, Elena; Rossi, Giacomina; Rossi, Tommaso; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; D'Amato, Ilaria; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Di Fede, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by mutations in amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 genes and is mostly associated with early-onset form of AD (EOAD), whereas very few mutations were also found in late-onset AD (LOAD) cases. Because of the clinical overlapping between AD and other degenerative dementias such as frontotemporal dementias, a wide-spectrum genetic analysis should be envisaged in the differential diagnosis of this group of disorders. We used next-generation sequencing techniques to analyze 10 genes involved in dementia on a cohort of 20 EOAD and 20 LOAD cases. We found 5 rare coding variants (frequency PSEN1 H214N mutation, identified in a case of familial EOAD and PSEN1 R220P, found in a case of familial LOAD, are predicted to be pathogenic. These findings confirm the contribution of PSEN1 genetic variants also to LOAD, underlining the need of extending the genetic screening of presenilin mutations to LOAD patients. Two variants in microtubule-associated protein tau and 1 in progranulin appeared to be benign polymorphisms, showing no major contribution of these genes to AD. PMID:26925509

  18. Selective removal of Ag+ ions from nitric acid medium by alginate microcapsules, Lewatite TP 214 chelating resin, and 200 CT strongly acidic ion exchanger

    Alginate microcapsules containing bis (2, 4, 4-trimethylpenthyl) monothiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 302) were prepared for the selective removal of Ag+ ions from the reprocessing effluents of FBR-MOX fuel. The Ag+ ions are added for the adjustment of oxidation state of Plutonium. We compared uptake properties of aforementioned microcapsules with those of 200 CT a strongly acidic resin, and Lewatite TP 214, a very selective chelating resin for the Ag+ ions. Most of the uptake properties of the microcapsules were amid the 200 CT and Lewatite, and rather similar to the later. The order of uptake kinetic and breakthrough capacity were the same as: 200 CT > Microcapsules > Lewatite; and for selectivity: Lewatite > Microcapsules > 200 CT. However, high selectivity of Lewatite is rather disadvantageous because it makes the elution operation complicated. Advantages of microcapsules include simple preparation procedure, relatively high selectivity and ease of elution even with 3M nitric acid. However, their total capacity is low. For enhancing the total capacity only increasing the active component is not enough since it deteriorates the kinetics, and the new preparation techniques are necessary which are under study. (author)

  19. The metabolome of [2-14C](−)-epicatechin in humans: implications for the assessment of efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action of polyphenolic bioactives

    Ottaviani, Javier I.; Borges, Gina; Momma, Tony Y.; Spencer, Jeremy P. E.; Keen, Carl L.; Crozier, Alan; Schroeter, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Diet is a major life style factor affecting human health, thus emphasizing the need for evidence-based dietary guidelines for primary disease prevention. While current recommendations promote intake of fruit and vegetables, we have limited understanding of plant-derived bioactive food constituents other than those representing the small number of essential nutrients and minerals. This limited understanding can be attributed to some extent to a lack of fundamental data describing the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of bioactive compounds. Consequently, we selected the flavanol (−)-epicatechin (EC) as an example of a widely studied bioactive food constituent and investigated the ADME of [2-14C](−)-epicatechin (300 μCi, 60 mg) in humans (n = 8). We demonstrated that 82 ± 5% of ingested EC was absorbed. We also established pharmacokinetic profiles and identified and quantified >20 different metabolites. The gut microbiome proved to be a key driver of EC metabolism. Furthermore, we noted striking species-dependent differences in the metabolism of EC, an insight with significant consequences for investigating the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of EC. These differences need to be considered when assessing the safety of EC intake in humans. We also identified a potential biomarker for the objective assessment of EC intake that could help to strengthen epidemiological investigations. PMID:27363516

  20. Planck intermediate results. VI: The dynamical structure of PLCKG214.6+37.0, a Planck discovered triple system of galaxy clusters

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bourdin, H; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cardoso, J -F; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frommert, M; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gilfanov, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Heinämäki, P; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jagemann, T; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leonardi, R; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Luzzi, G; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Mei, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zaroubi, S; Zonca, A

    2012-01-01

    The survey of galaxy clusters performed by Planck through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect has already discovered many interesting objects, thanks to the whole coverage of the sky. One of the SZ candidates detected in the early months of the mission near to the signal to noise threshold, PLCKG214.6+37.0, was later revealed by XMM-Newton to be a triple system of galaxy clusters. We have further investigated this puzzling system with a multi-wavelength approach and we present here the results from a deep XMM-Newton re-observation. The characterisation of the physical properties of the three components has allowed us to build a template model to extract the total SZ signal of this system with Planck data. We partly reconciled the discrepancy between the expected SZ signal from X-rays and the observed one, which are now consistent at less than 1.2 sigma. We measured the redshift of the three components with the iron lines in the X-ray spectrum, and confirmed that the three clumps are likely part of the same superclus...

  1. Role of tele-medicine in retinopathy of prematurity screening in rural outreach centers in India - a report of 20,214 imaging sessions in the KIDROP program.

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Shetty, Bhujang; Vidyasagar, Dharmapuri

    2015-10-01

    Middle-income countries such as India are suffering from the third epidemic of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Improved survival and lower infant mortality rates have resulted in an increased number of preterm survivors in rural areas that unfortunately lack ROP specialists. We report our experience of a public-private partnership in rural India of an ongoing telemedicine program Karnataka Internet Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program KIDROP that provides ROP screening by non-physicians. The analysis of 20,214 imaging sessions of 7106 from 36 rural centers in 77 months of activity are presented. The overall incidence of any stage and treatment requiring ROP was 22.39% and 3.57% respectively. We found a higher incidence of severe ROP in private (7.1%) vs government centers (1.7%). Fifty of the 254 babies (19.69%) who underwent treatment were outside the American screening guidelines cut-off. The report compares other "real-world" tele-ROP programs, summarizes the impact, and provides future strategies for outreach ROP screening in middle-income countries. PMID:26092301

  2. Study on the corrosion by the liquid sodium of SUS 321 steel, SUS 304 steel and 21/4Cr-1Mo steel by using the small sodium loop

    Liquid sodium is used as the coolant for liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The 21/4Cr-1Mo steel is used as structural material for evaporator and SUS F321 steel is used for super heater of steam generator of 'Monju', a prototype fast breeder reactor in Japan. The trial manufacture of small sodium loop made of SUS 316 steel and a study on the sodium corrosion of explosive plugged part are already reported by us. Study on the sodium corrosion of arc welded part of SUS 321 steel, SUS 304 steel and 21/4Cr-1Mo steel is reported in this paper. Measurement of weight loss and analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectrum are conducted for the corroded specimen. Effect of welding on the corrosion characteristic of these materials is not evidently observed. (author)

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  4. Quantification of ineffective erythropoiesis in megaloblastic anaemia by determination of endogenous production of 14CO after administration of glycine-2-14C

    The determination of the early peak of 14CO production that results from haem turnover after administration of glycine-2-14C was studied in patients with pernicious anaemia. The accuracy of this technique in measuring ineffective erythropoiesis was assessed by comparison with other measurements of the severity of the disease. 6 patients were studied before specific treatment and 2 of these also after treatment. The endogenous production of 14CO was calculated from determinations of the production of CO by a rebreathing technique and of the specific activity of CO washed out from the body CO store by oxygen breathing. The early labelled peak was increased 7-39 times compared to that in healthy control subjects and represented 35-86% of the total production of 14CO as compared to 13% in controls. The early labelled peak was significantly correlated to the Hb concentration, mean red cell volume and endogenous production of CO. 2 patients, twice examined, showed a moderately increased early labelled peak also after specific treatment. This was attributed to persistence of some ineffective erythropoiesis in 1 patient and possibly increased hepatic haem turnover in the other. The magnitude of the early labelled peak and the maximal activity of 14CO found in the samples of CO collected from the body CO store were significantly correlated. In conclusion, with the present method the early peak of 14CO reflected the ineffective erythropoiesis in patients with pernicious anaemia. The early labelled peak could be predicted from the maximal activity of 14CO found in the samples of CO washed out from the body CO store. (author)

  5. Regional changes in brain 2-14C-deoxyglucose uptake induced by convulsant and non-convulsant doses of lindane

    Lindane-induced dose- and time-related changes in regional 2-14C-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake were examined in 59 discrete rat brain structures using the 2-DG autoradiographic technique. At different times (0.5-144 hr) after administration of a seizure-inducing single dose of lindane (60 mg/kg), 2-DG uptake was significantly increased in 18 cortical and subcortical regions mainly related to the limbic system (e.g., Ammon's horn, dentate gyrus, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, olfactory cortex) and extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas (e.g., cerebellar cortex, red nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus). There was also a significant increase in superior colliculus layer II. In addition, significant decreases occurred in a group of 6 regions (e.g., auditory and motor cortices). Non-convulsing animals treated with the same dose of lindane showed a regional pattern of 2-DG uptake less modified than the convulsant group. A non-convulsant single dose of lindane (30 mg/kg) also modified significantly the 2-DG uptake (0.5-24 hr) in some brain areas. Although the various single doses of lindane tested produced different altered patterns of brain 2-DG uptake, some structures showed a similar trend in their modification (e.g., superior colliculi and accumbens, raphe and red nuclei). Repeated non-convulsant doses of lindane produced defined and long-lasting significant elevations of 2-DG uptake in some subcortical structures. Considering the treated groups all together, 2-DG uptake increased significantly in 26 of the 59 regions examined but only decreased significantly in 9 of them during the course of lindane effects. This fact can be related to the stimulant action described for this neurotoxic agent. The observed pattern provides a descriptive approach to the functional alterations occurring in vivo during the course of lindane intoxication

  6. Sõpruse pst. 214 / Ilme Trepp

    Trepp, Ilme

    2002-01-01

    Rööptekst vene k. lk. 33-34. Ühistute huvide eest seismiseks loodi Mustamäe Korteriühistute Nõukoda, mis seab eesmärgiks esindada Mustamäe korteriühistuid, teha koostööd linnavalitsusega, vahetada infot ja kasulikke kogemusi

  7. 21.4.Mental deficiency

    1993-01-01

    930413 Clinlcal study of mental disorders inpost—stroke patients.WANG Huanlin (王焕林),et al.102nd Hosp,PLA Changzhou,213003.Chin J Nerv & Ment Dis 1992;18(5):281—283.The mental disorder has been studied bymeans of DSM-Ⅱ diagnostic criteria in 104hospitalized stroke patients.The results re-vealed that the prevalence of mental disorderwas 46.2% in post-stroke patients.Theprevalence of poststroke depression (PSD),de-pressive neurosis (DN),multiple infarct demen-tia (MID),and post—stroke mania (PSM) were22.1%,11.5%,8.7%,and 3(?)8% respectively.It was indicated that the lesions of frontal cortexand left basal ganglia were strongly associated

  8. 青春期前女童外阴阴道炎4214例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 4 214 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis

    林翠兰; 何冰洁; 陈昂; 何婉懿; 韦婉俭

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析青春期前女童外阴阴道炎年龄分布、就诊原因、高危因素及病因种类分布特征.方法 回顾性分析总结2010年1月至2013年6月在中山市博爱医院女童专科门诊诊断外阴阴道炎并已建立专科档案的4 214例青春期前患儿临床资料,所有临床资料来自于所建专科病历档案.结果 (1)发病与年龄的关系:0 ~1岁1 587例(37.7%),>1 ~3岁954例(22.6%),>3 ~7岁1 289例(30.6%),>7岁384例(9.1%);(2)不良因素与患病的关系:不良卫生习惯2 924例(69.4%),过敏史和最近过敏原接触史875例(20.8%);(3)有、无症状患儿与发生情况:体检发现女童外阴阴道炎无症状者919例(21.8%);有症状者3 295例(78.2%):阴道分泌物812例(19.3%),外阴发红725例(17.2%),瘙痒636例(15.1%),尿频/尿急/尿痛532例(12.6%),外阴疼痛240例(5.7%),外阴异味198例(4.7%),排尿困难152例(3.6%);(4)疾病或病因分类与年龄的关系:非特异性外阴阴道炎1 771例(42.0%),阴唇粘连1 309例(31.1%),细菌性外阴阴道炎375例(8.9%),过敏性外阴阴道炎266例(6.3%),情感性交叉擦腿动作266例(6.3%).结论 儿童不良卫生习惯、过敏及不良排尿习惯等是外阴阴道炎的主要相关因素,好发于婴幼儿期和学龄前期;而过敏及情感性交叉擦腿动作是反复发生和引起非特异性外阴阴道炎及阴唇粘连的主要病因.重视女童生殖器卫生,防治各类外阴阴道炎,可减少女童青春期前外阴阴道炎的发生.%Objective To explore the distribution of age,reasons for treatment,risk factors,and causes of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.Methods A total of 4 214 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis who were admitted to the Girl's Sub-department,Zhongshan Boai Hospital from January 2010 to June 2013 was reviewed retrospectively.All clinical data were from medical records with files.Results Atotalof1 587 patients (37.7%) was0to1 years old,954 (22

  9. The effect of low temperature, nitrogen atmosphere and uncouplers on longitudinal distribution of radioactivity after acropetal and basipetal application of (2-14C) ABA in long root segments of Phaseolus coccineus L

    Acropetal movement of [2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA) in long root segments of P.coccineus is drastically reduced by destruction of the tissue, low temperature, anaerobic conditions and pretreatment with CCCP (carbonyl-cyanide-m-chloro-phenylhydrazone) at uncoupling concentrations. Basipetal transport is not affected by destruction of the tissue but markedly inhibited by the other treatments. Consequently polarity of ABA-transport disappears only after the roots have been killed. The importance of using long segments for hormone transport studies is discussed. (orig.)

  10. The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding

    The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

  11. Transport and distribution of basally applied indoleaceticacid-2-14C in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings in relation to interaction of auxin and indole in adventitious root formation

    Negative interaction or antagonism between IAA and high concentration of indole in rooting of bean cuttings was associated with significant increase in upward movement and accumulation of radiocarbon of IAA-2-14C in upper parts of the cuttings. Positive interaction or synergism observed with lower concentrations of indole was not associated with such increased acropetal transport. There was also no significant difference in total radioactivity per cutting among the different concentrations of indole. The results suggest that non-promotion of upward movement of basally applied auxin from the root forming region or its increased upward movement out of the root forming region may be an important factor in the mechanism of synergism or antagonism respectively. (author)

  12. Clinical observation of gastric bypass in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus%胃转流术治疗2型糖尿病的临床疗效:附214例报告

    郭渝明; 李广阔; 霍芊竹; 陈俊; 邓开

    2013-01-01

      目的Roux-en-Y式胃转流术(RY-GBP)是2型糖尿病患者接受外科手术治疗的主要术式之一。本研究旨在进一步验证RY-GBP的手术治疗效果。方法214例2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者均行RY-GBP术,术中根据体质指数和胰岛素抵抗情况,选择合适的残胃(Pouch)容积和空肠袢长度。患者于术前和术后3,6,12个月行OGTT试验,并测定空腹血清胰岛素(FIns)、空腹血清C肽(FC-P)、糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)、体重指数(BMI),密切关注患者术后的降糖药服用情况及糖尿病并发症改善情况。结果214例患者中,51例(23.8%)术后出院时即达治愈标准,停用降糖药物,78例(36.4%)于术后0~3个月内停药,21例(9.8%)于术后3~6个月内停药,18例(8.4%)于术后6~12个月内停药。另外46例(21.5%)12个月后仍服用降糖药物,但药物剂量有不同程度地减少,尚在进一步观察中。上述病例在术后3,6,12个月的各项检测指标均有所改善,近期治愈率达78.5%(168/214)。本组无死亡病例,相关并发症包括吻合口出血2例,吻合口溃疡7例,胃瘫21例,营养不良3例,贫血8例,在给予相应治疗后均缓解。结论RY-GBP胃转流术对肥胖型和非肥胖型2型糖尿病均有良好治疗效果,对非肥胖型2型糖尿病的治疗效果更值得进一步深入研究。%  Objective Gastric bypass(GBP), especially Roux-en-Y, is the main surgical procedure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM). The present study focused on the evaluation of efficiency of Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass(RY-GBP) in T2DM patients. Methods Two hundred and fourteen patients with T2DM were operated according to the RY-GBP procedures, and gastric pouch as well as Roux limb were selected respectively by the BMI and insulin resistance. Blood glucose alterations(OGTT), Fins, FC-P, HbAlc, BMI, related complications and anti-sugar drugs were observed at

  13. Paleomagnetism of Basaltic Lava Flows in Coreholes ICPP 213, ICPP-214, ICPP-215, and USGS 128 Near the Vadose Zone Research Park, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Champion, Duane E.; Herman, Theodore C.

    2003-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study was conducted on basalt from 41 lava flows represented in about 2,300 ft of core from coreholes ICPP-213, ICPP-214, ICPP-215, and USGS 128. These wells are in the area of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Vadose Zone Research Park within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Paleomagnetic measurements were made on 508 samples from the four coreholes, which are compared to each other, and to surface outcrop paleomagnetic data. In general, subhorizontal lines of correlation exist between sediment layers and between basalt layers in the area of the new percolation ponds. Some of the basalt flows and flow sequences are strongly correlative at different depth intervals and represent important stratigraphic unifying elements. Some units pinch out, or thicken or thin even over short separation distances of about 1,500 ft. A more distant correlation of more than 1 mile to corehole USGS 128 is possible for several of the basalt flows, but at greater depth. This is probably due to the broad subsidence of the eastern Snake River Plain centered along its topographic axis located to the south of INEEL. This study shows this most clearly in the oldest portions of the cored sections that have differentially subsided the greatest amount.

  14. Use of [2-14C]mevalonate and saponin-bound [14C]-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid for the biosynthesis of terpenoids in leaves of Dioscorea deltoidea

    After the introduction of [2-14C]acetate into leaves of Dioscorea deltoidea, a radioactive furonanalog of deltafolin - protodeltofolin, containing two-thirds of the label in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl portion - was isolated from them. Radioactive β-careotene and sterols were isolated from cut young leaves of Dioscorea 24 h after the introduction of [14C] protodeltofolin into them, using chromatography on a column of silica gel and precipitation of sterols in the form of digitonins for this purpose. The incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaric acid, bound in the form of a saponin, and β-carotene came to 0.18-0.80%, while incorporation into sterols came to 0.07-2.86% of the radioactivity of the alcohol extract. Thereby it was shown that 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaric acid, bound in the form of the saponin, can be used to form terpenoids in Dioscorea leaves. It was suggested that the binding of hydroxymethylglutaric acid to saponin represents one of the mechanisms of regulation of the rate of terpenoid biosynthesis in Dioscorea leaves

  15. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  16. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  17. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    The activities of 228Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide 228Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO2 and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter 228Ra(228Ac), the daughter nuclide 228Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by 228Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9±0.1% was measured for 228Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317±0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of 228Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for 228Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure 228Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used

  18. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  19. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  20. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  1. Synthesis of chelating agents for actinium 225 complexation and its application in radioimmunotherapy

    Immunotherapy with radiolabeled antibodies should allow fairly specific targeting of certain cancers. However, iodine 131 may not be the best isotope for tumor therapy because of its limited specific activity, low beta-energy, relatively long half life and strong gamma emission. Another approach to improve therapeutic efficacy is the use of replacement isotopes with better physical properties. Chelator that can hold radio-metals with high stability under physiological conditions are essential to avoid excessive damage to non-target cells; Moreover, the development of new bifunctional chelating agents is essential for this purpose. Accordingly, our efforts have been directed, for several years, to the synthesis of original chelating agents likely to form stable complexes in vivo with the numerous potential candidates for such applications. Therefore, we have developed a new simple and efficient synthesis pathway of 2-(4-iso-thio-cyanate-benzyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16- hexa-aza-cyclo-hexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-acetic acid, though functionalized on the cycle by a termination allowed coupling to an antibody or any other biological substance such as a hapten. (author)

  2. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  3. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  4. 49 CFR 214.7 - Definitions.

    2010-10-01

    ... struck by a moving train or on-track equipment, or in any case is within four feet of the field side of... with track centers spaced less than 25 feet apart. Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for..., an interlocking, or a controlled point, or a segment of controlled track. Controlled track...

  5. BDML Metadata: 214 [SSBD[Archive

    Full Text Available NC-SA 0.150 f5a7a976-0215-4b87-8dfd-5a952cc85fe2 0.105 x 0.105 x 0.5 (micrometer), 40 (second) http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data.../source/Ce_KK_P002/RNAi_T20G5.1_040907_01/ http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data.../bdml/Ce_KK_P002/RNAi_T20G5.1_040907_01.bdml0.15.xml http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data/pdpml/Ce_KK_P00...2.pdpml0.05.xml http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/search/f5a7a976-0215-4b87-8dfd-5a952cc85fe2/ http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/omero/webclient/?show=dataset-157 ...

  6. 49 CFR 195.214 - Welding procedures.

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with welding procedures qualified under Section 5 of API 1104 or Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3) . The quality of the test welds used...

  7. Fungal Planet description sheets: 214-280.

    Crous, P W; Shivas, R G; Quaedvlieg, W; van der Bank, M; Zhang, Y; Summerell, B A; Guarro, J; Wingfield, M J; Wood, A R; Alfenas, A C; Braun, U; Cano-Lira, J F; García, D; Marin-Felix, Y; Alvarado, P; Andrade, J P; Armengol, J; Assefa, A; den Breeÿen, A; Camele, I; Cheewangkoon, R; De Souza, J T; Duong, T A; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fournier, J; Frisullo, S; García-Jiménez, J; Gardiennet, A; Gené, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Hirooka, Y; Hospenthal, D R; King, A; Lechat, C; Lombard, L; Mang, S M; Marbach, P A S; Marincowitz, S; Marin-Felix, Y; Montaño-Mata, N J; Moreno, G; Perez, C A; Pérez Sierra, A M; Robertson, J L; Roux, J; Rubio, E; Schumacher, R K; Stchigel, A M; Sutton, D A; Tan, Y P; Thompson, E H; van der Linde, E; Walker, A K; Walker, D M; Wickes, B L; Wong, P T W; Groenewald, J Z

    2014-06-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:25264390

  8. Fungal Planet description sheets: 214–280

    Crous, P.W.; Shivas, R.G.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Bank, van der M.; Zhang, Y.; Summerell, B.A.; Guarro, J.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wood, A.R.; Alfenas, A.C.; Braun, U.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Garcia, D.; Marin-Felix, Y.; Alvarado, P.; Andrade, J.P.; Armengol, J.; Assefa, A.; Breeÿen, den A.; Camele, I.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Souza, De J.T.; Duong, T.A.; Esteve-Raventós, F.; Fournier, J.; Frisullo, S.; García-Jiménez, J.; Gardiennet, A.; Gené, J.; Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Hirooka, Y.; Hospenthal, D.R.; King, A.; Lechat, C.; Lombard, L.; Mang, S.M.; Marbach, P.A.S.; Marincowitz, S.; Montaño-Mata, N.J.; Moreno, G.; Perez, C.A.; Pérez Sierra, A.M.; Robertson, J.L.; Roux, J.; Rubio, E.; Schumacher, R.K.; Stchigel, A.M.; Sutton, D.A.; Tan, Y.P.; Thompson, E.H.; Vanderlinde, E.; Walker, A.K.; Walker, D.M.; Wickes, B.L.; Wong, P.T.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Coryn

  9. 24 CFR 214.303 - Performance criteria.

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage lenders, brokers, builders, or real estate sales agents or brokers in which the officer, employee... referring a client to mortgage lenders, brokers, builders, or real estate sales agents or brokers. (3) A... other industry partners. The disclosure must clearly state that the client is not obligated to...

  10. Fungal Planet description sheets: 214–280

    Crous, P.W.; Shivas, R.G.; W. Quaedvlieg; Bank, van der, M.; Zhang, Y.(Center for High Energy Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China); Summerell, B.A.; Guarro, J.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wood, A.R.; Alfenas, A.C.; Braun, U.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; García, D.; P. Alvarado; Andrade, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov...

  11. 6 CFR 21.4 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL ORIGIN IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF... financial assistance, and application means such an application, request, or plan. (b) Facility includes all... the provision of facilities includes the construction, expansion, renovation, remodeling,...

  12. 7 CFR 1430.214 - Violations.

    2010-01-01

    ..., shall refund all MILC funds disbursed under of this part. The remedies provided in this subpart shall be... benefits; (3) Failure to comply with highly erodible land conservation and wetland provisions of this 7 CFR... MILC by mutual agreement upon request of the participant if DAFP determines that termination is in...

  13. 24 CFR 214.3 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... persons with disabilities, avoiding foreclosure, or resolving a financial crisis. Except for reverse.... Counseling. Counselor to client assistance that addresses unique financial circumstances or housing...

  14. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    2010-01-01

    ... material, as well as other information the release of which could result in a competitive advantage to one... the applicant is not involved in competitive decision-making for any firm that could gain a competitive advantage from access to the protected information and that there will be no significant risk...

  15. QTL Information Table: 214 [Q-TARO

    Full Text Available n of an Elite Rice Hybrid Revealed That Heterozygotes Are Not Always Advantageous for Performance. Genetics 162, 1885-1895. http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/abstract/162/4/1885 ...

  16. 24 CFR 884.214 - Marketing.

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for determination of eligibility of applicants in accordance with the procedure of 24 CFR part... Federal selection preferences in accordance with 24 CFR part 5), and computation of the amount of housing... of any informal hearing, and a statement of final disposition. (7) See 24 CFR part 5 for the...

  17. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  18. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  19. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  20. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  1. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 μR/h plus an approximate 6 μR/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey's gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within ± 5%

  3. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    2010-01-01

    ... Seed. (a) The Master Seed shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in § 113.200. (b... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum... vaccination, a second serum sample shall be drawn from each dog and tested for neutralizing antibody to...

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFL214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available lqvvkcldhinq*syiy* ifqrwlth*rv*lwnykiapthyynqlllqpifkqhsfilmspf*LVLSHVVQVCKEKDL L...cldhinq*syiy* ifqrwlth*rv*lwnykiapthyynqlllqpifkqhsfilmspf*LVLSHVVQVCKEKDL LKVNVSIFKEQGEALNKYASRGVKVLVVGNPAN

  5. 38 CFR 21.214 - Furnishing supplies for special programs.

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under... veteran pursuing one of the following types of vocational rehabilitation programs is eligible for any... assistance for: (1) Purchase of, or part payment for, land and buildings; (2) Making full or part payment...

  6. 48 CFR 833.214 - Alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

    2010-10-01

    ... Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). Contracting officers and contractors are encouraged to use alternative dispute resolution (ADR) procedures. CBCA guidance on ADR may be obtained at http://www.cbca.gsa.gov. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative...

  7. 48 CFR 1233.214 - Alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

    2010-10-01

    ... Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). (c) The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (ADRA) of 1990, Public Law... Specialist, who is responsible for the operations of the Center for Alternative Dispute Resolution, (C-4... alternative means of dispute resolution set forth in the ADRA, 5 U.S.C. 571(3) on a......

  8. 12 CFR 214.5 - Accounts with foreign banks.

    2010-01-01

    ... account with a foreign bank may conduct such negotiations and enter into such agreements, contracts, or understandings with such foreign bank as may be authorized or directed by the Federal Open Market Committee in... other Federal Reserve Bank which maintains an account with a foreign bank, any open market...

  9. 13 CFR 400.214 - Participations in guaranteed loans.

    2010-01-01

    ...) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a... commencing or solidifying the supplier or customer relationship with the borrower; or (4) Any other...

  10. 48 CFR 33.214 - Alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

    2010-10-01

    ... agency guidelines. Such guidelines shall provide advice on the appropriate use of binding arbitration and... not require arbitration as a condition of award, unless arbitration is otherwise required by law... controversy as they arise. (2) An agreement to use arbitration shall be in writing and shall specify a...

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHJ214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 1.1 AL590447_45( AL590447 |pid:none) chromosome VII of strain GB-M1 of... 35 2.4 FM992688_582( FM992688 |pid:none) Candida dubli...niensis CD36 chromo... 35 3.1 FM992690_440( FM992690 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis CD3

  12. 48 CFR 633.214-70 - Alternative dispute resolution.

    2010-10-01

    ... the following address on the Internet: http://www.adrr.com (5) Arbitration. Non-binding arbitration is... available at the following address on the Internet: http://www.adrr.com (6) Partnering. Partnering involves... mediation resources is available at the following address on the Internet: http://www.adrr.com (d)...

  13. 46 CFR 153.214 - Personnel emergency and safety equipment.

    2010-10-01

    ... lifting an injured person from a pumproom or a cargo tank. (b) In addition to any similar equipment... minutes capacity each. (2) A set of overalls or large apron, boots, long sleeved gloves, and goggles,...

  14. Parenting and Career Development. ERIC Digest No. 214.

    Kerka, Sandra

    Research indicates that parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-child interaction influence career development. The authoritative parenting style is associated with self-confidence, persistence, social competence, academic success, and psychosocial development; parents provide a warm family climate, set standards, and promote independence…

  15. 48 CFR 52.214-5 - Submission of Bids.

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized by the solicitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or permitted by the solicitation. (End of provision) ... submitted by electronic means) (1) addressed to the office specified in the solicitation, and (2)...

  16. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    2010-10-01

    ... actual costs incurred). See 48 CFR 30.201-1 for CAS applicability to fixed-price with economic price... prescribed in 48 CFR 30.201. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting...

  17. 2-[1-(4-Bromophenyl-2-nitroethyl]hexanoic acid

    Yanpeng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compoud, C14H18BrNO4, molecules are linked by a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond and weaker C—H...O interactions. The benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 3.67 (3 and 72.63 (3° with the carboxylic acid group and the nitro group, respectively.

  18. Dicty_cDB: SSB214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 1.18 Translated Amino Acid sequence knisyl*flifiyifiyyiytpfftyllnyfiikkiikikyniif**FKKLKKKKTQKKK KNQTFVNYCK...yifiyyiytpfftyllnyfiikkiikikyniif**FKKLKKKKTQKKK KNQTFVNYCKKKKKQKQKEKTMDLNKEW--- Frame C: kiyhiysf*ylfiylfii

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHA214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 2D11 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 92 6e-16 3 AW217896 |AW217896.1 EST296610 tomato flower buds, anthesis, Cornell...-15 2 AI778006 |AI778006.1 EST258885 tomato susceptible, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLES3N17...root during/after fruit set, Cornell University Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEX2H3, mRNA sequence. 9

  20. Dicty_cDB: SLH214 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 51 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FCL-AC... 498 e-137 1 ( AU285021 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete... cDNA clone:FCL-AA... 498 e-137 1 ( AU285015 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete... cDNA clone:FCL-AA... 498 e-137 1 ( AU284628 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-BF1... 498 e...-137 1 ( AU284420 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-AT2... 498 e-137 1 ( AU284342 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete... cDNA clone:FC-AN0... 498 e-137 1 ( AU284225 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete

  1. Regional Substitution of Farmland Social Insurance Function%区域耕地社会保障功能替代程度及其差异研究——基于北京市海淀区、大兴区24村214户农户问卷的实证

    张雪靓; 孔祥斌; 王洪雨; 程佳

    2013-01-01

    Given the contradiction between more population and reduced arable land in China,farmland has become the last security insurance for households.This article focused on Haidian and Daxing districts in Beijing and calculated the substitution degree of the farmland social security function.Based on 214 questionnaires,the effectiveness and accuracy of the measurement is highly verified.Our findings indicate that the substitution degree of farmland production in Haidian is 0.04,and for Daxing is-2.70.The substitution degree of farmland value function of Haidian is 0.50,and for Daxing is 0.30.The substitution degree of farmland labor-bearing function of Haidian is 0.43,and for Daxing is 0.35.The substitution degree of farmland social security function is higher in Haidian compared with that in Daxing.The scale of family appears to be the key factor in the substitution degree of farmland production.The income of the family is a key factor in the substitution degree of farmland value function.The arable land of family is the key factor in the substitution degree of farmland labor-bearing function.In the region of stronger economic development,the rural surplus labor force would have more opportunity to join the non-farm payroll,while the non-agricultural income accounts for a higher proportion of family income.In such circumstance,farmers are less likely to depend on farmland social security and eventually farmland may be easier to circulate.%中国人多地少的国情,决定耕地的社会保障功能将长期存在.因此,区域耕地社会保障功能是否得到有效替代,是决定区域耕地是否具有流转条件,实现土地规模化经营的关键制约因素.本文依据耕地社会保障功能的替代模型,测算出研究区耕地社会保障功能被其他农村保障体系替代的程度,并从区域间和农户间两个方面在宏观和微观层面分别分析造成耕地社会保障功能替代程度差异的原因,为区域土地流转提供相对

  2. Radiological analysis of environmental samples in some points of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Full text: We describe in this paper the results obtained by the project 'Radiological analysis of environmental samples in some points of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico'. The purpose of the study is to identify and quantify the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides present from sediments, sand and seawater from several sites located along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribean Sea. The samples are analysed in a Canberra Multichannel analyzer system for gamma spectrometry, equipped with a detector of hyper pure germanium and a Genie 2000 software, in the 'Laboratory of Radiological Analysis of Environmental Samples', belonging to the Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The geographic sites were samples were taken include the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan and Quintana Roo. The results of this studies will be published at the end of the project and we hope they will be useful for the national health and industrial sectors. Until now we have identified and measured the presence of natural radionuclides such as Potassium-40 (K-40), Bismuth 212 (Bi-212), Lead-212 (Pb-212), Bismuth-214 (Bi-214), Lead-214 (Pb-214), Radium-226 (Ra-226), Actinium 228 (Ac-228), Uranium-235 (U-235), as well as some anthropogenic radionuclides found near the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. The project is scheduled to last for three years, finishing in 2009. At its ending we shall be able to present conclusions and identify some tendencies, in connection with the background and possible radioactive contamination of the studied zones. This project takes place under the auspice of the 'Program of Support to Projects of Research and Technological Innovation' of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. (author)

  3. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    Laser atomic spectroscopic study on actinium element has been performed in many areas of spectroscopy. The study on characteristic of atomic vapor has been proceeded for copper atom and the spatial density distribution of copper vapor is measured. This experimental data has been compared with the theoretically calculated data. In spectroscopic experiment, the first and second excited states for actinium element are identified and the most efficient ionization scheme for actinium element is identified. In addition, the corrosion problem for filament material due to the heating of the actinium element has been studied. (Author)

  4. People and things. CERN Courier, May 1981, v. 21(4)

    The article reports on achievements of various people, staff changes and position opportunities within the CERN organization and contains news updates on upcoming or past events. A summer workshop will be held at Brookhaven from 20 to 31 July, with the primary focus on physics opportunities at ISABELLE. Other topics will include experimental areas and large detectors. Experiments which measure muon lifetimes have a habit of being elegant. One illustration of this is the new result from a Bologna/CERN/ Saclay/TRIUMF collaboration giving a precision value for the muon capture rate in hydrogen. The ninth annual SLAC Summer Institute, to be held from 27 July to 7 August, is to be given over to strong interactions, and quantum chromodynamics in particular. Results from hadron production and spectroscopy experiments will be reviewed with emphasis on heavy quark systems and jet production

  5. 8 CFR 214.3 - Approval of schools for enrollment of F and M nonimmigrants.

    2010-01-01

    ... authorization for attendance by nonimmigrant students under sections 101(a)(15)(F)(i) or 101(a)(15)(M)(i) of the... recertification for attendance of nonimmigrant students under section 101(a)(15)(F)(i) or 101(a)(15)(M)(i) of the... I-17, Petition for Approval of School for Attendance by Nonimmigrant Student, including...

  6. 8 CFR 214.2 - Special requirements for admission, extension, and maintenance of status.

    2010-01-01

    ...; (iii) Unmarried sons or daughters under the age of 23 who are in full-time attendance as students at... in full-time attendance as students at post-secondary educational institutions if a formal bilateral... the student's attendance. (ii) Disposition of Form I-20 A-B/I-20 ID. Form I-20 A-B/I-20 ID...

  7. Equity from the Sociologist's Perspective. Research and Development Series No. 214L.

    Salomone, Jerome J.

    Of all the special fields of inquiry within sociology, the one which most directly and intensively examines inequality is social stratification. The cause, nature, and personal and social consequences of inequality are its proper objects of study. Study of equality is embroiled in a continuing controversy among conservative (functionalist…

  8. Tank 241-AX-103, cores 212 and 214 analytical results for the final report

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-AX-103 push mode core segments collected between July 30, 1997 and August 11, 1997. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-AX-103 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Comer, 1997), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995) and the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1). None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Total Alpha Activity (AT), plutonium 239 (Pu239), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Conner, 1997). The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and not considered in this report

  9. AB214. Application of ultrasonic measurement of epididymal width in differential diagnosis of azoospermia

    Song, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the of epididymal width in identifying non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA). Methods Using scrotal ultrasound to compare difference of epididymal width between OA (n=18) and NOA (n=10) patients. Results In the patients with OA average bilateral epididymal width is 0.7+0.1 cm, which is higher than the NOA patients (PNOA and OA, which is helpful for differential diagnosis of azoospermia.

  10. AB214. Application of ultrasonic measurement of epididymal width in differential diagnosis of azoospermia

    Song, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the of epididymal width in identifying non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA). Methods Using scrotal ultrasound to compare difference of epididymal width between OA (n=18) and NOA (n=10) patients. Results In the patients with OA average bilateral epididymal width is 0.7+0.1 cm, which is higher than the NOA patients (P

  11. 5 CFR 792.214 - Which children are eligible for this subsidy?

    2010-01-01

    ... Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees-What Is the Child Care Subsidy Program... the children of Federal employees, excluding contract employees, from birth through age 13...

  12. Suction drain tip culture in orthopaedic surgery: a prospective study of 214 clean operations

    Sankar, B.; Ray, P.; Rai, J.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study in order to determine whether suction drain specimen cultures from orthopaedic surgery predicted an early wound infection. We included 218 consecutive clean orthopaedic operations requiring drains in one unit over a period of 1 year. The suction drain tip, drain fluid and wound discharge specimens were cultured, and the surgical wound was followed up for 3 months. There were six deep and two superficial wound infections. Wound infection was significantl...

  13. 8 CFR 214.14 - Alien victims of certain qualifying criminal activity.

    2010-01-01

    ... extent to which there is permanent or serious harm to the appearance, health, or physical or mental... protective services, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and the Department of Labor. (3) Certifying... provided in 8 CFR 103.7(c)), and initial evidence to USCIS in accordance with this paragraph and...

  14. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    2010-01-01

    ... prosecuting activity relating to human trafficking certifies that the presence of the alien in the United... application of these terms in 28 CFR part 1100 and the provisions of chapter 77 of title 18, United States... has arranged for the alien's continued presence under 28 CFR 1100.35, or by submitting...

  15. Corrosion fatigue of 2-1/4Cr-1 Mo steel in caustic at 316 C

    Studies were initiated to determine the extent of damage under alternating loads and chemical conditions which simulate the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) region of the evaporator section of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. 9 refs

  16. 2-[1-(4-Bromophenyl-3-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenylpropyl]cyclohexanol

    Ísmail Çelik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H27BrO3, the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 41.9 (4°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. In addition, π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.953 (6 Å] between the benzene rings of the methoxybenzene groups occur.

  17. Complications and survival after surgical treatment of 214 metastatic lesions of the humerus

    Wedin, Rikard; Hansen, Bjarne H; Laitinen, Minna; Trovik, Clement; Zaikova, Olga; Bergh, Peter; Kalén, Anders; Schwarz-Lausten, Gunnar; Vult von Steyern, Fredrik; Walloe, Anders; Keller, Johnny; Weiss, Rüdiger J

    2012-01-01

    The humerus is the second most common long-bone site of metastatic bone disease. We report complications, risk factors for failure, and survival of a large series of patients operated on for skeletal metastases of the humerus....

  18. 8 CFR 214.15 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents.

    2010-01-01

    ... permanent resident (LPR) status through adjustment of status or an immigrant visa. (b) Aliens already in the... adjudicated. In addition, the petition must have been properly filed according to 8 CFR 103.2(a), and if... evidence or issues a notice of intent to deny under 8 CFR 103.2(b), the petitioner must comply with...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 214 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    2010-10-01

    ... to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part... system: (1)-(17) Failure to provide conforming equipment 2,500 5,000 (c) Safety net systems: (1) Failure... beacon as required 2,500 5,000 (d)(2) Failure of operator to tag, date or report non-complying...

  20. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    2012-01-04

    ... Action On July 11, 2011 (76 FR 132), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into the California SIP....' '' 72 FR 20610 (April 25, 2007). Comment #2: Earthjustice asserted that, `` he District's RACM... concerning the economic feasibility of particular control measures. See, e.g., 75 FR 2082. Although...

  1. Components-based software in the HARP PS214 experiment at CERN

    Catanesi, M. G.; Radicioni, E.; Giani, S.; Papadopoulos, I.; Panman, J.; Arce, P.; Ellis, M.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2010-04-01

    The HARP experiment has successfully operated in 2001 and 2002. It has collected data for the measurement of hadron production cross section in the range 1.5 GeV/c to 15 GeV/c for incoming protons and pions. A total amount of 420 millions of triggers were taken and a large fraction of this data has been analyzed and published. In this paper we will describe the full chain for data recording and analysis with emphasis on the software framework and on the methodologies adopted to develop it. In particular detailed software design and code production in C++ were implemented. Unit testing, system testing, and release procedures have been defined. All the HARP software components (on line and offline) have been developed following these specifications including detector calibration and performance studies, data quality and production for data analysis.

  2. Tank 214-AW-105, grab samples, analytical results for the final report

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AW-105 grab samples. Twenty grabs samples were collected from risers 10A and 15A on August 20 and 21, 1996, of which eight were designated for the K Basin sludge compatibility and mixing studies. This document presents the analytical results for the remaining twelve samples. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DO). The results for the previous sampling of this tank were reported in WHC-SD-WM-DP-149, Rev. 0, 60-Day Waste Compatibility Safety Issue and Final Results for Tank 241-A W-105, Grab Samples 5A W-95-1, 5A W-95-2 and 5A W-95-3. Three supernate samples exceeded the TOC notification limit (30,000 microg C/g dry weight). Appropriate notifications were made. No immediate notifications were required for any other analyte. The TSAP requested analyses for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) for all liquids and centrifuged solid subsamples. The PCB analysis of the liquid samples has been delayed and will be presented in a revision to this document

  3. Soil and river sediments radionuclides monitoring at Aramar Experimental Center: an historical overview

    In order to evaluate possible effects to the environment resulting from the implementation of the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha - Centro Experimental Aramar (CTMSP-CEA) at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, which came into operation in 1989, an Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA) was established in October, 1987. One of the aims of this program is to monitor the soil and river sediments radionuclides levels at CEA and beyond its boundary. The utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results of radiometric environmental monitoring is a procedure required by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The box plot is a simple statistical tool for displaying data. The central tendency and dispersion of the results as well as the observation of unusual results (outliers) in the dataset are easily visualized. Control chart is a graph that maps data and provides a picture of how a process is performing over time. A control chart always has a central line for the mean, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. Box plots and control charts were used to visualize the annual amount of natural uranium, lead-214, actinium-228 and lead-212 in soil and river sediment detected between 1987 and 2011, considering the measurements of all monitored places each year. This historical observation shows that, in average, the results obtained are below than the 1987-1988 levels (CEA's pre-operational) or below than the backgrounds radionuclides values. (author)

  4. Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki

    Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ∝60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ∝3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

  5. 割地草在214意杨育苗中的应用技术研究%The Application of oxyfluorfen in the Nursery of Populus euramericana cv. I-214

    陈德银; 李贤碧; 李于会; 李方萍

    2006-01-01

    通过试验与推广总结出在杨树育苗中应用割地草最适施用时期是杨树芽苞未萌动前,最经济施用浓度为0.1%喷湿土表,除草效果90%以上,结合一次中耕除草,可基本免除人工除草.

  6. The adverse reactions and causes of drug switch in 214 HIV/AIDS patients with HAART%214例HIV/AIDS病人的HAART不良反应及换药原因分析

    覃川; 蒋忠胜; 温小凤

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者/艾滋病(AIDS)病人(简称HIV/AIDS病人)高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)的不良反应及换药原因.为保证HAART合理用药及用药安全提供依据.方法 全部病人均使用国家免费艾滋病HAART药物,按照国家免费艾滋病抗病毒药物治疗手册要求,全部病例均在HAART后1、2、3、6、9、12个月随访1次,统计病人不良反应及换药原因,数据分析用SPSS 19.0软件处理,以P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 95例病人中90例出现抗病毒药物不良反应、3例一线治疗失败、2例因药物配伍禁忌更换抗病毒药物.其中90例病人因AZT、NVP、D4T不良反应更换抗病毒药物.另有3例初始HAART方案包含EFV的病人,出现神经系统症状,均自行缓解,未更换药物.将初始HAART方案包含AZT、NVP、D4T的病例分为未换药组和换药组,将两组病人的基线CD4+ T淋巴细胞(简称CD4细胞)计数值进行统计学比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 HAART的主要换药原因为抗病毒药物不良反应.在包含AZT、D4T、NVP的HAART方案中,治疗前3个月着重监测AZT、NVP的不良反应,治疗6个月后着重监测D4T的不良反应,且不良反应的出现与基线CD4细胞计数无关.同时须及早发现耐药,并须掌握药物配伍禁忌.%Objective To investigate the adverse reaction and causes of drug switch in HIV/AIDS patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART),in order to provide the basis for the rational use of drugs and drug safety.Methods All the patients took free national antiretroviral drugs.According to the requirements of free national antiretroviral treatment manual,all patients were followed up at 1,2,3,6,9 and 12 months after HAART,collecting data of adverse reaction and causes of drug switch.The data was analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software.P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results There were 95 patients switching antiretroviral drugs due to adverse reaction(90 cases,for drug adverse reaction of AZT,NVP or D4T),first-line treatment failure(3 cases) and drug incompatibility(2 cases).There were 3 patients initially treated with regimens containing EFV suffered from nervous system symptoms,but they alleviated by themselves within one month after HAART and did not switch the drug.If the patients with initial regimens containing AZT,NVP,D4T were divided into drug switch and no switch groups,there were no differences in baseline CD4+T lymphocyte counts between the two groups.Conclusion The main reason for drug switch in HAART is drug adverse reaction.In regimens containing AZT,D4T and/or NVP,adverse reactions of AZT and NVP should be closely monitored in early three months of treatment,and adverse reactions of D4T should be monitored after 6 months of treatment.Adverse reactions have no relationship with baseline CD4+ T lymphocyte counts.At the same time signs of antiretroviral drugs resistance should be timely found,and drug incompatibility should be mastered.

  7. Generator method of 225Ac production without a carrier for nuclear medicine

    The two-steps isotope generator scheme of 225Ac production from 229Th has been developed. The first step is used for separation of thorium, actinium, radium and daughter decay products (DDP), and removals of parent radionuclide. The second step provides additional separation of actinium from traces of radium and DDP, and conversion of actinium in the nitrate form. The chosen solutions provide optimal conditions for carry out of process. The yield of the 225Ac was 99.9% at minimal losses of parent 229Th (less than 0.1%)

  8. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Oahu (213-214e-0516)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  9. Microstructural effects on the kinetics of decarburisation of 21/4Cr-1Mo ferritic steel in sodium

    The influence of the microstructure of 2 Cr - 1 Mo ferritic steel upon the decarburisation behaviour of the steel in sodium is discussed. It is shown that selection of suitable prior heat treatment and of compositional specification with respect to minor elements (silicon and nitrogen) can improve the resistance of the steel to decarburisation. These findings largely account for the differences observed by various workers in the decarburisation of 2 Cr - 1 Mo steel specimens. The decarburisation kinetics appear likely to obey a linear rate law, after an initial period, rather than a parabolic law as commonly assumed. (author)

  10. Effect of carbon activity on the creep behaviour of 21/4Cr, 1Mo steel in sodium

    The creep endurance and creep cracking behaviour of 2 1/4Cr, 1Mo steel in sodium at 4750C have been studied at three different sodium carbon activities. Creep endurance was found to increase with increasing carbon activity of the sodium. Tests carried out in high carbon activity sodium were discontinued before fracture. Creep crack initiation displacement at notches decreased with increasing carbon activity, presumably as a result of notch tip carburisation. The plastic zones at the tips of blunt notches in specimens exposed in high carbon activity sodium were preferentially carburised. These observations were similar to those made previously on 9Cr, 1Mo steel. One difference detected metallographically was that in a high carburising environment uniform carburisation was obtained in the 2 1/4Cr, 1Mo steel specimens whereas carburisation gradients were observed in the 9Cr, 1Mo steel. Creep crack propagation rates for given notch opening displacement rates in low and intermediate carbon activity sodium were indistinguishable. However, the strenthening that resulted from the mild carburisation of the specimen in the intermediate carbon activity sodium caused slower notch opening displacement rates and crack propagation rates than in the low carbon activity sodium, when the rates were compared at the same crack length. (author)

  11. 19 CFR 351.214 - New shipper reviews under section 751(a)(2)(B) of the Act.

    2010-04-01

    ... shipper reviews under section 751(a)(2)(B) of the Act. (a) Introduction. The URAA established a new...) In an antidumping proceeding involving imports from a nonmarket economy country, a certification...

  12. Effects of remelting and heat treatment on 2-1/4 Cr-1Mo steel elevated temperature tensile properties

    Offer, H.P.; Copeland, J.F.; Yuen, J.L.

    1976-09-01

    Vacuum are remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting (ESR) processes for steam generator tubesheet forgings and tubing are to be used at the CRBR. It was found that there is essentially no significant effect on the uniaxial tensile properties of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel by VAR or ESR. A summary is presented of results of a study of heat treatment combined with post weld heat treatment. It was found that regardless of the primary heat treatment, the post weld heat treatment plus in-service conditions will reduce the yield strength at elevated temperature below the Code Case expected minimum curve. (FS)

  13. Human metabolism of [1-methyl-14C]- and [2-14C]caffeine after oral administration

    Radiolabeled caffeine was administered orally at 5 mg/kg to adult, male volunteers. Blood, saliva, expired CO2, urine, and feces were collected and analyzed for total radiolabeled equivalents, caffeine, and its metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was the principal technique used to separate caffeine and the various metabolites with quantitation by liquid-scintillation counting. The half-life of caffeine in both serum and saliva was approximately 3 hr, with the concentration of caffeine in the saliva samples ranging from 65 to 85% of that found in the serum samples. The major metabolites found in serum and saliva were the dimethylxanthines. In the course of separating the urinary metabolites, our HPLC system partially resolved two unidentified polar metabolites arising from radiolabeled caffeine. The major component corresponded to 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil and in our subjects ranged from 7 to 35% of the administered dose. The other principal urinary metabolites were 1-methylxanthine at approximately 18% of the administered dose and 1-methyluric acid at 15%. The fecal samples contained approximately 5% of the dose, mainly as uric acid compounds which retained the 1-methyl group. In this study we accounted for approximately 90% of the administered radiolabeled dose and identified greater than 95% of the urinary radioactivity as specific metabolites

  14. Aquastress D2.1.4 - External paper on the Aquastress Water Stress Index (AWSI) including external experts vision

    Manez, M.; Moors, E.; Buma, M.; Panebianco, J.; S. Loubier

    2008-01-01

    Water stress is a global problem with far-reaching local economic and social implications. Extreme examples of water stress are climatic events as the long- rolonged drought period in the Iberian Peninsula or. In an era of high implication due to climatic changes, good management practices are needed to combat water stress. However, water resources management in the past has often been derived from a perspective where the different components of environment-technology-human systems were clear...

  15. Observation of Hydrological Processes Using Remote Sensing. Chapter 2.14; Volume 2: The Science of Hydrology

    Wilder, Peter (Editor); Su, Z.; Robeling, R. A.; Schulz, J.; Holleman, I.; Levizzani, V.; Timmermans, W. J.; Rott, H.; Mognard-Campbell, N.; de Jeu, R.; Wagner, W.; Rodell, M.; Salama, M. S.; Parodi, G. N.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    Improving water management can make a significant contribution to achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals established by the UN General Assembly in 2000, especially those related to poverty, hunger, and major diseases. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002 recognized this need. Water and sanitation in particular received great attention from the Summit. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation recommended to improve water resources management and scientific understanding of the water cycle through joint cooperation and research. For this purpose, it is recommended to promote knowledge sharing, provide capacity building, and facilitate the transfer of technology including remote-sensing (RS) and satellite technologies, especially to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and to support these countries in their efforts to monitor and assess the quantity and quality of water resources, for example, by establishing and/or further developing national monitoring networks and water resources databases and by developing relevant national indicators. The Johannesburg Plan also adopted integrated water resources management as the overarching concept in addressing and solving water-related issues. As a result of the commitments made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, several global and regional initiatives have emerged. Current international initiatives such as the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program of the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10-Year Implementation Plan, have all identified Earth observation (EO) of the water cycle as the key in helping to solve the world s water problems. The availability of spatial information on water quantity and quality will also enable closure of the water budget at river basin and continental scales to the point where effective water management is essential (e.g., as requested by the European Union s Water Framework Directive (WFD), as well as national policies). Geo-information science and EO are vital in achieving a better understanding of the water cycle and better monitoring, analysis, prediction, and management of the world s water resources. The major components of the water cycle of the Earth system and their possible observations are presented. Such observations are essential to understand the global water cycle and its variability, both spatially and temporally, and can only be achieved consistently by means of EOs. Additionally, such observations are essential to advance our understanding of coupling between the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic branches of the water cycle, and how this coupling may influence climate variability and predictability. Water resources management directly interferes with the natural water cycle in the forms of building dams, reservoirs, water transfer systems, and irrigation systems that divert and redistribute part of the water storages and fluxes on land. The water cycle is mainly driven and coupled to the energy cycle in terms of phase changes of water (changes among liquid, water vapor, and solid phases) and transport of water by winds in addition to gravity and diffusion processes. The water-cycle components can be observed with in situ sensors as well as airborne and satellite sensors in terms of radiative quantities. Processing and conversion of these radiative signals are necessary to retrieve the water-cycle components.

  16. Oahu Photomosaic 2000 (213-214e-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  17. Oahu Photomosaic 2000 (213-214w-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  18. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Oahu (213-214w-0516)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  19. 8 CFR 214.6 - Citizens of Canada or Mexico seeking temporary entry under NAFTA to engage in business activities...

    2010-01-01

    ... —Dentist—D.D.S., D.M.D., Doctor en Odontologia or Doctor en Cirugia Dental or state/provincial license...—Baccalaureate or Licenciatura Degree; or state/provincial license. —Pharmacist—Baccalaureate or Licenciatura Degree; or state/provincial license. —Physician (teaching or research only)—M.D. Doctor en Medicina;...

  20. Satellite perturbations and orbital determination; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, June 2-14, 1980

    Lala, P.

    1981-04-01

    Papers are presented on the use of point mass models of the geopotential for orbit predictions, on earth ocean tides from long-term analysis of satellite orbits, on the motion of an artificial satellite under the terrestrial radiation pressure, and on the generation of satellite position (and velocity) by a mixed analytical-numerical procedure. Attention is also given to the possibilities of determining the influence of earth body tides on the motion of artificial satellites and to a general time element for orbit integration in Cartesian coordinates.

  1. PS2-14: Why People Don’t Eat Fruit and Vegetables: Insight from Participants Who Enrolled in MENU

    Richards, Julie E; Jennifer B McClure; Alexander, Gwen L; Divine, George; Calvi, Josephine; Stopponi, Melanie A; Rolnick, Cheri; Ritzwoller, Deborah P; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2010-01-01

    Background: In order to develop effective dietary interventions, public health researchers need to better understand the reasons people do not to eat the recommended minimum servings of fruits and vegetables (F&V).

  2. 49 CFR 214.525 - Towing with on-track roadway maintenance machines or hi-rail vehicles.

    2010-10-01

    ... maintenance machines or hi-rail vehicles. (a) When used to tow pushcars or other maintenance-of-way equipment... machine or hi-rail vehicle shall not be used to tow pushcars or other maintenance-of-way equipment if...

  3. Precision and within- and between-day variation of bioimpedance parameters in children aged 2-14 years

    Andersen, Trine B; Jødal, Lars; Arveschoug, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    , variation within- and between-days for the BIS-determined parameters total body fluid, extra-cellular fluid, intra-cellular fluid, body cell mass, fat-free mass, extra-cellular resistance, intra-cellular resistance and percentage body fat using a Xitron 4200. METHODS: All 133 children (81 boys, 52 girls; 2......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) offers the possibility to perform rapid estimates of fluid distribution and body composition. Few studies, however, have addressed the precision and biological variation in a pediatric population. Our objectives were to evaluate precision...

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys

  5. Crystal structure of 2-{[1-(4-bromobenzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methoxy}naphthalene-1,4-dione

    Rajamani Raja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H14BrN3O3, the benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 71.30 (11 and 68.95 (14° with the naphthalene ring system and the triazole ring, respectively. The latter two ring systems are coplanar, with a dihedral angle of 2.92 (12°. The O atoms deviate from the naphthalene ring system by 0.029 (2 and −0.051 (2 Å. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons parallel to (10-1. The ribbons are linked via C—H...O and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.4451 (14 Å], forming slabs parallel to the bc plane.

  6. SU-E-T-214: Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Based On Passively Scattered Protons and Multi-Leaf Collimation: Prototype TPS and Dosimetry Study

    Purpose. Intensity-modulated proton therapy is usually implemented with multi-field optimization of pencil-beam scanning (PBS) proton fields. However, at the view of the experience with photon-IMRT, proton facilities equipped with double-scattering (DS) delivery and multi-leaf collimation (MLC) could produce highly conformal dose distributions (and possibly eliminate the need for patient-specific compensators) with a clever use of their MLC field shaping, provided that an optimal inverse TPS is developed. Methods. A prototype TPS was developed in MATLAB. The dose calculation process was based on a fluence-dose algorithm on an adaptive divergent grid. A database of dose kernels was precalculated in order to allow for fast variations of the field range and modulation during optimization. The inverse planning process was based on the adaptive simulated annealing approach, with direct aperture optimization of the MLC leaves. A dosimetry study was performed on a phantom formed by three concentrical semicylinders separated by 5 mm, of which the inner-most and outer-most were regarded as organs at risk (OARs), and the middle one as the PTV. We chose a concave target (which is not treatable with conventional DS fields) to show the potential of our technique. The optimizer was configured to minimize the mean dose to the OARs while keeping a good coverage of the target. Results. The plan produced by the prototype TPS achieved a conformity index of 1.34, with the mean doses to the OARs below 78% of the prescribed dose. This Result is hardly achievable with traditional conformal DS technique with compensators, and it compares to what can be obtained with PBS. Conclusion. It is certainly feasible to produce IMPT fields with MLC passive scattering fields. With a fully developed treatment planning system, the produced plans can be superior to traditional DS plans in terms of plan conformity and dose to organs at risk

  7. SU-E-T-214: Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Based On Passively Scattered Protons and Multi-Leaf Collimation: Prototype TPS and Dosimetry Study

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D; Carabe-Fernandez, A [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose. Intensity-modulated proton therapy is usually implemented with multi-field optimization of pencil-beam scanning (PBS) proton fields. However, at the view of the experience with photon-IMRT, proton facilities equipped with double-scattering (DS) delivery and multi-leaf collimation (MLC) could produce highly conformal dose distributions (and possibly eliminate the need for patient-specific compensators) with a clever use of their MLC field shaping, provided that an optimal inverse TPS is developed. Methods. A prototype TPS was developed in MATLAB. The dose calculation process was based on a fluence-dose algorithm on an adaptive divergent grid. A database of dose kernels was precalculated in order to allow for fast variations of the field range and modulation during optimization. The inverse planning process was based on the adaptive simulated annealing approach, with direct aperture optimization of the MLC leaves. A dosimetry study was performed on a phantom formed by three concentrical semicylinders separated by 5 mm, of which the inner-most and outer-most were regarded as organs at risk (OARs), and the middle one as the PTV. We chose a concave target (which is not treatable with conventional DS fields) to show the potential of our technique. The optimizer was configured to minimize the mean dose to the OARs while keeping a good coverage of the target. Results. The plan produced by the prototype TPS achieved a conformity index of 1.34, with the mean doses to the OARs below 78% of the prescribed dose. This Result is hardly achievable with traditional conformal DS technique with compensators, and it compares to what can be obtained with PBS. Conclusion. It is certainly feasible to produce IMPT fields with MLC passive scattering fields. With a fully developed treatment planning system, the produced plans can be superior to traditional DS plans in terms of plan conformity and dose to organs at risk.

  8. Manpower development for safe operation of nuclear power plant. China. Simulator training for instructions. Activity: 2.1.4-Task-16. Technical report

    By the request of the Qinshan Nuclear Power training center, Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO) expert team visited the Qinshan Nuclear Power Training Center during October 7-21, 1996. The purpose of the visiting was as follows: To give some ideas, through KEPCO KNTC training experiences about operator training programme including simulator training - how to improve simulator instructors' training skill and knowledge; how to conduct classroom and simulator lectures; how to prepare lesson note for lectures; how to make the trainees evaluation; how to course analyze and feed back; how to make scenario for simulator training. To fulfill above purposes, the expert team used KNTC procedures, 1996 KNTC training plan, development and qualification for instructor, simulator training and evaluation, control and preparedness of lesson notes. These procedures were used only to establish the framework for Qinshan nuclear training center's procedures

  9. Del unicato ideológico a la mentalidad paritaria : el convenio colectivo de trabajo para la Administración Pública Nacional, Decreto 214/2006

    Mauad, María Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Màster Universitari en Igualtat i Gènere en l'Àmbit Públic i Privat. Codi: SAE030. Curs: 2013/2014 El siguiente Trabajo Final de Máster pretende presentar desde una mirada diacrónica, histórica y sociocultural cómo se fue transformando la mentalidad y la conformación de la administración pública nacional argentina a partir de los valores democráticos que fueron insertándose por medio de la convención colectiva general de trabajo (CCGT). Especialmente, se ha...

  10. 2.14 功能性消化不良患者的食道测压表现及其临床意义

    向荣成; 王群燕; 顾竹影

    2001-01-01

    目的本文采用液导法对74例功能性消化不良(FD)患者进行了食道压力测定 ,旨在研究FD患者的食道测压表现及其临床意义.方法采用瑞典CTD公司生产的Synectics PC polygraf食道测压仪及分析软件,测定食管上、下括约肌(UES,LES)压力,并采用吞水试验检测食管体部及食管上、下括约肌的各项运动指标.同时对其中25例FD患者进行治疗前后症状改善程度及测压的变化对比观察.结果 LES功能异常43例(58.1%),其中低压型21例(28.4%),高压型22例(2 9.7%),LES松弛率下降12例(16.2%).食管体部运动异常57例(75.5%),其中湿咽后蠕动不协调率大于50%者36例(48.6%),近端蠕动压下降54例(72.8%),远端蠕动压下降22例(29 .7%),远端蠕动压增高3例(4.1%).食管UES功能异常19例(25.7%),其中低压型10例(13 .5%),高压型9例(12.2%),高压型合并松弛不良3例.25例FD患者治疗后症状消失6例(24% ),缓解10例(40%),有效率64%.治疗后测压:LES压力、松驰率、UES压力及食管体部压力及蠕动协调性都有不同程度的改善,但与症状的改善存在着不一致性.结论 FD患者有食管功能紊乱,提示FD同时有全消化道功能紊乱,抑或是全身性功能性疾病的部分表现,治疗上必须全面考虑片面强调FD的治疗可能是治疗失败的重要因素,同时,在功能性疾病这一领域中,探索既治疗FD,又治疗其他部位功能紊乱的较理想药物也是当务之急.

  11. “晶”言万语 我爱你——“2.14”水晶之旅

    Zee

    2010-01-01

    它是时间的记载,用来记录生命中最美好的瞬间;它是你我之间的"红线",用来倾诉彼此的诺言……2月14日,我们相约水晶之旅,在道不尽的"晶"言万语中诉说"我爱你"!

  12. SU-E-J-214: Comparative Assessment On IGRT On Partial Bladder Cancer Treatment Between CT-On-Rails (CTOR) and KV Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    Purpose: Image-Guided radiation therapy(IGRT) depends on reliable online patient-specific anatomy information to address random and progressive anatomy changes. Large margins have been suggested to bladder cancer treatment due to large daily bladder anatomy variation. KV Cone beam CT(CBCT) has been used in IGRT localization prevalently; however, its lack of soft tissue contrast makes clinicians hesitate to perform daily soft tissue alignment with CBCT for partial bladder cancer treatment. This study compares the localization uncertainties of bladder cancer IGRT using CTon- Rails(CTOR) and CBCT. Methods: Three T2N0M0 bladder cancer patients (total of 66 Gy to partial bladder alone) were localized daily with either CTOR or CBCT for their entire treatment course. A total of 71 sets of CTOR and 22 sets of CBCT images were acquired and registered with original planning CT scans by radiation therapists and approved by radiation oncologists for the daily treatment. CTOR scanning entailed 2mm slice thickness, 0.98mm axial voxel size, 120kVp and 240mAs. CBCT used a half fan pelvis protocol from Varian OBI system with 2mm slice thickness, 0.98axial voxel size, 125kVp, and 680mAs. Daily localization distribution was compared. Accuracy of CTOR and CBCT on partial bladder alignment was also evaluated by comparing bladder PTV coverage. Results: 1cm all around PTV margins were used in every patient except target superior limit margin to 0mm due to bowel constraint. Daily shifts on CTOR averaged to 0.48, 0.24, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions); CBCT averaged to 0.43, 0.09, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions). The CTOR daily localization showed superior results of V100% of PTV(102% CTOR vs. 89% CBCT) and bowel(Dmax 69.5Gy vs. 78Gy CBCT). CTOR images showed much higher contrast on bladder PTV alignment. Conclusion: CTOR daily localization for IGRT is more dosimetrically beneficial for partial bladder cancer treatment than kV CBCT localization and provided better soft tissue PTV identification

  13. Fatigue-creep life prediction of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel under combined tension-torsion at 600degC

    From the above discussion on the comparison between predicted and experimental lives in this project, the followings are suggested. The Mises equivalent stress is not a successful parameter to describe the multiaxial fatigue-creep damage, while the Huddleston's stress gives better prediction. SRP, Ostergren method and Lemaitre-Plumtree-Chaboche method give comparatively good estimation of life, though these methods predict more or less the greater damage than the experiment under pure torsion and in-phase cycling, and cannot predict the life under out-of-phase cycling. The reason is considered to be owing to employment of the Mises equivalent strain, which might be possibly improved by using more sophisticated equivalent strain such as the strain defined on the Γ-plane. The life prediction based on the analytical stress-strain relation gives almost similar results as that based on the experimental data. It suggests the applicability of the inelastic constitutive moeles to give the fundamental data for life prediction. The subcommittee wishes to express her gratitude to the head Committee on High Temperature Strength, JSMS, for supporting the project, and acknowledgement is due to the Ministry of Education and Culture for providing Grant-in-Aid for Co-operative Research A (No. 61302036 and 01302026). (author)

  14. Refinement of the kinetic model of the 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method to incorporate effects of intracellular compartmentation in brain

    A translocase to transport hexose phosphate formed in the cytosol into the cisterns of the endoplasmic reticulum, where the phosphatase resides, is absent in brain. 2-Deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (DG-6-P) may therefore have limited access to glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), and transport of the DG-6-P across the endoplasmic reticular membrane may be rate limiting to its dephosphorylation. To take this compartmentation into account, a five-rate constant (5K) model was developed to describe the kinetic behavior of 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and its phosphorylated product in brain. Loss of DG-6-P was modeled as a two-step process: (a) transfer of DG-6-P from the cytosol into the cisterns of the endoplasmic reticulum; (b) hydrolysis of DG-6-P by G-6-Pase and subsequent return of the free DG to the precursor pool. Local CMRglc (LCMRglc) was calculated in the rat on the basis of this model and compared with values calculated on the basis of the three-rate constant (3K) and the four-rate constant (4K) models of the DG method. The results show that under normal physiological conditions all three models yield values of LCMRglc that are essentially equivalent for experimental periods between 25 and 45 min. Therefore, the simplest model, the 3K model, is sufficient. For experimental periods from 60 to 120 min, the 4K and 5K models do not correct completely for loss of product, but the 5K model does yield estimates of LCMRglc that are closer to the values at 45 min than those obtained with the 3K and 4K models

  15. A data base and analysis program for shuttle main engine dynamic pressure measurements. Appendix C: Data base plots for SSME tests 902-214 through 902-314

    Coffin, T.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic pressure data base and data base management system developed to characterize the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) dynamic pressure environment is reported. The data base represents dynamic pressure measurements obtained during single engine hot firing tests of the SSME. Software is provided to permit statistical evaluation of selected measurements under specified operating conditions. An interpolation scheme is included to estimate spectral trends with SSME power level. Flow Dynamic Environments in High Performance Rocket Engines are described.

  16. SU-E-J-214: MR Protocol Development to Visualize Sirius MRI Markers in Prostate Brachytherapy Patients for MR-Based Post-Implant Dosimetry

    Lim, T; Wang, J; Frank, S; Stafford, R; Bruno, T; Bathala, T; Mahmood, U; Pugh, T; Ibbott, G; Kudchadker, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current CT-based post-implant dosimetry allows precise seed localization but limited anatomical delineation. Switching to MR-based post-implant dosimetry is confounded by imprecise seed localization. One approach is to place positive-contrast markers (Sirius) adjacent to the negative-contrast seeds. This patient study aims to assess the utility of a 3D fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) sequence to visualize Sirius markers for post-implant dosimetry. Methods: MRI images were acquired in prostate implant patients (n=10) on Day 0 (day-of-implant) and Day 30. The post-implant MR protocol consisted of 3D T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE), T2-weighted 2D-FSE (axial) and T1-weighted 2D-FSE (axial/sagittal/coronal). We incorporated a 3D-FSPGR sequence into the post-implant MR protocol to visualize the Sirius markers. Patients were scanned with different number-of-excitations (6, 8, 10), field-of-view (10cm, 14cm, 18cm), slice thickness (1mm, 0.8mm), flip angle (14 degrees, 20 degrees), bandwidth (122.070 Hz/pixel, 325.508 Hz/pixel, 390.625 Hz/pixel), phase encoding steps (160, 192, 224, 256), frequency-encoding direction (right/left, anterior/posterior), echo-time type (minimum-full, out-of-phase), field strength (1.5T, 3T), contrast (with, without), scanner vendor (Siemens, GE), coil (endorectal-coil only, endorectal-and-torso-coil, torsocoil only), endorectal-coil filling (30cc, 50cc) and endorectal-coil filling type (air, perfluorocarbon [PFC]). For post-implant dosimetric evaluation with greater anatomical detail, 3D-FSE images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. For comparison with CT-based post-implant dosimetry, CT images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. Results: The 3D-FSPGR sequence facilitated visualization of markers in patients. Marker visualization helped distinguish signal voids as seeds versus needle tracks for more definitive MR-based post-implant dosimetry. On the CT-MR fused images, the distance between the seed on CT to MR images was 3.2±1.6mm in patients with no endorectal coil, 2.3±0.8mm in patients with 30cc-PFC-filled endorectal-coil and 5.0±1.8mm in patients with 50cc-PFC-filled endorectal-coil. Conclusion: An MR protocol to visualize positive-contrast Sirius markers to assist in the identification of negative-contrast seeds was demonstrated. S Frank is a co-founder of C4 Imaging LLC, the manufacturer of the MRI markers.

  17. SU-E-J-214: MR Protocol Development to Visualize Sirius MRI Markers in Prostate Brachytherapy Patients for MR-Based Post-Implant Dosimetry

    Purpose: The current CT-based post-implant dosimetry allows precise seed localization but limited anatomical delineation. Switching to MR-based post-implant dosimetry is confounded by imprecise seed localization. One approach is to place positive-contrast markers (Sirius) adjacent to the negative-contrast seeds. This patient study aims to assess the utility of a 3D fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) sequence to visualize Sirius markers for post-implant dosimetry. Methods: MRI images were acquired in prostate implant patients (n=10) on Day 0 (day-of-implant) and Day 30. The post-implant MR protocol consisted of 3D T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE), T2-weighted 2D-FSE (axial) and T1-weighted 2D-FSE (axial/sagittal/coronal). We incorporated a 3D-FSPGR sequence into the post-implant MR protocol to visualize the Sirius markers. Patients were scanned with different number-of-excitations (6, 8, 10), field-of-view (10cm, 14cm, 18cm), slice thickness (1mm, 0.8mm), flip angle (14 degrees, 20 degrees), bandwidth (122.070 Hz/pixel, 325.508 Hz/pixel, 390.625 Hz/pixel), phase encoding steps (160, 192, 224, 256), frequency-encoding direction (right/left, anterior/posterior), echo-time type (minimum-full, out-of-phase), field strength (1.5T, 3T), contrast (with, without), scanner vendor (Siemens, GE), coil (endorectal-coil only, endorectal-and-torso-coil, torsocoil only), endorectal-coil filling (30cc, 50cc) and endorectal-coil filling type (air, perfluorocarbon [PFC]). For post-implant dosimetric evaluation with greater anatomical detail, 3D-FSE images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. For comparison with CT-based post-implant dosimetry, CT images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. Results: The 3D-FSPGR sequence facilitated visualization of markers in patients. Marker visualization helped distinguish signal voids as seeds versus needle tracks for more definitive MR-based post-implant dosimetry. On the CT-MR fused images, the distance between the seed on CT to MR images was 3.2±1.6mm in patients with no endorectal coil, 2.3±0.8mm in patients with 30cc-PFC-filled endorectal-coil and 5.0±1.8mm in patients with 50cc-PFC-filled endorectal-coil. Conclusion: An MR protocol to visualize positive-contrast Sirius markers to assist in the identification of negative-contrast seeds was demonstrated. S Frank is a co-founder of C4 Imaging LLC, the manufacturer of the MRI markers

  18. Fernando Brandão dos Santos. Filoctetes. Sófocles : Odysseus, São Paulo, 2008, 214 pp.

    Fernández Deagustini, María del Pilar

    2009-01-01

    A partir de esta publicación, Filoctetes es más accesible para el lector brasilero pero también, sin duda, para quienes tengan la posibilidad de leer esta tragedia traducida al portugués por Fernando Brandão dos Santos, Doctor en Letras de la Universidad de San Pablo y especialista en esta obra sofoclea en particular. El libro ofrece una edición bilingüe griego- portugués, elaborada con sumo rigor y criterio, antecedida por una concisa pero muy completa introducción, que la acerca al público ...

  19. A homozygous nonsense mutation (c.214C->A) in the biliverdin reductase alpha gene (BLVRA) results in accumulation of biliverdin during episodes of cholestasis

    Nytofte, Nikolaj S; Serrano, Maria A; Monte, Maria J;

    2011-01-01

    Green jaundice is a rare finding usually associated with end-stage liver disease. OBJECTIVE The authors investigated two unrelated Inuit women from different geographical areas in Greenland who had episodes of green jaundice associated with biliary obstruction.......Green jaundice is a rare finding usually associated with end-stage liver disease. OBJECTIVE The authors investigated two unrelated Inuit women from different geographical areas in Greenland who had episodes of green jaundice associated with biliary obstruction....

  20. The Effect of Morphaction on the Kinetics of Indol-3yl-Acetic Acid-2-14C Transport in Zea Mays L. Coleoptile Segments

    Naqvi, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper elucidates the effects of chloroflurenol (morphactin, IT 3456) treatment on the kinetics of 14C-IAA transport through Zea mays L. (cv. Orla-266) coleoptile segments. Maximum inhibition of transport was achieved when chloroflurenol remained in contact with the tissue segments for at least...

  1. The Drosophila nucleoporin DNup88 localizes DNup214 and CRM1 on the nuclear envelope and attenuates NES-mediated nuclear export

    Roth, Peggy; Xylourgidis, Nikos; Sabri, Nafiseh; Uv, Anne; Fornerod, Maarten; Samakovlis, Christos

    2003-01-01

    Many cellular responses rely on the control of nucleocytoplasmic transport of transcriptional regulators. The Drosophila nucleoporin Nup88 is selectively required for nuclear accumulation of Rel proteins and full activation of the innate immune response. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying its role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Nuclear import of an nuclear localization signal-enhanced green fluorescent protein (NLS-EGFP) reporter is not affected in DNup88 (members only; mbo) muta...

  2. Poly[[(μ2-benzene-1,3-dicarboxylato{μ2-1,4-bis[(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl]benzene}cadmium] dimethylformamide monosolvate

    Yan Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The title coordination polymer, {[Cd(C8H4O4(C14H14N4]·C3H7NO}n, was synthesized by solvothermal reaction of metallic cadmium with the semi-rigid neutral ligand 1,4-bis[(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl]benzene (bix and the V-shaped benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (m-H2bdc. The structure exhibits a pseudo-C-centring which is almost fulfilled by the polymeric metal complex but not by the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF molecules. The asymmetric unit contains two independent CdII ions, two m-bdc2− ligands, one and two half bix ligands, and two solvent DMF molecules. The CdII ions are both five-coordinated by three O atoms from two different m-bdc2− ligands and two N atoms from two different bix ligands in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The m-bdc2− ligands adopt a chelate-monodentate coordination mode, connecting neighboring CdII ions into a zigzag chain parallel to [110]. Adjacent chains are further cross-linked by bix ligands, giving rise to a puckered sheet nearly perpendicular to the chain direction. Thus, each CdII ion is connected to four neighboring CdII ions through two m-bdc2− anions and two bix ligands, giving rise to the final non-interpenetrating uninodal layer with sql (4,4 topology.

  3. Use of gamma-ray spectrometry for analysis of Uranium isotopic composition in soil of Iran

    The use of depleted uranium (DU) in various weaponry and ammunition during the Iraq war in April, 2003 caused serious concern in Iran over possible uranium contamination of the Iran environment and consequently long health effect. After a shell explosion, uranium is discharged by the fire in the air in the form of oxidized particles and can be dispersed within a radius of several kilometers. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine uranium concentration in soil samples collected from 8 sites in Iranian sectors of Iraq border. All soil samples were dried ,gently grounded and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Three hundred grams of each sample were placed in plastic container and sealed for at least 20 days to allow equilibrium in uranium, thorium and actinium series. Gamma-ray intensities were measured with 40% HPGe (CANBERRA) detector. The detector was shielded by 10 cm lead on all sides with cadmium-copper in inner sides. The system is equipped with software for data acquisition and analyzing. The counting time was 6x104 seconds and background spectra were also collected for the same period of time. The concentrations of 238U assessed from 63.3 keV and 92.4 keV emission of its first daughter nuclide, 234Th. To assess the isotopic ratio of 238U/235 U, secular equilibrium was ensured and the concentration of 235U under the 186 keV was deduced. The 226Ra was determined through the 295 keV and 352 keV gamma-rays of 214Pb. The concentrations of 238U and activity ratio of 238U/235U is given. The average of measurement activity ratio is 21,very close to the value of 21.5 for natural uranium, while the activity ratio of DU can be as high as 76.9. The 238U activity ranges within typically accepted levels from 14-33 Bq kg-1, while the typical range given by UNSCEAR (1988) for different soil samples is 10 to 50 Bq kg-1. The analysis of eight surface soil samples of Iranian sites of Iraq border, showed that uranium isotopes are in their natural abundances

  4. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  5. Decreto 214/1996, de 13 de septiembre, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de los centros y servicios bibliotecarios integrados en el Sistema de Bibliotecas de Castilla y León

    Castilla y León

    1996-01-01

    Una vez desarrollada la regulación del Consejo de Bibliotecas y la Biblioteca de Castilla y León, el presente Reglamento tiene por finalidad completar el marco jurídico necesario para el funcionamiento del Sistema de Bibliotecas de la Comunidad, estableciendo las normas básicas para su organización y gestión, así como los cauces oportunos para el acceso al mismo de centros y servicios bibliotecarios que, no estando aún integrados en él, deseen hacerlo en el futuro.

  6. The measurements of coexistence curves and turbidity for {xC6H5CN + (1 - x)CH3(CH2)14CH3} in the critical region

    The coexistence curves and turbidity data for a critical solution of (benzonitrile + hexadecane) have been reported. The critical amplitudes and exponents relating to the difference in density variables of two coexisting phases, the correlation length, and the osmotic compressibility have been calculated. The experimental results of the coexistence curves have also been analyzed to examine the Wegner correction terms and the behaviour of the diameter of the coexistence curves. A combination of the Wegner equation and the expression for the diameter has been used to describe successfully the coexistence curves

  7. Os Efeitos da Comunicação nas Mídias Sociais sobre o Consumidor:Uma Replicação do Estudo de Schivinski e Dabrowski(214

    Claudio Damacena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo buscou-se a compreensão sobre os efeitos da comunicação via Facebook criada pelas empresas e gerada pelos usuários sobre o valor da marca, a atitude de marca e a intenção de compra. Assim, foram investigados 182 usuários do Facebook usando uma pesquisa online padronizada. Para testar o modelo proposto, foram analisadas 29 marcas de bebidas não alcoólicas. Os resultados demonstraram que a comunicação via Facebook criada pelas empresas exercem uma influência positiva no valor da marca e na atitude de marca. Além disso, a análise indicou que o conteúdo gerado pelos usuários não influenciou positivamente nem o valor da marca nem a atitude de marca. A atitude de marca teve uma influência significativa sobre o valor da marca. E por fim tanto o valor da marca quanto a atitude de marca demonstraram uma influência positiva sobre a intenção de compra.

  8. Os Efeitos da Comunicação nas Mídias Sociais sobre o Consumidor:Uma Replicação do Estudo de Schivinski e Dabrowski(214)

    Claudio Damacena; Martin de La Martinière Petroll; Jéssica Kreischmann Vontobel

    2015-01-01

    Neste estudo buscou-se a compreensão sobre os efeitos da comunicação via Facebook criada pelas empresas e gerada pelos usuários sobre o valor da marca, a atitude de marca e a intenção de compra. Assim, foram investigados 182 usuários do Facebook usando uma pesquisa online padronizada. Para testar o modelo proposto, foram analisadas 29 marcas de bebidas não alcoólicas. Os resultados demonstraram que a comunicação via Facebook criada pelas empresas exercem uma influência positiva no valor da ma...

  9. Estimation of uranium from multichannel spectra in airborne gamma ray spectrometry using 1.12 MeV and 1.76 MeV photopeaks of 214Bi - an application to Cuddapah basin

    Present study examines the utility of gamma rays of energies 1.12 MeV and 1.76 MeV of uranium in estimation of uranium in airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey (AGRS) in comparison to the conventional 1.76 MeV alone used world wide. As a case study, the AGRS data of northern part of Cuddapah Basin is considered. Multi-channel processing is applied on this dataset to reduce the spectral noise and use of combined 1.12 MeV and 1.76 MeV has reduced the Poisson's related statistical error. Uranium is estimated using above two energies individually and in combination, using multi-channel processing followed by standard corrections procedure. Result indicates that a combination of both energies has given best estimation due to a reduction in overall noise which helped in demarcating geological entities and litho-contacts. This indicates the efficacy of this technique which improved the radio-geochemistry of study area in understanding the radio-elemental variation. (author)

  10. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation.

    Teixeira da Silva, Vanessa de Cássia; de Souza Coto, Amanda Lais; de Carvalho Souza, Rafael; Bertoldi Sanchez Neves, Marcello; Gomes, Eleni; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo Orlando

    2016-01-01

    This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC) and submerged (SmC) cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases. PMID:27242927

  11. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    Vanessa de Cássia Teixeira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC and submerged (SmC cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.

  12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 214 Analysis of Regulations Associated with Implementation of a Rocky Mountain Secure Smart-Grid

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    This document describes technical assistance provided by PNNL to further develop a smart grid technologies concept to provide a basis for policies and plans for the US Army. The effort was to analyze the potential to utilize emerging smart grid technologies along with indigenous renewable and other resources to meet the emergency and other power needs of Department of Defense facilities in Colorado and Wyoming.

  13. Synthesis of 7-[α-(2-amino-[2-14C]thiazol-4-yl)-α-(Z)-methoxyimin oacetamido]-3-(1-methylpyrrolidinio)methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate hydrochloride ([14C]cefepime hydrochloride)

    The title compound ([14C]cefepime hydrochloride) was prepared as follows:- [14C]Thiourea was condensed with ethyl 4-bromo-3-oxo-2-methoxyimino-acetate providing ethyl 2-(2-amino-4-[2-14C] thiazolyl)-2-methoxyi-minoacetate as the pure Z-isomer. Saponification gave the amino acid this was reacted with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole to give the activated ester. Condensation in situ with 7-amino-3-(1-methylpyrrolidinio) methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate yielded the product as the pure sulfate salt. Treatment of the sulfate salt with base provided the zwitterion isolated as the stable N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone adduct. An aqueous solution of the adduct was converted to the crystalline title compound, [14C]Cefepime hydrochloride hydrate, with hydrochloric acid/acetone. Radiochemical purity was 99.0% and specific activity, 34.2 μCi/mg. Overall yield from [14C]thiourea was 18%. (Author)

  14. Ethyl 5-((1E-1-{(E-2-[1-(4-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methyl-1,2-oxazol-5-ylethylidene]hydrazin-1-ylidene}ethyl-3-methyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carboxylate

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The complete molecule of the title compound, C18H22N4O6, is generated by the application of a twofold axis of symmetry. Twists are evident in the molecule, i.e. between each —C=N—N group and the adjacent oxazole ring [dihedral angle = 46.08 (12 °] and between the latter and attached ester group [excluding the terminal methyl group; dihedral angle = 24.4 (7 °]. In the crystal, C—H...O and π–π [3.5990 (11 Å] contacts connect molecules into supramolecular arrays in the ac plane. These stack along the b axis, being connected by weak π–π [3.3903 (11 Å] interactions.

  15. Book Review: AN INTRODUCTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE ECONOMICS AND POLICY, F.R. Fitzroy and E. Papyrakis, Earthscan Ltd, London, 2009, 214 pages, ISBN 978-1-844-07809-7

    Jeremy Webb

    2010-01-01

    Anyone trying to sort out the seemingly inexplicable machinations that went on in Copenhagen should read ‘An introduction to climate Change Economics and Policy’. Which is to say this book is an excellent way of updating your knowledge of the fast changing science, economics and policy on climate change issues and a useful window into how academics are approaching the issue. This exhortation is directed to students and members of the public and less so to those who are in the field of climate...

  16. Efeito da maturação gonadal sobre a energia dos músculos de duas espécies de piranhas do reservatório do rio Manso, Estado de Mato Grosso - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.214 Gonadal maturation effect on muscular energy in two species of piranhas (Serrasalmus marginatus and S. maculatus from rio Manso reservoir, Mato Grosso State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.214

    Wladimir Marques Domingues

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de investigar a alocação de energia e a correlação entre esta e o fator de condição (K de duas espécies de piranhas, Serrasalmus marginatus e S. maculatus, do reservatório do rio Manso, Estado de Mato Grosso (localizado entre os paralelos 14º 52’ de latitude sul e 55º 48’ de longitude oeste. As coletas foram realizadas entre setembro de 2002 e março de 2004. As amostras de músculos de indivíduos de ambos os sexos, pertencentes a diferentes estádios de maturação gonadal e ambientes, tiveram a determinação do conteúdo energético em bomba calorimétrica e os resultados comparados com o K. Houve diferenças significativas entre os estádios de maturação apenas para os machos. As duas espécies utilizam distintamente a energia obtida do alimento. A maturação gonadal exerceu efeito sobre a alocação energética e o K, enquanto este não se correlacionou com a energia armazenada nos músculos.Aiming to investigate the allocation of energy and the correlation between this energy and the condition factor (K of two piranhas species, Serrasalmus marginatus and S. maculatus, from the reservoir of the Manso river, (located among the parallels 14°52' south latitude and 55°48' west longitude. The collections were carried between September, 2002 and March, 2004. The muscle samples of individuals from both genders belonging to different stages of gonadal maturation and environment had their energy content determined by a calorimetric pump and the results compared with K. There were significant differences among the maturation stages only for the males. The two species make distinct use of the energy obtained from the food. The gonadal maturation had an effect on the allocation of energy and K. It did not correlated with the energy stored in the muscles.

  17. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic data for curium, actinium, protactinium and polonium was carried out. Where sufficient data were available, predictions of the speciation and solubility were made. This report is a summary report of the experimental work conducted by AEA Technology during April 1991-March 1998, and the main results have been presented at Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings and published as proceedings of them. (author)

  18. Investigation for determining the retention properties of rock over the ASSE II mine for dissolved radionuclides

    For a model consideration of groundwater movement and the associated transport of dissolved substance in deep groundwater, the retention properties of the ASSE II mine for radionuclides dissolved in water were determined. A series of properties of rocks were examined and described for this purpose. Apart from the chemical, mineralogical and petrophysical characteristics of the rocks, the retention was determined by 3 different methods and stated in the form of distribution coefficients for specific elements. A comparison of the results of vibration and diffusion experiments gave good agreement, while the results in through column experiments only reached the same order of magnitude after an expensive determination with the aid of a place concentration distribution. The distribution coefficients for the elements carbon, selenium, strontium, technetium, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, proto-actinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium are listed and collected for model rock packages. (orig./HP)

  19. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    Berry, J. A; 油井 三和; 北村 暁

    2007-01-01

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic ...

  20. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko R.S.; Barabash A.S.; Belli P.; Bernabei R.; Cappella F.; Cerulli R.; Danevich F.A.; Incicchitti A.; Laubenstein M.; Mokina V.M.; Nisi S.; Poda D.V.; Polischuk O.G.; Tretyak V.I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical an...

  1. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  2. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  3. The discoveries of uranium 237 and symmetric fission — From the archival papers of Nishina and Kimura

    IKEDA, Nagao

    2011-01-01

    Shortly before the Second World War time, Nishina reported on a series of prominent nuclear physical and radiochemical studies in collaboration with Kimura. They artificially produced 231Th, a member of the natural actinium series of nuclides, by bombarding thorium with fast neutrons. This resulted in the discovery of 237U, a new isotope of uranium, by bombarding uranium with fast neutrons, and confirmed that 237U disintegrates into element 93 with a mass number of 237. They also identified t...

  4. History of the unraveling of the natural decay series

    Milestones in the subject of radioactivity, which were important to the unraveling of natural decay series, have been identified and described. The interplay between all these issues is very complex, and some aspects of the development of the uranium series is discussed as an example, the thorium and actinium series evolved in a similar way from research by many of the same people. All three series as understood in 1913 are compared with their present-day representation. (orig.)

  5. History of the unraveling of the natural decay series

    Milestones in the subject of radioactivity, which were important to the unraveling of natural decay series, have been identified and described. The interplay between all these issues is very complex, and some aspects of the development of the uranium series is discussed as an example, the thorium and actinium series evolved in a similar way from research by many of the same people. All three series as understood in 1913 are compared with their present-day representation. (author)

  6. System for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Lewis, Leroy C [Idaho Falls, ID; Henscheid, Joseph P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-04

    A method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution is disclosed. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232, and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the thorium iodate precipitate. The thorium iodate precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid, which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. A system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product is also disclosed.

  7. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of 235U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  8. Preliminary assessment of errors of radon daughters concentration in air

    Employing an earlier elaborated computer program for simulation of depositing radon decay products: 214Po, 214Pb, 214Bi (214Po) on air filter and for computing variation of their activity against time, an assessment of errors was carried out of a methods employing measurement of 218Po + 214Po alpha activity in three time intervals. Additionally errors of the methods measuring 218Po + 214Po alpha activity in three, two and one time intervals, were assessed. A few attempts were also made to measure the alpha activity in different time intervals and to assess their measuring errors. (authors). 10 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  9. A comparative extended validation of statistical downscaling and regional climate models

    Huth, Radan; Mikšovský, J.; Štepánek, P.; Chládová, Zuzana; Pokorná, Lucie

    IMSC Steering Committee. s. 214-214. [International Meeting on Statistical Climatology /11./. 12.07.2010-16.07.2010, Edinburgh] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 http://imsc.pacificclimate.org/proceedings/11IMSC.pdf

  10. 20 CFR 655.733 - What is the third LCA requirement, regarding strikes and lockouts?

    2010-04-01

    ... is filed by the employer with DOL is covered by DHS regulations at 8 CFR 214.2(h)(17). For the... 8 CFR 214.2(h)(17) for effects of strikes or lockouts in general on the H-1B nonimmigrant's... employment. See 8 CFR 214.2(h)(17). (b) Documentation of the third labor condition statement. The...

  11. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  12. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO2 as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with 231Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise

  13. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  14. Journalism that Matters: Views from Central and Eastern Europe. By Michał Głowacki, Epp Lauk and Auksė Balčytienė. Bern: Peter Lang, 2014, 214 pp.; ISBN: 978-3-631-65421-7 hb.

    Elena Rodina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is a much-needed contribution to journalistic studies that allows us to have a closer and more nuanced look at media systems and press cultures in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE from a non-Western perspective. The volume is of high value to anyone who is interested in the diversity that underlies the unifying term of “post-communist media.” Most of its authors rely on rich data collected throughout lengthy periods of time on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe, which allows us to see not only the current state of “Eastern” media, but its development throughout time.

  15. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data. PMID:25686474

  16. Magnetic investigations of a two-dimensional coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular framework: poly[[bis[μ2-1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane]bis(thiocyanato-κN)cobalt(II)] dihydrate].

    Tao, Jian-Qing; Mao, Dan; Wang, Jun

    2013-06-01

    In the title mixed-ligand metal-organic polymeric complex, {[Co(NCS)2(C8H12N6)2]·2H2O}n, the asymmetric unit contains a divalent Co(II) cation, which sits on an inversion centre, two halves of two crystallographically distinct and centrosymmetric 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane (BTB) ligands, one N-bound thiocyanate ligand and one solvent water molecule. The Co(II) atom possesses a distorted {CoN6} octahedral geometry, with the equatorial positions taken up by triazole N atoms from four different BTB ligands. The axial positions are filled by thiocyanate N atoms. In the crystal, each Co(II) atom is linked covalently to four others through the distal donors of the tethering BTB ligands, forming a neutral (4,4)-topology two-dimensional rhomboid grid layer motif, which is coincident with the (121) crystal planes. Magnetic investigations show that weak antiferromagnetic coupling exists between Co(II) atoms in the complex. PMID:23744375

  17. The crystal structure and photocatalytic properties of a three-dimensional cadmium(II) metal-organic framework: poly[bis(μ3-benzene-1,2-dicarboxylato)[μ2-1,4-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)benzene]dicadmium(II)].

    Yu, Cai Xia; Gao, Yan Ping; Cui, Xiao Qing; Guo, Meng Jiao; Liu, Lei Lei

    2016-03-01

    Photocatalysis is a green technology for the treatment of all kinds of contaminants and has advantages over other treatment methods. Recently, much effort has been devoted to developing new photocatalytic materials based on metal-organic frameworks for use in the degradation of many kinds of organic contaminants. With the aim of searching for more effective photocatalysts, the title three-dimensional coordination polymer, [Cd2(C8H4O4)2(C18H16N2O2)]n, was prepared. The asymmetric unit contains one Cd(II) cation, one benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate anion (denoted L(2-)) and half of a centrosymmetric 1,4-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)benzene ligand (denoted bpmb). Each Cd(II) centre is five-coordinated by four carboxylate O atoms from two L(2-) ligands and by one N atom from a bpmb ligand, forming a disordered pentagonal pyramidal coordination geometry. The Cd(II) centres are interlinked by L(2-) ligands to form a one-dimensional [Cd2L2]n chain. Adjacent chains are further connected by bpmb linkers, giving rise to a two-dimensional network, and these networks are pillared by bpmb to afford a three-dimensional framework with a 3(3).4(2).6(3).7(1).8(1) topology. Each grid in the framework has large channels which are filled mainly by the two other equivalent frameworks to form a threefold interpenetrating net. The compound exhibits relatively good photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. PMID:26942425

  18. Mixed valency of the RE and Ac ions in solid states

    Full text: This review is devoted to consideration of the methods and results of the theoretical and experimental investigations of the electronic state of the rare earths and actinium ions in the separate compound. The methods of the high resolution X ray spectroscopy were used for our consideration. Energy of the X ray lines of the rare earths and actinium ions in free state and solid states was study carefully. Valency shifts of X Ray lines under change of electronic state of nf - ions in different oxide, fluoride and chloride compounds were determined for K -, L- and M - lines for these ions with accuracy near 10 -100 MeV. We studied the electronic state of nf- ions which is changed from '+2' to '+4' and determined the concentration of ions in different electronic state. Relative error for theoretical energy of the most lines for HFP - approach in comparison with experiment is less than 0.5%, and deviation for concentration is less than 5%

  19. A study of uranium and thorium migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit with application to actinide transport from nuclear waste repositories

    One way to gain confidence in modelling possible radionuclide releases is to study natural systems which are similar to components of the multibarrier waste repository. Several such analogues are currently under study and these provide useful data about radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment. One such system is the Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory. In this dissertation, the migration of actinides, primarily uranium and thorium, has been studied as an analogue for the behaviour of transuranics in the far-field of a waste repository. The major findings of this study are: 1. the main process retarding uranium migration in the dispersion fan at Koongarra is sorption, which suppresses dissolved uranium concentrations well below solubility limits, with ferrihydrite being a major sorbing phase; 2. thorium is extremely immobile, with very low dissolved concentrations and corresponding high distribution ratios for 230Th. Overall, it is estimated that colloids are relatively unimportant in Koongarra groundwater. Uranium migrates mostly as dissolved species, whereas thorium and actinium are mostly adsorbed to larger, relatively immobile particles and the stationary phase. However, of the small amount of 230Th that passes through a 1μm filter, a significant proportion is associated with colloidal particles. Actinium appears to be slightly more mobile than thorium and is associated with colloids to a greater extent, although generally present in low concentrations. These results support the possibility of colloidal transport of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. 112 refs., 23 tabs., 32 figs

  20. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  1. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  2. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  3. 8 CFR 274a.12 - Classes of aliens authorized to accept employment.

    2010-01-01

    ... status as defined in section 101(a)(15)(V) of the Act and 8 CFR 214.15. (16) An alien authorized to be...; (17)-(18) (19) Any alien in U-1 nonimmigrant status, pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, for the period of time.... (20) Any alien in U-2, U-3, U-4, or U-5 nonimmigrant status, pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, for the...

  4. A wavelength tunable photon source with sealed inner volume

    2014-01-01

    (214) being a sealed volume, and forming a bonding interface (212) which is gas-tight, so that the first mirror (106) is placed in the inner volume (214) so the first mirror (106) may move within the inner volume (214). The method provides a relatively simple way of obtaining a tunable photon source...... where the inner volume is sealed. The invention furthermore relates to a corresponding photon source, and use of such photon source....

  5. γ activity in struverite

    The five different struverite samples collected from Southern Thailand were analysed for the 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac and 208Tl gamma activities. The concentrations of 226Ra for each of the samples were subsequently deduced from the activities of its daughter nuclides 214Pb and 214Bi on the assumption that secular equilibrium exists between them. Similarly the concentrations of 232Th for each of the samples were also deduced from the activities of its daughter nuclides 228Ac and 208Tl

  6. Interlibrary Loan Rates for Academic Libraries in the United States of America Have Increased Despite the Availability of Electronic Databases, but Fulfilment Rates Have Decreased. A Review of: Williams, J. A., & Woolwine, D. E. (2011. Interlibrary loan in the United States: An analysis of academic libraries in a digital age. Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery & Electronic Reserve, 21(4, 165-183. doi: 10.1080/1072303X.2011.602945

    Kathryn Oxborrow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – To determine the number of interlibrary loan (ILL requests in academiclibraries in the United States of America over the period 1997-2008, and how various factors have influenced these rates. These factors included electronic database subscriptions,size of print journal and monograph collections, and the presence of link resolvers.Data were collected from libraries as both lenders and borrowers. The study also lookedat whether the number of professional staff in an ILL department had changed during theperiod studied, and whether ILL departments led by a professional librarian correlated positively with rates of ILL.Design – Online questionnaire.Setting – Academic library members of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC ILL scheme in the United States of America.Subjects – A total of 442 academic library members of the OCLC ILL scheme.Methods – An electronic questionnaire was sent to 1433 academic library memberinstitutions of the OCLC ILL scheme. Datawere collected for libraries as both lending andborrowing institutions. Data were analyzed using a statistical software package,specifically to calculate Spearman’s rank correlations between the variables and rates of ILL.Main Results – Responses to the electronic questionnaire were received from 442 (31% academic libraries. There was an overall increase in the number of ILL requests in the period 1997-2008. The number of ILL requests which were unfulfilled also increased during this period. There was a positive correlation between rates of ILL and all of the variables investigated, with the strongest correlations with size of print monograph collections and size of print journal collections. The numbers of staff in ILL departments remained relatively static during the period covered by the study, although the majority of staff working in ILL was composed of paraprofessionals. There was a weak positive correlation between numbers of ILL requests and whether ILL departments were headed by a professional librarian.Conclusions – Access to full text electronic databases has not decreased the numbers of ILL requests in academic libraries in the United States of America. In fact, ILL requests have increased, probably due to the fact that students and staff of academic libraries now have access to a larger number of citations through online databases and other information sources. The authors suggest that the increase in unfulfilled ILL requests is also due to this increased access. Libraries with large print collections are more likely to receive ILL requests precisely because they have more material to lend out, and may make more ILL requests due to the research output of their presumably larger institutions. There may be a higher number of ILL requests fulfilled by departments headed by a professional librarian because a librarian has more knowledge of sources to fulfil requests.

  7. Ion transfer voltammetry of metformin and phenformin at a polarized ionic liquid-membrane

    Langmaier, Jan; Samec, Zdeněk; Samcová, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2015), s. 214-214. ISSN 0034-6691. [Annual Meeting of the Polarographic Society of Japan /61./. 24.11.2015-25.11.2015, Himeji] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03139S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  8. Disequilibrium in U-Series at G-II Occurrence of Uranium Mineralization at Gabal Gattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt; A Comparative Study using HP Ge and Nal-Detectors

    The present work aims to compare between using Nal-and HPGe-detectors for studying the state of radioactive disequilibrium in U-series at GII occurrence at Gabal Gattar area. This was achieved through the measurement of the activity concentration of parent and daughters of radionuclide in uranium series. Some parent/daughter and daughter/daughter ratios are calculated. The mineralized granite is more enriched in U-contents (average of 3890 ppm) and depleted in Th-contents (about 19 ppm in average). The calculated activity ratios reveal that in all samples the values of 238U/226Ra, 226Ra/214Pb, 214Pb/214Bi, 214Pb/238U and 214Bi/238U ratios in the U-238 series are more than unity indicating a state of radioactive disequilibrium. This state is attributed to enrichment of the parent U-238 relative to its daughters, especially Ra-226, Pb-214 and Bi-214 and reflects the enrichment of Ra-226 relative to Pb-214. The post magmatic enrichment of U and escaping of Rn gas along fractures and joints of the studied granites represent the main and significant factors causing radioactive disequilibrium of U-mineralization at G-II occurrence of Gabal Gattar area. The present work indicated that the radioactive equilibrium/disequilibrium studies using HPGe-detectors are more precise than that of Nal detectors

  9. Voltage and frequency dependent block of sodium current in cardiac cells. Comparison of the effect of two antiarrhythmic drugs

    Matějovič, P.; Bahníková, M.; Pásek, Michal; Šimurdová, M.; Šimurda, J.

    Brno : Brno University of Technology, 2002 - (Jan, J.; Kozumplík, J.; Provazník, I.), s. 214-216 ISBN 80-214-2633-0. ISSN 1211-412X. [Biosignal 2002. Brno (CZ), 26.06.2002-28.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : cardiac cell * sodium current * antiarrhythmic drugs Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0526 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0526 ref|YP_524495.1| protein of unknown function DUF214 [Rhodoferax ferrireduce...ns T118] gb|ABD70964.1| protein of unknown function DUF214 [Rhodoferax ferrireducens DSM 15236] YP_524495.1 0.0 67% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1170 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1170 ref|YP_001989230.1| protein of unknown function DUF214 [Rhodopseudomonas... palustris TIE-1] gb|ACE98754.1| protein of unknown function DUF214 [Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1] YP_001989230.1 0.021 27% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-17-0045 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0045 ref|YP_921174.1| protein of unknown function DUF214 [Thermofilum ...pendens Hrk 5] gb|ABL79171.1| protein of unknown function DUF214 [Thermofilum pendens Hrk 5] YP_921174.1 2.1 32% ...

  13. Characterization of polar organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol from the green leaf volatile 3-Z-hexenal

    Evidence is provided that the green leaf volatile 3-Z-hexenal serves as a precursor for biogenic secondary organic aerosol through formation of polar organosulfates (OSs) with molecular weights (MW) 226 and 214. The MW 226 C6-OSs and MW 214 C5M-OSs were che...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03376-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available Contig-U03376-1 no gap 214 2 6424590 6424376 MINUS 2 1 U03376 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...ngth 214 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 2 Chromosome length 8467578 Start point 6424590 End point 6424376 Stran

  15. Integrated inventory information system

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Handbook_Lib_Archives_Inf_Cen_India_7_214.pdf.txt stream_source_info Handbook_Lib_Archives_Inf_Cen_India_7_214.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  16. EST Table: FS909890 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available FS909890 E_FL_fufe_18J09_F_0 10/09/28 56 %/214 aa ref|XP_001810630.1| PREDICTED: si...GB15377-PA 10/09/10 56 %/214 aa gi|189237082|ref|XP_001810630.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG14722 CG14722-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS908860 fufe ...

  17. 32 CFR 45.3 - Policy and procedures.

    2010-07-01

    ... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) § 45.3 Policy and procedures. (a... active service. (i) The original of DD Form 214 showing separation from a period of active service with a... separation; or on the date authorized travel time commences. (A) Copy No. 4, containing the statutory...

  18. Balance of the tropospheric ozone and its relation to stratospheric intrusions indicated by cosmogenic radionuclides. Part 14. Final technical report, 1 November 1977-31 January 1984

    The objective was to clarify the effect of stratospheric intrusions on the tropospheric ozone budget. The correlation between stratospheric-tropospheric exchange and solar events was also investigated. Tropospheric ozone was recorded at three different levels. The radioisotopes 7Be and radon daughter products 214Pb and 214Bi were used as tracers to identify the source of ozone

  19. Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299

    Tucker, Brian [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Stoughton, MA 02072 (United States); Donakowski, Jough [Unites States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, MO 64106 (United States); Hays, David [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site as the primary radioanalytical tool for quantization of activities of the radionuclides of concern in site soil. When selecting energy lines in gamma spectroscopy, a number of factors are considered including assumptions concerning secondary equilibrium, interferences, and the strength of the lines. The case of the Maywood radionuclide of concern radium-226 (Ra-226) is considered in this paper. At the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site, one of the daughters produced from radioactive decay of Ra-226, lead-214 (Pb- 214), is used to quantitate Ra-226. Another Ra-226 daughter, bismuth-214 (Bi-214), also may be used to quantitate Ra-226. In this paper, a comparison of Ra-226 to Pb-214 activities and Ra-226 to Bi-214 activities, obtained using gamma spectrometry for a large number of soil samples, was performed. The Pb-214, Bi-214, and Ra-226 activities were quantitated using the 352 kilo electron volt (keV), 609 keV, and 186 keV lines, respectively. The comparisons were made after correcting the Ra-226 activities by a factor of 0.571 and both ignoring and accounting for the contribution of a U-235 interfering line to the Ra-226 line. For the Pb-214 and Bi-214 activities, a mean in-growth factor was employed. The gamma spectrometer was calibrated for efficiency and energy using a mixed gamma standard and an energy range of 59 keV to 1830 keV. The authors expect other sites with Ra-226 contamination in soil may benefit from the discussions and points in this paper. Proper use of correction factors and comparison of the data from three different gamma-emitting radionuclides revealed agreement with expectations and provided confidence that using such correction factors generates quality data. The results indicate that if contamination is low level and due to NORM, the Ra-226 can be measured directly if corrected to subtract the contribution from U-235. If there is

  20. Purification system of gram-amount neptunium using anion exchange chromatography

    To develop a purification system of gram-amount neptunium using anion exchange chromatography, adsorption elution of excess amount of actinium in 6M HNO3 aqueous solution was studied using thorium and uranium tracer. The partition coefficient (Kd) of Th (IV) decreased from Kd=99.1 of tracer to Kd=44.0, 5% load. By decreasing the partition coefficient, we can wash until 30 Vs under the purification conditions of 1% load and 95% recovery. The retention volume of U (IV) was about 300 Vs, a large value. The partition coefficient of Np (IV) may be larger than it and the large amount of washable eluting solution may be obtained. Washing of impurity of 3d transition metal and actinide (VI) can be done until 20Vs. With washing of 150Vs, impurity of alkali earth metal, metals (III) and platinum group metals decreased less than 0.1%. (S.Y.)

  1. A francium-223 reservoir source

    By improving and accelerating a method which had been earlier tried for caesium-rubidium separation on a cellulose column, i.e. elution with 2N HCl-equilibrated phenol, the author succeeded in obtaining consecutive and quasi-selective elutions of francium-223, starting with actinium-227 fixed at the top of a small cellulose column to which ZrO2 had been added. The francium-223, rapidly eluted under pressure, is extracted by water while the phenol is extracted by ether; it can easily be cleared of any residual traces of radioactive contaminants (thallium-207, radium-223, thorium-227) by two consecutive BaSO4 precipitations. The preparation of a Fr223 solution (HCl-H2SO4) requires approximately 20 min; the time noted for Fr223 was closer to 22 than to 21 min. (author)

  2. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  3. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites Remedial Action Program. Radiological survey of the St. Louis Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    Results of two radiological surveys of the St. Louis-Lambert Airport property, formerly known as the Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, Missouri, are presented. Uranium- and radium-bearing waste materials were stored from the 1940's to the late 1960's in this area. The surveys included direct measurements of beta-gamma radiation; determination of uranium, actinium, and radium concentrations in soil samples and from bore holes; determination of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water; measurement of radon flux from the ground surface; and measurements of 222Rn in air near the site. Results indicate that some offsite drainage pathways are becoming contaminated, probably by runoff from the site; no migration of 222Rn from the site was observed

  4. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Refinement of thermodynamic data for trivalent actinoids and samarium

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes, the refinement of the thermodynamic data for the inorganic compounds and complexes of trivalent actinoids (actinium(III), plutonium(III), americium(III) and curium(III)) and samarium(III) was carried out. Refinement of thermodynamic data for these elements was based on the thermodynamic database for americium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Based on the similarity of chemical properties among trivalent actinoids and samarium, complementary thermodynamic data for their species expected under the geological disposal conditions were selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  5. Theoretical Study on Properties of New Isotope 265Bh

    2006-01-01

    The properties of nuclei belonging to the newly observed α-decay chain starting from 265Bh have been studied. The axially deformed relativistic mean-field calculation with the force NL-Z2 has been performed in the blockedBCS approximation. Some ground state properties such as binding energies, deformations, spins, and parities, as well as Q-values of the α-decay for this decay chain have been calculated and compared with known experimental data. Good agreement is found. The single-particle spectrum of the nucleus 265 Bh is studied and some new magic numbers are found,while the magnitudes of the shell gaps in superheavy nuclei are much smaller than those of nuclei before the actinium region, and the Fermi surfaces are close to the continuum. Thus the superheavy nuclei are usually not stable. The The methods which give good agreement with the data are selected.

  6. Proposed training program for construction personnel involved in remedial action work at sites contaminated by naturally occurring radionuclides

    Many sites used during the early days of the US atomic energy program are contaminated with radionuclides of the primordial decay chains (uranium, thorium, and actinium series). This contamination consists of residues resulting from refining and processing uranium and thorium. Preparation of these sites for release to unrestricted private use will involve the assistance of construction workers, many of whom have limited knowledge of the hazards associated with radioactive materials. Therefore, there is a need to educate these workers in the fundamentals of radioactive material handling to minimize exposures and possible spread of contamination. This training should disseminate relevant information at an appropriate educational level and should instill a cautious, common-sense attitude toward the handling of radioactive materials. The training should emphasize basic information concerning environmental radiation within a context of relative risk. A multi-media format, including colorful visual aids, demonstration, and discussion, should be used to maximize motivation and retention. A detailed, proposed training program design is presented

  7. Origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department); Origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes dans la riviere Ellez a proximite du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement (Mont d'Arree - departement du Finistere). Resultats et premiers constats annee 2006

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 ({sup 227}Ac), non born by its ascendents which are {sup 235}U and {sup 231}Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of {sup 235}U and able to reach these ones of {sup 238}U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil ({sup 210}Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  8. origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department)

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 (227Ac), non born by its ascendents which are 235U and 231Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of 235U and able to reach these ones of 238U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil (210Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  9. Physical Measurements and Clinical Findings of Persons with Radium Burdens

    Results of physical measurements and some clinical findings of persons with radium burdens are reported and discussed. Ten workers of the dial painting industry, two chemists, who have been working for between 10 and 20 yr in the radium- industry, one technician, who has been- working for over 20 yr with high-emanation radium preparations and one person with high radium intake of rather unknown history were measured in a whole-body counter for evaluation of the body burdens of radium-226 and radium-228+ actinium-228. In some cases the radon concentration of expired air was also measured. For four of the measured persons the radium-226 burden is of the order of the maximum permissible amount (MPA : 10-7 c) or more. In one case the burden amounts to more than three times the MPA, (3.4 x 10-7 c), in another case to more than 100 times the MPA (160 x 10-7 c). In one case the radium-228 + actinium-228 burden exceeds the MPA (6 x 10-8 c in bone). The measured radon concentrations in the expired air were used to calculate the excretion rate of radon. The average was 67%. Clinical findings with some of the measured persons are related to the measured body burdens. The patient with the high body burden of 160 x 10-7 c radium-226 shows heavy bone changes leading to spontaneous bone fractures. The blood picture shows a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and a low haemoglobin content but puncture of the sternum indicates normal haematopoiesis. It seems that the low number of erythrocytes is caused by chronic nephropathia, the reason for which might be an additional intake of uranium because.uranium was found in the urine by gamma spectroscopy. The results are discussed with respect to the MPA of radium-226 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  10. AcEST: DK951528 [AcEST

    Full Text Available enylpyruvate dioxygenase OS=Mycosphaerella graminicola GN=HPPD PE=3 SV=1 Length = 419 Score = 56.2 bits (134), Expec..., and David J. Lipman (1997), Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search progra...|Q9HYB8|RNFC_PSEAE Electron transport complex protein rnfC OS=... 32 4.1 sp..., and David J. Lipman (1997), Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search progra...1 Length = 443 Score = 157 bits (398), Expect = 5e-37 Identities = 95/214 (44%), Positives = 116/214 (54%), Gaps = 3/214 (1%) Fra

  11. Investigation on the development of measurement techniques, the behavior in the environment and the estimation of internal radiation dose by inhalation for some typical atmospheric radionuclides

    Radionuclides in surface atmosphere on the earth are 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progeny, 7Be, 85Kr, 3H, 14C, 137Cs, 90Sr and so on. In this paper, among them, 222Rn, their short lived progeny (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, 214Po), 7Be, 3H, and 90Sr are focused on as follows based on the experimental and observed results, 1. Development of their measurement techniques, 2. Analysis of their variation of atmospheric concentration with time and places, 3. Analysis of their interaction characteristics with surface environment including plants, 4. Estimation of internal radiation doses by inhalation of them. (author). 228 refs

  12. Study on Chemical Components of Alkaline Nitrobenzene Oxidation from Plantation Woods

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the chemical components and the chemical structure of lignin of Chinese fir and Poplar I-214 from plantationforest. The results revealed that the contents ofchemical component in heart wood and sapwood were almost the same except ethanol-benzene extract both in Chinese fir and in Poplar I-214, The contents of ash, holocellulose, α -cellulose, pentosan, ethanol-benzene extract and cold-water extract in Poplar I-214 were higher than that in Chinesefir, The content of lignin in Poplar...

  13. Biosynthesis of tylophora alkaloids

    Using labelled precursors, biosynthesis of the tylophora alkaloids, tylophorine, tylophorinidine and tylophorinide has been investigated in Tylophora asthmatica plants. The radioactive precursors, phenylalanine-2-14C, benzoic acid-1-14C, benzoic acid-ring 14C, acetate-2-14C, ornithine-5-14C, acetate-2-14C, ornithine-5-14C and cinnamic acid-2-14C were administered to the plants individually by wick technique. Tylophorine was isolated in each case and assayed for its radioactivity to find out the incorporation of the label into it. The results indicate that: (1) phenylalanine via cinnamic acid is an important precursor in the biosynthesis of tylophorine (2) orinithine participates in tylophorine biosynthesis via pyrroline and (3) tylophorinidine may be a direct precursor of tylophorine. (M.G.B.)

  14. Die Kultur- und Bildungsfunktion der Militärkapellen in den böhmischen Ländern des 19. Jahrhunderts

    Bajgarová, Jitka; Šebesta, J.

    -, č. 10 (2005), s. 214-233. ISBN 3-926196-45-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : military music * bohemian lands * 19th century Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. 77 FR 70400 - Reform of Rules and Policies on Foreign Carrier Entry Into the U.S. Telecommunications Market

    2012-11-26

    ... System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998.... Telecommunications Market AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document... international telecommunications services and facilities under section 214 of Communications Act of 1934,...

  16. Disease: H01139 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available crobiol Infect Dis 72:214-8 (2012) PMID:17114714 Bakken JS, Dumler JS Clinical diagnosis and treatment of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078:236-47 (2006) ...

  17. "Národ nezná odpuštění". Expatriace Karla Sabiny v srpnu 1872

    Charypar, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2014), s. 184-214. ISSN 0009-0468 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Sabina, Karel * 19th century * censorship * journalism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  18. 78 FR 64566 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    2013-10-29

    ... proposing any textual changes to the By-Laws, Schedules to the By-Laws or Rules of FINRA. \\5\\ FINRA also is... Rule 17f-2).\\14\\ FINRA conducted a job analysis study of Investment Company and Variable...

  19. Drug: D01369 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available . HCl 381.1707 381.8936 D01369.gif Anti-anginal; Antihypertensive; Cardiac depressant [anti-arrythmic] Thera...individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensives 2149 Others D013

  20. Drug: D10243 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available DR:D00523], Amlodipine besilate [DR:D00615] Antihypertensive Therapeutic category: 2149 ATC code: C09DB05 En...gans 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensives 2149 Others D10243 Irbesartan

  1. Drug: D01302 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available 516 196.6369 D01302.gif Antihypertensive Therapeutic category: 2142 ATC code: C02DB02 Genomic biomarker: NAT...ffecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensives 2142 Hy

  2. Drug: D01667 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available 489.0036 D01667.gif Antihypertensive; Enzyme inhibitor [angiotensin-converting] Therapeutic category: 2144 ...ic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensive

  3. Drug: D09196 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available ); Ecard LD (TN) Candesartan cilexetil [DR:D00626], Hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D00340] Antihypertensive Therape... individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensives 2149 Others D09

  4. Drug: D00197 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available 34 608.6787 D00197.gif Rauvolfia serpentina [TAX:4060] Antihypertensive Same as: C06539 Therapeutic category...gents affecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensives 2143 Rauwolfias D00197 Rese

  5. Drug: D00624 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available 441.6046 D00624.gif Antihypertensive Same as: C07707 Therapeutic category: 2144 ATC code: C09AA04 prodrug, ...01] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensives 2144 Angiotensin con

  6. Drug: D07895 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available rochlorothiazide [DR:D00340], Losartan potassium [DR:D00357] Antihypertensive Therapeutic category: 2149 ATC...ing individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensives 2149 Others

  7. Drug: D09219 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available A07 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihyperte...nsives 2149 Others D09219 Telmisartan - hydrochlorothiaz

  8. Drug: D09745 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available rtensives 2149 Others D09745 Valsartan - amlodipine besi...:1576] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihype

  9. Drug: D00251 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available 217.2853 D00251.gif Antihypertensive; Enzyme inhibitor [angiotensin-converting] Therapeutic category: 2144 ...category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 214 Antihypertensive

  10. 77 FR 40901 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Gregg County Historical Museum, Longview, TX

    2012-07-11

    .... ADDRESSES: Neina Kennedy, Executive Director, Gregg County Historical Museum, 214 N. Fredonia Street..., possibly middle aged and female. No known individuals were identified. The three associated funerary... human remains and associated funerary objects should contact Neina Kennedy, Executive Director,...

  11. Cholesterol and fat lowering with hydrophobic polysaccharide derivatives

    Čopíková, J.; Taubner, T.; Tůma, J.; Synytsya, A.; Dušková, Dagmar; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 207-214. ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hydrophobically modified polysaccharides * structure * thermal analysis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.074, year: 2014

  12. 77 FR 45587 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, from the People's Republic of...

    2012-08-01

    ... Republic of China, 52 FR 22667 (June 15, 1987) (``Order''). \\2\\ See 19 CFR 351.214(d). In its submission... Zhengda produced and exported. To assist in its analysis of the bona fides of Zhejiang Zhengda's...

  13. 77 FR 45588 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, From the People's Republic of...

    2012-08-01

    ... Republic of China, 52 FR 22667 (June 15, 1987) (``Order''). \\2\\ See 19 CFR 351.214(d). In its submission... produced and exported. To assist in its analysis of the bona fides of Haining Automann's sales,...

  14. Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR: Expectation

    Punčochář, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, 5-6 (2013), s. 214-215. ISSN 0022-9830 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laboratory investigation * large-scale applications * novel instrumentation and technology . Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Birth and evolution of neutron stars: Issues raised by millisecond pulsars; Proceedings of the eighth workshop, Green Bank, WV, June 6-8, 1984

    Observations of millisecond pulsars are discussed, taking into account a review of millisecond pulsars, arrival time observations of the 1.6 millisecond pulsar 1937 + 214, a 6.1 millisecond binary pulsar, polarimetry of the two fastest pulsars, an optical synchrotron nebula around the X-ray pulsar 0540-693, optical observations of the millisecond pulsars PSR 1937 + 214 and PSR 1935 + 29, and a single pulse study of the millisecond pulsar 1937 + 214. The life history of millisecond pulsars is examined, giving attention to the origin of neutron stars, models for the formation of binary and millisecond radio pulsars, isolated and binary millisecond pulsars and accretion spun-up neutron stars, the period distribution of fast pulsars, the origin of pulsar velocities, a model of radio emission of the millisecond pulsar 1937 + 214, and a study of pulsar luminosities. Other subjects investigated are related to the physics of rapidly rotating neutron stars, a summary of general theoretical issues, and searches

  16. Radon decay products attached to clothes in a nuclear laboratory

    A whole body counter determined the presence of radioactivities up to 21.8 kBq for 214Bi and up to 18.7 kBq for 214Pb attached to clothes of workers in a Nuclear Research Laboratory. A radon survey reveals that 80% of the monitoring areas have radon concentration values lower than 500 Bq m-3, while 10% of the sampling points with values bigger than 1 kBq m-3 correspond to the workers mentioned above. By exposing samples of 0.04 m2 clothes in a radon chamber, it was observed that radon decay products 214Bi and 214Pb were attached to them with an activity of 315-618 Bq per each kBq m-3 of Rn concentration additionally, fibres characterised with a low electrostatic build up showed the lower attachment

  17. Teater

    2003-01-01

    KaTeater osaleb 2.-14. dets. A. Alegria draamaga "Niagaara" (lav. J. Urvet) Venetsueelas, Caracases VI rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Fiesta 2003". Eesti Teatriliidu volikogu koosolekul 17. nov. kinnitati R. Oja ettepanekul T. Tuisk ja A. Lumiste juhatuse uuteks liikmeteks

  18. Quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA in roots: how important is material preservation?

    Janoušková, Martina; Püschel, David; Hujslová, M.; Slavíková, R.; Jansa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 205-214. ISSN 0940-6360 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * quantitative real-time PCR * sample preservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.459, year: 2014

  19. Photoactive hybrid material based on kaolinite intercalated with a reactive fluorescent silane

    Sas, S.; Danko, M.; Lang, Kamil; Bujdák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 108, MAY (2015), s. 208-214. ISSN 0169-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemisorption * Interfaces * Luminescence * Kaolinite * Optical materials * Rhodamines Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.467, year: 2014

  20. Stability of a novel synthetic amorphous manganese oxide in contrasting soils

    Ettler, V.; Knytl, V.; Komárek, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Bordas, F.; Mihaljevič, M.; Klementová, Mariana; Šebek, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 214, FEB (2014), s. 2-9. ISSN 0016-7061 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Amorphous manganese oxide * Stability * Soils * Chemical stabilization * Pollution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2014

  1. 76 FR 57060 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    2011-09-15

    ... Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for Transfer of Data; Availability AGENCY..., Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for Transfer of Data'' (VICH GL35). This... draft guidance for industry ( 214) entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry, Pharmacovigilance...

  2. The FLUKA code: developments and challenges for high energy and medicalapplications

    Böhlen, T.T.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.P.W.; Fasso, Alberto; Ferrari, A.; Ortega, P.G.; Mairani, A.; Sala, P.R.; Smirnov, G.; Vlachoudis, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, Jul (2014), s. 211-214. ISSN 0090-3752 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : FLUKA * radioprotection * beams * ions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.571, year: 2014

  3. Diabetic foot resulting in amputation: our experience

    K. G. Patel

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Foot ulceration in diabetic patients is a resource consuming, disabling morbidity that often is the first step towards lower extremity amputation. Prevention is the best treatment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 210-214

  4. AcEST: DK960679 [AcEST

    Full Text Available OS=Arabidopsis ... 145 1e-34 sp|Q94B08|GCP1_ARATH Germination-specific cysteine ...TVAAVEGINKIVTGNLTTLSEQELIDCDTTYNNGCNGGLMDYAFEYIV 214 >sp|Q94B08|GCP1_ARATH Germination-specific cysteine pro

  5. Zikr e samâ‘ tra i sufi qâdirî di Hyderabad

    Valdinoci, Mauro

    Milano: Mimesis, 2013 - (De Zorzi, G.), s. 213-237. (Mimesis. Eterotopie. 214). ISBN 978-88-575-1938-8 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Sufism * meditation * practice Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. The Czech Republic: ownership and performance of voucher-privatised firms

    Kočenda, Evžen; Valachy, Juraj

    Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003 - (Blaszczyk, B.; Hoshi, I.; Woodward, R.), s. 171-214 ISBN 1-4039-1537-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : ownership * performance * voucher-privatised firms Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  7. Rem Koolhaas. Utopie ve sférách globálního trhu

    Hnídková, Vendula

    -, Č. 19-20 (2006), s. 212-214. ISSN 1210-6887 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Rem Koolhaas * contemporary architecture * utopia of architectural production Subject RIV: AL - Art , Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. History, recent variability and restoration of oligotrophic wetlands: editorial

    Hájek, Michal; Pyšek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 209-214. ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : history of wetlands * recent variability * restoration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2013

  9. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain)

    Results for naturally occurring 7Be, 210Pb, 40K, 214Bi, 214Pb, 212Pb, 228Ac and 208Tl and anthropogenic 137Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The 212Pb and 208Tl, 214Bi and 214Pb, 7Be and 210Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The 7Be and 210Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the 7Be, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides

  10. International Bureau Filing System Data - IBFS

    Federal Communications Commission — MyIBFS is an internet-based system which allows for electronic filing of the following types of applications and forms: space station, earth station, Section 214,...

  11. Breeding ground survey, Alaska, May 18 to June 11, 1965

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a breeding ground survey in Alaska during the 1965 breeding season. This year 206 of the 214, 16 mile transects laid out for...

  12. Plant species richness-productivity relationships in a low-productive boreal region

    Axmanová, I.; Chytrý, M.; Danihelka, Jiří; Lustyk, P.; Kočí, M.; Kubešová, S.; Horsák, M.; Cherosov, M. M.; Gogoleva, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 2 (2013), s. 207-219. ISSN 1385-0237 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : competitive excluison * forest herb layer * grassland Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.640, year: 2013

  13. Differential response of communities of plants, snails, ants and spiders to long-term mowing in a small-scale experiment

    Pech, P.; Dolanský, J.; Hrdlička, R.; Lepš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 115-124. ISSN 1585-8553 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Araneae * biodiversity * Formicidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2014

  14. 78 FR 67356 - Combined Notice of Filings

    2013-11-12

    ... Numbers: RP14-78-000. Applicants: Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America. Description: Negotiated Rate... intervene or protest in any of the above proceedings must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of...

  15. ESTIMATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF AZO DYES AND RELATED AROMATIC AMINES: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

    Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). hese models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities ...

  16. Prvočíslo 11 v kódování

    Křížek, Michal; Šolcová, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2004), s. 208-214. ISSN 0032-2423 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : ISBN and ISSN codes * bar codes * two-dimensional codes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Educational experiment for students using natural radioactivity. 2. Practical example of radiochemical experiment conducted at Tottori University

    Nakamura, Mariko; Esaka, Takao [Faculty of Engineering, Tottori Univ., Tottori (Japan); Kamata, Masahiro

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a practical example of educational experiment conducted at Tottori University, whose theme is to separate {sup 214}Bi(+{sup 214}Pb) from superphosphate of lime or the soil sampled at Ningyo-Touge mountain pass. The results of this experiment are quantitative enough for educational purpose, although the amount of radioactivity is so small that it is free from any regulation in Japan. (author)

  18. A quantitative radiochemical method for the determination of the major sources of natural radioactivity in ores and minerals

    Rosholt, John Nicholas, Jr.

    1953-01-01

    The determination of Th232, Rn222, and Pb210 by isolation and subsequent activity analysis of some of their short-lived daughter products is described. The sulfides of bismuth and polonium are precipitated out of solutions of thorium or uranium ores, and the alpha particle activity of PO214. PO212 and PO210 is determined by scintillation counting techniques. PO214 activity is used to determine Rn222, PO212 activity for Th232, and PO210 for Pb210.

  19. Compact multi-channel surface plasmon resonance sensor for rapid detection of bacterial pathogens

    Vala, Milan; Šípová, Hana; Špringer, Tomáš; Chadt, Karel; Piliarik, Marek; Homola, Jiří

    Vol. XConference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors. Praha : Institute of Photonics and Electronics AS CR, v.v.i, 2010 - (Homola, J.). s. 214-214 ISBN 978-80-86269-20-7. [EUROPT(R)ODE X – X.Conference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors. 28.03.2010-31.3.2010, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * biosensor * detection of pathogens Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  20. Educational experiment for students using natural radioactivity. 2. Practical example of radiochemical experiment conducted at Tottori University

    This paper presents a practical example of educational experiment conducted at Tottori University, whose theme is to separate 214Bi(+214Pb) from superphosphate of lime or the soil sampled at Ningyo-Touge mountain pass. The results of this experiment are quantitative enough for educational purpose, although the amount of radioactivity is so small that it is free from any regulation in Japan. (author)

  1. Effects of volatile fatty acids on propionate metabolism and gluconeogenesis in caprine hepatocytes

    Isolated caprine hepatocytes were incubated with fatty acids of various chain lengths. Short-chain fatty acids effects on rates of gluconeogenesis and oxidation from [2-14C] propionate were determined. Additions of glucose (2.5 mM) had no effect on hepatic [2-14C]-propionate metabolism in the presence and absence of amino acids. A complete mixture of amino acids increased label incorporation from [2-14C] propionate into [14C] glucose by 22%. Butyrate inhibited [2-14C] propionate metabolism and increased the apparent Michaelis constant for [2-14C] propionate incorporation into [14C] glucose from 2.4 +/- 1.5 to 5.6 +/- .9 mM. Butyrate's effects on propionate were similar in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (1 mM). Isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and valerate (1.25 mM) had no effect on [14C] glucose production but decreased 14CO2 production to 57, 61, and 54% of the control [2-14C] propionate (1.25 mM). This inhibition on 14CO2 was not competitive. Isovalerate had no effect on either [2-14C] propionate incorporation into glucose of CO2. An increase in ratio of [14C] glucose to 14CO2 from [2-14C]-propionate demonstrated that short-chain fatty acids other than butyrate do not inhibit gluconeogenesis from propionate. In addition, fatty acids that generate a net synthesis of intracellular oxaloacetate may partition propionate carbons toward gluconeogenic rather than oxidative pathways in goat hepatocytes

  2. Radioactivity in coffee

    This research was dedicated to the study of the background levels of 210Po and natural gamma emitters as 40K, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 212Pb and 212Bi in coffee powder and in coffee beverage; also the artificial 137Cs was determined. In the coffee powder the mean 210Po activity resulted 7.25 ± 2.25 x 10-2 Bq kg-1. 40K showed a mean activity of 907.4 ± 115.6 Bq kg-1. The mean activity concentration of 214Pb and 214Bi, indicators of 226Ra, given as mean value of the two radionuclides, resulted 10.61 ± 4.02 Bq kg-1. 228Ac, 228Ra indicator, showed a mean activity concentration of 13.73 ± 3.20 Bq kg-1. The mean activity concentration of 212Pb, 224Ra indicator, was 8.28 ± 2.88 Bq kg-1. 208Tl, 224Ra indicator, presented a mean activity concentration of 11.03 ± 4.34 Bq kg-1. In all samples, the artificial 137Cs resulted below the detection limit (2.0 Bq kg-1). The arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210Po extraction in coffee beverage resulted 20.5 ± 6.9. The percentage of transfer of gamma emitters, 40K, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 212Pb, 208Tl resulted of 80.0, 33.5, 24.7, 30.0, 35.1 and 53.5 % for 40K, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 212Pb and 208Tl respectively. (author)

  3. 8 CFR 245.24 - Adjustment of aliens in U nonimmigrant status.

    2010-01-01

    ... section if the alien's U nonimmigrant status has been revoked pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14(h). (d) Application... member or the principal U-1 alien, would suffer extreme hardship as described in 8 CFR 245.24(g) (to the... either a U-1, U-2, U-3, U-4 or U-5 nonimmigrant, as defined in 8 CFR 214.1(a)(2), and (ii) Continues...

  4. EST Table: FS748683 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 65 %/214 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 71 %/214 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 caL- ...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15491-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available .. 240 1e-61 CP001614_1744( CP001614 |pid:none) Teredinibacter turnerae T7901, ... 240 1e-61 FJ418585_1( FJ4...e-56 CP001614_1923( CP001614 |pid:none) Teredinibacter turnerae T7901, ... 220 9e-56 AJ557546_10( AJ557546 |... sy... 214 6e-54 CP001614_1922( CP001614 |pid:none) Teredinibacter turnerae T7901, ... 214 6e-54 AF081920_5(

  6. 3′-hydroxy-3,4,5,4′-tetramethoxystilbene, the metabolite of resveratrol analogue DMU-212, inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro and in a mice xenograft model

    Piotrowska-Kempisty, Hanna; Ruciński, Marcin; Borys, Sylwia; Kucińska, Małgorzata; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Zawierucha, Piotr; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Łażewski, Dawid; Murias, Marek; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    In screening studies, the cytotoxic activity of four metabolites of resveratrol analogue 3,4,5,4′-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212) against A-2780 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells was investigated. The most active metabolite, 3′-hydroxy-3,4,5,4′-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-214), was chosen for further studies. The cytotoxicity of DMU-214 was shown to be higher than that of the parent compound, DMU-212, in both cell lines tested. Since DMU-212 was supposed to undergo metabolic activation through its conversion to DMU-214, an attempt was made to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-proliferative activity. We found that in SKOV-3 cells lacking p53, DMU-214 induced receptor-mediated apoptosis. In A-2780 cell line with expression of wild-type p53, DMU-214 modulated the expression pattern of p53-target genes driving intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, as well as DNA repair and damage prevention. Regardless of the up-regulation of p48, p53R2, sestrins and Gaad45 genes involved in cancer cell DNA repair, we demonstrated the stronger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of DMU-214 in A-2780 cells when compared to those in SKOV-3. Hence we verified DMU-214 activity in the xenograft model using SCID mice injected with A-2780 cells. The strong anti-proliferative activity of DMU-214 in the in vivo model allowed to suggest the tested compound as a potential therapeutic in ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27585955

  7. Study of Rn-222 exhalation in phosphogypsum through the adsorption technique in activated coal; Estudo da exalacao de Rn-222 em fosfogesso por meio da tecnica de adsorcao em carvao ativado

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Campos, Marcia Pires de, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.b, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The radon exhalation was estimated through the adsorption in activated carbon technique. Classified as TENORM, the radon exhalation determination on the phosphogypsum piles was performed through the adsorption ratio of radon in activated carbon, from the concentration of descendants of {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi obtained by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained in this work were compatibles with the values found in the literature

  8. 20 CFR 656.2 - Description of the Immigration and Nationality Act and of the Department of Labor's role thereunder.

    2010-04-01

    ... regulation at 8 CFR 214.2(h)(5) and (6) and sections 101(a)(15)(H)(ii), 214, and 218 of the Act. See 8 U.S.C... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description of the Immigration and... Immigration and Nationality Act and of the Department of Labor's role thereunder. (a) Description of the...

  9. CFD Analysis of Cavitation Erosion Potential in Hydraulic Machinery

    Sedlář, M.; Zima, Patrik; Müller, M.

    Brno : University of Technology, 2009 - (Rudolf, P.), s. 205-214 ISBN 978-80-214-3947-4. [IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems /3./. Brno (CZ), 14.10.2009-16.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/1612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cavitation erosion * bubble dynamics * CFD analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  10. Study on the solubility of radon in tissues; Untersuchung der Loeslichkeit von Radon in Gewebe

    Fournier, Claudia; Kraft, Gerhard; Maier, Andreas; Beek, Patrick van [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    At the GSI Helmholtz Center in Darmstadt a radon chamber with conditions similar to the radon galleries was built for studies on the solubility of radon in tissues using cell cultures and animals. The samples are investigated using gamma spectroscopy following the radon exposure measuring Pb-214 and Bi-214. The original concentration of Rn-222 in the sample is determined by the time dependence of the decay rates of Rn-222. The experimental conditions and preliminary measurements are described.

  11. On the characteristics of the wet deposition process using radon as a tracer gas

    A quantitatively characterised atmospheric process can provide important information on a variety of atmospheric models and help one to understand the deposition process in the atmosphere. In this study, the total activity concentrations of 214Pb and 214Bi and the activity ratios of 214Bi/214Pb in collected rain samples were measured by two-inch well-type Nai(Tl) detectors. Observed precipitations were classified by the origins of their air mass (continental/maritime) and their meteorological conditions (cold/warm front, high/low pressure). The result shows that (1) when the air mass passed over the continent of Asia 5 d prior to the precipitation, the activity concentration of radon decay products in the rainwater tended to be higher than when the air mass passed over from the Pacific Ocean; (2) higher activity concentrations were more frequently observed in precipitations accompanied with a cold front than warm/stationary front; (3) in general, the activity ratios of 214Bi/214Pb decrease with increase in rain intensity. (authors)

  12. Poly-ADP-ribosylation-mediated degradation of ARTD1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome is a prerequisite for osteoclast maturation

    Wang, C; Qu, C; Alippe, Y; Bonar, S L; Civitelli, R; Abu-Amer, Y; Hottiger, M O; Mbalaviele, G

    2016-01-01

    Evidence implicates ARTD1 in cell differentiation, but its role in skeletal metabolism remains unknown. Osteoclasts (OC), the bone-resorbing cells, differentiate from macrophages under the influence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that M-CSF induced ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 (ARTD1) auto-ADP-ribosylation in macrophages, a modification that marked ARTD1 for cleavage, and subsequently, for degradation upon RANKL exposure. We established that ARTD1 proteolysis was NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent, and occurred via the proteasome pathway. Since ARTD1 is cleaved at aspartate214, we studied the impact of ARTD1 rendered uncleavable by D214N substitution (ARTD1D214N) on skeletal homeostasis. ARTD1D214N, unlike wild-type ARTD1, was resistant to cleavage and degradation during osteoclastogenesis. As a result, ARTD1D214N altered histone modification and promoted the abundance of the repressors of osteoclastogenesis by interfering with the expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1), the master regulator of anti-osteoclastogenic transcription factors. Importantly, ARTD1D214N-expressing mice exhibited higher bone mass compared with controls, owing to decreased osteoclastogenesis while bone formation was unaffected. Thus, unless it is degraded, ARTD1 represses OC development through transcriptional regulation. PMID:27010854

  13. Concentrations and their ratio of 222Rn decay products in rainwater measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using a low-background Ge detector

    The concentrations and the concentration ratios of individual short-lived 222Rn decay products (214Pb and 214Bi) in rainwater were measured at Kumatori village (34.39oN, 135.35oE, approximately 70 m above sea level) in Osaka, Japan, by gamma-ray spectrometry using a low-background Ge detector. The dependence of the time variations of the concentrations and their ratios on rainfall rate was investigated. It was observed that the concentrations were negatively correlated with the rainfall rate in some rainfall events, and that there was no clear correlation in other rainfall events. The changes in the dependence of the concentration on the rainfall rate occurred after the passage of a cold front during a single rainfall event. The concentration ratios showed a weak negative correlation with the rainfall rate for most of the observed rainfall events. A scavenging model was designed in this study in order to explain the observation results. Based on the relationship between the concentrations of 214Pb and 214Bi in the rainwater and the rainfall rate for an individual rainfall event, the increase in the environmental gamma-ray dose rate from 214Pb and 214Bi deposited on the ground was calculated, and the calculated increase agreed well with that observed by the in situ measurement on flat ground

  14. Natural radioactivity in tap waters of Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    In this study, the activity concentrations of some radionuclides in tap water samples of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey were measured. The activity concentrations of radionuclides 214Pb, 214Bi, 40K, 226Ra and 137Cs were determined using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Furthermore, 222Rn activity concentrations in tap water samples were measured using Liquid Scintillation Counting. The mean specific activities of 214Pb, 214Bi, 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs and 222Rn in tap water samples were 6.73, 6, 19.16, 168.57, 5.45 mBq I-1 and 10.82 Bq I-1, respectively. These values are comparable with concentrations reported for other countries. The effective doses were determined due to intake of these radionuclides as a consequence of direct consumption of tap water samples. The estimated effective doses were 6.878 x 10-4 μSv y-1 for 214Pb, 4.800 x 10-4 μSv y -4 for 214Bi, 3.916 μSv y-1 for 226Ra, 0.763 μSv y-1 for 40K, 0.052 μSv y-1 for 137Cs and 5.848 μSv y-1 for 222Rn. (authors)

  15. Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors. A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems

    The actinides (or actinoids) are those elements in the periodic table from actinium upwards. Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) are two of the principal elements in nuclear fuel that could be classed as major actinides. The minor actinides are normally taken to be the triad of neptunium (Np), americium (Am) and curium (Cm). The combined masses of the remaining actinides (i.e. actinium, thorium, protactinium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium) are small enough to be regarded as very minor trace contaminants in nuclear fuel. Those elements above uranium in the periodic table are known collectively as the transuranics (TRUs). The operation of a nuclear reactor produces large quantities of irradiated fuel (sometimes referred to as spent fuel), which is either stored prior to eventual deep geological disposal or reprocessed to enable actinide recycling. A modern light water reactor (LWR) of 1 GWe capacity will typically discharge about 20-25 tonnes of irradiated fuel per year of operation. About 93-94% of the mass of uranium oxide irradiated fuel is comprised of uranium (mostly 238U), with about 4-5% fission products and ∼1% plutonium. About 0.1-0.2% of the mass is comprised of neptunium, americium and curium. These latter elements accumulate in nuclear fuel because of neutron captures, and they contribute significantly to decay heat loading and neutron output, as well as to the overall radio-toxic hazard of spent fuel. Although the total minor actinide mass is relatively small - approximately 20-25 kg per year from a 1 GWe LWR - it has a disproportionate impact on spent fuel disposal, and thus the longstanding interest in transmuting these actinides either by fission (to fission products) or neutron capture in order to reduce their impact on the back end of the fuel cycle. The combined masses of the trace actinides actinium, thorium, protactinium, berkelium and californium in irradiated LWR fuel are only about 2 parts per billion, which is far too low for

  16. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  17. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, morphological alterations and oxidative stress in Chinook salmon cells exposed to copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Srikanth, Koigoora; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C; Rao, Janapala Venkateswara

    2016-05-01

    The current study is aimed to study cytotoxicity and oxidative stress mediated changes induced by copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in Chinook salmon cells (CHSE-214). To this end, a number of biochemical responses are evaluated in CHSE-214 cells which are as follows [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] MTT, neutral red uptake (NRU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein carbonyl (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), oxidised glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione sulfo-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. The 50 % inhibition concentration (IC50) of CuO NPs to CHSE-214 cells after 24 h exposure was found to be 19.026 μg ml(-1). Viability of cells was reduced by CuO NPs, and the decrease was dose dependent as revealed by the MTT and NRU assay. CHSE-214 cells exposed to CuO NPs induced morphological changes. Initially, cells started to detach from the surface (12 h), followed by polyhedric, fusiform appearance (19 h) and finally the cells started to shrink. Later, the cells started losing their cellular contents leading to their death only after 24 h. LDH, PC, LPO, GSH, GPx, GST, SOD, CAT, 8-OHdG and ROS responses were seen significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of CuO NPs when compared to their respective controls. However, significant decrease in GSSG was perceptible in CHSE-214 cells exposed to CuO NPs in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrated that CuO NPs induced cytotoxicity in CHSE-214 cells through the mediation of oxidative stress. The current study provides a baseline for the CuO NPs-mediated cytotoxic assessment in CHSE-214 cells for the future studies. PMID:26115719

  19. Comparative study on DOTA-derivatized bombesin analog labeled with 90Y and 177Lu: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to compare in vitro and in vivo a novel DOTA-chelated bombesin (BN) analog of the amino acid sequence, QRLGNQWAVGHLM-CONH2 (BN[2-14]NH2), labeled with 90Y and 177Lu, for its potential use in targeted radiotherapy of tumors expressing gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. The same amino acid sequence, but with different chelator, referred as BN1.1 (Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca-QRLGNQWAVGHLM-CONH2), has already been studied and reported; however, the DOTA-chelated one, suitable for labeling with M+3 type radiometals, was not yet described. Methods: The conditions for labeling of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 with noncarrier added 90Y and with 177Lu [specific activity (SA), 15 Ci/mg Lu] were investigated and optimized to provide 90Y-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and 177Lu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 of high SA. The stability of the radiolabeled compounds in human serum was evaluated over a period of 24 h. The human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, known to express GRP receptors, was used for in vitro evaluation of radiolabeled peptide affinity to GRP receptors and for assessment of cytotoxicity of both nonlabeled and radiolabeled peptide. Biodistribution accompanied by receptor blocking was studied in normal Swiss mice. Results: 90Y-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and 177Lu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 were obtained with radiochemical yield >98% and high SA (67.3 GBq 90Y/μmol and 33.6 GBq 177Lu/μmol, respectively). They were stable when incubated in human serum for up to 24 h. The binding affinities of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and both natY- and natLu-labeled analogs to GRP receptors were high (IC50=1.78, 1.99, and 1.34 nM, respectively), especially for the natLu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 complex. The cytotoxicity study of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 to PC-3 cells revealed an IC50=6300 nM after 72 h of exposition, while the labeled derivatives showed no significant cytotoxic effect. The internalization rate to PC-3 cells was more rapid for 177Lu-labeled peptide (84.87%) than for the 90Y-labeled one (80.79%), while the efflux

  20. 苯叉丙酮缩胺化合物及其配合物的合成与表征%Synthesis and Characterization Study of Benzylidene Acetone Condensation Amine and Coordination Complexes

    李章; 李淼; 李洪东; 戚峰; 滕云霞; 周徐亮; 王寿武

    2014-01-01

    利用乙二胺和亚苄基丙酮反应合成了不饱和化合物(Ph2Me2[14]dieneN4),再用硼氢化钾与不饱和化合物还原生成饱和的十四元大环化合物(Ph2Me2[14]H2dieneN4),并用盐酸和氢氧化钠对饱和十四元大环进行提纯,得到纯的十四元大环希夫碱并与乙酸酮反应生成配合物,通过红外光谱进行了表征。%The unsaturated Ph2Me2[14]dieneN4( Ⅱ ) compound was formed by ethylene diamine and benzylidene ketones reaction, then the unsaturated Ph2Me2[14]dieneN4( Ⅱ ) was reduced to the saturated fourteen macrocyclic compound Ph2Me2[14] H2dienenN4( Ⅲ ) by potassium borohydride. The saturated fourteen macrocyclic compound was purified with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. The copper complex was synthesized by this fourteen macrocyclic compound and copper acetate. The title complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Distribution of labeled auxin in geotropically stimulated stems of cucumber and pea

    The distribution of IAA-2-14C or IAA-5-3H applied to the apex in the upper and lower (with respect to gravity) halves of geotropically stimulated stems of cucumber and pea was examined and the results obtained are as follows: 1. A larger amount of IAA-2-14C or IAA-5-3H was detected in the lower than upper half of cucumber hypocotyls with 3-hr geostimulation. 2. A larger amount of IAA-2-14C was distributed in the lower than upper epidermis of pea epicotyls with 1-hr geostimulation. 3. Freezing autoradiography revealed that IAA-2-14C was concentrated in the vascular bundles and epidermis of cucumber hypocotyls, the distribution being affected by geostimulation only in the latter. 4. Application of 1% TIBA in lanolin inhibited the distribution of IAA-2-14C in the lower epidermis of pea epicotyls, causing suppression of geotropic curvature. 5. From these results, we concluded that IAA which accumulated in the lower epidermis of the stem upon geostimulation caused the negative geotropic curvature of the stem. (auth.)

  2. Radionuclides and trace elements in centipede species Scolopendra cingulata from Serbia

    The adults of centipede Scolopendra cingulata from Serbia have been analyzed for 214Bi, 137Cs, 228Ac, 40K, 212Pb and 214Pb activity. The top 5 cm of soil from the same locations (Novi Pazar, Izbice and Pcinja) is also measured - to estimate upper limit of the soil - S. cingulata radionuclide transfer factors (i.e., S. cingulata/soil concentration ratios), as well as the total dose rate - external and internal exposure. Cesium-137 activity was found to be below (or equal to) minimum detectable activity in all 16 specimens. The highest measured 214Bi activity was 0.1 Bq g-1, while 228Ac-0.086 Bq g-1, 40K-0.12 Bq g-1, 212Pb-0.012 Bq g-1 and 214Pb-0.029 Bq g-1. Bismut-214 transfer factors are found to range from 228Ac - from -1. The As, Se, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, but also Zn and Fe concentrations - in three individuals, were also determined. All the elements showed concentrations in the Pcinja S. cingulata significantly lower than in S. cingulata from Novi Pazar and Izbice. (author)

  3. In Situ Studies of the Temperature-Dependent Surface Structure and Chemistry of Single-Crystalline (001)-Oriented La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3−δ Perovskite Thin Films

    Feng, Zhenxing

    2013-05-02

    Perovskites are used to promote the kinetics of oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes. Little is known about the surface structure and chemistry of perovskites at high temperatures and partial oxygen pressures. Combining in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we report, for the first time, the evolution of the surface structure and chemistry of (001)-oriented perovskite La0.8Sr0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC113) and (La0.5Sr 0.5)2CoO4+δ (LSC214)-decorated LSC113 (LSC113/214) thin films as a function of temperature. Heating the (001)-oriented LSC113 surface leads to the formation of surface LSC214-like particles, which is further confirmed by ex situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). In contrast, the LSC113/214 surface, with activities much higher than that of LSC 113, is stable upon heating. Combined in situ XRR and APXPS measurements support that Sr enrichment may occur at the LSC113 and LSC214 interface, which can be responsible for its markedly enhanced activities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  5. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  6. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co. , Deepwater, New Jersey. Final report

    None

    1978-12-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the E. I. Du Pont Company, Deepwater, New Jersey, are presented in this report. During the 1940's this site was used for development of a process for the conversion of uranium oxide to produce uranium tetrafluoride and small quantities of uranium metal. The survey included measurements of the following: residual alpha and beta--gamma contamination levels, both fixed and transferable, in the one remaining uranium tetrafluoride operations building; external gamma radiation levels at 1 m above the surface inside this building and at outdoor locations where radioactive materials were handled; radon and radon daughter concentrations in the air in the operations building; uranium, radium, actinium, and thorium concentrations in soil and water on and near the site; and the airborne concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radium in the operations building. Elevated concentrations of uranium were found in residues from the operations building and in some surface and subsurface soil samples. Alpha and beta--gamma contamination levels in some areas of the operations building were above the limits of current federal guidelines set for the release of property for unrestricted use. 18 figures, 11 tables.

  7. Geological disposal: security and R and D. Security of 'second draft for R and D of geological disposal'

    The second draft for R and D of geological disposal (second draft) was arranged in 1999. The idea of security of geological disposal in the second draft is explained. The evaluation results of the uncertainty analysis and an example of evaluation of the effect of separation nuclear transmutation on the geological disposal are shown. The construction of strong engineered barrier is a basic idea of geological disposal system. Three processes such as isolation, engineering countermeasures and safety evaluation are carried out for the security of geological disposal. The security of geological environment for a long time of 12 sites in Japan was studied by data. Provability of production and enforcement of engineered barrier were confirmed by trial of over pack, tests and the present and future technologies developed. By using the conditions of reference case in the second draft, the evaluation results of dose effects in the two cases: 1) 90 to 99% Cs and Sr removed from HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) and 2) high stripping ratio of actinium series are explained. (S.Y.)

  8. Selective Decontamination Effect of Metal Ions in Soil Using Supercritical CO{sub 2} and TBP Complex

    Park, Jihye; Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Decontamination of soil pollution is difficult because the type of contamination largely depends on the characteristics of the pollutant and the area. Also, existing soil decontamination methods generate large quantities of secondary waste and additional process costs. For this reason, new decontamination methods are always under active investigation. A method involving the use of supercritical carbon dioxide with excellent permeability in place of chemical solvents is currently being studied. Unlike other heavy metals in fission products, uranium is used as fuel, and must be handled carefully. Therefore, in this paper, we studied a supercritical carbon dioxide method for decontaminating heavy metal ions in soil using tri-n-butyl phosphate(TBP), which is well known as a ligand for the extraction of metal ions of actinium. We investigated the decontamination effect of heavy metal ions in the soil using TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex and supercritical carbon dioxide. The study results showed that when heavy metals in soil are extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide, the extraction efficiency is different according to the type of pollutant metal ions in the soil. When TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex is used with an extractant, uranium extraction is very effective, but lithium, strontium, and cesium extraction is not effective. Therefore, in the case of a mixture of uranium and other metals such as lithium, strontium, cesium, and so on in soil contaminated by fission product leaks from nuclear power plants, we can selectively decontaminate uranium with supercritical carbon dioxide and TBP-HNO{sub 3} Complex.

  9. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  10. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  11. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain 238U, 226Ra and 232,228Th typically on the level of ˜ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO2, Nd2O3 and Gd2O3. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R&D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  12. Radionuclides in coastal swampland soils in South Australia - An unusual distribution?

    A plant processing uranium ore was constructed during the 1950's on coastal swamplands at Port Pirie, South Australia, with tailings and chemical residues stored in clay-lined dams on site. Environmental soil samples collected recently from this area showed an unusual radionuclide distribution which suggested possible contamination from the former uranium plant nearby. On subsequent investigation it appears this distribution is a general property of swampland soils. The concentration of uranium in these soils is significantly greater (2-10 times) than that of its decay products, with an observed range of uranium concentrations from 50 to 300 Bq/kg. In contrast, 'normal' soils in South Australia contain between 5 and 60 Bq/kg, with decay products close to secular equilibrium. In addition, actinium (and its parent, protactinium) occur in sediments in greater concentration than expected - 6 to 36 Bq/kg compared with a 'normal soil' range of 0.2 to 3 Bq/kg. Results obtained suggest: organic residues in the sediments play a major part in the concentration of radionuclides; and the probable source of radionuclides is sea-water. These observations are consistent with results of other workers who examined the incorporation of stable trace metals into coastal swampland sediments in South Australia. Representative data are presented and discussed

  13. Study of Thorium Utilization in a Large Scale Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    The breeding performance of 232Th in fast reactor is better than 238U, since the capture cross section of 232Th is slightly higher than 238U under the fast neutron spectrum. There are much less fission neutrons in the blanket, so the proportion of neutron with energy above 6MeV (the threshold energy of (n,2n) reaction of 232Th) is very small. Therefore, the 233U produced in fast reactor blanket would have high purity. In this paper, an large scale fast reactor core was taken as the reference core for 232Th utilization study. In the calculation results, the whole capability of 233U production is about 443kg/(GWe•a) in the blanket; at the end of the first cycle (160EFPD), the 233U production per unit mass of 232Th is about 10.71g/(kgTh), and the weight fraction of 232U in actinium is less than 0.019%. It is an attractive technology option to produce 233U in the blanket. (author)

  14. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy-How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    de Kruijff, Robin M; Wolterbeek, Hubert T; Denkova, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  15. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy—How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    de Kruijff, Robin M.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Denkova, Antonia G.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  16. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy—How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    Robin M. de Kruijff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET. Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium, 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue.

  17. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the coastal area of Tamil Nadu (India)

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2x7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y-1. From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g-1 of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y-1 ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y-1. (authors)

  18. Emanations and 'induced' radioactivity: from mystery to (mis)use

    The natural Rn isotopes were discovered within the period 1899-1902 and at that time referred to as emanations because they came out (emanated) of sources/materials containing actinium, thorium and radium, respectively. The (somewhat mysterious) emanations appeared to disintegrate into radioactive decay products which by depositing at solid surfaces gave rise to 'induced' radioactivity i.e. radioactive substances with various half-lives. Following the discovery of the emanations the volume of the research involving them and their disintegration products grew steeply. The identity of a number of these radioactive products was soon established. Radium emanation was soon used as a source of RaD (210Pb) to be applied as an 'indicator' (radiotracer) for lead in a study on the solubility of lead sulphide and lead chromate. Moreover, radium and its emanation were introduced into the medical practice. Inhaling radon and drinking radon-containing water became an accepted medicinal use (or misuse?) of that gas. Shortly after the turn of the century, the healing (?) action of natural springs (spas) was attributed to their radium emanation, i.e. radon. Bathing in radioactive spring water and drinking it became very popular. Even today, bathing in radon-containing water is still a common medical treatment in Jachymov, Czech Republic. (author)

  19. Liquid Scintillation Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes: A Review of the Impact of Background Reduction

    Douglas, Matthew; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2016-03-09

    Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is a versatile and commonplace method for radiometric measurement of charged particle emitting radionuclides. The LSC method provides utility in a range of environmental science applications including hydrological studies of water transport, anthropogenic releases of radionuclides into the environment, and vertical mixing rates within oceans. Instrumental measurement background is one limiting factor of radiometric measurement sensitivity. As part of the development of a custom low background LSC system located in a shallow underground laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a number of measurement applications of LSC have been considered and are summarized here. The focus is on determining which aspects of such measurements would gain the greatest benefit from the reduction of LSC backgrounds by a factor of 10-100 relative to values reported in the literature. Examples of benefits include lowering the minimum detectable activity, reducing the sample size required, and shortening the elapsed timeline of the processing and analysis sequence. In particular tritium, strontium, and actinium isotopes are examined as these isotopes cover a range of requirements related to the LSC measurement method (e.g., 3H: low energy; Sr: spectral deconvolution; Ac: alpha/beta discrimination).

  20. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  1. Enhanced radioactivity due to natural oil and gas production and related radiological problems

    Within the scope of a research contract, the following aspects are considered: External radiation exposure at production sites; internal radiation exposures during cleaning operations such as removing of scale by sand blasting; problems of waste disposal; internal radiation exposure due to radon inhalation by consumers; the origin of the high radium content of brines from oil and gas fields. Enhanced dose rates up to 50 μSv/h have been found at the external surface of saltwater tanks, but 72% of the 160 sites investigated did not show any increase above the natural background. Brines from gas contained radium-226 up to 286 Bq/1 and scale up to 1 kBq/g. In brines and scale from oil fields radium-228 was usually the dominating radionuclide. Some samples contained significant amounts of lead-210 and even actinium-227, too, but practically no uranium or thorium. The radon-222 concentrations in natural gas samples varied between 0.004 and 4 Bq/l with an average value of 0.6 Bq/l. Related radiological problems are discussed. (orig./HP)

  2. Neutron measurements with miniature fission chambers

    This report analyses the use and qualification of miniature fission chambers for two types of neutron measurements: 1) relative measurements in nuclear power reactors, or nuclear irradiation reactors. We consider the problem of burnable fissile material in detectors, under important neutron exposures and conclude on recommending the use of regenerating neutron detectors. 2) Measurements of integral physical parameters in experimental reactors. This method has been applied to measurements of fission rates in detectors with strong alpha-rays emitter deposits in order to establish standard tables of physical parameters. It has been used in particular for detectors including very radioactive actinium series. After a discussion of the instrumentation choice and data processing, specific to each measurements, we provide results on: 1) the technological and neutron behaviour of regenerating miniature fission chambers, in the swimming pool reactor 'TRITON', under a neutron exposure of 7.1020 n cm-2 and a gamma-rays exposure of 1,5.1011 rads about. The fissile material is 235U and the fertile material 234U. 2) The integral measurements of effective cross sections for 241Am and 238Pu in the experimental reactor 'MINERVE' use for study of problems of fast neutron reactors

  3. Quantification of radionuclide transfer in terrestrial and freshwater environments: A summary

    Exposure may occur as a result of incidental releases and discharges from all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. This includes uranium mines, fuel fabrication facilities, reactors, reprocessing plants and low, intermediate and high level radioactive waste repository sites. Each of these releases involves mainly fission and neutron activation products as well as actinides. Uranium mining and fuel fabrication also involve radionuclides of the uranium, actinium and thorium decay series. In addition, some industries such as mineral sands production and processing, phosphate ore processing, coal burning and oil and gas production can generate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) as waste. Other sources of human exposure include nuclear weapon testing and radiation accidents or incidents. Any radiological assessments are based on an analysis of radionuclide transport patterns and processes governing radionuclide behaviour in the environment. Therefore, it is an aim of the IAEA to support Member States to enhance their capability for evaluating radionuclide transport, geochemical and biochemical enrichment, and radiation effects on human beings and other biota

  4. Study of Soil Decontamination Method Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and TBP

    The result of this study means that we have a possible new method for cheap and less wasteful nuclear waste decontamination. When severe accidents such as the incident at the Fukushima nuclear site occur, the soil near the power plant is contaminated with fission products or the activation metal structure of the power plant. The soil pollution form depends on the environment and soil characteristics of the contaminated areas. Thus, a- single-decontamination method is not effective for site cleanup. In addition, some soil decontamination methods are expensive and large amounts of secondary waste are generated. Therefore, we need new soil decontamination methods. In this study, instead of using a conventional solvent method that generates secondary waste, supercritical carbon dioxide was used to remove metal ions from the soil. Supercritical carbon dioxide is known for good permeation characteristics. We expect that we will reduce the cost of soil pollution management. Supercritical carbon dioxide can decontaminate soil easily, as it has the ability to penetrate even narrow gaps with very good moisture permeability. We used TBP, which is a known for extractant of actinium metal. TBP is usually used for uranium and strontium extraction. Using TBP-HNO3 complex and supercritical carbon dioxide, we did extraction experiments for several heavy metals in contaminated soil

  5. Selective Decontamination Effect of Metal Ions in Soil Using Supercritical CO2 and TBP Complex

    Decontamination of soil pollution is difficult because the type of contamination largely depends on the characteristics of the pollutant and the area. Also, existing soil decontamination methods generate large quantities of secondary waste and additional process costs. For this reason, new decontamination methods are always under active investigation. A method involving the use of supercritical carbon dioxide with excellent permeability in place of chemical solvents is currently being studied. Unlike other heavy metals in fission products, uranium is used as fuel, and must be handled carefully. Therefore, in this paper, we studied a supercritical carbon dioxide method for decontaminating heavy metal ions in soil using tri-n-butyl phosphate(TBP), which is well known as a ligand for the extraction of metal ions of actinium. We investigated the decontamination effect of heavy metal ions in the soil using TBP-HNO3 Complex and supercritical carbon dioxide. The study results showed that when heavy metals in soil are extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide, the extraction efficiency is different according to the type of pollutant metal ions in the soil. When TBP-HNO3 Complex is used with an extractant, uranium extraction is very effective, but lithium, strontium, and cesium extraction is not effective. Therefore, in the case of a mixture of uranium and other metals such as lithium, strontium, cesium, and so on in soil contaminated by fission product leaks from nuclear power plants, we can selectively decontaminate uranium with supercritical carbon dioxide and TBP-HNO3 Complex

  6. Exposure to radioactive aerosols in mining and milling operations: the importance of 227Ac and 231Pa

    'Full-Text:' 227Ac (half-life of 21.8 y) is the daughter or 231Pa; a beta emitter and parent of a subseries with five short-lived alpha-emitters. 231Pa (half-life of 3.27x104 y) is an alpha-emitter of the actinium series, the decay chain of 235U. As daughters of this uranium isotope they are thought to be unimportant as a radiological hazard, despite the fact that their ALI values for ingestion and inhalation are the lowest of any other radionuclide. Both nuclides can be considered as being in secular equilibrium with uranium in most geological media and so the mass concentration of 231Pa is the same of the 226Ra and that of 227Ac is the same of the 210Pa, to mention only two radionuclides of radiological concern. It is shown in this paper that if 231Pa and 227Ac are considered in the evaluations of dose commitments incurred by inhalation of aerosols in mining and milling operations, the results can be 70% higher than those calculated by the methodology of ICRP Publication 47. (author)

  7. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of >30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1 M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a 'hold back' carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference

  8. Theoretical Study on Properties of New Isotope 265Bh

    The properties of nuclei belonging to the newly observed α-decay chain starting from 265Bh have been studied. The axially deformed relativistic mean-field calculation with the force NL-Z2 has been performed in the blocked BCS approximation. Some ground state properties such as binding energies, deformations, spins, and parities, as well as Q-values of the α-decay for this decay chain have been calculated and compared with known experimental data. Good agreement is found. The single-particle spectrum of the nucleus 265Bh is studied and some new magic numbers are found, while the magnitudes of the shell gaps in superheavy nuclei are much smaller than those of nuclei before the actinium region, and the Fermi surfaces are close to the continuum. Thus the superheavy nuclei are usually not stable. The α-decay lifetimes in the 265Bh decay chain are evaluated by different formulae, and compared with experimental data. The methods which give good agreement with the data are selected.

  9. Workplace monitoring and related health hazard evaluation in South African mining and mineral processing industries by application of nuclear and related analytical techniques

    The South African Government notice R 849 (23 April 1994) requires application to the South African Council for Nuclear Safety (CNS) for a nuclear licence if materials are dealt with that contain more than 0,2 but less than 1 Becquerel per gram of any radionuclide of the natural uranium, thorium and actinium decay series. If the material is to be used in the construction of buildings the application should have been made before 1 April 1996, otherwise before 31 March 1999. The first phase of the monitoring programme assesses the observed radioactivity levels of waste products and the possible radiological impact on people working on site and living in the direct environment of the operational site. Information has been obtained on the radionuclide content and elemental composition of the various sources of the coal, waste ash, ash related products, crusher materials and effluent water. Except for the effluent and coal samples all other materials showed activity levels for one or more nuclides above the 0,2 Bq/g but not exceeding the 1 Bq/g level. Accordingly a first order assessment of the possible radiological impact on workers and the public has been performed for water consumption and dust inhalation. Actual dust concentrations recorded at various sites within the operational area are used to evaluate the yearly dose to workers. (author)

  10. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Polischuk, O. G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine and INFN, Section of Rome, La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belli, P. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Section of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, I-67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  11. An airborne gamma ray survey of the Duddon Estuary in February 1993

    An aerial survey of radioactivity of the Duddon estuary (United Kingdom was conducted on 25th February 1993, using an 8 litre NaI detector. Maps of the distribution of 137Cs, 40K, 214Bi, 208Tl and estimated gamma dose rates are presented. The distribution of 137Cs on estuarine and marsh areas is clearly defined, with the greatest concentrations largely following the salt marsh boundaries. The gamma dose rate map indicates that Cs contamination is a controlling dose contributor. Natural radiation shows considerable variations, reflecting the local geological and geomorphological structures. The 214Bi map shows an anomaly in the vicinity of Millom. Since 214Bi is a radon daughter, this signal may have a dynamic component. Alternatively it may originate from industrial or mining wastes in the area. (5 figures). (UK)

  12. The short half-life descendents from radon measured in Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil, and its correlation with meteorological data

    The correlations between the activity of the short half-life radon decay products in the low atmosphere and the meterological parameters, measuring the atmospheric polonium 214 are studied. The aerosols were collected on membrane filters and analysed by alpha spectrometry. Measurements have been made in Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista, in Brazil. At S. Jose dos Campos the influence of the pluviometry on the concentration of atmospheric Po214 has been analysed, showing that high activity correspond to low pluviometry and inversely, low activities correspond to high pluviometry. At Cachoeira Paulista, the variation in the atmospheric Po214 activity in corresation with the air stability, measured, showing the accumulation of radioactive aerosols during the greater stability in the the lower atmospheric layers, was studied. (author)

  13. Natural Resistance of Two Plantation Woods Populus × canadensis cv. and Cunninghamia lanceolata to Decay Fungi and Termites

    Xing Jia-qi; Momohara Ikuo; Ohmura Wakako

    2005-01-01

    Natural durability of two plantation woods, Chinese fir and I-214 poplar, was investigated thoroughly by three testing methods, namely an accelerated laboratory decay test, a fungus cellar test and a field test. Aft er the decay test using Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor, Chinese fir and the I-214 poplar showed 34% and 69% of mass loss, respectively, indicating they should be classified as slightly durable and non-durable wood. This conclusion was confirmed by the fungus cellar test and the field test. Like the performance in the decay test, I-214 poplar showed no resistance to termites either in the laboratory or in the field,whereas Chinese fir would be classified as moderately resistant.

  14. 222Rn, 220Rn and Progeny Measured in a Limestone Cave and the Associated Radiation Dose

    Concentrations of radon, thoron and the attached and unattached fractions of the short lived alpha emitting decay progeny were measured at different locations in a limestone cave by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors in order to assess the dose due to inhalation. The committed equivalent doses per hour of exposure due to the attached and unattached fractions of 218Po and 214Po were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract. The influence of the activity of the attached and unattached fractions of 218Po and 214Po and the mass of the tissue on the committed equivalent dose per hour of exposure was investigated. The annual committed effective doses due to the attached and unattached fractions of 218Po and 214Po were determined. A maximum value of 1.7 mSv was found for workers spending 1 h/d during the summer months inside the cave. (author)

  15. Interaction of a green ester-bonded gemini surfactant with xanthine oxidase: Biophysical perspective.

    Akram, Mohd; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    A multi technique approach was utilized to explore the interaction between a novel green gemini surfactant, ethane-1,2-diyl bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-tetradecylammoniumacetoxy) dichloride (14-E2-14), with bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO). Tensiometric, spectroscopic, microscopic and molecular modeling results demonstrate significant interaction and structural change of native xanthine oxidase upon 14-E2-14 combination. The results obtained in this study may be beneficial for scientists to calibrate conformation of the enzyme by novel biodegradable/green microstructures; consequently, it would likely add new impetus in understanding the treatment modes of various diseases like gout, hyperuricemia, liver and brain necrosis. Moreover, the 14-E2-14-XO interaction assists to unfurl new routes in the designing/selection of green-surfactant-protein mixtures widely used in food processing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25849998

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSI328 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI328 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16027-1 SSI328Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSI328Z 566 - - - - Show SSI328 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI328 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSI3-B/SSI328Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSI32...8Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSI328 (SSI328Q) /CSM/SS/SSI3-B/SSI328Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX.../VFL168Q.Seq.d/ 1047 0.0 VFJ214 (VFJ214Q) /CSM/VF/VFJ2-A/VFJ214Q.Seq.d/ 1047 0.0 SSI328 (SSI328Q) /CSM/SS/SSI3-B/SSI

  17. Synthesis of carbon C-14 labelled 2-phenyl-4-alpha-alkylaminomethyl-quinolinemethanol: a potential anti-leishmaniasis agent

    Using sodium acetate, [1-14C] as a starting material, a total of seven steps were required to synthesize the title compound. This involved acylation of ortho-dichlorobenzene to form dichloroacetophenone, [2-14C] (I). The 2-phenyl-4-quinoline carboxylic acid, [2-14C] (II) was prepared by the Pfitzinger reaction from (1) and dichloroisatin. Compound 11 was converted to the acid chloride (III) by reaction with SOCl2 in benzene. Grignard condensation reaction of (III) yielded 4-quinolylmethylketone, [2-14C] (IV) which was then converted to the bromomethylketone (V). Compound V was reacted with NaBH4 to form the ethylene oxide (VI). Alkylation of the oxide yielded the title compound (VII). The overall radiochemical yield was 10.1% and the specific activity was 3.0 mCi/mmol, with a radiochemical purity of >99.5%. (author)

  18. Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants

    Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha (238U, 210Po) and gamma (214Pb-Bi, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs) spectrometry. 238U ranged between dry-1; 210Po between dry-1; 214Pb-214Bi between dry-1; 210Pb between dry-1; 40K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kgdry-1; 137Cs between dry-1. The percentage of 210Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210Po extraction resulted 20.7 ± 7.5.

  19. The Impact of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on VLBI2010

    Petrachenko, William

    2010-01-01

    A significant motivation for the development of a next generation system for geodetic VLBI was to address growing problems related to RFI. In this regard, the broadband 2-14 GHz frequency range proposed for VLBI2010 has advantages and disadvantages. It has the advantage of flexible allocation of band frequencies and hence the ability to avoid areas of the spectrum where RFI is worst. However, the receiver is at the same time vulnerable to saturation from RFI anywhere in the full 2-14 GHz range. The impacts of RFI on the VLBI2010 analog signal path, the sampler, and the digital signal processing are discussed. In addition, a number of specific RFI examples in the 2-14 GHz range are presented.

  20. Incorporation of radioactive pyrimidic precursors into the deoxyribonucleic acids of Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    (2-14C) thymidine is incorporated into the nuclear and chloroplastic DNAs of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, strain Emerson. (me-14C) thymidine is incorporated into chloroplastic DNA, but never into nuclear DNA. The radioactivity is still found to be associated with thymine. When the cultures are supplied with (2-14C) uracil, both DNAs are radioactive and the radioactivity is found to be associated with thymine, cytosine, and, for the nuclear DNA, 5-methylcytosine. (2-14C) deoxycytidine is also incorporated into both DNAs, but their specific activity is very low. These results suggest that thymidine is specifically incorporated into chloroplastic DNA of the strain Emerson. In the case of the nuclear DNA, they suggest the existence of a thymidine demethylation mechanism, probably localized in the cytoplasm. (orig.)