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Sample records for actin-based symmetry breaking

  1. In silico reconstitution of actin-based symmetry breaking and motility.

    Mark J Dayel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells assemble viscoelastic networks of crosslinked actin filaments to control their shape, mechanical properties, and motility. One important class of actin network is nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex and drives both membrane protrusion at the leading edge of motile cells and intracellular motility of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. These networks can be reconstituted in vitro from purified components to drive the motility of spherical micron-sized beads. An Elastic Gel model has been successful in explaining how these networks break symmetry, but how they produce directed motile force has been less clear. We have combined numerical simulations with in vitro experiments to reconstitute the behavior of these motile actin networks in silico using an Accumulative Particle-Spring (APS model that builds on the Elastic Gel model, and demonstrates simple intuitive mechanisms for both symmetry breaking and sustained motility. The APS model explains observed transitions between smooth and pulsatile motion as well as subtle variations in network architecture caused by differences in geometry and conditions. Our findings also explain sideways symmetry breaking and motility of elongated beads, and show that elastic recoil, though important for symmetry breaking and pulsatile motion, is not necessary for smooth directional motility. The APS model demonstrates how a small number of viscoelastic network parameters and construction rules suffice to recapture the complex behavior of motile actin networks. The fact that the model not only mirrors our in vitro observations, but also makes novel predictions that we confirm by experiment, suggests that the model captures much of the essence of actin-based motility in this system.

  2. Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries

    Strocchi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...

  3. Symmetries and Symmetry Breaking

    Van Oers, W T H

    2003-01-01

    In understanding the world of matter, the introduction of symmetry principles following experimentation or using the predictive power of symmetry principles to guide experimentation is most profound. The conservation of energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, charge, and CPT involve fundamental symmetries. All other conservation laws are valid within a restricted subspace of the four interactions: the strong, the electromagnetic, the weak, and the gravitational interaction. In this paper comments are made regarding parity violation in hadronic systems, charge symmetry breaking in two nucleon and few nucleon systems, and time-reversal-invariance in hadronic systems.

  4. Breaking Symmetries

    Peters, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...

  5. On the symmetry breaking phenomenon

    Birtea, Petre; Puta, Mircea; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Tudoran, Ruazvan Micu

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the problem of symmetry breaking in the framework of dynamical systems with symmetry on a smooth manifold. Two cases will be analyzed: general and Hamiltonian dynamical systems. We give sufficient conditions for symmetry breaking in both cases.

  6. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs

  7. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  8. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Hošek, Jiří; Smetana, Adam

    Berlin: Springer, 2014, s. 17-28. ISBN 978-3-319-07072-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking * top-quark condensation * neutriono condensation * strong Yukawa dynamics * flavor gauge dynamics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  9. Symmetry breaking. 2. ed.

    This new edition of Prof. Strocchi's well received primer on rigorous aspects of symmetry breaking presents a more detailed and thorough discussion of the mechanism of symmetry breaking in classical field theory in relation with the Noether theorem. Moreover, the link between symmetry breaking without massless Goldstone bosons in Coulomb systems and in gauge theories is made more explicit in terms of the delocalized Coulomb dynamics. Furthermore, the chapter on the Higgs mechanism has been significantly expanded with a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs phenomenon, at the basis of the standard model of particle physics, in the local and in the Coulomb gauges. Last but not least, a subject index has been added and a number of misprints have been corrected. From the reviews of the first edition: The notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking has proven extremely valuable, the problem is that most derivations are perturbative and heuristic. Yet mathematically precise versions do exist, but are not widely known. It is precisely the aim of his book to correct this unbalance. - It is remarkable to see how much material can actually be presented in a rigorous way (incidentally, many of the results presented are due to Strocchi himself), yet this is largely ignored, the original heuristic derivations being, as a rule, more popular. - At each step he strongly emphasizes the physical meaning and motivation of the various notions introduced, a book that fills a conspicuous gap in the literature, and does it rather well. It could also be a good basis for a graduate course in mathematical physics. It can be recommended to physicists as well and, of course, for physics/mathematics libraries. J.-P. Antoine, Physicalia 28/2, 2006 Strocchi's main emphasis is on the fact that the loss of symmetric behaviour requires both the non-symmetric ground states and the infinite extension of the system. It is written in a pleasant style at a level suitable for graduate students in

  10. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  11. Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology

    Siddhartha Sen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.

  12. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  13. Electroweak symmetry breaking through supersymmetry breaking

    The connection between the scales of SU(2) x U(1) gauge symmetry breaking and supersymmetry breaking is didactically displayed in the framework of a T.O.Y. (Theory Overestimating Yukawas) model, a version of the (M + 1) SSM (supersymmetric extension of the standard model with a gauge singlet) in which the relevant parameters are determined in the fixed point regime. Some conspicuous features of supersymmetric particle physics are reviewed in the light of this simplified model. An alternative theory corresponding to lim (M + 1) SSM → MSSM, leads to interesting inequalities among the supersymmetric breaking parameters of the MSSM

  14. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  15. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in QCD

    We study dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD by the use of the generalized Hartree-Fock method. The low energy quark mass is calculated to the second order of diagrammatic expansion around shifted perturbative vacuum where quarks are massive. We show that the low energy mass is finite and renormalization group invariant. We find that the finite mass gap emerges as the solutions of gap equation and stationarity condition, thereby breaking the chiral symmetry. We also discuss the possibility that the breaking solution may exist up to all orders. (author)

  16. Symmetry breaking in molecular ferroelectrics.

    Shi, Ping-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Ye, Qiong; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2016-07-11

    Ferroelectrics are inseparable from symmetry breaking. Accompanying the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition, the paraelectric phase adopting one of the 32 crystallographic point groups is broken into subgroups belonging to one of the 10 ferroelectric point groups, i.e. C1, C2, C1h, C2v, C4, C4v, C3, C3v, C6 and C6v. The symmetry breaking is captured by the order parameter known as spontaneous polarization, whose switching under an external electric field results in a typical ferroelectric hysteresis loop. In addition, the responses of spontaneous polarization to other external excitations are related to a number of physical effects such as second-harmonic generation, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and dielectric properties. Based on these, this review summarizes recent developments in molecular ferroelectrics since 2011 and focuses on the relationship between symmetry breaking and ferroelectricity, offering ideas for exploring high-performance molecular ferroelectrics. PMID:27051889

  17. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  18. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)

  19. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  20. Symmetry breaking in supersymmetric GUTs

    This paper analyzes the first step of symmetry breaking in N=1 supersymmetric unified theories. The possible patterns of gauge symmetry breaking consistent with supersymmetry are characterized. Some well-known properties of the scalar potential in supersymmetric gauge theories are reviewed. Simple methods to discover which v.e.v.'s of a given multiplet of scalar fields are consistent with the conditions of given equations are introduced. The vanishing of the D2-term and of the F2-term is discussed and a simple lemma derived from the former. The results of these discussions are applied to some possible candidates for a supersymmetric gauge theory based on the gauge groups SU(5), 0(10), and E6

  1. Breaking of de Sitter Symmetry

    Bander, Myron

    2010-01-01

    We show that an interacting spin-0 field on a de Sitter space background will break the underlying de Sitter symmetry. This is done first for a (1+1) de Sitter space where a boson-fermion correspondence permits us to solve certain interacting theories by transforming them into free ones of opposite statistics. A massless boson interacting by a sine-Gordon potential is shown to be equivalent to a free massive fermion with the mass depending on the de Sitter time thus breaking the symmetry explicitly. We then show that for larger dimensions and any boson potential, to one loop, an anomaly develops and the currents generating the de Sitter transformations are not conserved.

  2. Electroweak symmetry breaking at photon colliders

    The electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector of the standard model can be weakly-coupled or can be strongly-coupled, which is characterized by some kinds of strong interaction among the Goldstone bosons of the electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector. In this paper, we summarize an investigation of probing the strong electroweak-symmetry-breaking effects at photon colliders. ((orig.))

  3. Symmetry Breaking in Finite Volume

    LIU Chuan

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a cooperative phenomenon for systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom and it plays an essential role in quantum field theories. Lattice O(N) model is studied within the Hamiltonian approach using an adiabatic approximation. It is shown that the low-lying spectrum of the system in the broken phase can be understood by using the adiabatic, or Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which turns out to become an expansion in the inverse power of volume. In the infinite volume limit, the symmetry is broken while in the finite volume the slow rotation of the zero-momentum mode restores the symmetry and gives rise to the rotator spectrum, which has been observed in realistic Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Big break for charge symmetry

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  5. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  6. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    Kibble, T. W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  7. Spontaneous Breaking of Flavor Symmetry

    Törnqvist, N A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that part of the quark masses of the standard model can be generated spontaneously within the strong interactions of QCD. After the breaking of U(Nf) x U(Nf) symmetry by the vacuum, also the resulting flavor symmetric, degenerate meson mass spectrum is shown to be unstable with respect to quantum loops, for rather general models. For a C-degenerate meson spectrum the stable mass spectrum obeys the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and the approximateequal spacing rule.

  8. Progress in Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Dawson, S

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I discuss theoretical advances in understanding the properties of the Higgs boson and the implications for models of electroweak symmetry breaking. I begin by reviewing some of the recent progress in Standard Model calculations for Higgs boson production and decay rates, followed by a lightning tour of the use of effective field theories in the search for new physics in the Higgs sector. I end with a discussion of the complementarity of precision Higgs coupling measurements and direct searches for heavy particles for the discovery of Beyond the Standard Model physics in the electroweak sector.

  9. Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking

    Becchi, Carlo M

    2016-01-01

    The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.

  10. Introduction to Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Dawson,S.

    2008-10-02

    The Standard Model (SM) is the backbone of elementary particle physics-not only does it provide a consistent framework for studying the interactions of quark and leptons, but it also gives predictions which have been extensively tested experimentally. In these notes, I review the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, discuss the calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables, and summarize the status of SM Higgs boson searches. Despite the impressive experimental successes, however, the electroweak theory is not completely satisfactory and the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is untested. I will discuss the logic behind the oft-repeated statement: 'There must be new physics at the TeV scale'. These lectures reflect my strongly held belief that upcoming results from the LHC will fundamentally change our understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking. In these lectures, I review the status of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, with an emphasis on the importance of radiative corrections and searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. A discussion of the special role of the TeV energy scale in electroweak physics is included.

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles

    Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...

  12. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions, and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g. at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and t...

  13. Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered

    Yoshimura, M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in the low energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to search for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.

  14. Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered

    Yoshimura, M.

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in low-energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to searching for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.

  15. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking by QCD

    Kubo, Jisuke; Lindner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism to generate the electroweak scale within the framework of QCD, which is extended to include conformally invariant scalar degrees of freedom belonging to a larger irreducible representation of $SU(3)_c$. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered dynamically via the Higgs portal by the condensation of the colored scalar field around $1$ TeV. The mass of the colored boson is restricted to be $350$ GeV $\\lesssim m_S\\lesssim 3$ TeV, with the upper bound obtained from renormalization group evolution. This implies that the colored boson can be produced at LHC. If the colored boson is electrically charged, the branching fraction of the Higgs decaying into two photons can slightly increase, and moreover, it can be produced at future linear colliders.

  16. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Boson

    Pich, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The first LHC run has confirmed the Standard Model as the correct theory at the electroweak scale, and the existence of a Higgs-like particle associated with the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry. These lectures overview the present knowledge on the Higgs boson and discuss alternative scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking which are already being constrained by the experimental data.

  17. Four Top Production and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Cheung, Kingman

    1995-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a heavy top quark $(m_t \\approx 175 - 200$ GeV), the top quark opens an window to electroweak symmetry breaking. We propose the study of four-top, $t\\bar t t\\bar t$, production at hadronic supercolliders as a probe to electroweak symmetry breaking.

  18. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics

    In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation

  19. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  20. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Yang, Xuan-Liu; Zhang, Shun-Li; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2007-06-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  1. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  2. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials

    Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2014-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.

  3. Chimera Death: Symmetry Breaking in Dynamical Networks

    Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard

    2014-01-01

    For a network of generic oscillators with nonlocal topology and symmetry-breaking coupling we establish novel partially coherent inhomogeneous spatial patterns, which combine the features of chimera states (coexisting incongruous coherent and incoherent domains) and oscillation death (oscillation suppression), which we call chimera death. We show that due to the interplay of nonlocality and breaking of rotational symmetry by the coupling two distinct scenarios from oscillatory behavior to a s...

  4. Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories

    A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.)

  5. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Shen, Cheng-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of $O({\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}/m_Q})$, with $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$ the scale of QCD and $m_Q$ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism to enhance the spin symmetry breaking. Taking the decays of the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ into the $\\chi_{bJ}\\omega\\, (J=0,1,2)$ as an example, we show that a small $S$- and $D$-wave mixing can induce a significant breaking of the spin symmetry relations for the ratios of the branching fractions of these decays, owing to an enhancement of the decays of the $D$-wave component due to nearby coupled channels.

  6. Symmetry Breaking in Neuroevolution: A Technical Report

    Urfalioglu, Onay

    2011-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) comprise important symmetry properties, which can influence the performance of Monte Carlo methods in Neuroevolution. The problem of the symmetries is also known as the competing conventions problem or simply as the permutation problem. In the literature, symmetries are mainly addressed in Genetic Algoritm based approaches. However, investigations in this direction based on other Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are rare or missing. Furthermore, there are different and contradictionary reports on the efficacy of symmetry breaking. By using a novel viewpoint, we offer a possible explanation for this issue. As a result, we show that a strategy which is invariant to the global optimum can only be successfull on certain problems, whereas it must fail to improve the global convergence on others. We introduce the \\emph{Minimum Global Optimum Proximity} principle as a generalized and adaptive strategy to symmetry breaking, which depends on the location of the global optimum. We apply the...

  7. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented

  8. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  9. Testing Chiral Symmetry Breaking at DAPHNE

    M. R. Pennington

    1996-01-01

    The spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry of the QCD Lagrangian ensures that $\\pi\\pi$ interactions are weak at low energies. How weak depends on the nature of explicit symmetry breaking. Measurements of $K_{e4}$ decays at DA$\\Phi$NE will provide a unique insight into this mechanism and test whether the $q{\\overline q}$--condensate is large or small.

  10. Center vortices, confinement and chiral symmetry breaking

    The center vortex model, proposed as an explanation of confinement in non-abelian gauge theories is introduced. Some checks of the confinement properties of center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with improved Luescher-Weisz gauge action are presented. Phenomena related to chiral symmetry, such as topological charge and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SCSB) are studied within the vortex model. In particular the influence of center vortices on the low-lying spectrum of the Dirac operator is analyzed. (author)

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking in lattice electrodynamics

    Chiral symmetry breaking is studied in lattice quantum electrodynamics in the quenched approximation by computer-simulation methods. Simulations at zero temperature show that in non-zero for all couplings e2 greater than a critical value e2/sub c/. The sensitivity of to short-distance features of the lattice Action is studied by simulating variant gauge Actions. Simulations on asymmetric lattices do not reveal significant temperature dependence in the symmetry-breaking dynamics. Subtle effects and limitations of quenched calculations are discussed

  12. Effective dissipation: breaking time-reversal symmetry

    Brown, Aidan I

    2016-01-01

    At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. Such insight into symmetry-breaking factors that produce particularly high time asymmetry suggests generalizations to a broader class of systems.

  13. Chiral Symmetry Breaking from Center Vortices

    Höllwieser, Roman; Schweigler, Thomas; Heller, Urs M

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the creation of near-zero modes from would-be zero modes of various topological charge contributions from classical center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We show that colorful spherical vortex and instanton configurations have very similar Dirac eigenmodes and also vortex intersections are able to give rise to a finite density of near-zero modes, leading to chiral symmetry breaking via the Banks-Casher formula. We discuss the influence of the magnetic vortex fluxes on quarks and how center vortices may break chiral symmetry.

  14. Implications of Local Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    La, H S

    2003-01-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking of a local chiral symmetry to its diagonal vector symmetry naturally realizes a complete geometrical structure more general than that of Yang-Mills (YM) theory, rather similar to that of gravity. A good example is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with respect to the Chiral Color model. Also, a new anomaly-free particle content for a Chiral Color model is introduced: the Chiral Color can be realized without introducing whole new generations of quarks and leptons, but by simply enlarging each generation with new exotic fermions.

  15. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking by hydromagnetic buoyancy

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel; Rheinhardt, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    Evidence for the parity-breaking nature of the magnetic buoyancy instability in a stably stratified gas is reported. In the absence of rotation, no helicity is produced, but the nonhelical state is found to be unstable to small helical perturbations during the development of the instability. The parity-breaking nature of this magnetohydrodynamic instability appears to be the first of its kind and has properties similar to those in chiral symmetry breaking in biochemistry. Applications to the production of mean fields in galaxy clusters are discussed.

  16. Weak mixing matrix under permutation symmetry breaking

    The two-Higgs-doublet extension of the standard electroweak model is considered. A permutation symmetry-breaking scheme is proposed and used to calculate the weak mixing matrix up to second order. The CP-violation factor J and the correction to Bjorken's approximation are then given. A special case is considered

  17. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  18. Physical implications of dynamical symmetry breaking

    Some model-independent physical implications of a class of hypercolorbased theories of dynamical symmetry-breaking are described and discussed. The role which e+e- colliders can play, in distinguishing between such theories and the canonical methodology, is underlined

  19. Chiral symmetry breaking in brane models

    We discuss the chiral symmetry breaking in general intersecting Dq/Dp brane models consisting of Nc Dq-branes and a single Dp-brane with an s-dimensional intersection. There exists a QCD-like theory localized at the intersection and the Dq/Dp model gives a holographic description of it. The rotational symmetry of directions transverse to both of the Dq and Dp-branes can be identified with a chiral symmetry, which is non-Abelian for certain cases. The asymptotic distance between the Dq-branes and the Dp-brane corresponds to a quark mass. By studying the probe Dp-brane dynamics in a Dq-brane background in the near horizon and large Nc limit we find that the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken and there appear (pseudo-)Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We also discuss the models at finite temperature

  20. Magnetic rotation and chiral symmetry breaking

    Ashok Kumar Jain; Amita

    2001-08-01

    The deformed mean field of nuclei exhibits various geometrical and dynamical symmetries which manifest themselves as various types of rotational and decay patterns. Most of the symmetry operations considered so far have been defined for a situation wherein the angular momentum coincides with one of the principal axes and the principal axis cranking may be invoked. New possibilities arise with the observation of rotational features in weakly deformed nuclei and now interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. More than 120 MR bands have now been identified by filtering the existing data. We present a brief overview of these bands. The total angular momentum vector in such bands is tilted away from the principal axes. Such a situation gives rise to several new possibilities including breaking of chiral symmetry as discussed recently by Frauendorf. We present the outcome of such symmetries and their possible experimental verification. Some possible examples of chiral bands are presented.

  1. Cascading Multicriticality in Nonrelativistic Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2015-01-01

    Without Lorentz invariance, spontaneous global symmetry breaking can lead to multicritical Nambu-Goldstone modes with a higher-order low-energy dispersion $\\omega\\sim k^n$ ($n=2,3,\\ldots$), whose naturalness is protected by polynomial shift symmetries. Here we investigate the role of infrared divergences and the nonrelativistic generalization of the Coleman-Hohenberg-Mermin-Wagner (CHMW) theorem. We find novel cascading phenomena with large hierarchies between the scales at which the value of $n$ changes, leading to an evasion of the "no-go" consequences of the relativistic CHMW theorem.

  2. Heavy quark solitons strangeness and symmetry breaking

    Momen, A; Subbaraman, A; Momen, Arshad; Schechter, Joseph; Subbaraman, Anand

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the generalization of the Callan-Klebanov model to the case of heavy quark baryons. The light flavor group is considered to be $SU(3)$ and the limit of heavy spin symmetry is taken. The presence of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term permits the neat development of a picture , at the collective level, of a light diquark bound to a ``heavy" quark with decoupled spin degree of freedom. The consequences of $SU(3)$ symmetry breaking are discussed in detail. We point out that the $SU(3)$ mass splittings of the heavy baryons essentially measure the ``low energy" physics once more and that the comparison with experiment is satisfactory.

  3. Heavy quark solitons: Strangeness and symmetry breaking

    We discuss the generalization of the Callan-Klebanov model to the case of heavy quark baryons. The light flavor group is considered to be SU(3) and the limit of heavy spin symmetry is taken. The presence of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term permits the neat development of a picture, at the collective level, of a light diquark bound to a ''heavy'' quark with decoupled spin degree of freedom. The consequences of SU(3) symmetry breaking are discussed in detail. We point out that the SU(3) mass splitting of the heavy baryons essentially measure the ''low energy'' physics once more and that the comparison with experiment is satisfactory

  4. Symmetry breaking in non conservative systems

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2016-01-01

    We apply Noether's theorem to show how the invariances of conservative systems are broken for nonconservative systems, in the variational formulation of Galley. This formulation considers a conservative action, extended by the inclusion of a time reversed sector and a nonconservative generalized potential. We assume that this potential is invariant under the symmetries of the initial conservative system. The breaking occurs because the time reversed sector requires inverse symmetry transformations, under which the nonconservative potential is not invariant. The resulting violation of the conservation laws is consistent with the equations of motion. We generalize this formulation for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. In the case of a supersymmetric oscillator, the effect of damping is that the bosonic and fermionic components become different frequencies. Considering that initially the nonconservative action is invariant under supersymmetry, and that the breaking is associated to an instability, this resul...

  5. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever

    In the first of these two lectures the Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, which does not necessarily require the existence of Higgs bosons. The general consequences of the hypothesis that electroweak symmetry breaking is due to the Higgs mechanism are deduced just from gauge invariance and unitarity. In the second lecture the general properties are illustrated with three specific models: the Weinberg-Salam model, its minimal supersymmetric extension, and technicolor. The second lecture concludes with a discussion of the experiment signals for strong WW scattering, whose presence or absence will allow us to determine whether the symmetry breaking sector lies above or below 1 TeV. 57 refs

  6. Analysis of chiral symmetry breaking mechanism

    The renormalization group invariant quark condensate μ is determinate both from the consistent equation for quark condensate in the chiral limit and from the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation improved by the intermediate range QCD force singular like δ (q) which is associated with the gluon condensate. The solutions of μ in these two equations are consistent. We also obtain the critical strong coupling constant αc above which chiral symmetry breaks in two approaches. The nonperturbative kernel of the SD equation makes αc smaller and μ bigger. An intuitive picture of the condensation above αc is discussed. In addition, with the help of the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward (STW) identity we derive the equations for the nonperturbative quark propagator from SD equation in the presence of the intermediate-range force is also responsible for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  7. Dynamical symmetry breaking in quantum field theories

    Miransky, Vladimir A

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of dynamical symmetry breaking (DSB) in quantum field theory is discussed in a detailed and comprehensive way. The deep connection between this phenomenon in condensed matter physics and particle physics is emphasized. The realizations of DSB in such realistic theories as quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory are considered. Issues intimately connected with DSB such as critical phenomenona and effective lagrangian approach are also discussed.

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of SU(n)

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking pattern for the gauge group SU(n) is found by studying the absolute minimum of the Higgs potential, chosen as a polynomial of degree 4 of one adjoint and one fundamental representation. SU(n) may be broken into SU(n - 1) or SU(h) x SU(n - 1 - h) x U(1) (h = 1,...n - 2), depending on the values of the parameters, but without any assumption on their smallness. (orig.)

  9. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Beyond the Standard Model

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, I shall address two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, I shall first review the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios. I shall then compare and contrast the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models. Finally, I shall summariz...

  10. Induced Higgs couplings and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    It is shown that spontaneous symmetry breaking can arise in a non-Abelian gauge theory free of quartic scalar couplings only if fermions are present in the theory. A sufficiency condition is developed for positivity of the induced PHI4-potential as PHI→infinity. The same condition guarantees the existence of asymptotically free positive-eigenvalue solutions to the renormalization group equations for running coupling constants. Correspondence is established between ''eigenvalue'' and induced-potential approaches toward total asymptotic freedom. (author)

  11. Symmetry Breaking in Topological Quantum Gravity

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2015-01-01

    A SL(5, R) gauge-invariant topological field theory of gravity and possible gauge unifications are considered in four-dimensions. The problem of quantization is evaluated in the asymptotic safety scenario. `Minimal' BF type models for the high energy limit are physically not quite realistic, a tiny symmetry breaking is needed to recover standard Einsteinian gravity for the oscopic metrical background with induced cosmological constant.

  12. Breaking of Nanotube Symmetry by Substrate Polarization

    Petrov, Alexey G.; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2003-01-01

    Substrate and nanotube polarization are shown to change qualitatively a nanotube bandstructure. The effect is studied in a linear approximation in an external potential which causes the changes. A work function difference between the nanotube and gold surface is estimated to be large enough to break the band symmetry and lift a degeneracy of a lowest but one subband of a metallic nanotube. This subband splitting for [10,10] nanotube is about 50 meV in absence of other external potential.

  13. A strict QCD inequality and mechanisms for chiral symmetry breaking

    A strict QCD inequality allows one to discuss mechanisms proposed for breaking the chiral symmetry in QCD. ''Order parameters'' are identified such that if sufficiently many gauge field configurations contribute to them, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking follows. As an application the role of instantons is discussed in chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. (orig.)

  14. Phenomenological approach to symmetry breaking pattern of democratic mass matrix

    Harada, J

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry breaking pattern of the democratic mass matrix model, which leads to the small flavor mixing in quark sector and bi-large mixing in lepton sector. We present the symmetry breaking matrices in quark sector which are determined by alternative ways instead of conventional ansatz. These matrices might be useful for understanding the origin of democratic symmetry and its breaking.

  15. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of O(ΛQCD/mQ), with ΛQCD the scale of QCD and mQ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we will show that a small S- and D-wave mixing in the wave function of the heavy quarkonium could induce a large breaking in the ratios of partial decay widths. As an example, we consider the decays of the ϒ(10860) into the χbJω(J=0,1,2), which were recently measured by the Belle Collaboration. These decays exhibit a huge breaking of the spin symmetry relation were the ϒ(10860) a pure 5S bottomonium state. We propose that this could be a consequence of a mixing of the S-wave and D-wave components in the ϒ(10860). Prediction on the ratio Γ(ϒ(10860)→χb0ω)/Γ(ϒ(10860)→χb2ω) is presented assuming that the decay of the D-wave component is dominated by the coupled-channel effects

  16. Medium effect on charge symmetry breaking

    We examine the nuclear medium effect on charge symmetry breaking (CSB) caused by isospin mixing of two neutral vector mesons interacting with nucleons in the nuclear medium. Isospin mixing is assumed to occur through the transition between isoscalar and isovector mesons. We use a quantum hadrodynamic nuclear model in the mean-field approximation for the meson fields involved. We find that (i) charge symmetry is gradually restored in nuclear matter in β equilibrium as the nucleon density increases; (ii) when the system departs from β equilibrium, CSB is much enhanced because the isospin mixing depends strongly on the nucleon isovector density; (iii) this leads to the symmetry energy coefficient of 32MeV, of which more than 50 percent arises from the mesonic mean fields; (iv) the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly regarding the masses of neighboring mirror nuclei can be resolved by considering these aspects of CSB in nuclear medium. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Symmetry and symmetry breaking. Symetrie et brisure de symetrie

    Balian, R. (CEA/Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere (DSM), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Lambert, D. (Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium)); Brack, A. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire); Englert, F. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique)

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.) 103 refs.

  18. Symmetry and symmetry breaking; Symetrie et brisure de symetrie

    Balian, R. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere (DSM), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lambert, D. [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium); Brack, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire; Englert, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Lachieze-Rey, M. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Emery, E. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y

    1999-11-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.) 103 refs.

  19. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement

    Sveshnikov, K

    2016-01-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The reason is that such boundary conditions could yield a large magnitude of electronic wavefunction in some sector of the box boundary, what in turn promotes atomic displacement from the box center towards this part of the boundary, and so the underlying SO(3) symmetry spontaneously breaks. The emerging Goldstone modes, coinciding with rotations around the box center, restore the symmetry by spreading the atom over a spherical shell localized at some distances from the box center. Atomic confinement inside the cavity proceeds dynamically -- due to the boundary condition the deformation of electronic wavefunction near the boundary works as a spring, that returns the at...

  20. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    Lima, Ricardo M.

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  1. Thick brane solitons breaking $Z_2$ symmetry

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2015-01-01

    New soliton solutions for thick branes in 4 + 1 dimensions are considered in this article. In particular, brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), $\\varphi^{4}$ and $\\varphi^{6}$ scalar fields are investigated; in some cases $Z_{2}$ symmetry is broken. Besides, these soliton solutions are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. In these models, the origin of the symmetry breaking resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacuua and these non-degenerate vacuua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. At last, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane, the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension are studied.

  2. Exploring Cartan gravity with dynamical symmetry breaking

    It has been known for some time that General Relativity can be regarded as a Yang–Mills-type gauge theory in a symmetry broken phase. In this picture the gravity sector is described by an SO(1, 4) or SO(2, 3) gauge field Abμa and Higgs field Va which acts to break the symmetry down to that of the Lorentz group SO(1, 3). This symmetry breaking mirrors that of electroweak theory. However, a notable difference is that while the Higgs field Φ of electroweak theory is taken as a genuine dynamical field satisfying a Klein–Gordon equation, the gauge independent norm V2 ≡ ηabVaVb of the Higgs-type field Va is typically regarded as non-dynamical. Instead, in many treatments Va does not appear explicitly in the formalism or is required to satisfy V2 = const. ≠ 0 by means of a Lagrangian constraint. As an alternative to this we propose a class of polynomial actions that treat both the gauge connection Abμa and Higgs field Va as genuine dynamical fields with no ad hoc constraints imposed. The resultant equations of motion consist of a set of first-order partial differential equations. We show that for certain actions these equations may be cast in a second-order form, corresponding to a scalar–tensor model of gravity. One simple choice leads to the extensively studied Peebles–Ratra rolling quintessence model. Another choice yields a scalar–tensor symmetry broken phase of the theory with positive cosmological constant and an effective mass M of the gravitational Higgs field ensuring the constancy of V2 at low energies and agreement with empirical data if M is sufficiently large. More general cases are discussed corresponding to variants of Chern–Simons modified gravity and scalar-Euler form gravity, each of which yield propagating torsion. (paper)

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a classical particle

    Sánchez, L A; Sanchez, Luis Alberto; Mahecha, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Due to the fact that only matter fields have phase, frequently is believed that the gauge principle can induce gauge fields only in quantum systems. But this is not necessary. This paper, of pedagogical scope, presents a classical system constituted by a particle in a classical potential, which is used as a model to illustrate the gauge principle and the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Those concepts appear in the study of second order phase transitions. Ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, plasmons in a free electron gas, and the mass of vector bosons in the gauge field Yang-Mills theories, are some of the phenomena in which these transitions occur.

  4. Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios shall be reviewed, then the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models shall be compared. Finally, a broad overview will be given on where we stand at the end of 2011.

  5. On chiral symmetry breaking, topology and confinement

    Shuryak, Edward

    2014-08-15

    We start with the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and gauge field topology. New lattice results further enhance the notion of Zero Mode Zone, a very narrow strip of states with quasizero Dirac eigenvalues. Then we move to the issue of “origin of mass” and Brown–Rho scaling: a number of empirical facts contradicts to the idea that masses of quarks and such hadrons as ρ,N decrease near T{sub c}. We argue that while at T=0 the main contribution to the effective quark mass is chirally odd m{sub χ/}, near T{sub c} it rotates to chirally-even component m{sub χ}, because “infinite clusters” of topological solitons gets split into finite ones. Recent progress in understanding of topology require introduction of nonzero holonomy 〈A{sub 0}〉≠0, which splits instantons into N{sub c} (anti)selfdual “instanton–dyons”. Qualitative progress, as well as first numerical studies of the dyon ensemble are reported. New connections between chiral symmetry breaking and confinement are recently understood, since instanton–dyons generate holonomy potential with a minimum at confining value, if the ensemble is dense enough.

  6. Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV

  7. On the breaking of mu-tau flavor symmetry

    Zhao, Zhen-hua

    2016-01-01

    In light of the observation of a relatively large $\\theta^{}_{13}$, one has to consider breaking the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ symmetry properly which would otherwise result in a vanishing $\\theta^{}_{13}$ (as well as $\\theta^{}_{23} = \\pi/4$). Therefore, we investigate various symmetry-breaking patterns and accordingly identify those that are phenomenologically viable. Furthermore, the symmetry-breaking effects arising from some specific physics (e.g., the renormalization group equation running effect) are discussed as well.

  8. A (critical) overview of electroweak symmetry breaking

    This presentation discusses the following points: The standard Higgs, big vs. little hierarchy; Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in supersymmetry and little hierarchy of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM): Buried Higgs, Bigger quartic (D-terms, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), fat Higgs,..); Strong dynamics and related models: Technicolor, Monopole condensate, Warped extra dimensions, Realistic RS, Higgs-less, Composite Higgs, Little Higgs. In summary, we do not understand how Higgs is light and still no trace of new physics. In Supersymmetry (SUSY) it calls for extension of MSSM. In strong dynamics models: electroweak penguin (EWP) usually issue (Warped extra dimension - composite Higgs, Higgs-less, Little Higgs, Technicolor, monopole condensation,..). None of them is fully convincing but LHC should settle these

  9. Black Holes and Abelian Symmetry Breaking

    Chagoya, Javier; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-01-01

    Black hole configurations offer insights on the non-linear aspects of gravitational theories, and can suggest testable predictions for modifications of General Relativity. In this work, we examine exact black hole configurations in vector-tensor theories, originally proposed to explain dark energy by breaking the Abelian symmetry with a non-minimal coupling of the vector to gravity. We are able to evade the no-go theorems by Bekenstein on the existence of regular black holes in vector-tensor theories with Proca mass terms, and exhibit regular black hole solutions with a profile for the longitudinal vector polarization, characterised by an additional charge. We analytically find the most general static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions with and without a cosmological constant, and study in some detail their features, such as how the geometry depends on the vector charges. We also include angular momentum, and find solutions describing slowly-rotating black holes. Finally, we extend some of these solu...

  10. Cosmic acceleration from Abelian symmetry breaking

    We discuss a consistent theory for a self-interacting vector field, breaking an Abelian symmetry in such a way to obtain an interesting behavior for its longitudinal polarization. In an appropriate decoupling limit, the dynamics of the longitudinal mode is controlled by Galileon interactions. The full theory away from the decoupling limit does not propagate ghost modes, and can be investigated in regimes where non-linearities become important. When coupled to gravity, this theory provides a candidate for dark energy, since it admits de Sitter cosmological solutions characterized by a technically natural value for the Hubble parameter. We also consider the homogeneous evolution when, besides the vector, additional matter in the form of perfect fluids is included. We find that the vector can have an important role in characterizing the universe expansion

  11. Passive appendages aid locomotion through symmetry breaking

    Bagheri, Shervin; Lacis, Ugis; Mazzino, Andrea; Kellay, Hamid; Brosse, Nicolas; Lundell, Fredrik; Ingremeau, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs, fins, and other types of appendages to aid locomotion. Despite their enormous variation, passive appendages may contribute to locomotion by exploiting the same physical mechanism. We present a new mechanism that applies to body appendages surrounded by a separated flow, which often develops behind moving bodies larger than a few millimeters. We use theory, experiments, and numerical simulations to show that bodies with protrusions turn and drift by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in flowing fluid is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming fluid flow direction. The discovery suggests a new mechanism of locomotion that may be relevant for certain organisms; for example, how plumed seeds may drift without wind and how motile animals may passively reorient themselves.

  12. Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking

    Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.

    2014-10-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals.

  13. Information Content of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    We propose a measure of order in the context of nonequilibrium field theory and argue that this measure, which we call relative configurational entropy (RCE), may be used to quantify the emergence of coherent low-entropy configurations, such as time-dependent or time-independent topological and nontopological spatially-extended structures. As an illustration, we investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of spontaneous symmetry-breaking in three spatial dimensions. In particular, we focus on a model where a real scalar field, prepared initially in a symmetric thermal state, is quenched to a broken-symmetric state. For a certain range of initial temperatures, spatially-localized, long-lived structures known as oscillons emerge in synchrony and remain until the field reaches equilibrium again. We show that the RCE correlates with the number-density of oscillons, thus offering a quantitative measure of the emergence of nonperturbative spatiotemporal patterns that can be generalized to a variety of physical systems.

  14. Breaking of electroweak symmetry: origin and effects

    The Higgs boson appears as the corner stone of high energy physics, it might be the cause of the excess of matter that led to the formation of the structures of the universe and it seems that it drives the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. Moreover, when the stability at low energies of the Higgs boson is assured by an extra space dimension, it appears that this extra dimension can explain most issues in the flavor physics that are not understood by the standard model. The first chapter presents the main tools of effective field theories, the role of experimental data in the construction of theories valid beyond the standard model is discussed. The second chapter focuses on the electroweak baryogenesis that allows the testing of new physics via the electroweak phase transition. We detail the calculation of a Higgs potential at finite temperature. We follow the dynamics of the phase transition including nucleation an supercooling. Finally we investigate the prospects of gravity wave detection to see the effects of a strong electroweak phase transition. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the physics of extra-dimension. The properties of the dynamics of scalar, vector fields with a 1/2 spin plunged in a 5 d. Anti de Sitter geometry are reviewed. We present a model of lepton masses and mixings based on the A4 non-Abelian discrete symmetry. It is shown that this model does not contradict the tests of electroweak precision. (A.C.)

  15. Breaking temporal symmetries for emission and absorption

    Hadad, Yakir; Soric, Jason C.; Alu, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Time-reversal symmetries impose stringent constraints on emission and absorption. Antennas, from radiofrequencies to optics, are bound to transmit and receive signals equally well from the same direction, making a directive antenna prone to receive echoes and reflections. Similarly, in thermodynamics Kirchhoff's law dictates that the absorptivity and emissivity are bound to be equal in reciprocal systems at equilibrium, e(ω,θ)=a(ω,θ), with important consequences for thermal management and energy applications. This bound requires that a good absorber emits a portion of the absorbed energy back to the source, limiting its overall efficiency. Recent works have shown that weak time modulation or mechanical motion in suitably designed structures may largely break reciprocity and time-reversal symmetry. Here we show theoretically and experimentally that a spatiotemporally modulated device can be designed to have drastically different emission and absorption properties. The proposed concept may provide significant advances for compact and efficient radiofrequency communication systems, as well as for energy harvesting and thermal management when translated to infrared frequencies.

  16. Breaking temporal symmetries for emission and absorption.

    Hadad, Yakir; Soric, Jason C; Alu, Andrea

    2016-03-29

    Time-reversal symmetries impose stringent constraints on emission and absorption. Antennas, from radiofrequencies to optics, are bound to transmit and receive signals equally well from the same direction, making a directive antenna prone to receive echoes and reflections. Similarly, in thermodynamics Kirchhoff's law dictates that the absorptivity and emissivity are bound to be equal in reciprocal systems at equilibrium,[Formula: see text], with important consequences for thermal management and energy applications. This bound requires that a good absorber emits a portion of the absorbed energy back to the source, limiting its overall efficiency. Recent works have shown that weak time modulation or mechanical motion in suitably designed structures may largely break reciprocity and time-reversal symmetry. Here we show theoretically and experimentally that a spatiotemporally modulated device can be designed to have drastically different emission and absorption properties. The proposed concept may provide significant advances for compact and efficient radiofrequency communication systems, as well as for energy harvesting and thermal management when translated to infrared frequencies. PMID:26984502

  17. Isospin symmetry breaking in sd shell nuclei

    In the thesis, we develop a microscopic approach to describe the isospin-symmetry breaking effects in sd-shell nuclei. The work is performed within the nuclear shell model. A realistic isospin-conserving Hamiltonian is perfected by a charge-dependent part consisting of the Coulomb interaction and Yukawa-type meson exchange potentials to model charge-dependent forces of nuclear origin. The extended database of the experimental isobaric mass multiplet equation coefficients was compiled during the thesis work and has been used in a fit of the Hamiltonian parameters. The constructed Hamiltonian provides an accurate theoretical description of the isospin mixing nuclear states. A specific behaviour of the IMME (Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation) coefficients have been revealed. We present two important applications: (i) calculations of isospin-forbidden proton emission amplitudes, which is often of interest for nuclear astrophysics, and (ii) calculation on corrections to nuclear Fermi beta decay, which is crucial for the tests of fundamental symmetries of the weak interaction. (author)

  18. Golden Probe of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Chen, Yi; Spiropulu, Maria; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of the Higgs couplings to $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $\\lambda_{WZ}$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $h\\to4\\ell$ ($4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $h\\to4\\ell$ to the magnitude of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumpti...

  19. Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates

    Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.;

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified c...

  20. Chiral Symmetry Breaking and Cooling in Lattice QCD

    Woloshyn, R. M.; Lee, F. X.

    1995-01-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking is calculated as a function of cooling in quenched lattice QCD. A non-zero signal is found for the chiral condensate beyond one hundred cooling steps, suggesting that there is chiral symmetry breaking associated with instantons. Quantitatively, the chiral condensate in cooled gauge field configurations is small compared to the value without cooling.

  1. Salam-Weinberg symmetry breaking with superheavy Higgs particles

    We discuss here the possibility of the breaking of the Salam-Weinberg symmetry by Higgs particles which are superheavy. The symmetry-breaking is associated with a nonzero vacuum expectation value of fermion condensates. This mechanism, if operative in nature, will imply the absence of Higgs particles at the weak scale. (author)

  2. Discrete R symmetries and F-term supersymmetry breaking

    We have shown that in a large number of generic and renormalizable Wess-Zumino models, existence of a Zn R-symmetry is sufficient to break supersymmetry spontaneously. This implies that the existence of a Zn R-symmetry is a necessary condition for supersymmetry breaking in generic and renormalizable Wess-Zumino models.

  3. Dark Matter and Dark Energy from Gravitational Symmetry Breaking

    Fuzfa, A

    2010-01-01

    We build a mechanism of gravitational symmetry breaking (GSB) of a global U(1) symmetry based on the relaxation of the equivalence principle due to the mass variation of pseudo Nambu-Goldstone dark matter (DM) particles. This GSB process is described by the modified cosmological convergence mechanism of the Abnormally Weighting Energy (AWE) Hypothesis previously introduced by the authors. Several remarkable constraints from the Hubble diagram of far-away supernovae are derived, notably on the explicit and gravitational symmetry breaking energy scales of the model. We then briefly present some consequences on neutrino masses when this mechanism is applied to the particular case of the breaking of lepton number symmetry.

  4. Composite BPS skyrmions from an exact isospin symmetry breaking

    Klimas, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    We study the BPS Skyrme model with potentials breaking the isospin symmetry and analyse how properties of exact solitonic solutions depend on a form of the isospin breaking potential. In the case of the strong symmetry breaking a new topologic structure is observed which enables us to decompose a BPS skyrmion into a lower dimensional defect localised on a brane (kink). We investigate some thermodynamical properties of such solitons as well as the role of the symmetry breaking potential in the resulting mean-field equation of state.

  5. Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR correlations

    Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Furtado, C.; Bakke, K. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) correlations are discussed. From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the Lorentz symmetry violation and write an effective metric for the Minkowski spacetime. Then we obtain the Wigner rotation angle via the Fermi-Walker transport of spinors and consider the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation in order to study the influence of Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on the relativistic EPR correlations. (orig.)

  6. Optimal Spatial Harvesting Strategy and Symmetry-Breaking

    A reaction-diffusion model with logistic growth and constant effort harvesting is considered. By minimizing an intrinsic biological energy function, we obtain an optimal spatial harvesting strategy which will benefit the population the most. The symmetry properties of the optimal strategy are also discussed, and related symmetry preserving and symmetry breaking phenomena are shown with several typical examples of habitats

  7. Charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei revisited

    Gal, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    The large charge symmetry breaking (CSB) implied by the $\\Lambda$ binding energy difference $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda}(0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\equiv B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$He)$-$$B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$H) = 0.35$\\pm$0.06 MeV of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei ground states, determined from emulsion studies, has defied theoretical attempts to reproduce it in terms of CSB in hyperon masses and in hyperon-nucleon interactions, including one pion exchange arising from $\\Lambda-\\Sigma^0$ mixing. Using a schematic strong-interaction $\\Lambda N\\leftrightarrow\\Sigma N$ coupling model developed by Akaishi and collaborators for $s$-shell $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, we revisit the evaluation of CSB in the $A=4$ $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei and extend it to $p$-shell mirror $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The model yields values of $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda} (0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\sim 0.25$ MeV. Smaller size and mostly negative $p$-shell binding energy differences are calculated for the $A=7-10$ mirror hypernuclei, in rough agreement with the few available dat...

  8. Black holes and Abelian symmetry breaking

    Chagoya, Javier; Niz, Gustavo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-09-01

    Black hole configurations offer insights on the nonlinear aspects of gravitational theories, and can suggest testable predictions for modifications of General Relativity. In this work, we examine exact black hole configurations in vector–tensor theories, originally proposed to explain dark energy by breaking the Abelian symmetry with a non-minimal coupling of the vector to gravity. We are able to evade the no-go theorems by Bekenstein on the existence of regular black holes in vector–tensor theories with Proca mass terms, and exhibit regular black hole solutions with a profile for the longitudinal vector polarisation, characterised by an additional charge. We analytically find the most general static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions with and without a cosmological constant, and study in some detail their features, such as how the geometry depends on the vector charges. We also include angular momentum, and find solutions describing slowly-rotating black holes. Finally, we extend some of these solutions to higher dimensions.

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD Lite

    Engel, Georg P; Lottini, Stefano; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    A distinctive feature of the presence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is the condensation of low modes of the Dirac operator near the origin. The rate of condensation must be equal to the slope of (Mpi^2 Fpi^2)/2 with respect to the quark mass m in the chiral limit, where Mpi and Fpi are the mass and the decay constant of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We compute the spectral density of the (Hermitian) Dirac operator, the quark mass, the pseudoscalar meson mass and decay constant by numerical simulations of lattice QCD with two light degenerate Wilson quarks. We use CLS lattices at three values of the lattice spacing in the range 0.05-0.08 fm, and for several quark masses corresponding to pseudoscalar mesons masses down to 190 MeV. Thanks to this coverage of parameters space, we can extrapolate all quantities to the chiral and continuum limits with confidence. The results show that the low quark modes do condense in the continuum as expected by the Banks-Casher mechanism, and the rate of condensat...

  10. Is Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Still Natural in the MSSM?

    Dutta, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    The absence of any signal of supersymmetry (SUSY) at the LHC has raised the SUSY particle mass scale compared to $Z$ boson mass $M_Z$. We investigate the naturalness of the electroweak symmetry breaking after considering radiative symmetry breaking along with 125 GeV Higgs mass. We find that the important quantity to measure the naturalness of the hierarchy between the SUSY scale and $M_Z$ is the separation between the radiative symmetry breaking scale, i.e., where $m_{H_u}^2+\\mu^2$ turns negative for large $\\tan\\beta$ case ($\\mu$ is the Higgsino mass and $m_{H_u}$ is the SUSY breaking up-type Higgs boson mass) and the average stop mass. Using this measure, one can show that the electroweak symmetry breaking can be natural even if $\\mu$ is large contrary to the prevailing claim that $\\mu$ is needed to be small to maintain the naturalness.

  11. Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Pujol, C

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider dissipative hydrodynamic equations for systems with continuous broken symmetries. We first present the case of superfluidity, in which the symmetry U(1) is broken and then generalize to the chiral symmetry $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R$. New transport coefficients are introduced and the consequences of their existence are discussed.

  12. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.

  13. Catalysis of Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Chiral Chemical Potential

    Braguta, V V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parameterized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus the chiral chemical potential plays a role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.

  14. Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in a photonic molecule

    Hamel, Philippe; Raineri, Fabrice; Monnier, Paul; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Levenson, Ariel; Yacomotti, Alejandro M

    2014-01-01

    Multi-cavity photonic systems, known as photonic molecules (PMs), are ideal multi-well potential building blocks for advanced quantum and nonlinear optics. A key phenomenon arising in double well potentials is the spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry, i.e. a transition from a delocalized to two localized states in the wells, which are mirror images of each other. Although few theoretical studies have addressed mirror-symmetry breaking in micro and nanophotonic systems, no experimental evidence has been reported to date. Thanks to the potential barrier engineering implemented here, we demonstrate spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking through a pitchfork bifurcation in a PM composed of two coupled photonic crystal nanolasers. Coexistence of localized states is shown by switching them with short pulses. This offers exciting prospects for the realization of ultra-compact, integrated, scalable optical flip-flops based on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict such transitions with few intr...

  15. Vacuum polarization and dynamical symmetry breaking in de Sitter space

    A theory of free and interacting massless fields is constructed in static de Sitter space and also in the conic de Sitter space containing a straight-line cosmic string. Vacuum-polarization effects and dynamical symmetry breaking are studied

  16. Concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics

    Gomez-Bock, M. [Benemerita Univ., Puebla (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Mondragon, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Muehlleitner, M. [Laboratoire d' Annecy-Le-Vieux de Physique Theorique, 74 (France)]|[CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Spira, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. Theor. Physik E]|[Univ. Paris- Sud, Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique

    2007-12-15

    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics

    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e+e- linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Impact of symmetry breaking in networks of globally coupled oscillators

    Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the consequences of symmetry breaking in the coupling in a network of globally coupled identical Stuart-Landau oscillators. We observe that symmetry breaking leads to increased disorderliness in the dynamical behavior of oscillatory states and consequently results in a rich variety of dynamical states. Depending on the strength of the nonisochronicity parameter, we find various dynamical states such as amplitude chimera, amplitude cluster, frequency chimera and frequency cluster st...

  19. Symmetry Breaking of Vibrating Interfaces a Mechanism for Morphogenesis

    García, N

    2000-01-01

    We show that very small-amplitude oscillations of a highly symmetric, spheric or cylindrical, interface (thin membrane) between two fluids can result in inhomogeneous instability and breaking of the interface symmetry: the frequency of the breathing vibration selects the spatial symmetry. This mechanism may govern morphogenesis.

  20. Spontaneous disordering and symmetry breaking in complex plasmas

    Zhdanov, Sergey K; Morfill, Gregor E

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an essential feature of modern science. We demonstrate that it also plays an important role in the physics of complex plasmas. Complex plasmas can serve as a powerful tool for observing and studying discrete types of symmetry and disordering at the kinetic level that numerous many-body systems exhibit.

  1. Personal recollections on chiral symmetry breaking

    Kobayashi, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    The author's work on the mass of pseudoscalar mesons is briefly reviewed. The emergence of the study of CP violation in the renormalizable gauge theory from consideration of chiral symmetry in the quark model is discussed.

  2. Mirror symmetry breaking at the molecular level.

    Avetisov, V; Goldanskii, V.

    1996-01-01

    Reasoning from two basic principles of molecular physics, P invariance of electromagnetic interaction and the second law of thermodynamics, one would conclude that mirror symmetry retained in the world of chiral molecules. This inference is fully consistent with what is observed in inorganic nature. However, in the bioorganic world, the reverse is true. Mirror symmetry there is definitely broken. Is it possible to account for this phenomenon without going beyond conventional concepts of the k...

  3. Effect of symmetry breaking on transition strength distributions

    The quantum numbers of over 100 states in 30P have been determined from the ground state to 8 MeV. Previous measurements had provided complete spectroscopy in 26Al. For these N=Z=odd nuclei, states of isospin T=0 and T=1 coexist at all energies. These spectra provide a unique opportunity to test the effect of symmetry breaking (of the approximate symmetry isospin) on the level statistics and on the transition strength distributions. The level statistics are strongly affected by the small symmetry breaking and the transition strength distributions differ from the Porter-Thomas distribution

  4. Symmetry-Break in Voronoi Tessellations

    Valerio Lucarini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse in a common framework the properties of the Voronoi tessellations resulting from regular 2D and 3D crystals and those of tessellations generated by Poisson distributions of points, thus joining on symmetry breaking processes and the approach to uniform random distributions of seeds. We perturb crystalline structures in 2D and 3D with a spatial Gaussian noise whose adimensional strength is α and analyse the statistical properties of the cells of the resulting Voronoi tessellations using an ensemble approach. In 2D we consider triangular, square and hexagonal regular lattices, resulting into hexagonal, square and triangular tessellations, respectively. In 3D we consider the simple cubic (SC, body-centred cubic (BCC, and face-centred cubic (FCC crystals, whose corresponding Voronoi cells are the cube, the truncated octahedron, and the rhombic dodecahedron, respectively. In 2D, for all values α>0, hexagons constitute the most common class of cells. Noise destroys the triangular and square tessellations, which are structurally unstable, as their topological properties are discontinuous in α=0. On the contrary, the honeycomb hexagonal tessellation is topologically stable and, experimentally, all Voronoi cells are hexagonal for small but finite noise with α<0.12. Basically, the same happens in the 3D case, where only the tessellation of the BCC crystal is topologically stable even against noise of small but finite intensity. In both 2D and 3D cases, already for a moderate amount of Gaussian noise (α>0.5, memory of the specific initial unperturbed state is lost, because the statistical properties of the three perturbed regular tessellations are indistinguishable. When α>2, results converge to those of Poisson-Voronoi tessellations. In 2D, while the isoperimetric ratio increases with noise for the perturbed hexagonal tessellation, for the perturbed triangular and square tessellations it is optimised for specific value of noise intensity

  5. Local Activity Principle:. the Cause of Complexity and Symmetry Breaking

    Mainzer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The principle of local activity is precisely the missing concept to explain the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. Leon O. Chua discovered and defined this principle in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way. The local principle can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications in technical brains. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. The principle of local activity is the cause of symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. We argue that the principle of local activity is really fundamental in science and can even be identified in quantum cosmology as symmetry breaking of local gauge symmetries generating the complexity of matter and forces in our universe. Finally, we consider applications in economic, financial, and social systems with the emergence of equilibrium states, symmetry breaking at critical points of phase transitions and risky acting at the edge of chaos. In any case, the driving causes of symmetry breaking and the emergence of complexity are locally active elements, cells, units, or agents.

  6. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity

    Moon, Taeyoon

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity, whose action consists of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to the curvature with its potential. Performing dimensional reduction via ADM decomposition, we find that the model allows an exact solution giving rise to the 4D Minkowski vacuum. Exploiting the conformal invariance with Gaussian warp factor, we show that it also admits a solution which implement the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry. We investigate its stability by performing the tensor perturbation and find the resulting system is described by the conformal quantum mechanics. Possible applications to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of time-translational symmetry along the dynamical fifth direction and the brane-world scenario are discussed.

  7. Experimental demonstration of decoherence-induced spontaneous symmetry breaking

    We experimentally investigate the variations of exchange-symmetry properties of the four Bell states in an exchange-symmetric pure dephasing process with a two-photon system generated from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). Experiment results show that under such an exchange-symmetric local-noise Hamiltonian, the exchange-symmetry property remains unchanged for two of the three symmetric Bell states, i.e., the states |Φ>±=(1/√(2))(|00>±|11>). For the antisymmetric Bell state |Ψ>-=(1/√(2))(|01>-|10>), the exchange-symmetry property increases and achieves a maximum value of 0.5 at the asymptotic limit. However, for the third exchange-symmetric Bell state |Ψ>+=(1/√(2))(|01>+|10>), the exchange-symmetry property breaks, surviving with a probability of 0.5 at the asymptotic limit, which provides some evidence supporting such decoherence-induced spontaneous-symmetry-breaking phenomena.

  8. Intermediate Symmetries in the Spontaneous Breaking of Supersymmetric SO(10)

    Buccella, F.; Savoy, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric spontaneous symmetry breaking of SO(10) into SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) for the most physically interesting cases of SU(5) or flipped SU(5)xU(1) intermediate symmetries. The first case is more easily realized while the second one requires a fine-tuning condition on the parameters of the superpotential. This is because in the case of SU(5) symmetry there is at most one singlet of the residual symmetry in each SO(10) irreducible representation. We also point out on more genera...

  9. Unified dark matter with intermediate symmetry breaking scales

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.

    2015-06-01

    Asymmetric symmetry breaking models dynamically break the G ×G gauge symmetries of mirror models to distinct subgroups in the two sectors. The coincidental abundances of visible and dark matter, ΩDM≃5 ΩVM , motivates asymmetric dark matter theories where similar number densities of baryons in each sector are explained by their connected origins. However, the question of why the baryons of two sectors should have similar mass remains. In this work we develop an alternative class of asymmetric symmetry breaking models which unify the dark and visible sectors while generating a small difference in the mass scale of the baryons of each sector. By examining the different paths that the SO(10) GUT group can take in breaking to gauge symmetries containing SU(3), we can adapt the mechanism of asymmetric symmetry breaking to demonstrate models in which originally unified visible and dark sectors have isomorphic color gauge groups at low energy yet pass through different intermediate gauge groups at high energy. Through this, slight differences in the running coupling evolutions and, thus, the confinement scales of the two sectors are generated.

  10. Unified dark matter with intermediate symmetry breaking scales

    Lonsdale, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric symmetry breaking models dynamically break the G X G gauge symmetries of mirror models to distinct subgroups in the two sectors. The coincidental abundances of visible and dark matter, $\\Omega_{DM} \\simeq 5\\Omega_{VM}$, motivates asymmetric dark matter theories where similar number densities of baryons in each sector are explained by their connected origins. However the question of why the baryons of two sectors should have similar mass remains. In this work we develop an alternative class of asymmetric symmetry breaking models which unify the dark and visible sectors while generating a small difference in the mass scale of the baryons of each sector. By examining the different paths that the SO(10) GUT group can take in breaking to gauge symmetries containing SU(3) we can adapt the mechanism of asymmetric symmetry breaking to demonstrate models in which originally unified visible and dark sectors have isomorphic color gauge groups at low energy yet pass through different intermediate gauge groups ...

  11. Spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetries in collective neutrino oscillations

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-01-01

    A dense neutrino medium can experience collective oscillations or self-induced flavor transformation through nonlinear neutrino-neutrino refraction. To make the problem of collective neutrino oscillations more tractable, all previous studies on this subject have assumed some spatial symmetry or symmetries in the neutrino medium (e.g., translation symmetries in the early universe and spherical symmetry in core-collapse supernovae). We point out that the collective oscillation modes studied in such models are very special. Using a simple toy model we show that spatial symmetries can be broken spontaneously in collective neutrino oscillations. We also show that the spatial-symmetry-breaking (SSB) modes of neutrino oscillations can exist for both neutrino mass hierarchies and even in the regimes where collective neutrino oscillations were previously thought to be suppressed. This finding calls for study of collective neutrino oscillations in multi-dimensional models.

  12. Radiatively induced breaking of conformal symmetry in a superpotential

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Cirilo-Lombardo, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.

  13. Radiatively Induced Breaking of Conformal Symmetry in a Superpotential

    Arbuzov, A B

    2015-01-01

    Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.

  14. Massive photons from Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking

    Bonetti, Luca; Helayël-Neto, José A; Spallicci, Alessandro D A M

    2016-01-01

    In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs), we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy) and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy) breaking, leading to {observable} imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry) odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT) or tensor (even CPT). In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive and gauge invariant Carroll-Field-Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the mass is proportional to the breaking vector. The latter is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of $10^{-19}$ eV or $2 \\times 10^{-55}$ kg and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.

  15. Symmetries and symmetry breaking beyond the electroweak theory

    The Glashow-Salam-Weinberg theory describing electroweak interactions is one of the best successes of quantum field theory; it has passed all the experimental tests of particles physics with a high accuracy. However, this theory suffers from some deficiencies in the sense that some parameters, especially those involved in the generation of the mass of the elementary particles, are fixed to unnatural values. Moreover gravitation whose quantization cannot be achieved in ordinary quantum filed theory is hot taken into account. The aim of this PhD dissertation is to study some theories beyond the Standard Model and inspired by superstring theories. My endeavour has been to develop theoretical aspects of an effective dynamical description of one of the soltonic states of the strongly coupled strings. An important part of my results is also devoted to a more phenomenological analysis of the low energy effects of the symmetries that assure the coherence of the theories at high energy: these symmetries could explain the fermion mass hierarchy and could be directly observable in collider experiments. It is also shown how the geometrical properties of compactified spaces characterize the vacuum of string theory in a non-perturbative regime; such a vacuum can be used to construct a unified theory of gauge and gravitational interactions with a supersymmetry softy broken at a TcV scale. (author)

  16. Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories

    Farakos, K., E-mail: kfarakos@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Metaxas, D., E-mail: metaxas@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2012-02-07

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For z=2, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For z=3, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.

  17. Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories

    Farakos, K.; Metaxas, D.

    2012-02-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For z = 2, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For z = 3, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.

  18. Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories

    Farakos, K

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For $z=2$, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one-loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For $z=3$, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one-loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.

  19. Gedanken Worlds without Higgs: QCD-Induced Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /Karlsruhe U., TTP; Shrock, Robert; /YITP, Stony Brook

    2009-01-01

    To illuminate how electroweak symmetry breaking shapes the physical world, we investigate toy models in which no Higgs fields or other constructs are introduced to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two models incorporate the standard SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(1){sub Y} gauge symmetry and fermion content similar to that of the standard model. The first class--like the standard electroweak theory--contains no bare mass terms, so the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry within quantum chromodynamics is the only source of electroweak symmetry breaking. The second class adds bare fermion masses sufficiently small that QCD remains the dominant source of electroweak symmetry breaking and the model can serve as a well-behaved low-energy effective field theory to energies somewhat above the hadronic scale. A third class of models is based on the left-right-symmetric SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} {circle_times} U(1)B?L gauge group. In a fourth class of models, built on SU(4){sub PS} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} gauge symmetry, lepton number is treated as a fourth color. Many interesting characteristics of the models stem from the fact that the effective strength of the weak interactions is much closer to that of the residual strong interactions than in the real world. The Higgs-free models not only provide informative contrasts to the real world, but also lead us to consider intriguing issues in the application of field theory to the real world.

  20. Symmetry breaking effects on spin and electronic transport in graphene

    Asmar, Mahmoud M; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2015-01-01

    The decoration of graphene samples with adatoms or nanoparticles leads to the enhancement of spin-orbit interactions as well as to the introduction of symmetry-breaking effects that could have drastic effects on spin and electronic transport phenomena. We present an analysis based on symmetry considerations and examine the impact on the scattering matrix for graphene systems containing defects that enhance spin-orbit interactions, while conserving the electronic total angular momentum. We sho...

  1. Origin of fermion masses without spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Ayyar, Venkitesh

    2015-01-01

    Using a simple three dimensional lattice four-fermion model we argue that massless fermions can become massive due to interactions without the need for any spontaneous symmetry breaking. Using large scale Monte Carlo calculations within our model, we show that this non-traditional mass generation mechanism occurs at a second order quantum critical point that separates phases with the same symmetries. Universality then suggests that the new origin for the fermion mass should be of wide interest.

  2. Origin of fermion masses without spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Ayyar, Venkitesh; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2016-04-01

    Using large scale Monte Carlo calculations in a simple three dimensional lattice fermion model, we establish the existence of a second order quantum phase transition between a massless fermion phase and a massive one, both of which have the same symmetries. This shows that fermion masses can arise due to dynamics without the need for spontaneous symmetry breaking. Universality suggests that this alternate origin of the fermion mass should be of fundamental interest.

  3. Analogue symmetry breaking in superallowed Fermi β-decay

    The change in the Fermi matrix element due to deviations from perfect analogue symmetry has been estimated in a single-particle model with both harmonic oscillator and Saxon-Woods radial wave functions. A limitation of earlier calculations, in which the ground state of the A-1 nucleus was taken as the unique parent, is removed to allow the whole spectrum of parent states to be operative. This improvement leads to slightly larger analogue symmetry breaking effects. (Auth.)

  4. Higgs mechanism without spontaneous symmetry breaking and quark confinement

    Kondo, Kei-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel description for the Higgs mechanism by which a gauge boson acquires the mass in a manifestly gauge-invariant way. In the Higgs mechanism, we do not assume spontaneous breakdown of gauge symmetry signaled by a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of the scalar field. The spontaneous symmetry breaking is sufficient but not necessary for the Higgs mechanism to work. This enables us to discuss the confinement-Higgs complementarity from a new perspective.

  5. Symmetry-Breaking Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Broadband Light Bending

    Ni, Xingjie; Emani, Naresh K.; Kildishev, Alexander V.;

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate unparalleled wave-front control in a broadband, optical wavelength range from 1.0 μm to 1.9 μm, using a thin plasmonic layer (metasurface) consisting of a nanoantenna array that breaks the symmetry along the interface.......We experimentally demonstrate unparalleled wave-front control in a broadband, optical wavelength range from 1.0 μm to 1.9 μm, using a thin plasmonic layer (metasurface) consisting of a nanoantenna array that breaks the symmetry along the interface....

  6. Finding strongly interacting symmetry breaking at the SSC

    Golden, M.

    1989-02-01

    Pairs of gauge bosons, W and Z, are a probe of the electroweak symmetry-breaking sector, since the numbers of two gauge boson events are much larger in strongly coupled models than weak. The doubly charged channels W/sup +/W/sup +/ and W/sup /minus//W/sup/minus// are cleanest, since they do not suffer from q/bar q/ or gg fusion backgrounds. The like-charged gauge boson events are observable only if the symmetry breaking sector is strongly interacting. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in annealed and quenched gauge field models

    The structure of annealed and quenched models with local U(1) gauge invariance is studied in terms of the Helmholtz free energy. The first non-trivial, or one-loop, account of fluctuations in the annealed model suggests that spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in two and three dimensions, through a first-order phase transition. Within the same approximation scheme, the quenched model displays a continuous phase transition. A more complete account of the fluctuations in the annealed model changes the nature of the transition to a continuous one, whereas spontaneous symmetry breaking is then absent with quenched disorder. (author)

  8. Modular Ground State for SU(8) Symmetry Breaking

    Adler, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on our recent proposal of a modular ground state structure for the first stage of $SU(8)$ symmetry breaking by a scalar in the 56 representation. We review the arguments for $U(1)$ generator modularity 15, and show that this can lead to a vanishing mass for the $U(1)$ gauge boson, as needed for the symmetry breaking pattern $SU(8) \\supset SU(3) \\times SU(5) \\times U(1)$. We then give a simplified form for the modulo 5 ground state obeying clustering, that we have conjectured to lead from broken $SU(8)$ to the flipped $SU(5)$ model. Generalizations of these results are also given.

  9. Comment on "Electromagnetic Radiation under Explicit Symmetry Breaking"

    Simovski, C; Belov, P; Krasnok, A

    2015-01-01

    Recently published paper [PRL 114, 147701 (2015)] contains several misleading statements and misinterpretations of known facts. The main massage of the paper [PRL 114, 147701 (2015)] is as follows: "We have shown that explicit symmetry breaking in the structural configuration of charges leads to symmetry breaking of the electric field which results in electromagnetic radiation due to non-conservative current within a localized region of space and time" seems to transcend mere empiricism, touching the theoretical foundations of electromagnetism. Moreover, basic mistakes are numerous in this article and its main claim is wrong. Below we prove it citing the paper and arguing against it.

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in correlated wave functions

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico; Gros, Claudius

    2016-03-01

    We show that Jastrow-Slater wave functions, in which a density-density Jastrow factor is applied onto an uncorrelated fermionic state, may possess long-range order even when all symmetries are preserved in the wave function. This fact is mainly related to the presence of a sufficiently strong Jastrow term (also including the case of full Gutzwiller projection, suitable for describing spin models). Selected examples are reported, including the spawning of Néel order and dimerization in spin systems, and the stabilization of charge and orbital order in itinerant electronic systems.

  11. Dynamical 'breaking' of time reversal symmetry

    It is a common assumption that quantum systems with time reversal invariance and classically chaotic dynamics have energy spectra distributed according to GOE type of statistics. Here we present a class of systems which fail to follow this rule. We show that for convex billiards of constant width with time reversal symmetry and 'almost' chaotic dynamics the energy-level distribution is of GUE type. The effect is due to the lack of ergodicity in the 'momentum' part of the phase space and, as we argue, is generic in two dimensions. (fast track communication)

  12. Relating spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking in the presence of the Higgs mechanism

    Pedro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking. We add explicit symmetry breaking terms to the Higgs potential, so that the spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry in multi-Higgs-doublet models is a particular case of explicit symmetry breaking. Then we show that it is possible to study the Higgs potential without assuming that the local gauge $SU(2)_L$ symmetry is spontaneously broken or not (it is known that gauge symmetries may not be possible to break spontaneously). We also discuss the physical spectrum of multi-Higgs-doublet models and the related custodial symmetry. We review background symmetries: these are symmetries that despite already explicitly broken, can still be spontaneously broken. We show that the CP background symmetry is not spontaneously broken, based on this fact: we explain in part a recent conjecture relating spontaneous and explicit breaking of the charge-parity (CP) symmetry; we also relate explicit and spontaneous geometric ...

  13. Spontaneous Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Moving Media

    Silveirinha, M G

    2014-01-01

    Optical instabilities in moving media are linked to a spontaneous parity-time symmetry breaking of the system. It is shown that in general the time evolution of the electromagnetic waves in moving media is determined by a non-Hermitian parity-time symmetric operator. For lossless systems the frequency spectrum of the time evolution operator may be complex valued, and has a mirror symmetry with respect to the real-frequency axis. The possibility of optical amplification of a light pulse in the broken parity-time symmetry regime is demonstrated.

  14. Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    Zhang, Senlin; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    The parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the relation of the gain/loss and coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pairs. The PT symmetry concept can be applied to realize unidirectional light propagation and single mode operation lasers, which may allow for a new way to harness the optical signal in photonic integrated circuits. Otherwise, operating at this particular exceptional point, sensitivity of tiny perturbation detection can be enhanced greatly compared with conventional sensors.

  15. Contact process with sublattice symmetry breaking.

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins; Dickman, Ronald

    2011-07-01

    We study a contact process with creation at first- and second-neighbor sites and inhibition at first neighbors, in the form of an annihilation rate that increases with the number of occupied first neighbors. Mean-field theory predicts three phases: inactive (absorbing), active symmetric, and active asymmetric, the latter exhibiting distinct sublattice densities on a bipartite lattice. These phases are separated by continuous transitions; the phase diagram is re-entrant. Monte Carlo simulations in two dimensions verify these predictions qualitatively, except for a first-neighbor creation rate of zero. (In the latter case one of the phase transitions is discontinuous.) Our numerical results confirm that the symmetric-asymmetric transition belongs to the Ising universality class, and that the active-absorbing transition belongs to the directed percolation class, as expected from symmetry considerations. PMID:21867131

  16. Relativistic symmetry breaking in light kaonic nuclei

    Yang, Rong-Yao; Xiang, Qian-Fei; Zhang, Dong-Rui; Wei, Si-Na

    2014-01-01

    As the experimental data from kaonic atoms and $K^{-}N$ scatterings imply that the $K^{-}$-nucleon interaction is strongly attractive at saturation density, there is a possibility to form $K^{-}$-nuclear bound states or kaonic nuclei. In this work, we investigate the ground-state properties of the light kaonic nuclei with the relativistic mean field theory. It is found that the strong attraction between $K^{-}$ and nucleons reshapes the scalar and vector meson fields, leading to the remarkable enhancement of the nuclear density in the interior of light kaonic nuclei and the manifest shift of the single-nucleon energy spectra and magic numbers therein. As a consequence, the pseudospin symmetry is shown to be violated together with enlarged spin-orbit splittings in these kaonic nuclei.

  17. Spectral signatures of high-symmetry quantum dots and effects of symmetry breaking

    Karlsson, K. F.; Oberli, D. Y.; Dupertuis, M. A.; Troncale, V.; Byszewski, M.; Pelucchi, E.; Rudra, A.; Holtz, P. O.; Kapon, E.

    2015-10-01

    High symmetry epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) with three or more symmetry planes provide a very promising route for the generation of entangled photons for quantum information applications. The great challenge to fabricate nanoscopic high symmetry QDs is further complicated by the lack of structural characterization techniques able to resolve small symmetry breaking. In this work, we present an approach for identifying and analyzing the signatures of symmetry breaking in the optical spectra of QDs. Exciton complexes in InGaAs/AlGaAs QDs grown along the [111]B crystalline axis in inverted tetrahedral pyramids are studied by polarization resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy combined with lattice temperature dependence, excitation power dependence and temporal photon correlation measurements. By combining such a systematic experimental approach with a simple theoretical approach based on a point-group symmetry analysis of the polarized emission patterns of each exciton complex, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a strict and coherent identification of all the observable spectral patterns of numerous exciton complexes and a quantitative determination of the fine structure splittings of their quantum states. This analysis is found to be particularly powerful for selecting QDs with the highest degree of symmetry (C3v and {D}3h) for potential applications of these QDs as polarization entangled photon sources. We exhibit the optical spectra when evolving towards asymmetrical QDs, and show the higher sensitivity of certain exciton complexes to symmetry breaking.

  18. On the symmetry of the vacuum in theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Perez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    We review the usual account of the phenomena of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), pointing out the common misunderstandings surrounding the issue, in particular within the context of quantum field theory. In fact, the common explanations one finds in this context, indicate that under certain conditions corresponding to the situation called SSB, the vacuum of the theory does not share the symmetries of the Lagrangian. We explain in detail why this statement is incorrect in general, and in what limited set of circumstances such situation could arise. We concentrate on the case of global symmetries, for which we found no satisfactory exposition in the existing literature, and briefly comment on the case of gauge symmetries where, although insufficiently publicized, accurate and complete descriptions exist. We briefly discuss the implications for the phenomenological manifestations usually attributed to the phenomena of spontaneous symmetry breaking, analyzing which might be affected by our analysis and which ...

  19. Radiative decays, nonet symmetry, and SU(3) breaking

    We reexamine the problem of simultaneously describing in a consistent way all radiative and leptonic decays of light mesons (V→Pγ, P→Vγ, P→γγ, V→e+e-). For this purpose, we rely on the hidden local symmetry model in both its anomalous and non-anomalous sectors. We show that the SU(3) symmetry breaking scheme proposed by Bando, Kugo and Yamawaki, supplemented with nonet symmetry breaking in the pseudoscalar sector, allows one to reach a nice agreement with all data, except for the K*± radiative decay. An extension of this breaking pattern allows one to account for this particular decay mode too. Considered together, the whole set of radiative decays provides a pseudoscalar mixing angle θP≅-11 degree and a value for θV which is ≅3 degree from that of ideal mixing. We also show that it is impossible, in a practical sense, to disentangle the effects of nonet symmetry breaking and those of glue inside the η', using only light meson decays. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism for quaternion fields

    In the context of quaternion valued fields spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism are investigated. In particular, for the potential -(μ2/2)phi-barphi-(λ/4)(phi-barphi)2, Goldstone's theorem is studied and, for the gauge theory of automorphisms of the quaternions, a Higgs mechanism investigated

  1. The symmetry breaking phenomenon in anharmonic oscillator model

    Mastine, Antonio Carlos; Natti, Erica Regina Takano

    2010-01-01

    In this article a non-perturbative time-dependent technique is used to treat the initial value problem, in Quantum Mechanics context, for a non-equilibrium self-interacting fermionic system in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particularly, in mean-field regime, we study the dynamical symmetry breaking phenomenon, identifying the physical processes associated.

  2. Quantum electroweak symmetry breaking through loop quadratic contributions

    Dong Bai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on two postulations that (i the Higgs boson has a large bare mass mH≫mh≃125 GeV at the characteristic energy scale Mc which defines the Standard Model (SM in the ultraviolet region, and (ii quadratic contributions of Feynman loop diagrams in quantum field theories are physically meaningful, we show that the SM electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by the quadratic contributions from loop effects. As the quadratic running of Higgs mass parameter leads to an additive renormalization, which distinguishes from the logarithmic running with a multiplicative renormalization, the symmetry breaking occurs once the sliding energy scale μ moves from Mc down to a transition scale μ=ΛEW at which the additive renormalized Higgs mass parameter mH2(Mc/μ gets to change the sign. With the input of current experimental data, this symmetry breaking energy scale is found to be ΛEW≃760 GeV, which provides another basic energy scale for the SM besides Mc. Studying such a symmetry breaking mechanism could play an important role in understanding both the hierarchy problem and naturalness problem. It also provides a possible way to explore the experimental implications of the quadratic contributions as ΛEW lies within the probing reach of the LHC and the future Great Collider.

  3. Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks

    Buccella, F. [Napoli Federico II Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche; INFN, Napoli (Italy); Hoegaasen, H. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics (Norway); Richard, J.M. [Universite Joseph Fourier-IN2P3-CNRS 53, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Sorba, P. [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique (LAPTH) (France)

    2007-02-15

    The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty. (orig.)

  4. Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks

    The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty. (orig.)

  5. Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks

    Buccella, F.; Høgaasen, H.; Richard, J.-M.; Sorba, P.

    2007-02-01

    The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty.

  6. Symmetry breaking patterns for unitary and orthogonal groups

    Buccella, F.; Ruegg, H.; Savoy, C.A.

    1980-04-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking pattern for SU(n) and 0(10) is discussed. It is based on the exact treatment of the absolute minimum of the Higgs potential as a function of scalar fields belonging to the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(n), the spinor and adjoint representations of 0(10). 2 tables.

  7. Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks

    Buccella, F; Richard, J M; Sorba, Paul; Buccella, Franco; Hogaasen, Hallstein; Richard, Jean-Marc; Sorba, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty.

  8. Chromomagnetism, flavour symmetry breaking and S-wave tetraquarks

    Buccella, Franco; Hogaasen, Hallstein; Richard, Jean-Marc; Sorba, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The chromomagnetic interaction, with full account for flavour-symmetry breaking, is applied to S-wave configurations containing two quarks and two antiquarks. Phenomenological implications are discussed for light, charmed, charmed and strange, hidden-charm and double-charm mesons, and extended to their analogues with beauty.

  9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism for quaternion fields

    Nash, C.; Joshi, G.C.

    1987-02-01

    In the context of quaternion valued fields spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism are investigated. In particular, for the potential -(..mu../sup 2//2)phi-barphi-(lambda/4)(phi-barphi)/sup 2/, Goldstone's theorem is studied and, for the gauge theory of automorphisms of the quaternions, a Higgs mechanism investigated.

  10. Ads/CFT correspondence and symmetry breaking

    We study, using the dual AdS description, the vacua of field theories where some of the gauge symmetry is broken by expectation values of scalar fields. In such vacua, operators built out of the scalar fields acquire expectation values, and we show how to calculate them from the behavior of perturbations to the AdS background near the boundary. Specific examples include the N = 4 SYM theory, and theories on D3-branes placed on orbifolds and conifolds. We also clarify some subtleties of the AdS/CFT correspondence that arise in this analysis. In particular, we explain how scalar fields in AdS space of sufficiently negative mass-squared can be associated with CFT operators of two possible dimensions. All dimensions are bounded from below by (d-2)/2; this is the unitarity bound for scalar operators in d-dimensional field theory. We further argue that the generating functional for correlators in the theory with one choice of operator dimension is a Legendre transform of the generating functional in the theory with the other choice

  11. Unified framework for symmetry breaking in SO(10)

    A new SO(10) unified model is proposed based on a one-step breaking of SO(10) to the standard model gauge group SU(3)CxSU(2)LxU(1)Y using a single 144 of Higgs. The symmetry breaking occurs when the SU(5) 24-plet component of 144 develops a vacuum expectation value. Further, it is possible to obtain from the same 144 a light Higgs doublet necessary for electroweak symmetry breaking using recent ideas of string vacua landscapes and fine-tuning. Thus the breaking of SO(10) down to SU(3)CxU(1)em can be accomplished with a single Higgs. We analyze this symmetry breaking pattern in the nonsupersymmetric as well as in the supersymmetric SO(10) model. In this scenario masses of the quarks and leptons arise via quartic couplings. We show that the resulting mass pattern is consistent with experimental data, including neutrino oscillations. The model represents an alternative to the currently popular grand unified scenarios

  12. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in General Relativity. Brane World Concept

    Meierovich, Boris E

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational properties of a hedge-hog type topological defect in two extra dimensions are considered in General Relativity employing a vector as the order parameter. The developed macroscopic theory of phase transitions with spontaneous symmetry breaking is applied to the analysis of possible "thick" brane structures. The previous considerations were done using the order parameter in the form of a multiplet in a target space of scalar fields. The difference of these two approaches is analyzed and demonstrated in detail. There are two different symmetries of regular solutions of Einstein equations for a hedgehog type vector order parameter. Both solutions are analyzed in parallel analytically and numerically. Regular configurations in cases of vector order parameter have one more free parameter in comparison with the scalar multiplet solutions. It is shown that the existence of a negative cosmological constant is sufficient for the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the initially plain bulk. Regular configurat...

  13. Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter

    Buballa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color-superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking...

  14. New aspects of scale and discrete flavor symmetry breaking

    Lim, Kher Sham

    2014-11-05

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is complete with the discovery of the Higgs particle. However the SM cannot be a complete theory of nature as it does not explain the origin of neutrino mass, dark matter (DM), dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry and smallness of the strong CP parameter. From theoretical point of view we do not understand the origin of the scale separation between the electroweak (EW) and the Planck scale, and also the flavor puzzle. In this work we tackle the hierarchy problem with scale symmetry and the flavor puzzle with discrete flavor symmetries, charting new symmetry groups and their breaking, while investigating their implied phenomenologies along the way. In the first part we provide two novel mechanisms to explain the origin of the EW scale generated by quantum effects from an anomalous breaking of a classical scale invariant extension of the SM. For the first model we utilize a direct scale transmission from condensation of a scalar, charged under a high representation of QCD, to trigger EW symmetry breaking (EWSB) dynamically. In the second model, we use the indirect scale transmission approach to generate the EW scale transmitted by a singlet scalar mediator which couples to the SM and a strongly coupled hidden sector. Chiral symmetry in the dark fermion sector is broken spontaneously due to nonperturbative effects of the running coupling in the hidden sector, triggering indirectly EWSB due to dimensional transmutation and providing stable DM candidates in the form of dark pions. In the last part of this work we focus on charting new discrete flavor symmetry groups to obtain experimentally acceptable leptonic and quark mixing patterns. The interesting new discrete groups that we have found are classified mathematically and provide a new starting point for model building in discrete flavor symmetry.

  15. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards

    Schaefer, Florian

    2009-01-26

    The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally

  16. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards

    The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally

  17. Mapping chiral symmetry breaking in the excited baryon spectrum

    Bicudo, Pedro; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J; Van Cauteren, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We study the conjectured "Insensitivity to Chiral Symmetry Breaking" in the highly excited light baryon spectrum. While the experimental spectrum is being measured at JLab and CBELSA/TAPS, this insensitivity remains to be computed theoretically in detail. As the only existing option to have both confinement, highly excited states and chiral symmetry, we adopt the truncated Coulomb gauge formulation of QCD, considering a linearly confining Coulomb term. Adopting a systematic and numerically intensive variational treatment up to 12 harmonic oscillator shells we are able to access several angular and radial excitations. We compute both the excited spectra of $I=1/2$ and $I=3/2$ baryons, up to large spin $J=13/2$, and study in detail the proposed chiral multiplets. While the static-light and light-light spectra clearly show chiral symmetry restoration high in the spectrum, the realization of chiral symmetry is more complicated in the baryon spectrum than earlier expected.

  18. Lorentz Symmetry Breaking and its consequences on Thermodynamics

    Full text: In this work, we study the effects of Lorentz Symmetry Breaking on thermodynamics properties of ideal gases. We start from a dispersion relation obtained from the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model to Electrodynamics with Lorentz and CPT violation term. With this, we compute the thermodynamics quantities for a Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions. Two regimes are analyzed: the non-relativistic and the relativistic one. In the first case we show that the topological mass induced by the Chern-Simons term behaves as a chemical potential. For the Bose-Einstein condensates with these Lorentz breaking, the critical values as particle number, and temperature, are modified. These results are the same that were obtained by Colladay et al, whose perform the non-relativistic limit directly in the Hamiltonian for a Lorentz symmetry violating theory and used this to study the Bose-Einstein condensate to obtain a bound for the background field which perform the breaking. The original contribution of these work is in the relativistic regime, where we show that a new phase transition for a Bose -Einstein gas, can be induced by the Lorentz Symmetry Breaking parameters. Some applications in cosmology and astrophysics are commented. (author)

  19. Lorentz Symmetry Breaking and its consequences on Thermodynamics

    Costa-Soares, T.; Sales, J.A. de; Otoya, V.J. Vasques [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais (IF Sudeste MG), MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this work, we study the effects of Lorentz Symmetry Breaking on thermodynamics properties of ideal gases. We start from a dispersion relation obtained from the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model to Electrodynamics with Lorentz and CPT violation term. With this, we compute the thermodynamics quantities for a Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions. Two regimes are analyzed: the non-relativistic and the relativistic one. In the first case we show that the topological mass induced by the Chern-Simons term behaves as a chemical potential. For the Bose-Einstein condensates with these Lorentz breaking, the critical values as particle number, and temperature, are modified. These results are the same that were obtained by Colladay et al, whose perform the non-relativistic limit directly in the Hamiltonian for a Lorentz symmetry violating theory and used this to study the Bose-Einstein condensate to obtain a bound for the background field which perform the breaking. The original contribution of these work is in the relativistic regime, where we show that a new phase transition for a Bose -Einstein gas, can be induced by the Lorentz Symmetry Breaking parameters. Some applications in cosmology and astrophysics are commented. (author)

  20. Intermediate Symmetries in the Spontaneous Breaking of Supersymmetric SO(10)

    Buccella, F.; Savoy, C. A.

    We study the supersymmetric spontaneous symmetry breaking of SO(10) into SU(3) ⊗ SU(2) ⊗ U(1) for the most physically interesting cases of SU(5) or flipped SU(5) ⊗ U(1) intermediate symmetries. The first case is more easily realized while the second one requires a fine-tuning condition on the parameters of the superpotential. This is because in the case of SU(5) symmetry there is at most one singlet of the residual symmetry in each SO(10) irreducible representation. We also point out on more general grounds in supersymmetric GUTs that some intermediate symmetries can be exactly realized and others can only be approximated by fine-tuning. In the first category, there could occur some tunneling between the vacua with exact and approximate intermediate symmetry. The flipped SU(5) ⊗ U(1) symmetry improves the unification of gauge couplings if (B-L) is broken by ∥(B-L)∥ =1 scalars yielding right-handed neutrino masses below 1014 GeV.

  1. Intermediate Symmetries in the Spontaneous Breaking of Supersymmetric SO(10)

    Buccella, F

    2002-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric spontaneous symmetry breaking of SO(10) into SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) for the most physically interesting cases of SU(5) or flipped SU(5)xU(1) intermediate symmetries. The first case is more easily realized while the second one requires a fine-tuning condition on the parameters of the superpotential. This is because in the case of SU(5) symmetry there is at most one singlet of the residual symmetry in each SO(10) irreducible representation. We also point out on more general grounds in supersymmetric GUT's that some intermediate symmetries can be exactly realized and others can only be approximated by fine-tuning. In the first category, there could occur some tunneling between the vacua with exact and approximate intermediate symmetry. The flipped SU(5)xU(1) symmetry improves the unification of gauge couplings if (B-L) is broken by (B-L)=1 scalars yielding right handed neutrino masses below 10^{14} GeV}.

  2. 3D toroidal physics: Testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking

    Spong, Donald A., E-mail: spongda@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to provide the plasma control needed for a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D edge localized mode suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. This motivates the development of physics models that are applicable across the full range of 3D devices. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with the requirements of future fusion reactors.

  3. Confinement and flavor symmetry breaking via monopole condensation

    We discuss dynamics of N=2 supersymmetric SU (nc) gauge theories with nf quark hypermultiplets. Upon N=1 perturbation of introducing a finite mass for the adjoint chiral multiplet, we show that the flavor U(nf) symmetry is dynamically broken to U(r) x U(nf - r), where r ≤ [nf/2] is an integer. This flavor symmetry breaking occurs due to the condensates of magnetic degrees of freedom which acquire flavor quantum numbers due to the quark zero modes. We briefly comment on the U Sp(2nc) gauge theories. This talk is based on works with Giuseppe Carlino and Ken Konishi. (author)

  4. Mode conversion by symmetry breaking of propagating spin waves.

    Clausen, P.; Vogt, K.; Schultheiss, H.; Schafer, S.; Obry, B.; Wolf, G.; Pirro, P.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B. (Materials Science Division); (Technische Universitat Kaiserslautern); (Grad. School of Excellence Mater. Sci. in Mainz); (Univ. Albama)

    2011-10-01

    We study spin-wave transport in a microstructured Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} waveguide exhibiting broken translational symmetry. We observe the conversion of a beam profile composed of symmetric spin-wave width modes with odd numbers of antinodes n = 1, 3,... into a mixed set of symmetric and asymmetric modes. Due to the spatial homogeneity of the exciting field along the used microstrip antenna, quantized spin-wave modes with an even number n of antinodes across the stripe's width cannot be directly excited. We show that a break in translational symmetry may result in a partial conversion of even spin-wave waveguide modes.

  5. SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking and charmed states

    By extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses we propose a method to determine charmed quark hadron masses including possible QCD isospin breaking effects. Initial results for some open charmed pseudoscalar meson states and singly and doubly charmed baryon states are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Essential for the method is the determination of the scale using singlet quantities, and to this end we also give here a preliminary estimation of the recently introduced Wilson flow scales.

  6. SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking and charmed states

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Hyogo (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaborations

    2013-11-15

    By extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses we propose a method to determine charmed quark hadron masses including possible QCD isospin breaking effects. Initial results for some open charmed pseudoscalar meson states and singly and doubly charmed baryon states are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Essential for the method is the determination of the scale using singlet quantities, and to this end we also give here a preliminary estimation of the recently introduced Wilson flow scales.

  7. A note on Seiberg duality and chiral symmetry breaking

    Following (arXiv:1310.2027) and (arXiv:0801.0762), we consider a non-supersymmetric Seiberg duality between electric and magnetic “orientifold field theories”. These theories live on brane configurations of type 0′ string theory. In the electric theory side the scalars acquire a mass and decouple, resulting in an SU(Nc) gauge theory coupled to Nf massless quarks and an additional massless fermion that transforms in the two-index antisymmetric representation. In the magnetic theory side there exists a fundamental meson field that develops a Coleman–Weinberg potential. At the one-loop approximation the potential admits a minimum with chiral symmetry breaking of the form SU(Nf)L×SU(Nf)R→SU(Nf)V and an additional breaking of an axial U(1) symmetry. The resulting theory admits a spectrum whose massless degrees of freedom are Nf2 Nambu–Goldstone bosons

  8. Breaking of flavor permutational symmetry and the CKM matrix

    The phase equivalence of the theoretical quark mixing matrix Vth derived from the breaking of the flavor permutational symmetry and the standard parameterization VPDG advocated by the Particle Data Group is explicity exhibited. From here, we derive exact explicit expressions for the three mixing angles θ12,θ13,θ23, and the CP violating phase δ13 in terms of the quark mass ratios (mu/mt,mc/mt,md/mb,ms/mb) and the parameters Z*1/2 and Φ* characterizing the preferred symmetry breaking pattern. The computed values for the CP violating phase and the mixing angles are: δ13*=75 deg., sin θ12*=0.221, sin θ13*=0.0034, and sin θ23*=0.040, which coincide almost exactly with the central values of the experimentally determined quantities

  9. The CKM matrix from a scheme of flavour symmetry breaking

    A theoretical |VCKMth| mixing matrix which is a function of the four mass ratios and the CP violating phase α is derived from a simple scheme for breaking the flavour permutational symmetry. We assumed that the symmetry breaking pattern is the same in the u and d-sectors, and imposed a phenomenologically motivated constraint on the amount of mixing of singlet and doublet irreducible representations of S(3)L x S(3)R. A χ2 fit of the matrix of the absolute values |VCKMth| to the experimentally determined |VCKMexp| gives the best value for α=76.7 deg. and the value Jth=-2.18x10-5 for the Jarlskog invariant in good agreement with the experimental values. The agreement between |VCKMth| and |VCKMexp| is also very good with χ2=0.28

  10. Breaking discrete symmetries in the effective field theory of inflation

    We study the phenomenon of discrete symmetry breaking during the inflationary epoch, using a model-independent approach based on the effective field theory of inflation. We work in a context where both time reparameterization symmetry and spatial diffeomorphism invariance can be broken during inflation. We determine the leading derivative operators in the quadratic action for fluctuations that break parity and time-reversal. Within suitable approximations, we study their consequences for the dynamics of linearized fluctuations. Both in the scalar and tensor sectors, we show that such operators can lead to new direction-dependent phases for the modes involved. They do not affect the power spectra, but can have consequences for higher correlation functions. Moreover, a small quadrupole contribution to the sound speed can be generated

  11. Charge Symmetry Breaking and Nuclear Pion Production Reactions

    Bolton, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Large momentum transfer reactions such as pion production represent the frontier of Chiral Perturbation Theory and must be understood before more complex reactions can be considered. Pion production is also interesting in its own right, one application being the hadronic extraction of a charge symmetry breaking parameter: the contribution of the down-up quark mass difference to the neutron-proton mass difference. This dissertation reports on two primary projects: (1) a calculation of the charge symmetry breaking forward-backward asymmetry of the differential cross section of the n p -> d pi^0 reaction, and (2) the development of a new theoretical framework addressing the issue of reducibility in the impulse approximation's contribution to pion production. It is shown that the traditional one-body impulse approximation must be replaced by a two-body operator which makes a larger contribution to s-wave pion production.

  12. Electroweak symmetry breaking after LEP1 and LEP2

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Strumia, Alessandro; Barbieri, Riccardo; Pomarol, Alex; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Strumia, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    In a generic 'universal' theory of electroweak symmetry breaking, non fine-tuned heavy new physics affects the low-energy data through four parameters, which include and properly extend the generally insufficient S and T. Only by adding the LEP2 data to the global electroweak fit, can all these four form factors be determined and deviations from the SM be strongly constrained. Several of the recently proposed models (little Higgs, gauge bosons in extra dimensions or Higgsless models in 5D) are recognized to be 'universal' in a straightforward way after a proper definition of the effective vector boson fields. Among various applications, we show that proposed Higgsless models in 5D, when calculable, do not provide a viable description of electroweak symmetry breaking in their full range of parameters.

  13. Symmetry-Breaking Metamaterials Enabling Broadband Negative Permeability

    Trang, Pham Thi; Nguyen, Bui Huu; Tiep, Dinh Hong; Thuy, Le Minh; Lam, Vu Dinh; Tung, Nguyen Thanh

    2016-05-01

    Looking for a metamaterial, which can operate over a broad frequency band, has been indispensable towards promising applications. In this report, we propose a simple approach, allowing enlargement of the negative permeability band by breaking the structural symmetry in conventional cut-wire-pair metamaterials. Equivalent LC circuit and finite integration simulations are performed to explain underlying physics of the band expansion. Microwave samples are also prepared and measured to verify the proposed idea.

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and Goldstone theorem for composite states revisited

    Fariborz, Amir H

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the well-known phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking for a linear sigma model for scalar and pseudoscalar mesons based on the meson composite structure and the normalization of the quantum states. To test our formulation and validate our approach we give another proof of the Goldstone theorem and derive the corresponding mass eigenstates of the theory. We briefly describe the possible wave function of a meson that leads to the adequate mass eigenstates.

  15. Cosmological Symmetry Breaking and Generation of Electromagnetic Field

    Michiyasu Nagasawa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological phase transitions accompanied by some kind of symmetry breaking would cause the creation of topological defects and the resulting production of primordial magnetic field. Moreover, such a procedure inevitably affects the cosmic background radiation and it may be observed today. Motivated by the existence of stabilized embedded defects in the standard model of elementary interactions, we discuss their application to the cosmological electromagnetic field generation.

  16. Symmetry-breaking dynamics of the modulational instability spectrum.

    Droques, M; Barviau, B; Kudlinski, A; Taki, M; Boucon, A; Sylvestre, T; Mussot, A

    2011-04-15

    We demonstrate in an optical fiber that third-order dispersion yields an unexpected symmetry-breaking dynamics of the modulational instability spectrum. It is found in particular that this spectral asymmetry does not smoothly and monotonically increase when approaching the zero-dispersion wavelength. Instead, it exhibits several local extrema and it can even be reversed at a particular dispersion value. We interpret this behavior as resulting from interactions between dispersive waves and solitons generated from modulation instability. PMID:21499356

  17. Continuum strong QCD: Confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    Continuum strong QCD is the application of models and continuum quantum field theory to the study of phenomena in hadronic physics, which includes; e.g., the spectrum of QCD bound states and their interactions. Herein the author provides a Dyson-Schwinger equation perspective, focusing on qualitative aspects of confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in cold, sparse QCD, and also elucidating consequences of the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity and features of the heavy-quark limit

  18. Neutrino Masses in Theories with Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Appelquist, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2002-01-01

    We address the problem of accounting for light neutrino masses in theories with dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We discuss this in the context of a class of (extended) technicolor (ETC) models and analyze the full set of Dirac and Majorana masses that arise in such theories. As a possible solution, we propose a combination of suppressed Dirac masses and a seesaw involving dynamically generated $|\\Delta L|=2$ condensates of standard-model singlet, ETC-nonsinglet fermions. We show how ...

  19. Breaking of flavor permutational symmetry and the CKM matrix

    Different ansaetze for the breaking of the flavor permutational symmetry according to SL(3) x SR(3) superset of SL(2) x SR(2) give different Hermitian mass matrices which differ in the symmetry breaking pattern. In this work we obtain a clear and precise indication on the preferred symmetry breaking pattern. The preferred pattern allows us to compute the CKM mixing matrix, the Jarlskog invariant J, and the three inner angles of the unitarity triangle in terms of four quark mass ratios and the CP violating phase Φ. Excellent agreement with the experimentally determined absolute values of the entries in the CKM matrix is obtained for Φ=90 deg. The corresponding computed values of the Jarlskog invariant and the inner angles are J=3.00x10-5, α=84 deg., β=24 deg. and γ=72 deg. in very good agreement with current data on CP violation in the neutral kaon-antikaon system and oscillations in the Bs deg.-B-bars deg. system

  20. Realization of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in holographic QCD

    Chelabi, Kaddour; Huang, Mei; Li, Danning; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2015-01-01

    With proper profiles of the scalar potential and the dilaton field, for the first time, the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and its restoration at finite temperature are correctly realized in the holographic QCD framework. In the chiral limit, a nonzero chiral condensate develops in the vacuum and decreases with temperature, and the phase transition is of 2nd order for two-flavor case and of 1st order for three-flavor case. In the case of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, in two-flavor case, the 2nd order phase transition turns to crossover with any nonzero current quark mass, and in three-flavor case, the 1st order phase transition turns to crossover at a finite current quark mass. The correct description of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration makes the holographic QCD models more powerful in dealing with non-perturbative QCD phenomena. This framework can be regarded as a general set up in application of AdS/CFT to describe conventional Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson type phase transitions, ...

  1. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores

  2. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    Osmanović, D.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J. [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C. [Centre for Mathematics, Physics and Engineering in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-21

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.

  3. Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    Zhang, Senlin; Yong, Zhengdong; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing

    2016-04-01

    The concept of parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) originates from the canonical quantum mechanics and has become a hot topic recently. As a versatile platform to investigate the intriguing concept, both theoretical and experimental works in optics have been implemented. In this paper, the PT symmetry breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the gain/loss level and the coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pair. Unidirectional light propagation is investigated, as well as enhanced sensitivity of single particle detection in the vicinity of the exceptional point. The proposed system is easy to be integrated with photonic integrated circuits and can be strongly coupled to optical waveguides.

  4. Quasiaverages, symmetry breaking and irreducible Green functions method

    A.L.Kuzemsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and applications of the method of quasiaverages to quantum statistical physics and to quantum solid state theory and, in particular, to quantum theory of magnetism, were considered. It was shown that the role of symmetry (and the breaking of symmetries in combination with the degeneracy of the system was reanalyzed and essentially clarified within the framework of the method of quasiaverages. The problem of finding the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and superconducting "symmetry broken" solutions of the correlated lattice fermion models was discussed within the irreducible Green functions method. A unified scheme for the construction of generalized mean fields (elastic scattering corrections and self-energy (inelastic scattering in terms of the equations of motion and Dyson equation was generalized in order to include the "source fields". This approach complements previous studies of microscopic theory of antiferromagnetism and clarifies the concepts of Neel sublattices for localized and itinerant antiferromagnetism and "spin-aligning fields" of correlated lattice fermions.

  5. Domain Walls and Vortices in Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-01-01

    We study domain walls and vortices in chiral symmetry breaking in QCD with N flavors in the chiral limit. If the axial anomaly was absent, there exist stable Abelian axial vortices winding around the spontaneously broken U(1)_A symmetry and non-Abelian axial vortices winding around both the U(1)_A and non-Abelian SU(N) chiral symmetries. In the presence of the axial anomaly term, metastable domain walls are present and Abelian axial vortices must be attached by N domain walls, forming domain wall junctions. We show that a domain wall junction decays into N non-Abelian vortices attached by domain walls, implying its metastability. We also show that domain walls decay through the quantum tunneling by creating a hole bounded by a closed non-Abelian vortex.

  6. Matter Mass Generation and Theta Vacuum Dynamical Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    Roh, H S

    2001-01-01

    This work proposes a stringent concept of matter mass generation and Theta vacuum in the context of local gauge theory for the strong force under the constraint of the flat universe. The matter mass is generated as the consequence of dynamical spontaneous symmetry breaking (DSSB) of gauge symmetry and discrete symmetries, which is motivated by the parameter Theta representing the surface term. Matter mass generation introduces the typical features of constituent particle mass, dual Meissner effect, and hyperfine structure. The Theta term plays important roles on the DSSB of the gauge group and on the quantization of the matter and vacuum space. The Theta vacuum exhibits the intrinsic principal number and intrinsic angular momentum for intrinsic space quantization in analogy with the extrinsic principal number and extrinsic angular momentum for extrinsic space quantization.

  7. Executive summary of the Snowmass 2001 working group (P1) ''Electroweak Symmetry Breaking''

    In this summary report of the 2001 Snowmass Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Working Group, the main candidates for theories of electroweak symmetry breaking are surveyed, and the criteria for distinguishing among the different approaches are discussed. The potential for observing electroweak symmetry breaking phenomena at the upgraded Tevatron and the LHC is described. We emphasize the importance of a high-luminosity e+e- linear collider for precision measurements to clarify the underlying electroweak symmetry breaking dynamics. Finally, we note the possible roles of the μ+μ- collider and VLHC for further elucidating the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Symmetry Breaking on Electronic Band Structure: Gap Opening at the High Symmetry Points

    Guillaume Vasseur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some characteristic features of band structures, like the band degeneracy at high symmetry points or the existence of energy gaps, usually reflect the symmetry of the crystal or, more precisely, the symmetry of the wave vector group at the relevant points of the Brillouin zone. In this paper, we will illustrate this property by considering two-dimensional (2D-hexagonal lattices characterized by a possible two-fold degenerate band at the K points with a linear dispersion (Dirac points. By combining scanning tunneling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission, we study the electronic properties of a similar system: the Ag/Cu(111 interface reconstruction characterized by a hexagonal superlattice, and we show that the gap opening at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the reconstructed cell is due to the symmetry breaking of the wave vector group.

  9. Electroweak symmetry breaking without the μ2 term

    Goertz, Florian

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that from a low-energy perspective a viable breaking of the electroweak symmetry, as present in nature, can be achieved without the (negative sign) μ2 mass term in the Higgs potential, thereby avoiding completely the appearance of relevant operators, featuring coefficients with a positive mass dimension, in the theory. We show that such a setup is self-consistent and not ruled out by Higgs physics. In particular, we point out that it is the lightness of the Higgs boson that allows for the electroweak symmetry to be broken dynamically via operators of D ≥4 , consistent with the power expansion. Beyond that, we entertain how this scenario might even be preferred phenomenologically compared to the ordinary mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, as realized in the Standard Model, and argue that it can be fully tested at the LHC. In the Appendix, we classify UV completions that could lead to such a setup, considering also the option of generating all scales dynamically.

  10. Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter

    Buballa, Michael; Carignano, Stefano [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Theoriezentrum, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in the core of compact stars, considering the cases of mass-radius relations and neutrino emissivity explicitly. (orig.)

  11. Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter

    An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in the core of compact stars, considering the cases of mass-radius relations and neutrino emissivity explicitly. (orig.)

  12. Matter inflation with A4 flavour symmetry breaking

    We discuss model building in tribrid inflation, which is a framework for realising inflation in the matter sector of supersymmetric particle physics models. The inflaton is a D-flat combination of matter fields, and inflation ends by a phase transition in which some Higgs field obtains a vacuum expectation value. We first describe the general procedure for implementing tribrid inflation in realistic models of particle physics that can be applied to a wide variety of BSM particle physics models around the GUT scale. We then demonstrate how the procedure works for an explicit lepton flavour model based on an A4 family symmetry. The model is both predictive and phenomenologically viable, and illustrates how tribrid inflation connects cosmological and particle physics parameters. In particular, it predicts a relation between the neutrino Yukawa coupling and the running of the spectral index αs. We also show how topological defects from the flavour symmetry breaking can be avoided automatically

  13. Revolving D-branes and spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking

    Iso, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T^6/Z_3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes, and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the Ramond-Ramond tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but, when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3- and anti-D7-branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on the D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the initial condition of the cosmological evolution of the D-brane configurations. The distance corresponds to the vacuum expectation values of brane moduli fields in the world-volume theory and, if it is written as M/M_s^2 in terms of the string scale M_s, the scale of gauge-symmetry breaking is given by M. Angular momentum conservation of revolving D3-branes assures the stability of the scale M against M_s.

  14. Revolving D-branes and spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking

    We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes, and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the Ramond–Ramond tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but, when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3- and anti-D7-branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on the D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the initial condition of the cosmological evolution of the D-brane configurations. The distance corresponds to the vacuum expectation values of brane moduli fields in the world-volume theory and, if it is written as M/Ms2 in terms of the string scale Ms, the scale of gauge-symmetry breaking is given by M. Angular momentum conservation of revolving D3-branes assures the stability of the scale M against Ms

  15. Examining a possible cascade effect in chiral symmetry breaking

    Fariborz, Amir H

    2016-01-01

    We examine a toy model and a cascade effect for confinement and chiral symmetry breaking which consists in several phase transitions corresponding to the formation of bound states and chiral condensates with different number of fermions for a strong group. We analyze two examples: regular QCD where we calculate the "four quark" vacuum condensate and a preon composite model based on QCD at higher scales. In this context we also determine the number of flavors at which the second chiral and confinement phase transitions occur and discuss the consequences.

  16. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Marzola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the r\\^ole of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \\approx 10^{-3}$, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index $n_s \\simeq 0.97$ which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  17. Local activity principle the cause of complexity and symmetry breaking

    Mainzer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The principle of local activity explains the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. At first defined in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way, it can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology, and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media, which is caused by local activity. This book argues that

  18. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, $T_R>10$ GeV.

  19. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka, E-mail: hamada@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kohei.kamada@desy.de, E-mail: kobayash@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yutaka@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R} > 10 GeV.

  20. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R}>10 GeV.

  1. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, TR > 10 GeV

  2. Stochastic model of nanomechanical electron shuttles and symmetry breaking

    Zhao, Mo; Blick, Robert H.

    2016-06-01

    Nanomechanical electron shuttles can work as ratchets for radio-frequency rectification. We develop a full stochastic model of coupled shuttles, where the mechanical motion of nanopillars and the incoherent electronic tunneling are modeled by a Markov chain. In particular, the interaction of their randomness is taken into account, so that a linear master equation is constructed. Numerical solutions from our fast approximate method and analytical derivation reveal the symmetry breaking, which results in the direct current observed in earlier measurements [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 067204 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.067204]. Additionally, the method can facilitate device simulation of more complex designs such as shuttle arrays.

  3. Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry as a consequence of confinement

    It is shown that at the leading order in large N-expansion a confinement potential, linearly rising at large distances, leads to a non-local four-quark interaction which realizes spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in the same way as the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model does. The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio phenomenological constant G1, which is responsible for SBCS, is expressed in terms of the string tension and the confinement radius. The dynamical quark mass is found as a function on the string tension m=2√σ/π=0.33GeV at σ=0.27 GeV2. (author). 13 refs

  4. Quantum transport enhancement by time-reversal symmetry breaking

    Quantum mechanics still provides new unexpected effects when considering the transport of energy and information. Models of continuous time quantum walks, which implicitly use time-reversal symmetric Hamiltonians, have been intensely used to investigate the effectiveness of transport. Here we show how breaking time-reversal symmetry in this model can enable directional control, enhancement, and suppression of quantum transport. Examples ranging from exciton transport to complex networks are presented. This opens new prospects for more efficient methods to transport energy and information.

  5. Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas.

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves. PMID:27581766

  6. Symmetry-breaking transitions in networks of nonlinear circuit elements

    Heinrich, Martin; Dahms, Thomas; Flunkert, Valentin; Schoell, Eckehard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Teitsworth, Stephen W, E-mail: schoell@physik.tu-berlin.d [Department of Physics, Duke University, PO Box 90305, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We investigate a nonlinear circuit consisting of N tunnel diodes in series, which shows close similarities to a semiconductor superlattice or to a neural network. Each tunnel diode is modeled by a three-variable FitzHugh-Nagumo-like system. The tunnel diodes are coupled globally through a load resistor. We find complex bifurcation scenarios with symmetry-breaking transitions that generate multiple fixed points off the synchronization manifold. We show that multiply degenerate zero-eigenvalue bifurcations occur, which lead to multistable current branches, and that these bifurcations are also degenerate with a Hopf bifurcation. These predicted scenarios of multiple branches and degenerate bifurcations are also found experimentally.

  7. Colour-symmetry-breaking effects in hard processes

    A possibility of colour symmetry U(1)xSU(3)sub(C) spontaneous breaking and integer-charged quarks is considered. It is argued that one-photon processes are sensitive only to the colour-averaged charges of quarks and gluons. The true charges can be observed in rigid processes involving at least two real photons. The available now experimental data on processes #betta#p → #betta#X, #betta##betta# → jet+jet are in better agreement with the integer-charges than with the standard QCD

  8. Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking

    A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described

  9. The Scalar Mesons, Symmetry Breaking, Three Colors and Confinement

    Törnqvist, N A

    2006-01-01

    The same, well known, det(Sigma)+det(Sigma)* term, which 't Hooft showed is generated by instantons in QCD and which resolves the U(1) problem giving mass in, particular, to the eta' is argued to be the dominant term in the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. It generates not one, but three classical minima along the axial U(1) circle which connect to color through Fermi-Dirac statistics. The term also contributes, in a similar way as the diquark model of Jaffe, to an inverted scalar mass spectrum for the light scalars, and suggests a simple confinement mechanism.

  10. Strong electroweak symmetry breaking at future super collider

    One of the most important questions in particle physics which has to be answered today by future super collider is what the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is. I a light Higgs is absent below 1 TeV, longitudinally polarized W's, i.e., WL should interact strongly with themselves at high energies, since the theory without a scalar gives a bad high energy behavior. This inevitably leads us to a new strong interactions. To investigate new physics, we use the techniques of strong interactions which had bloomed in 1960's with new modification. This new method can also be applied to hadron physics. (author)

  11. Schwinger-Dyson equations: Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking and Confinement

    Roberts, Craig D.(Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA)

    1993-01-01

    A representative but not exhaustive review of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) approach to the nonperturbative study of QCD is presented. The main focus is the SDE for the quark self energy but studies of the gluon propagator and quark-gluon vertex are also discussed insofar as they are important to the quark SDE. The scope of this article is the application of these equations to the study of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, quark confinement and the phenomenology of the spectrum and dyn...

  12. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking via UV Insensitive Anomaly Mediation

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kribs, Graham D.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Anomaly mediation solves the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. This is because the superconformal anomaly dictates that supersymmetry breaking is transmitted through nearly flavor-blind infrared physics that is highly predictive and UV insensitive. Slepton mass squareds, however, are predicted to be negative. This can be solved by adding D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_{B-L} while retaining the UV insensitivity. In this paper we consider electroweak symmetry breaking via UV insensitive anomaly mediation in several models. For the MSSM we find a stable vacuum when tanbeta < 1, but in this region the top Yukawa coupling blows up only slightly above the supersymmetry breaking scale. For the NMSSM, we find a stable electroweak breaking vacuum but with a chargino that is too light. Replacing the cubic singlet term in the NMSSM superpotential with a term linear in the singlet we find a stable vacuum and viable spectrum. Most of the parameter region with correct vacua requires a large superpotential coupling, pr...

  13. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2007-04-01

    Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout & Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, & Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W{sup {+-}} and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations.

  14. Intrinsic transverse momentum and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    Christian Weiss, Peter Schweitzer, Mark Strikman

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of QCD vacuum structure on the intrinsic transverse momentum distribution of partons in the nucleon at a low scale. The dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry is caused by non-perturbative interactions at distances of the order rho ~ 0.2 - 0.3 fm, much smaller than the typical nucleon size R ~ 1 fm, resulting in a two-scale picture of nucleon structure. Using an effective dynamical model based on chiral constituent quark degrees of freedom and the 1/N_c expansion (chiral quark-soliton model), we calculate the transverse momentum distribution of quarks and antiquarks at a low scale. The distribution of valence quarks is localized at p_T ~ 1/R. The distribution of flavor-singlet unpolarized sea quarks exhibits a power-like tail extending up to the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale 1/{rho}. A similar tail is present in the flavor-nonsinglet polarized sea. These features are model-independent and represent the imprint of the QCD vacuum on the nucleon's partonic structure. At the level of the nucleon's light-cone wave function, we show that sea quarks partly exist in correlated pairs of transverse size {rho} << R, analogous to short-range NN correlations in nuclei. We discuss the implications of our findings for the transverse momentum distributions in hard scattering processes (semi-inclusive DIS, Drell-Yan pair production) and possible experimental tests of the non-perturbative parton correlations induced by QCD vacuum structure.

  15. Parity-time symmetry breaking in magnetic systems

    Galda, Alexey; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2016-07-01

    The understanding of out-of-equilibrium physics, especially dynamic instabilities and dynamic phase transitions, is one of the major challenges of contemporary science, spanning the broadest wealth of research areas that range from quantum optics to living organisms. Focusing on nonequilibrium dynamics of an open dissipative spin system, we introduce a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian approach, in which non-Hermiticity reflects dissipation and deviation from equilibrium. The imaginary part of the proposed spin Hamiltonian describes the effects of Gilbert damping and applied Slonczewski spin-transfer torque. In the classical limit, our approach reproduces Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski dynamics of a large macrospin. We reveal the spin-transfer torque-driven parity-time symmetry-breaking phase transition corresponding to a transition from precessional to exponentially damped spin dynamics. Micromagnetic simulations for nanoscale ferromagnetic disks demonstrate the predicted effect. Our findings can pave the way to a general quantitative description of out-of-equilibrium phase transitions driven by spontaneous parity-time symmetry breaking.

  16. Bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in germanium nanowires.

    Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong-Min

    2014-08-13

    From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on the one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics and on the other the electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending the GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion. PMID:25025296

  17. Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires

    Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-08-01

    From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.

  18. Revolving D-branes and Spontaneous Gauge Symmetry Breaking

    Iso, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the R-R tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are forced to be pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3 and anti-D7 branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at our will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the...

  19. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around mχ+∼100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around mχ∼90 GeV. At the LHC, the standard particle content of our model

  20. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    Knochel, Alexander Karl

    2009-05-11

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the

  1. Stock market speculation: Spontaneous symmetry breaking of economic valuation

    Sornette, Didier

    2000-09-01

    Firm foundation theory estimates a security's firm fundamental value based on four determinants: expected growth rate, expected dividend payout, the market interest rate and the degree of risk. In contrast, other views of decision-making in the stock market, using alternatives such as human psychology and behavior, bounded rationality, agent-based modeling and evolutionary game theory, expound that speculative and crowd behavior of investors may play a major role in shaping market prices. Here, we propose that the two views refer to two classes of companies connected through a "phase transition". Our theory is based on (1) the identification of the fundamental parity symmetry of prices (p→-p), which results from the relative direction of payment flux compared to commodity flux and (2) the observation that a company's risk-adjusted growth rate discounted by the market interest rate behaves as a control parameter for the observable price. We find a critical value of this control parameter at which a spontaneous symmetry-breaking of prices occurs, leading to a spontaneous valuation in absence of earnings, similarly to the emergence of a spontaneous magnetization in Ising models in absence of a magnetic field. The low growth rate phase is described by the firm foundation theory while the large growth rate phase is the regime of speculation and crowd behavior. In practice, while large "finite-time horizon" effects round off the predicted singularities, our symmetry-breaking speculation theory accounts for the apparent over-pricing and the high volatility of fast growing companies on the stock markets.

  2. 3D toroidal physics: testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking

    Spong, Don

    2014-10-01

    Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to lead to a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D ELM-suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. There is considerable interest in the development of unified physics models for the full range of 3D effects. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. Fortunately, significant progress is underway in theory, computation and plasma diagnostics on many issues such as magnetic surface quality, plasma screening vs. amplification of 3D perturbations, 3D transport, influence on edge pedestal structures, MHD stability effects, modification of fast ion-driven instabilities, prediction of energetic particle heat loads on plasma-facing materials, effects of 3D fields on turbulence, and magnetic coil design. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with future fusion reactors. The development of models to address 3D physics and progress in these areas will be described. This work is supported both by the US Department of Energy under Contract DE

  3. Geomagnetic Reversals Caused by Breaking Mirror Symmetry of Core Dynamics

    Petrelis, F; Dormy, E; Valet, J P

    2008-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field can be geometrically described by a strong axial dipole and higher degree terms, which belong to the dipolar (even) or quadrupolar (odd) family depending on their symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane. It is established that the field has frequently (and maybe always) reversed its polarity. It has been suggested by Merrill and Mc Fadden \\cite{Merrill} that reversals occur because the fluid flow in the outer core breaks the equatorial symmetry. This results in a coupling between the dipolar and quadrupolar families. Field reversals have now been reported in several numerical simulations of dynamos and very recently for the first time in a laboratory experiment involving a Von Karman swirling flow of liquid sodium (VKS) \\cite{Berhanu}. In this experiment, reversals are observed when the velocities of the two counter rotating disks driving the flow are different, thus when a symmetry is broken. Here, we show how the interaction between the dipolar and quadrupolar modes, that re...

  4. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Chiral Gauge Theories with Direct-Product Gauge Groups

    Shi, Yan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups $G$. If the gauge coupling for a factor group $G_i \\subset G$ becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the $G_i$ symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries $G_j \\subset G$. Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of $G$ and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.

  5. Constraints of dynamical symmetry breaking mechanisms from electroweak data

    Consistency of the Salam-Weinberg theory, including quantum corrections, with high precision data from LEP and elsewhere imposes non-trivial bounds on the parameters of this theory, in particular the top quark mass. We take stock of the available experimental information in the electroweak sector with the view of constraining possible additional interactions, such as present in dynamical symmetry breaking scenarios. Using the Peskin-Takeuchi isospin conserving, S and -violating, T, parametrization of new physics contribution to vacuum polarization corrections, we show here that the full one family technicolor models are ruled out at the 95% C.L. from the LEP data and mW-measurements alone. We stress the role of improved precision measurements of the W-boson mass and the decay width Γ(Z→banti b) in the enhanced sensitivity gained on such interactions. (orig.)

  6. Structural topography-mediated high temperature wetting symmetry breaking

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yahua; Hao, Chonglei; Li, Minfei; Chaudhury, Manoj K; Yao, Shuhuai

    2015-01-01

    Directed motion of liquid droplets is of considerable importance in various industrial processes. Despite extensive advances in this field of research, our understanding and the ability to control droplet dynamics at high temperature remain limited, in part due to the emergence of complex wetting states intertwined by the phase change process at the triple-phase interfaces. Here we show that two concurrent wetting states (Leidenfrost and contact boiling) can be manifested in a single droplet above its boiling point rectified by the presence of asymmetric textures. The breaking of the wetting symmetry at high temperature subsequently leads to the preferential motion towards the region with higher heat transfer coefficient. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that the droplet vectoring is intricately dependent on the interplay between the structural topography and its imposed thermal state. Our fundamental understanding and the ability to control the droplet dynamics at high temperature represent an ...

  7. Micropropulsion and microrheology in complex fluids via symmetry breaking

    Pak, On Shun; Brandt, Luca; Lauga, Eric; 10.1063/1.4758811

    2013-01-01

    Many biological fluids have polymeric microstructures and display non-Newtonian rheology. We take advantage of such nonlinear fluid behavior and combine it with geometrical symmetry-breaking to design a novel small-scale propeller able to move only in complex fluids. Its propulsion characteristics are explored numerically in an Oldroyd-B fluid for finite Deborah numbers while the small Deborah number limit is investigated analytically using a second-order fluid model. We then derive expressions relating the propulsion speed to the rheological properties of the complex fluid, allowing thus to infer the normal stress coefficients in the fluid from the locomotion of the propeller. Our simple mechanism can therefore be used either as a non-Newtonian micro-propeller or as a micro-rheometer.

  8. Inertial blob-hole symmetry breaking in magnetised plasma filaments

    Kendl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Symmetry breaking between the propagation velocities of magnetised plasma filaments with large positive (blob) and negative (hole) amplitudes, as implied by a dimensional analysis scaling, is studied with global ("full-n") non-Boussinesq gyrofluid computations, which include finite inertia effects through nonlinear polarisation. Interchange blobs on a flat density background have higher inertia and propagate more slowly than holes. In the presence of a large enough density gradient, the effect is reversed: blobs accelerate down the gradient and holes are slowed in their propagation up the gradient. Drift wave blobs spread their initial vorticity rapidly into a fully developed turbulent state, whereas primary holes can remain coherent for many eddy turnover times. The results bear implications for plasma edge zonal flow evolution and tokamak scrape-off-layer transport.

  9. Probing SU(2) symmetry breaking in the nucleon sea

    Arash, Firooz; Tomio, Lauro

    1997-02-01

    Investigation of invariant cross-sections for production of K*- and overlineK*0, in the fragmentation region of the proton, in p - p and γ - p reactions, gives a direct and unambiguous probe to the symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea. Based on existing data, we clearly found a large asymmetry of the sea. Our result is in excellent agreement with NA51 measurement, signaling lack of any nuclear effect. The measurement can be carried out in a single experimental set up. The ratio K*-/overlineK*0 is equivalent to u/d, with easy access to the x-dependence of the asymmetry. The observed asymmetry from available experimental data is used to improve the valon-recombination model.

  10. Interacting line-node semimetal and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Roy, Bitan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of short-range electronic interactions in a three dimensional line-node semimetal that supports linearly dispersing quasiparticles around an isolated closed loop in the Brillouin zone are discussed. Due to vanishing density of states various orderings in the bulk of the system, such as the antiferromagnet and charge-density-wave, set in for sufficiently strong onsite ($U$) and nearest-neighbor ($V$) repulsions, respectively. While onset of these two orderings from the semimetallic phase takes place through continuous quantum phase transitions, a first order transition separates two ordered phases. By contrast, topologically protected drumhead shaped surface states can undergo charge or spin orderings, depending on relative strength of $U$ and $V$, even when they are sufficiently weak. Such surface orderings as well as weak long range Coulomb interaction can be conducive to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the bulk for weaker interactions. We also discuss possible superconducting phases and interna...

  11. Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Kazanas, D.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.

  12. Lorentz Symmetry Breaking in $\\mathcal{N} =2$ Superspace

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will study the deformation of a three dimensional theory with $\\mathcal{N} =2$ supersymmetry. This theory will be deformed by the presence of a constant vector field. This deformation will break the Lorentz symmetry. So, we will analyse this theory using $\\mathcal{N} =2$ aether superspace. The $\\mathcal{N} =2$ aether superspace will be obtained from a deformation of the usual $\\mathcal{N} =2$ superspace. This will be done by deforming the generators of the three dimensional $\\mathcal{N} =2$ supersymmetry. After analysing this deformed superalgebra, we will derive an explicit expression for the superspace propagators in this deformed superspace. Finally, we will use these propagators for performing perturbative calculations.

  13. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in collective active motion

    Breier, Rebekka E.; Selinger, Robin L. B.; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Herminghaus, Stephan; Mazza, Marco G.

    2016-02-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking is ubiquitous in biological systems, from DNA to bacterial suspensions. A key unresolved problem is how chiral structures may spontaneously emerge from achiral interactions. We study a simple model of active swimmers in three dimensions that effectively incorporates hydrodynamic interactions. We perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations (up to 106 particles) and find long-lived metastable collective states that exhibit chiral organization although the interactions are achiral. We elucidate under which conditions these chiral states will emerge and grow to large scales. To explore the complex phase space available to the system, we perform nonequilibrium quenches on a one-dimensional Lebwohl-Lasher model with periodic boundary conditions to study the likelihood of formation of chiral structures.

  14. Universality of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories

    We investigate one-flavor QCD with an additional chiral scalar field. For a large domain in the space of coupling constants, this model belongs to the same universality class as QCD, and the effects of the scalar become unobservable. This is connected to a 'bound-state fixed point' of the renormalization flow for which all memory of the microscopic scalar interactions is lost. The QCD domain includes a microscopic scalar potential with minima at a nonzero field. On the other hand, for a scalar mass term m2 below a critical value mc2, the universality class is characterized by perturbative spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which renders the quarks massive. Our renormalization group analysis shows how this universality class is continuously connected with the QCD universality class

  15. Magnetic Catalysis of Chiral Symmetry Breaking. A Holographic Prospective

    Filev, Veselin G; 10.1155/2010/473206

    2010-01-01

    We review a recent investigation of the effect of magnetic catalysis of mass generation in holographic Yang-Mills theories. We aim at a self-contained and pedagogical form of the review. We provide a brief field theory background and review the basics of holographic flavordynamics. The main part of the review investigates the influence of external magnetic field on holographic gauge theories dual to the D3/D5-- and D3/D7-- brane intersections. Among the observed phenomena are the spontaneous breaking of a global internal symmetry, Zeeman splitting of the energy levels and the existence of pseudo Goldstone modes. An analytic derivation of the Gell-Mann--Oaks--Renner relation for the D3/D7 set up is reviewed. In the D3/D5 case the pseudo Goldstone modes satisfy non-relativistic dispersion relation. The studies reviewed confirm the universal nature of the magnetic catalysis of mass generation.

  16. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Meyrand, Romain; Galtier, Sébastien

    2012-11-01

    Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is investigated through three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. We show that the Hall effect induces a spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the turbulent dynamics. The normalized magnetic polarization is introduced to separate the right- (R) and left-handed (L) fluctuations. A classical k(-7/3) spectrum is found at small scales for R magnetic fluctuations which corresponds to the electron MHD prediction. A spectrum compatible with k(-11/3) is obtained at large-scales for the L magnetic fluctuations; we call this regime the ion MHD. These results are explained heuristically by rewriting the Hall MHD equations in a succinct vortex dynamical form. Applications to solar wind turbulence are discussed. PMID:23215387

  17. Chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QED model with fermion brane

    Shintani, E

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel approach of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at near zero temperature in 4 dimensional QED model with 3+1 dimensional fermion brane using Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation. We consider an anisotropic QED coupling in non-compact QED action with the manifest gauge invariant interaction and fermi-velocity which is less than speed of light. This model allows for the scaling study at low temperature and strong coupling region with reduced computational cost. We compute the chiral condensate and its susceptibility with different coupling constant, velocity parameter and flavor number, and therefore obtain a compatible behavior with gap equation in broken phase. We also discuss about the comparison of Graphene model.

  18. D-term inflation after spontaneous symmetry breaking

    We show that one-loop quantum corrections to the potential energy density in supersymmetric hybrid inflation, outside the inflationary valley, cannot be neglected. A method is presented to calculate these one-loop corrections and they are applied to the case of D-term hybrid inflation, where a significant amount of inflation is shown to occur after spontaneous symmetry breaking. Taking this into account improves the agreement with WMAP measurements. A gauge coupling of up to 0.3 is still consistent with the CMB density perturbation. The spectral index is predicted in between 0.98 and 1.00 and the cosmic string contribution to the CMB anisotropy is sufficiently reduced

  19. Flavour symmetry breaking in the kaon parton distribution amplitude

    Chao Shi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton distribution amplitude (PDA by projecting its Poincaré-covariant Bethe–Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale ζ=2 GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12–16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3-flavour-symmetry breaking. They show that the heavier quark in the kaon carries more of the bound-state's momentum than the lighter quark and also that emergent phenomena in QCD modulate the magnitude of flavour-symmetry breaking: it is markedly smaller than one might expect based on the difference between light-quark current masses. Our results add to a body of evidence which indicates that at any energy scale accessible with existing or foreseeable facilities, a reliable guide to the interpretation of experiment requires the use of such nonperturbatively broadened PDAs in leading-order, leading-twist formulae for hard exclusive processes instead of the asymptotic PDA associated with QCD's conformal limit. We illustrate this via the ratio of kaon and pion electromagnetic form factors: using our nonperturbative PDAs in the appropriate formulae, FK/Fπ=1.23 at spacelike-Q2=17 GeV2, which compares satisfactorily with the value of 0.92(5 inferred in e+e− annihilation at s=17 GeV2.

  20. Second order optical nonlinearity in silicon by symmetry breaking

    Cazzanelli, Massimo; Schilling, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Although silicon does not possess a dipolar bulk second order nonlinear susceptibility due to its centro-symmetric crystal structure, in recent years several attempts were undertaken to create such a property in silicon. This review presents the different sources of a second order susceptibility (χ(2)) in silicon and the connected second order nonlinear effects which were investigated up to now. After an introduction, a theoretical overview discusses the second order nonlinearity in general and distinguishes between the dipolar contribution—which is usually dominating in non-centrosymmetric structures—and the quadrupolar contribution, which even exists in centro-symmetric materials. Afterwards, the classic work on second harmonic generation from silicon surfaces in reflection measurements is reviewed. Due to the abrupt symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces locally a dipolar second order susceptibility appears, resulting in, e.g., second harmonic generation. Since the bulk contribution is usually small, the study of this second harmonic signal allows a sensitive observation of the surface/interface conditions. The impact of covering films, strain, electric fields, and defect states at the interfaces was already investigated in this way. With the advent of silicon photonics and the search for ever faster electrooptic modulators, the interest turned to the creation of a dipolar bulk χ(2) in silicon. These efforts have been focussing on several experiments applying an inhomogeneous strain to the silicon lattice to break its centro-symmetry. Recent results suggesting the impact of electric fields which are exerted from fixed charges in adjacent covering layers are also included. After a subsequent summary on "competing" concepts using not Si but Si-related materials, the paper will end with some final conclusions, suggesting possible future research direction in this dynamically developing field.

  1. Flavour symmetry breaking in the kaon parton distribution amplitude

    Shi, Chao [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chang, Lei [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Roberts, Craig D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Schmidt, Sebastian M. [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Jülich and JARA, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Tandy, Peter C. [Center for Nuclear Research, Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States); Zong, Hong-shi [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-11-10

    We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton) distribution amplitude (PDA) by projecting its Poincaré-covariant Bethe–Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale ζ=2 GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12–16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3)-flavour-symmetry breaking. They show that the heavier quark in the kaon carries more of the bound-state's momentum than the lighter quark and also that emergent phenomena in QCD modulate the magnitude of flavour-symmetry breaking: it is markedly smaller than one might expect based on the difference between light-quark current masses. Our results add to a body of evidence which indicates that at any energy scale accessible with existing or foreseeable facilities, a reliable guide to the interpretation of experiment requires the use of such nonperturbatively broadened PDAs in leading-order, leading-twist formulae for hard exclusive processes instead of the asymptotic PDA associated with QCD's conformal limit. We illustrate this via the ratio of kaon and pion electromagnetic form factors: using our nonperturbative PDAs in the appropriate formulae, F{sub K}/F{sub π}=1.23 at spacelike-Q{sup 2}=17 GeV{sup 2}, which compares satisfactorily with the value of 0.92(5) inferred in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation at s=17 GeV{sup 2}.

  2. Weyl semimetal from spontaneous inversion symmetry breaking in pyrochlore oxides

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    We study the electronic properties of strongly spin-orbit coupled electrons on the elastic pyrochlore lattice. Akin to the Peierls transition in one-dimensional systems, the coupling of the lattice to the electronic degrees of freedom can stabilize a spontaneous deformation of the crystal. This deformation corresponds to a breathing mode, which breaks the inversion symmetry. We find that for intermediate values of the staggered strain, the inversion-symmetry broken phase realizes a topological Weyl semimetal. In the temperature-elasticity phase diagram, the Weyl semimetal shows a reentrant phase behavior: it can be reached from a symmetric phase realized both at higher and at lower temperatures. The symmetric phase is a Dirac semimetal, which is protected by the nonsymmorphic space group of the pyrochlore lattice. Beyond a critical value of the staggered strain, the symmetry-broken phase is a fully gapped trivial insulator. The surface states of the Weyl semimetal form open Fermi arcs and we observe that their connectivity depends on the termination of the crystal. In particular, for the {111 } films, the semiclassical closed electronic orbits of the surface states in a magnetic field cross the bulk either twice, four, six, or twelve times. We demonstrate how one can tune the number of bulk crossings through a Lifshitz-like transition of the Fermi arcs, which we call Weyl-Lifshitz transition, by applying a surface potential. Our results offer a route to a topological Weyl semimetal in nonmagnetic materials and might be relevant for pyrochlore oxides with heavy transition-metal ions such as alloys of iridates.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the BRST symmetry in presence of the Gribov horizon: Renormalizability

    Full text: In recent years much attention has been devoted to the study of the issue of the Gribov copies and of its relevance for confinement in Yang-Mills theories. The existence of the Gribov copies is a general feature of the gauge-fixing quantization procedure, being related to the impossibility of finding a local gauge condition which picks up only one gauge configuration for each gauge orbit. As it has been shown by Gribov and Zwanziger, a partial solution of the Gribov problem in the Landau gauge can be achieved by restricting the domain of integration in the functional Euclidean integral to the first Gribov horizon. Among the various open aspects of the Gribov-Zwanziger framework, the issue of the BRST symmetry is a source of continuous investigations. In a recent work, we have been able to obtain an equivalent formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger action which displays an exact BRST symmetry which turns out to be spontaneously broken by the restriction of the domain of integration to the Gribov horizon. In particular, the BRST operator retains the important property of being nilpotent. Moreover, it has also been shown that the Goldstone mode associated to the spontaneous breaking of the BRST symmetry is completely decoupled. The aim of the present work is that of fills up a gap not addressed in the previous work, namely, the renormalizability to all orders of the spontaneous symmetry breaking formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger theory. As we shall see, the action obtained enjoys a large set of Ward identities which enables to prove that it is, in fact, multiplicatively renormalizable to all orders. (author)

  4. Weyl geometric gravity and "breaking" of electroweak symmetry

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    A Weyl geometric scale covariant approach to gravity due to Omote, Dirac, and Utiyama (1971ff) is reconsidered. It can be extended to the electroweak sector of elementary particle fields, taking into account their basic scaling freedom. Already Cheng (1988) indicated that electroweak symmetry breaking, usually attributed to the Higgs field with a boson expected at $0.1 - 1 \\,TeV$, may be due to a coupling between Weyl geometric gravity and electroweak interactions. Weyl geometry seems to be well suited for treating questions of elementary particle physics, which relate to scale invariance and its "breaking". This setting suggests the existence of a scalar field boson at the surprisingly low energy of $\\sim 1\\, eV$. That may appear unlikely; but, as a payoff, the naturalness problem of the standard Higgs field seems to become immaterial. Moreover, the acquirement of mass arises as a result of coupling to gravity in agreement with the understanding of mass as the gravitational charge of fields. Finally, the pot...

  5. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    Geng Li

    Full Text Available The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  6. Dicke superradiance, Bose-Einstein condensation of photons and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Vyas, Vivek M; Srinivasan, V

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the phenomenon of Dicke superradiance essentially occurs due to spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two generalised versions of the Dicke model are studied, and compared with a model that describes photonic Bose-Einstein condensate, which was experimentally realised. In all the models, it is seen that, the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is responsible for coherent radiation emission.

  7. Wavelength selection and symmetry breaking in orbital wave ripples

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Perron, J. Taylor; Kao, Justin C. T.; Myrow, Paul M.

    2014-10-01

    Sand ripples formed by waves have a uniform wavelength while at equilibrium and develop defects while adjusting to changes in the flow. These patterns arise from the interaction of the flow with the bed topography, but the specific mechanisms have not been fully explained. We use numerical flow models and laboratory wave tank experiments to explore the origins of these patterns. The wavelength of "orbital" wave ripples (λ) is directly proportional to the oscillating flow's orbital diameter (d), with many experimental and field studies finding λ/d ≈ 0.65. We demonstrate a coupling that selects this ratio: the maximum length of the flow separation zone downstream of a ripple crest equals λ when λ/d ≈ 0.65. We show that this condition maximizes the growth rate of ripples. Ripples adjusting to changed flow conditions develop defects that break the bed's symmetry. When d is shortened sufficiently, two new incipient crests appear in every trough, but only one grows into a full-sized crest. Experiments have shown that the same side (right or left) wins in every trough. We find that this occurs because incipient secondary crests slow the flow and encourage the growth of crests on the next flank. Experiments have also shown that when d is lengthened, ripple crests become increasingly sinuous and eventually break up. We find that this occurs because crests migrate preferentially toward the nearest adjacent crest, amplifying any initial sinuosity. Our results reveal the mechanisms that form common wave ripple patterns and highlight interactions among unsteady flows, sediment transport, and bed topography.

  8. A pedagogical review of electroweak symmetry breaking scenarios

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2011-02-01

    We review different avenues of electroweak symmetry breaking explored over the years. This constitutes a timely exercise as the world's largest and the highest energy particle accelerator, namely, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN near Geneva, has started running whose primary mission is to find the Higgs or some phenomena that mimic the effects of the Higgs, i.e. to unravel the mysteries of electroweak phase transition. In the beginning, we discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. After that we review the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. Then we take up three relatively recent ideas: little Higgs, gauge-Higgs unification and Higgsless scenarios. For the latter three cases, we first present the basic ideas and restrict our illustration to some instructive toy models to provide an intuitive feel of the underlying dynamics, and then discuss, for each of the three cases, how more realistic scenarios are constructed and how to decipher their experimental signatures. Wherever possible, we provide pedagogical details, which beginners might find useful.

  9. A Pedagogical Review of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Scenarios

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this set of lectures is to review different avenues of electroweak symmetry breaking explored over the years. This constitutes a timely exercise as the world's largest and the highest energy particle accelerator, namely, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN near Geneva, is all set to start running whose primary mission is to unravel the mysteries of electroweak phase transition. In the beginning, we discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. After that we review the Higgs sector of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Then we take up three relatively recent ideas: Little Higgs, Gauge-Higgs Unification, and Higgsless scenarios. For the latter three cases, we present the basic ideas and restrict our illustrations to some instructive toy models, as our intention is rather to provide an intuitive feel of the underlying dynamics than to get into an in-depth analysis of realistic scenarios. Wherever possible, we provide enough pedagogical details, which the beginners of the subject might find u...

  10. Sea quark transverse momentum distributions and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    Schweitzer, Peter [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Strikman, Mark [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have provided new insight into the intrinsic transverse momentum distributions of valence and sea quarks in the nucleon at a low scale. The valence quark transverse momentum distributions (q - qbar) are governed by the nucleon's inverse hadronic size R{sup -1} ~ 0.2 GeV and drop steeply at large p{sub T}. The sea quark distributions (qbar) are in large part generated by non-perturbative chiral-symmetry breaking interactions and extend up to the scale rho{sup -1} ~ 0.6 GeV. These findings have many implications for modeling the initial conditions of perturbative QCD evolution of TMD distributions (starting scale, shape of p{sub T}. distributions, coordinate-space correlation functions). The qualitative difference between valence and sea quark intrinsic p{sub T}. distributions could be observed experimentally, by comparing the transverse momentum distributions of selected hadrons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, or those of dileptons produced in pp and pbar-p scattering.

  11. Charge symmetry breaking in the neutron proton system

    Two consequences of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the n-p system are examined. In n-p elastic scattering, CSB nuclear forces cause a difference between the polarizations of the neutron and the proton scattered in opposite directions in the center of mass system. The expected differences in polarizations due to one boson exchanges, particularly a photon exchange, isospin mixed mesons, and a pion (with the n-p mass difference taken into account), are computed. The calculated polarization difference is typically of the order of several tenths of a percent. In np → dπ0, the CSB of nuclear forces can be tested by measuring the asymmetry of the angular distribution of deuterons about 900 in the center of mass frame. The expected asymmetry is calculated for one boson exchange CSB mechanisms, as in the elastic scattering. The asymmetry caused by the mixed n-π0 exchange is dominant, but all of the mechanisms contribute asymmetries with similar angular dependences. The maximum assymmetry is about 0.8% at 0; the average is about 0.2%

  12. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in unquenched QED3

    We investigate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in unquenched QED3 using the coupled set of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the fermion and photon propagators. For the fermion-photon interaction we employ an ansatz which satisfies its Ward-Green-Takahashi identity. We present self-consistent analytical solutions in the infrared as well as numerical results for all momenta. In Landau gauge, we find a phase transition at a critical number of flavors of Nfcrit≅4. In the chirally symmetric phase the infrared behavior of the propagators is described by power laws with interrelated exponents. For Nf=1 and Nf=2 we find small values for the chiral condensate in accordance with bounds from recent lattice calculations. We investigate the Dyson-Schwinger equations in other linear covariant gauges as well. A comparison of their solutions to the accordingly transformed Landau gauge solutions shows that the quenched solutions are approximately gauge covariant, but reveals a significant amount of violation of gauge covariance for the unquenched solutions

  13. Charge symmetry breaking in the neutron-proton system

    Two consequences of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the n-p system are examined. In n-p elastic scattering, CSB nuclear forces cause a difference between the polarizations of the neutron and the proton scattered in opposite directions in the center of mass system. The expected differences in polarizations due to one-boson exchanges, particulary a photon exchange, isospin mixed mesons, and a pion (with the n-p mass difference taken into account), are computed. The calculated polarization difference is typically of the order of several tenths of a percent. In np → dπ0, the CSB of nuclear forces can be tested by measuring the asymmetry of the angular distribution of deuterons about 900 in the center of mass frame. The expected asymmetry is calculated for one-boson exchange CSB mechanisms, as in the elstic scattering. The asymmetry caused by the mixed eta-π0 exchange is dominant, but all of the mechanisms contribute asymmetries with similar angular dependences. The maximum asymmetry is about 0.8% at 00; the average is about 0.2%. (orig.)

  14. Charge symmetry breaking in the A=4 hypernuclei

    Gazda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the $\\Lambda$-nucleon strong interaction generates a charge dependence of $\\Lambda$ separation energies in mirror hypernuclei, which in the case of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei $0^+$ ground states is sizable, $\\Delta B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}\\equiv B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda} (_{\\Lambda}^4{\\rm He})-B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4{\\rm H})=230\\pm 90$~keV, and of opposite sign to that induced by the Coulomb repulsion in light hypernuclei. Recent {\\it ab initio} calculations of the (\\lamb{4}{H}, \\lamb{4}{He}) mirror hypernuclei $0^+_{\\rm g.s.}$ and $1^+_{\\rm exc}$ levels have demonstrated that a $\\Lambda - \\Sigma^0$ mixing CSB model due to Dalitz and von Hippel (1964) is capable of reproducing this large value of $\\Delta B^{J=0}_{\\Lambda}$. These calculations are discussed here with emphasis placed on the leading-order $\\chi$EFT hyperon-nucleon strong-interaction Bonn-J\\"{u}lich model used and the no-core shell-model calculational scheme applied. The role of one-pion exchange in producing sizable C...

  15. A pedagogical review of electroweak symmetry breaking scenarios

    We review different avenues of electroweak symmetry breaking explored over the years. This constitutes a timely exercise as the world's largest and the highest energy particle accelerator, namely, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN near Geneva, has started running whose primary mission is to find the Higgs or some phenomena that mimic the effects of the Higgs, i.e. to unravel the mysteries of electroweak phase transition. In the beginning, we discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. After that we review the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. Then we take up three relatively recent ideas: little Higgs, gauge-Higgs unification and Higgsless scenarios. For the latter three cases, we first present the basic ideas and restrict our illustration to some instructive toy models to provide an intuitive feel of the underlying dynamics, and then discuss, for each of the three cases, how more realistic scenarios are constructed and how to decipher their experimental signatures. Wherever possible, we provide pedagogical details, which beginners might find useful.

  16. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a split potential box

    Shamriz, Elad; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in the basic (actually, simplest) model which is capable to produce the SSB phenomenology in the one-dimensional setting. It is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii - nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the cubic self-attractive term and a double-well-potential built as an infinitely deep potential box split by a narrow (delta-functional) barrier. The barrier's strength, epsilon, is the single free parameter of the scaled form of the model. It may be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The SSB bifurcation of the symmetric ground state (GS) is predicted analytically in two limit cases, viz., for deep or weak splitting of the potential box by the barrier. For the generic case, a variational approximation (VA) is elaborated. The analytical findings are presented along with systematic numerical results. Stability of stationary states is studied through the calculation of eigenvalues for small perturbations, an...

  17. Spontaneous Electro-Weak Symmetry Breaking and Cold Dark Matter

    ZHU Shou-Hua

    2007-01-01

    In the standard model, the weak gauge bosons and fermions obtain mass after spontaneous electro-weak symmetry breaking, which is realized by one fundamental scalar field, namely the Higgs field. We study the simplest scalar cold dark matter model in which the scalar cold dark matter also obtains mass by interaction with the weakdoublet Higgs field, in the same way as those of weak gauge bosons and fermions. Our study shows that the correct cold dark matter relic abundance within 3σ uncertainty (0.093 <Ωdmh2 < 0.129) and experimentally allowed Higgs boson mass (114.4 ≤ mh ≤ 208 GeV) constrain the scalar dark matter mass within 48 ≤ ms ≤ 78 GeV.This result is in excellent agreement with the result of de Boer et al. (50 ~ 100 GeV). Such a kind of dark matter annihilation can account for the observed gamma rays excess (10σ) at EGRET for energies above 1 GeV in comparison with the expectations from conventional Galactic models. We also investigate other phenomenological consequences of this model. For example, the Higgs boson decays dominantly into scalar cold dark matter if its mass lies within 48 ~ 64 GeV.

  18. Natural cold baryogenesis from strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking

    The mechanism of ''cold electroweak baryogenesis'' has been so far unpopular because its proposal has relied on the ad-hoc assumption of a period of hybrid inflation at the electroweak scale with the Higgs acting as the waterfall field. We argue here that cold baryogenesis can be naturally realized without the need to introduce any slow-roll potential. Our point is that composite Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking arises via a strongly first-order phase transition provide a well-motivated framework for cold baryogenesis. In this case, reheating proceeds by bubble collisions and we argue that this can induce changes in Chern-Simons number, which in the presence of new sources of CP violation commonly lead to baryogenesis. We illustrate this mechanism using as a source of CP violation an effective dimension-six operator which is free from EDM constraints, another advantage of cold baryogenesis compared to the standard theory of electroweak baryogenesis. Our results are general as they do not rely on any particular UV completion but only on a stage of supercooling ended by a first-order phase transition in the evolution of the universe, which can be natural if there is nearly conformal dynamics at the TeV scale. Besides, baryon-number violation originates from the Standard Model only

  19. Symmetry breaking for toral actions in simple mechanical systems

    Birtea, Petre; Puta, Mircea; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Tudoran, Ruazvan Micu

    2003-01-01

    For simple mechanical systems, bifurcating branches of relative equilibria with trivial symmetry from a given set of relative equilibria with toral symmetry are found. Lyapunov stability conditions along these branches are given.

  20. Particle-Hole Symmetry Breaking in the Pseudogap State of Bi2201

    Hashimoto, M.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /LBNL, ALS; He, R.-H.; /aff SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Tanaka, K.; /aff SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /LBNL, ALS /Osaka U.; Testaud, J.P.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /LBNL, ALS; Meevasana1, W.; Moore, R.G.; Lu, D.H.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Yao, H.; /SIMES, Stanford; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; /AIST, Tsukuba; Devereaux, T.P.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Hussain, Z.; /LBNL, ALS; Shen, Z.-X.; /SIMES, Stanford /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2011-08-19

    In conventional superconductors, a gap exists in the energy absorption spectrum only below the transition temperature (T{sub c}), corresponding to the energy price to pay for breaking a Cooper pair of electrons. In high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors above T{sub c}, an energy gap called the pseudogap exists, and is controversially attributed either to pre-formed superconducting pairs, which would exhibit particle-hole symmetry, or to competing phases which would typically break it. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) studies suggest that the pseudogap stems from lattice translational symmetry breaking and is associated with a different characteristic spectrum for adding or removing electrons (particle-hole asymmetry). However, no signature of either spatial or energy symmetry breaking of the pseudogap has previously been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Here we report ARPES data from Bi2201 which reveals both particle-hole symmetry breaking and dramatic spectral broadening indicative of spatial symmetry breaking without long range order, upon crossing through T* into the pseudogap state. This symmetry breaking is found in the dominant region of the momentum space for the pseudogap, around the so-called anti-node near the Brillouin zone boundary. Our finding supports the STM conclusion that the pseudogap state is a broken-symmetry state that is distinct from homogeneous superconductivity.

  1. Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system.

    Heyl, Markus; Vojta, Matthias

    2014-10-31

    One necessary criterion for the thermalization of a nonequilibrium quantum many-particle system is ergodicity. It is, however, not sufficient in cases where the asymptotic long-time state lies in a symmetry-broken phase but the initial state of nonequilibrium time evolution is fully symmetric with respect to this symmetry. In equilibrium, one particular symmetry-broken state is chosen as a result of an infinitesimal symmetry-breaking perturbation. From a dynamical point of view the question is: Can such an infinitesimal perturbation be sufficient for the system to establish a nonvanishing order during quantum real-time evolution? We study this question analytically for a minimal model system that can be associated with symmetry breaking, the ferromagnetic Kondo model. We show that after a quantum quench from a completely symmetric state the system is able to break its symmetry dynamically and discuss how these features can be observed experimentally. PMID:25396355

  2. Symmetry breaking and a dynamical property of a dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential

    Wang, Yuan-Sheng, E-mail: joiningnow@126.com; Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Zhu-Wen; Diao, Xin-Feng

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We investigate the symmetry breaking of a dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate. •The anisotropy of dipolar interaction affects the ground state structure. •Tuning the scattering length can realize the symmetry breaking phenomena. •Increasing the barrier height can realize the symmetry breaking phenomena.

  3. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Micro-Ring Optical Cavity By Engineered Dissipation

    Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Xu-Bo; Yang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to break the chiral symmetry of light in traveling wave resonators by coupling the optical modes to a lossy channel. Through the engineered dissipation, an indirect dissipative coupling between two oppositely propagating modes can be realized. Combining with reactive coupling, it can break the chiral symmetry of the resonator, allowing light propagating only in one direction. The chiral symmetry breaking is numerically verified by the simulation of an electromagnetic field in a micro-ring cavity, with proper refractive index distributions. This work provokes us to emphasize the dissipation engineering in photonics, and the generalized idea can also be applied to other systems.

  4. Dynamical breaking of shift-symmetry and super-Planckian inflation

    Mazumdar, Anupam; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Shift-symmetry is essential to protect the flatness of the potential, even beyond the super-Planckian vacuum expectation value (VEV) for an inflaton field. The breaking of the shift-symmetry can yield potentials suitable for super-Planckian excursion of the inflaton. The aim of this paper is to illustrate that it is indeed possible to break the shift-symmetry dynamically within 4 dimensional supergravity prior to a long phase of inflation. The potential obtained for the inflaton would be akin to a natural inflationary scenario with the breaking scale M larger than the 4 dimensional Planck mass.

  5. 5D Lorentz Violation as a Source of Soft Symmetry Breaking

    We suggest the possibility that soft symmetry breaking in low energy effective theories could be mediated by Kaluza-Klein modes, in a 5-dimensional theory with an explicitly broken SO(1,4) symmetry. To exemplify the mechanism, we present a toy model with a global SU(2) symmetry, which is classically exact at the zero mode level, but softly broken by radiative corrections induced from a single Lorentz violating term. We show that the Lorentz breaking parameter would set up the hierarchy between Planck scale and the breaking scale of the SU(2) effective theory

  6. Multicritical Symmetry Breaking and Naturalness of Slow Nambu-Goldstone Bosons

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate spontaneous global symmetry breaking in the absence of Lorentz invariance, and study technical Naturalness of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes whose dispersion relation exhibits a hierarchy of multicritical phenomena with Lifshitz scaling and dynamical exponents $z>1$. For example, we find NG modes with a technically natural quadratic dispersion relation which do not break time reversal symmetry and are associated with a single broken symmetry generator, not a pair. The mechanism is protected by an enhanced `polynomial shift' symmetry in the free-field limit.

  7. Symmetry breaking indication for supergravity inflation in light of the Planck 2015

    Supergravity (SUGRA) theories with exact global U(1) symmetry or shift symmetry in Kähler potential provide natural frameworks for inflation. However, quadratic inflation is disfavoured by the new results on primordial tensor fluctuations from the Planck Collaboration. To be consistent with the new Planck data, we point out that the explicit symmetry breaking is needed, and study these two SUGRA inflation in detail. For SUGRA inflation with global U(1) symmetry, the symmetry breaking term leads to a trigonometric modulation on inflaton potential. Coefficient of the U(1) symmetry breaking term is of order 10−2, which is sufficient large to improve the inflationary predictions while its higher order corrections are negligible. Such models predict sizeable tensor fluctuations and highly agree with the Planck results. In particular, the model with a linear U(1) symmetry breaking term predicts the tensor-to-scalar ratio around r∼0.01 and running spectral index αs∼−0.004, which comfortably fit with the Planck observations. For SUGRA inflation with breaking shift symmetry, the inflaton potential is modulated by an exponential factor. The modulated linear and quadratic models are consistent with the Planck observations. In both types of models the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be of order 10−2, which will be tested by the near future observations

  8. Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator

    Del Bino, Leonardo; Stebbings, Sarah L; Del'Haye, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Light is generally expected to travel through isotropic media independent of its direction. This makes it challenging to develop non-reciprocal optical elements like optical diodes or circulators, which currently rely on magneto-optical effects and birefringent materials. Here we present measurements of non-reciprocal transmission and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) light waves to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, the symmetry breaking can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. This effect is expected to take place in any dielectric ring-resonator and might constitute one of the m...

  9. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu-Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 609-657. ISSN 2073-8994 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spontaneous symmetry breaking * Nambu-Goldstone bosons * effective field theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  10. Cosmological constant and spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking the particle physics and cosmology interface charade

    Pisano, F

    2001-01-01

    We describe one of the remarkable problems of theoretical physics persevering up to the beginning of the millennium. All gaugetheories with spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking from the standard model of particle physics with the electroweak symmetry breaking at the Fermi scale, 246 GeV, up to strings, supergravity, and the M(embrane)-theory superunification with symmetry breaking starting near the Planck scale, $10^{19}$ GeV, foresee that the spontaneous symmetry breakings induce a vacuum energy at least 50 orders of magnitude larger than the stringent experimental bound $G\\Lambda\\lesssim 10^{-122}$ on the value of the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. This fact seems to have a universal character since it occurs from the Fermi scale up to the Planck one. It is the vacuum catastrophe.

  11. Gauge-Invariant Formalism with Dirac-mode Expansion for Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    Gongyo, Shinya; Suganuma, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    We develop a manifestly gauge-covariant expansion of the QCD operator such as the Wilson loop, using the eigen-mode of the QCD Dirac operator $\\Slash D=\\gamma^\\mu D^\\mu$. With this method, we perform a direct analysis of the correlation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QCD Monte Carlo calculation on $6^4$ at $\\beta$=5.6. As a remarkable fact, the confinement force is almost unchanged even after removing the low-lying Dirac modes, which are responsible to chiral symmetry breaking. This indicates that one-to-one correspondence does not hold for between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this analysis, we carefully amputate only the "essence of chiral symmetry breaking" by cutting off the low-lying Dirac modes, and can artificially realize the "confined but chiral restored situation" in QCD.

  12. Quantum chaos and breaking of all anti-unitary symmetries in Rydberg excitons.

    Aßmann, Marc; Thewes, Johannes; Fröhlich, Dietmar; Bayer, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Symmetries are the underlying principles of fundamental interactions in nature. Chaos in a quantum system may emerge from breaking these symmetries. Compared to vacuum, crystals are attractive for studying quantum chaos, as they not only break spatial isotropy, but also lead to novel quasiparticles with modified interactions. Here we study yellow Rydberg excitons in cuprous oxide which couple strongly to the vacuum light field and interact significantly with crystal phonons, leading to inversion symmetry breaking. In a magnetic field, time-reversal symmetry is also broken and the exciton states show a complex splitting pattern, resulting in quadratic level repulsion for small splittings. In contrast to atomic chaotic systems in a magnetic field, which show only a linear level repulsion, this is a signature of a system where all anti-unitary symmetries are broken simultaneously. This behaviour can otherwise be found only for the electro-weak interaction or engineered billiards. PMID:27064527

  13. Symmetry breaking, permutation D-branes on group manifolds: boundary states and geometric description

    We use the permutation symmetry between the product of several group manifolds in combination with orbifolds and T-duality to construct new classes of symmetry breaking branes on products of group manifolds. The resulting branes mix the submanifolds and break part of the diagonal chiral algebra of the theory. We perform a Langrangian analysis as well as a boundary CFT construction of these branes and find agreement between the two methods

  14. Projected Symmetry Breaking in Dipole-Locked ^3He-B

    Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    We show theoretically that a collision of two superfluid droplets can effectively cause a two-dimensional symmetry breaking phase transition. Three-dimensional nucleation of quantized vortices and/or hedgehogs in the collision are considered the formation of domain walls and/or point vortices due to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a projected two-dimensional space. This problem is generally applicable to arbitrarily ordered media that undergo spontaneous breaking of continuous symmetries.

  15. Mechanism for Time Reparametrization Symmetry Breaking in Spinor Gravity Coupled to Long-Range Spinor Particles

    Konishi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for time reparametrization symmetry breaking in canonical gravity. We consider a model of spinor gravity, based on Sen's reformulation of canonical gravity as a spin system, with one additional long-range self-interacting massive spinor particle that is coupled to spinor gravity. The symmetry breaking is identified with the origin of the quantum mechanical non-unitary evolution. A part of our approach to deriving non-unitary time-dependent processes of wave functions fo...

  16. Cusp catastrophe of symmetry breaking in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Bifurcation analysis is applied to the spontaneous spatial symmetry breaking occurring in the ground state of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. The cusp catastrophe describing the supercritical pitchfork bifurcation associated with the symmetry breaking is derived via the identification of the local curvature of the Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional. The bifurcation diagram and universal scaling laws for the eigenvalue and energy are obtained from the catastrophe function

  17. Chiral symmetry of heavy-light scalar mesons with UA(1) symmetry breaking

    Dmitrašinović, V.

    2012-07-01

    In a previous paper, based on a calculation in the nonrelativistic quark model, we advanced the hypothesis that the Ds(2317), D0(2308) mesons are predominantly four-quark states lowered in mass by the flavor-dependent Kobayashi-Kubo-Maskawa ’t Hooft UA(1) symmetry breaking effective interaction. Here we show similar results and conclusions in a relativistic effective chiral model calculation, based on three-light-quark (i.e., two q plus one q¯) local interpolators. To this end we classify the four-quark (three light plus one heavy quark) local interpolators according to their chiral transformation properties and then construct chiral invariant interactions. We evaluate the diagonal matrix elements of the Kobayashi-Kubo-Maskawa ’t Hooft interaction between different interpolating fields and show that the lowest-lying one is always the (antisymmetric) SU(3)F antitriplet belonging to the chiral (3, 3) multiplet. We predict bottom-strange Bs0 and the bottom-nonstrange B0 scalar mesons with equal masses at 5720 MeV, the strange meson being some 100 MeV lower than in most of the quark potential models. We also predict the JP=1+ bottom-nonstrange B1 and the bottom-strange Bs1 meson masses as 5732 MeV and 5765 MeV, respectively, using the Bardeen-Hill-Nowak-Rho-Zahed scalar-vector mass relation.

  18. Coherent States and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Light Front Scalar Field Theory

    Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC; Chakrabarti, D.; /Florida U.; Harindranath, A.; /Saha Inst.; Lloyd, R.; /Arkansas State U.; Martinovic, L.; /Bratislava,; Spence, J.R.; /Iowa State U.

    2005-12-14

    Recently developed nuclear many-body techniques provide novel results when applied to constituent quark models and to light-front scalar field theory. We show how spontaneous symmetry breaking arises and is consistent with a coherent state ansatz in a variational treatment. The kink and the kink-antikink topological features are identified and the onset of symmetry restoration is demonstrated.

  19. D7-anti-D7 bilayer: holographic dynamical symmetry breaking

    Grignani, Gianluca; Kim, Namshik; Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a holographic model of dynamical symmetry breaking in 2+1-dimenisons, where a parallel D7-anti-D7 brane pair fuse into a single object, corresponding to the U(1)XU(1)->U(1) symmetry breaking pattern. We show that the current-current correlation functions can be computed analytically and exhibit the low momentum structure that is expected when global symmetries are spontaneously broken. We also find that these correlation functions have poles attributable to infinite towers of vect...

  20. Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state

    Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector. (orig.)

  1. Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state

    Borges, L.H.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ-Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector. (orig.)

  2. Explicit chiral symmetry breaking in Gross-Neveu type models

    Boehmer, Christian

    2011-07-25

    This thesis is devoted to the study of a 1+1-dimensional, fermionic quantum field theory with Lagrangian L= anti {psi}i{gamma}{sup {mu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}{psi}-m{sub 0} anti {psi}{psi}+(g{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}{psi}){sup 2}+(G{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}i{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}){sup 2} in the limit of an infinite number of flavors, using semiclassical methods. The main goal of the present work was to see what changes if we allow for explicit chiral symmetry breaking, either by a bare mass term, or a splitting of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants, or both. In the first case, this becomes the massive NJL{sub 2} model. In the 2nd and 3rd cases we are dealing with a model largely unexplored so far. The first half of this thesis deals with the massive NJL{sub 2} model. Before attacking the phase diagram, it was necessary to determine the baryons of the model. We have carried out full numerical Hartree-Fock calculations including the Dirac sea. The most important result is the first complete phase diagram of the massive NJL{sub 2} model in ({mu},T,{gamma}) space, where {gamma} arises from m{sub 0} through mass renormalization. In the 2nd half of the thesis we have studied a generalization of the massless NJL{sub 2} model with two different (scalar and pseudoscalar) coupling constants, first in the massless version. Renormalization of the 2 coupling constants leads to the usual dynamical mass by dynamical transmutation, but in addition to a novel {xi} parameter interpreted as chiral quenching parameter. As far as baryon structure is concerned, the most interesting result is the fact that the new baryons interpolate between the kink of the GN model and the massless baryon of the NJL{sub 2} model, always carrying fractional baryon number 1/2. The phase diagram of the massless model with 2 coupling constants has again been determined numerically. At zero temperature we have also investigated the massive, generalized GN model with 3 parameters. It is well

  3. Suppression and restoration of disorder-induced light localization mediated by PT-symmetry breaking

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Huang, Guoxiang; Torner, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    We uncover that the breaking point of the PT-symmetry in optical waveguide arrays has a dramatic impact on light localization induced by the off-diagonal disorder. Specifically, when the gain/loss control parameter approaches a critical value at which PT-symmetry breaking occurs, a fast growth of the coupling between neighboring waveguides causes diffraction to dominate to an extent that light localization is strongly suppressed and statistically averaged width of the output pattern substantially increases. Beyond the symmetry-breaking point localization is gradually restored, although in this regime the power of localized modes grows upon propagation. The strength of localization monotonically increases with disorder at both, broken and unbroken PT-symmetry.

  4. Infra-red fixed point structure characterising SUSY SU(5) symmetry breaking

    We analyze the one-loop renormalisation group equations for the parameters of the Higgs potential of a supersymmetric SU(5) model with first step of symmetry breaking involving an adjoint Higgs. In particular, we investigate the running of the parameters that decide the first step of symmetry breaking in attempt to establish which symmetry-breaking scenarios would be most likely if the model is the effective low-energy description of some more fundamental theory. An infra-red fixed point is identified analytically. It is located at the boundary between the region of Higgs parameter space corresponding to unbroken SU(5) and the region corresponding to the breaking of SU(5) to the Standard Model, and we elaborate on its implications. We also observe that certain forms of the Higgs potential discussed at tree level in the literature are not renormalisation group invariant. (Author)

  5. Infra-red fixed point structure characterising SUSY SU(5) symmetry breaking

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Philipsen, O

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the one-loop renormalisation group equations for the parameters of the Higgs potential of a supersymmetric SU(5) model with first step of symmetry breaking involving an adjoint Higgs. In particular, we investigate the running of the parameters that decide the first step of symmetry breaking in an attempt to establish which symmetry-breaking scenarios would be most likely if the model is the effective low-energy description of some more fundamental theory. An infra-red fixed point is identified analytically. It is located at the boundary between the region of Higgs parameter space corresponding to unbroken SU(5) and the region corresponding to the breaking of SU(5) to the Standard Model, and we elaborate on its implications. We also observe that certain forms of the Higgs potential discussed at tree level in the literature are not renormalisation group invariant.

  6. Supersymmetry and R-symmetry Breaking in Meta-stable Vacua at Finite Temperature and Density

    Arai, Masato; Sasaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    We study a meta-stable supersymmetry-breaking vacuum in a generalized O'Raifeartaigh model at finite temperature and chemical potentials. Fields in the generalized O'Raifeartaigh model possess different R-charges to realize R-symmetry breaking. Accordingly, at finite density and temperature, the chemical potentials have to be introduced in a non-uniform way. Based on the formulation elaborated in our previous work we study the one-loop thermal effective potential including the chemical potentials in the generalized O'Raifeartaigh model. We perform the numerical analysis and find that the R-symmetry breaking vacua, which exist at zero temperature and zero chemical potential, are destabilized for some parameter regions. In addition, we find that there are parameter regions where new R-symmetry breaking vacua are realized even at high temperature by the finite density effects.

  7. A UV-complete Composite Higgs model for Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: Minimal Conformal Technicolor

    Tacchi, Ruggero Altair

    The Large Hadron Collider is currently collecting data. One of the main goals of the experiment is to find evidence of the mechanism responsible for the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. There are many different models attempting to explain this breaking and traditionally most of them involve the use of supersymmetry near the scale of the breaking. This work is focused on exploring a viable model that is not based on a weakly coupled low scale supersymmetry sector to explain the electroweak symmetry breaking. We build a model based on a new strong interaction, in the fashion of theories commonly called "technicolor", name that is reminiscent of one of the first attempts of explaining the electroweak symmetry breaking using a strong interaction similar to the one whose charges are called colors. We explicitly study the minimal model of conformal technicolor, an SU(2) gauge theory near a strongly coupled conformal fixed point, with conformal symmetry softly broken by technifermion mass terms. Conformal symmetry breaking triggers chiral symmetry breaking in the pattern SU(4) → Sp (4), which gives rise to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson that can act as a composite Higgs boson. There is an additional composite pseudoscalar A with mass larger than mh and suppressed direct production at LHC. We discuss the electroweak fit in this model in detail. A good fit requires fine tuning at the 10% level. We construct a complete, realistic, and natural UV completion of the model, that explains the origin of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. We embed conformal technicolor in a supersymmetric theory, with supersymmetry broken at a high scale. The effective theory below the supersymmetry breaking scale is minimal conformal technicolor with an additional light technicolor gaugino that might give rise to an additional pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson that is observable at the LHC.

  8. Parity-time-symmetry breaking in two-dimensional photonic crystals: Square lattice

    Mock, Adam

    2016-06-01

    We consider theoretically materials whose electromagnetic properties possess parity-time (PT ) symmetry and are periodic in two dimensions. When designed for optical frequencies such structures are commonly known as two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals. With the addition of PT symmetry the optical modes of 2D photonic crystals exhibit thresholdless spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking near the Brillouin zone boundary, which is analogous to what has previously been studied in PT -symmetric structures with one-dimensional periodicity. Consistent with previous work, we find that spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking occurs at band crossings in the photonic dispersion diagram. Due to the extra spatial degree of freedom in 2D periodic systems, their band structures contain more band crossings and higher-order degeneracies than their one-dimensional counterparts. This work provides a comprehensive theoretical analysis of spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking at these points in the band structure. We find that, as in the case of one-dimensional structures, photonic band gaps exist at k =0 . We also find that at points of degeneracy with order higher than 2, bands merge pairwise to form broken-PT -symmetry supermodes. If the degeneracy order is even, this means multiple pairs of bands can form distinct (nondegenerate) broken-symmetry supermodes. If the order of degeneracy is odd, at least one of the bands will have protected PT symmetry. At other points of degeneracy, we find that the PT symmetry of the modes may be protected and we provide a spatial mode symmetry argument to explain this behavior. Finally, we identify a point at which two broken-PT -symmetry supermodes become degenerate, creating a point of fourfold degeneracy in the broken-PT -symmetry regime.

  9. Topological Insulators and Nematic Phases from Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in

    Sun, K.

    2010-05-26

    We investigate the stability of a quadratic band-crossing point (QBCP) in 2D fermionic systems. At the non-interacting level, we show that a QBCP exists and is topologically stable for a Berry flux {-+}2{pi}, if the point symmetry group has either fourfold or sixfold rotational symmetries. This putative topologically stable free-fermion QBCP is marginally unstable to arbitrarily weak shortrange repulsive interactions. We consider both spinless and spin-1/2 fermions. Four possible ordered states result: a quantum anomalous Hall phase, a quantum spin Hall phase, a nematic phase, and a nematic-spin-nematic phase.

  10. Natural stepwise breaking of gauge and discrete symmetries

    We ask if it is possible for spontaneous symmetry breakdown to occur stepwise. The presence of massless non-Goldstone bosons in the tree approximation is necessary both for the continuous case (gauge hierarchies involving ''pseudophotons'') and for the discrete case, but it is not sufficient. Our findings on additional constraints are presented in the form of theorems. The first (concerning pseudophotons) depends only on the validity of perturbative expansions and on the Goldstone theorem. The other two require that all massless non-Goldstone bosons in the tree approximation arise from a vacuum symmetry

  11. Emergent p-Wave Kondo Coupling in Multi-Orbital Bands with Mirror Symmetry Breaking

    Rhim, Jun Won; Han, Jung Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Kondo effect in the periodic Anderson model is examined for situations where the conduction bands are of multi-orbital character and subject to mirror-symmetry-breaking electric field. Taking p-orbital-based model for analysis, we find that a new hybridization channel opens up between p-orbital electrons and the local moments, leading to Kondo-coupled phases with nematic, or two-fold symmetry, although the microscopic Hamiltonian has the full square symmetry. The reduced symmetry in the band structure should be readily observable in spectroscopic or transport measurements for heavy fermion system in a multilayer environment such as successfully grown recently.

  12. Magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking and the Pauli problem

    Ng, Y. Jack

    1998-01-01

    The non-perturbative Schwinger-Dyson equation is used to show that chiral symmetry is dynamically broken in QED at weak gauge couplings when an external uniform magnetic field is present. A complete analysis of this phenomenon may shed light on the Pauli problem, namely, why $\\alpha$ = 1/137.

  13. Chiral and herringbone symmetry breaking in water-surface monolayers

    Peterson, I.R.; Kenn, R.M.; Goudot, A.;

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation from monolayers of eicosanoic acid in the L(2)' phase of three distinct out-of-plane first-order diffraction peaks, indicating molecular tilt in a nonsymmetry direction and hence the absence of mirror symmetry. At lower pressures the molecules tilt in the direction of...

  14. Observation of parity-time symmetry breaking transitions in a dissipative Floquet system of ultracold atoms

    Li, Jiaming; Liu, Ji; de Melo, Leonardo; Joglekar, Yogesh N; Luo, Le

    2016-01-01

    Open physical systems with balanced loss and gain exhibit a transition, absent in their solitary counterparts, which engenders modes that exponentially decay or grow with time and thus spontaneously breaks the parity-time PT symmetry. This PT-symmetry breaking is induced by modulating the strength or the temporal profile of the loss and gain, but also occurs in a pure dissipative system without gain. It has been observed that, in classical systems with mechanical, electrical, and electromagnetic setups with static loss and gain, the PT-symmetry breaking transition leads to extraordinary behavior and functionalities. However, its observation in a quantum system is yet to be realized. Here we report on the first quantum simulation of PT-symmetry breaking transitions using ultracold Li-6 atoms. We simulate static and Floquet dissipative Hamiltonians by generating state-dependent atom loss in a noninteracting Fermi gas, and observe the PT-symmetry breaking transitions by tracking the atom number for each state. W...

  15. Stability of spontaneous symmetry breaking in SO(10)

    Abud, M.; Buccella, F.; Della Selva, A.; Sciarrino, A.; Fiore, R.; Immirzi, G.

    1986-01-20

    The stability of the breaking of SO(10) into SO(6)xSO(4) with Higgs in the 54 representation is studied in the range of scales 10/sup 16/-10/sup 19/ GeV. One finds constraints on the parameters of the potential. (orig.).

  16. Stability of spontaneous symmetry breaking in SO(10)

    The stability of the breaking of SO(10) into SO(6)xSO(4) with Higgs in the 54 representation is studied in the range of scales 1016-1019 GeV. One finds constraints on the parameters of the potential. (orig.)

  17. Accion dark matter in the post-inflationary Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scenario

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We consider extensions of the Standard Model in which a spontaneously broken global chiral Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry arises as an accidental symmetry of an exact $Z_N$ symmetry. For $N = 9$ or $10$, this symmetry can protect the accion - the Nambu-Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of the accidental PQ symmetry - against semi-classical gravity effects, thus providing a proper solution of the strong CP problem, while it can at the same time provide for the small explicit symmetry breaking term needed to make models with domain wall number $N_{\\rm DW}>1$, such as the popular DFSZ model ($N_{\\rm DW}=6$), cosmologically viable even in the case where spontaneous PQ symmetry breaking occurred after inflation. We find that $N=10$ DFSZ accions with mass $m_A \\approx 3.5$-$4.2\\,\\mathrm{meV}$ can account for cold dark matter and simultaneously explain the hints for anomalous cooling of white dwarfs. The proposed helioscope IAXO - being sensitive to solar DFSZ accions with mass above a few meV - will...

  18. Higgs-like mechanism for spontaneous spacetime symmetry breaking

    Nishimura, Kimihide

    2015-10-01

    The study of spontaneous breakdown of spacetime symmetries leads to the discovery of another type of Higgs mechanism operating in a chiral SU(2) model. Some of the Nambu-Goldstone vector mesons emergent from simultaneous violations of gauge and Lorentz symmetries are, in this case, absorbed by a left-handed doublet and endow one of the fermions with a right-handed state, while another part becomes emergent as photons. Accordingly, this mechanism allows a chiral fermion to acquire a mass, and it may enable the emergent theory to reproduce the electromagnetism equivalent to the QED sector in the standard theory. It is also mentioned that the "fermion-boson puzzle" known in the presence of a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole does not exist in our theory.

  19. Spontaneous Breaking of Lorentz Symmetry with an antisymmetric tensor

    Hernaski, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous violation of Lorentz symmetry by the vacuum condensation of an antisymmetric $2$-tensor is considered. The coset construction for nonlinear realization of spacetime symmetries is employed to build the most general low-energy effective action for the Goldstone modes interacting with photons. We analyze the model within the context of the Standard-Model Extension and noncommutative QED. Experimental bounds for some parameters of the model are discussed, and we readdress the subtle issues of stability and causality in Lorentz non-invariant scenarios. Besides the two photon polarizations, just one Goldstone mode must be dynamical to set a sensible low-energy effective model, and the enhancement of the stability by accounting interaction terms points to a protection against observational Lorentz violation.

  20. Symmetry-breaking in clogging for oppositely driven particles

    Glanz, Tobias; Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The clogging behavior of a symmetric binary mixture of particles that are driven in opposite directions through constrictions is explored by Brownian dynamics simulations and theory. A dynamical state with a spontaneously broken symmetry occurs where one species is flowing and the other is blocked for a long time which can be tailored by the size of the constrictions. Moreover, we find self-organized oscillations in clogging and unclogging of the two species. Apart from statistical physics, o...

  1. Breaking of forward-backward symmetry in driven systems

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György

    1993-01-01

    The dynamical pair approximation was modified to study the stationary states in a two-dimensional repulsive-lattice-gas model driven far from equilibrium by the application of an external field. This approximation distinguishes between the forward, backward, and transverse directions with respect...... to the electric field. In the present driven system, the forward-backward symmetry is broken at the level of the pair approximation. The difference between the forward and backward directions is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations....

  2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking for scalar QED with nonminimal Chern-Simons coupling

    We investigate the two-loop effective potential for both minimally and non-minimally coupled Maxwell-Chern-Simons theories. The nonminimal gauge interaction represents the magnetic moment interaction between a charged scalar and the electromagnetic field. In a previous paper we have shown that the two loop effective potential for this model is renormalizable with an appropriate choice of the non-minimal coupling constant. We carry out a detailed analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by radiative corrections. As long as the renormalization point for all couplings is chosen to be the true minimum of the effective potential, both models predict the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two loop corrections are small compared to the one loop result, and thus the symmetry breaking is perturbatively stable

  3. A unique SU(5) and SO(10) unification with complete dynamical symmetry breaking

    A unique asymptotically free, anomaly-free, SU(5) gauge theory is proposed as a possible complete unification of the standard model in which all symmetry-breaking is dynamical. The asymptotic freedom constraint is saturated, removing renormalon divergences and leaving well-defined instanton interactions as the only non-perturbative ingredient of the theory. Consequently, it is argued, topological vacuum polarization of a very heavy, unconventional quantum number, quark sector dominates the dynamics, producing SU(5) symmetry breaking and a three generation low energy spectrum. Electroweak symmetry breaking is due to a chiral condensate of color sextet quarks. The embedding of the theory in a single SO(10) representation is used for the dynamical analysis and may also have physical significance. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. PT-symmetry breaking with divergent potentials: lattice and continuum cases

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the parity- and time-reversal ($\\mathcal{PT}$)-symmetry breaking in lattice models in the presence of long-ranged, non-hermitian, $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potentials that remain finite or become divergent in the continuum limit. By scaling analysis of the fragile $\\mathcal{PT}$ threshold for an open finite lattice, we show that continuum loss-gain potentials $V_\\alpha(x)\\propto i |x|^\\alpha \\mathrm{sign}(x)$ have a positive $\\mathcal{PT}$-breaking threshold for $\\alpha>-2$, and a zero threshold for $\\alpha\\leq -2$. When $\\alpha<0$ localized states with complex (conjugate) energies in the continuum energy-band occur at higher loss-gain strengths. We investigate the signatures of $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry breaking in coupled waveguides, and show that the emergence of localized states dramatically shortens the relevant time-scale in the $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry broken region.

  5. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu–Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Tomáš Brauner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a general principle that constitutes the underlying concept of a vast number of physical phenomena ranging from ferromagnetism and superconductivity in condensed matter physics to the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particles. I focus on manifestations of spontaneously broken symmetries in systems that are not Lorentz invariant, which include both nonrelativistic systems as well as relativistic systems at nonzero density, providing a self-contained review of the properties of spontaneously broken symmetries specific to such theories. Topics covered include: (i Introduction to the mathematics of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. (ii Minimization of Higgs-type potentials for higher-dimensional representations. (iii Counting rules for Nambu–Goldstone bosons and their dispersion relations. (iv Construction of effective Lagrangians. Specific examples in both relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are worked out in detail.

  6. Neutrino billiards: time-reversal symmetry-breaking without magnetic fields

    The paper describes a simple and natural way in which quantal time-reversal symmetry (T) can be broken without magnetic fields. T-breaking arises from the collisions of a massless relativistic spinning particle ('neutrino') with a hard wall. This shares with the Aharonov-Bohm billiards of previous workers the property that quantal T-breaking does not alter the corresponding classical orbits, and has the advantage of being free from parameters. The study shows that neutrino billiard spectra belong to the universality class predicted by random-matrix theory on the basis of symmetry. In the generic case, where the boundary has no geometric symmetry, lack of time-reversal symmetry means that spectral statistics fall into the gaussian unitary ensemble universality class. (U.K.)

  7. Gedanken worlds without Higgs fields: QCD-induced electroweak symmetry breaking

    To illuminate how electroweak symmetry breaking shapes the physical world, we investigate toy models in which no Higgs fields or other constructs are introduced to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two models incorporate the standard SU(3)c x SU(2)L x U(1)Y gauge symmetry and fermion content similar to that of the standard model. The first class--like the standard electroweak theory--contains no bare mass terms, so the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry within quantum chromodynamics is the only source of electroweak symmetry breaking. The second class adds bare fermion masses sufficiently small that QCD remains the dominant source of electroweak symmetry breaking and the model can serve as a well-behaved low-energy effective field theory to energies somewhat above the hadronic scale. A third class of models is based on the left-right-symmetric SU(3)c x SU(2)L x SU(2)R x U(1) gauge group. In a fourth class of models, built on SU(4)PS x SU(2)L x SU(2)R gauge symmetry, the lepton number is treated as a fourth color and the color gauge group is enlarged to the SU(4)PS of Pati and Salam (PS). Many interesting characteristics of the models stem from the fact that the effective strength of the weak interactions is much closer to that of the residual strong interactions than in the real world. The Higgs-free models not only provide informative contrasts to the real world, but also lead us to consider intriguing issues in the application of field theory to the real world.

  8. Unification via intermediate symmetry breaking scales with the quartification gauge group

    The idea of quark-lepton universality at high energies has been introduced as a natural extension to the standard model. This is achieved by endowing leptons with new degrees of freedom--leptonic color, an analogue of the familiar quark color. Grand and partially unified models which utilize this new gauge symmetry SU(3)l have been proposed in the context of the quartification gauge group SU(3)4. Phenomenologically successful gauge coupling constant unification without supersymmetry has been demonstrated for cases where the symmetry breaking leaves a residual SU(2)l unbroken. Though attractive, these schemes either incorporate ad hoc discrete symmetries and nonrenormalizable mass terms, or achieve only partial unification. We show that grand unified models can be constructed where the quartification group can be broken fully [i.e. no residual SU(2)l] to the standard model gauge group without requiring additional discrete symmetries or higher dimension operators. These models also automatically have suppressed nonzero neutrino masses. We perform a systematic analysis of the renormalization-group equations for all possible symmetry breaking routes from SU(3)4→SU(3)qxSU(2)LxU(1)Y. This analysis indicates that gauge coupling unification can be achieved for several different symmetry breaking patterns and we outline the requirements that each gives on the unification scale. We also show that the unification scenarios of those models which leave a residual SU(2)l symmetry are not unique. In both symmetry breaking cases, some of the scenarios require new physics at the TeV scale, while others do not allow for new TeV phenomenology in the fermionic sector

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields

    Gitman, D M

    1996-01-01

    The phase structure of d=3 Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the 1/N-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the gravitational field.

  10. Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields

    Gitman, D. M.; Odintsov, S. D.; Shil'nov, Yu. I.

    1996-01-01

    The phase structure of $d=3$ Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the $1/N$-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the ...

  11. Synchronization and symmetry-breaking bifurcations in constructive networks of coupled chaotic oscillators

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of networks based on a ring of coupled oscillators with regular shortcuts beyond the nearest-neighbor couplings is studied by using master stability equations and numerical simulations. The generic criterion for dynamic synchronization has been extended to arbitrary network topologies with zero row-sum. The symmetry-breaking oscillation patterns that resulted from the Hopf bifurcation from synchronous states are analyzed by the symmetry group theory

  12. Consequences of vacuum polarization on electromagnetic waves in a Lorentz-symmetry breaking scenario

    Agostini, B., E-mail: agostini@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barone, F.A., E-mail: fbarone@unifei.edu.br [ICE - Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Barone, F.E., E-mail: febarone@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gaete, Patricio, E-mail: patricio.gaete@usm.cl [Departmento de Fisica and Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Helayeel-Neto, J.A., E-mail: helayel@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-02-14

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a Lorentz-symmetry violating scenario is investigated in connection with non-linear (photon self-interacting) terms induced by quantum effects. It turns out that the photon field acquires an interesting polarization state and, from our calculations of phase and group velocities, we contemplate different scenarios with physically realizable magnetic fields and identify situations where non-linearity effects dominate over Lorentz-symmetry breaking ones and vice versa.

  13. Symmetry breaking and restoration for interacting scalar and gauge fields in Lifshitz type theories

    Farakos, K.; Metaxas, D.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling, with critical exponent z = 2, including both scalar and gauge fields. Depending on the relative strength of the coupling constants for the gauge and scalar interactions, we find that there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature.

  14. Symmetry breaking and restoration for interacting scalar and gauge fields in Lifshitz type theories

    Farakos, K

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling, with critical exponent $z=2$, including both scalar and gauge fields. Depending on the relative strength of the coupling constants for the gauge and scalar interactions, we find that there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one-loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature.

  15. Symmetry breaking and restoration for interacting scalar and gauge fields in Lifshitz type theories

    Farakos, K., E-mail: kfarakos@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Metaxas, D., E-mail: metaxas@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2012-05-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling, with critical exponent z=2, including both scalar and gauge fields. Depending on the relative strength of the coupling constants for the gauge and scalar interactions, we find that there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature.

  16. On the breaking and restoration of symmetries within the nuclear energy density functional formalism

    We review the notion of symmetry breaking and restoration within the frame of nuclear energy density functional methods. We focus on key differences between wave-function- and energy-functional-based methods. In particular, we point to difficulties encountered within the energy functional framework and discuss new potential constraints on the underlying energy density functional that could make the restoration of broken symmetries better formulated within such a formalism. We refer to Ref.1 for details. (authors)

  17. Electroweak symmetry breaking and beyond the Standard Model physics – A review

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2009-01-01

    In this talk, I shall first discuss the Standard Model Higgs mechanism and then highlight some of its deficiencies making a case for the need to go beyond the Standard Model (BSM). The BSM tour will be guided by symmetry arguments. I shall pick up four specific BSM scenarios, namely, supersymmetry, little Higgs, gauge-Higgs unification, and the Higgsless approach. The discussion will be confined mainly on their electroweak symmetry breaking aspects.

  18. Consequences of vacuum polarization on electromagnetic waves in a Lorentz-symmetry breaking scenario

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a Lorentz-symmetry violating scenario is investigated in connection with non-linear (photon self-interacting) terms induced by quantum effects. It turns out that the photon field acquires an interesting polarization state and, from our calculations of phase and group velocities, we contemplate different scenarios with physically realizable magnetic fields and identify situations where non-linearity effects dominate over Lorentz-symmetry breaking ones and vice versa.

  19. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in a Minimal 3-3-1 Model

    Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Natale, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The gauge symmetry breaking in some versions of 3-3-1 models can be implemented dynamically because at the scale of a few TeVs the $U(1)_X$ coupling constant becomes strong. In this work we consider the dynamical symmetry breaking in a minimal $SU(3)_{{}_{TC}}\\times SU(3)_{{}_{L}}\\times U(1)_{X}$ model, where we propose a new scheme to cancel the chiral anomalies, including two-index symmetric (6) technifermions, which incorporates naturally the walking behavior in the TC sector. The composit...

  20. Mass Formulas Derived by Symmetry Breaking and Prediction of Masses on Heavy Flavor Hadrons

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The base is the Lagrangian of symmetry and its dynamical breaking or Higgs breaking. When the soliton-like solutions of the scalar field equations are substituted into the spinor field equations, in the approximation of non-relativity we derive the Morse-type potential, whose energy spectrum is the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. According to the symmetry of s-c quarks, the heavy flavor hadrons which made of u,d and c quarks may be classified by SU(3) octet and decuplet. Then some simple mass formulas are obtained, from this we predict some masses of unknown hadrons.

  1. Effective Lagrangian and Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in SU(2)X U(1) NJL Model

    Kruglov, S I

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical symmetry breaking and the formation of scalar condensates in the SU(2) X U(1) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two coupling constants has been studied in the framework of the mean field approximation. The bosonization procedures of the model are performed using the functional integration method. The possibility of the spontaneous CP-symmetry breaking in the model under consideration has been shown. The mass spectrum of the bound states of fermions, as well as the effective Lagrangian of interacting scalar and pseudoscalar mesons are obtained.

  2. Semiclassical treatment of symmetry breaking and bifurcations in a non-integrable potential

    Koliesnik, M V; Magner, A G; Arita, K; Brack, M

    2014-01-01

    We have derived an analytical trace formula for the level density of the H\\'enon-Heiles potential using the improved stationary phase method, based on extensions of Gutzwiller's semiclassical path integral approach. This trace formula has the correct limit to the standard Gutzwiller trace formula for the isolated periodic orbits far from all (critical) symmetry-breaking points. It continuously joins all critical points at which an enhancement of the semiclassical amplitudes occurs. We found a good agreement between the semi- classical and the quantum oscillating level densities for the gross shell structures and for the energy shell corrections, solving the symmetry breaking problem at small energies.

  3. Symmetry break in ferromagnetic electrocrystallization: the interplay between dipolar interactions and Laplacian growth

    Alves, S. G.; Braga, F. L.; Martins, M. L.

    2007-10-01

    Electrochemical ferromagnetic deposits grown under a planar magnetic field exhibit a striking morphological symmetry breaking. The present paper demonstrate through two-dimensional off-lattice simulations of an extended diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model that the competition between magnetic dipolar interactions and electric forces can impose locally the experimentally observed angle selection in a two-dimensional extended DLA model. The long-range correlations in the orientation of dipoles interacting with the applied and dipolar fields preserve this order over a macroscopic scale. Hence, the magnetic dipolar interactions alone cannot impose the field-induced symmetry breaking observed in ferromagnetic electrochemical deposition (ECD).

  4. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and weak nonperturbative renormalization group equation in gauge theory

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theory with the nonperturbative renormalization group equation (NPRGE), which is a first order nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In case that the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking occurs, the NPRGE encounters some non-analytic singularities at the finite critical scale even though the initial function is continuous and smooth. Therefore there is no usual solution of the PDE beyond the critical scale. In this paper, we newly introduce the notion of a weak solution which is the global solution of the weak NPRGE. We show how to evaluate the physical quantities with the weak solution.

  5. Electroweak symmetry breaking and new physics at the TeV scale

    Haber, Howard E; Siegrist, James L; Barklow, Timothy L

    1997-01-01

    This is an expanded version of the report by the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and Beyond the Standard Model Working Group which was contributed to Particle Physics - Perspectives and Opportunities, a report of the Division of Particles and Fields Committee for Long Term Planning. One of the Working Group&s primary goals was to study the phenomenology of electroweak symmetry breaking and attempt to quantify the "physics reach" of present and future colliders. Their investigations encompassed the Standard Model - with one doublet of Higgs scalars - and approaches to physics beyond the Standard

  6. Breaking the symmetry for enhanced higher-order mode delocalization

    Stutzki, Fabian; Jansen, Florian; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Large-pitch fibers (LPFs) have enabled the current records for average power, pulse energy and pulse peak power in ultra-fast fiber laser systems. In this paper the working principle of LPFs, which is based on higher-order mode delocalization, is numerically analyzed paying special attention to thermal effects and index mismatch. An enhanced design concept is proposed with a reduced symmetry to improve the delocalization of higher-order modes. This enhanced design has been obtained by transferring the most important characteristics of spiral geometries to a common hexagonal lattice.

  7. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Dynamical 'breaking' of time reversal symmetry

    Gutkin, Boris

    2007-08-01

    It is a common assumption that quantum systems with time reversal invariance and classically chaotic dynamics have energy spectra distributed according to GOE type of statistics. Here we present a class of systems which fail to follow this rule. We show that for convex billiards of constant width with time reversal symmetry and 'almost' chaotic dynamics the energy-level distribution is of GUE type. The effect is due to the lack of ergodicity in the 'momentum' part of the phase space and, as we argue, is generic in two dimensions.

  8. Axion dark matter in the post-inflationary Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scenario

    Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken'ichi

    2016-04-01

    We consider extensions of the Standard Model in which a spontaneously broken global chiral Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry arises as an accidental symmetry of an exact ZN symmetry. For N =9 or 10, this symmetry can protect the accion—the Nambu-Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of the accidental PQ symmetry—against semiclassical gravity effects, thus suppressing gravitational corrections to the effective potential, while it can at the same time provide for the small explicit symmetry breaking term needed to make models with domain wall number NDW>1 , such as the popular Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky (DFSZ) model (NDW=6 ), cosmologically viable even in the case where spontaneous PQ symmetry breaking occurred after inflation. We find that N =10 DFSZ accions with mass mA≈3.5 - 4.2 meV can account for cold dark matter and simultaneously explain the hints for anomalous cooling of white dwarfs. The proposed helioscope International Axion Observatory—being sensitive to solar DFSZ accions with mass above a few meV—will decisively test this scenario.

  9. Charge independence and charge symmetry breaking interactions and the Coulomb energy anomaly in isobaric analog states

    Effects of CIB (charge independence breaking) and CSB (charge symmetry breaking) interactions on the Coulomb displacement energies of isobaric analog states are investigated for 48Ca, 90Zr and 208Pb. Mass number dependence of the Coulomb energy anomalies is well explained when CIB and CSB interactions are used which reproduce the differences of the scattering lengths as well as those of the effective ranges of low energy nucleon-nucleon scattering. (author) 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Strong-interaction isospin-symmetry breaking within the density functional theory

    Baczyk, Pawel; Dobaczewski, Jacek; Konieczka, Maciej; Satula, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The conventional Skyrme interaction is generalized by adding zerorange charge-symmetry-breaking and charge-independence-breaking terms, and the corresponding energy density functional is derived. It is shown that the extended model accounts for experimental values of mirror and triplet displacement energies (MDEs and TDEs) in sd-shell isospin triplets with, on average, ∼ 100 keV precision using only two additional adjustable coupling constants. Moreover, the model is able to...

  11. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    D.S. Gorbunov; Sibiryakov, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    We present an extension of the Randall--Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam--Veltman--Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitation...

  12. The AdS/CFT Correspondence and Symmetry Breaking

    Benishti, Nessi

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we study baryonic U(1) symmetries dual to Betti multiplets in the AdS_4/CFT_3 correspondence for M2 branes at Calabi-Yau 4-fold singularities. We begin by focusing on isolated toric singularities without vanishing 6-cycles, which we classify, and propose for them field theory duals. We then study in detail the cone over Q^111 and find agreement between the spectrum of baryonic operators in this theory and M5 branes wrapping 5-cycles in the Q^111 space. The physics of vacua in which these symmetries are spontaneously broken precisely matches a dual gravity analysis involving resolutions of the singularity, where we are able to match condensates, Goldstone bosons and global strings. We then study the implications of turning on a torsion 4-form flux. This flux non-trivially affects the supergravity dual of Higgsing, and we show that the supergravity and field theory analyses precisely match in an example based on Y^12(CP^2). We then explain how the choice of M-theory circle can r...

  13. Loop suppressed electroweak symmetry breaking and naturally heavy superpartners

    Dermisek, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented in which O(10 TeV) stop masses, typically required by the Higgs boson mass in supersymmetric models, do not originate from soft supersymmetry breaking terms that would drive the Higgs mass squared parameter to large negative values but rather from the mixing with vectorlike partners. Their contribution to the Higgs mass squared parameter is reduced to threshold corrections and thus it is one loop suppressed compared to usual scenarios. New fermion and scalar partners of the top quark with O(10 TeV) masses are predicted.

  14. Minimal dynamical symmetry breaking of the electroweak interactions and mtop

    We review the recent idea of a mechanism for breaking the electroweak interactions which relies upon the formation of condensates involving the conventional quarks and leptons. In particular, such a scheme would indicate that the top quark is heavy, greater than or of order 200 GeV, and gives further predictions for the Higgs boson mass. It may be imbedded either into a GUT setting using supersymmetry or applied to a fourth generation with new strong TEV scale flavor-interactions. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Symmetry breaking aspects of the roughening transition in gauge theories

    An infinitely long chromoelectric flux tube breaks translation invariance in transverse directions spontaneously. We argue that the associated Goldstone bosons live effectively in 1 + 1 dimensions and therefore, by the Mermin-Wagner-Coleman theorem, destabilize the flux tube. A large class of effective Lagrangians describing the longe wave length fluctations of (finite) flux tubes is furthermore shown to give rise to a quark potential V(L) = αL + β + 8L-1 + 0(L-2), where 8 is a universal constant. (orig.)

  16. Symmetry Breaking and Quark-Hadron Duality in Structure Functions

    We identify conditions under which a summation over nucleon resonances can yield, via quark-hadron duality, parton model results for electromagnetic and neutrino structure functions at large x. While a summation over the lowest even and odd parity multiplets is sufficient to achieve duality in the symmetric quark model, a suppression of transitions to specific final states is required for more realistic cases incorporating SU(6) breaking. We outline several scenarios consistent with duality, discuss their implications for the high Q2 behavior of transition form factors, and illustrate how they can expose the patterns in the flavor-spin dependence of short-distance forces in the strong-QCD limit

  17. Symmetry Breaking and Adaptation The Genetic Code of Retroviral Env Proteins

    Vera, S

    1996-01-01

    Although several synonymous codons can encode the same aminoacid, this symmetry is generally broken in natural genetic systems. In this article, we show that the symmetry breaking can result from selective pressures due to the violation of the synonym symmetry by mutation and recombination. We conjecture that this enhances the probability to produce mutants that are well-adapted to the current environment. Evidence is found in the codon frequencies of the HIV resistant to the current immunological attack, are found with a greater frequency than their less mutable synonyms.

  18. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics; Symetrie et brisure de symetrie en mechanique quantique

    Chomaz, Philippe [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1998-12-31

    In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation 17 refs., 16 figs.

  19. Fabrication technology of and symmetry breaking in superconducting quantum circuits

    Superconducting quantum circuits are promising systems for experiments testing fundamental quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale and for applications in quantum information processing. We report on the fabrication and characterization of superconducting flux qubits, readout dc SQUIDs, on-chip shunting capacitors, and high-quality coplanar waveguide resonators. Furthermore, we discuss the tunability and fundamental symmetry aspects inherent to all superconducting qubits, which can be regarded as artificial solid-state atoms. Comparing them to their natural counterparts, we discuss first- and second-order energy shifts due to static control fields. Additionally, we present an intuitive derivation of the first- and second-order matrix elements for level transitions in the presence of coherent microwave driving.

  20. Symmetry breaking due to quantum fluctuations in massless field theories

    It is shown that quantum fluctuations can act as the driving mechanism for the spontaneous breakdown of both scale and the discrete phi→-phi symmetries in a lamdaphi4 theory which is massless and scale invariant in the tree approximation. Consequently dimensional transformation occurs and the dimensionless and only parameter lambda in the theory is fixed and replaced by the vacuum expectation value of the field. These results are shown to be consistent with the appropriate renormalization group equation for the theory. A scalar electrodynamics which is massless and scale invariant in the tree approximation is also considered, and it is shown that the Higgs meson in such a theory is much heavier than the vector meson for small values of the gauge coupling constant e. Another interesting consequence of such a theory is that it possesses vortex-line solutions only when quantum fluctuations are taken into account

  1. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab

  2. UNIVERSALITY OF PHASE TRANSITION DYNAMICS: TOPOLOGICAL DEFECTS FROM SYMMETRY BREAKING

    Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Del Campo, Adolfo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-13

    In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point). This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) was developed to describe the associated nonequilibrium dynamics and to estimate the density of defects as a function of the quench rate through the transition. During recent years, several new experiments investigating formation of defects in phase transitions induced by a quench both in classical and quantum mechanical systems were carried out. At the same time, some established results were called into question. We review and analyze the Kibble-Zurek mechanism focusing in particular on this surge of activity, and suggest possible directions for further progress.

  3. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Metal Adsorbed Graphene Sheets

    Jalbout, A F

    2012-01-01

    Graphene has received a great deal of attention and this has more recently extended to boron nitride sheets (BNS) with a similar structure. Both have hexagonal lattices and it is only the alternation of atoms in boron nitride, which changes the symmetry structure. This difference can for example be seen in the mean field equations, which for the corners of the Brillouin Zone are Dirac equations. For the case of graphene (equal atoms) we have the equation for massless particles, while for Boron Nitride has a finite gap and is more near a Dirac equation with mass near this gap.. Carbon structures in general and in particular also graphene can adsorb electron donors, such as alkaline atoms or molecules with a dipole moment. Typically these atoms and the dipoles can only attach in the sense to donate electron density. Some results for small sheet like structures are available.

  4. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  5. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  6. Color Rendering Plasmonic Aluminum Substrates with Angular Symmetry Breaking.

    Duempelmann, Luc; Casari, Daniele; Luu-Dinh, Angélique; Gallinet, Benjamin; Novotny, Lukas

    2015-12-22

    We fabricate and characterize large-area plasmonic substrates that feature asymmetric periodic nanostructures made of aluminum. Strong coupling between localized and propagating plasmon resonances leads to characteristic Fano line shapes with tunable spectral positions and widths. Distinctive colors spanning the entire visible spectrum are generated by tuning the system parameters, such as the period and the length of the aluminum structures. Moreover, the asymmetry of the aluminum structures gives rise to a strong symmetry broken color rendering effect, for which colors are observed only from one side of the surface normal. Using a combination of immersed laser interference lithography and nanoimprint lithography, our color rendering structures can be fabricated on areas many inches in size. We foresee applications in anticounterfeiting, photovoltaics, sensing, displays, and optical security. PMID:26498131

  7. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Biernat, Elmar P. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Peña, M. T. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidadede Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, J. E. [Centro de Física das Interações Fundamentais (CFIF), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora (Portugal); Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2016-01-22

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  8. Symmetry-breaking in drop bouncing on curved surfaces

    Liu, Yahua; Li, Jing; Yeomans, Julia M; Wang, Zuankai

    2015-01-01

    The impact of liquid drops on solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature, and of practical importance in many industrial processes. A drop hitting a flat surface retains a circular symmetry throughout the impact process. Here we show that a drop impinging on Echevaria leaves exhibits asymmetric bouncing dynamics with distinct spreading and retraction along two perpendicular directions. This is a direct consequence of the cylindrical leaves which have a convex/concave architecture of size comparable to the drop. Systematic experimental investigations on mimetic surfaces and lattice Boltzmann simulations reveal that this novel phenomenon results from an asymmetric momentum and mass distribution that allows for preferential fluid pumping around the drop rim. The asymmetry of the bouncing leads to ~40% reduction in contact time.

  9. Breaking Instance-Independent Symmetries In Exact Graph Coloring

    Aloul, F A; Ramani, A; Sakallah, K A; 10.1613/jair.1637

    2011-01-01

    Code optimization and high level synthesis can be posed as constraint satisfaction and optimization problems, such as graph coloring used in register allocation. Graph coloring is also used to model more traditional CSPs relevant to AI, such as planning, time-tabling and scheduling. Provably optimal solutions may be desirable for commercial and defense applications. Additionally, for applications such as register allocation and code optimization, naturally-occurring instances of graph coloring are often small and can be solved optimally. A recent wave of improvements in algorithms for Boolean satisfiability (SAT) and 0-1 Integer Linear Programming (ILP) suggests generic problem-reduction methods, rather than problem-specific heuristics, because (1) heuristics may be upset by new constraints, (2) heuristics tend to ignore structure, and (3) many relevant problems are provably inapproximable. Problem reductions often lead to highly symmetric SAT instances, and symmetries are known to slow down SAT solvers. In t...

  10. Dark Matter and Neutrino Masses from Global $U(1)_{B-L}$ Symmetry Breaking

    Lindner, Manfred; Schwetz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present a scenario were neutrino masses and Dark Matter are related due to a global $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry. Specifically we consider neutrino mass generation via the Zee{Babu two-loop mecha- nism, augmented by a scalar singlet whose VEV breaks the global $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry. In order to obtain a Dark Matter candidate we introduce two Standard Model singlet fermions. They form a pseudo-Dirac particle and are stable because of a remnant $Z_2$ symmetry. Hence, in this model the stability of Dark Matter follows from the global $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry. We discuss the Dark Matter phenomenology of the model, and compare it to similar models based on gauged $U(1)_{B-L}$. We argue that in contrast to the gauged versions, the model based on the global symmetry does not suffer from sever constraints from Z' searches.

  11. Spontaneous Time Symmetry Breaking in System with Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibrium: Evidences in Experimental Economics Data

    Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.

  12. Universality and Symmetry Breaking in Conformally Reduced Quantum Gravity

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    The scaling properties of quantum gravity are discussed by employing a class of proper-time regulators in the functional flow equation for the conformal factor within the formalism of the background field method. Renormalization group trajectories obtained by projecting the flow on a flat topology are more stable than those obtained from a projection on a spherical topology. In the latter case the ultraviolet flow can be characterized by a Hopf bifurcation with an ultraviolet attractive limiting cycle. Although the possibility of determining the infrared flow for an extended theory space can be severely hampered due to the conformal factor instability, we present a robust numerical approach to study the flow structure around the non-gaussian fixed point as an inverse-problem strategy. In particular it is shown the possibility of having a spontaneous breaking of the diffeomorphism invariance can be realized with non-local functionals of the volume operator.

  13. Simultaneous Transitions in Cuprate Momentum-Space Topology and Electronic Symmetry Breaking

    K. Fujita; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Inhee; Lee, Jinho; Hamidian, M. H.; Firmo, I. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Lawler, M J; Kim, E. -A.; Davis, J C

    2014-01-01

    The existence of electronic symmetry breaking in the underdoped cuprates, and its disappearance with increased hole-density $p$, are now widely reported. However, the relationship between this transition and the momentum space ($\\vec{k}$-space) electronic structure underpinning the superconductivity has not been established. Here we visualize the $\\vec{Q}$=0 (intra-unit-cell) and $\\vec{Q}\

  14. Aspects of semilocal BPS vortex in systems with Lorentz symmetry breaking

    Villalobos, C.H.C.; Silva, J.M.H. da; Hott, M.B. [UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espi rito Santo (UFES), Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    The existence is shown of a static self-dual semilocal vortex configuration for the Maxwell-Higgs system with a Lorentz-violating CPT-even term. The dependence of the vorticity upper limit on the Lorentz-symmetry-breaking term is also investigated. (orig.)

  15. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking By Dynamically Generated Masses of Quarks and Leptons Foreword

    Hošek, Jiří; Smetana, Adam

    Berlin: Springer, 2014, V-VII. ISBN 978-3-319-07072-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking * top-quark condensation * neutriono condensation * strong Yukawa dynamics * flavor gauge dynamics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  16. Probing electroweak symmetry breaking at the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider]: A no-lose corollary

    Low energy theorems are derived for scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z's, providing the basis for an estimate of the observable signal at the SSC if electroweak symmetry breaking is due to new physics at the TeV scale

  17. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    Whited, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  18. Scale symmetry breaking from total derivative densities and the cosmological constant problem

    The use in the action integral of totally divergent densities in generally coordinate invariant theories can lead to interesting mechanisms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale invariance. With dependence in the action on a metric independent density Φ, in 4D, we can define Φ=εμναβ∂μAναβ that gives a new interesting mechanism for breaking scale symmetry in 4D theories of gravity plus matter fields, through the Aναβ equations of motion which lead to an integration constant the breaks the scale symmetry, while introducing terms of the form eGlnK, e being the determinant of the vierbein, G being the Gauss–Bonnet scalar and K being scalar functions of the fields transforming like K→cK (where c is a constant) under a scale transformation. Such a term is invariant only up to a total divergence and therefore leads to breaking of scale invariance due to gravitational instantons. The topological density constructed out of gauge field strengths εμναβFμνaFαβa can be coupled to the dilaton field linearly to produce a scale invariant term up to a total divergence. The scale symmetry can be broken by Yang–Mills instantons which lead to a very small vacuum energy for our Universe.

  19. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in SO(3) Gauge Theory to Discrete Subgroups

    Etesi, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    A systematical description of possible symmetry breakings in the SO(3) gauge theory and an algorithmical method to construct SU(2) or SO(3) invariant Higgs potentials in an arbitrary irreducible representation is given. We close our paper with the explicit construction of the Lagrangian of the simplest SO(3) theory violated to its subgroup A_4.

  20. Charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei: updated HYP 2015 progress report

    Gal, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing progress in understanding and evaluating charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei is discussed in connection to recent measurements of the $_{\\Lambda}^{4}{\\rm H}(0^+_{\\rm g.s.})$ binding energy at MAMI [A1 Collaboration: PRL 114 (2015) 232501] and of the $_{\\Lambda}^{4}{\\rm He}(1^+_{\\rm exc})$ excitation energy at J-PARC [E13 Collaboration: PRL 115 (2015) 222501].

  1. Comments on the Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Soft Wall Holographic QCD

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe qualitatively some aspects of the holographic QCD. Inspired by a successfull 4D description, we try to separate the Confinement and the Chiral Symmetry Breaking dynamics. We also discuss the realization of the baryons as skyrmions in Soft Wall Holographic QCD, and the...

  2. Pseudo-magnetic catalysis of the time-reversal symmetry breaking in graphene

    Herbut, Igor F.

    2008-01-01

    Finite flux of the (time-reversal-symmetric) pseudo-magnetic field, which represents the effect of wrinkling of the graphene sheet for example, is shown to be a catalyst for spontaneous breaking of the time-reversal symmetry of Dirac fermions in two dimensions. Possible experimental consequences of this effect for graphene are discussed.

  3. Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules

    Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.

  4. Mirror-symmetry breakings in human sperm rheotaxis

    Stoop, Norbert; Bukatin, Anton; Kukhtevich, Igor; Dunkel, Joern; Kantsler, Vasily

    Rheotaxis, the directed response to fluid velocity gradients, has been shown to facilitate stable upstream-swimming of mammalian sperm cells along solid surfaces, suggesting a robust mechanism for long-distance navigation during fertilization. However, the dynamics by which a human sperm orients itself w.r.t. ambient flows is poorly understood. Here, we combine microfluidic experiments with mathematical modeling and 3D flagellar beat reconstruction to quantify the response of individual sperm cells in time-varying flow fields. Single-cell tracking reveals two kinematically distinct swimming states that entail opposite turning behaviors under flow reversal. We constrain an effective 2D model for the turning dynamics through systematic large-scale parameter scans, and find good quantitative agreement with experiments. We present comprehensive 3D data demonstrating the rolling dynamics of freely swimming sperm cells around their longitudinal axis. Contrary to current beliefs, this analysis uncovers ambidextrous flagellar waveforms and shows that the cell's turning direction is is not defined by the rolling direction. Instead, the different rheotactic turning behaviors are linked to a broken mirror-symmetry in the midpiece section, likely arising from a buckling instability.

  5. Centre vortices underpin dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$ gauge theory

    Trewartha, Daniel; Leinweber, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The link between dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and centre vortices in the gauge fields of pure $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$ gauge theory is studied using the overlap-fermion quark propagator in Lattice QCD. Overlap fermions provide a lattice realisation of chiral symmetry and consequently offer a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of centre vortices, instantons and dynamical mass generation. Simulations are performed on gauge fields featuring the removal of centre vortices, identified through gauge transformations maximising the center of the gauge group. In contrast to previous results using the staggered-fermion action, the overlap-fermion results illustrate a loss of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking coincident with vortex removal. This result is linked to the overlap-fermion's sensitivity to the subtle manner in which instanton degrees of freedom are compromised through the process of centre vortex removal. Backgrounds consisting solely of the identified centre vortices are also investigated. After smo...

  6. Radiative Symmetry Breaking in Supersymmetric $B-L$ Models with Inverse Seesaw

    Khalil, Shaaban

    2016-01-01

    We study the radiative symmetry breaking of B-L in supersymmetric models with inverse seesaw mechanism. We show that for a wide region of parameter space the radiative corrections can drive the squared mass of the extra Higgs boson from positive initial values at the GUT scale to negative values at the TeV scale, leading to the spontaneous breaking of the B-L symmetry. We also emphasize that in this class of models, unlike the supersymmetric B-L models with type I seesaw, the right-handed sneutrino cannot get a non-zero vacuum expectation value. Therefore, B-L can be radiatively broken while R-parity remains an exact symmetry.

  7. Evidence for a subtle structural symmetry breaking in EuB6

    This work presents a systematic Raman scattering study and first-principles calculations for the EuB6 system. Evidence for the presence of an incipient (∼1 x 10-4 A) tetragonal symmetry break of its crystalline structure was found. Forbidden Raman modes at ωfRm(1)∼1170 cm-1, ωfRm(2)∼1400 cm-1, and ωfRm(3)∼1500 cm-1 were observed. The tetragonal symmetry of ωfRm(2) and ωfRm(3) together with spin-polarized first-principles simulations of the structural and magnetic properties fully support such a break of symmetry. Our data and calculations explain the occurrence of ferromagnetism in Eu hexaborides, previously reported.

  8. The Origin of Space-Time as $W$ Symmetry Breaking in String Theory

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Ellis, John

    1992-01-01

    Physics in the neighbourhood of a space-time metric singularity is described by a world-sheet topological gauge field theory which can be represented as a twisted $N=2$ superconformal Wess-Zumino model with a $W_{1+\\infty} \\otimes W_{1+\\infty} $ bosonic symmetry. The measurable $W$-hair associated with the singularity is associated with Wilson loop integrals around gauge defects. The breaking of $W_{1+\\infty}$ $\\otimes $ $W_{1+\\infty}$ $\\rightarrow $ $W_{1+\\infty}$ is associated with expectation values for open Wilson lines that make the metric non-singular away from the singularity. This symmetry breaking is accompanied by massless discrete `tachyon' states that appear as leg poles in $S$-matrix elements. The triviality of the $S$-matrix in the high-energy limit of the $c=1$ string model, after renormalisation by the leg pole factors, is due to the restoration of double $W$-symmetry at the singularity.

  9. Precocious Gauge Symmetry Breaking in $SU(6) \\times SU(2)_R$ Model

    Hayashi, T; Matsuda, M; Matsuoka, T; Hayashi, Takemi; Ito, Masato; Matsuda, Masahisa; Matsuoka, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    In the $SU(6) \\times SU(2)_R$ string-inspired model, we evolve the couplings and the masses down from the string scale $M_S$ using the renormalization group equations and minimize the effective potential. This model has the flavor symmetry including the binary dihedral group $\\tilde{D}_4$. We show that the scalar mass squared of the gauge non-singlet matter field possibly goes negative slightly below the string scale. As a consequence, the precocious radiative breaking of the gauge symmetry down to the standard model gauge group can occur. In the present model, the large Yukawa coupling which plays an important role in the symmetry breaking is identical with the colored Higgs coupling related to the longevity of the proton.

  10. $SU(3)_{F}$ Gauge Family Model and New Symmetry Breaking Scale From FCNC Processes

    Bao, Shou-Shan; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the $SU(3)_{F}$ gauge family symmetry model which was proposed to explain the observed mass and mixing pattern of neutrinos, we investigate the symmetry breaking, the mixing pattern in quark and lepton sectors, and the contribution of the new gauge bosons to some flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) processes at low energy. With the current data of the mass differences in the neutral pseudo-scalar $P^{0}-\\bar{P}^{0}$ systems, we find that the $SU(3)_{F}$ symmetry breaking scale can be as low as 300TeV and the mass of the lightest gauge boson be about $100$TeV. Other FCNC processes, such as the lepton flavor number violation process $\\mu^{-}\\rightarrow e^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ and the semi-leptonic rare decay $K\\rightarrow \\pi \\bar{\

  11. Inversion symmetry breaking of atomic bound states in strong and short laser fields

    Stooß, Veit; Ott, Christian; Blättermann, Alexander; Ding, Thomas; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In any atomic species, the spherically symmetric potential originating from the charged nucleus results in fundamental symmetry properties governing the structure of atomic states and transition rules between them. If atoms are exposed to external electric fields, these properties are modified giving rise to energy shifts such as the AC Stark-effect in varying fields and, contrary to this in a constant (DC) electric field for high enough field strengths, the breaking of the atomic symmetry which causes fundamental changes in the atom's properties. This has already been observed for atomic Rydberg states with high principal quantum numbers. Here, we report on the observation of symmetry breaking effects in Helium atoms for states with principal quantum number n=2 utilizing strong visible laser fields. These findings were enabled by temporally resolving the dynamics better than the sub-optical cycle of the applied laser field, utilizing the method of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS). We ident...

  12. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1)R breaking scale fa is constrained as fa < 1012−14 GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass

  13. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the $U(1)_R$ breaking scale $f_a$ is constrained as $f_a<10^{12-14}\\GeV$ regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  14. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, D-22607 (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka, E-mail: hamada@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kohei.kamada@epfl.ch, E-mail: kobayash@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yutaka.ookouchi@artsci.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819–0395 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1){sub R} breaking scale f{sub a} is constrained as f{sub a} < 10{sup 12−14} GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  15. A study of symmetry breaking in a relativistic Bose gas using the contraction algorithm

    Alexandru, Andrei; Bedaque, Paulo; Ridgway, Gregory W; Warrington, Neill C

    2016-01-01

    A relativistic Bose gas at finite density suffers from a sign problem that makes direct numerical simulations not feasible. One possible solution to the sign problem is to re-express the path integral in terms of Lefschetz thimbles. Using this approach we study the relativistic Bose gas both in the symmetric phase (low-density) and the spontaneously broken phase (high-density). In the high-density phase we break explicitly the symmetry and determine the dependence of the order parameter on the breaking. We study the relative contributions of the dominant and sub-dominant thimbles in this phase. We find that the sub-dominant thimble only contributes substantially when the explicit symmetry breaking is small, a regime that is dominated by finite volume effects. In the regime relevant for the thermodynamic limit, this contribution is negligible.

  16. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Arts and Science

    2013-10-15

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1){sub R} breaking scale f{sub a} is constrained as f{sub a}<10{sup 12-14} GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  17. Electroweak symmetry breaking in the light of LHC

    The extra-dimensional extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of particles are now in a very active epoch of development. The motivations of introducing extra dimensions are based on one hand on string theories that require the existence of new dimensions to be consistent. On the other hand such theories can potentially explain the hierarchy problem, number of fermion generations, proton stability and other enigmas of the Standard Model. The common feature of these models is that they provide a new neutral weakly interacting particle - perfect candidate to the Dark Matter (DM). Its stability is preserved by the so-called KK parity which prohibits the decays of the the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle (LKP) into SM particles. The geometry of the underlying space determines the particle spectrum of the model, thus the mass and the spin of the DM candidate, which in turn plays the key role in the phenomenological studies We present a model with two universal extra dimensions compactified on a real projective plane. This particular geometry is chosen because chiral fermions can be defined on such orbifold and the stability of the neutral dark matter candidate arise naturally from the intrinsic geometrical properties of the space without adding any new symmetries ad hoc. We present the particle spectrum at loop order up to the second level in Kaluza-Klein expansion. The particularity of the spectrum is that the mass splittings within each KK level are highly degenerated providing a very interesting potential signatures in the LHC. We study the dark matter phenomenology in our model and constrain the parameter space by comparing our results with WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data and direct detection experiments. Using the obtained bounds we focus on the collider phenomenology of our model. (author)

  18. Robustness of the division symmetry in Escherichia coli and functional consequences of symmetry breaking

    The morphological symmetry of the division process of Escherichia coli is well-known. Recent studies verified that, in optimal growth conditions, most divisions are symmetric, although there are exceptions. We investigate whether such morphological asymmetries in division introduce functional asymmetries between sister cells, and assess the robustness of the symmetry in division to mild chemical stresses and sub-optimal temperatures. First, we show that the difference in size between daughter cells at birth is positively correlated to the difference between the numbers of fluorescent protein complexes inherited from the parent cell. Next, we show that the degree of symmetry in division observed in optimal conditions is robust to mild acidic shift and to mild oxidative stress, but not to sub-optimal temperatures, in that the variance of the difference between the sizes of sister cells at birth is minimized at 37 °C. This increased variance affects the functionality of the cells in that, at sub-optimal temperatures, larger/smaller cells arising from asymmetric divisions exhibit faster/slower division times than the mean population division time, respectively. On the other hand, cells dividing faster do not do so at the cost of morphological symmetry in division. Finally we show that at suboptimal temperatures the mean distance between the nucleoids increases, explaining the increased variance in division. We conclude that the functionality of E. coli cells is not immune to morphological asymmetries at birth, and that the effectiveness of the mechanism responsible for ensuring the symmetry in division weakens at sub-optimal temperatures. (paper)

  19. Coleman–Weinberg symmetry breaking in SU(8) induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2016-08-01

    We study SU(8) symmetry breaking induced by minimizing the Coleman–Weinberg effective potential for a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field in the 56 representation. Instead of breaking {SU}(8)\\supset {SU}(3)× {SU}(5), we find that the stable minimum of the potential breaks the original symmetry according to {SU}(8)\\supset {SU}(3)× {Sp}(4). Using both numerical and analytical methods, we present results for the potential minimum, the corresponding Goldstone boson structure and BEH mechanism, and the group-theoretic classification of the residual states after symmetry breaking.

  20. Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking in $SU(8)$ induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field

    Adler, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    We study $SU(8)$ symmetry breaking induced by minimizing the Coleman-Weinberg effective potential for a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field in the 56 representation. Instead of breaking $SU(8) \\supset SU(3) \\times SU(5)$, we find that the stable minimum of the potential breaks the original symmetry according to $SU(8) \\supset SU(3) \\times Sp(4)$. Using both numerical and analytical methods, we present results for the potential minimum, the corresponding Goldstone boson structure and BEH mechanism, and the group-theoretic classification of the residual states after symmetry breaking.

  1. Unification via intermediate symmetry breaking scales with the quartification gauge group

    Demaria, A; Volkas, R R

    2005-01-01

    The idea of quark-lepton universality at high energies has been introduced as a natural extension to the standard model. This is achieved by endowing leptons with new degrees of freedom -- leptonic colour, an analogue of the familiar quark colour. Grand and partially unified models which utilise this new gauge symmetry SU(3)_\\ell have been proposed in the context of the quartification gauge group SU(3)^4. Phenomenologically successful gauge coupling constant unification without supersymmetry has been demonstrated for cases where the symmetry breaking leaves a residual SU(2)_\\ell unbroken. Though attractive, these schemes either incorporate ad hoc discrete symmetries and non-renormalisable mass terms, or achieve only partial unification. We show that grand unified models can be constructed where the quartification group can be broken fully [i.e. no residual SU(2)_\\ell] to the standard model gauge group without requiring additional discrete symmetries or higher dimension operators. These models also automatical...

  2. Symmetry-breaking ground states of a spin-boson model

    Funck, P.

    1995-12-31

    The spin-boson model consists of a two-level system coupled to infinitely many harmonic oscillators and is regarded as a prototype for a `small` system, e.g., a molecule, interacting with its environment, e.g., the electromagnetic field. Main interest is focused to the question whether a ground state of the spin-boson system is breaking some symmetry with respect to which the Hamiltonian is invariant. For certain values of the system parameters (level splitting of the spin, frequencies of the field modes, and coupling strength) only one ground state exists, which is invariant with respect to the above-mentioned symmetry, while for other values of the parameters two symmetry-breaking ground states arise. In the latter case these two ground states are separated by a superselection rule, i.e., superpositions between the two ground states are forbidden. Superselection rules only arise for systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. The Ritz-Rayleigh variation principle allows, with a rigorous theoretical background, to investigate such systems within the framework of traditional Hilbert-space quantum mechanics. The variation principle is carried out with an ansatz where the state of the bosonic system is taken to be in a superposition of coherent states. The parameter ranges where symmetry-breaking ground states arise are investigated, and the possibilities and shortcomings of the ansatz are discussed. (author) figs., refs.

  3. Symmetry-breaking ground states of a spin-boson model

    The spin-boson model consists of a two-level system coupled to infinitely many harmonic oscillators and is regarded as a prototype for a 'small' system, e.g., a molecule, interacting with its environment, e.g., the electromagnetic field. Main interest is focused to the question whether a ground state of the spin-boson system is breaking some symmetry with respect to which the Hamiltonian is invariant. For certain values of the system parameters (level splitting of the spin, frequencies of the field modes, and coupling strength) only one ground state exists, which is invariant with respect to the above-mentioned symmetry, while for other values of the parameters two symmetry-breaking ground states arise. In the latter case these two ground states are separated by a superselection rule, i.e., superpositions between the two ground states are forbidden. Superselection rules only arise for systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. The Ritz-Rayleigh variation principle allows, with a rigorous theoretical background, to investigate such systems within the framework of traditional Hilbert-space quantum mechanics. The variation principle is carried out with an ansatz where the state of the bosonic system is taken to be in a superposition of coherent states. The parameter ranges where symmetry-breaking ground states arise are investigated, and the possibilities and shortcomings of the ansatz are discussed. (author) figs., refs

  4. Determination of time-reversal symmetry breaking lengths in an InGaAs interferometer array.

    Ren, S L; Heremans, J J; Vijeyaragunathan, S; Mishima, T D; Santos, M B

    2015-05-13

    Quantum interference oscillations due to the Aharonov-Bohm phase were measured in a ring interferometer array fabricated on a two-dimensional electron system in an InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure. Coexisting oscillations with magnetic flux periodicity h/e and h/2e were observed and their amplitudes compared as function of applied magnetic field. The h/2e oscillations originate in time-reversed trajectories with the ring interferometers operating in Sagnac-type mode, while the h/e oscillations result from Mach-Zehnder operation. The h/2e oscillations require time-reversal symmetry and hence can be used to quantify time-reversal symmetry breaking, more particularly the fundamental mesoscopic dephasing length associated with time-reversal symmetry breaking under applied magnetic field, an effective magnetic length. The oscillation amplitudes were investigated over magnetic fields spanning 2.2 T, using Fourier transforms over short segments of 40 mT. As the magnetic field increased, the h/2e oscillation amplitude decreased due to time-reversal symmetry breaking by the local magnetic flux in the interferometer arms. A dephasing model for quantum-coherent arrays was used to experimentally quantify effective magnetic lengths. The data was then compared with analytical expressions for diffusive, ballistic and confined systems. PMID:25880699

  5. Determination of time-reversal symmetry breaking lengths in an InGaAs interferometer array

    Quantum interference oscillations due to the Aharonov–Bohm phase were measured in a ring interferometer array fabricated on a two-dimensional electron system in an InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure. Coexisting oscillations with magnetic flux periodicity h/e and h/2e were observed and their amplitudes compared as function of applied magnetic field. The h/2e oscillations originate in time-reversed trajectories with the ring interferometers operating in Sagnac-type mode, while the h/e oscillations result from Mach–Zehnder operation. The h/2e oscillations require time-reversal symmetry and hence can be used to quantify time-reversal symmetry breaking, more particularly the fundamental mesoscopic dephasing length associated with time-reversal symmetry breaking under applied magnetic field, an effective magnetic length. The oscillation amplitudes were investigated over magnetic fields spanning 2.2 T, using Fourier transforms over short segments of 40 mT. As the magnetic field increased, the h/2e oscillation amplitude decreased due to time-reversal symmetry breaking by the local magnetic flux in the interferometer arms. A dephasing model for quantum-coherent arrays was used to experimentally quantify effective magnetic lengths. The data was then compared with analytical expressions for diffusive, ballistic and confined systems. (paper)

  6. Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality

    Čubrović, Mihailo

    2016-01-01

    We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous $U(1)$ symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale -- the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the break...

  7. Lattice QCD analysis for relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking

    Doi, Takahiro M.; Suganuma, Hideo; Iritani, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    The Polyakov loop and the Dirac modes are connected via a simple analytical relation on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal lattice size is odd with the normal (nontwisted) periodic boundary condition. Using this relation, we investigate the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this paper, we discuss the properties of this analytical relation and numerically investigate each Dirac-mode contribution to the Polyakov loop in both confinement and deconfinement phases at the quenched level. This relation indicates that low-lying Dirac modes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop, and we numerically confirmed this fact. From our analysis, it is suggested that there is no direct one-to-one corresponding between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Also, in the confinement phase, we numerically find that there is a new "positive/negative symmetry" in the Dirac-mode matrix elements of link-variable operator which appear in the relation and the Polyakov loop becomes zero because of this symmetry. In the deconfinement phase, this symmetry is broken and the Polyakov loop is non-zero.

  8. Consequences of breaking time reversal symmetry in LaSb: a resistivity plateau and extreme magnetoresistance

    Tafti, Fazel; Gibson, Quinn; Kushwaha, Satya; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Cava, Robert; Cava Lab Team

    Time reversal symmetry protects the metallic surface modes of topological insulators (TIs). The transport signature of robust metallic surface modes of TIs is a plateau that arrests the exponential divergence of the insulating bulk with decreasing temperature. This universal behavior is observed in all TI candidates ranging from Bi2Te2Se to SmB6. Recently, several topological semimetals (TSMs) have been found that exhibit extreme magnetoresistance (XMR) and TI universal resistivity behavior revealed only when breaking TRS, a regime where TIs theoretically cease to exist. Amongst these new materials, TaAs and NbP are nominated for Weyl semimetal due to their lack of inversion symmetry, Cd3As2 is nominated for Dirac semimetal due to linear band crossing, and WTe2 is nominated for resonant compensated semimetal due to perfect electron-hole symmetry. Here we introduce LaSb, a simple rock-salt structure material without broken inversion symmetry, without perfect linear band crossing, and without perfect electron-hole symmetry. Yet LaSb portrays all the exotic field induced behaviors of the aforementioned semimetals. It shows the universal TI resistivity with a plateau at 15 K, revealed by a magnetic field, ultrahigh mobility of carriers, quantum oscillations with 2D Fermi surface, and XMR of about one million percent. Due to its dramatic simplicity, LaSb is the ideal model system to formulate a theoretical understanding of the exotic consequences of breaking TRS in TSMs.

  9. Conformal symmetry breaking and degeneracy of high-lying unflavored mesons

    Kirchbach, Mariana; Pallares-Rivera, Adrian; Compean, Cliffor; Raya, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    We show that though conformal symmetry can be broken by the dilaton, such can happen without breaking the conformal degeneracy patterns in the spectra. Our argumentation goes as follows: We departure from the gauge-gravity duality which predicts on the boundaries of the AdS5 geometry a conformal theory, associated with QCD at high temperatures, and consider S1 × S3 slicing. The inverse radius, R, of S3 relates to the temperature of the deconfinement phase transition and has to satisfy, hslashc/R gg ΛQCD. On S3, whose isometry group is SO(4), we then focus on the eigenvalue problem of the conformal Laplacian there, given by , with standing for the Casimir invariant of the so(4) algebra. This eigenvalue problem describes the spectrum of a scalar particle, to be associated with a qbar q system. Such a spectrum is characterized by a (K + l)2-fold degeneracy of its levels, with K in [0, ∞). We then break the conformal S3 metric, ds2 = dχ2 + sin2 χ(dθ2 + sin2θdvarphi2) -in polar chi,θ, and azimuthal varphi coordinates- according to, ds~2 = e-bχ((1 + b2/4)dχ2 + sin2 chi(dθ2 + sin2θdvarphi2)), and attribute the symmetry breaking scale bhslash2c2/R2 to the dilaton. Next we show that the above metric deformation is equivalent to a breaking of the conformal curvature of S3 by a term proportional to b cot χ, and that the perturbed conformal Laplacian is equivalent to , with cκ a representation constant, and being again an so(4) Casimir invariant, but this time in a representation unitarily nonequivalent to the 4D rotational one. As long as the spectra before and after the symmetry breaking happen to be determined each by eigenvalues of a Casimir invariant of an so(4), no matter whether or not in a representation that generates the orthogonal group SO(4) as a subgroup of the conformal group SO(2,4), the degeneracy patterns remain unaltered though the conformal symmetry breaks at the level of the representation of the algebra. We fit the S3 radius and the hslash2c

  10. Emergent p-wave Kondo Coupling in Multi-Orbital Bands with Mirror Symmetry Breaking

    Rhim, Jun Won; Han, Jung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We examine Kondo effect in the periodic Anderson model for which the conduction band is of multi-orbital character and subject to mirror symmetry breaking field imposed externally. Taking p-orbital-based toy model for analysis, we find the Kondo pairing symmetry of p-wave character emerges self-consistently over some regions of parameter space and filling factor even though only the on-site Kondo hybridization is assumed in the microscopic Hamiltonian. The band structure in the Kondo-hybridiz...

  11. Dynamical symmetry breaking of the electroweak interactions and the renormalization group

    We discuss dynamical symmetry breaking with an emphasis on the renormalization group as the key tool to obtaining reliable predictions. In particular we discuss the mechanism for breaking the electroweak interactions which relies upon the formation of condensates involving the conventional quarks and leptons. Such a scheme indicates that the top quark is heavy, greater than or of order 200 GeV, and gives further predictions for the Higgs boson mass. We also briefly describe recent attempts to incorporate a 4th generation in a more natural scheme. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Low energy excitations in fermionic spin glasses: A quantum-dynamical image of Parisi symmetry breaking

    We report large effects of Parisi replica permutation symmetry breaking (RPSB) on elementary excitations of fermionic systems with frustrated magnetic interactions. The electronic density of states is obtained exactly in the zero temperature limit for (K = 1)- step RPSB together with relations for arbitrary breaking K, which lead to a new fermionic and dynamical Parisi solution at K = ∞. The Ward identity for charge conservation indicates RPSB-effects on the conductivity in metallic quantum spin glasses. This implies that RPSB is essential for any fermionic system showing spin glass sections within its phase diagram. An astonishing similarity with a neural network problem is also observed. (author)

  13. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances

  14. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    Gorbunov, D S

    2005-01-01

    We present an extension of the Randall--Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam--Veltman--Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

  15. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    Gorbunov, Dmitry S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, Sergei M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

  16. Strong-interaction isospin-symmetry breaking within the density functional theory

    Baczyk, Pawel; Konieczka, Maciej; Satula, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The conventional Skyrme interaction is generalized by adding zero-range charge-symmetry-breaking and charge-independence-breaking terms, and the corresponding energy density functional is derived. It is shown that the extended model accounts for experimental values of mirror and triplet displacement energies (MDEs and TDEs) in sd-shell isospin triplets with, on average, about 100~keV precision using only two additional adjustable coupling constants. Moreover, the model is able to reproduce, for the first time, the A=4n versus A=4n+2 staggering of the TDEs.

  17. Re-examination of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Supersymmetry and Implications for Light Superpartners

    Kane, G L; Nelson, B D; Wang, L T; Nelson, Brent D.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2003-01-01

    We examine arguments that could avoid light superpartners as an implication of supersymmetric radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. We argue that, from the point of view of string theory and standard approaches to generating the mu-term, cancellations among parameters are not a generic feature. While the coefficients relating the Z-mass to parameters in the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian can be made smaller, these same mechanisms lead to lighter superpartner masses at the electroweak scale. Consequently we strengthen the implication that gluinos, neutralinos, and charginos are light and likely to be produced at the Fermilab Tevatron and a linear collider.

  18. Fermion condensates and Lorentz symmetry breaking in strongly-coupled large N gauge theories

    Tomboulis, E T

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB) has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Spontaneous LSB, in particular, offers the attractive prospect of the graviton as a Nambu-Golstone boson. Here we consider the question of spontaneous LSB in lattice gauge theories via formation of fermion condensates in the strong coupling and large N limits. We employ naive massless fermions in a fermionic hopping expansion in the presence of sources coupled to various condensate operators of interest. The expansion is resumed in the large N limit in two equivalent ways: (i) direct resummation of all leading N graphs; and (ii) construction of the corresponding large N effective action for composite operators. When sources are turned off a variety of fermionic condensates is found to persist. These include the chiral symmetry breaking condensates, thus recovering previous results; but also some LSB condensates, in particular, axial vector and rank-2 tensor condensates. Furthermore, in the presence of inte...

  19. The Tayler instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers: between chiral symmetry breaking and helicity oscillations

    Weber, Norbert; Stefani, Frank; Weier, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Tayler instability is a kink-type, current driven instability that plays an important role in plasma physics but might also be relevant in liquid metal applications with high electrical currents. In the framework of the Tayler-Spruit dynamo model of stellar magnetic field generation, the question of spontaneous helical (chiral) symmetry breaking during the saturation of the Tayler instability has received considerable interest. Focusing on fluids with low magnetic Prandtl numbers, for which the quasistatic approximation can be applied, we utilize an integro-differential equation approach in order to investigate the saturation mechanism of the Tayler instability. Both the exponential growth phase and the saturated phase are analyzed in terms of the action of the alpha and beta effects of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics. In the exponential growth phase we always find a spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which, however, disappears in the saturated phase. For higher degrees of supercriticality, we observe h...

  20. Synthetic Turing protocells: vesicle self-reproduction through symmetry-breaking instabilities.

    Macía, Javier; Solé, Ricard V

    2007-10-29

    The reproduction of a living cell requires a repeatable set of chemical events to be properly coordinated. Such events define a replication cycle, coupling the growth and shape change of the cell membrane with internal metabolic reactions. Although the logic of such process is determined by potentially simple physico-chemical laws, modelling of a full, self-maintained cell cycle is not trivial. Here we present a novel approach to the problem that makes use of so-called symmetry breaking instabilities as the engine of cell growth and division. It is shown that the process occurs as a consequence of the breaking of spatial symmetry and provides a reliable mechanism of vesicle growth and reproduction. Our model opens the possibility of a synthetic protocell lacking information but displaying self-reproduction under a very simple set of chemical reactions. PMID:17510018

  1. CERN LHC sensitivity to the resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector

    Dobado, A; Peláez, J R; Ruiz-Morales, Ester

    2000-01-01

    We present a unified analysis of the two main production processes of vector boson pairs at the CERN LHC, VV-fusion and qq annihilation, in a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector. Using a unitarized electroweak chiral Lagrangian formalism and modeling the final V/sub L/V/sub L/ strong rescattering effects by a form factor, we describe qq annihilation processes in terms of the two chiral parameters that govern elastic V/sub L/V/sub L/ scattering. Depending on the values of these two chiral parameters, the unitarized amplitudes may present resonant enhancements in different angular momentum-isospin channels. Scanning this two parameter space, we generate the general resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector and determine the regions that can be probed at the CERN LHC. (47 refs).

  2. Nonlinearity in cytoplasm viscosity can generate an essential symmetry breaking in cellular behaviors.

    Tachikawa, Masashi; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The cytoplasms of ameboid cells are nonlinearly viscous. The cell controls this viscosity by modulating the amount, localization and interactions of bio-polymers. Here we investigated how the nonlinearity infers the cellular behaviors and whether nonlinearity-specific behaviors exist. We modeled the developed plasmodium of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum as a network of branching tubes and examined the linear and nonlinear viscous cytoplasm flows in the tubes. We found that the nonlinearity in the cytoplasm׳s viscosity induces a novel type of symmetry breaking in the protoplasmic flow. We also show that symmetry breaking can play an important role in adaptive behaviors, namely, connection of behavioral modes implemented on different time scales and transportation of molecular signals from the front to the rear of the cell during cellular locomotion. PMID:25261729

  3. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking with a Heavy Fermion in Light of Recent LHC Results

    Pham Q. Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent announcement of a discovery of a possible Higgs-like particle—its spin and parity are yet to be determined—at the LHC with a mass of 126 GeV necessitates a fresh look at the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking, in particular if this newly-discovered particle will turn out to have the quantum numbers of a Standard Model Higgs boson. Even if it were a 0+ scalar with the properties expected for a SM Higgs boson, there is still the quintessential hierarchy problem that one has to deal with and which, by itself, suggests a new physics energy scale around 1 TeV. This paper presents a minireview of one possible scenario: the formation of a fermion-antifermion condensate coming from a very heavy fourth generation, carrying the quantum number of the SM Higgs field, and thus breaking the electroweak symmetry.

  4. Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks

    2007-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking, which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero. In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory, one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses, and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit. This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks, without any ambiguous mass extrapolation. The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD, which deserves further investigation.

  5. Twisted spectral triple for the Standard Model and spontaneous breaking of the Grand Symmetry

    Devastato, Agostino

    2014-01-01

    Grand symmetry models in noncommutative geometry have been introduced to explain how to generate minimally (i.e. without adding new fermions) an extra scalar field beyond the standard model, which both stabilizes the electroweak vacuum and makes the computation of the mass of the Higgs compatible with its experimental value. In this paper, we use Connes-Moscovici twisted spectral triples to cure a technical problem of the grand symmetry, that is the appearance together with the extra scalar field of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded, and also permits to understand the breaking to the standard model as a dynamical process induced by the spectral action. This is a spontaneous breaking from a pre-geometric Pati-Salam model to the almost-commutative geometry of the standard model, with two Higgs-like fields: scalar and vector.

  6. New Evidence about the Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking: Action of an Asymmetric Weak Heat Source.

    Mineo, Placido; Villari, Valentina; Scamporrino, Emilio; Micali, Norberto

    2015-09-17

    In the present study, we show how, in a stagnant water solution of uncharged aggregated achiral porphyrin-based molecules, a mirror-symmetry breaking (SB) can be induced and controlled by means of a weak asymmetric thermal gradient. In particular, it is shown that the optical activity of the aggregate porphyrin solution can be generated and reversed, in sign, only acting on the thermal ramp direction (heating or cooling). In order to avoid data misinterpretation, the aggregate structure modifications with the temperature change and the linear dichroism contribution to circular dichroism spectra were evaluated. A model simulation, using a finite element analysis approach describing the thermal flows, shows that small thermal gradients are able to give rise to asymmetric heat flow. The results reported here can be considered new evidence about the spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomenon induced by very weak forces having an important role in the natural chiral selective processes. PMID:26315854

  7. Symmetry breaking in gastropod locomotion through acceleration or deceleration of the pedal waves

    Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Lai, Janice; Shepherd, Robert D.; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2008-03-01

    Marine and terrestrial gastropods move by gliding over a ventral foot that is lubricated by secreted mucus (terrestrial) or simply by water (marine). The rim of the ventral foot generates suction forces that keep the animal adhered to the substrate. The central part of the foot produces a forward traction force by generating trains of pedal waves through periodic muscle contractions. Recent experiments show that, in some gastropods, these pedal waves become faster and longer as they move forward, suggesting a mechanism for breaking the symmetry in the flow between the pedal waves and the substrate. To investigate this mechanism, we have analyzed theoretically a two-dimensional lubrication layer between a train of waves of slowly varying length and speed, and a flat, rigid, impermeable surface. The inhomogeneity of the pedal waves has been modeled through multiple-scale asymptotics. We have considered a Newtonian fluid to separate the effect of this inhomogeneity from the viscoelastic symmetry breaking reported in previous works.

  8. Local symmetry breaking and spin–phonon coupling in SmCrO{sub 3} orthochromite

    El Amrani, M. [GREMAN CNRS UMR 7347, Université F. Rabelais, IUT de Blois, 15 rue de la Chocolatrie 41029 Blois cedex (France); Zaghrioui, M., E-mail: zaghrioui@univ-tours.fr [GREMAN CNRS UMR 7347, Université F. Rabelais, IUT de Blois, 15 rue de la Chocolatrie 41029 Blois cedex (France); Ta Phuoc, V.; Gervais, F. [GREMAN CNRS UMR 7347, Université F. Rabelais, IUT de Blois, 15 rue de la Chocolatrie 41029 Blois cedex (France); Massa, Néstor E. [Laboratorio Nacional de Investigacion y Servicios en Espectroscopia Optica-Centro CEQUINOR, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C. C. 962, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    Raman scattering and infrared reflectivity performed on polycrystalline SmCrO{sub 3} support strong influence of the antiferromagnetic order on phonon modes. Both measurements show softening of some modes below T{sub N}. Such a behavior is explained by spin–phonon coupling in this compound. Furthermore, temperature dependence of the infrared spectra has demonstrated important changes compared to the Raman spectra, suggesting strong structural modifications due to the cation displacements rather to those of the oxygen ions. Our results reveal that polar distortions originating in local symmetry breaking, i.e. local non-centrosymmetry, resulting in Cr off-centring. - Highlights: • We investigated Raman and infrared phonon modes of SmCrO{sub 3} versus temperature. • Results reveal strong influence of the antiferromagnetic order on phonon modes. • Temperature dependence of the infrared spectra shows strong structural modifications suggesting local symmetry breaking.

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking and violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in underdoped cuprates

    We propose that the recently observed violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in the normal state of underdoped cuprates is caused by spin-charge separation and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in a (2+1)-dimensional system consisting of massless Dirac fermions, charged bosons, and a gauge field. While the d-wave spinon gap vanishes at the Fermi points, the nodal fermions acquire a finite mass due to strong gauge fluctuations. This mass provides a gap below which no free fermions can be excited. This implies that there is not a residual linear term for the thermal conductivity, in good agreement with experiments. Other physical implications of the chiral symmetry breaking are also discussed

  10. On the Spontaneous Breaking of U(N) symmetry in invariant Matrix Models

    Franchini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Matrix Models have a strong history of success in describing a variety of situations, from nuclei spectra to conduction in mesoscopic systems, from strongly interacting systems to various aspects of mathematical physics. Traditionally, the requirement of base invariance has lead to a factorization of the eigenvalue and eigenvector distribution and, in turn, to the conclusion that invariant models describe extended systems. Moreover, Wigner-Dyson statistics for the eigenvalues is a hallmark of eigenvector delocalization. We show that deviations of the eigenvalue statistics from the Wigner-Dyson universality (in the form of a gap) reflects itself on the eigenvector distribution and that the phase transition observed when the eigenvalue density become disconnected corresponds to a breaking of the U(N) symmetry to a smaller one. This spontaneous symmetry breaking means that the system looses ergodicity, with implications on localization problems, as well as for fundamental theories.

  11. Conditions for the emergence of gauge bosons from spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking

    Escobar, C A

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of gauge particles (e.g., photons and gravitons) as Goldstone bosons arising from spontaneous symmetry breaking is an interesting hypothesis which would provide a dynamical setting for the gauge principle. We investigate this proposal in the framework of a general $% SO(N)$ non-abelian Nambu model (NANM), effectively providing spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking in terms of the corresponding Goldstone bosons. Using a non-perturbative Hamiltonian analysis, we prove that the $SO(N)$ Yang--Mills theory is equivalent to the corresponding NANM, after current conservation together with the Gauss laws are imposed as initial conditions for the latter. This equivalence is independent of any gauge fixing in the YM theory. A substantial conceptual and practical improvement in the analysis arises by choosing a particular parametrization that solves the non-linear constraint defining the NANM. This choice allows us to show that the relation between the NANM canonical variables and the corresponding ones of...

  12. Patterns of chiral symmetry breaking and a candidate for a C-theorem in four dimensions

    Levinsen, J

    2002-01-01

    We test a candidate for a four-dimensional C-function. This is done by considering all asymptotically free, vectorlike gauge theories with N_f flavors and fermions in arbitrary representations of any simple Lie group. Assuming spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in the infrared limit and that the value of the C-function in this limit is determined by the number of Goldstone bosons, we find that only in the case of a theory with two colors and fermions in one single pseudo-real representation of SU(2) the C-theorem seems to be violated. Conversely, this might also be a sign of new constraints, restricting the number of flavors consistent with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. For all other groups and representations we find that this candidate C-function decreases along the renormalization group flow.

  13. Symmetry breaking in periodic and solitary gravity-capillary waves on water of finite depth

    Zufiria, Juan A.

    1987-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear model is developed from the Hamiltonian formulation of water waves, to study the bifurcation structure of gravity-capillary waves on water of finite depth. It is found that, besides a very rich structure of symmetric solutions, non-symmetric Wilton's ripples exist. They appear via a spontaneous symmetry breaking bifurcation from symmetric solutions. The bifurcation tree is similar to that for gravity waves. The solitary wave with surface tension is studied with the same mod...

  14. Instanton-dyon Ensemble with two Dynamical Quarks: the Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This is the second paper of the series aimed at understanding of the ensemble of the instanton-dyons, now with two flavors of light dynamical quarks. The partition function is appended by the fermionic factor, $(det T)^{N_f}$ and Dirac eigenvalue spectra at small values are derived from the numerical simulation of 64 dyons. Those spectra show clear chiral symmetry breaking pattern at high dyon density. Within current accuracy, the confinement and chiral transitions occur at very similar densities.

  15. Magnetic Catalysis of Dynamical Symmetry Breaking and Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    Miransky, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of the magnetic catalysis of dynamical symmetry breaking is based on the dimensional reduction $D\\to D-2$ in the dynamics of fermion pairing in a magnetic field. We discuss similarities between this phenomenon and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. This leads to the interpretation of the dynamics of the (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model with a non-integer number of fermion colors as a quantum field theoretical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm dynamics.

  16. Symmetry-breaking in the response of the parametrically excited pendulum model

    A planar pendulum is considered which is parametrically excited by a periodic vertical force. The amplitude and frequency of the excitation are used as control parameters. The downward, hanging and the upward, inverted positions correspond to equilibrium positions if we only consider the variation in angle measured from the downward position. For moderate levels of forcing, there are zones that exist in the space of control parameters, where the downward hanging position is unstable and initial conditions that are close to the hanging position lead to steady state oscillations of period-2. To review this situation, this paper describes the development of these oscillations as the amplitude of forcing is varied. In the largest zone, a symmetry-breaking occurs which brings about a pair of asymmetric oscillations. This break in symmetry of the period-2 solution can lead to either an increase or decrease in the amplitude of the forthcoming swing and reference to the experimental significance of this angle change is noted in this paper. Typically, further increases of the parameter produce a cascade of period doubling bifurcations, before most oscillating solutions eventually lose their stability so that the system must experience a rotation. As a result, symmetry-breaking becomes an effective precursor to escape from the local potential well around the hanging position. Here we compare this behaviour with that in other resonance zones. The change of geometric structure when the symmetry-breaking bifurcation occurs is examined and graphically represented as a 'pinched' cylinder-like shape, compared with the Moebius strip that has been associated with the period-doubling bifurcation. The paper also refers to practical problems, where the introduction of nonlinearity means that potentially all frequencies below the main zone of the control space lead to dangerous effects and in some scenarios disastrous outcomes

  17. Chiral symmetry breaking with a confining propagator and dynamically massive gluons

    Natale, A. A.; Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Machado, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is studied introducing a confining effective propagator, as proposed recently by Cornwall, and considering the effect of dynamically massive gluons. The effective confining propagator has the form $1/(k^2+m^2)^2$ and we study the bifurcation equation finding limits on the parameter $m$ below which a satisfactory fermion mass solution is generated. Since the coupling constant and gluon propagator are damped in the infrared, due to the presence of a dynamical glu...

  18. The Origin of Space-Time as $W$ Symmetry Breaking in String Theory

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, N.E.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1992-01-01

    Physics in the neighbourhood of a space-time metric singularity is described by a world-sheet topological gauge field theory which can be represented as a twisted $N=2$ superconformal Wess-Zumino model with a $W_{1+\\infty} \\otimes W_{1+\\infty} $ bosonic symmetry. The measurable $W$-hair associated with the singularity is associated with Wilson loop integrals around gauge defects. The breaking of $W_{1+\\infty}$ $\\otimes $ $W_{1+\\infty}$ $\\rightarrow $ $W_{1+\\infty}$ is associated with expectat...

  19. Symmetry-breaking in the response of the parametrically excited pendulum model

    Bishop, S.R. [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Sofroniou, A. [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Shi, P. [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    A planar pendulum is considered which is parametrically excited by a periodic vertical force. The amplitude and frequency of the excitation are used as control parameters. The downward, hanging and the upward, inverted positions correspond to equilibrium positions if we only consider the variation in angle measured from the downward position. For moderate levels of forcing, there are zones that exist in the space of control parameters, where the downward hanging position is unstable and initial conditions that are close to the hanging position lead to steady state oscillations of period-2. To review this situation, this paper describes the development of these oscillations as the amplitude of forcing is varied. In the largest zone, a symmetry-breaking occurs which brings about a pair of asymmetric oscillations. This break in symmetry of the period-2 solution can lead to either an increase or decrease in the amplitude of the forthcoming swing and reference to the experimental significance of this angle change is noted in this paper. Typically, further increases of the parameter produce a cascade of period doubling bifurcations, before most oscillating solutions eventually lose their stability so that the system must experience a rotation. As a result, symmetry-breaking becomes an effective precursor to escape from the local potential well around the hanging position. Here we compare this behaviour with that in other resonance zones. The change of geometric structure when the symmetry-breaking bifurcation occurs is examined and graphically represented as a 'pinched' cylinder-like shape, compared with the Moebius strip that has been associated with the period-doubling bifurcation. The paper also refers to practical problems, where the introduction of nonlinearity means that potentially all frequencies below the main zone of the control space lead to dangerous effects and in some scenarios disastrous outcomes.

  20. Dark chiral symmetry breaking and the origin of the electroweak scale

    Carone, Christopher D., E-mail: cdcaro@wm.edu; Ramos, Raymundo, E-mail: raramos@email.wm.edu

    2015-06-30

    We study a classically scale-invariant model in which strong dynamics in a dark sector sets the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking. Our model is distinct from others of this type that have appeared in the recent literature. We show that the Higgs sector of the model is phenomenologically viable and that the spectrum of dark sector states includes a partially composite dark matter candidate.

  1. Dark chiral symmetry breaking and the origin of the electroweak scale

    We study a classically scale-invariant model in which strong dynamics in a dark sector sets the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking. Our model is distinct from others of this type that have appeared in the recent literature. We show that the Higgs sector of the model is phenomenologically viable and that the spectrum of dark sector states includes a partially composite dark matter candidate

  2. Chiral-symmetry breaking and pion structure in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Biernat, Elmar P; Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred; Ribeiro, Emílio

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a covariant approach in Minkowski space for the description of quarks and mesons that exhibits both chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement. In a simple model for the interquark interaction the quark mass function is obtained and used in the calculation of the pion form factor. We study the effects of the mass function and of the different quark pole contributions on the pion form factor.

  3. $SU(n)$ symmetry breaking by rank three and rank two antisymmetric tensor scalars

    Adler, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    We study $SU(n)$ symmetry breaking by rank three and rank two antisymmetric tensor fields. Using tensor analysis, we derive branching rules for the adjoint and antisymmetric tensor representations, and explain why for general $SU(n)$ one finds the same $U(1)$ generator mismatch that we noted earlier in special cases. We then compute the masses of the various scalar fields in the branching expansion, in terms of parameters of the general renormalizable potential for the antisymmetric tensor fields.

  4. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking By Dynamically Generated Masses of Quarks and Leptons Introduction

    Hošek, Jiří; Smetana, Adam

    Berlin: Springer, 2014, s. 1-16. ISBN 978-3-319-07072-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking * top-quark condensation * neutriono condensation * strong Yukawa dynamics * flavor gauge dynamics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  5. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking By Dynamically Generated Masses of Quarks and Leptons Conclusions

    Hošek, Jiří; Smetana, Adam

    Berlin: Springer, 2014, s. 127-129. ISBN 978-3-319-07072-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking * top-quark condensation * neutriono condensation * strong Yukawa dynamics * flavor gauge dynamics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  6. Breaking the symmetry. The first steps of a new way of thinking

    Sardella, Ignazio A.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (SSB) represents a real breakthrough for present description of fundamental interactions by means of gauge theories. Although the underlying ideas were ancient, their formalization required a long time, due to epistemological obstacles and technical difficulties. In this paper, the main steps of SSB evolution are briefly outlined, from the introduction of the order parameter in the Thirties to the birth of the many-body theory at the end of the Fif...

  7. Synthetic Turing protocells: vesicle self-reproduction through symmetry-breaking instabilities

    Macía, Javier; Solé, Ricard V.

    2006-01-01

    The reproduction of a living cell requires a repeatable set of chemical events to be properly coordinated. Such events define a replication cycle, coupling the growth and shape change of the cell membrane with internal metabolic reactions. Although the logic of such process is determined by potentially simple physico-chemical laws, the modeling of a full, self-maintained cell cycle is not trivial. Here we present a novel approach to the problem which makes use of so called symmetry breaking i...

  8. Symmetry Breaking, Central Charges and the AdS_2/CFT_1 Correspondence

    Cadoni, Mariano; Mignemi, Salvatore

    2000-01-01

    When two-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space (AdS_2) is endowed with a non-constant dilaton the origin of the central charge in the Virasoro algebra generating the asymptotic symmetries of AdS_2 can be traced back to the breaking of the SL(2,R) isometry group of AdS_2. We use this fact to clarify some controversial results appeared in the literature about the value of the central charge in these models.

  9. Benchmarking Density Functional Theory Approaches for the Description of Symmetry-Breaking in Long Polymethine Dyes

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2016-04-25

    Long polymethines are well-known experimentally to symmetry-break, which dramatically modifies their linear and nonlinear optical properties. Computational modeling could be very useful to provide insight into the symmetry-breaking process, which is not readily available experimentally; however, accurately predicting the crossover point from symmetric to symmetry-broken structures has proven challenging. Here, we benchmark the accuracy of several DFT approaches relative to CCSD(T) geometries. In particular, we compare analogous hybrid and long-range corrected (LRC) functionals to clearly show the influence of the functional exchange term. Although both hybrid and LRC functionals can be tuned to reproduce the CCSD(T) geometries, the LRC functionals are better performing at reproducing the geometry evolution with chain length and provide a finite upper limit for the gas-phase crossover point; these methods also provide good agreement with the experimental crossover points for more complex polymethines in polar solvents. Using an approach based on LRC functionals, a reduction in the crossover length is found with increasing medium dielectric constant, which is related to localization of the excess charge on the end groups. Symmetry-breaking is associated with the appearance of an imaginary frequency of b2 symmetry involving a large change in the degree of bond-length alternation. Examination of the IR spectra show that short, isolated streptocyanines have a mode at ~1200 cm-1 involving a large change in bond-length alternation; as the polymethine length or the medium dielectric increases, the frequency of this mode decreases before becoming imaginary at the crossover point.

  10. Replica symmetry breaking in mean-field spin glasses through the Hamilton–Jacobi technique

    During the last few years, through the combined effort of the insight coming from physical intuition and computer simulation, and the exploitation of rigorous mathematical methods, the main features of the mean-field Sherrington–Kirkpatrick spin glass model have been firmly established. In particular, it has been possible to prove the existence and uniqueness of the infinite-volume limit for the free energy, and its Parisi expression, in terms of a variational principle involving a functional order parameter. Even the expected property of ultrametricity, for the infinite-volume states, seems to be near to a complete proof. The main structural feature of this model, and related models, is the deep phenomenon of spontaneous replica symmetry breaking (RSB), discovered by Parisi many years ago. By expanding on our previous work, the aim of this paper is to investigate a general framework, where replica symmetry breaking is embedded in a kind of mechanical scheme of the Hamilton–Jacobi type. Here, the analog of the 'time' variable is a parameter characterizing the strength of the interaction, while the 'space' variables rule out quantitatively the broken replica symmetry pattern. Starting from the simple cases, where annealing is assumed, or replica symmetry, we build up a progression of dynamical systems, with an increasing number of space variables, which allow us to weaken the effect of the potential in the Hamilton–Jacobi equation as the level of symmetry breaking is increased. This new machinery allows us to work out mechanically the general K-step RSB solutions, in a different interpretation with respect to the replica trick, and easily reveals their properties such as existence or uniqueness

  11. The breaking of the flavour permutational symmetry Mass textures and the CKM matrix

    Mondragón, A

    1999-01-01

    Different anzätse for the breaking of the flavour permutational symmetry acording to S_{L}(3) X S_{R}(3) \\supset S_{L}(2) X S_{R}(2) give different Hermitian mass matrices of the same modified Fritzsch type, which differ in the symmetry breaking pattern. In this work we obtain a clear and precise indication on the preferred symmetry breaking scheme from a fit of the predicted |V^{th}| to the experimentally determined absolute values of the elements of the CKM matrix. The preferred scheme leads to simple mass textures and allows us to compute the CKM mixing matrix, the Jarlskog invariant J, and the three inner angles of the unitarity triangle in terms of four quark mass ratios and only one free parameter: the CP violating phase \\Phi. Excellent agreement with the experimentally determined absolute values of the entries in the CKM matrix is obtained for \\Phi=90 degrees. The corresponding computed values of the Jarlskog invariant and the inner angles are J=3 x 10^{-5}, agreement with current data on CP violation...

  12. Chiral Symmetry Breaking and External Fields in the Kuperstein-Sonnenschein Model

    Alam, M Sohaib; Kundu, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    A novel holographic model of chiral symmetry breaking has been proposed by Kuperstein and Sonnenschein by embedding non-supersymmetric probe D7 and anti-D7 branes in the Klebanov-Witten background. We study the dynamics of the probe flavours in this model in the presence of finite temperature and a constant electromagnetic field. In keeping with the weakly coupled field theory intuition, we find the magnetic field promotes spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry whereas the electric field restores it. The former effect is universally known as the "magnetic catalysis" in chiral symmetry breaking. In the presence of an electric field such a condensation is inhibited and a current flows. Thus we are faced with a steady-state situation rather than a system in equilibrium. We conjecture a definition of thermodynamic free energy for this steady-state phase and using this proposal we study the detailed phase structure when both electric and magnetic fields are present in two representative configurations: mutually p...

  13. Dynamical instability induced by the zero mode under symmetry breaking external perturbation

    Takahashi, J., E-mail: phyco-sevenface@asagi.waseda.jp; Nakamura, Y., E-mail: nakamura@aoni.waseda.jp; Yamanaka, Y., E-mail: yamanaka@waseda.jp

    2014-08-15

    A complex eigenvalue in the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations for a stationary Bose-Einstein condensate in the ultracold atomic system indicates the dynamical instability of the system. We also have the modes with zero eigenvalues for the condensate, called the zero modes, which originate from the spontaneous breakdown of symmetries. Although the zero modes are suppressed in many theoretical analyses, we take account of them in this paper and argue that a zero mode can change into one with a pure imaginary eigenvalue by applying a symmetry breaking external perturbation potential. This emergence of a pure imaginary mode adds a new type of scenario of dynamical instability to that characterized by the complex eigenvalue of the usual excitation modes. For illustration, we deal with two one-dimensional homogeneous Bose–Einstein condensate systems with a single dark soliton under a respective perturbation potential, breaking the invariance under translation, to derive pure imaginary modes. - Highlights: • Zero modes are important but ignored in many theories for the cold atomic system. • We discuss the zero mode under symmetry breaking potential in this system. • We consider the zero mode of translational invariance for a single dark soliton. • We show that it turns into an anomalous or pure imaginary mode.

  14. Vacuum stability and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an SO(10) dark matter model

    Mambrini, Yann; Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A.; Zheng, Jiaming

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum stability in the Standard Model is problematic as the Higgs quartic self-coupling runs negative at a renormalization scale of about 1010 GeV . We consider a nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand unification model for which gauge coupling unification is made possible through an intermediate scale gauge group, Gint=SU (3 )C⊗SU (2 )L⊗SU (2 )R⊗U (1 )B -L . Gint is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a 126 of SO(10) which not only provides for neutrino masses through the seesaw mechanism but also preserves a discrete Z2 that can account for the stability of a dark matter candidate, here taken to be the Standard Model singlet component of a bosonic 16 . We show that in addition to these features the model insures the positivity of the Higgs quartic coupling through its interactions to the dark matter multiplet and 126 . We also show that the Higgs mass squared runs negative, triggering electroweak symmetry breaking. Thus, the vacuum stability is achieved along with radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and captures two more important elements of supersymmetric models without low-energy supersymmetry. The conditions for perturbativity of quartic couplings and for radiative electroweak symmetry breaking lead to tight upper and lower limits on the dark matter mass, respectively, and this dark matter mass region (1.35-2 TeV) can be probed in future direct detection experiments.

  15. Symmetry breaking of localized discrete matter waves induced by spin–orbit coupling

    Salerno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E.R. Caianiello”, CNISM and INFN–Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Universitá di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Abdullaev, F.Kh., E-mail: fatkhulla@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University of Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-10-02

    We study localized nonlinear excitations of a dilute Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) with spin–orbit coupling in a deep optical lattice (OL). For this we introduce a tight-binding model that includes the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) at the discrete level in the form of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Existence and stability of discrete solitons of different symmetry types is demonstrated. Quite interestingly, we find three distinctive regions in which discrete solitons undergo spontaneously symmetry breaking, passing from on-site to inter-site and to asymmetric, simply by varying the interatomic interactions. Existence ranges of discrete solitons with inter-site symmetry depend on SOC and shrink to zero as the SOC parameter is increased. Asymmetric discrete solitons appear as novel excitations specific of the SOC. Possible experimental implementation of these results is briefly discussed.

  16. Gauge Symmetry Breaking Patterns in an SU(5) Grand Gauge-Higgs Unification

    Kojima, Kentaro; Yamashita, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    We study gauge symmetry breaking patterns of the five-dimensional $SU(5)$ grand gauge-Higgs unification compactified on an orbifold $S^1/{\\mathbb Z}_2$ with the Hosotani mechanism in the framework of the diagonal embedding method. We find matter contents that lead to the $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ gauge symmetry on the global minimum of the effective potential and also present examples of matter content for which each regular subgroup of $SU(5)$ is realized as vacuum configuration. The finite temperature phase transitions for the models with the gauge symmetry of the standard model at zero temperature and also for supersymmetric models are studied. We show in a certain model with supersymmetry that the vacuum of the standard model selected dynamically before the inflation continues to stay there up to the present.

  17. Conformal symmetry and its breaking in two dimensional Nearly Anti-de-Sitter space

    Maldacena, Juan; Yang, Zhenbin

    2016-01-01

    We study a two dimensional dilaton gravity system, recently examined by Almheiri and Polchinski, which describes near extremal black holes, or more generally, nearly $AdS_2$ spacetimes. The asymptotic symmetries of $AdS_2$ are all the time reparametrizations of the boundary. These symmetries are spontaneously broken by the $AdS_2$ geometry and they are explicitly broken by the small deformation away from $AdS_2$. This pattern of spontaneous plus explicit symmetry breaking governs the gravitational backreaction of the system. It determines several gravitational properties such as the linear in temperature dependence of the near extremal entropy as well as the gravitational corrections to correlation functions. These corrections include the ones determining the growth of out of time order correlators that is indicative of chaos. These gravitational aspects can be described in terms of a Schwarzian derivative effective action for a reparametrization.

  18. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy with defect

    We introduce and solve the one-dimensional quantum non-linear Schroedinger (NLS) equation for an N-component field defined on the real line with a defect sitting at the origin. The quantum solution is constructed using the quantum inverse scattering method based on the concept of reflection-transmission (RT) algebras recently introduced. The symmetry of the model is generated by the reflection and transmission defect generators defining a defect subalgebra. We classify all the corresponding reflection and transmission matrices. This provides the possible boundary conditions obeyed by the canonical field and we compute these boundary conditions explicitly. Finally, we exhibit a phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by the defect and identify the unbroken generators as well as the exact remaining symmetry

  19. Symmetry breaking induced excitations of dark plasmonic modes in multilayer graphene ribbons.

    Dai, Y Y; Chen, A; Xia, Y Y; Han, D Z; Liu, X H; Shi, L; Zi, J

    2016-09-01

    Multilayer graphene can support multiple plasmon bands. If structured into graphene ribbons, they can support multiple localized plasmonic modes with interesting optical properties. However, not all such plasmonic modes can be excited directly due to the constrains of the structural symmetry. We show by numerical simulations that by breaking the symmetry all plasmonic modes can be excited. We discuss the general principles and properties of two-layer graphene ribbons and then extend to multilayer graphene ribbons. In multilayer graphene ribbons with different ribbon widths, a tunable broadband absorption can be attained due to the excitations of all plasmonic modes. Our results suggest that these symmetry-broken multilayer graphene ribbons could offer more degrees of freedom in designing photonic devices. PMID:27607610

  20. Symmetry breaking of localized discrete matter waves induced by spin–orbit coupling

    We study localized nonlinear excitations of a dilute Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) with spin–orbit coupling in a deep optical lattice (OL). For this we introduce a tight-binding model that includes the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) at the discrete level in the form of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Existence and stability of discrete solitons of different symmetry types is demonstrated. Quite interestingly, we find three distinctive regions in which discrete solitons undergo spontaneously symmetry breaking, passing from on-site to inter-site and to asymmetric, simply by varying the interatomic interactions. Existence ranges of discrete solitons with inter-site symmetry depend on SOC and shrink to zero as the SOC parameter is increased. Asymmetric discrete solitons appear as novel excitations specific of the SOC. Possible experimental implementation of these results is briefly discussed

  1. Lattice QCD analysis for relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking

    Doi, Takahiro M.; Suganuma, Hideo [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iritani, Takumi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    The Polyakov loop and the Dirac modes are connected via a simple analytical relation on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal lattice size is odd with the normal (nontwisted) periodic boundary condition. Using this relation, we investigate the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this paper, we discuss the properties of this analytical relation and numerically investigate each Dirac-mode contribution to the Polyakov loop in both confinement and deconfinement phases at the quenched level. This relation indicates that low-lying Dirac modes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop, and we numerically confirmed this fact. From our analysis, it is suggested that there is no direct one-to-one corresponding between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Also, in the confinement phase, we numerically find that there is a new “positive/negative symmetry” in the Dirac-mode matrix elements of link-variable operator which appear in the relation and the Polyakov loop becomes zero because of this symmetry. In the deconfinement phase, this symmetry is broken and the Polyakov loop is non-zero.

  2. Lattice QCD analysis for relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking

    The Polyakov loop and the Dirac modes are connected via a simple analytical relation on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal lattice size is odd with the normal (nontwisted) periodic boundary condition. Using this relation, we investigate the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this paper, we discuss the properties of this analytical relation and numerically investigate each Dirac-mode contribution to the Polyakov loop in both confinement and deconfinement phases at the quenched level. This relation indicates that low-lying Dirac modes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop, and we numerically confirmed this fact. From our analysis, it is suggested that there is no direct one-to-one corresponding between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Also, in the confinement phase, we numerically find that there is a new “positive/negative symmetry” in the Dirac-mode matrix elements of link-variable operator which appear in the relation and the Polyakov loop becomes zero because of this symmetry. In the deconfinement phase, this symmetry is broken and the Polyakov loop is non-zero

  3. Conformal symmetry breaking and degeneracy of high-lying unflavored mesons

    Kirchbach, Mariana; Compean, Cliffor; Raya, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    We show that though conformal symmetry can be broken by the dilaton, such can happen without breaking the conformal degeneracy patterns in the spectra. We departure from S^1XS^3 slicing of AdS_5 noticing that the inverse radius, R, of S^3 relates to the temperature of the deconfinement phase transition and has to satisfy, \\hbar c/R >> \\Lambda_{QCD}. We then focus on the eigenvalue problem of the S^3 conformal Laplacian, given by 1/R^2 (K^2+1), with K^2 standing for the Casimir invariant of the so(4) algebra. Such a spectrum is characterized by a (K+1)^2 fold degeneracy of its levels, with K\\in [0,\\infty). We then break the conformal S^3 metric as, d\\tilde{s}^2=e^{-b\\chi} ((1+b^2) d\\chi^2 +\\sin^2\\chi (d\\theta ^2 +\\sin^2\\theta d\\varphi ^2)), and attribute the symmetry breaking scale, b\\hbar^2c^2/R^2, to the dilaton. We show that such a metric deformation is equivalent to a breaking of the conformal curvature of S^3 by a term proportional to b\\cot \\chi, and that the perturbed conformal Laplacian is equivalent to...

  4. Detecting and identifying two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological, symmetry-breaking, and intrinsic topological phases with modular matrices via tensor-network methods

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases exhibit nontrivial order if symmetry is respected but are adiabatically connected to the trivial product phase if symmetry is not respected. However, unlike the symmetry-breaking phase, there is no local order parameter for SPT phases. Here we employ a tensor-network method to compute the topological invariants characterized by the simulated modular S and T matrices to study transitions in a few families of two-dimensional (2D) wave functions which are ZN (N =2 and3 ) symmetric. We find that in addition to the topologically ordered phases, the modular matrices can be used to identify nontrivial SPT phases and detect transitions between different SPT phases as well as between symmetric and symmetry-breaking phases. Therefore modular matrices can be used to characterize various types of gapped phases in a unifying way.

  5. Maximal breaking of symmetry at critical angle and closed form expression for angular deviations of the Snell law

    Araújo, Manoel P.; Carvalho, Silvânia A.; De Leo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the propagation of laser gaussian beams at critical angles shows in which conditions it is possible to maximize the breaking of symmetry in the angular distribution and for which values of the laser wavelength and beam waist is possible to find an analytic formula for angular deviations of the Snell law. For propagation throughout $N$ dielectric blocks and for a full breaking of symmetry, overcoming the well known problem of the infinity at critical angle, a closed expr...

  6. Fifty years of elementary particle physics. Focusing on the 'symmetry breaking'

    The theoretical evolution of particle physics is reviewed as titled focusing on the contributions by Nambu at first and then by Kobayashi and Maskawa on the occasion they were awarded the Nobel Prizes. The development of Nambu's theory, started by the inspiration from BCS theory, is illustrated. The birth of the spontaneous breaking of symmetry, the structure of vacuum, its meaning and application to particle physics are outlined. The origin of particle mass is explained referring to the Nambu-Goldstone particle and Nambu-Lasinio model. His further contributions to the development of QCD, i.e., the introductions of the color degree of freedom and the quark confinement mechanism analogous to Meissner effect into QCD as well as his proposal of the string model of strong interactions are mentioned. Then the breaking of the CP symmetry predicted by Kobayashi and Maskawa is taken up. Their prediction of the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature, which was to be verified later by B Factory experiments at KEK and SLAC, is explained. It is illustrated that the observed unitarity triangle is really closed as required from their theory. Finally, the origin of the matter existing in the universe is discussed on the basis of symmetry considerations. (S. Funahashi)

  7. Evidence that centre vortices underpin dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in SU (3) gauge theory

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek

    2015-07-01

    The link between dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and centre vortices in the gauge fields of pure SU (3) gauge theory is studied using the overlap-fermion quark propagator in Lattice QCD. Overlap fermions provide a lattice realisation of chiral symmetry and consequently offer a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of centre vortices, instantons and dynamical mass generation. Simulations are performed on gauge fields featuring the removal of centre vortices, identified through gauge transformations maximising the center of the gauge group. In contrast to previous results using the staggered-fermion action, the overlap-fermion results illustrate a loss of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking coincident with vortex removal. This result is linked to the overlap-fermion's sensitivity to the subtle manner in which instanton degrees of freedom are compromised through the process of centre vortex removal. Backgrounds consisting solely of the identified centre vortices are also investigated. After smoothing the vortex-only gauge fields, we observe dynamical mass generation on the vortex-only backgrounds consistent within errors with the original gauge-field ensemble following the same smoothing. Through visualizations of the instanton-like degrees of freedom in the various gauge-field ensembles, we find evidence of a link between the centre vortex and instanton structure of the vacuum. While vortex removal destabilizes instanton-like objects under O (a4)-improved cooling, vortex-only backgrounds provide gauge-field degrees of freedom sufficient to create instantons upon cooling.

  8. Kinetic mixing and symmetry breaking dependent interactions of the dark photon

    Biswajoy Brahmachari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine spontaneous symmetry breaking of a renormalisable U(1×U(1 gauge theory coupled to fermions when kinetic mixing is present. We do not assume that the kinetic mixing parameter is small. A rotation plus scaling is used to remove the mixing and put the gauge kinetic terms in the canonical form. Fermion currents are also rotated in a non-orthogonal way by this basis transformation. Through suitable redefinitions the interaction is cast into a diagonal form. This framework, where mixing is absent, is used for subsequent analysis. The symmetry breaking determines the fermionic current which couples to the massless gauge boson. The strength of this coupling as well as the couplings of the massive gauge boson are extracted. This formulation is used to consider a gauged model for dark matter by identifying the massless gauge boson with the photon and the massive state to its dark counterpart. Matching the coupling of the residual symmetry with that of the photon sets a lower bound on the kinetic mixing parameter. We present analytical formulae of the couplings of the dark photon in this model and indicate some physics consequences.

  9. Kinetic mixing and symmetry breaking dependent interactions of the dark photon

    We examine spontaneous symmetry breaking of a renormalisable U(1)×U(1) gauge theory coupled to fermions when kinetic mixing is present. We do not assume that the kinetic mixing parameter is small. A rotation plus scaling is used to remove the mixing and put the gauge kinetic terms in the canonical form. Fermion currents are also rotated in a non-orthogonal way by this basis transformation. Through suitable redefinitions the interaction is cast into a diagonal form. This framework, where mixing is absent, is used for subsequent analysis. The symmetry breaking determines the fermionic current which couples to the massless gauge boson. The strength of this coupling as well as the couplings of the massive gauge boson are extracted. This formulation is used to consider a gauged model for dark matter by identifying the massless gauge boson with the photon and the massive state to its dark counterpart. Matching the coupling of the residual symmetry with that of the photon sets a lower bound on the kinetic mixing parameter. We present analytical formulae of the couplings of the dark photon in this model and indicate some physics consequences

  10. The origin of space-time as W-symmetry breaking in string theory

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, N. E.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1992-08-01

    Physics in the neighbourhood of a space-time metric singularity is described by a world-sheet topological gauge field theory which can be represented as a twisted N = 2 super-conformal Wess-Zumino model with a W 1+∞⊗W 1+∞ bosonic symmetry. The measurable W-hair associated with the singularity is associated with Wilson loop integrals around gauge defects. The breaking of W 1+∞⊗W 1+∞→W 1+∞ is associated with expectation values for open Wilson lines that make the metric non-singular away from the singularity. This symmetry breaking is accompanied by massless discrete “tachyon” states that appear as leg poles in S-matrix elements. The triviality of the S-matrix in the high-energy limit of the c = 1 string model, after renormalization by the leg pole factors, is due to the restoration of double W-symmetry at the singularity.

  11. Asymmetric optical mode conversion and transmission by breaking PT-symmetry on silicon photonic circuits

    Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic or elastic waves is important for control of the signal flow in various devices. Through mutual consistent theory analysis and numerical simulations to discuss the parity–time (PT) symmetry, we proposed and studied a linear silicon photonic device that shows asymmetric optical mode conversion. Remarkably, unidirectional mode conversion is observed at the threshold of breaking of the PT symmetry of our system. The corresponding theoretical analysis is expected to help design of chip-scale directional photonic devices. -- Highlights: ► We have designed a silicon-based optical waveguide with complex optical potential. ► In the waveguide, we observe a novel phenomenon of spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. ► It shows unidirectional mode conversion and one-way amplification of transmission. ► We have shown usual PT principles and rigorous theoretical analysis and discussion. ► This result may pave the way for the more exciting on-chip photonic devices.

  12. Symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystals: analogy with cosmology and magnetism

    Universal behavior related to continuous symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystals is studied using Brownian molecular dynamics. A three-dimensional lattice system of rod-like objects interacting via the Lebwohl–Lasher interaction is considered. We test the applicability of predictions originally derived in cosmology and magnetism. In the first part we focus on coarsening dynamics following the temperature driven isotropic–nematic phase transition for different quench rates. The behavior in the early coarsening regime supports predictions made originally by Kibble in cosmology. For fast enough quenches, symmetry breaking and causality give rise to a dense tangle of defects. When the degree of orientational ordering is large enough, well defined protodomains characterized by a single average domain length are formed. With time subcritical domains gradually vanish and supercritical domains grow with time, exhibiting a universal scaling law. In the second part of the paper we study the impact of random-field-type disorder on a range of ordering in the (symmetry broken) nematic phase. We demonstrate that short-range order is observed even for a minute concentration of impurities, giving rise to disorder in line with the Imry–Ma theorem prediction only for the appropriate history of systems. (paper)

  13. Vector Precoding for Gaussian MIMO Broadcast Channels: Impact of Replica Symmetry Breaking

    Zaidel, Benjamin; Moustakas, Aris; de Miguel, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    The so-called "replica method" of statistical physics is employed for the large system analysis of vector precoding for the Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel. The transmitter is assumed to comprise a linear front-end combined with nonlinear precoding, that minimizes the front-end imposed transmit energy penalty. Focusing on discrete complex input alphabets, the energy penalty is minimized by relaxing the input alphabet to a larger alphabet set prior to precoding. For the common discrete-lattice relaxation, the problem is found to violate the assumption of replica symmetry and a replica symmetry breaking ansatz is taken. The limiting empirical distribution of the precoder's output, as well as the limiting energy penalty, are derived while harnessing to one-step replica symmetry breaking. Corresponding results based on the more commonly used replica symmetric ansatz are also obtained for completeness. Particularizing to a "zero-forcing" (ZF) linear front-end, and non-cooperative u...

  14. The pseudo-conformal universe: scale invariance from spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry

    We present a novel theory of the very early universe which addresses the traditional horizon and flatness problems of big bang cosmology and predicts a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. Unlike inflation, this scenario requires no exponential accelerated expansion of space-time. Instead, the early universe is described by a conformal field theory minimally coupled to gravity. The conformal fields develop a time-dependent expectation value which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal symmetry down to so(4,1), the symmetries of de Sitter, giving perturbations a scale invariant spectrum. The solution is an attractor, at least in the case of a single time-dependent field. Meanwhile, the metric background remains approximately flat but slowly contracts, which makes the universe increasingly flat, homogeneous and isotropic, akin to the smoothing mechanism of ekpyrotic cosmology. Our scenario is very general, requiring only a conformal field theory capable of developing the appropriate time-dependent expectation values, and encompasses existing incarnations of this idea, specifically the U(1) model of Rubakov and the Galileon Genesis scenario. Its essential features depend only on the symmetry breaking pattern and not on the details of the underlying lagrangian. It makes generic observational predictions that make it potentially distinguishable from standard inflation, in particular significant non-gaussianities and the absence of primordial gravitational waves

  15. A modified BESS model as an effective description of the strong electroweak symmetry breaking

    Facing the plethora of alternative hypotheses for the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking (ESB) it is highly desirable to typify its phenomenology using the effective Lagrangians. The BESS (Breaking Electroweak Symmetry Strongly) model effectively describes a Higgsless ESB mechanism accompanied by a hypothetical strong triplet of vector resonances. The model couples the vector resonances universally to all SM fermion generations. We have modified the model by allowing direct interactions of the vector triplet with the third quark generation only. This is motivated by the extraordinary mass of the top quark which is close to the ESB scale. In addition, we have introduced new Lagrangian terms admitted by the model's symmetries. Our modifications of the BESS model can significantly relax the low-energy limits on the original BESS model's parameters. Here, beside formulating our model, we present its basic phenomenology and compare it to the original BESS model. Our preliminary calculations suggest the possibility to use some of the LHC processes to detect the new vector resonances. However, to make a final assessment a more involved and realistic analysis is needed. (author)

  16. Mixed Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking in Models with Anomalous U(1) Gauge Symmetry

    Choi, Kiwoon, E-mail: kchoi@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    There can be various built-in sources of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, e.g. the U(1) D-term, the F-components of the modulus superfield required for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism and the chiral matter superfields required to cancel the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and finally the supergravity auxiliary component which can be parameterized by the F-component of chiral compensator. The relative strength between these supersymmetry breaking sources depends crucially on the characteristics of D-flat direction and also on how the D-flat direction is stabilized at a vacuum with nearly vanishing cosmological constant. We examine the possible pattern of the mediation of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, and find that various different mixed mediation scenarios can be realized, including the mirage mediation which corresponds to a mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, D-term domination giving a split sparticle spectrum, and also a mixed gauge-D-term mediation scenario.

  17. Mixed Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking in Models with Anomalous U(1) Gauge Symmetry

    There can be various built-in sources of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, e.g. the U(1) D-term, the F-components of the modulus superfield required for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism and the chiral matter superfields required to cancel the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and finally the supergravity auxiliary component which can be parameterized by the F-component of chiral compensator. The relative strength between these supersymmetry breaking sources depends crucially on the characteristics of D-flat direction and also on how the D-flat direction is stabilized at a vacuum with nearly vanishing cosmological constant. We examine the possible pattern of the mediation of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, and find that various different mixed mediation scenarios can be realized, including the mirage mediation which corresponds to a mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, D-term domination giving a split sparticle spectrum, and also a mixed gauge-D-term mediation scenario.

  18. Chiral symmetry breaking with a confining propagator and dynamically massive gluons

    Natale, A A; Machado, F A

    2011-01-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is studied introducing a confining effective propagator, as proposed recently by Cornwall, and considering the effect of dynamically massive gluons. The effective confining propagator has the form $1/(k^2+m^2)^2$ and we study the bifurcation equation finding limits on the parameter $m$ below which a satisfactory fermion mass solution is generated. Since the coupling constant and gluon propagator are damped in the infrared, due to the presence of a dynamical gluon mass, the major part of the chiral breaking is only due to the confining propagator and related to the low momentum region of the gap equation. We study the asymptotic behavior of the gap equation containing this confinement effect and massive gluon exchange, and find that the symmetry breaking can be approximated by an effective four-fermion interaction generated by the confining propagator. We compute some QCD chiral parameters as a function of $m$, finding values compatible with the experimental data. We find a simp...

  19. The standard model coupling constants according to LEP data and the scale of left-right symmetry breaking

    The SO(10) and SU(2)R symmetry breaking scales are calculated in the grand unification scheme based on the SO(10) group with intermediate left-right symmetry, with account of new LEP data on the standard model coupling constants. The results obtained agree to the experiment on search for proton instability. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  20. An Investigation of the $K_{F}$-type Lorentz-Symmetry Breaking Gauge Models in $N=1$-Supersymmetric Scenario

    Belich, H; Helayël-Neto, J A; Leal, F J L; Spalenza, W

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present two possible venues to accomodate the $K_{F}$-type Lorentz-symmetry violating Electrodynamics in an $N=1$-supersymmetric framework. A chiral and a vector superfield are chosen to describe the background that signals Lorentz-symmetry breaking. In each case, the $\\ K_{\\mu \

  1. Relativistic scalar particle subject to a confining potential and Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the cosmic string spacetime

    Belich, H

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of a relativistic scalar particle subject to a scalar potential under the effects of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry in the cosmic string spacetime is discussed. It is considered two possible scenarios of the Lorentz symmetry breaking in the CPT-even gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension defined by a tensor $\\left(K_{F}\\right)_{\\mu\

  2. Symmetry breaking patterns of the 3-3-1 model at finite temperature

    Borges, J Sá

    2016-01-01

    We consider the minimal version of an extension of the standard electroweak model based on the $SU(3)_c \\times SU(3)_L \\times U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry (the 3-3-1 model). We analyze the most general potential constructed from three scalars in the triplet representation of $SU(3)_L$, whose neutral components develop nonzero vacuum expectation values, giving mass for all the model massive particles. {}For a convenient choice of parameters, we obtain the particle spectrum for the two symmetry breaking scales: one where the $SU(3)_L \\times U(1)_X$ group is broken down to $SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_Y$ and a lower scale similar to the standard model one. Within the approximations used, we show that the model encodes two first-order phase transitions, respecting the pattern of symmetry restoration. The last transition, corresponding to the standard electroweak one, is found to be very weak first-order, most likely turning second-order or a crossover in practice. We determine the respective critical temperatures for symmetry r...

  3. Criteria for the absence of quantum fluctuations after spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Beekman, Aron J., E-mail: beekman.aronjonathan@nims.go.jp

    2015-10-15

    The lowest-energy state of a macroscopic system in which symmetry is spontaneously broken, is a very stable wavepacket centered around a spontaneously chosen, classical direction in symmetry space. However, for a Heisenberg ferromagnet the quantum groundstate is exactly the classical groundstate, there are no quantum fluctuations. This coincides with seven exceptional properties of the ferromagnet, including spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, a reduced number of Nambu–Goldstone modes and the absence of a thin spectrum (Anderson tower of states). Recent discoveries of other non-relativistic systems with fewer Nambu–Goldstone modes suggest these specialties apply there as well. I establish precise criteria for the absence of quantum fluctuations and all the other features. In particular, it is not sufficient that the order parameter operator commutes with the Hamiltonian. It leads to a measurably larger coherence time of superpositions in small but macroscopic systems. - Highlights: • Precise criteria for absence of quantum fluctuations in symmetry-broken states are established. • It is not sufficient that the order parameter commutes with the Hamiltonian. • Clarifies relation between quantum fluctuations and type-B Nambu–Goldstone modes. • Testable through absence of fundamental limit on maximum coherence time of macroscopic superpositions.

  4. Criteria for the absence of quantum fluctuations after spontaneous symmetry breaking

    The lowest-energy state of a macroscopic system in which symmetry is spontaneously broken, is a very stable wavepacket centered around a spontaneously chosen, classical direction in symmetry space. However, for a Heisenberg ferromagnet the quantum groundstate is exactly the classical groundstate, there are no quantum fluctuations. This coincides with seven exceptional properties of the ferromagnet, including spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, a reduced number of Nambu–Goldstone modes and the absence of a thin spectrum (Anderson tower of states). Recent discoveries of other non-relativistic systems with fewer Nambu–Goldstone modes suggest these specialties apply there as well. I establish precise criteria for the absence of quantum fluctuations and all the other features. In particular, it is not sufficient that the order parameter operator commutes with the Hamiltonian. It leads to a measurably larger coherence time of superpositions in small but macroscopic systems. - Highlights: • Precise criteria for absence of quantum fluctuations in symmetry-broken states are established. • It is not sufficient that the order parameter commutes with the Hamiltonian. • Clarifies relation between quantum fluctuations and type-B Nambu–Goldstone modes. • Testable through absence of fundamental limit on maximum coherence time of macroscopic superpositions

  5. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hyper-complex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories, by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the $U(1)$ gauge field theory, corresponds to a {\\it hybrid} potential with two real components, and with $U(1)\\times SO(1,1)$ as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as the spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and the Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the {\\it hyp...

  6. Account of Nonpolynomial SU(3)-Breaking Effects By Use of Quantum Groups As Flavor Symmetries

    Gavrilik, A M

    1998-01-01

    Using instead of ordinary flavour symmetries SU(n_f) their corresponding quantum (q-deformed) analogs yields new baryon mass sum rules of extreme accuracy. We show, in the 3-flavour case, that such approach accounts for highly nonlinear (nonpolynomial) SU(3)-breaking effects both in the octet and decuplet baryon masses. A version of this approach is considered that involves q-covariant ingredients in the mass operator. The resulting new 'q-deformed' mass relation (q-MR) is simpler than previously derived q-MRs, but requires, for its empirical validity, a fitting to fix the value of the deformation parameter q. Well-known Gell-Mann--Okubo (GMO) octet mass sum rule is found to result not only from usual SU(3), but also from some exotic symmetry corresponding to the q=-1 (i.e., singular) limit of the q-algebra U_q(su_3).

  7. Confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in a non-perturbative renormalizable quark model

    Dudal, D.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Palhares, L. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the construction of the Gribov-Zwanziger action in the Landau gauge, we introduce a quark model exhibiting both confinement and chiral symmetry aspects. An important feature is the incorporation of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in a renormalizable fashion. The quark propagator in the condensed vacuum turns out to be of a confining type. Besides a real pole, it exhibits complex conjugate poles. The resulting spectral form is explicitly shown to violate positivity, indicative of its unphysical character. Moreover, the ensuing quark mass function fits well to existing lattice data. To further validate the physical nature of the model, we identify a massless pseudoscalar (i.e. a pion) in the chiral limit and present estimates for the ρ meson mass and decay constant.

  8. Restricted Partition Functions and Inverse Energy Cascades in Parity Symmetry Breaking flows

    Herbert, Corentin

    2014-01-01

    When the symmetries of homogenous isotropic turbulent flows are broken, different sets of modes with different physical roles emerge. In particular, choosing a forcing which puts more weight on one or the other of these sets may result in different statistics for the energy transfers. We use the general method of computing a partition function restricted to a portion of phase space to study analytically these different statistics. We illustrate this method in the case of parity symmetry breaking, measured by helicity. It is shown that when helicity is sign definite at all scales, an inverse cascade is expected for the energy. When sign-definiteness is lost, even for a small set of modes, this cascade disappears and there is a sharp phase transition to the standard helical equipartition spectra.

  9. Mechanogenetic Coupling of Hydra Symmetry Breaking and Driven Turing Instability Model

    Soriano, Jordi; Rüdiger, Sten; Pullarkat, Pramod; Ott, Albrecht

    2009-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra can regenerate from tissue fragments or random cell aggregates. We show that the axis-defining step (“symmetry breaking”) of regeneration requires mechanical inflation-collapse oscillations of the initial cell ball. We present experimental evidence that axis definition is retarded if these oscillations are slowed down mechanically. When biochemical signaling related to axis formation is perturbed, the oscillation phase is extended and axis formation is retarded as well. We suggest that mechanical oscillations play a triggering role in axis definition. We extend earlier reaction-diffusion models for Hydra regrowth by coupling morphogen transport to mechanical stress caused by the oscillations. The modified reaction-diffusion model reproduces well two important experimental observations: 1), the existence of an optimum size for regeneration, and 2), the dependence of the symmetry breaking time on the properties of the mechanical oscillations. PMID:19217880

  10. Is the Higgs boson associated with Coleman-Weinberg dynamical symmetry breaking?

    Hill, Christopher T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Higgs mechanism may be a quantum phenomenon, i.e., a Coleman-Weinberg potential generated by the explicit breaking of scale symmetry in Feynman loops. We review the relationship of scale symmetry, trace anomalies, and emphasize the role of the renormalization group in determining Coleman- Weinberg potentials. We propose a simple phenomenological model with "maximal visibility" at the LHC containing a "dormant" Higgs doublet (no VEV, coupled to standard model gauge interactions $SU(2)\\times U(1)$) with a mass of $\\sim 380$ GeV. We discuss the LHC phenomenology and UV challenges of such a model. We also give a schematic model in which new heavy fermions, with masses $\\sim 230$ GeV, can drive a Coleman-Weinberg potential at two-loops. The role of the "improved stress tensor" is emphasized, and we propose a non-gravitational term, analogous to the $\\theta$-term in QCD, which generates it from a scalar action.

  11. Electroweak symmetry breaking through bosonic seesaw mechanism in a classically conformal extension of the Standard Model

    Haba, Naoyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    We suggest the so-called bosonic seesaw mechanism in the context of a classically conformal $U(1)_{B-L}$ extension of the Standard Model with two Higgs doublet fields. The $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry is radiatively broken via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, which also generates the mass terms for the two Higgs doublets through quartic Higgs couplings. Their masses are all positive but, nevertheless, the electroweak symmetry breaking is realized by the bosonic seesaw mechanism. We analyze the renormalization group evolutions for all model couplings, and find that a large hierarchy among the quartic Higgs couplings, which is crucial for the bosonic seesaw mechanism to work, is dramatically reduced toward high energies. Therefore, the bosonic seesaw is naturally realized with only a mild hierarchy, if some fundamental theory, which provides the origin of the classically conformal invariance, completes our model at some high energy, for example, the Planck scale. The requirements for the perturbativity of the running c...

  12. Shape Transitions and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Energy Landscape of the Mitotic Chromosome

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2016-06-01

    We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pairwise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows that the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking, which is limited by the topologically associating domain interaction strength.

  13. Charge-symmetry-breaking potentials from isospin-violating meson-baryon coupling constants

    Gardner, S; Piekarewicz, J; Gardner, Susan

    1995-01-01

    We consider charge-symmetry violations in the nucleon-nucleon force which result from isospin-violating meson-baryon coupling constants. The vector mesons are assumed to couple to the nucleon's electromagnetic current, which we decompose into isoscalar and isovector quark components. We compute these currents in the context of a constituent quark model. The isospin violations in the meson-baryon couplings arise from the difference in the up and down constituent quark masses. We show that class IV charge-symmetry-breaking potentials arise in the resulting \\omega and \\rho exchange contributions to the NN force. The magnitude of these contributions is consistent with that phenomenologically required by the measured difference of n and p analyzing powers in elastic \\vec{n}-\\vec{p} scattering at 183 MeV.

  14. Breakdown of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation as An Effect of the Isospin-Symmetry Breaking

    Dong, J M; Gu, J Z

    2016-01-01

    The breakdown of the quadratic form of isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), presents a long-standing challenge to the existing theoretical models. In particular, recent high-precision nuclear mass measurements have indicated a dramatic failure of the IMME for several isobaric multiplets. We propose a new mechanism that the isospin-projection $T_z$ dependence of the 1st-order symmetry energy coefficient (SEC) drives a significant breakdown of the IMME, where the 1st-order SEC is primarily induced by the isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) of strong nuclear force. Completely different from the existing knowledge, the deviation from the IMME cannot be measured simply by the high-order terms such as cubic term $dT_{z}^3$.

  15. Partial Breaking of Three-Fold Symmetry via Percolation of a Domain Wall

    Bhattacharya, Soumyadeep

    2016-01-01

    We show that suppression of vortex strings splits the order-disorder transition in the three-state Potts ferromagnet on a simple cubic lattice and opens up an intermediate phase characterized by partial breaking of the three-fold symmetry and long-range order. In contrast, suppression of vortices in the same model on a square lattice results in an intermediate phase with enhanced U(1) symmetry and quasi-long-range order. We show that the difference between the two phases originates from distinct patterns of domain wall proliferation. A domain wall, separating the two most populous spin states, percolates on its own in the former phase but remains at a percolation threshold in the latter.

  16. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in cosmos: the hybrid symmetron as a dark energy switching device

    We consider symmetron model in a generalized background with a hope to make it compatible with dark energy. We observe a ''no go'' theorem at least in case of a conformal coupling. Being convinced of symmetron incapability to be dark energy, we try to retain its role for spontaneous symmetry breaking and assign the role of dark energy either to standard quintessence or F(R) theory which are switched on by symmetron field in the symmetry broken phase. The scenario reduces to standard Einstein gravity in the high density region. After the phase transition generated by symmetron field, either the F(R) gravity or the standard quintessence are induced in the low density region. we demonstrate that local gravity constraints and other requirements are satisfied although the model could generate the late-time acceleration of Universe

  17. Shape Transitions and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Energy Landscape of the Mitotic Chromosome

    Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pair-wise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain (TAD) formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking which is limited by the TAD interaction strength.

  18. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement : its interrelation and effects on the hadron mass spectrum

    Within the framework of this thesis, the interrelation between the two characteristic phenomena of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), i.e., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement, is investigated. To this end, we apply lattice gauge field theory techniques and adopt a method to artificially restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. The low-mode part of the Dirac eigenspectrum is tied to the dynamical breaking of the chiral symmetry according to the Banks--Casher relation. Utilizing two-flavor dynamical lattice gauge field configurations, we construct valence quark propagators that exclude a variable sized part of the low-mode Dirac spectrum, with the aim of using these as an input for meson and baryon interpolating fields. Subsequently, we explore the behavior of ground and excited states of the low-mode truncated hadrons using the variational analysis method. We look for the existence of confined hadron states and extract effective masses where applicable. Moreover, we explore the evolution of the quark wavefunction renormalization function and the renormalization point invariant mass function of the quark propagator under Dirac low-mode truncation in a gauge fixed setting. Motivated by the necessity of fixing the gauge in the aforementioned study of the quark propagator, we also developed a flexible high performance code for lattice gauge fixing, accelerated by graphic processing units (GPUs) using NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). Lastly, more related but unpublished work on the topic is presented. This includes a study of the locality violation of low-mode truncated Dirac operators, a discussion of the possible extension of the low-mode truncation method to the sea quark sector based on a reweighting scheme, as well as the presentation of an alternative way to restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. (author)

  19. Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    Dascaliuc, Radu; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C., E-mail: waymire@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Michalowski, Nicholas [Department of Mathematics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturally arise as a result of this investigation.

  20. Inflation and reheating in theories with spontaneous scale invariance symmetry breaking

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Vanzo, Luciano

    2016-07-01

    We study a scale-invariant model of quadratic gravity with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. We focus on cosmological solutions and find that scale invariance is spontaneously broken and a mass scale naturally emerges. Before the symmetry breaking, the Universe undergoes an inflationary expansion with nearly the same observational predictions of Starobinsky's model. At the end of inflation, the Hubble parameter and the scalar field converge to a stable fixed point through damped oscillations and the usual Einstein-Hilbert action is recovered. The oscillations around the fixed point can reheat the Universe in various ways, and we study in detail some of these possibilities.