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Sample records for actinidin increases tenderness

  1. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.;

    2009-01-01

    compared to control samples. Myofibrillar particle size tended to decrease (P <0.1) with increasing actinidin concentration. No major changes were observed by proteome analysis. Atomic force microscopy showed actinidin-induced damage of endomysium surrounding isolated single muscle fibres. CONCLUSION: Our...

  2. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins. PMID:24252432

  3. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  4. Characterization of the allergenic potential of proteins: an assessment of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin.

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Beresford, Lorna; Foster, Emily S; McClain, Scott; Kimber, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of the potential allergenicity (IgE-inducing properties) of novel proteins is an important challenge in the overall safety assessment of foods. Resistance to digestion with pepsin is commonly measured to characterize allergenicity, although the association is not absolute. We have previously shown that specific IgE antibody production induced by systemic [intraperitoneal (i.p.)] exposure of BALB/c strain mice to a range of proteins correlates with allergenic potential for known allergens. The purpose of the present study was to explore further the utility of these approaches using the food allergen, actinidin. Recently, kiwifruit has become an important allergenic foodstuff, coincident with its increased consumption, particularly as a weaning food. The ability of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin to stimulate antibody responses has been compared with the reference allergen ovalbumin, and with the non-allergen bovine haemoglobin. Haemoglobin was rapidly digested by pepsin whereas actinidin was resistant unless subjected to prior chemical reduction (reflecting intracellular digestion conditions). Haemoglobin stimulated detectable IgG antibody production at relatively high doses (10%), but failed to provoke detectable IgE. In contrast, actinidin was both immunogenic and allergenic at relatively low doses (0.25% to 1%). Vigorous IgG and IgG1 antibody and high titre IgE antibody responses were recorded, similar to those provoked by ovalbumin. Thus, actinidin displays a marked ability to provoke IgE, consistent with allergenic potential. These data provide further encouragement that in tandem with analysis of pepsin stability, the induction of IgE after systemic exposure of BALB/c strain mice provides a useful approach for the prospective identification of protein allergens. PMID:23754484

  5. The effect of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cysteine protease actinidin on the occludin tight junction network in T84 intestinal epithelial cells.

    Cavic, Milena; Grozdanovic, Milica M; Bajic, Aleksandar; Jankovic, Radmila; Andjus, Pavle R; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-10-01

    Actinidin, a kiwifruit cysteine protease, is a marker allergen for genuine sensitization to this food allergen source. Inhalatory cysteine proteases have the capacity for disruption of tight junctions (TJs) enhancing the permeability of the bronchial epithelium. No such properties have been reported for allergenic food proteases so far. The aim was to determine the effect of actinidin on the integrity of T84 monolayers by evaluating its action on the TJ protein occludin. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence were employed for the detection of occludin protein alterations. Gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Breach of occludin network was assessed by measuring transepithelial resistance, blue dextran leakage and passage of allergens from the apical to basolateral compartment. Actinidin exerted direct proteolytic cleavage of occludin; no alteration of occludin gene expression was detected. There was a reduction of occludin staining upon actinidin treatment as a consequence of its degradation and dispersion within the membrane. There was an increase in permeability of the T84 monolayer resulting in reduced transepithelial resistance, blue dextran leakage and passage of allergens actinidin and thaumatin-like protein from the apical to basolateral compartment. Opening of TJs by actinidin may increase intestinal permeability and contribute to the process of sensitization in kiwifruit allergy. PMID:25042511

  6. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  7. Isolation and Primary Culture of Rat Hepatocytes Using Kiwifruit Actinidin

    Z. Shirvani Farsani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Isolation of cells from different tissues rely on proteolytic enzymes mainly collagenases that selectively digest collagen fibers of extra-cellular matrix. It is important to find new and proper collagenases from plant sources. In the present research actinidin, a cysteine protease abundant in Kiwifruit, was used to isolate and culture of rat hepatocytes. Materials & Methods: Different concentrations of actinidin was used to isolate rat hepatocytes by one or two-step perfusion method. The viability of the separated cells was examined by the trypan blue test. The isolated rat hepatocytes were cultured on collagen coated plates in William´s E medium. The morphology of hepatocytes was examined microscopically after staining with the Papanicolaou method.Results: Actinidin in the concentration of 0.4 mg/ml in two-step perfusion method properly isolated hepatocytes from rat liver. The viability of isolated hepatocytes that successfully cultured in collagen coated plates was 90-95 percent.Conclusion: These results showed that actinidin is a proper protease for isolation of hepatocytes. In addition, purification of this enzyme is simpler than the collagenases.

  8. Mapping, Complementation, and Targets of the Cysteine Protease Actinidin in Kiwifruit1[C][W][OA

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Maddumage, Ratnasiri; Tsang, Gianna K.; Fraser, Lena G.; Cooney, Janine M.; De Silva, H. Nihal; Green, Sol; Richardson, Kim A.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine proteases (CPs) accumulate to high concentration in many fruit, where they are believed to play a role in fungal and insect defense. The fruit of Actinidia species (kiwifruit) exhibit a range of CP activities (e.g. the Actinidia chinensis variety YellowA shows less than 2% of the activity of Actinidia deliciosa variety Hayward). A major quantitative trait locus for CP activity was mapped to linkage group 16 in a segregating population of A. chinensis. This quantitative trait locus colocated with the gene encoding actinidin, the major acidic CP in ripe Hayward fruit encoded by the ACT1A-1 allele. Sequence analysis indicated that the ACT1A locus in the segregating A. chinensis population contained one functional allele (A-2) and three nonfunctional alleles (a-3, a-4, and a-5) each containing a unique frameshift mutation. YellowA kiwifruit contained two further alleles: a-6, which was nonfunctional because of a large insertion, and a-7, which produced an inactive enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of the act1a-7 protein revealed a residue that restored CP activity. Expression of the functional ACT1A-1 cDNA in transgenic plants complemented the natural YellowA mutations and partially restored CP activity in fruit. Two consequences of the increase in CP activity were enhanced degradation of gelatin-based jellies in vitro and an increase in the processing of a class IV chitinase in planta. These results provide new insight into key residues required for CP activity and the in vivo protein targets of actinidin. PMID:22039217

  9. Proteolytic activities of kiwifruit actinidin (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) on different fibrous and globular proteins: a comparative study of actinidin with papain.

    Chalabi, Maryam; Khademi, Fatemeh; Yarani, Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Actinidin, a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteases, is abundant in kiwifruit. To date, a few studies have been provided to investigate the proteolytic activity and substrate specificity of actinidin on native proteins. Herein, the proteolytic activity of actinidin was compared to papain on several different fibrous and globular proteins under neutral, acidic and basic conditions. The digested samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometry to assess the proteolytic effect. Furthermore, the levels of free amino nitrogen (FAN) of the treated samples were determined using the ninhydrin colorimetric method. The findings showed that actinidin has no or limited proteolytic effect on globular proteins such as immunoglobulins including sheep IgG, rabbit IgG, chicken IgY and fish IgM, bovine serum albumin (BSA), lipid transfer protein (LTP), and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) compared to papain. In contrast to globular proteins, actinidin could hydrolyze collagen and fibrinogen perfectly at neutral and mild basic pHs. Moreover, this enzyme could digest pure α-casein and major subunits of micellar casein especially in acidic pHs. Taken together, the data indicated that actinidin has narrow substrate specificity with the highest enzymatic activity for the collagen and fibrinogen substrates. The results describe the actinidin as a mild plant protease useful for many special applications such as cell isolation from different tissues and some food industries as a mixture formula with other relevant proteases. PMID:24604128

  10. Pain pressure threshold of a muscle tender spot increases following local and non-local rolling massage

    Aboodarda, SJ; Spence, AJ; Button, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effect of rolling massage on pressure pain threshold (PPT) in individuals with tender spots in their plantar flexor muscles. Methods In a randomized control trial and single blinded study, tender spots were identified in 150 participants’ plantar flexor muscles (gastrocnemius or soleus). Then participants were randomly assigned to one of five intervention groups (n = 30): 1) heavy rolling massage on the calf that exhibited the...

  11. Increased collagen III in culled chicken meat after feeding dietary wood charcoal and vinegar contributes to palatability and tenderness.

    Yamauchi, Kohsyo; Manabe, Noboru; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Takenoyama, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-04-01

    We comprehensively evaluated meat quality in chickens fed a diet consisting of wood charcoal and vinegar (WCV) using food scientific and histological approaches. In culled hens, lipid and fatty acid in Musculus semimembranosus, cooking loss and sensory tests of whole thigh meat, and meat texture of breast meat were observed. In male broilers, cross section of M. semimembranosus was used for observations on muscle area, perimysium, non-collagen total protein and total collagen content, and anti-collagen I and III reactions. In frozen male broilers, conventional morphology of M. semimembranosus as well as chicken anti-collagen III reaction to selected muscles of thigh meat and breast meat were compared between the control and WCV-fed birds. Increased lipid and fatty acids, decreased cooking loss, high score in total evaluation for sensory test of thigh meat, and decreased meat texture values were observed for culled hens fed WCV. The higher values of muscle area, total collagen and collagen III were observed for broilers fed WCV. No perimysium collapse for M. semitendinosus or increased collagen III reactions of M. tensor fasciae latae, the flexor muscle group and M. pectoralis superficialis were observed for frozen muscles in the WCV group. These total results suggest that WCV produces palatable and tender meat by increasing collagen III. PMID:24450882

  12. Increased tender point counts before and after total hip arthroplasty are associated with poorer outcomes but are not individually predictive.

    Bogoch, Earl R; Olschewski, Eli; Zangger, Philippe; Henke, Marjorie L; Smythe, Hugh A

    2010-09-01

    In a prospective study, total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively (n = 95) to determine if tender points (TPs) are associated with poor THA outcomes. Patients with high follow-up TP counts had higher visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and sleep, higher follow-up Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (pain, stiffness, function), lower Health Assessment Questionnaire, Harris Hip, and Short Form 36 (physical functioning, bodily pain, physical component summary) scores. High follow-up TP were associated with increased pain, pain not relieved by surgery, poor function, and poor sleep. Visual analog scale pain and sleep, Short Form 36 (physical functioning, bodily pain), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, Health Assessment Questionnaire, and Harris hip scores improved significantly after THA; TP scores did not. Higher preoperative TP were predictive of higher follow-up TP but were poorly predictive of poor outcome measures after surgery in individual patients, suggesting that preoperative TPs are not [corrected] contraindicative for THA. PMID:19837554

  13. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  14. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    2013-06-10

    ... intact products, household consumers, hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions may incorrectly... notice, HACCP Plan Reassessment for Mechanically Tenderized Beef Products (May 26, 2005; 70 FR 30331... product is mechanically tenderized. This increases the likelihood that household consumers,...

  15. Influence of blade tenderization, moisture enhancement and pancreatin enzyme treatment on the processing characteristics and tenderness of beef semitendinosus muscle.

    Pietrasik, Z; Aalhus, J L; Gibson, L L; Shand, P J

    2010-03-01

    The combined effect of blade tenderization (BT), moisture enhancement and enzymatic tenderization on drip loss, cook loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sensory characteristics of beef semitendinosus (ST) steaks from cattle under 30 months of age was investigated. Injection with phosphate/chloride solution improved tenderness and juiciness of ST muscles (Ptenderness was observed with incorporation of a pancreatin enzyme preparation into the moisture enhancement solution (P>0.1). Injection of pancreatin alone tended to improve overall tenderness (P=0.09) and did not adversely affect other palatability attributes. Blade tenderization of ST muscles improved tenderness, as indicated by lower WBSF and increased sensory tenderness scores than for control samples, without decreasing flavour and juiciness. The results suggest that moisture enhancement and blade tenderization can be effectively utilized to reduce the variability in and improve both tenderness and palatability of ST muscles. Pancreatin was not particularly effective at the 0.02% level used. PMID:20374818

  16. Functional analysis of beef tenderness.

    Guillemin, Nicolas; Bonnet, Muriel; Jurie, Catherine; Picard, Brigitte

    2011-12-21

    Meat tenderness represents a complex assembly of different cellular pathways. As a consequence, genomics studies have revealed many different proteins considered as tenderness markers. So it is difficult to have an overview of tenderness in terms of cellular pathways. In this work cellular pathways of tenderness were analyzed, an interactome of 330 proteins was designed, and explanations of tenderization processes were proposed. PMID:21855665

  17. Effects of moisture enhancement, enzyme treatment, and blade tenderization on the processing characteristics and tenderness of beef semimembranosus steaks.

    Pietrasik, Z; Shand, P J

    2011-05-01

    The individual and combined effects of moisture enhancement with a salt/phosphate solution (ME), blade tenderization (BT), and enzyme injection with proteinases derived from Aspergillus oryzae or Bacillus subtilis on cooking properties, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory characteristics of beef semimembranosus were investigated. ME significantly (P tenderness. BT increased (P tenderness scores and made connective tissue less perceptible. BT combined with ME resulted in the highest initial and overall tenderness scores, however, combining ME with either proteinase was as effective for reducing WBSF and increasing tenderness, particularly at 20 (vs. 10) ppm enzyme inclusion. Tenderness of enzyme-injected steaks was increased without compromising other palatability attributes. All treatments increased the frequency of steaks rated slightly tender or higher, with the ME+BT combination, or ME with inclusion of 20 ppm of either proteinase, being most effective. PMID:21194850

  18. Decision Support for Web-based Prequalification Tender Management System in Construction Projects

    Noor, Maizura Mohamad; Mohemad, Rosmayati

    2010-01-01

    This Web application for the tendering processes is hope to improve the manual tendering processes and yet make it convenient to the contractors and clients to manage the tenders. It is also will increase the integrity and transparency of the prequalification tendering processes.

  19. Effect of blade tenderization, aging time, and aging temperature on tenderness of beef longissimus lumborum and gluteus medius.

    King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Pfeiffer, K D; Nickelson, R; Koohmaraie, M

    2009-09-01

    Purveyors are concerned about the potential food safety risk of nonintact meat products and are seeking strategies to ensure adequate meat tenderness without blade tenderization. This study was conducted to determine the effects of blade tenderization and time and temperature of aging on beef longissimus lumborum (LL) and gluteus medius (GM) tenderness. Beef strip loins (n = 300) and top sirloin butts (n = 300) were assigned to storage at -0.5 or 3.3 degrees C for 12, 26, or 40 d. Cuts were blade tenderized (BT) or not blade tenderized (NBT) before steak cutting. One 2.54-cm steak from each subprimal was used for slice shear force determination and Western blotting of desmin. Desmin degradation was less (P 0.05) slice shear force values of BT LL steaks (10.4, 9.9, and 9.4 kg for 12, 26, and 40 d aging, respectively), but reduced (P 0.05) slice shear force values of BT LL steaks (10.2 and 9.6 kg for steaks aged at -0.5 and 3.3 degrees C, respectively), but improved (P tenderized GM steaks had dramatically less (P tenderization and increased aging time and temperature all improved tenderness of beef LL and GM steaks, though blade tenderization provided greater improvements than increased aging time and temperature. Longer aging could potentially be used to replace blade tenderization for LL steaks, but not in GM steaks. PMID:19465491

  20. Reduced neck-shoulder muscle strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with tension-type headache in girls

    Tornoe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jensen, Rigmor; Gard, Gunvor; Skov, Liselotte; Hallström, Inger

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-type headaches (TTH) are common among children worldwide and mean a potential risk of disability and medication overuse headache. The associated mechanisms, however, remain unsolved. Our study investigated muscle strength in the neck-shoulder region, aerobic power and pericran...... educational programmes on enhanced physical exercising. Much more exact and detailed research in young girls and boys are needed....... pericranial tenderness in girls with TTH compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A blinded case-control study comprising 41 girls with TTH and 41 age-matched healthy controls. Standardised testing of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, as well as...... MVC and rate-of-force development of dominant shoulder, was conducted. VO2 max was recorded by a submaximal ergometer test and pericranial tenderness by standardised manual palpation. Logistic regression analyses were applied. RESULTS: Girls with TTH demonstrated significantly higher pericranial...

  1. An optimized mixture of kiwifruit actinidin and trypsin for isolation and culture of endothelial cells from rat aorta

    Hesari M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Proteolytic enzymes, especially collagenases, are used for digestion of extracellular matrix, cell isolation and primary culture. Because of the problems in purification and low amount of collagenases in bacterial or animal sources, it is important to find new sources of the enzymes. So, in the present study actinidin, a plentiful protein in kiwifruit was purified and a mixture of actinidin and trypsin was applied to isolate rat aortic endothelial cells."n"nMethods: Aortic endothelial cells were isolated using digestion solution containing different concentrations of actinidin (from 2 to 16 mg/ml and trypsin (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 mg/ml in different times (from 15 to 90 minute. Isolated cells were cultured in DMEM culture medium. Isolated cells were identified by morphological characteristics and immunocytochemical staining; viability of separated cells was estimated by trypan blue exclusion test."n"nResults: Actinidin in concentration of 10 mg/ml with trypsin in concentration of 1.2 mg/ml for one hour could isolate rat aortic endothelial cells. In this condition the viability of cells was estimated 90%. Morphological and immunocytochemical charac-teristics confirmed the isolated cells as endothelial cells

  2. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This offers new opportunities to compete at tenders. Therefore the applicability of insights from three theories has been researched to increase the understanding of competitiveness at MEAT tenders: two ...

  3. μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P grade (P meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ≥ 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P quality. PMID:24398843

  4. Combined effect of electrical stimulation and blade tenderization on some bovine muscles

    Raccach, M.; Henrickson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The electrical stimulation (ES) period was a very important factor determining the tenderness of three bovine muscles: Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Semimembranosus (SM). Tenderness (shear force values) increased in most cases with increasing the ES period. An ES period of 15 min was optimal for obtaining a tenderness equal to that obtained by conventional processing of beef. The shortest ES period used (1 min) was adequate in most cases to set the muscles in rigor mortis and in preventing cold shortening. The tenderness of blade tenderized muscles was in most cases independent from the ES period. Blade tenderization was very effective to tenderize the BF muscle followed in decreasing order of efficacy by the LD and SM muscles. The cooking times and cooking losses of the three muscles were not affected by either the ES period or by blade tenderization.

  5. Tendering specification and contracting

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW)

  6. An efficient method for purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 from rice seeds using kiwifruit actinidin proteolysis and ion exchange chromatography.

    Ghobadi, Sirous; Yousefi, Fakhroddin; Khademi, Fatemeh; Padidar, Samira; Mostafaie, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes and are subdivided into two subfamilies, nsLTP(1) (9 kDa) and nsLTP(2) (7 kDa). LTPs have potential application in the defense reactions against pathogens and the drug delivery systems. Many efforts have been made for purification of different nsLTPs from various plants; however, most of them used successive purification procedures. We have developed a relatively simple and efficient method for the purification of rice nsLTP(1), based on the proteolytic activity of kiwifruit actinidin on the rice seed extract and one-step chromatographic procedure on a CM-Sepharose column. The purity of protein was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isolated LTP(1) migrated as a homogenous polypeptide with molecular mass of 9 kDa that confirms the efficiency of actinidin on the digestion of major contaminations present in the rice seed extract without any harmful effect on the LTP(1). The advantages of using proteolytic activity of actinidin in purifying rice LTP(1) includes the reduced separation time allowing the purification of LTP(1) in one-step chromatographic procedure, low costing, high efficiency, and the relative simplicity of the method. PMID:22987614

  7. Relation of postmortem protease activity to tenderness in buffalo meat and Brahman beef

    M. Hirabayashi; K. Chikuni; Muroya, S.; Fujihara, T.; Cruz, L. C.; J.R. V. Herrera; R.M. Lapitan; A.N. Del Barrio; K.E. Neath; Kanai, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We previously showed that meat from crossbred water buffalo had significantly higher tenderness than beef from crossbred Brahman cattle of the same age, gender, and diet. Extensive studies on meat tenderness have indicated that proteases degrade muscle fibre proteins during postmortem storage, leading to weakening of the myofibrillar structure and an increase in tenderness. Thus, we investigated the difference in protease activity immediately postmortem, in order to explain the difference in ...

  8. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  9. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This o

  10. Changes in tenderness, color, and water holding capacity of broiler breast meat during postdeboning aging.

    Lee, Y S; Owens, C M; Meullenet, J F

    2009-10-01

    The impact of postharvest aging on the tenderness, color, water holding capacity, and appearance of broiler breast fillets after deboning was investigated. A total of 360 broilers were processed and deboned at either 1.5-, 3-, or 6-h postmortem (PM) and aged at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for up to 6 d. Tenderness was predicted by the Meullenet-Owens razor shear. Drip loss, cook loss, color, and muscle-shape profiles were also evaluated during the 6-d aging duration. Deboned fillets were in the tenderness range corresponding to "neither tough nor tender" for the first 2 d of aging and changed into "slightly tender" after 3 d of aging according to the instrument-tenderness perception equivalent scale. Tenderization due to postdeboning aging seemed to be more pronounced for fillets deboned in a prerigor state (that is, 1.5- and 3-h PM). Over the aging period, tenderness improved by 6.9 and 7.4 percentage points for the 1.5- and 3-h PM treatments, respectively, while those fillets deboned in a postrigor state (6-h PM) exhibited no significant difference in tenderness. Drip and cook loss of fillets consistently increased over the aging period. The color of fillets tended to become less red and more yellow during aging although there was no significant difference in L*. Overall, the tenderizing effects of deboned broiler breast fillets during the storage of 6 d were minimal but seemed to be affected by fillet height and length as determined through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and K-means clustering analysis. Thicker and tougher fillets were more susceptible to the tenderizing effects during postdeboning aging. PMID:19799666

  11. Cluster analysis application identifies muscle characteristics of importance for beef tenderness

    Chriki Sghaier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important controversy in the relationship between beef tenderness and muscle characteristics including biochemical traits exists among meat researchers. The aim of this study is to explain variability in meat tenderness using muscle characteristics and biochemical traits available in the Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef (BIF-Beef database. The BIF-Beef data warehouse contains characteristic measurements from animal, muscle, carcass, and meat quality derived from numerous experiments. We created three classes for tenderness (high, medium, and low based on trained taste panel tenderness scores of all meat samples consumed (4,366 observations from 40 different experiments. For each tenderness class, the corresponding means for the mechanical characteristics, muscle fibre type, collagen content, and biochemical traits which may influence tenderness of the muscles were calculated. Results Our results indicated that lower shear force values were associated with more tender meat. In addition, muscles in the highest tenderness cluster had the lowest total and insoluble collagen contents, the highest mitochondrial enzyme activity (isocitrate dehydrogenase, the highest proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibres, the lowest proportion of fast-glycolytic muscle fibres, and the lowest average muscle fibre cross-sectional area. Results were confirmed by correlation analyses, and differences between muscle types in terms of biochemical characteristics and tenderness score were evidenced by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. When the cluster analysis was repeated using only muscle samples from m. Longissimus thoracis (LT, the results were similar; only contrasting previous results by maintaining a relatively constant fibre-type composition between all three tenderness classes. Conclusion Our results show that increased meat tenderness is related to lower shear forces, lower insoluble collagen and total collagen content, lower

  12. Italian water service's competitive tendering: does any tender design exist?

    During the last two decades, the procurement of public services has been engaged a process of intensive change, both at the local and national level, particularly in Europe. In Italy, recent developments of legislative framework are aimed to adopt competitive tenders both for service's concession or private partner selection. Economists and operators generally agree about the effectiveness of auctions for the concession's contracting out. Otherwise, the agreement is weaker if the question is how to prepare the auction: bidding market a la Demsetz, beauty contests or hybrid forms? In other words, more attention should be devoted to the analysis of reference market and to auction's design. The aim of this paper is to verify, starting from the analysis of auction realized between 1998 and 2005, the real designing of the auctions other than the presence of an idea of industrial policy for water services. Results highlights that tenders are few, poorly designed and scarcely effective. To be more precise, results remark the lack of foresight of industrial policy and, more generally, the necessity to reflect on the real possibility of the competition for thc market in the water sector, characterized by an high degree of economical and social complexity

  13. Tenderizing effect of blade tenderizer and pomegranate fruit products in goat meat

    Narsaiah, K.; Jha, Shyam N.; Devatkal, Suresh K.; Borah, Anjan; Singh, Desh B.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2010-01-01

    Toughness of goat meat is a major problem with regard to consumer acceptance. Keeping this in view a blade tenderizer was developed for tenderization of goat meat. Pomegranate fruit products were also explored for tenderization effect on goat meat. Tenderization of goat meat with pomegranate seed powder improved the textural properties marginally with slight adverse colour change and taste. Samples treated with PRP got lower score for colour in sensory evaluation and there was adverse effect ...

  14. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    2010-01-01

    ... codified at 17 CFR 240.14d-1 through 240.14f-1. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks... SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and...

  15. Whole Genome Analysis for Beef Tenderness

    Meat tenderness is the single most important trait affecting palatability and consumer satisfaction with beef products. Current breeding values for meat tenderness traits have low accuracy because progeny phenotypes are not generally recorded. Selection for this trait could be accelerated by DNA m...

  16. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  17. Tender points are not sites of ongoing inflammation -in vivo evidence in patients with chronic tension-type headache

    Ashina, M; Stallknecht, Bente; Bendtsen, L;

    2003-01-01

    Increased muscle tenderness is the most prominent finding in patients with tension-type headache, and it has recently been shown that muscle blood flow is diminished in response to static exercise in tender points in these patients. Although tenderness has been ascribed to local inflammation and...... release of inflammatory mediators, the interstitial concentration of inflammatory mediators has not previously been studied in tender muscles of patients with tension-type headache. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), adenosine 5'-triphosphate...... analysed blindly. There was no difference in resting concentration of any inflammatory mediators or metabolites between tender patients and non-tender controls (P > 0.05). We also found no difference in change in interstitial concentration of ATP, PGE2, glutamate, glucose, pyruvate and urea from baseline...

  18. Consumer impressions of Tender Select beef.

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Meade, M K; Reagan, J O; Byrnes, B L; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-10-01

    With the recent development of technology to classify beef for tenderness, it is now possible for packers and retailers to market brands of beef known to be consistently tender. The present experiment was conducted to determine consumer impressions of Tender Select, a model beef brand comprised of cuts from tender U.S. Select carcasses. A telephone survey was conducted in metropolitan Denver, CO, to recruit consumers (n = 1,036) for this study. Consumers who met minimal limits for household income, age, and beef consumption were invited to participate in a beef shopping and usage study in a local supermarket. Point-of-purchase material was developed that described Tender Select as "the only steak guaranteed tender and lean." When shown a copy of the Tender Select concept card, 89% of participating consumers (n = 759) indicated that they would definitely or probably buy that product. Of those consumers that said they would buy the product, 35% indicated that their purchases of Tender Select would be in addition to their current fresh meat purchases. Most consumers (54.1%) indicated that if Tender Select was available at their grocery store, 1 or 2 of their next 10 purchases of beef cuts would be Tender Select. Sixty-five percent of consumers indicated that if a grocery store carried a line of beef cuts guaranteed to be tender, they would buy all of their beef at that store. Both strip loins from 104 U.S. Select beef carcasses, representing a broad range (8.7 to 43.4 kg; CV = 42%) in slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem, were used to determine the effect of SSF classification on consumer satisfaction and the correlation among trained sensory panel descriptive attribute ratings and in-home consumer ratings of beef longissimus steaks. Both trained sensory panelists and consumers rated low-SSF steaks higher than the high-SSF steaks for all traits (P premium to purchase guaranteed-tender U.S. Select steaks. PMID:11721839

  19. Prediction of breeding values for tenderness of market animals from measurements on bulls.

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Koohmaraie, M; Lunstra, D D; Crouse, J D

    1996-11-01

    Data were tenderness measures on steaks from 237 bulls (Group II) slaughtered after producing freezable semen and on 1,431 related steers and heifers (market animals, Group I) from Angus, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Brahman, and Sahiwal crosses from the Germ Plasm Evaluation project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Tenderness was assessed through Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (SF), taste panel tenderness (TPT), marbling score (MS), and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI). For all traits, as fraction Bos indicus inheritance increased, implied tenderness decreased. Heritability estimates were generally not significantly different from zero. Genetic correlations generally indicated favorable associations among the traits. The range in predicted breeding values of bulls for market animal tenderness was small and from -.34 to .32 kg for market animal shear force. Because of low estimates of heritability for SF or TPT, results from this experiment indicate that selection based on tenderness of steaks sampled from intact or late castrate males slaughtered following collection of freezable quality semen would not be very effective in improving average tenderness of steaks from steers of heifer progeny. If a mean of heritability estimates reported in the literature of .27 for shear value was assumed for market steer and heifer progeny instead of .02 as found in the present study, then selection based on estimates of shear force in young bulls would be relatively more effective in improving shear force of market progeny. PMID:8923175

  20. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  1. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender frames shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. (b) Height difference....

  2. Effects of blade tenderization, aging method and aging time on meat quality characteristics of Longissimus lumborum steaks from cull Holstein cows.

    Obuz, Ersel; Akkaya, Levent; Gök, Veli; Dikeman, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of blade tenderization (BT), two aging methods (dry (D) and wet (W)), and aging time (2 and 23 d) on tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum muscles from 12 cull Holstein cows were evaluated. Dry-aged loins had higher combined trim and aging losses than control (C) for both D- and W-aging, mostly because of excess trim losses. BT steaks had WBSF of 33.13 N while C steaks had WBSF of 41.46 N (P=0.09). Aging decreased WBSF. Blade tenderized steaks had higher cook loss than C steaks. Aging, W-aging, and BT×W-aging improved myofibrillar (sensory) tenderness scores. Aging and/or BT improves sensory panel tenderness cull cow Longissimus lumborum steaks. Aging and blade tenderization combined can increase tenderness and value of Longissimus steaks from cull Holstein cows. PMID:24334044

  3. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    2013-08-09

    ... Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups... Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 317 Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA....

  4. Construction Tender Subcontract Selection using Case-based Reasoning

    Due Luu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining competitive quotations from suitably qualified subcontractors at tender tim n significantly increase the chance of w1nmng a construction project. Amidst an increasingly growing trend to subcontracting in Australia, selecting appropriate subcontractors for a construction project can be a daunting task requiring the analysis of complex and dynamic criteria such as past performance, suitable experience, track record of competitive pricing, financial stability and so on. Subcontractor selection is plagued with uncertainty and vagueness and these conditions are difficul_t o represent in generalised sets of rules. DeciSIOns pertaining to the selection of subcontr:act?s tender time are usually based on the mtu1t1onand past experience of construction estimators. Case-based reasoning (CBR may be an appropriate method of addressing the chal_lenges of selecting subcontractors because CBR 1s able to harness the experiential knowledge of practitioners. This paper reviews the practicality and suitability of a CBR approach for subcontractor tender selection through the development of a prototype CBR procurement advisory system. In this system, subcontractor selection cases are represented by a set of attributes elicited from experienced construction estimators. The results indicate that CBR can enhance the appropriateness of the selection of subcontractors for construction projects.

  5. The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Garmyn, A J; Shook, J N; VanOverbeke, D L; Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Hilton, G G

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers, calf-fed Holstein carcasses (n = 102) were selected from a pool of 2,300 steers that were fed 0 or 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis) of ZH. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was supplemented the last 20 d of the finishing period and withdrawn for 3 d before slaughter. Carcasses were selected based on carcass weight as well as predetermined USDA Yield grade categories. For tenderness evaluation, steaks from the strip loin, bottom round, and top round (n = 54 per subprimal) were aged for 14 or 21 d postmortem. Carcasses from ZH-fed steers had more (P 0.05); however, ZH increased thawing loss (P = 0.05) but reduced cooking loss (P = 0.05) in bottom round steaks. Shear force values of LM and inside round steaks increased with ZH inclusion (P 0.05). Steaks aged for 21 d had smaller (P 0.05) in sensory juiciness, tenderness, or flavor variables of LM or inside round steaks, except ZH steaks from the LM received smaller scores for sustained juiciness (P = 0.01) and overall tenderness (P = 0.04) than control steaks. Although LM steaks from ZH cattle were tougher than control steaks, the ZH-treated steaks had an average WBS value of 4.10 kg, which would be classified as intermediate in tenderness, with trained panelists rating ZH steaks slightly to moderately tender. Feeding ZH improved carcass cutability of calf-fed Holstein steers; however, tenderness was reduced in LM and inside round steaks. The interaction of postmortem tenderization techniques should be investigated to evaluate their impact on palatability in cattle supplemented with beta-agonists to allow the beef industry to take full advantage of the enhancement in performance and carcass yield. PMID:20382878

  6. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  7. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  8. Tenderizing effect of blade tenderizer and pomegranate fruit products in goat meat.

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N; Devatkal, Suresh K; Borah, Anjan; Singh, Desh B; Sahoo, Jhari

    2011-02-01

    Toughness of goat meat is a major problem with regard to consumer acceptance. Keeping this in view a blade tenderizer was developed for tenderization of goat meat. Pomegranate fruit products were also explored for tenderization effect on goat meat. Tenderization of goat meat with pomegranate seed powder improved the textural properties marginally with slight adverse colour change and taste. Samples treated with PRP got lower score for colour in sensory evaluation and there was adverse effect on taste of treated meat. Blade tenderization and 4% PSP proved better for tenderization and were compared with control and 0.2% papain in goat meat chunks. The cooked samples treated with papain and blade incisions got better sensory scores and required lesser shear force compared to 4% PSP and control. Overall the papain treated meat was superior in terms sensory attributes followed by blade incision and PSP. The results suggested that the blade incisions can be used for tenderization of goat meat. Pomegranate seed powder maybe considered for mixing with other spices to marinate goat meat mainly for its beneficial effects. PMID:23572717

  9. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  10. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  11. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John

    2016-07-15

    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1mgmL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100mgmL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2h) compared to the other protease preparations. PMID:26948606

  12. The relationship between psychological distress and multiple tender points across the adult lifespan

    Brown, Deborah; Mulvey, Matthew; Cordingley, Lis; Rashid, Amir; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Duncan, Rosie; McBeth, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple tender points are common in the population and, in studies of mid-life adults, are strongly associated with high levels of psychological distress. Whether this relationship occurs in older adults is unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated whether high levels of psychological distress would be associated with a high tender point count and whether the relationship would be moderated by age. Three thousand three hundred and seventy-nine individuals were mailed a questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A random sample of approximately 10% of subjects who returned the questionnaire undertook a physical assessment, including a manual tender point count assessment. A total of 2385 (71%) subjects completed the questionnaire, of whom 798 (33%) were invited to take part in the physical assessment and 290 (12%) participated. Of the 290 participants the median age was 64 years (range 34–97) and 63% were female. The median HAD score was 9 (IQR 5–14) and the median number of tender points was 3 (range 0–7). Increasing HAD score was positively and significantly associated with tender point count, but this relationship was not moderated by age. In a final multivariable model, sex, HAD score and PSQI score were independent predictors of multiple tender points. Psychological distress was associated with multiple tender points independent of age. Psychological distress and trouble sleeping were important, potentially modifiable factors associated with the outcome. PMID:26607869

  13. The relationship between psychological distress and multiple tender points across the adult lifespan.

    Brown, Deborah; Mulvey, Matthew; Cordingley, Lis; Rashid, Amir; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Duncan, Rosie; McBeth, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple tender points are common in the population and, in studies of mid-life adults, are strongly associated with high levels of psychological distress. Whether this relationship occurs in older adults is unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated whether high levels of psychological distress would be associated with a high tender point count and whether the relationship would be moderated by age. Three thousand three hundred and seventy-nine individuals were mailed a questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A random sample of approximately 10% of subjects who returned the questionnaire undertook a physical assessment, including a manual tender point count assessment. A total of 2385 (71%) subjects completed the questionnaire, of whom 798 (33%) were invited to take part in the physical assessment and 290 (12%) participated. Of the 290 participants the median age was 64 years (range 34-97) and 63% were female. The median HAD score was 9 (IQR 5-14) and the median number of tender points was 3 (range 0-7). Increasing HAD score was positively and significantly associated with tender point count, but this relationship was not moderated by age. In a final multivariable model, sex, HAD score and PSQI score were independent predictors of multiple tender points. Psychological distress was associated with multiple tender points independent of age. Psychological distress and trouble sleeping were important, potentially modifiable factors associated with the outcome. PMID:26607869

  14. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P. Z.; Bhaskar, N.; Hebbar, H. Umesh

    2014-01-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water h...

  15. A secured e-tendering modeling using misuse case approach

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    Major risk factors relating to electronic transactions may lead to destructive impacts on trust and transparency in the process of tendering. Currently, electronic tendering (e-tendering) systems still remain uncertain in issues relating to legal and security compliance and most importantly it has an unclear security framework. Particularly, the available systems are lacking in addressing integrity, confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation in e-tendering requirements. Thus, one of the challenges in developing an e-tendering system is to ensure the system requirements include the function for secured and trusted environment. Therefore, this paper aims to model a secured e-tendering system using misuse case approach. The modeling process begins with identifying the e-tendering process, which is based on the Australian Standard Code of Tendering (AS 4120-1994). It is followed by identifying security threats and their countermeasure. Then, the e-tendering was modelled using misuse case approach. The model can contribute to e-tendering developers and also to other researchers or experts in the e-tendering domain.

  16. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization.

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2015-06-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization. PMID:26028772

  17. Relation of postmortem protease activity to tenderness in buffalo meat and Brahman beef

    M. Hirabayashi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that meat from crossbred water buffalo had significantly higher tenderness than beef from crossbred Brahman cattle of the same age, gender, and diet. Extensive studies on meat tenderness have indicated that proteases degrade muscle fibre proteins during postmortem storage, leading to weakening of the myofibrillar structure and an increase in tenderness. Thus, we investigated the difference in protease activity immediately postmortem, in order to explain the difference in tenderness between buffalo meat and beef. Five female crossbred water-buffalo (Philippine Carabao x Bulgarian Murrah and five female crossbred cattle (Brahman x Philippine Native were slaughtered at 30 months of age, and Longissimus thoracis muscle was sampled immediately post-slaughter. Protease activity at different pH levels and the effect of various inhibitors on protease activity were examined. Results showed that buffalo meat had significantly higher protease activity compared to beef, and calpain inhibitor 1 was the most effective inhibitor. As calpain inhibitor 1 is a specific inhibitor of calpain 1 and 2, the results suggest that higher calpain activity in buffalo meat was responsible for the higher tenderness of buffalo meat compared to Brahman beef.

  18. Role of mitochondria on muscle cell death and meat tenderization.

    Sierra, Verónica; Oliván, Mamen

    2013-05-01

    The possibility that mitochondria are involved in cellular dysfunction is particularly high in situations associated with increases in free radical activity, like hypoxia or ischemia; therefore its potential role in the muscle post-mortem metabolism is reviewed. In the dying muscle, different routes of cell death catabolism (apoptosis, autophagy) may occur having great influence on the process of conversion of muscle into meat. Mitochondria are the first and also one of the main organelles affected by post-mortem changes; therefore they are decisive in the subsequent cellular responses influencing the pathway to cell demise and thus, the final meat quality. Depending on the cell death programme followed by muscle cells after exsanguination, diverse proteases would be activated to a different extent, which is also reviewed in order to understand how they affect meat tenderization. This review also summarizes recent patents relating cell death processes and meat tenderness. Further research is encouraged as there is still a need of knowledge on cell death post-mortem processes to increase our understanding of the conversion of muscle into meat. PMID:23432120

  19. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Ptenderization effect of soy sauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. PMID:23561150

  20. Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Construction Tendering Processes

    Mohemad, Rosmayati; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Noor, Noor Maizura Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS) technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support Sy...

  1. Gertrude Stein’s Tender Buttons (1911)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2004-01-01

    , however, intends to read Tender Buttons somewhat differently by suggesting that the poems may be viewed as an example of a displaced Rabbinic hermeneutics in the sense given the term by Susan Handelman. Inasmuch as Stein refuses to name the many objects properly that the titles of the poems introduce and...... instead – to employ her own term – “abuses” their names by way of wordplay, punning, syntactical ambiguity, and semantic disruption, she impersonates a secular Reb Stein, who stays faithful to the Scripture by sacred contempt of representation and obedience to (the play of) the letter. Perhaps this is the...

  2. Decision Support Systems (DSS in Construction Tendering Processes

    Rosmayati Mohemad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support System (DSS components is included in the next section. Furthermore, prior researches on implementation of DSS approaches in tendering processes are discussed in details. Current issues arise from both of paper-based and Web-based tendering processes are outlined. Finally, conclusion is included at the end of this paper.

  3. Tenderization effect of cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperature and its mechanism.

    Zhao, Guo-Yan; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; He, Hai-Lun; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-10-15

    The enzymes currently used to increase meat tenderness are all mesophilic or thermophilic proteases. This study provides insight into the tenderization effect and the mechanism of a cold-adapted collagenolytic enzyme MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperatures. MCP-01 (10 U of caseinolytic activity) reduced the meat shear force by 23% and increased the relative myofibrillar fragmentation index of the meat by 91.7% at 4 °C, and it also kept the fresh colour and moisture of the meat. Compared to the commercially used tenderizers papain and bromelain, MCP-01 showed a unique tenderization mechanism. MCP-01 had a strong selectivity for degrading collagen at 4 °C, showed a distinct digestion pattern on the myofibrillar proteins, and had a different disruption pattern on the muscle fibres under scanning electron micrograph. These results suggest that the cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 may be promising for use as a meat tenderizer at low and moderate temperatures. PMID:23442615

  4. A Novel Database System Model Design for Tender Management System

    Noraziah, A.; R. Norhayati; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; A. H. Roslina; M. A. Noorlin; O. M. Affendy

    2008-01-01

    This research focus on the software design and database system model for Tender Management System (TMS) in Kadastra. TMS in Kadastra is an automated system that can calculates tender payment claims for the land surveyor company. The calculation is based on the Vide Federal Government Gazette PU (A) 169 Thirteenth Schedule (Regulation 99) Scale of Fees for Title Surveys given by Land Surveyors Board in Malaysia. Based on the system, it provides data availability for read and writes operations ...

  5. Tenderness and taste qualification of red brangus beef in Mexico

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte; Ana María Sifuentes-Rincón; Williams Arellano-Vera; Juan Gabriel Magaña-Monforte; José Alberto Ramírez-De León; Gonzalo Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Beef tenderness is an important trait in consumer satisfaction and has been considered as the main trait for palatability, for which reason it is important to evaluate its variability in different cattle breeds. An experiment was designed to evaluate the Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) of Red Brangus cattle rib eye steaks and consumer acceptance. The tenderness of beef rib eye steaks was evaluated by the WBSF. A consumer preference evaluation test was carried out to quantitatively estimate...

  6. Do Firms Undertake Self-Tender Offers to Optimize Capital Structure?

    Erik Lie

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates capital structure around 286 self-tender offers from 1980 to 1997. Firms that undertake self-tender offers generally have debt ratios below their predicted levels before the offers. The debt ratios following nondefensive self-tender offers are close to predicted levels, while the ratios following defensive self-tender offers are above predicted levels. Further, 20% and 43% of the debt ratings are downgraded following nondefensive and defensive self-tender offers, respe...

  7. Effects of genetic markers and implant strategy on longissimus and gluteus muscle tenderness of calf-fed steers and heifers.

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Enns, R M; Belk, K E; Smith, G C

    2011-05-01

    Effects of genotype (GEN) and implant program (IMP) on LM and gluteus muscle (GM) tenderization were investigated using crossbred steer (n = 185) and heifer (n = 158) calves. The 3-marker GeneSTAR Tenderness panel [CAST (calpastatin), CAPN1 316 (µ-calpain), and CAPN1 4751 (µ-calpain)] was used to determine the GEN of each animal (reported as total number of favorable alleles, 0 through 6). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 IMP, conventional (CNV) or delayed. Cattle in the CNV group were implanted at the beginning of the finishing period with Revalor-IS or Revalor-IH (Intervet Inc., Millsboro, DE), and then reimplanted 59 d later with Revalor-S or Revalor-H (Intervet Inc.). Calves in the delayed group received a single terminal implant (Revalor-S or Revalor-H) administered 45 d after initiation of the finishing period. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured on LM and GM steaks at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem. No interactions between the main effects of sex, IMP, or GEN were detected (P > 0.05) for WBSF. An IMP × postmortem aging (age) interaction was detected (P tenderness differences within the Select grade. When aged ≤14 d, Select LM steaks from cattle with ≥4 alleles had smaller (P tenderness of the test population. Results from this study suggest that the 3 GeneSTAR Tenderness markers were associated with small differences (0.33 kg) in WBSF and may be useful for increasing the consistency of Select beef, but these specific markers accounted for only a minor amount of variation in beef tenderness. PMID:21183710

  8. THE CONCEPT AND FORMS OF TENDERS IN THE CIVIL LAW

    Didenko A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern civil turnover the definition of a bidding contract is a well known way of making contracts. Despite this fact, the modern legal science has not formed a general idea about the tender. In particular, the problem of this phenomenon is in minor investigation of the principle of the conclusion of agreement and the deal itself in the civil law. It requires further legal analysis in investigation of the legal procedures of the contract at the auction. Legal regulation of the relations in the area of conclusion of the contract on bidding is quite extensive in reality and evidenced by the reflection in the legislation of a significant number of trades. A vivid example is the legislation on the auction, conducted for the purpose of placing the state order. This legislation is comprehensive and currently is under in the process of reform in development of a new contractual system of the state order. The particular interest increase in the conclusion of the contracts by means of the electronic trading platforms. Thus, the situation in the field of legislation on the auction, its practical application and theoretical research in this field requires the further investigation of the bid process as a whole law area that illustrates the relevance of this article

  9. Effect of phenotypic expression of Brahman breeding on marbling and tenderness traits.

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1996-02-01

    Steers with known proportions of Brahman and Hereford breeding (80 quarter-bloods, 25% Brahman x 75% Hereford and 79 half-bloods, 50% Brahman x 50% Hereford) were used to determine the effect of phenotype on marbling and beef tenderness characteristics. Three experienced evaluators independently classified each live steer according to estimated proportion of Brahman breeding based on phenotypic evidence of Brahman breed characteristics. The steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were graded, and a carcass. Samples of longissimus muscle were obtained for measurement of 24-h calpastatin activity, sensory panel evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force measurements. Paired steaks were aged (6 and 18 d postmortem) and palatability determinations were completed. Estimates of live animal phenotype ranged from 0/16 to 9/16 for quarter-blood Brahman steers and from 1/14 to 13/16 for half-blood Brahman steers. Neither live animal phenotype nor carcass hump height was correlated with marbling score. Live animal phenotype was correlated (P carcass hump height exhibited low, negative correlations (P Brahman were tougher (P Brahman. Steaks from carcasses with hump height measurements of 7.60 cm or greater had lower panel tenderness ratings and higher WBS values (P carcasses with hump heights less than 6.35 cm. Quarter-blood and half-blood Brahman steers that were similar in phenotype produced steaks that were similar in tenderness. Results of this study suggest that as phenotypic evidence of Brahman breeding increases the tenderness of cooked steaks from Brahman crossbred steers decreases. PMID:8690665

  10. Palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner; Manniche, Claus; Haghfelt, Torben; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To asses the interobserver and intraobserver reliability (in terms of day-to-day and hour-to-hour reliability) of palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall. DESIGN: A repeated measures designs was used. SETTING: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University...... Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Two experienced chiropractors examined 29 patients and 27 subjects in the interobserver part, and 1 of the 2 chiropractors examined 14 patients and 15 subjects in the intraobserver studies. INTERVENTION: Palpation for muscular tenderness was done in 14 predetermined areas...... of the anterior chest wall with all subjects sitting. Each dimension was rated as absent or present for tenderness or pain for each location. All examinations were carried out according to a standard written procedure. RESULTS: Based on a pooled analysis of data from palpation of the anterior chest...

  11. Calls for Tender and Market Surveys Roles and Procedures

    Annila, L

    2000-01-01

    ST division has implemented certain procedures to handle the calls for tender and market surveys. In January 1998, the division leader set up the 'call-for-tender co-ordination office' to check and approve each technical document leaving the division. The mandate of the call-for-tender co-ordination office is to check the quality of the documents, in order for these documents to be as clear as possible in terms of both content and structure. The role of this office is to contribute positively and give service to the people writing the documents, and not to give negative criticism. The aim of this paper is to present the mandate of the office, how papers are processed, and to draw up a first result summary.

  12. Pre-rigor infusion with kiwifruit juice improves lamb tenderness.

    Han, J; Morton, J D; Bekhit, A E D; Sedcole, J R

    2009-07-01

    The ability of pre-rigor infusion of kiwifruit juice to improve the tenderness of lamb was investigated. Lamb carcasses were infused (10% body weight) with fresh kiwifruit juice (Ac), water (W) and a non-infusion control (C) treatment. Infusion treatment had no effect on lamb hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and chilling evaporative losses. The infused treatment carcasses of Ac and W had lower (Ptender with significantly lower shear force (Ptenderizer, which could contribute efficiently and effectively to the meat tenderization process. PMID:20416722

  13. Semisubmersible rigs attractive for tender-assisted drilling

    Tranter, P. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-19

    Tender-assisted drilling (TAD) involves the use of tender support vessel (TSV) during the drilling phase of platform development to provide drilling utilities to the platform-mounted drilling package. The TSV provides facilities such as mud mixing, storage, pumping, bulk storage, hotel accommodations, and power. Thus, the platform topsides and jacket weight and size can be smaller and less expensive. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of TAD, then describes the TAD vessel, semisubmersible, platform cost savings, accommodations, drilling and workovers, and field experience.

  14. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. PMID:23962381

  15. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache

    Soee, Ann-Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Kreiner, Svend; Tornoe, Birte; Thomsen, Lise L

    2013-01-01

    To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT).......To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT)....

  16. Tenderness and sensory attributes of the longissimus lumborum muscles with different quality grades from Chinese fattened yellow crossbred steers.

    Liang, R R; Zhu, H; Mao, Y W; Zhang, Y M; Zhu, L X; Cornforth, D; Wang, R H; Meng, X Y; Luo, X

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to investigate intramuscular fat (IMF) content,Warner–Bratzler shear force(WBSF) and sensory attributes of Chinese fattened yellow crossbred steer beef with different quality grades, and to determine the relationship between WBSF and Chinese consumers' sensory tender. WBSF of grades A1 to A5 decreased from 50.6 N to 33.1 N with IMF % increased from4.26 to 24.55 (P b 0.05). Consumer panelists showed more likeability grades A4 and A5 with no difference between them. Grades A2 and A3 were slightly preferred (P b 0.05). Grade A1 was undesirable. A regression relationship between WBSF and sensory tender was found, which indicated that consumers disliked beef when WBSF N55.43 N and preferred those with WBSF b41.4 N. The range of 41.4 N to 55.43 N was intermediate. Hence, WBSF N55.43 & b41.4 N allow classification of tough and tender for beef tenderness for Chinese consumers, and grade A4 was recommended as suitable top grade. PMID:26519609

  17. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    Kaliaperumal Mathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  18. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    Kaliaperumal Mathan; Venkatesan Muthukrishnan; Vikas Menon

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  19. Risk Pricing in Construction Tenders - How, Who, What

    Marcus Tower

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are most commonlyprocured in Australia by means of a traditionaldesign–tender–build model, whereby design islargely completed then contractors submittenders in a competitive environment.Construction contractors must consider riskswithin their tenders. This paper reports theresearch findings into pricing for risk incompetitive tenders by constructioncontractors. The research is based onstructured interviews with 10 contractingpersonnel; supplemented by 23 responses ofconstruction personnel from an online survey.Two common methods to price for risk are atrade-by-trade basis or an overall percentageor lump sum addition to the base estimate.Experience and intuition plays a significant rolein pricing for risk in tenders and the numberand type of people involved varies with projectsize, with greater involvement as project sizeincreases. The most significant risks priced intenders were: availability of resources; designor documentation errors; incomplete design;buildability issues; and inclement weather. Themost significant project factors considered bycontractors when pricing for risk in tenders are:value of liquidated damages; type ofcontract/procurement; completeness ofdocumentation; project complexity; and currentworkload. These risks and project factors areprimarily those over which the contractor haslimited or no control.

  20. 17 CFR 240.14d-6 - Disclosure of tender offer information to security holders.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of tender offer... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-6 Disclosure of tender offer.... If a tender offer is published, sent or given to security holders on the date of commencement...

  1. Biochemistry of postmortem muscle - lessons on mechanisms of meat tenderization.

    Huff Lonergan, Elisabeth; Zhang, Wangang; Lonergan, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    It is certain that meat tenderness is a highly valued consumer trait and thus definition of the multiple processes that influence meat tenderness will provide clues toward improving meat quality and value. The natural process by which meat becomes tender is complex. Tenderness development is dependent on the architecture and the integrity of the skeletal muscle cell and on events that modify those proteins and their interaction. Specifically protein degradation and protein oxidation have been identified as processes that modify proteins as well as the tenderness of meat. The intracellular environment is a major factor that controls these events. Ultimately, the interplay between these events determines the rate and extent of tenderization. Given the intricacy of the structure of the muscle cell, coupled with the complexity of the regulation of protein modification and the ever-changing intracellular environment it is not surprising that this area of research is a very dynamic field. Just as the overall integrity and function of muscle cells does not depend on a single protein, but rather on the coordinated interaction of several proteins, the structural weakening of muscle cells during postmortem aging also must not depend on the degradation of a single myofibrillar or other cytoskeletal protein. The proteins mentioned in this review are located in different regions of the muscle cell, and most have been implicated in some manner as being important in maintaining the structure and function of the muscle cell. Oxidation of myosin heavy chain, a predominant protein in the myofibril, is known to promote aggregation and toughening of meat. Degradation of proteins such as desmin, filamin, dystrophin, and talin (all located at the periphery of the Z-line) may disrupt the lateral register and integrity of the myofibril themselves as well as the attachments of the peripheral layer of myofibril to the sarcolemma. Degradation of the proteins within the myofibril that are

  2. Grounds for dispensing with public tender procedures in Government Contracting

    P Bolton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa1 provides that organs of state must comply with five principles when procuring goods or services: procurement procedures must be fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective. In short, this means that organs of state should make use of competition when procuring goods or services. They should shop around and attract the maximum number of contractors who will participate in such competition. The aim should be the attainment of value for money, meaning, public money should be spent in an effective and efficient manner. Those who participate in competitions should also be treated fairly and without bias. In principle, no preferences should be afforded to different contractors; all contracting parties should have equal access to competition; some contractors should not be afforded more time for the preparation and submission of quotes or tenders than others; and the same information should be made available to all contracting parties. Government procurement procedures should further be transparent, meaning public or open. Thus, organs of state should not contract behind closed doors – government contracts should, as a rule, be advertised. Depending on the nature and value of a particular contract, the use of a public call for tenders is generally the best way to ensure compliance with the principles in the Constitution. By nature, a pubic call for tenders is open, it assists in the prevention of fraud and favouritism, and it ensures that the maximum number of contractors is approached to compete for a contract.Organs of state can also compare prices and quality and can contract with whoever offers the best deal. Most legislation therefore proceeds on the basis that procurement takes place by way of tendering. Generally, contracts above R200 000 are subject to public tender procedures. In certain instances, however, a public call for tenders may be inappropriate regardless of the high

  3. Efficiency of plant proteases bromelain and papain on turkey meat tenderness

    Doneva M.; Miteva D.; Dyankova S.; Nacheva I.; Metodieva P.; Dimov K.

    2015-01-01

    The main subject of study is the effect the plant proteases bromelain and papain exert on turkey meat tenderness. Experiments are conducted with samples of raw meat in 3 different concentration levels of the enzyme solutions (50U/ml 100U/ml and 200 U/ml) and in 3 different time periods (duration) of treatment (24 h, 48 h, 72h). An increase in enzyme concentration and treatment duration results in a higher degree of protein hydrolysis in the turkey meat. The...

  4. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in...... lower (P <0.05) phosphorylation levels of creatine kinase M chain, fructose bisphosphate aldolase C-A, ß-enolase and pyruvate kinase at 3 h postmortem. Zymography indicated an earlier (P <0.05) activation of µ-calpain in ES muscles. Free lysosomal cathepsin B&L activity increased faster (P <0.05) in ES...

  5. Tender Beginnings program: an educational continuum for the maternity patient.

    Brown, Susan E H

    2006-01-01

    The Tender Beginnings program demonstrates a comprehensive educational plan for maternity patients that can be extended throughout pregnancy, the birth process, and into the postpartum period. In today's healthcare environment, where the maternity patient continues to experience a shortened stay structure, the hurried learning process that is absorbed over a 48-hour stay is often ineffectual. This program provides a strategy and framework for effective teaching that can be successfully implemented all through the peripartum period. Budgetary constraints have given way to an innovative approach and opportunity for the healthcare specialist to explore an entrepreneurial relationship within the structure of the program. The Tender Beginnings program has proven to be a true integration of community educational outreach, nurse entrepreneurship, hospital-based education, and postpartum/neonatal follow-up. PMID:16915052

  6. Comparison among some tenderization processing on Maremmana meat

    Maurizio Mormile; Sebastiana Failla; Antonella Ficco; Michela Contò; Silvia Ballico

    2010-01-01

    Tenderness is the most important characteristic to define acceptability of products by consumers. In this paper three different methods, Calcium infusion (Ca), Very Fast Chilling (VFC) and pelvic suspension hanging from aitch bone (PS) or the Achilles tendon (AT) are applied in pre-rigor phase on Maremmana meat. Ca injection has reported the lowest shear force on cooked meat compared to control group (5.09 vs. 16.33 kg) instead VFC group has underlined intermediate values. Pelvic hanging has ...

  7. Transcriptomic investigation of meat tenderness in two Italian cattle breeds.

    Bongiorni, S; Gruber, C E M; Bueno, S; Chillemi, G; Ferrè, F; Failla, S; Moioli, B; Valentini, A

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives for this study were to understand the biological basis of meat tenderness and to provide an overview of the gene expression profiles related to meat quality as a tool for selection. Through deep mRNA sequencing, we analyzed gene expression in muscle tissues of two Italian cattle breeds: Maremmana and Chianina. We uncovered several differentially expressed genes that encode for proteins belonging to a family of tripartite motif proteins, which are involved in growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis, such as TRIM45, or play an essential role in regulating skeletal muscle differentiation and the regeneration of adult skeletal muscle, such as TRIM32. Other differentially expressed genes (SCN2B, SLC9A7 and KCNK3) emphasize the involvement of potassium-sodium pumps in tender meat. By mapping splice junctions in RNA-Seq reads, we found significant differences in gene isoform expression levels. The PRKAG3 gene, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, showed four isoforms that were differentially expressed. This distinct pattern of PRKAG3 gene expression could indicate impaired glycogen storage in skeletal muscle, and consequently, this gene very likely has a role in the tenderization process. Furthermore, with this deep RNA-sequencing, we captured a high number of expressed SNPs, for example, we found 1462 homozygous SNPs showing the alternative allele with a 100% frequency when comparing tender and tough meat. SNPs were then classified into categories by their position and also by their effect on gene coding (174 non-synonymous polymorphisms) based on the available UMD_3.1 annotations. PMID:26857751

  8. Legal Tender and the Value of Money in Finite Economies

    C.G. de Vries

    1983-01-01

    The model of a monetary economy with legal tender which we develop here enables us to provide a different argument for money being valuable in finitely lived economies. The argument is cast strictly within the structure the Overlapping Generations Models (OGM) employ. Moreover, we allow for the possibility that agents are aware of the final date of life with absolute certainty. The argument relies on the transaction-facilitating properties of money. In monetary OGM, money functions only expli...

  9. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

    Eva Wiklund

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  10. The Relationship Between the Changes in Local Stiffness of Chicken Myofibril and the Tenderness of Muscle During Postmortem Aging

    Iwasaki, T.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Nakamura, K.

    We have investigated that the relationship between the stiffness of myofibrils and the tenderness of muscle during postmortem aging. The stiffness (elasticity) of A and I bands as well as Z-line of chicken myofibrils during postmortem aging were measured by atomic force microscope. The stiffness of all regions increased till 12 hr of postmortem, then it decreased to 96 hr. This tendency was the same as the changes of shear force value of whole muscle during postmortem aging. The elasticity of the Z-line of chicken myofibrils treated with calcium ions in the presence of protease inhibitor decreased with treating time. This indicates that the nonenzymatic structural changes of myofibrils is one of the causes of meat tenderization.

  11. Assessment of tenderness of aged bovine gluteus medius muscles using Raman spectroscopy.

    Bauer, Alexandra; Scheier, Rico; Eberle, Thomas; Schmidt, Heinar

    2016-05-01

    A portable 671nm Raman system was evaluated as a rapid and non-destructive device for the assessment of beef tenderness using 175 gluteus medius muscles (99 for calibration, 76 for validation) aged at -1°C and 7°C for fourteen days. Raman and shear force (SF) measurements were performed with the aged beef. The samples stored at -1°C showed on average only slightly increased SF values. The correlation of Raman spectra with SF using partial least squares regression yielded cross-validated predictions of SF for both storage temperatures with coefficients of determination R(2)cv=0.33-0.79. Validation with independent samples resulted in predictions with R(2)val=0.33. Using thresholds between 30 and 49N, tough and tender samples could be discriminated with partial least squares discriminant analysis with 70-88% and 59-80% accuracy during cross-validation and validation, respectively. These results demonstrate the principle feasibility to predict the SF and thus toughness of raw, aged gluteus beef cuts with a portable Raman device showing potential for grading beef cuts. PMID:26802613

  12. Superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a growing, pulsatile, and tender mass

    Seferi, Arsen; Alimehmeti, Ridvan; Pajaj, Ermira; Vyshka, Gentian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Superficial temporal artery (STA) pseudoaneurysms have been reported in the literature since the mid of seventeenth century from Bartholin, however, there is an increasing number of cases, suggesting a diversity of etiological factors. Among these, traumatic events, even of an iatrogenic nature, have been identified as causative factors for nonspontaneous STA pseudoaneurysms. Regional pain and tenderness, troublesome pulsations of the mass, cosmetic concerns as well as the risk of bleeding warrant a thorough evaluation and a definite interventional approach to the condition. Case Description: A 21-year-old Caucasian male searched medical advice for a growing, tender, and pulsatile mass on his right temple, with isolated and short episodes of lancinating sensations, after sustaining a blunt trauma following a hit with a stick half a year before the admission. Enhanced cranial computed tomography and angiography confirmed the diagnosis of an STA pseudoaneurysm. A direct percutaneous aspiration, as well as ultrasonography, was performed prior to the neurosurgical intervention, with the complete removal of the mass. Conclusions: STA pseudoaneurysms require a careful evaluation and a conclusive approach in order to avoid the risk of a growing mass and other nonremote complications such as bone erosions and bleeding. Different treatment options are available, including endovascular obliteration and embolization, however, surgical removal after ligation of the afferent and efferent segments of the vessel seem to be highly effective.

  13. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation, and meat tenderization in beef.

    Li, C B; Li, J; Zhou, G H; Lametsch, R; Ertbjerg, P; Brüggemann, D A; Huang, H G; Karlsson, A H; Hviid, M; Lundström, K

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine LM to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES; 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at an early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in decreased (P tenderization, resulting in lesser (P tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of the activation of μ-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins, and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle. PMID:22147478

  14. Danish Public Construction Counselling Selection and Assignment Criteria in European Tendering

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    One of the largest customers in the Danish construction industry is public agencies that own and develop projects. For some of the counselling services, they recur to be put out in European tendering. The aim is to find which selection and assignment criteria are used most in public tendering. How...... projects use selection and assignment criteria for counselling services and finally if there is significant use of selection and assignment methods in public counselling. The method is based on 74 public counselling tenders from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database from January 2010 to March 2013...... public counselling services....

  15. Effect of decreasing dietary cation anion difference on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef tenderness.

    Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Condron, K N; Shee, C N; Claeys, M C; Nennich, T D; Lemenager, R P

    2013-12-01

    The manipulation of acid-base balance has been extensively investigated as a means of manipulating Ca homeostasis and managing milk fever in dairy cows. A low dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) increases urinary Ca, blood-ionized Ca, and responsiveness to Ca-homeostatic hormones. Very little attention has been focused on the possibility of using a low dietary DCAD to increase muscle Ca availability, calpain activity, and meat tenderness of beef cattle. Thus, 90 Angus × Simmental crossbred steers were allotted by weight (590.1 ± 2.4 kg) and breed composition (% Simmental) to 3 treatments (6 pens/treatment, 5 steers/pen) to evaluate the effects of DCAD on beef tenderness. Treatments were initiated 2 wk before slaughter and consisted of 3 DCAD (mEq/100 g) treatments: -16, 0, and +16. Basal diets (DM basis) were 62 to 64% corn, 6 to 9% soybean meal, and 20% corn silage, and were formulated to contain similar concentrations of protein, energy (NEm; NEg), and minerals, with the exception of sodium and chlorine. A commercial chloride ion supplement (PASTURChlor, West Central, Ralston, IA) was added to diets to decrease DCAD and sodium bicarbonate was added to diets to increase DCAD. Performance before initiation of the study did not differ among treatments (P > 0.22). Urine pH did not differ at the initiation of the study (P > 0.57), but did increase at a decreasing rate on d 7 (6.37, 7.69, 8.13) and d 14 (5.68, 7.66, 8.03) of the study as DCAD increased from -16 to 0 to +16, respectively (quadratic, P carcass weight, dressing percent, fat thickness, LM area, yield grade, marbling score, quality grade distribution, 48 h muscle pH, and Ca content of muscle did not differ among treatments (P > 0.16). In addition, DCAD did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force among treatments after 7 and 21 d of aging (P > 0.23). Although urine pH was decreased by feeding a -16 DCAD diet, Ca influx into the LM and beef tenderness were not affected by altering the DCAD in finishing

  16. THE CONCEPT AND FORMS OF TENDERS IN THE CIVIL LAW

    Didenko A. A.; Artem A. V.

    2015-01-01

    In modern civil turnover the definition of a bidding contract is a well known way of making contracts. Despite this fact, the modern legal science has not formed a general idea about the tender. In particular, the problem of this phenomenon is in minor investigation of the principle of the conclusion of agreement and the deal itself in the civil law. It requires further legal analysis in investigation of the legal procedures of the contract at the auction. Legal regulation of the relations in...

  17. Further investigations into the relationship between ultimate pH and tenderness for beef samples from bulls and steers.

    Purchas, R W; Aungsupakorn, R

    1993-01-01

    Samples of longissimus dorsi muscle from 150 cattle comprising Friesian bulls and steers and Charolais × Angus cross steers, were used to investigate the nature of the relationship between ultimate pH and beef tenderness under conditions where cold-shortening was avoided. A modified Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear machine with a square- rather than a vee-blade enabled several aspects of tenderness to be evaluated, including peak force (PF), initial yield force (IY), PF-IY, and an index of total work done. The two steer groups differed little in meat quality characteristics, but, in terms of six major hindquarter cuts, the Charolais cross group yielded 14·3% more meat per unit live weight, due to a combination of a superior dressing-out percent and a higher cutability. Relative to Friesian steers, the bulls produced beef with a higher ultimate pH (P < 0·001), and after adjustment to a common pH, the bull beef was tougher for all WB parameters except PF-IY. Cooking loss was higher for beef from bulls after adjustment for pH. Although reduced by pH adjustment, beef from bulls remained significantly darker than that from steers (P < 0·05) based on reflectance measurements. Maximum toughness in terms of PF, IY, and work index was at an ultimate pH of 6·0-6·1, but the peak was much less clear for PF-IY. The decline in tenderness with an increase in ultimate pH to 6·2 was associated with a decrease in sarcomere length. This result supports a previous suggestion that shortening explains, at least in part, the lower average tenderness at intermediate pH values. PMID:22060661

  18. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  19. Comparison among some tenderization processing on Maremmana meat

    Maurizio Mormile

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenderness is the most important characteristic to define acceptability of products by consumers. In this paper three different methods, Calcium infusion (Ca, Very Fast Chilling (VFC and pelvic suspension hanging from aitch bone (PS or the Achilles tendon (AT are applied in pre-rigor phase on Maremmana meat. Ca injection has reported the lowest shear force on cooked meat compared to control group (5.09 vs. 16.33 kg instead VFC group has underlined intermediate values. Pelvic hanging has shown significant difference on shear force and sarcomere length on Longissimus thoracis muscle (4.13 vs. 8.11 kg and 1.63 and 2.04 μm respectively for WBS and sarcomere length in PS and AT; further in Biceps femoralis we have found a lowest collagen content (4.33 vs. 4.79 g/100 g for PS and AT. In conclusion these methods could influence tenderization processes even if some processes, that could lower the effect of these practices, are still unclear.

  20. A product modelling approach to competitive tendering in the building and construction industries

    Tolman, F.P.; Oszariyildiz, S.

    1998-01-01

    Competitive tendering is the activity of turnkey vendors and construction consortia in the Building and Construction industries that, to a large extend, determines the company's competitiveness. From the tender price it follows if a contract will be won or not, and, if the bid has been successful, t

  1. 17 CFR 240.14d-4 - Dissemination of tender offers to security holders.

    2010-04-01

    ... newspaper or newspapers of a summary advertisement of the tender offer; and (ii) Mails by first class mail... holder who requests such tender offer materials pursuant to the summary advertisement or otherwise. (3... registering the securities to be offered must have become effective and only a prospectus that meets...

  2. E-money as legal tender : Does the status really matter?

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Kommers, Piet; Isaias, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The pro and contra over the importance of e-money being attributed the status of legal tender has been brought on the table since the early 90s. Is obtaining the status of legal tender really necessary for e-money to strengthen its position as a means of efficient payments in the economy? What do cu

  3. Relationships among calpastatin single nucleotide polymorphisms, calpastatin expression and tenderness in pork longissimus

    Genome scans in the pig have identified a region on chromosome 2 (SSC2) associated with tenderness. Calpastatin is a likely positional candidate gene in this region because of its inhibitory role in the calpain system that is involved in postmortem tenderization. Novel single nucleotide polymorphism...

  4. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    Tambo, Torben

    of private enterprise purchase additionally relate to the acceptance of some level of dialogue before, during and after the tender due date. Tendering is viewed as an extreme case of relationship management, where newcomers and existing suppliers are put on an equal footing, decades of incorporated...

  5. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods.......Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  6. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  7. U.S. Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Flavor and Tenderness in Steaks as Determined with an Experimental Auction

    Feuz, Dillon M.; Umberger, Wendy J.; Calkins, Chris R.; Sitz, Bethany M.

    2004-01-01

    In a study of beef quality, consumers tasted steak samples and participated in an experimental auction to determine their willingness to pay. Steaks differed in marbling, tenderness, country of origin, and aging method. Marbling and tenderness had statistically significant impacts on consumers' palatability ratings for steaks. Tenderness significantly impacted consumers' willingness-to pay values. There appear to be threshold levels of marbling and tenderness, below which consumers discount s...

  8. 41 CFR 102-117.55 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender?

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? 102-117.55 Section 102-117.55 Public Contracts and Property... the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? (a) Using a rate tender is an advantage...

  9. 17 CFR 240.14e-2 - Position of subject company with respect to a tender offer.

    2010-04-01

    ... with respect to a tender offer. 240.14e-2 Section 240.14e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... subject company with respect to a tender offer. (a) Position of subject company. As a means reasonably... position with respect to the bidder's tender offer. Such statement shall also include the reason(s) for...

  10. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  11. La diaspora americana in Europa: il caso degli espatriati in Tender is the Night di F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Elisa A. Pantaleo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From 1921 to 1930, F. Scott Fitzgerald travelled to Europe four times, and he spent almost four years in France and one year in Switzerland. While living abroad in the multicultural environment of Paris and of the French Riviera, his attitude towards Europe underwent a major change. Tender is the Night marks a significant transition from the narrow nationalism of Fitzgerald’s first travel correspondence to an increased sensitivity towards European otherness. The cultural encounter with Europe – that in the novel is rendered through an hybridization of the language and the characters –helped the author to reinterpret his identity in a cosmopolitan perspective.

  12. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    Smulders, F. J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recove...

  13. 宰后肌肉蛋白质变化与嫩度的关系%The Relationship Between Tenderness and Protein Transformation in Postmortem Muscle

    崔薇

    2009-01-01

    The tenderness of meat is affected by many factors,but the mechanism is still poorly understood.This paper summarized the domestic and foreign researches in recent years on the meat tenderness and analyzed the relationship between meat tenderness and protein degradation,with a view to provide the reference to the study of meat tenderness and quality.

  14. New developments in shockwave technology intended for meat tenderization: Opportunities and challenges. A review.

    Bolumar, Tomas; Enneking, Mathias; Toepfl, Stefan; Heinz, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Meat tenderness is an important quality parameter determining consumer acceptance and price. Meat tenderness is difficult to ensure in the global meat chain because the production systems are not always aiming at this purpose (ex.: cattle derived from milk production) and by the existence within the carcass of "tough" primals. Different methods can be used by the meat industry to improve meat tenderness each with its advantages and drawbacks. The application of hydrodynamic pressure or shockwaves has showed outstanding improvements by reducing the Warner Bratzler Shear Force by 25% or more. However, the technology has not penetrated into the market as first systems were based on the use of explosives and further developments seemed to lack the robustness to fulfill industrial requirements. The present paper describes the main challenges to construct a prototype for the continuous treatment of meat by shockwaves based on electrical discharges under water. Finally, improvements on the tenderness of meat by using the novel prototype are presented. PMID:23660173

  15. Relationships among calpastatin single nucleotide polymorphisms, calpastatin expression and tenderness in pork longissimus.

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Rohrer, G A; Holl, J W; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Nonneman, D

    2009-10-01

    Genome scans in the pig have identified a region on chromosome 2 (SSC2) associated with tenderness. Calpastatin is a likely positional candidate gene in this region because of its inhibitory role in the calpain system that is involved in postmortem tenderization. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in calpastatin were identified and used to genotype a population (n = 1042) of Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire swine for association with longissimus lumborum slice shear force (SSF) measured at days 7 and 14 postmortem. Three genetic markers residing in the calpastatin gene were significantly associated with SSF (P tenderness. In summary, these data provide evidence of several significant, publicly available SNP markers associated with SSF that may be useful to the swine industry for marker assisted selection of animals that have more tender meat. PMID:19422367

  16. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round.

    Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Binning, J M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the biochemical differences that govern tenderness and palatability of economically important muscles from the beef round using cuts with known tenderness differences. At 24h postmortem, the longissimus dorsi (LD), gracillus (GR), adductor (AD), semimembranosus (SM), sartorius (SAR), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were removed from ten market weight beef cattle. Sensory and biochemical characteristics were determined in each cut and compared with the LD. The GR, SAR and VI had sensory traits similar to the LD while the SM, AD and VL differed. The GR, SAR, AD, and SM all had multiple biochemical characteristics similar to the LD, while the VI and AD had numerous biochemical differences. While no one biochemical characteristic can be used to predict tenderness across all muscles, analysis of the biochemical characteristics revealed that in most beef round cuts postmortem proteolysis provided a good indication of the tenderization occurring during aging. PMID:22386323

  17. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of danish tenders in europe

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Public construction agencies are one of the largest developers within the Danish construction industry, where such agencies own and develop new public construction projects. Most of these projects are put out in European tender. This study analyses the selection and assignment criteria employed by...... process, and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period...... these agencies in different types of public sector projects. Some of the objectives pursued by the study include the determination of 1/ the selection and assignment criteria mostly used in Danish public tenders 2/ how different types of projects use selection and assignment criteria in the bidding...

  18. Predictive value of tender joints compared to synovitis for structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis

    Cheung, Peter P; Mari, Karine; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Chalès, Gérard; Gaudin, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Saraux, Alain; Dougados, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of tender joints compared to synovitis for structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A post hoc analysis was performed on a prospective 2-year study of 59 patients with active RA starting on antitumour necrosis factor (TNF). Tenderness and synovitis was assessed clinically at baseline, followed by blinded ultrasound assessment (B-mode and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS)) on the hands and feet (2 wrists, 10 metacarpophalangeal, 10 proximal interphalangeal and 10 metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints). Radiographs of these joints were performed at baseline and at 2 years. The risk of radiographic progression with respect to the presence of baseline tenderness or synovitis, as well as its persistence (after 4 months of anti-TNF), was estimated by OR (95% CI). Results Baseline tender joints were the least predictive for radiographic progression (OR=1.53 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.29) pMTP joints. Non-tender joints with no synovitis were negatively predictive (OR=0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82) p=0.003). Persistence of tender joints was negatively predictive (OR=0.38 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.78) p=0.009) while persistence of synovitis was predictive (OR=2.41 (95% CI 1.24 to 4.67) p=0.01) of radiographic progression. Conclusions Synovitis is better than tenderness to predict for subsequent structural progression. However, coexistence of tenderness and synovitis at the level of an individual joint is predictive of structural damage, particularly in the MTP joints. Trial registration number NCT00444691. PMID:27042336

  19. The effectiveness of insider trading regulations: The case of the Italian tender offers

    Riccardo Ferretti; Pierpaolo Pattitoni; Anna Salinas

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the effectiveness of the Market Abuse Directive (MAD) in reducing the possible profits of insider trading during voluntary tender offers with the purpose of delisting initiated by controlling shareholders in Italy. Our results suggest that the introduction of the MAD did not produce appreciable effects on the magnitude of abnormal returns and volumes noted in the period preceding the announcement of a tender offer. However, a regression analysis reveals that the MAD has ch...

  20. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of Danish tenders in Europe

    Jasper Kranker Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public construction agencies are one of the largest developers within the Danish construction industry, where such agencies own and develop new public construction projects. Most of these projects are put out in European tender. This study analyses the selection and assignment criteria employed by these agencies in different types of public sector projects. Some of the objectives pursued by the study include the determination of 1/ the selection and assignment criteria mostly used in Danish public tenders 2/ how different types of projects use selection and assignment criteria in the bidding process, and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period: January 2010 to March 2013. Fisher's Exact Test was conducted to determine if there was any significant use of some selection and assignment criteria. The findings of the study showed that invited tenders with pre-qualification and lowest price in 69.8% of the tenders are the most used selection and assignment criteria, with little regard to project type.

  1. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review.

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping

    2013-03-01

    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock's skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further. PMID:25049808

  2. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  3. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  4. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman × Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman × Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P 0·05) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman × Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman × Angus. PMID:22055632

  5. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastati...

  6. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other...

  7. Is scar tenderness a reliable sign of scar complications in labor?

    Isha Gutgutia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean section has come a long way from being a risky & restrictive surgery to one that is safe and quick. Due to a rise in the rates of primary caesarean section globally, repeat cesarean section has also become very common. The chief concern during labor with scarred uteri is that of scar rupture which can have devastating fetal and maternal consequences, including mortality. Several studies monitoring for the features of scar rupture like abnormal cardiotocography (CTG, severe abdominal pain persisting between contractions, acute onset scar tenderness, hematuria or abnormal vaginal bleeding, maternal tachycardia or shock, cessation of uterine activity and loss of station of the presenting part exist with the exception of scar tenderness which has not been evaluated separately in any study. The present prospective observational study was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a sign of scar complications in labor. Methods: 78 women with one previous cesarean delivery in spontaneous labor at term undergoing trial of scar were monitored for progress of labor and observed for vaginal bleeding, scar tenderness, maternal pulse and blood pressure every 30 minutes. Scar tenderness was elicited by pressing below and behind the pubic symphysis in between uterine contractions while engaging the woman in conversation and noting for a visible wince. Fetal heart rate auscultation was done as per protocol. Trial of scar was terminated for scar tenderness, unexplained maternal tachycardia, fresh vaginal bleeding, fetal heart rate abnormalities and non-progress of labor. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a predictor of scar complications was 92.3% and 3.8%, while accuracy was 33.3%. The likelihood ratio of a positive sign of scar tenderness being associated with scar complications in labour is 1.48. Maternal tachycardia was not a significant predictor

  8. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles.

    He, Fu-Yi; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Si-Young; Yeo, In-Jun; Jung, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (ptenderization effect of GE combined with citric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  9. To tender, re-negotiate or partner: Strategies for contracting service companies

    The contracting of oilfield service companies by petroleum exploration and production operating companies is different than the contracting of civil engineering, construction or other project-oriented contractors. The relationship between operating companies and oilfield service companies has had a long and unique history which has evolved since the first oil wells were drilled over a century ago. The process of contracting service companies by operating companies for petroleum exploration and production work can be split into three distinct stages: (1) decide what it is that should be contracted out and what should be kept in house; (2) determine the method to use to select the contractor(s) to perform the work; and (3) agree to the contractual structure to best reflect the relationship the operating company and the service company with to initiate and maintain. As there are ongoing changes to the business structures and corporate thinking of both operating and service companies, there are also evolving changes to what are considered core businesses and the methods of selecting and contracting service companies by operating companies. Operating companies are recognizing the high costs of tendering for contractor services in terms of personnel time and administrative effort, and are relying more on negotiating and rolling-over existing contracts with their suitable, capable contractors. Partnering, in its many forms and levels, is increasingly being recognized as a useful method to get better work done at cheaper overall costs

  10. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in modulation of pain of tender points in syndrome fibromyalgia: case study

    Isabel Mara Magalhães Roriz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of pain and chronic diffuse, characterized by the presence of at least 11 of 18 points called anatomically specific tender points, painful on palpation. As the pain diffuse the main symptom of fibromyalgia. The current treatment is focused mainly to the reduction of symptoms. Physiotherapy has an important role in improving the control of pain. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the main TENS of low frequency and high intensity in modulating pain of tender points of patients with fibromyalgia. For this was a case study of patient R. S. S., 38-year-old female carrier of the syndrome of fibromyalgia attended school in the clinic of the Faculty of Integrated Ceará (FISIOFIC. The patient was treated with the TENS-pain Acupuncture points in a total of twelve care and pain assessed before starting treatment and after three attendants. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity at 77.7% of the tender points in the second evaluation and 88.8% of the points in the other assessments. It was concluded that there was a reduction in the pain of tender points of the patient showing the analgesia promoted by TENS, so it should be used as a complementary treatment programs associated with other treatments and also served as a good technique to locate the tender points

  11. Supplemental vitamin D3 and zilpaterol hydrochloride. I. Effect on performance, carcass traits, tenderness, and vitamin D metabolites of feedlot steers.

    Korn, K T; Lemenager, R P; Claeys, M C; Engstrom, M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2013-07-01

    Angus × Simmental steers (n = 210; initial BW 314 ± 11 kg) were separated into heavy and light BW blocks and allotted evenly by BW to 6 treatments (3 heavy and 2 light pens per treatment) to determine the effect of supplemental vitamin D3: 0 IU (no D), 250,000 IU for 165 d (long-term D), or 5 × 10(6) IU for 10 d (short-term D) on performance, carcass traits, vitamin D metabolites, and meat tenderness in steers fed either 0 (NZ) or 8.38 mg/kg zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) daily for 21 d. Placebo or ZH was added to the diet 24 d, and short-term D was added 13 d before slaughter. Vitamin D3, ZH, and placebo were all removed from the diet 3 d before slaughter. Steers fed ZH tended to have improved overall G:F compared with steers not fed ZH (P Carcass traits were not impacted by long-term D without ZH (P > 0.13), but long-term D with ZH decreased percentage KPH (P carcass traits when ZH was fed (P carcass leanness and decreased tenderness, and vitamin D feeding increased vitamin D3 metabolites in LM, but did not improve tenderness in steers fed ZH. PMID:23798522

  12. Tender Papule Rising on the Digit: Pacinian Neuroma Should Be Considered in Differential Diagnosis

    Hyun Hee Cho, Jong Soo Hong, Se Young Park, Hyun Sun Park, Soyun Cho, Jong Hee Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacinian corpuscles are sensory nerve-end organs located in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the palms or soles. Pacinian neuroma is an extremely rare feature, defined as hyperplasia or hypertrophy of Pacinian corpuscles. About half of Pacinian neuromas present with point tenderness. There have been a limited number of cases reported around the world.We observed a 45-year-old woman with an 8-month history of a tender whitish papule on her left thumb tip. Histopathologically, an enlarged hypertrophic Pacinian corpuscle in subcutaneous tissue, surrounded by numerous nerve fibers, was found. Herein, we report a case of Pacinian neuroma presenting as a tender papule on a fingertip that was clearly related to repetitive trauma at that site. This case shows that a meticulous history and histological examination can lead to an exact diagnosis and proper treatment.

  13. High Pressure Hydrodynamic Shock Wave Effects on Tenderness of Early Deboned Broiler Breasts

    Schilling, Jennifer K.

    2000-01-01

    Breast muscles that are deboned prior to 4 to 6 h postmortem are highly variable and lacking in tenderness. The poultry industry currently provides costly storage space for intact broiler breasts during this 4 to 6 h period. This thesis evaluates tenderization techniques that if effective could eliminate the need for this additional 4 to 6 h storage time. The first objective of this study was to determine a relationship between Warner-Bratzler shear values (WBS) (1 cm by 1cm, variable leng...

  14. Possibilities concerning the procurement of a tender for a new nuclear power plant

    The authors describe the legal frame for the licensing of a new nuclear power plant in Switzerland. The possibilities for a company to perform the procurement of a tender are discussed with respect to the decision to assign the project to a single contractor or to a consortium. The requirements to the contractor may be grouped in the categories cost, time schedule, function, volume and quality. Another topic in the discussion covers risks with respect to the tender and the contract and the appropriate solution strategies.

  15. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to holistically describe the combination of conditions resulting in particular tender results. As a result of the analysis, a solution set is found explaining the path leading to project contract winning; previous work experience between client and general contractor together with either previous work experience...... combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...

  16. Tender Buyers...A La Hongroise (Some Results Of An Empirical Research)

    Mandják, T; Simon, J

    1997-01-01

    In our paper at last IMP Conference in Karlsruhe we made a research proposal with some methodological aspects about Hungarian tender buyers activity and culture. In this paper we should like to present some results of our exploratory research. We try to formulate any questions for future research. Hungarian bidding habits and behaviour are not yet deeply researched. The goal of this pilot study is to take a snapshot about the Hungarian tendering processes in the point of view of the seller-bu...

  17. Effects of calpastatin and micro-calpain markers in beef cattle on tenderness traits.

    Casas, E; White, S N; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Smith, T P L

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed at the calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN1) genes with meat tenderness and palatability traits in populations with diverse genetic backgrounds. Three populations were used in the study. One population consisted of Bos taurus that included crossbred animals derived from Hereford, Angus, Red Angus, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Simmental (GPE7; n = 539). Another population consisted of Bos taurus with Bos indicus influence, including crossbred animals from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano (GPE8; n = 580). The third population was Bos indicus and consisted of purebred Brahman (STARS; n = 444). Traits evaluated were meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; kg) at 14 d postmortem, and traits evaluated by trained sensory panels that included tenderness score, juiciness, and flavor intensity. A SNP at the CAST gene had a significant (P < 0.003) effect on WBSF and tenderness score in the GPE7 and GPE8 populations. Animals inheriting the TT genotype at CAST had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the CC genotype. The marker at the CAPN1 gene was significant (P < 0.03) for tenderness score in GPE7 and GPE8. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAPN1 had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the TT genotype. Markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes were associated with flavor intensity in the GPE8 population. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAST and the TT genotype at CAPN1 produced steaks with an intense flavor when compared with the other genotypes. An interaction between CAST and CAPN1 was detected (P < 0.05) for WBSF on GPE8. The statistical significance of the interaction is questionable because of the limited number of observations in some cells. Markers developed at the CAST and CAPN1 genes are suitable for use in identifying animals with the genetic potential to produce meat

  18. Proteome changes during meat aging in tough and tender beef suggest the importance of apoptosis and protein solubility for beef aging and tenderization.

    Laville, Elisabeth; Sayd, Thierry; Morzel, Martine; Blinet, Sylvie; Chambon, Christophe; Lepetit, Jacques; Renand, Gilles; Hocquette, Jean François

    2009-11-25

    Within a population of Charolais young bulls, two extreme groups of longissimus thoracis muscle samples, classified according to Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of 55 degrees C grilled meat, were analyzed by 2D-electrophoresis. Muscle analyses were performed on 4 bulls of the "tender" group (WBSF=27.7+/-4.8 N) and 4 bulls of the "tough" group (WBSF=41.2+/-6.1 N), at 3 post-mortem times: D0, samples taken within 10 min post-mortem; D5 and D21, samples kept at 4 degrees C under vacuum during 5 and 21 days. Proteins of muscle samples were separated in two fractions based on protein solubility in Tris buffer: "soluble" and "insoluble". Proteins of both fractions were separated by 2D-electrophoresis. Evolution of spots during the 3 post-mortem times was analyzed by hierarchical classification (HCA). Three clusters of proteins presenting similar evolution profiles provided accurate classification of post-mortem times and showed the translocation of some chaperone proteins and glycolytic enzymes from the soluble fraction to the insoluble fraction between D0 and D5. Cellular structure dismantlement and proteolysis was observed at D21. Effect of group ("tender" vs "tough") on spot intensities was tested by ANOVA. At D0, higher quantity of proteins of the inner and outer membrane of mitochondria was found in the tender group suggesting a more extensive degradation of mitochondria that may be related to the apoptotic process. PMID:19860418

  19. INVIVO 31P MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS) OF TENDER POINTS IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    DEBLECOURT, AC; WOLF, RF; VANRIJSWIJK, MH; KAMMAN, RL; KNIPPING, AA; MOOYAART, EL

    1991-01-01

    31P Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopy was performed at the site of tender points in the trapezius muscle of patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Earlier, in vitro studies have reported changes in the high energy phosphate-metabolism in biopsies taken from tender points of fibromyalgia patients

  20. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans Peter; Christensen, Robin;

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength.......To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength....

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.35 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service?

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the advantages...-117.35 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service? (a) It is an advantage to use GSA's tender of service when you want to: (1) Use GSA's authority to negotiate on behalf...

  2. Pork tenderness estimation by taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear force and on-line methods.

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-12-01

    The extent to which modification of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations, relating to storage and preparation of the meat, aperture of the V-shaped cutting blade and shearing velocity, improve the relationship with sensory tenderness perception of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict tenderness. Sensory tenderness evaluation was conducted on 120 frozen (at -18°C for several months) samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. After overnight thawing, the meat was grilled to an internal temperature of 74°C and scored on an eight-point scale, from extremely tough to extremely tender. The standard WBSF procedure (protocol A) consisted of heating fresh meat samples (stored for 48 h at 4°C post slaughter) at 75°C for 50 min, cooling in cold tap water for 40 min, taking cylindrical cores parallel to the fibre direction, and shearing at a velocity of 200 mm/min with a blade aperture of 60°. For the prediction of sensory tenderness, the WBSF standard procedure (protocol A) showed the lowest variance (R(2)=15%) and the highest standard error of the estimate (SEE=0.97 N) compared to the other WBSF protocols. A decrease in shearing velocity, from 200 to 100 mm/min and, a replacement of the cutting blade with an aperture of 60° by one with an aperture of 30° led to improvements of R(2) (respectively, 19% vs. 13% and 47% vs. 23%) and SEE (respectively, 0.93 N vs. 0.97 N and 0.80 N vs. 0.97 N) and thus were better predictors of tenderness. A blade aperture of 30° instead of 60° also led to considerably lower WBSF values (22.1 N vs. 30.0 N). Freezing, frozen storage and thawing of the meat, prior to WBSF measurement, resulted in higher shear force values (32.7 N vs. 28.7 N) and a better prediction of tenderness, R(2) (25% vs. 15%) and SEE (0.94 N vs. 1.00 N). Furthermore, preparing the frozen stored

  3. Tender rules and trust influence on cooperation in the building industry

    Ussing, Lene Faber; Wandahl, Søren

    -operating. A questionnaire survey including building owners, contractors, suppliers, architects, engineers and client design advisor has been accomplished. The survey shows that the problem with co-operation among others is the way the tendering rules normally are used, where the normal assignment criterion is...

  4. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S; Zebis, Mette K

    2011-01-01

    Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults...

  5. Specifications of the open tendering concerning electric power production installations from biomass

    These specifications precise the context and the object of the open tendering (the installation of a biomass power plant of 300 MWe installed realized for the 1 january 2010), the administration procedures, the conditions of admissibility, the documents needed for the candidate, the demand inquiry, particular conditions and candidates evolvement. (A.L.B.)

  6. Tools for constructive assessment of bids to a call for tender--some experiences.

    Brender, Jytte; McNair, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the experiences from a full-scale case study applying a number of novel assessment techniques for selecting among income bids at a call for tender, based on a User Requirements Document that comprises non-prescriptive, goal-oriented requirements. PMID:15460750

  7. Analysis of variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender

    Matsumura, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Yuichiro; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    The aim of this study is to analyze the variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender using data on MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), Kanto Regional Development Bureau. It was revealed that number of bidder and level of minimum price affect variation of successful bid rate based on multiple linear regression analysis.

  8. 75 FR 57746 - Lockhart Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Soliciting...

    2010-09-22

    ... penstock; (4) a powerhouse containing a single 1.45-megawatt turbine-generator unit; (5) a 1400-foot-long... Energy Regulatory Commission Lockhart Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Lockhart Power Company. e. Name of Project: Riverdale Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the...

  9. Tender Subcutaneous Nodules In A Female Patient-Is It Simple Panniculitis

    Rai Ranju

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48 year old Postmenopausal woman with asymptomatic pancreatitis developed tender subcutaneous nodules with fat necrosis. Thus panniculitis may be the first presenting feature of an asymptomatic pancreatic disease. In any case of panniculitis detailed work up should be done to rule out underlying associated pathology. Treatment of Pancreatitis in our patient resulted in resolution of her skin lesions.

  10. 17 CFR 240.14e-1 - Unlawful tender offer practices.

    2010-04-01

    ...(c) of Regulation S-K (17 CFR 229.901(c)) and the securities being offered are registered (or authorized to be registered) on Form S-4 (17 CFR 229.25) or Form F-4 (17 CFR 229.34), the offer shall not be... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful tender...

  11. 76 FR 16764 - Crane & Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    2011-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Crane & Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption From Licensing b. Project No.: 13583-001 c. Date filed: March 9, 2011 d. Applicant: Crane..., 600-volt transmission line connected to the Crane & Company mill complex. The proposed project...

  12. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  13. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...... response to exposure without any pathophysiological significance, or represents a part of a causal pathway leading to pain....

  14. Tendering by municipalities of wind turbines; Aanbesteding door gemeenten van windmolens

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This manual provides municipalities answers to the questions of how the municipality must do the tendering for wind turbines and what choices they have [Dutch] Deze handleiding biedt gemeenten antwoorden op de vragen hoe de gemeente moet aanbesteden en welke keuzes zij daarin heeft.

  15. Effect of supplementation of tender coconut water on blood pressure of primary hypertensive subjects

    Gullapalli HS, Avinash P Tekade, Namrata H Gullapalli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Increased vascular resistance, sodium retention & sympathetic over activity contributes to the blood pressure elevation. Plant foods may be beneficial in decreasing blood pressure (BP. Recently much attention has been focused on plant foods that may be beneficial in preventing Hypertension, metabolic syndrome and possibly reduce the risk of various diseases. This clinical study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a structured intervention on BP of primary hypertensive subjects. Aim: To study the effect of Tender Coconut Water (TCW on BP of Primary hypertensive subjects. Methods and Material: 70 subjects were selected randomly sample for 6 weeks of the intervention program. Among them 40 subjects were selected as the experimental group and 30 300ml/day for 6 weeks whereas the control group was instructed to follow the same routine without modifications. One initial, two mid intervention (after every 15 days and one final (post intervention BP recorded for both the groups. The obtained data was statistically analyzed. Results: The mean systolic BP of experimental group and control group were decreased from 145.8 mm Hg and 141mm of Hg to 135.3 mm of Hg and 140 mm of Hg respectively. The mean diastolic BP of experimental group and control group were decreased from 93.7 mm H g and 90.9 mmHg to 86.9 mm of Hg and 89.7 mm of Hg respectively. Conclusion: Irrespective of cause of hypertension TCW has beneficial effect on BP. TCW contains high amount of potassium which causes vasodilatation and also improve the endothelial function.

  16. Translocation of surface-inoculated Escherichia coli into whole muscle nonintact beef striploins following blade tenderization.

    Johns, Daniel F; Bratcher, Christy L; Kerth, Chris R; McCaskey, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Translocation of Escherichia coli among beef loins processed with a mechanical tenderizer was evaluated. Two beef striploins were inoculated on the lean side with 6.4 to 7.2 ml of a nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli at 8.2 to 10.1 log CFU/ml. Total E. coli inoculated onto striploins ranged from 1.12 × 10(9) to 9.10 × 10(10) CFU. Striploins were passed once (lean side up, anterior end first) through a mechanical blade tenderizer. After the inoculated striploins had been tenderized, uninoculated beef striploins (n = 5) were passed once (lean side up, anterior end first) through the same mechanical tenderizer. This procedure was repeated twice for a total of 12 striploins. Six core samples were taken from each striploin starting with the anterior end. Each core was cut into six sections; sections 1 through 4 represented the top 4 cm of the core sample, and sections 5 and 6 represented the remaining part of the core split in half. After tenderization, E. coli levels were highest (P 0.05) were found among loins 3, 4, 5, and 6, for which levels were below the limit of detection. Levels of E. coli from section 1 were higher than those for all other sections. Section 2 had higher levels (P 0.05) were found among sections 3, 4, and 5. Data indicate that even after inoculation of E. coli a high initial levels, contamination from one loin to another is quickly reduced to < 10 CFU/g. PMID:21819662

  17. Effect of two dietary concentrate levels on tenderness, calpain and calpastatin activities, and carcass merit in Waguli and Brahman steers.

    Ibrahim, R M; Goll, D E; Marchello, J A; Duff, G C; Thompson, V F; Mares, S W; Ahmad, H A

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass characteristics of a newly introduced breed, the Waguli (Wagyu x Tuli), with the carcass characteristics of the Brahman breed. Brahman cattle are used extensively in the Southwest of the United States because of their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, Brahman carcasses are discounted according to the height of their humps because of meat tenderness issues. The Waguli was developed in an attempt to obtain a breed that retained the heat tolerance of the Brahman but had meat quality attributes similar to the Wagyu. Twenty-four animals were used. Six steers from each breed were fed a 94% concentrate diet and 6 steers from each breed were fed an 86% concentrate diet. Eight steers, 2 from each group, were harvested after 128 d, after 142 d, and after 156 d on feed. Waguli steers had larger LM, greater backfat thickness, greater marbling scores, and greater quality grades than the Brahman steers (P meat, and these traits are also present in the Waguli. The Waguli had significantly lower Warner-Bratzler shear force values than the Brahman steers after 7 and 10 d of postmortem aging (P Brahman had increased to acceptable levels. Toughness of the Brahman has been associated with high levels of calpastatin in Brahman muscle, and the Waguli LM had significantly less calpastatin activity (P = 0.02) at 0 h postmortem than the Brahman LM. At 0-h postmortem, the total LM calpain activity did not differ between the Brahman and Waguli (P = 0.57). Neither diet nor days on feed had any significant effect on the 0-h postmortem calpain or at 0-h postmortem calpastatin activity, nor an effect on Warner-Bratzler shear-force values. In conclusion, LM muscle from the Waguli steers had a high degree of marbling, lower shear force values, and low calpastatin activity, all of which are related to more tender meat. PMID:18310491

  18. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for beef tenderness: consumer assessments of eating quality.

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Greenwood, P L

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of calpain-system genetic markers on consumer beef quality ratings, including interactions of marker effects with hormonal growth promotant (HGP) use and tenderstretch hanging. Brahman cattle in New South Wales (NSW; n = 164) and Western Australia (WA; n = 141) were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds to achieve balance and divergence in calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene marker status. Genotypes for μ-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined. Angus cattle (49 in NSW, 17 in WA) with favorable CAST and CAPN3 alleles, balanced for CAPN1-316 status, were also studied. Half the cattle at each site had HGP (Revalor-H, containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg 17β-estradiol) implants during grain finishing. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis [tenderstretch (TS)]. Meat Standards Australia consumer panels scored 7-d aged striploin steaks from both AT and TS sides, and 7-d aged rump and oyster blade steaks from the AT side of each carcass. Two favorable CAST alleles increased tenderness ratings of AT-striploin, TS-striploin, rump, and oyster blade steaks by, respectively, 6.1, 4.2, 4.2, and 3.1 units, and overall liking by 4.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.7 (all P Brahman steaks from the same location with the same marker alleles had similar scores. In contrast, NSW Angus striploin steaks scored about 15 units greater for tenderness and overall liking (P quality, consistent with our previous findings for objective meat quality. PMID:22367069

  19. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus.

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm(3)) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (ptenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  20. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors for the Large Hadron Collider. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC. (USA), without competitive tendering, for the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors for a total amount of 694 860 US dollars (1 081 500 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The above amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the rate of exchange stipulated in the tender. LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC. has declared the following origin of the equipment relating to this adjudication proposal: USA-100%. The expenditure for the cryogenic temperature sensors will be reimbursed to CERN by the Department of Energy of the Government of the United States of America within the framework of the Accelerator Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement with the USA concerning their contribution towards the LHC machine.

  1. Effect of growth path on the tenderness of the semitendinosus muscle of Brahman-cross steers.

    Allingham, P G; Harper, G S; Hunter, R A

    1998-01-01

    The growth paths of 36, nine-month-old Brahman-cross steers were modified to determine the effect of their growth history on tenderness of the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Steers were assigned to one of three treatment groups. One group of steers (uninterrupted group) was grazed on improved tropical pasture for 257 days and had an average weight gain of 0.6 kg day(-1). The other two groups were fed a restricted diet of low-quality grass hay and lost on average ~ 13% of their initial live weight over 100 days. These groups were then regrown for 157 days on either pasture (pasture finished) with the uninterrupted group, or on a grain-based feedlot diet (grain finished). Growth rates of the previously restricted groups during the regrowth phase were indicative of compensatory growth and were significantly different (p meat tenderness. PMID:22062879

  2. Evolution of open tender mechanism in public procurement in post-Soviet Russia

    Melnikov Vladimir, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the development of public procurement through open tender in Russia over the last 20 years. It is proved the necessity of the transition to a competitive public procurement system in the 1990s. Stages and terms of carrying out of this method for determining of the supplier also are shown. The structure and the comparative analysis of procedures of open tender, and also differentiation of the application of certain regulations are given. On the basis of the analysis of purchasing technologies we can make conclusion about the progressive evolution of the process of procurement. The movement in the direction of decreasing corruption capacity of procurement procedures tells us about expediency of transition to competition in an electronic form along with expansion of the sphere of its application.

  3. Calcium and potassium content in beef: influences on tenderness and associations with molecular markers in Nellore cattle.

    Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita de Araujo; de Souza, Marcela Maria; Mudadu, Maurício de Alvarenga; Tholon, Patricia; Rosa, Antônio do Nascimento; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Medeiros, Sérgio Raposo; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) are essential nutrients in animal nutrition. Furthermore, the Ca content can influence meat tenderness because it is needed by the proteolytic system of calpains and calpastatins, major factors in postmortem tenderization of skeletal muscles. K content, which is needed for muscle contraction, can also affect meat tenderness. This study showed that K positively affects the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), measured at 14days of meat aging, which means that higher levels of K are related to lower meat tenderness. Additionally, a significant effect (P≤0.015) of a SNP in the calcium-activated neutral protease 1 (CAPN1) gene on Ca content was observed. Metal content in beef can affect not only nutritional values but also meat quality traits. Part of this effect may be related to variation in specific genes. PMID:23995697

  4. Survivability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mechanically tenderized beef steaks subjected to lactic acid application and cooking under simulated industry conditions.

    Chancey, C C; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Echeverry, A; Jackson, S P; Thompson, L D; Brashears, M M

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical tenderization improves the palatability of beef; however, it increases the risk of translocating pathogenic bacteria to the interior of beef cuts. This study investigated the efficacies of lactic acid spray (LA; 5 % ), storage, and cooking on the survivability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mechanically tenderized beef steaks managed under simulated industry conditions. Beef subprimals inoculated with either high (10(5) CFU/ml) or low (10(3) CFU/ml) levels of E. coli O157:H7 were treated (LA or control) and stored for 21 days prior to mechanical tenderization, steak portioning (2.54 cm), and additional storage for 7 days. Steaks were then cooked to an internal temperature of 55, 60, 65, 70, or 75°C. Samples were enumerated and analyzed using DNA-based methods. Treatment with LA immediately reduced E. coli O157:H7 on the lean and fat surfaces of high- and low-inoculum-treated subprimals by more than 1.0 log CFU/cm(2) (P 0.05). E. coli O157:H7 was detected in core samples from high-inoculum-treated steaks cooked to 55, 60, or 70°C. Conversely, E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in core samples from low-inoculum-treated steaks, regardless of the internal cooking temperature. These data suggest that LA- and storage-mediated reduction of pathogens on subprimals exposed to typical industry contamination levels (10(1) CFU/cm(2)) reduces the risk of pathogen translocation and subsequent survival after cooking. PMID:24112580

  5. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48) were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP) while others received layer ration (Control), for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ), fresh papaya leaves (FPL) and vinegar soluti...

  6. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm3) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3)...

  7. A 'wall of ideas': the taboo on tenderness in theory and culture

    Miller, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    The dominant psychoanalytic theories in the humanities promote a myth of origins in which the infant is originally asocial, and motivated only by selfish hedonism, or by a desire to return to a state of syncretic merger with its environment. Developmental psychology, however, has demonstrated that infants are social agents, rather than selfish narcissists. Psychoanalytic theory of culture must therefore recognise the masculine "taboo on tenderness" which underlies its own early formulations, ...

  8. Public-Private partnership procurement: Game-theoretic studies of the tender process.

    De Clerck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    A Public-private partnership (PPP) is a settlement between a public party and a contractor or private sector consortium to engage in a long-term contractual agreement for designing, building, operating and/or maintaining capital intensive projects, while trying to attain value for money. PPPs are globally gaining importance in the construction industry. The risk transfer from the contracting government towards the private entity has important repercussions on the tender. Contractors need to c...

  9. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in modulation of pain of tender points in syndrome fibromyalgia: case study

    Isabel Mara Magalhães Roriz; Maria do Socorro Quintino Farias; Geórgia Guimarães Barros; Teresa Maria da Silva Câmara; Cristiano Teles de Sousa; Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes Basto

    2008-01-01

    The Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of pain and chronic diffuse, characterized by the presence of at least 11 of 18 points called anatomically specific tender points, painful on palpation. As the pain diffuse the main symptom of fibromyalgia. The current treatment is focused mainly to the reduction of symptoms. Physiotherapy has an important role in improving the control of pain. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the main TENS of low frequency and high intensity in modulating pain of...

  10. Effect of Brahman genetic influence on collagen enzymatic crosslinking gene expression and meat tenderness.

    Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, D D; Elzo, M A; White, M C; Stelzleni, A M; Johnson, S E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of Brahman genetics on collagen enzymatic crosslinking gene expression and meat tenderness. Steers were randomly selected to represent a high percentage Brahman genetics (n = 13), Half-Blood genetics (n = 13), Brangus genetics (n = 13), and a high percentage Angus genetics (n = 13). Muscle samples from the Longissimus lumborum muscle were collected at weaning and harvest and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis was conducted to measure the mRNA expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1), and cystatin C (CYS). Steaks from subject animals were collected at harvest, aged for 14 d and subjected to collagen analysis, Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBS) and trained sensory panel analysis (tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue). Data indicated that Half-Blood and Brahman steers had greater (PBrangus steers. Panelists tended to detect more connective tissue in Brahman and Half-Blood steaks when compared to Angus and Brangus steaks (P Brangus steers. At weaning and harvest, all genetic groups had similar mRNA expression of BMP1 (P > 0.10). At harvest, Brangus and Angus steers had greater LOX mRNA expression than Brahman cattle (P < 0.05). Pearson's correlation coefficients indicated that only weaning CYS mRNA expression was correlated to WBS, panel tenderness and connective tissue scores (P < 0.05). Expression of LOX was only correlated to these measures at harvest, and BMP1 was correlated to these traits at both time periods (P < 0.05). These results indicate that collagen crosslinking enzyme activity, as indicated by mRNA levels, early in an animal's life may account for some of the variation seen in steak tenderness due to Brahman genetic influence. PMID:24669867

  11. Reimagining "Tense and Tender Ties" in García's Monkey Hunting

    Cho, Yu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Reimagining 'Tense and Tender Ties' in Garcia's Monkey Hunting" Yu-Fang Cho analyses Cristina García's re-narration of transnational histories of the multi-racial, multi-generational Chinese Cuban family in Monkey Hunting (2003) as a critical project that recasts developmental immigrant narratives primarily set in the United States as part of the emerging cultural archive of global migrations. Drawing on recent scholarship on comparative racialization, especially Ann Laura Sto...

  12. Vietnam : Framework for Thermal BOT Tenders and Strategy for Gas Coordination and Harmonization with Market Roadmap, Volume 2

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This Final Report represents the third and final under The World Bank PPIAF-financed Vietnam Framework for Thermal BOT Tenders & Strategy for Gas Coordination and Harmonization with Market Roadmap. It consists of two volumes: Volume 1 presents the executive summaries of assignment activities, and a detailed report on coordination of gas and power development planning. Volume 2 presents the detailed report on mechanisms for market integration and competitive tendering.

  13. Findings of the Health Risk Assessment of Escherichia coli O157 in Mechanically Tenderized Beef Products in Canada

    Catford, Angela; Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Smith, Ben; Buenaventura, Enrico; Couture, Hélène; Fazil, Aamir; Farber, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, a total of 18 cases of foodborne illness caused by Escherichia coli O157 were reported as part of a Canadian outbreak related to contaminated beef. During the food safety investigation associated with the outbreak, it was determined that a few cases were likely associated with the consumption of mechanically tenderized beef (MTB) which had been tenderized at the retail level. Details of this investigation and its follow-up are available online on the Canadian Food Inspection Age...

  14. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K.; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Methods: Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic includ...

  15. Effect of Flammulina velutipes on spent-hen breast meat tenderization.

    Kang, G H; Kim, S H; Kim, J H; Kang, H K; Kim, D W; Seong, P N; Cho, S H; Park, B Y; Kim, D H

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of powdered vegetable dip sauces to improve the tenderness of spent-hen breast meat. Our overall purpose was to find lower-priced materials for the tenderization of spent-hen breast meat. The spent-hen breast meat was dipped into vegetable powder for 24 h at 4°C, and then the samples were analyzed. In the results for vegetable-powder treated samples, those treated with papain and pineapple had higher (P ≤ 0.05) myofibrillar fragmentation indices compared with those of the other samples. The kiwi-, pineapple-, and Flammulina velutipes-powder (winter mushroom) treated samples had new peptides of about 32 kDa and degradation to 30 kDa. Also, the Flammulina velutipes-powder treated samples showed new peptides of 15 kDa. These data imply that Flammulina velutipes is superior for common use than papain or pineapple for the tenderization of spent-hen meat. PMID:22184449

  16. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  17. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (Pmeat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25

  18. Moisture enhancement and blade tenderization effects on the shear force and palatability of strip loin steaks from beef cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Brooks, J C; Mehaffey, J M; Collins, J A; Rogers, H R; Legako, J; Johnson, B J; Lawrence, T; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Miller, M F

    2010-05-01

    Two trials investigated zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) feeding duration, enhancement, blade tenderization, and postmortem aging effect on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; trial 1) and consumer sensory ratings (trial 2). For trial 1, USDA Select beef strip loins were obtained from carcasses of beef steers fed ZH (6.8 g/t on 90% DM) the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of the feeding period. One-half of each strip loin was enhanced (110%) with a brine solution, whereas the remaining portion was not enhanced. Both pieces were portioned into steaks, which were aged 7, 14, or 21 d for WBSF analysis. For trial 2, paired USDA Select beef strip loins were obtained from carcasses of beef steers fed ZH the last 0 or 20 d of feeding. Paired strip loins were fabricated into 4 pieces and assigned to control, moisture enhanced, blade tenderized, and blade tenderized + moisture enhanced treatments. Strip loin pieces were then portioned into steaks that were aged 14 or 21 d postmortem. Consumers panelists (n = 458) indicated their like or dislike of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of each sample using 8-point, verbally anchored scales, as well as tenderness and overall acceptability. With exception of 20 d ZH-treated steaks, results from trial 1 indicate WBSF values decreased (P tenderness scores (P tenderness, juiciness, and overall like scores and tended (P tenderness and tenderness acceptability scores when compared with controls. PMID:20081069

  19. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF BIDDERS AND THEIR TENDER OFFERS CONCERNING EXECUTION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS

    Galkina Elena Vladislavovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the reliability analysis methods of bidders and their tenders offers for implementation of construction works are offered. The special attention is focused on the complexity of these processes and the necessity of participation of serious, professional and responsible executors. Application of the described methods leads to a conclusion on the decrease of risks related to selection of a participant of a construction pro-ject. In the article the main stages of the implementation procedure are defined. That allows considering the economic state of applicants, and both economic and technical indicators of tender offers’ reliability. The main characteristics to be considered on each stage are revealed. The author makes a conclusion that the reliability of bidders is determined by the comparison of their economic states with the capacities for implementation of the orders with the specified characteristics. According to the terminology of the article, the reliability of applicant’s of-fers is the ability to execute orders on the bidder’s own conditions. In addition the author states that determining the reliability is based on the comparison of tender offers and contender’s characteristics of objects. The rational methods to compare economic indicators are offered. Along with this, it was found out that at the current moment the method of comparing the technical indicators for the projects-analogues with the indicators of a bidder’s object is not formalized. It limits the application of this method. Finally, it was concluded that the development of the methods applied to technical indicators provided a coherent system for evaluating the reliability of the construction bidders and their offers. It allows creating the basis for the development of appropriate automated system that can be used both for selection of competitive organizations and for preparation of offers by the applicants.

  20. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles

    He, Fu-Yi; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Si-Young; Yeo, In-Jun; Jung, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear fo...

  1. New Insight into the Effects of Small Heat Shock Proteins on Callipyge Lamb Meat Tenderness

    Cramer, Traci; Kim, Yuan H. Brad; Ma, Danyi; Waddell, Jolena N.; Penick, Moriah

    2014-01-01

    Callipyge lambs are a type of sheep that are genetically known to produce tough meat. High expression of calpastatin, which inhibits proteolytic activity of µ-calpain, has been identified as the main factor behind the toughness of callipyge lamb meat. Another group of proteins called small heat shock proteins (sHSP) has recently been suggested for its possible involvement in tenderness development of meat, where up-regulation of sHSP may be associated with toughness. However, the role of sHSP...

  2. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for software licenses for mathematical scientific libraries

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the purchase of software licenses for mathematical scientific libraries required by the experiments at CERN, in particular at LHC. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of a contract with NAG (GB) for software licenses for mathematical scientific libraries including maintenance fees for an estimated total amount not exceeding 400 000 pounds sterling (980 000 Swiss francs at the current exchange rate) for a period of five years. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: GB - 100%.

  3. Call for tender - Areva-Alstom: watershed in wind energy - Technological duel on the open sea

    The author comments the answers to a call for tender made by the French government and concerning five offshore wind farm sites (Le Treport, Fecamp, Courseulles sur Mer, Saint-Brieuc and Saint-Nazaire). As they are present within the three consortiums, Areva and Alstom should provide the wind turbines. This would result in the construction by Alstom of two blade and mast factories and two turbine and pad factories. For both companies, this market of 500 to 600 turbines is an opportunity. Many jobs are at stake. They push themselves forward for their experience or their innovation capacity. But their wind turbines will be based on foreign (Spanish or German) technology

  4. Bactericidal Effects of Natural Tenderizing Enzymes on Escherichia Coli and Listeria monocytogenes

    Hanan Eshamah; Inyee Han; Hesham Naas; James Rieck; Paul Dawson

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of proteolytic, meat-tenderizing enzymes (papain and bromelain) against E. coli and L. monocytogenes at three different temperatures (5, 25 and 35°C). Two overnight cultures of E. coli JM109 and L. monocytogenes were separately suspended in 1% peptone water and exposed to a proteolytic enzyme (papain or bromelain) at three different temperatures. Bromelain concentrations (4 mg/ml) and (1 mg/ml) tested at 25°C against E. c...

  5. Studies on tender wheatgrass: estimation of elemental content, bioaccessibility of essential elements and antioxidant activity

    Tender wheatgrass is being consumed by human beings in juice form or as it is due to its antioxidant potential and medicinal value. Systematic studies were carried out to (i) estimate elemental profiles as a function of growth period and conditions, bioaccessibility of different elements and the antioxidant potential of the tender wheatgrass, (ii) determine the optimum growth period for obtaining maximum benefit and (iii) examine the possible correlation between antioxidant potential and mineral content. Wheatgrass was grown in four different conditions namely (i) tap water, (ii) tap water with nutrients, (iii) soil and tap water and (iv) soil with nutrient solution. The studies were carried out on the wheatgrass of 5-20 days old. For comparison with laboratory grown wheatgrass, a set of commercially available wheatgrass tablets and wheat seeds were also studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for concentration determination of elements in the wheatgrass, wheat seeds and wheatgrass tablets. A total of 15 elements like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Br, Fe and Zn were determined in the samples of shoots and roots of tender wheatgrass. A comparison with the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of different essential elements with that in tender wheatgrass revealed that wheatgrass is a good source of minerals for health benefits rather than a food supplement. Bioaccessible fractions of various elements were estimated by a chemical NAA method by subjecting the samples to in vitro gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion followed by NAA. The bioaccessibility concentrations by both the measurements were in the range of 9-60%. It was found that bioaccessibility of the elements studied was the highest from fresh wheatgrass and the lowest from wheat seeds. Accuracy of the NAA method was evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials, SRM 1573a (Tomato leaves) from NIST, USA and ICHTJ CTA-vtl-2 (Tobacco leaves) from INCT, Poland. The antioxidant

  6. Research on Tender Beef Catering Technology%餐饮业牛肉嫩化技术的研究

    李亚东

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, human food structure has undergone great changes, beef consumption increased year by year. At the same time, consumers of beef quality requirements have become more sophisticated, more and more popular in the meat soft and tender, juicy meat. Therefore, to continuously improve the quality and yield of beef, thereby enhancing economic efficiency of enterprises, which will further enhance our position in the international food and beverage industry plays an important role.%随着人民生活水平的不断提高,人类食品结构发生了很大变化,牛肉的消费量逐年上升。与此同时,消费者对牛肉的质量要求也越来越高,越来越青睐于肉质柔软细嫩、多汁的肉。因此,不断提高我国牛肉的质量和产量,从而提高企业的经济效益,将会进一步提升我国餐饮业在国际上的地位。

  7. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation. PMID:26954174

  8. Validation of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite as decontaminating interventions to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in mechanically tenderized and brine-enhanced (nonintact) beef at the purveyor.

    Echeverry, Alejandro; Brooks, J Chance; Miller, Markus F; Collins, Jesse A; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2010-12-01

    After three different outbreaks were linked to the consumption of nonintact meat products contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service published notice requiring establishments producing mechanically tenderized and moisture-enhanced beef products to reassess their respective hazard analysis and critical control point systems, due to potential risk to the consumers. The objective of this study was to validate the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), and lactic acid (LA) sprays when applied under a simulated purveyor setting as effective interventions to control and reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in inoculated U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Choice strip loins (longissimus lumborum muscles) pieces intended for either mechanical blade tenderization or injection enhancement with a brine solution after an aging period of 14 or 21 days at 4.4°C under vacuum. After the mechanical process, translocation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 from the surface into the internal muscles occurred at levels between 1.00 and 5.72 log CFU/g, compared with controls. LAB and LA reduced internal E. coli O157:H7 loads up to 3.0 log, while ASC reduced the pathogen 1.4 to 2.3 log more than the control (P tenderization or enhancement of steaks should increase the safety of these types of products. PMID:21219733

  9. PENGEMPUKAN DAGING DENGAN ENZIM PROTEASE TANAMAN BIDURI (Calotropis gigantea [Meat Tenderization using Protease of Biduri Plant (Calotropis gigantea

    Erni Sofia Murtini1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Tenderness is the main attribute quality of meat, which influences consumer acceptability. Protease enzyme (like papain, bromelin and ficin are known to be used for improving tenderness of meat trough degradation of the protein. Biduri plant (Calotropis gigantea contains protease enzyme in its latex or the young tissue (0-20 cm plant tip. After isolation of crude enzyme using ammonium sulphate, the enzyme was the applied to tenderise meat at concentrations 0 ; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 and 1,0%. The result showed that concentration of protease enzyme affected to meat tenderness that determined by compression test and tensile strength. The enzyme (0.5% was enough to tenderise meat indicated by decreasing its compression test value to 201,160 N 9 from control of 228,582 N and tensile strength value to 4,618 N (from control 9,588N

  10. Proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi muscle during prolonged ageing.

    Polati, Rita; Menini, Michele; Robotti, Elisa; Millioni, Renato; Marengo, Emilio; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Cecconi, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    To study proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi four Charolaise heifers and four Charolaise bull's muscles were sampled at slaughter after early and long ageing (2-4°C for 12 and 26days respectively). Descriptive sensory evaluation of samples were performed and their tenderness evaluated by Warner-Bratzler shear force test. Protein composition of fresh muscle and of meat aged was analysed by cartesian and polar 2-D electrophoresis. Student's t-test and Ranking-PCA analyses were performed to detect proteomic modulation, and the selected protein spots were identified by nano-HPLC-Chip MS/MS. This research has demonstrated that there are no differences between proteomic patterns of male and females Longissimus dorsi muscle, and that the extension of ageing beyond 12days, did not brings any concrete advantage in terms of sensory quality. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrated that meat maturation caused changes of the abundance of proteins involved in metabolic, structural, and stress related processes. PMID:22953957

  11. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  12. Calcium-activated tenderization of strip loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks in diverse genotypes of cattle.

    Pringle, T D; Harrelson, J M; West, R L; Williams, S E; Johnson, D D

    1999-12-01

    Steers of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding (100% A, n = 6; F1 B x A, n = 6; and 100% B, n = 6) were used to determine the effect of calcium chloride injection on the calpain proteinase system and meat tenderness. The steers were slaughtered in six replications (at either 9 or 14 mm of backfat, determined ultrasonically), with each breed type represented. Calpains and calpastatin activities were measured on fresh, prerigor longissimus muscle samples. Carcass data were collected after a 24-h chill, and the short loin (IMPS #180), top sirloin (IMPS #184), and top round (IMPS #168) were removed from both sides of each carcass. The cuts from the right side were then injected at 5% (wt/wt) with CaCl2 solution (2.2%). Longissimus muscle calpain and calpastatin activities were also measured at 48 h postmortem from the injected and control sides of each carcass. Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured on steaks from the three subprimals aged 1, 2, 5, 15, or 31 d. Marbling scores and USDA quality grades were higher (Px A and B carcasses. Calpastatin activity was higher (Px A steers, and postmortem storage (O vs 48 h) and CaCl2 injection reduced (Px A steers were more tender (P.05) across breed type. Calcium injection improved strip loin and top sirloin steak tenderness, but it did not affect top round steak tenderness. Collectively, these data show that CaC12 injection can be used to improve meat tenderness, with similar responses shown in cattle containing 0, 50, and 100% B inheritance. However, even with CaCl2 injection, B steaks are less tender than their A and F1 B x A counterparts. PMID:10641869

  13. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Pablo Corva; Liliana Soria; Alejandro Schor; Edgardo Villarreal; Macarena Pérez Cenci; Mariana Motter; Carlos Mezzadra; Lilia Melucci; Cristina Miquel; Enrique Paván; Gustavo Depetris; Francisco Santini; Juan Grigera Naón

    2007-01-01

    The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G) and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G). We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from cro...

  14. PENGEMPUKAN DAGING DENGAN ENZIM PROTEASE TANAMAN BIDURI (Calotropis gigantea) [Meat Tenderization using Protease of Biduri Plant (Calotropis gigantea)

    Erni Sofia Murtini1); Qomarudin2)

    2003-01-01

    Tenderness is the main attribute quality of meat, which influences consumer acceptability. Protease enzyme (like papain, bromelin and ficin) are known to be used for improving tenderness of meat trough degradation of the protein. Biduri plant (Calotropis gigantea) contains protease enzyme in its latex or the young tissue (0-20 cm plant tip). After isolation of crude enzyme using ammonium sulphate, the enzyme was the applied to tenderise meat at concentrations 0 ; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 and 1,0%. The...

  15. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia: a cohort study

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All of the...... patients completed version 1 of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and were assessed for tender points and knee muscle strength. All subjects underwent bilateral isokinetic knee muscle strength testing in flexion and extension. Normative knee muscle strength values were calculated from the healthy...

  16. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics.

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Experiments were conducted concurrently at 2 locations to quantify effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass traits of Brahman cattle. Cattle were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds based on their genotype for commercially available calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Genotypes for mu-calpain gene markers (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined and included in statistical analyses. The New South Wales (NSW) herd was composed of 82 heifers and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. The Western Australia (WA) herd was composed of 173 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. One-half of the cattle at each site were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant (HGP: Revalor-H) during grain finishing. Cattle were backgrounded at pasture for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. Individually, or in combination with each other and with CAPN1-4751 status, CAST and CAPN3 status had no significant (all P > 0.05) effects on BW, growth, feed efficiency, or temperament traits. The only significant effect of CAST or CAPN3 on carcass characteristics was a small increase in rib fat with increasing number of favorable CAST alleles (P = 0.042) in the WA herd. There were no significant interactions (all P > 0.05) between the markers, or between the markers and sex or HGP treatment apart from CAST x HGP for area of the M. longissimus lumborum (P = 0.024) in the NSW experiment. Favorable CAST or CAPN3 alleles appear unlikely to have detrimental effects on growth, efficiency, temperament, or carcass characteristics of Brahman cattle; however, some effects evident for CAPN1 status indicate the need for further production studies on effects of these markers. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that calpain-system gene markers are

  17. Calpastatin and µ-calpain differ in their control of genotype specific residual variance of beef tenderness in Angus and MARC III steers

    Genotype variant effects of calpastatin (CAST) and µ-calpain (CAPN1) on mean beef tenderness have been widely characterized. We have tested whether these genetic variants also control residual (non-genetic) variation, and subsequently total phenotypic variation, of tenderness. Observation of rare ...

  18. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. PMID:26613188

  19. Accuracy of genomic breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle.

    Magnabosco, C U; Lopes, F B; Fragoso, R C; Eifert, E C; Valente, B D; Rosa, G J M; Sainz, R D

    2016-07-01

    Zebu () cattle, mostly of the Nellore breed, comprise more than 80% of the beef cattle in Brazil, given their tolerance of the tropical climate and high resistance to ectoparasites. Despite their advantages for production in tropical environments, zebu cattle tend to produce tougher meat than Bos taurus breeds. Traditional genetic selection to improve meat tenderness is constrained by the difficulty and cost of phenotypic evaluation for meat quality. Therefore, genomic selection may be the best strategy to improve meat quality traits. This study was performed to compare the accuracies of different Bayesian regression models in predicting molecular breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle. The data set was composed of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus muscle from 205, 141, and 81 animals slaughtered in 2005, 2010, and 2012, respectively, which were selected and mated so as to create extreme segregation for WBSF. The animals were genotyped with either the Illumina BovineHD (HD; 777,000 from 90 samples) chip or the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP Indicus HD; 77,000 from 337 samples). The quality controls of SNP were Hard-Weinberg Proportion -value ≥ 0.1%, minor allele frequency > 1%, and call rate > 90%. The FImpute program was used for imputation from the GGP Indicus HD chip to the HD chip. The effect of each SNP was estimated using ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Bayes A, Bayes B, and Bayes Cπ methods. Different numbers of SNP were used, with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% of the markers preselected based on their significance test (-value from genomewide association studies [GWAS]) or randomly sampled. The prediction accuracy was assessed by the correlation between genomic breeding value and the observed WBSF phenotype, using a leave-one-out cross-validation methodology. The prediction accuracies using all markers were all very similar for all models, ranging from 0

  20. 77 FR 36524 - Freedom Falls, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    2012-06-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freedom Falls, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14421-000. c. Date filed: June 1, 2012. d. Applicant: Freedom Falls, LLC. e. Name of Project: Freedom Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Sandy Stream,...

  1. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    Ge, Hong You; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site...

  2. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process ha

  3. 77 FR 34371 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    2012-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... c. Date Filed: May 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned...: The project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana at an existing lock and...

  4. 76 FR 4097 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    2011-01-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Oswegatchie River Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The existing multi... Contact: Jon Elmer, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P, 800 Starbuck Ave., Suite 802, Watertown, New...

  5. 75 FR 45106 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    2010-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With...: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric...' Lock & Dam No. 21, and would consist of the following facilities: (1) A new hydropower...

  6. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  7. 78 FR 43189 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    2013-07-19

    ... containing two turbine-generator units for a total installed capacity of 48,000 kilowatts; (3) a 200-foot... Energy Regulatory Commission Birch Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Birch Power Company. e. Name of Project: Demopolis Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project....

  8. 77 FR 76018 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    2012-12-26

    ...; (2) a 126-foot-long, 70-foot-wide powerhouse integral to the dam; (3) four turbine-generator units... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With.... b. Project No.: P-13346-003. c. Date filed: December 3, 2012. d. Applicant: Free Flow...

  9. Renewable energies: the choice of invitation to tender candidates for the electric power plants supplied by biomass or biogas

    To contribute to the french objectives of renewable energies development, the Ministry of Industry proposed an invitation to tender for the realization at the first of january 2007 of electric power plants (more than 12 MW) from biomass and biogas. This document presents the selected projects. (A.L.B.)

  10. 77 FR 60971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    2012-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for.... Applicant: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC. e. Name of Project: Braddock Locks and Dam Hydroelectric... Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL...

  11. 77 FR 32622 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Lock 14 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Heidelberg Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...)--825(r) . h. Applicant Contact: David Brown Kinloch, Lock 14 Hydro Partners, 414 S. Wenzel...

  12. 77 FR 32624 - Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock 12 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Lock 12 Hydro Partners, LLC. e. Name of Project: Ravenna Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On...)--825(r). h. Applicant Contact: David Brown Kinloch, Lock 12 Hydro Partners, 414 S. Wenzel...

  13. The effect of breed of sire and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the beef chuck.

    Christensen, K L; Johnson, D D; West, R L; Marshall, T T; Hargrove, D D

    1991-09-01

    Steers (n = 59) produced from the mating of Braford, Simbrah, Senepol, and Simmental bulls to Brahman- and Romana Red-sired cows and Brahman bulls to Angus cows were used in this study. Effects of sire breed and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the major muscles of the chuck when steers were fed to 1.0 cm 12th rib fat were determined. There were no muscle tenderness effects due to sire breed group, with the exception of the serratus ventralis muscle, which was more tender in Brahman- and Braford-sired steers than in Simmental-sired steers. Additionally, the supraspinatus muscle from the yearlings was lower in shear value than that from the calves. The Brahman-sired steers had serratus ventralis muscles with higher percentages (P less than .05) of intramuscular fat than those of Braford-, Simbrah-, and Simmental-sired steers. Fat deposited within the muscle or between muscles in the chuck was not related to muscle tenderness as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear values. Also, percentages of intramuscular fat of the triceps brachii, serratus ventralis, or supraspinatus muscles were not influenced (P greater than .05) by age at feeding. PMID:1938650

  14. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug tenders and shortages result in drug changes. International studies found that drug changes can adversely affect patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals.1,2 The challenges of drug changes in Danish public hospitals have not previously been studied...... support for drug identification during drug shortages were proposed. Conclusion This study identified different barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes. The barriers and facilitators included specific features related to drugs, health care technology as well as to financial and...... organisational aspects. Future studies should focus on removal of barriers and development and implementation of appropriate facilitators which may indeed improve patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals during drug changes....

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Brahman steers and their association with carcass and tenderness traits.

    Smith, T; Thomas, M G; Bidner, T D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E

    2009-01-01

    Data from purebred Brahman steers (N = 467) were used to study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with carcass traits and measures of tenderness. Fall weaned calves were grazed and fed in a subtropical environment and then harvested for processing in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were obtained to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. DNA was used to determine genotypes of thyroglobulin (TG5), calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751) SNP. Minor allele frequencies for CAST, CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751 were 0.342, 0.031, and 0.051, respectively. CAST genotypes were associated with calpastatin enzyme activity (P carcass traits. PMID:19224465

  16. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L

    1997-11-01

    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses. PMID:9374310

  17. miRNA-dysregulation associated with tenderness variation induced by acute stress in Angus cattle

    Zhao Chunping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that perform post-transcriptional repression of target genes by binding to 3’ untranslated regions. Research has found that miRNAs involved in the regulation of many metabolic processes. Here we uncovered that the beef quality of Angus cattle sharply diversified after acute stress. By performing miRNA microarray analysis, 13 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in stressed group compared to control group. Using a bioinformatics method, 135 protein-coding genes were predicted as the targets of significant differentially expressed miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO term and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA mined that these target genes involved in some important pathways, which may have impact on meat quality and beef tenderness.

  18. Relationship between commercially available DNA analysis and phenotypic observations on beef quality and tenderness.

    Magolski, J D; Buchanan, D S; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Anderson, V L; Newman, D J; Berg, E P

    2013-11-01

    Warner-Bratzler shear force values from 560 mixed breed heifers and steers were used to determine estimates of genetic selection. Cattle were marketed from 2008 to 2011, and included five feedlot based research projects at the North Dakota State University-Carrington Research Extension Center. Samples were collected for IGENITY® analysis providing information that included selection indices and estimated breeding values for carcass traits. DNA-based test results were compared with actual carcass measurements. Marbling accounted for over 10% of the variation in WBSF while hot carcass weight was the second most influential carcass trait accounting for 4% (Pgrade, and fat thickness were low (R(2)=0.14, 0.02, 0.03, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively). Therefore selecting cattle for a higher degree of marbling and feeding a diet that meets or exceeds recommended nutrients for growth are the most important factors influencing beef tenderness and acceptability. PMID:23793083

  19. Chilling rate effects on pork loin tenderness in commercial processing plants.

    Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L

    2012-08-01

    The present experiment was conducted to provide a large-scale objective comparison of pork LM tenderness and other meat quality traits among packing plants that differ in stunning method and carcass chilling rate. For each of 2 replicates, pigs were sourced from a single barn of a commercial finishing operation that fed pigs from a single terminal crossbred line. On each day, 3 trucks were loaded, with each of those trucks delivering the pigs to a different plant. Plant A used CO(2) stunning and conventional spray chilling; Plant B used CO(2) stunning and blast chilling; and Plant C used electrical stunning and blast chilling. The boneless, vacuum-packaged loin was obtained from the left side of each carcass (n = 597; 100 · plant(-1) · replicate(-1)). As designed, HCW, LM depth, and LM intramuscular fat percentage did not differ among plants (P > 0.05). By 1.67 h postmortem (1 h after the carcasses exited the harvest floor), the average deep LM temperature was >10°C warmer for Plant A than Plants B and C (32.1°C, 21.6°C, and 19.3°C, for Plants A, B, and C, respectively) and deep LM temperature continued to be >10°C warmer for Plant A until 4.17 h or 6.33 h postmortem than for Plants C and B, respectively. Both plants that used blast chilling produced loins with greater LM slice shear force at 15 d postmortem than did the plant that used conventional spray chilling (P 25 kg) LM slice shear force values was greater for Plant B than Plant A (14.7% vs. 1%; P electrical stunning (P < 0.05). This research shows that differences in chilling systems among pork packing plants can have a strong influence on loin chop tenderness. PMID:22307481

  20. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    E. Cipriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K, joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28 and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0. We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7 and 1 (IQR 2.5, respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6. According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001. The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index.

  1. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio.

    Cipriano, E; Ceccarelli, F; Massaro, L; Spinelli, F R; Alessandri, C; Perricone, C; Valesini, G; Conti, F

    2015-01-01

    Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR) could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint) were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28) and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0). We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR). We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD) age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7) and 1 (IQR 2.5), respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6). According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001). The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index. PMID:26492964

  2. Construction of electronic tendering and bidding system of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group%中国煤炭科工集团有限公司电子招投标系统建设探讨

    李海鹰

    2016-01-01

    通过对中国煤炭科工集团企业内部招标采购市场现状和电子招投标系统建设的需求分析,对集团建设企业采购电子招投标系统互联网平台的框架功能设置以及性能进行了探讨。指出,依据国家电子招投标政策的支持,在集团内建设电子招投标系统,可有效克服招投标过程中各种不规范行为,增加透明度,提高竞争力,减少干扰因素,为集团集约化招投标采购提供绿色、高效、安全、可行的管理方案,从而达到降低项目成本提高效益的目的。%Through the analysis on internal procurement market situation of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group, and the demand of electronic tendering and bidding system construction, the paper discusses the framework feature set and the performance of enterprise electronic tendering and bidding system internet platform, and points out, according to the national electronic tendering and bidding policy, the system can effectively overcome the irregularities in the bidding process, increase transparency, improve competitiveness, reduce interference factors, and provide green, efficient, safe and feasible management scheme for the intensive bidding procurement of the group, so as to reduce the project cost and increase the benefit.

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Risk on Contractor’s Tender Figure in Public Buildings Projects in Northern Nigeria

    L. O. Oyewobi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost impossible to have projects completed within the initial cost and time in Nigeria; this is as a result of many factors the construction industry is being plagued with ranging from estimating risk to time and cost overruns. The construction industry is widely associated with a high degree of risk and uncertainty due to the nature of its operating heterogeneous environment. The paper aimed at evaluating the impact of estimating risk on contractor’s tender sum with a view of ensuring efficient delivery of projects in the Northern part of Nigeria. A survey was conducted using questionnaire and a total of four headings of risk factors were identified. Research findings showed defects in design, inflation, contractor’s competence and political uncertainty as well as changes in government had greatest impact on contractor’s tender figure whereas likely trend in wages rates over the period, excessive approval procedure in administration government department, unavailability of sufficient amount of unskilled labor and technical manpower and resources of the company were the most significant factors to be considered by contractors when estimating the pricing risk. The paper recommends that construction professionals should identify and adequately quantify project estimating risk factors. Adding a risk premium to quotation and time estimation has to be supported by governmental owner organizations and other agencies in the local construction sector. Competent contractors should be allowed to tender so as to see the incidence of these estimating risks as an important aspect that requires attention while evaluating contractor’s tender sum.

  4. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  5. 强制要约收购的概念解读%Concept Explanation on Compulsory Tender Offer

    张慧闽

    2011-01-01

    要约收购作为当今国际社会流行的重要收购模式,也存在力不从心的地方,需要强制要约收购予以弥补。在上市公司收购过程中,实施强制要约收购的目的是保护中小股东的利益,在一定程度上减轻要约收购存在的局限性。本文从各国的立法例出发,归纳出其基本的法律特征,并且通过对强制要约收购各种概念进行比较分析,以期最终得出其概念的真正涵义。%Tender offer,which is considered as the most popular acquisition model in the international community.However,there also exists some defects to be complimented by compulsory tender offer.During the process of acquisition of listed corporations,the practice of compulsory tender offer is for the purpose of protecting the interests of shareholders and alleviating limitations of the tender offer to a certain extend.Taking the national legislation as an example,this paper sumerizes the basic law features,and through comparative analysis of the compulsory offer,the author tries to explain the true meaning of such concepts.

  6. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    E. Cipriano; F. Ceccarelli; L. Massaro; F. R. Spinelli; C. Alessandri; C. Perricone; G. Valesini; Conti, F.

    2015-01-01

    Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR) could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, is based on the cou...

  7. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (Pspace in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality. PMID:27076348

  8. Intravascular Glomus Tumor of the Forearm Causing Chronic Pain and Focal Tenderness

    Sang Ki Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A glomus tumor is a benign vascular tumor derived from glomus cells and occurs mainly in the subcutaneous layer of the subungual or digital pulp. Extradigital glomus tumors have been reported within the palm, wrist, forearm, foot, bone, stomach, colon, cervix, and mesentery. Glomus tumors can originate from the intraosseous, intramuscular, periosteal, intravascular, and intraneural layers. However, a glomus tumor originating from the intravascular layer of the forearm is a rare condition. Case Report. A 44-year-old woman had a 7-year history of chronic pain and focal tenderness of the forearm. No hypersensitivity or sensory alterations were observed. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a mass measuring 5 × 3 × 2 mm leading to a vein. Surgical excision was performed, and the tumor was completely resected. Finding of gross examination revealed a dark-red, well-defined soft tissue tumor, and histologic examination confirmed that the mass was a glomus tumor. The patient’s symptoms were completely resolved postoperatively. Conclusion. Intravascular glomus tumors rarely occur in the forearm; therefore, a thorough physical exam, comprehensive medical history, in-depth imaging, and early surgical excision upon clinical suspicion may be helpful to prevent a delayed or incorrect diagnosis.

  9. Color stability and tenderness variations within the gluteus medius from beef top sirloin butts.

    Apple, Jason K; Machete, James B; Stackhouse, Ryan J; Johnson, Tim M; Keys, Cari A; Yancey, Janeal W S

    2014-01-01

    Beef top sirloin butts (n=48) from USDA quality grade (QG; upper 2/3 US Choice vs. US Select) and yield grade categories (YG; 1 and 2 vs. 4 and 5) were aged 14 days, GM steaks were cut, with 2 steaks removed from the anterior (ANT), middle (MID) and posterior (POST) sections of the GM. One steak from each section was cut into lateral (LAT), central (CENT) and medial (MED) portions, packaged aerobically, and displayed for 7 days, whereas the second steaks were cooked to 71°C for WBSF. Top Choice-steaks were redder and more yellow (P<0.05) than Select steaks during display. Cooking losses were greatest (P<0.05) in the MED, and least (P<0.05) in the CENT, portions of GM steaks. Neither QG nor YG category affected WBSF, but differences within the GM were found for (P<0.05) WBSF. Results of this experiment indicate tenderness and color stability gradients exist within the GM. PMID:23896137

  10. Therapeutic effects of tender coconut water on oxidative stress in fructose fed insulin resistant hypertensive rats

    D Bhagya; L Prema; T Rajamohan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate whether tender coconut water(TCW)mitigates oxidative stress in fructose fed hypertensive rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with fructose rich diet and treated withTCW (4 mL/100 g of body weight) for3 subsequent weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured every three days using the indirect tail cuff method. At the end of the experimental period, plasma glucose and insulin, serum triglycerides and free fatty acids, lipid peroxidation markers (MDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in all the groups.Results: Treatment withTCW significantly lowered the systolic blood pressure and reduced serum triglycerides and free fatty acids. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and lipid peroxidation markers such asMDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were significantly reduced in fructose fed rats treated withTCW. Activities of antioxidant enzymes are up regulated significantly inTCW treated rats. Histopathological analysis of liver showed thatTCW treatment reduced the lipid accumulation and inflammatory infiltration without any significant hepatocellular damage.Conclusions: The overall results suggest that, TCW treatment could prevent and reverse high blood pressure induced by high fructose diet probably by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, upregulation of antioxidant status and improved insulin sensitivity.

  11. Formulation and Evaluation of Corn Pancakes Containing Bovine Plasma Protein and Tender Corn

    Y.M. Barboza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to fortify and evaluate some nutritional properties of a new product (corn pancakes, prepared with tender corn and bovine plasmatic protein. In doing so, two products were formulated. Both products were analyzed to determine their yield as well as their content of protein, fat, fiber, moisture, ash and essential amino acids. In addition to that, microbiological quality, degree of likeness, protein efficiency ratio and digestibility were also analyzed. All the results showed that the product containing bovine plasma had a higher yield, moisture and protein content (p<0.05. In almost all cases, the product containing bovine plasma met or exceeded the established ideal requirements of essential amino acids. The Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, shows that the animals fed with the experimental diet, showed a weight gain of 2.64 g per each g of protein intake. Corn pancakes had acceptable sensory score 88.4% for taste and 95.3% for color. In conclusion, due to its acceptability and highly nutritious value, the product containing bovine plasma could be used as an alternative to help solve the nutritional problems the population is facing these days.

  12. Report on Evaluation of Tender for the Valentine Iron Ore Project in Uruguay

    This report prepared by Dastur Engineering International GmbH (DEI)Consulting Engineers, Dusseldorf at the instance of United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) seeks to present an evaluation of the feasibility study presented by Republica Oriental del Uruguay, Ministerio de Industria y- Energia (Project Authority) by the Brazilian Consortium (comprising Tenenga, Coferraz, Cimetal and Interbras) along with a project BID including financing possibilities. In accordance with the contract requirements, this Draft Final Report is being submitted. Based on the comments to be received on the findings incorporated in this Draft Final Report from UNIDO and Project Authorities in Uruguay, the Final Report will be prepared and submitted to UNIDO in accordance with the time schedule stipulated in the contract between UNIDO and DEI. The aims of the Project are:a) The development objective is the utilisation of the country's natural resources by exploiting the iron ore deposits of Valentines, for iron and steel production. b)The immediate objective is to evaluate the tenders for the execution of a project to undertake the industrial exploitation of the iron or deposits in close co-operation and co-ordination with the Uruguayan authorities.

  13. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intramuscular fat content

    Sweeney Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  14. In-vitro Enzyme Inhibition Studies for Antidiabetic Activity of Mature and Tender Leaves of Mangifera indica var. Totapuri.

    Bhuvaneshwari J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels, whose critical management alleviates multiple complications. Ill-managed diabetes often precedes incidence of dyslipidaemia and cardiac diseases. Mangifera indica L (Anacardiaceae is a popular Indian horticultural tree also used medicinally. Hypoglycaemic and/or antidiabetic activity of leaf has been investigated in various models; however a comparative account of hypoglycaemic potential of mature and tender leaf is not reported; effect of leaves on carbohydrate digesting enzymes also is not reported. The present study is a preliminary report on comparative hypoglycaemic properties of aqueous methanolic extracts of mature and tender leaves of M indica L var. Totapuri in glucose loaded Wistar Albino rats and In-vitro glucosidase and  amylase inhibition bioassays. Significant hypoglycaemic activity was observed with both extracts in oral glucose tolerance test at 500mg/Kg b.wt. given orally one hour prior glucose loading. The extracts also showed inhibition of rat intestinal alpha glucosidase ,as well as porcine pancreatic alpha amylase with IC50: 21.03 and 35.73 for mature leaf and 27.16 and 22.01 for tender leaf extracts respectively. Thus the hypoglycaemic potential of mango leaves may be due to inhibition of carbohydrate digesting enzymes. Polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins identified in the extracts may be responsible for their hypoglycaemic activity.

  15. Carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii pasture-finished cattle and Hawaii-originated, mainland feedlot-finished cattle.

    Kim, Yong Soo; Fukumoto, Glen Kazumi; Kim, Sunae

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture with those of mainland US feedlot-finished cattle that were shipped from Hawaii after weaning. Rib-eye steak samples were collected from 30 feedlot-finished cattle harvested at a slaughter house in Washington State, USA and from 13 subtropical pasture-finished cattle harvested at a local slaughter house in Hawaii, then shipped to meat science laboratory at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Samples were aged for 2 weeks at 4°C and frozen for later proximate analysis and meat tenderness measurement. Feedlot-finished cattle had significantly heavier carcass weight (353 vs 290 kg) and thicker backfat (13.5 vs 6.6 mm), but no significant difference was observed in rib-eye area between the two groups. Marbling score (Small) and United States Department of Agriculture quality grade (Choice) of the pasture-finished beef were not significantly (P < 0.05) different from those of feedlot-finished beef. The shear force value of pasture-finished beef (5.18 kg) was not statistically different (P < 0.05) from that of feedlot-finished beef (4.40 kg). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture produced as tender beef as mainland feedlot-finished cattle with less intramuscular fat. PMID:22274716

  16. Pre-slaughter stress arising from on-farm handling and its interactions with electrical stimulation on tenderness of lambs.

    Devine, C E; Lowe, T E; Wells, R W; Edwards, N J; Edwards, J E Hocking; Starbuck, T J; Speck, P A

    2006-06-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation of lamb carcasses (n=269) or its absence (n=257) on shear force of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) was monitored during ageing in pasture-fed merino lambs (n=526). The lambs were slaughtered on four different days allowing durations of between one to 10 days of recovery from pre-slaughter handling (yarding, weighing and crutching) that affected ultimate pH (pH(u)). The right LT was removed 20-40min post-slaughter, tightly-wrapped in cling film (prevents the muscle cross-section increasing and thus minimising shortening) and rapidly cooled to 15°C to enter rigor mortis and age. At 0, 4, 24 and 72h post-slaughter, pH measurements and samples for shear force measurement were taken. Pre-slaughter handling had a significant negative effect on pH(u) and several days recovery were required for pH(u) to reach values associated with optimal meat quality as reflected by pH(u). Lambs with one and three days recovery (no significant difference between them) had a pH(u)>5.7 in 50% of the muscles and 19.4%>pH(u) 5.8. Whereas, in lambs with 8-10 days recovery (no significant difference between them), only 8% had a pH(u)>5.7 and 3.1%>pH(u) 5.8. Within each slaughter day electrically stimulated lambs were always more tender than non-stimulated lambs. For non-stimulated muscles at 72h, shear force values >40N occurred for 11.2% of the muscles: for electrically stimulated muscles at 72h, shear force values >40N occurred for 1.9% of the muscles. The rates of tenderisation were slower for intermediate pH(u) values resulting in higher shear force values at all ageing durations. With ageing at 72h for intermediate pH(u), non-stimulated muscles (n=38) 17.64% were >40N and for stimulated muscles (n=34), 7.9% were >40N. PMID:22062302

  17. 梯度加热对羊肉嫩度的影响%Influence of Gradient Heating on Mutton Tenderness

    达迪拉·买买提; 李芳; 张文; 杨正宇; 孔令明

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to check whether either oven or water bath heat treatment affects the tenderness of mutton semitendinosusorlongissimus dorsimuscles as evaluated by color, water holding capacity, collagen solubility and shear force. Samples were heated directly or stepwise (the intermediate temperatures were maintained for 15 min) to 4 different internal temperatures. The results showed that during gradient heating process, the shear force of semitendinosus muscle significantly increased (P< 0.05), and the trend was more obvious in two-step heat treatment than in the three-step one. Compared with the routine control, gradient heat treatments had no evident effect on the color or water holding capacity of mutton, but showed a significant impact on collagen solubility (P < 0.05), thereby being a better heating method.%以色泽、系水力、胶原蛋白溶解性、剪切力为评价指标,研究在常规加热的基础上,水浴与烘烤2种加热处理在50~60℃温度范围内保温一段时间是否对羊半腱肌与背最长肌嫩度有影响。结果表明:梯度加热过程中,羊半腱肌剪切力值有显著上升的趋势(P<0.05),其中两段式加热的这一趋势较三段式加热更明显,与常规加热方式相比,梯度加热对肉色及系水率无明显影响,但对胶原蛋白溶解性影响显著(P<0.05),与常规加热相比,梯度加热过程是相对比较理想的加热方式。

  18. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  19. Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M; Bendixen, Emøke; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Veiseth-Kent, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4...... tough samples, based on shear force measurements at 7 d postmortem, from young Norwegian red (NRF) bulls, taken at 1 h postmortem. A number of the proteins which have previously been related to tenderness were found to change in abundance between tender and tough samples, both in iTRAQ (P < 0.1) and 2......-DE analysis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 3 proteins that have not previously been related to tenderness were found to change significantly in abundance between tender and tough meat samples in the present study. These include proteins related to control of flux through the tricarboxylate cycle [2...

  20. 浅谈合理低价中标法的投标报价策略%Discussed Shallowly the Reasonable Low Price is Selected Method Tender Offer Strategy

    许艳琼

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了合理低价中标法的评标方法,阐述了对于这种评标方法投标人应采取的报价策略.%The article introduced the reasonable low price is selected method the evaluation of tenders method, elaborated should adopt the quoted price strategy regarding this kind of evaluation of tenders method tenderer.

  1. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  2. The roles of the actin-myosin interaction and proteolysis in tenderization during the aging of chicken muscle.

    Li, S; Xu, X; Zhou, G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the changes in the actin-myosin interaction and proteolysis on meat tenderization during postmortem storage. Following slaughter, chicken breast muscles were removed and stored at 4°C. Changes in the actin-myosin interaction over 48 h of aging were determined by monitoring the Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Shear force values, pH, protein degradation, calpain activities, and myofibrillar ultrastructures were also investigated. Results showed that the initial weak actin-myosin interaction strengthened at 12 h postmortem followed by a gradual weakening, which was supported by a decrease in Mg(2+)-ATPase activities and a lengthening of the sarcomeres. According to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses, the 30-kDa troponin-T fragment could not be readily detected until 12 h, whereas, at the same time, desmin had been rapidly degraded. However, there was a gradual decline in μ-calpain activity, commencing after about 6 h. Meanwhile, the largest decline in shear force was observed between 12 and 24 h postmortem. These findings suggest that weakening of the strong actin-myosin interaction formed at rigor may play a large role in meat tenderization during the early period of storage. It is proposed that weakening of the actin-myosin interaction results in lengthening of the sarcomeres, and then activated calpains are more able to reach their targeted sites, enabling proteolysis. These 2 factors may be involved in the conversion of muscle to tender meat during postmortem storage. PMID:22184440

  3. Biomarkers of meat tenderness: present knowledge and perspectives in regards to our current understanding of the mechanisms involved.

    Ouali, Ahmed; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Boudida, Yasmine; Becila, Samira; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Herrera-Mendez, Carlos H; Sentandreu, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Biomarkers of the meat quality are of prime importance for meat industry, which has to satisfy consumers' expectations and, for them, meat tenderness is and will remain the primary and most important quality attribute. The tenderization of meat starts immediately after animal death with the onset of apoptosis followed by a cooperative action of endogenous proteolytic systems. Before consideration of the biomarkers identified so far, we present here some new features on the apoptotic process. Among them, the most important is the recent discovery of a complex family of serpins capable to inhibit, in a pseudo-irreversible manner, caspases, the major enzymes responsible of cell dismantling during apoptosis. The biomarkers so far identified have been then sorted and grouped according to their common biological functions. All of them refer to a series of biological pathways including glycolytic and oxidative energy production, cell detoxification, protease inhibition and production of Heat Shock Proteins. Some unusual biomarkers are also presented: annexins, galectins and peroxiredoxins. On this basis, a detailed analysis of these metabolic pathways allowed us to identify some domains of interest for future investigations. It was thus emphasized that mitochondria, an important organelle in the production of energy from carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are a central element in the initiation and development of apoptosis. It was therefore stressed forward that, in fact, very little is known about the postmortem fate of these organelles and their multiple associated activities. Other topics discussed here would provide avenues for the future in the context of identifying reliable predictors of the ultimate meat tenderness. PMID:23790743

  4. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the maintenance of three 420 kV circuit breakers

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the maintenance, by the manufacturer, of three 420 kV circuit breakers. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with SCHNEIDER ITALY (IT) (formerly NUOVA MAGRINI GALILEO), the manufacturer of the equipment, for the maintenance of three 420 kV circuit breakers for a total amount of 490 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT?100%.

  5. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  6. SUNSTORE 3. Phase 1. Project design and tender. Final report; SUNSTORE 3. Fase 1. Projektering og udbud. Slutrapport

    Soerensen, P.A. (PlanEnergi, Skoerping (Denmark)); Moeller Nielsen, C. (Dronninglund Fjernvarme, Dronninglund (Denmark)); Baunwall, M. (NIRAS Aalborg (Denmark)); Munkholt, H. (GG-Construction, Aalborg (Denmark)); Paaske, B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Schmidt, T. (SOLITES, Stuttgart (Germany))

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the project has been to carry out detailed design and tendering for a heat production plant consisting of: - 35.000 m{sub 2} solar thermal collectors, - 60.000 m{sub 3} pit heat storage, - 3 MW{sub heat} heat pump, covering app. 50% of the heat production at Dronninglund district heating plant (Denmark). The final report for the project includes detailed design of the pit heat storage (a further development of a 10.000 m{sub 3} storage implemented in Marstal) and simulation of the total production system in the simulation software TRNSYS. (ln)

  7. Study of the Warner-Bratzler Shear Force, Sensory Analysis and Sarcomere Length as Indicators of the Tenderness of Sun-Dried Beef

    Marta Madruga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sun-dried beef is a frequently consumed and valued product in Brazil, however, there have been no scientific studies on its texture. To assess the tenderness of sun-dried beef, an instrumental analysis (Warner-Bratzler Shear Force; WBSF, a sensory analysis (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis; QDA and the sarcomere length (SL were used as indicators. Significant differences were observed among the sun-dried beef samples. Sample 3 (composed of sun-dried meat purchased at three fairs from Region 3 in the city of João Pessoa-PB was considered the most tender by the assessors, with a score of 6.7, and its WBSF analysis revealed a maximum value of 2.70 kgf. Additionally, this sample exhibited the highest SL value (1.89 µm. Samples 1 and 2 (composed of sun-dried meat purchased at three fairs from Regions 1 and 2, respectively, in the city of João Pessoa exhibited very similar tenderness values (WBSF and QDA but differed in their SL values, which suggested that sample 2 was the least tender. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the studied parameters are complementary and can be used as tenderness indicators for sun-dried beef. However, although the difference was beyond the detection limit of the assessors and the texturometer, the SL analysis appears to have been the most effective.

  8. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-01-01

    In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austr...

  9. Papel do sistema calpaína-calpastatina sobre a proteólise muscular e sua relação com a maciez da carne em bovinos de corte - Calpain-calpastatin role on muscle proteolysis and its relationship with beef tenderness

    Lage, Josiane Fonseca

    2009-12-01

    factors and mechanisms of different origin are responsible for post-mortem beef tenderization, which includes physical and chemical factors, enzymes without peptidase activity and peptidases. Although the exact mechanism of action still not completely understood,it has been proposed that myofibrillar protein degradation by endogenous proteins would be the main mechanism involved with post-mortem beef tenderization. During the post-mortem period the tenderization process depends on some factors like animal species, muscle fiber type, post-mortem management, and other factors.Tenderization occurs due to changes on some structural components of the muscle that take place in response to the action of enzymes during and after rigor mortis. The calcium dependent proteases (calpains and calpastatin are known to be the main factor responsible for beef tenderization. There are two calpain isoformes,called µ-calpain and m-calpain, which are responsible for post-mortem muscle degradation. The enzyme calpastatin also regulates the tenderization by inhibiting the activity of the calpains. Beef tenderization is a process that deserves a lot of attention, especially since consumer demand for products with higher quality havegreatly increased. The objective of this review is to understand the biochemical process of activation of the proteolytic enzymes and degradation of myofibrillar proteins.

  10. View on the perfection of landscape engineering inviting and submitting tenders management%园林绿化工程招投标管理的完善

    丁志烽; 陆恒

    2014-01-01

    通过总结招投标制度在我国园林绿化工程领域实施过程中出现的问题及分析其成因,在此基础上编制做好园林绿化工程招投标工作的方法,并提出完善园林绿化工程招投标管理的对策。%This paper summarized the problems exited in the implementation of inviting and submitting tenders of landscaping project, and made a deep analysis of the causes. Then the methods about how to do the landscape engineering inviting and submitting tenders were compiled. Finally, this paper proposed the countermeasures to perfect the inviting and submitting tenders of landscaping project.