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Sample records for act transportation rate

  1. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  2. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  3. Radioactive Material (Road Transport) Act 1991

    This Act came into force on 27 August 1991. It replaces earlier legislation dating from 1948 and enables the United Kingdom to give effect to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) latest recommended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The new Act clarifies and extends the power of the Secretary of State to make regulations regarding, among other things, the design, labelling, handling, transport and delivery of packages containing radioactive material and the placarding of vehicles transporting such packages. The Act gives the Secretary of State the power to appoint inspectors to assist him in enforcing the regulations. (NEA)

  4. 76 FR 38742 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    2011-07-01

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... December 31, 2011, the prompt payment interest rate is 2\\1/2\\ per centum per annum. DATES: Effective July 1... interest penalty. 31 U.S.C. 3902(a). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92...

  5. 78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    2013-06-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service..., the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or inquiries may...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  6. 76 FR 82350 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    2011-12-30

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... on June 30, 2012, the prompt payment interest rate is 2 per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  7. 77 FR 38888 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    2012-06-29

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... December 31, 2012, the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  8. 75 FR 37881 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    2010-06-30

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... December 31, 2010, the prompt payment interest rate is 3\\1/8\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  9. 77 FR 76624 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    2012-12-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... on June 30, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1-3/8 per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments...). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92 Stat. 2389, and the Prompt...

  10. 75 FR 82146 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    2010-12-29

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... on June 30, 2011, the prompt payment interest rate is 2\\5/8\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES... interest penalty. 31 U.S.C. 3902(a). The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, Sec. 12, Public Law 95-563, 92...

  11. [Natural gas rate design and transportation issues

    This paper is presented from an industrial user viewpoint with regards to natural gas distribution and pricing. The author reviews the problems with rate structures at local distributing companies and gas utility companies which resort to charging high prices to industrial users while subsidizing residential users. He goes on then to discuss the lack of innovation amount LDCs to meet the needs of the industrial sector. Secondly it analyses the regulation and price structure of the pipeline industry which drastically affects all gas prices. The paper specifically discusses 'equivalent margin rates' which are being used by many states to control transportation rates. The author feels that these margin rates are inappropriate in that it transfers much of the LDC's exploration and development costs to the pipeline company which transfers it on to the consumer. He feels that the transportation rates should exclude all costs that are clearly not incurred by an LDC to provide transportation service. The paper concludes with recommendations to regulators regarding the need for regulatory reform of deregulation of the gas industry with regards to profit-taking and the transportation industry with regards to developing capacity assignment programs

  12. Update of Nuclear Waste Policy Act transportation activities

    As directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nationwide system for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power plants to deep geologic repositories for disposal. Plans for the transportation system will consider the following factors: the President's 1985 decision to co-locate some defense high-level waste with commercial waste in a repository, the NWPA requirement that the private sector be used to the fullest extent possible in developing and operating the system, and the possible approval by Congress of the DOE's proposal for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, submitted in March 1987. (The MRS, if approved, would provide for the consolidation, packaging, and perhaps the temporary storage of spent fuel from reactors.) The ''Transportation Business Plan'', published in January 1986, reflects these considerations. The transportation system, when operational, will consist of two elements: (1) the cask system, which includes the transportation casks, the vehicular conveyances, tie-downs, and associated equipment for handling the casks; and (2) the transportation support system which is comprised of facilities, equipment, and services to support waste transportation. Development of the transportation system incorporates the following work elements: operational planning, support systems development, cash system development, systems analysis, and institutional activities. This paper focusses on the technical aspects of the system

  13. Unjust Equity: An Examination of California's Transportation Development Act

    Taylor, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    Federal subsidies of public transit, particularly transit operations are declining and the responsibility for supporting transit is falling increasingly on states and localities. In California, the Transportation Development Act (TDA) has become the state's principal source of transit operating subsidies. This paper shows that the strict per capita allocation formulas of the TDA strongly favor lightly patronized suburban transit service over more heavily patronized service in the central citi...

  14. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  15. 78 FR 43261 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    2013-07-19

    ... instrument, flexibility in financial plan to support a reduced percentage-share of TIFIA credit assistance... Office of the Secretary of Transportation Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act... for the Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the...

  16. Radioactive Ores and Concentrates (Packaging and Transport) Act 1980. No 26 of 1980

    This Act, which regulates the packaging, storage and transport of radioactive ores and concentrates lays down a detailed licensing system for such materials and prescribes the duties of the Chief Inspector responsible for implementation of the Act. (NEA)

  17. A transport-rate model of wind-blown sand

    2009-01-01

    Sand transport by wind plays an important role in environmental problems.Formulating the sand-transport rate model has been of continuing significance,because the majority of the existing models relate sand-transport rate to the wind-shear velocity.However,the wind-shear velocity readapted to blown sand is difficult to determine from the measured wind profiles when sand movement occurs,especially at high wind velocity.Detailed wind tunnel tests were carried out to reformulate the sand-transport rate model,followed by attempts to relate sand-transport rate to parameters of wind velocity,threshold shear-velocity,and grain size.Finally,we validated the model based on the data from field observations.

  18. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK+Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    P.Ganeshkumar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF is proposed. DRF sends ACK+Rate whenever there is a change in rate of ±25% than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with ATP.Keywords- Ad hoc network, Ad hoc transport Protocol, Rate based transport protocols, energy consumption, Intermediate node

  19. 78 FR 76187 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    2013-12-16

    ..., reasons for selecting the proposed type(s) of credit instrument, flexibility in financial plan to support... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy cost of...

  20. Effect of upward seepage on bedload transport rate

    Xiao-xie LIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of injection effects on the bedload transport rate. According to dimensional analysis, two dimensionless groups, an Einstein’s parameter group and a modified densimetric Froude number group, were chosen to examine how injection affects the bedload transport rate. Experimental studies were conducted in an open-channel flume with an upward seepage zone. The sediment particles used for the test were 0.9 mm in diameter. The experimental results show that an increase in the injection velocity causes a reduction in the shear velocity excess, which is defined as the difference between the shear and critical shear velocities, leading to a reduction in the bedload transport rate. The equation for predicting the bedload transport rate in the presence of upward seepage was derived empirically. The proposed prediction method is suitable for engineering practice, since it only requires the undisturbed flow condition, properties of sediment particles, and the injection velocity.

  1. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK plus Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    Ganeshkumar, P

    2009-01-01

    Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF) is proposed. DRF sends ACKplusRate whenever there is a change in rate of (plus or minus) 25 percent than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with a reliable transport protocol for ad hoc network (ATP)

  2. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

    2005-07-11

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  3. Panel presentation: LDC rate design and transportation issues

    This paper covers four general views about local distributing company (LDC) sales rate design, transportation issues, and their implications for policy makers. LDC sales rates often hinder marketing to price sensitive customers. LDC rate design contributes to this problem, but there are other major causes such as add-on revenue taxes and pipeline take-or-pay charges that add to customer costs. State commissions, in varying degrees, are constrained in their ability to respond to a number of the barriers to improved gas marketing. Some problems are simply beyond the power of state commissions to remedy. These include federally imposed pipeline rate structures and take-or-pay costs, as well as various limits imposed by state legislatures (e.g., shut-off prohibitions, add-on taxes). Where they are feasible, LDC transportation services can mitigate marketing barriers that impede sales services. Customers select and pay for only their desired level of supply reliability and flexibility from sellers and pipeline transporters, as well as desired levels of standby service from the LDC. While it greatly benefits markets, the provision of transportation service by an LDC creates important new issues. One is fairness in allocating LDC resources between the sales and transportation functions and in pricing them, to avoid subsidies of one service by the other

  4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Acting as Controllable Transport Channels

    HUANG Bo-Da; XIA Yue-Yuan; ZHAO Ming-Wen; LI Feng; LIU Xiang-Dong; JI Yan-Ju; SONG Chen; TAN Zhen-Yu; LIU Hui

    2004-01-01

    @@ The motion and equilibrium distribution of water molecules adsorbed inside neutral and negatively charged singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations (MDSs) at room temperature based on CHARMM (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) potential parameters. We find that water molecules have a conspicuous electropism phenomenon and regular tubule patterns inside and outside the charged tube wall. The analyses of the motion behaviour of water molecules in the radial and axial directions show that by charging the SWNT, the adsorption efficiency is greatly enhanced, and the electric field produced by the charged SWNTs prevents water molecules from flowing out of the nanotube. However, water molecules can travel through the neutral SWNT in a fluctuating manner. This indicates that by electrically charging and uncharging the SWNTs, one can control the adsorption and transport behaviour of polar molecules in SWNTs for using as a stable storage medium or long transport channels. The transport velocity can be tailored by changing the charge on the SWNTs, which may have a further application as modulatable transport channels.

  5. The rate-limiting process of hydrogen transport in Mo

    Ohkoshi, Keishiro; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Bandourko, V.; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen isotope transport characteristics of Mo, whose refractory properties are considered to be suitable as plasma facing material, was investigated by applying 3 keV D{sub 2}{sup +} beam to the membrane specimen. The Arrhenius plot of deuterium permeation probability showed linear increase against the reciprocal temperature and its apparent activation energy was determined as 41.5 kJ/mol. The simultaneous irradiation of 3 keV Ar{sup +} onto backside surface of specimen had little effect on the deuterium permeation rate. According to these results, the rate-limiting process of deuterium transport in Mo was determined. (author)

  6. 78 FR 59751 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    2013-09-27

    ... instrument, flexibility in financial plan to support a reduced percentage-share of TIFIA credit assistance... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy cost of supporting Federal...

  7. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32PO4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  8. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    2010-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  9. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    2013-02-27

    ... Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review'' (77 FR 70584). These standards apply to health... grandfathered health insurance coverage. \\3\\ The applicable definitions for ``individual market,'' ``small group... Affordable Care Act. \\4\\ See 45 CFR 144.103 for definitions of ``plan year'' and ``policy year.'' These...

  10. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  11. Computing Rydberg Electron Transport Rates via Classical Periodic Orbits

    Sattari, Sulimon; Mitchell, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Electron transport properties of chaotic atomic systems may be computable from classical periodic orbits. This technique allows for replacing a Monte Carlo simulation launching millions of orbits with a sum over tens or hundreds of properly chosen periodic orbits. A firm grasp of the structure of the periodic orbits is required to obtain accurate transport rates. We apply a technique called homotopic lobe dynamics (HLD) to understand the structure of periodic orbits to compute the ionization rate of a hydrogen atom in strong parallel electric and magnetic fields. HLD uses information encoded in the intersections of stable and unstable manifolds of a few orbits to compute all relevant periodic orbits in the system. The ionization rate computed from periodic orbits using HLD converges exponentially to the true value as a function of the highest period used. We then use periodic orbit continuation to accurately compute the ionization rate when the field strengths are varied. The ability to use periodic orbits in a mixed phase space could allow for studying transport in even more complex few body systems.

  12. Constraining kinetic rates of mineral reactions using reactive transport models

    Bolton, E. W.; Wang, Z.; Ague, J.; Bercovici, D.; Cai, Z.; Karato, S.; Oristaglio, M. L.; Qiu, L.

    2012-12-01

    We use a reactive transport model to better understand results of experiments to obtain kinetic rates of mineral reactions in closed systems. Closed system experiments pose special challenges in that secondary minerals may form that modify the fluid composition evolution and may grow on the dissolving minerals thus armoring the surface. Even so, such closed system experiments provide critical data for what minerals would actually form in field applications and how coupled dissolution and precipitation mineral reactions are strongly linked. Comparing to experimental observations can test the reactive transport model, and the experimental observations can be better understood by comparing the results to the modeling. We apply a 0D end member of the model to understand the dissolution of single crystals of forsterite in a variety of settings (low pH, high pH, or NaHCO3 initial fluids, at 100 C and 1 bar, or 200 C and 150 bar). Depending on the initial conditions, we observe the precipitation of talc, brucite, amorphous silica, chrysotile, or magnesite, in various combinations. We compare simulation results to fluid compositions and the presence of secondary minerals experimentally sampled at various times. Insight from the simulations helped create an inverse model to extract the rates of forsterite dissolution and to create a simple forward model useful for exploring the influence of system size, secondary mineral surface areas, etc. Our reactive transport model allows secondary minerals to armor the forsterite surface, which can strongly decrease the dissolution rate as the system evolves. Tuning our model with experimentally derived rates and assuring relevant processes are included so as to reproduce experimental observations is necessary before upscaling to heterogeneous field conditions. The reactive transport model will be used for field-scale sequestration simulations and coupled with a geomechanical model that includes the influence of deformation.

  13. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  14. Heavy quark chemical equilibration rate as a transport coefficient

    Bodeker, D

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by indications that heavy (charm and bottom) quarks interact strongly at temperatures generated in heavy ion collision experiments, we suggest a non-perturbative definition of a heavy quark chemical equilibration rate as a transport coefficient. Within leading-order perturbation theory (corresponding to 3-loop level), the definition is argued to reduce to an expression obtained from the Boltzmann equation. Around T ~ 400 MeV, an order-of-magnitude estimate for charm yields a rate Gamma^{-1}_{chem} > 60 fm/c which remains too slow to play a practical role in current experiments. However, the rate increases rapidly with T and, due to non-linear effects, also if the initial state contains an overabundance of heavy quarks.

  15. Transportation energy scenario analysis technical memorandum No. 2: historical rates of change in the transportation stock

    Millar, M.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-09-01

    This report examines historical rates of change in the transportation stock as a result of the introduction of new or improved technologies. Organized by mode, it highlights selected technological changes in motor vehicles (including automobiles, trucks, and buses), light and heavy rail transit, rail passenger and freight systems, commercial and general aviation, merchant shipping, and pipeline systems. As appropriate, these improvements are related to salient features of the technology under examination, the transportation system into which it was introduced, and general social or economic conditions. As a tool for long-range planning in the area of technology commercialization, the document is intended to provide background material against which to gauge maximum and likely rates of change (or acceptance) that may be anticipated following the introduction of new or greatly improved transportation technologies.

  16. An examination of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA): A southern perspective

    On November 16,1990, President Bush signed into law the most comprehensive amendments to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) in 15 years. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (HMTUSA) was created by Congress in an effort to strengthen and clarify the HMTA. This paper will discuss the act's provisions as they affect shipments of spent fuel and high-level radioactive materials as well as the impact of those provisions on routing and emergency response issues in the southern region. HMTUSA consists of seven key provisions that affect radioactive materials: clarification of regulatory jurisdiction; highway routing standards; broadened industry registration; safety permits for motor carriers of high risk materials; expanded nuclear transportation requirements; new provisions for emergency response training and planning; and a public process for assessing the feasibility of a federally operated central reporting system and data center. In addition to amending various HMTA provisions, the new HMTUSA act provides appropriations to carry out the specific goals of the legislation. The act authorizes appropriations for the 1991, 1992 and 1993 fiscal years

  17. CW Interference Effects on High Data Rate Transmission Through the ACTS Wideband Channel

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ngo, Duc H.; Tran, Quang K.; Tran, Diepchi T.; Yu, John; Kachmar, Brian A.; Svoboda, James S.

    1996-01-01

    Satellite communications channels are susceptible to various sources of interference. Wideband channels have a proportionally greater probability of receiving interference than narrowband channels. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) includes a 900 MHz bandwidth hardlimiting transponder which has provided an opportunity for the study of interference effects of wideband channels. A series of interference tests using two independent ACTS ground terminals measured the effects of continuous-wave (CW) uplink interference on the bit-error rate of a 220 Mbps digitally modulated carrier. These results indicate the susceptibility of high data rate transmissions to CW interference and are compared to results obtained with a laboratory hardware-based system simulation and a computer simulation.

  18. Multicolor bleach-rate imaging enlightens in vivo sterol transport

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sage, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Elucidation of in vivo cholesterol transport and its aberrations in cardiovascular diseases requires suitable model organisms and the development of appropriate monitoring technology. We recently presented a new approach to visualize transport of the intrinsically fluorescent sterol, dehydroergos...

  19. PGR5-PGRL1-Dependent Cyclic Electron Transport Modulates Linear Electron Transport Rate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Suorsa, Marjaana; Rossi, Fabio; Tadini, Luca; Labs, Mathias; Colombo, Monica; Jahns, Peter; Kater, Martin M; Leister, Dario; Finazzi, Giovanni; Aro, Eva-Mari; Barbato, Roberto; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Plants need tight regulation of photosynthetic electron transport for survival and growth under environmental and metabolic conditions. For this purpose, the linear electron transport (LET) pathway is supplemented by a number of alternative electron transfer pathways and valves. In Arabidopsis, cyclic electron transport (CET) around photosystem I (PSI), which recycles electrons from ferrodoxin to plastoquinone, is the most investigated alternative route. However, the interdependence of LET and CET and the relative importance of CET remain unclear, largely due to the difficulties in precise assessment of the contribution of CET in the presence of LET, which dominates electron flow under physiological conditions. We therefore generated Arabidopsis mutants with a minimal water-splitting activity, and thus a low rate of LET, by combining knockout mutations in PsbO1, PsbP2, PsbQ1, PsbQ2, and PsbR loci. The resulting Δ5 mutant is viable, although mature leaves contain only ∼ 20% of wild-type naturally less abundant PsbO2 protein. Δ5 plants compensate for the reduction in LET by increasing the rate of CET, and inducing a strong non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) response during dark-to-light transitions. To identify the molecular origin of such a high-capacity CET, we constructed three sextuple mutants lacking the qE component of NPQ (Δ5 npq4-1), NDH-mediated CET (Δ5 crr4-3), or PGR5-PGRL1-mediated CET (Δ5 pgr5). Their analysis revealed that PGR5-PGRL1-mediated CET plays a major role in ΔpH formation and induction of NPQ in C3 plants. Moreover, while pgr5 dies at the seedling stage under fluctuating light conditions, Δ5 pgr5 plants are able to survive, which underlines the importance of PGR5 in modulating the intersystem electron transfer. PMID:26687812

  20. 14 CFR 223.21 - Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation.

    2010-01-01

    ... authorized by statute or regulation. 223.21 Section 223.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.21 Free and reduced-rate transportation authorized by statute or regulation. (a)...

  1. Association between long-acting reversible contraceptive use, teenage pregnancy, and abortion rates in England

    Connolly A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Connolly,1 Guilhem Pietri,2 Jingbo Yu,3 Samantha Humphreys4 1The Ridge Medical Practice, Cousen Road, Bradford, UK; 2HERON – A PAREXEL® Company, London, UK; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 4Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited, Hertfordshire, UK Background: Since the late 1990s, the British government has launched major strategies to address high teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in England. These have focused in part on improving access to contraception through national campaigns. This study assessed teenage pregnancy and abortion rate trends since 1998 and possible associations with usage of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs. Methods: Teenage conception rates and age-specific abortion rates were obtained from the Office for National Statistics and the Department of Health. LARC usage data was obtained for Depo-Provera, Implanon/Nexplanon, intrauterine devices, Mirena, and Noristerat from the IMS British Pharmaceutical Index, IMS Hospital Pharmacy Audit, IMS Disease Analyzer, and KT-31 reports. Through linear regression methods, changes in conception and abortion-related outcomes during 1998–2011 and the associations with LARC usage were assessed. Results: Conception rates for girls younger than 18 years of age decreased significantly between 1998–2011, from 46.6 to 30.7 per 1,000 girls. A statistically significant association was observed between this decrease and increased LARC usage (P=0.0024 in this population. Abortion rates among females aged <18 years or aged 18–19 years decreased between 1998–2011, and their associations with increased LARC usage were statistically significant (P=0.0029 and P=0.0479, respectively. The pattern in older women was complex; abortion rates in women aged 20–24 years or 25–34 years increased slightly from 1998 to 2011, with stabilization during 2007–2011. Conclusion: Increased LARC usage in England was significantly associated with decreased teenage pregnancy rates

  2. Upscaling of reaction rates in reactive transport using pore-scale reactive transport model

    Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Arnold, B. W.; Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Srinivasan, S.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved CO2 during geological CO2 storage may react with minerals in fractured rocks, confined aquifers, or faults, resulting in mineral precipitation and dissolution. The overall rate of reaction can be affected by coupled processes among hydrodynamics, transport, and reactions at the (sub) pore-scale. In this research pore-scale modeling of coupled fluid flow, reactive transport, and heterogeneous reaction at the mineral surface is applied to account for permeability alterations caused by precipitation-induced pore-blocking. This work is motivated by the observed CO2 seeps from a natural analog to geologic CO2 sequestration at Crystal Geyser, Utah. A key observation is the lateral migration of CO2 seep sites at a scale of ~ 100 meters over time. A pore-scale model provides fundamental mechanistic explanations of how calcite precipitation alters flow paths by pore plugging under different geochemical compositions and pore configurations. In addition, response function of reaction rates will be constructed from pore-scale simulations which account for a range of reaction regimes characterized by the Damkohler and Peclet numbers. Newly developed response functions will be used in a continuum scale model that may account for large-scale phenomena mimicking lateral migration of surface CO2 seeps. Comparison of field observations and simulations results will provide mechanistic explanations of the lateral migration and enhance our understanding of subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  3. A software control system for the ACTS high-burst-rate link evaluation terminal

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Daugherty, Elaine S.

    1991-01-01

    Control and performance monitoring of NASA's High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET) is accomplished by using several software control modules. Different software modules are responsible for controlling remote radio frequency (RF) instrumentation, supporting communication between a host and a remote computer, controlling the output power of the Link Evaluation Terminal and data display. Remote commanding of microwave RF instrumentation and the LET digital ground terminal allows computer control of various experiments, including bit error rate measurements. Computer communication allows system operators to transmit and receive from the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Finally, the output power control software dynamically controls the uplink output power of the terminal to compensate for signal loss due to rain fade. Included is a discussion of each software module and its applications.

  4. Wettability patterning for high-rate, pumpless fluid transport on open, non-planar microfluidic platforms.

    Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Schutzius, Thomas M; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-05-01

    Surface tension driven transport of liquids on open substrates offers an enabling tool for open micro total analysis systems that are becoming increasingly popular for low-cost biomedical diagnostic devices. The present study uses a facile wettability patterning method to produce open microfluidic tracks that - due to their shape, surface texture and chemistry - are capable of transporting a wide range of liquid volumes (~1-500 μL) on-chip, overcoming viscous and other opposing forces (e.g., gravity) at the pertinent length scales. Small volumes are handled as individual droplets, while larger volumes require repeated droplet transport. The concept is developed and demonstrated with coatings based on TiO2 filler particles, which, when present in adequate (~80 wt.%) quantities within a hydrophobic fluoroacrylic polymer matrix, form composites that are intrinsically superhydrophobic. Such composite coatings become superhydrophilic upon exposure to UV light (390 nm). A commercial laser printer-based photo-masking approach is used on the coating for spatially selective wettability conversion from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic. Carefully designed wedge-patterned surface tension confined tracks on the open-air devices move liquid on them without power input, even when acting against gravity. Simple designs of wettability patterning are used on versatile substrates (e.g., metals, polymers, paper) to demonstrate complex droplet handling tasks, e.g., merging, splitting and metered dispensing, some of which occur in 3-D geometries. Fluid transport rates of up to 350 μL s(-1) are attained. Applicability of the design on metal substrates allows these devices to be used also for other microscale engineering applications, e.g., water management in fuel cells. PMID:24622962

  5. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code's credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code's reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windowstrademark point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs

  6. Apparatus for the measurement of radionuclide transport rates in rock cores

    An apparatus and procedure for the study of radionuclide transport in intact rock cores are presented in this report. This equipment more closely simulates natural conditions of radionuclide transport than do crushed rock columns. The apparatus and the procedure from rock core preparation through data analysis are described. The retardation factors measured are the ratio of the transport rate of a non-retarded radionuclide, such as 3H, to the transport rate of a retarded radionuclide. Sample results from a study of the transport of /sup 95m/Tc and 85Sr in brine through a sandstone core are included

  7. Apparatus for the measurement of radionuclide transport rates in rock cores

    Weed, H.C.; Koszykowski, R.F.; Dibley, L.L.; Murray, I.

    1981-09-01

    An apparatus and procedure for the study of radionuclide transport in intact rock cores are presented in this report. This equipment more closely simulates natural conditions of radionuclide transport than do crushed rock columns. The apparatus and the procedure from rock core preparation through data analysis are described. The retardation factors measured are the ratio of the transport rate of a non-retarded radionuclide, such as /sup 3/H, to the transport rate of a retarded radionuclide. Sample results from a study of the transport of /sup 95m/Tc and /sup 85/Sr in brine through a sandstone core are included.

  8. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2014), s. 1707-1715. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7C12017 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gasification * gas transport * textural properties Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  9. Measurement of phloem transport rates by an indicator-dilution technique

    An indicator-dilution technique for the measurement of flow rates, commonly used by animal physiologists for circulation measurements, was adapted to the measurement of phloem translocation rates in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) peduncle. The approach is based on the observation that, during the transport of a given amount of solute, its mean concentration will be inversely proportional to flow rate. For phloem transport in the wheat peduncle, the necessary measurements are (a) the time course of tracer kinetics in the peduncle phloem, (b)the volume of sieve tubes and companion cells in the monitored segment of the peduncle, and (c) the amount of tracer transported past that point. The method was evaluated by in situ monitoring of 32PO4 transport in pulse-labeling experiments. Specific activities (i.e. 32P concentrations) of phloem exudate were in good agreement with those calculated from in situ count rates and measured phloem areas. Mass transport rates, calculated from volume flow rates and phloem exudate dry matter content, also agreed well with expected mass transport rates based on measurements of grain growth rate and net CO2 exchange by the ear. The indicator-dilution technique appears to offer good precision and accuracy for short-term measurements of phloem transport rates in the wheat peduncle and should be useful for other systems as well

  10. Complex source rate estimation for atmospheric transport and dispersion models

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental atmospheric release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source release rate which is generally poorly known. This paper reports on a technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling for more accurate source term estimation. We construct a minimum least squares methodology for solving the inverse problem with no a priori information about the source rate

  11. Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces

    Sørensen, P.A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, C.E.;

    2010-01-01

    coefficients and Fick's second law, under the assumption of a transport-controlled mechanism, show qualitative agreement with the observed delamination rates in 0.5 M sodium chloride. This confirms that the rate-determining step of cathodic delamination is the transport of sodium ions along the coating...... continuously be transported from the bulk solution to the cathodic areas. The transport of sodium ions from a defect in the coating to the cathodic areas is generally considered the rate-determining step for cathodic delamination because the transport of oxygen and water through the coating is sufficient for...... previously reported values and show an acceptable repeatability. The method was used to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficients of sodium ions in the coating-steel interface for three commercial inert-pigmented epoxy coatings. The delamination rates predicted using the apparent interfacial diffusion...

  12. Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, C. E.;

    2010-01-01

    coefficients and Fick's second law, under the assumption of a transport controlled mechanism, show qualitative agreement with the observed delamination rates in 0.5 M sodium chloride. This confirms that the rate-determining step of cathodic delamination is the transport of sodium ions along the coating...... continuously be transported from the bulk solution to the cathodic areas. The transport of sodium ions from a defect in the coating to the cathodic areas is generally considered the rate-determining step for cathodic delamination because the transport of oxygen and water through the coating is sufficient for...... previously reported values and show an acceptable repeatability. The method was used to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficients of sodium ions in the coating-steel interface for three commercial inert-pigmented epoxy coatings. The delamination rates predicted using the apparent interfacial diffusion...

  13. Electron transport and rate coefficients in Townsend discharges

    Electron swarm parameters such as the drift velocity, diffusion coefficients and ionization rates have been calculated by many authors. However, the values obtained for most parameters depend upon the type of experiment under consideration, so that, for a given gas and a fixed value of E/N, differences are obtained for steady-state Townsend, pulsed Townsend and time-of-flight experiments. It is shown that this is an unnecessary complication since each experiment can be analysed in terms of time-of-flight parameters. It is proposed that calculated parameters should be presented in a manner which would assist not only in the analysis of the above experiments but also in other swarm studies in progress

  14. New Method for Estimation of Aeolian Sand Transport Rate Using Ceramic Sand Flux Sensor (UD-101

    Keiko Udo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101. UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results showed that aeolian sand transport rates estimated using the developed method were of the same order as those estimated using the existing method for high transport rates, i.e., for transport rates greater than 0.01 kg m–1 s–1.

  15. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    Sakamoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  16. Westinghouse AP1000 internals heating rate distribution calculation using a 3D deterministic transport method

    Cost reduction and reliability increase are systematically pursued systems and components; this requires, amongst other, the availability of sophisticated computer programs and detailed analysis models. As an example, the core shroud, the structure having the function to maintain the core centered on its axis, is being designed in the Westinghouse AP1000, differently from previous plants, as a highly heterogeneous structure. Its thermal-mechanical sizing must take into due account accurately determined internal heat generation rates. The latter, if determined by combining 2D and 1D neutron and γ-ray calculations which imply the separation of spatial variables and are mainly applicable for fluxes in the reactor beltline region, may include overly conservative margins. On the other hand, Monte Carlo methods do not allow an easy quantification of the uncertainties related to overall calculation. Three-dimensional deterministic models, based on the discrete ordinate transport theory, have the potential to provide accurate design data; they can be also effective provided that the well-known difficulty to create and tune a complex geometrical model in a reasonable time is overcome and adequate computer resources are available to perform the calculation (until few years ago [Botta et al., 1996. Three-Dimensional Reactor Pressure Vessel Fast Neutron Fluence Calculations for the AP600 Using TORT, 3-D Deterministic Radiation Transport Computer Programs: Features, Applications and Perspectives, NEA/NSC/DOC, OECD/NEA. Paris, France], massive parallel computers (i.e. Cray Computers) available only to large national laboratories and selected industries had to be used). ANSALDO is acting as Westinghouse subcontractor and it supported Westinghouse in all AP1000 Licensing Process to NRC from 1999 to nowdays for the internal heating rate generation rate and RPV fluence calculations. As computer power growths up ANSALDO refined its calculation methodology in order to improve the

  17. Decree of the Ministry of Transport No. 187/1994 on the implementation of the Road Transport Act. Selected articles

    The Decree prescribes documentation required for the transport of hazardous items. Among other things, the Decree stipulates that transport of nuclear materials is subject to approval by the State Office for Nuclear Safety. The Decree entered into force on 7 October 1994. (J.B.)

  18. Non-Fickian transport and multiple-rate mass transfer in porous media

    Berkowitz, Brian; Emmanuel, Simon; Scher, Harvey

    2008-03-01

    Non-Fickian behavior is due to a broad spectrum of rates limiting the solute transport. There are two generic mechanisms that can generate these spectra: the complex flow field of a highly heterogeneous medium and the mass exchange between a mobile phase and a distribution of immobile states. We have developed a physical model that incorporates both of these mechanisms into the continuous time random walk (CTRW) framework. We study their interacting dynamics as a function of the spectra of advective-diffusive transition times and exchange times and the relative separation of their respective time domains. Examples of interacting transport in a dispersive medium with immobile states include tracer migration in a random fracture network with matrix diffusion and transport in a porous medium with adsorption/desorption sites. To date, non-Fickian transport has been quantified effectively using the CTRW in a wide variety of porous and fractured geological formations. The basis of the CTRW framework is the portrayal of transport as a sequence of transition rates (e.g., between pore spaces, fracture intersections) and the incorporation of the full spectrum of these rates into the transport equations. The emphasis herein is on systems in which the time domains of the two different types of spectra are distinguishable, so that a more complete characterization of the transport can be obtained (i.e., rather than lumping all the rates together). Experimental data are analyzed from two of these systems: (1) tracer transport in a fractured shear zone and (2) sorbing species transported through a heterogeneous porous domain. The CTRW framework is found to produce excellent fits to and predictions from the experimental data.

  19. Is Slow-Onset Long-Acting Monoamine Transport Blockade to Cocaine as Methadone is to Heroin? Implication for Anti-Addiction Medications

    Peng, Xiao-Qing; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Li, Xia; Spiller, Krista; Li, Jie; Chun, Lauren; Wu, Kuo-Ming; Froimowitz, Mark; Gardner, Eliot L

    2010-01-01

    The success of methadone in treating opiate addiction has suggested that long-acting agonist therapies may be similarly useful for treating cocaine addiction. Here, we examined this hypothesis, using the slow-onset long-acting monoamine reuptake inhibitor 31,345, a trans-aminotetralin analog, in a variety of addiction-related animal models, and compared it with methadone's effects on heroin's actions in the same animal models. Systemic administration of 31,345 produced long-lasting enhancement of electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR) and extracellular nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA). Pretreatment with 31,345 augmented cocaine-enhanced BSR, prolonged cocaine-enhanced NAc DA, and produced a long-term (24-48 h) reduction in cocaine self-administration rate without obvious extinction pattern, suggesting an additive effect of 31,345 with cocaine. In contrast, methadone pretreatment not only dose-dependently inhibited heroin self-administration with an extinction pattern but also dose-dependently inhibited heroin-enhanced BSR and NAc DA, suggesting functional antagonism by methadone of heroin's actions. In addition, 31,345 appears to possess significant abuse liability, as it produces dose-dependent enhancement of BSR and NAc DA, maintains a low rate of self-administration behavior, and dose-dependently reinstates drug-seeking behavior. In contrast, methadone only partially maintains self-administration with an extinction pattern, and fails to induce reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. These findings suggest that 31,345 is a cocaine-like slow-onset long-acting monoamine transporter inhibitor that may act as an agonist therapy for cocaine addiction. However, its pattern of action appears to be significantly different from that of methadone. Ideal agonist substitutes for cocaine should fully emulate methadone's actions, that is, functionally antagonizing cocaine's action while blocking monoamine transporters to augment synaptic DA. PMID:20827272

  20. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  1. Solute transport predicts scaling of surface reaction rates in porous media: Applications to silicate weathering

    Hunt, Allen G; Ghanbarian, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    We apply our theory of conservative solute transport, based on concepts from percolation theory, directly and without modification to reactive solute transport. This theory has previously been shown to predict the observed range of dispersivity values for conservative solute transport over ten orders of magnitude of length scale. We now show that the temporal dependence derived for the solute velocity accurately predicts the time-dependence for the weathering of silicate minerals over nine orders of magnitude of time scale, while its predicted length dependence agrees with data obtained for reaction rates over five orders of magnitude of length scale. In both cases, it is possible to unify lab and field results. Thus, net reaction rates appear to be limited by solute transport velocities. We suggest the possible relevance of our results to landscape evolution of the earth's terrestrial surface.

  2. The relationship between the use of mental health act and general population suicide rates in England and Wales

    Ajit Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between suicide and involuntary admissions has been mainly examined in younger and mixed age groups. These studies provide mixed results with some demonstrating no relationship and others reporting increased rates of suicides in involuntarily admitted patients. However, the association between the utility of the Mental Health Act with general population suicide rates in England and Wales has not been formally studied. METHODS: Thus, an ecological study, over the 19-year period, to examine the relationship between rates of involuntary admissions and general population suicide rates in England and Wales was undertaken using nationally collected data. Data on general population suicide rates for both sexes were ascertained from the World Health Organization (WHO website. Data on the number of detentions under the Mental Health Act were ascertained from the Office of National Statistics website. Data on the population size for the elderly age-bands were ascertained from the WHO website. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between suicide rates and rates of detention under the Mental Health Act. RESULTS: There were negative correlations between rates of involuntary admissions and general population suicide rates in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: A causal relationship and the direction of causality cannot be assumed because this was an ecological study. There is a need for sufficiently powered study to compare the number of suicide occurring in involuntarily and voluntarily admitted patients using a case-control or cohort design and survival analysis. If an inverse association can be demonstrated between suicide and involuntary admissions then it has important implications for the development of mental health legislation as an adjunct to national suicide prevention strategies.

  3. RATE BASED TRANSPORT PROTOCOL USING DELAY INFORMATION for REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION of NODES in MANET

    K. SASIKALA; Dr. R.S.D. Wahidabanu

    2013-01-01

    The MANET requires rate based transport protocol for node-to-node data transfer to be effective. The wellknown transport protocol processes the packets in sender, receiver and intermediate nodes and thus the energy consumption by the intermediate nodes are imperative. In this paper, a mechanism is proposed, which makes ATP as en-to-end protocol. The transmission and queuing delay is calculated and weight is assigned suitably to understand the effect of the delay in the network. The effect of ...

  4. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however

  5. Developing a Teacher Evaluation Instrument to Provide Formative Feedback Using Student Ratings of Teaching Acts

    van der Lans, Rikkert M.; van de Grift, Wim J. C. M.; van Veen, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a teacher evaluation instrument, based on students' observations, which exhibits cumulative ordering in terms of the complexity of teaching acts. The study integrates theory on teacher development with theory on teacher effectiveness and applies a cross-validation procedure to verify whether teaching acts…

  6. Developing a Teacher Evaluation Instrument to Provide Formative Feedback Using Student Ratings of Teaching Acts

    van der Lans, Rikkert M.; van de Grift, Wim J.C.M.; van Veen, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a teacher evaluation instrument, based on students’ observations, which exhibits cumulative ordering in terms of the complexity of teaching acts. The study integrates theory on teacher development with theory on teacher effectiveness and applies a cross-valid

  7. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    None

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  8. Monitoring of nuclear transportation by radio controlled gamma dose rate system

    Transportation of nuclear material makes high demands on an uninterrupted monitoring local dose rate on the outer wall of the containment. A system that fully accomplishes these requirements is a radio based network consisting of intelligent probes that are connected with an alarm monitor as a node for data communication. (orig.)

  9. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  10. Longshore sediment transport rate-measurement and estimation, central west coast of India

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.; Naik, G.N.

    Measurements of the longshore sediment transport rate (LSTR) along the surf zone at a 4-km-long beach on the central west coast of India were made over a 4-month period. During the study, both the lateral and vertical distributions of the sediment...

  11. 75 FR 7978 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation...

    2010-02-23

    ... DHS/TSA-023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records relates to official DHS law... Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-023 Workplace Violence... Security Administration-023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records and this...

  12. The relationship between the use of mental health act and elderly suicide rates in England and Walls

    Laura Buckley

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between suicide and involuntary admissions has been examined in younger and mixed age groups. These studies provide mixed results with some demonstrating no relationship and others reporting increased rates of suicides in involuntarily admitted patients. This relationship has not been examined in the elderly. Methods: Thus, an ecological study, over the 19-year period, to examine the relationship between rates of involuntary admissions and elderly suicide rates in England and Wales was undertaken using nationally collected data. Data on suicide rates for both sexes in the age-bands 65-74 years and 75+ years were ascertained from the World Health Organisation (WHO website. Data on the number of detentions under the Mental Health Act were ascertained from the Office of National Statistics website. Data on the population size for the elderly age-bands were ascertained from the WHO website. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between suicide rates and rates of detention under the Mental Health Act. Results: There were negative correlations between rates of involuntary admissions and suicide rates in both sexes in the age-bands 65-74 and 75+ years. Conclusion: A causal relationship and the direction of causality cannot be assumed because this was an ecological study. There is a need for sufficiently powered study to compare the number of suicides occurring in involuntarily and voluntarily admitted patients using a case-control or cohort design and survival analysis. If an inverse association can be demonstrated between suicide and involuntary admissions then it has important implications for the development of mental health legislation as an adjunct to national suicide prevention strategies.

  13. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  14. Time-dependent integral transport equation kernels, leakage rates and collision rates for plane and spherical geometry

    Time-dependent integral transport equation flux and current kernels for plane and spherical geometry are derived for homogeneous media. Using the multiple collision formalism, isotropic sources that are delta distributions in time are considered for four different problems. The plane geometry flux kernel is applied to a uniformly distributed source within an infinite medium and to a surface source in a semi-infinite medium. The spherical flux kernel is applied to a point source in an infinite medium and to a point source at the origin of a finite sphere. The time-dependent first-flight leakage rates corresponding to the existing steady state first-flight escape probabilities are computed by the Laplace transform technique assuming a delta distribution source in time. The case of a constant source emitting neutrons over a time interval, Δt, for a spatially uniform source is obtained for a slab and a sphere. Time-dependent first-flight leakage rates are also determined for the general two region spherical medium problem for isotropic sources with a delta distribution in time uniformly distributed throughout both the inner and outer regions. The time-dependent collision rates due to the uncollided neutrons are computed for a slab and a sphere using the time-dependent first-flight leakage rates and the time-dependent continuity equation. The case of a constant source emitting neutrons over a time interval, Δt, is also considered

  15. Differences in brain 5-HT transporter dissociation rates among animal species

    Erreboe, I.; Plenge, P.; Mellerup, E.T. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Pharmacology, Lab. of Neuropsychiatry, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    The potential of using receptor-ligand dissociation rates as a model for investigating molecular changes in receptors was tested using the dissociation of [{sup 3}H]citalopram, [{sup 3}H]paroxetine and [{sup 3}H]imipramine from the brain 5-HT transporter of four different species (mouse, rat, pig and man). Since the dissociation rates of each of the three ligands differed in most of the species investigated, receptor-ligand dissociation rate constants would seem to be a sensitive measure of receptor conformation. The model could be useful in the search of structural variation in receptors whether attributable to genetic factors or to posttranslational modification. (au) (12 refs.).

  16. Count rate balance method of measuring sediment transport of sand beds by radioactive tracers

    Radioactive tracers are applied to the direct measurement of the sediment transport rate of sand beds. The theoretical measurement formula is derived: the variation of the count rate balance is inverse of that of the transport thickness. Simultaneously the representativeness of the tracer is critically studied. The minimum quantity of tracer which has to be injected in order to obtain a correct statistical definition of count rate given by a low number of grains 'seen' by the detector is then studied. A field experiment was made and has let to study the technological conditions for applying this method: only the treatment of results is new, the experiment itself is carried out with conventional techniques applied with great care. (author)

  17. Spatial distribution of soil erosion and suspended sediment transport rate for Chou-Shui river basin

    Chin-Ping Lin; Ching-Nuo Chen; Yu-Min Wang; Chih-Heng Tsai; Chang-Tai Tsai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a Physiographic Soil Erosion–Deposition Model (PSED) is applied for better management of a watershed. The PSED model can effectively evaluate the key parameters of watershed management: surface runoff discharge, suspended sediment transport rate, quantity of soil erosion, and spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition. A basin usually contains multiple watersheds. These watersheds may have complex topography and heterogeneous physiographic properties. The PSED model, containing a physiographic rainfall-runoff model and a basin scale erosion–deposition model, can simulate the physical mechanism of the entire erosion process based on a detailed calculation of bed-load transportation, surface soil entrainment, and the deposition mechanism. With the assistance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the PSED model can handle and analyze extremely large hydrologic and physiographic datasets and simulate the physical erosion process without the need for simplification. We verified the PSED model using three typhoon events and 40 rainfall events. The application of PSED to Chou-Shui River basin shows that the PSED model can accurately estimate discharge hydrographs, suspended sediment transport rates, and sediment yield. Additionally, we obtained reasonable quantities of soil erosion as well as the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition. The results show that the PSED model is capable of calculating spatially distributed soil erosion and suspended sediment transport rates for a basin with multiple watersheds even if these watersheds have complex topography and heterogeneous physiographic properties.

  18. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  19. Identification of biomolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters in living cells by inverse modeling

    Shirmohammadi Adel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of in-vivo biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters from experimental data obtained by Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP is becoming more important. Methods and results The Osborne-Moré extended version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was coupled with the experimental data obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP protocol, and the numerical solution of a set of two partial differential equations governing macromolecule mass transport and reaction in living cells, to inversely estimate optimized values of the molecular diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor. The results indicate that the FRAP protocol provides enough information to estimate one parameter uniquely using a nonlinear optimization technique. Coupling FRAP experimental data with the inverse modeling strategy, one can also uniquely estimate the individual values of the binding rate coefficients if the molecular diffusion coefficient is known. One can also simultaneously estimate the dissociation rate parameter and molecular diffusion coefficient given the pseudo-association rate parameter is known. However, the protocol provides insufficient information for unique simultaneous estimation of three parameters (diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters owing to the high intercorrelation between the molecular diffusion coefficient and pseudo-association rate parameter. Attempts to estimate macromolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters simultaneously from FRAP data result in misleading conclusions regarding concentrations of free macromolecule and bound complex inside the cell, average binding time per vacant site, average time for diffusion of macromolecules from one site to the next, and slow or rapid mobility of biomolecules in cells. Conclusion To obtain unique values for molecular diffusion coefficient and

  20. Rate of coastal transport along the southeastern mediterranean coast during storms using water hyacinth

    Galili, Ehud; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    1989-06-01

    The current study provides a potential method for measuring current velocities during storms. Water hyacinth debris, carried from the Nile outlet area by the offshore current, are washed ashore along the Israeli coasts after southwesterly winter storms. The impact of the offshore current and wind on the floating debris is such that storms of five days duration are sufficient to transport plants from the Nile to the Carmel coast, a distance of about 400 km. The available information indicates a high rate of transport in the southeastern Mediterranean.

  1. 76 FR 12896 - References to Credit Ratings in Certain Investment Company Act Rules and Forms

    2011-03-09

    .... 26066 (June 4, 2003) [68 FR 35258 (June 12, 2003)]. \\7\\ See References to Ratings of Nationally.... 58070 (July 1, 2008) [73 FR 40088 (July 11, 2008)]. Prior to this initiative, in 2003, the Commission... Release No. 28807 (June 30, 2009) [74 FR 32688 (July 8, 2009)] (``Money Market Fund Reform...

  2. Survival rate of initial azimuthal anisotropy in a multi-phase transport model

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the survival rate of an initial momentum anisotropy ($v_2^{ini}$) to the final state in a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV. It is found that both the final-state parton and charged hadron $v_2$ show a linear dependence versus $v_2^{ini}$. We use the slope of this linear dependence to quantify the survival rate. It is found that the survival rate increases with transverse momentum ($p_T$), approximately linearly, reaching ~100% at $p_T$$\\sim$2.5 GeV/c for both parton and charged hadron. The survival rate decreases with collision centrality and energy. The results indicate that the survival rate decreases with increasing magnitude of interaction.

  3. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Fade Compensation Protocol Impact on Very Small-Aperture Terminal Bit Error Rate Performance

    Cox, Christina B.; Coney, Thom A.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) communications system operates at Ka band. ACTS uses an adaptive rain fade compensation protocol to reduce the impact of signal attenuation resulting from propagation effects. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analysis characterizing the improvement in VSAT performance provided by this protocol. The metric for performance is VSAT bit error rate (BER) availability. The acceptable availability defined by communication system design specifications is 99.5% for a BER of 5E-7 or better. VSAT BER availabilities with and without rain fade compensation are presented. A comparison shows the improvement in BER availability realized with rain fade compensation. Results are presented for an eight-month period and for 24 months spread over a three-year period. The two time periods represent two different configurations of the fade compensation protocol. Index Terms-Adaptive coding, attenuation, propagation, rain, satellite communication, satellites.

  4. The transport mechanism of bacterial Cu+-ATPases: distinct efflux rates adapted to different function.

    Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel; Leeber, Blaise W; Argüello, José M

    2011-06-01

    Cu(+)-ATPases play a key role in bacterial Cu(+) homeostasis by participating in Cu(+) detoxification and cuproprotein assembly. Characterization of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA, a model protein within the subfamily of P(1B-1) type ATPases, has provided structural and mechanistic details on this group of transporters. Atomic resolution structures of cytoplasmic regulatory metal binding domains (MBDs) and catalytic actuator, phosphorylation, and nucleotide binding domains are available. These, in combination with whole protein structures resulting from cryo-electron microscopy analyses, have enabled the initial modeling of these transporters. Invariant residues in helixes 6, 7 and 8 form two transmembrane metal binding sites (TM-MBSs). These bind Cu(+) with high affinity in a trigonal planar geometry. The cytoplasmic Cu(+) chaperone CopZ transfers the metal directly to the TM-MBSs; however, loading both of the TM-MBSs requires binding of nucleotides to the enzyme. In agreement with the classical transport mechanism of P-type ATPases, occupancy of both transmembrane sites by cytoplasmic Cu(+) is a requirement for enzyme phosphorylation and subsequent transport into the periplasmic or extracellular milieus. Recent transport studies have shown that all Cu(+)-ATPases drive cytoplasmic Cu(+) efflux, albeit with quite different transport rates in tune with their various physiological roles. Archetypical Cu(+)-efflux pumps responsible for Cu(+) tolerance, like the Escherichia coli CopA, have turnover rates ten times higher than those involved in cuproprotein assembly (or alternative functions). This explains the incapability of the latter group to significantly contribute to the metal efflux required for survival in high copper environments. PMID:21210186

  5. Understanding of relationship between the average mass transport rate and the moments of permeability

    To estimate the transport rate of radionuclides in the geosphere, one must consider the spatial variability of permeability. However, the borehole data of permeability are limited and one can not determine the type of probability density function, though the measurement data reflect the most significant hydraulic properties about geologic media including innumerable cracks or fast flow paths. While the recent models describing radioactive nuclide transport in near/far-field have assumed a certain probability density function (typically a lognormal distribution) as a permeability distribution, one cannot always obtain sufficient measurement data to define the function. However, the available data of permeability at give one the moments such as the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation and the skewness for the distribution. The purpose of this paper is to get an understanding of the general relationship between the average mass transport rates and the moments. Using various types of probability density functions and pseudo random-numbers, hypothetical permeability distributions are generated. With these distributions, this paper obtains the average transport rates described as the numerical impulse-response based on the advection-dispersion model for a two-dimensional region. The calculated results show that, for the dimensionless standard deviation up to around 1, the three moments are enough to characterize the permeability distribution for the purposes of the nuclide transport prediction. In this work, for five specified probability density functions, the upper and lower bounds of skewness are derived as a function of the dimensionless arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The obtained upper and lower bounds explicitly show that the Bernoulli trials (a discrete probability density function) yield the widest range in the skewness against the standard deviation. since the response has lower peak and longer tail as the skewness goes to the lower bound value, the

  6. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    G. Forget

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20 year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity and independent variables (bio-geochemical tracers. Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper ocean ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rates. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  7. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    G. Forget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad-scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20-year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, version 4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century-long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity and independent variables (biogeochemical tracers. Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper-ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first-order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rate inversions. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Alongshore Variation of Sediment Transport Rate Downdrift of a Tidal Inlet

    Keshtpoor, M.; Puleo, J. A.; Shi, F.

    2013-12-01

    Indian River Inlet is located at the midpoint of the Atlantic-facing Delaware coast and connects Delaware inland bays (Rehoboth Bay to the north and Indian River Bay due west) to the Atlantic Ocean. In late 1930's the US Army Corps of Engineers constructed twin jetties to provide a safe channel for navigational and recreational purposes. Offshore extended jetties interrupted the alongshore sediment transport that resulted in severe downdrift beach recession. The main concern is the retreat of the shoreline toward the inland infrastucture, such as State Route 1, within 1000 m downdrift of the inlet. In recent years the rate of sediment loss from the downdrift beach has increased and the sediment bypassing system was not able to mitigate the shoreline recession. Here, NearCOM, that couples a wave model, a nearshore circulation model, and a sediment transport model is applied to simulate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport under the impact of tide and wave forcing in the inlet adjacent area at the downdrift beach. The main goal is to understand the patterns of sediment transport and causes of erosion near the morphologically complex inlet. Simulations are carried out for the dominant wave cases with the high probability of occurrence. In addition, the offshore boundary is forced with conditions observed during Hurricane Felix to obtain the beach response to a severe wave case. The effect of applied wave cases on the alongshore variability of sediment transport will be discussed to address the causes of downdrift beach erosion.

  9. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    2010-01-01

    ... an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Airline Transport Pilot Certificate 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an aircraft type rating course other than an airline transport pilot certificate, for: (a) A...

  10. Determination of uncertainties in the calculation of dose rates at transport and storage casks

    The compliance with the dose rate limits for transport and storage casks (TLB) for spent nuclear fuel from pressurised water reactors can be proved by calculation. This includes the determination of the radioactive sources and the shielding-capability of the cask. In this thesis the entire computational chain, which extends from the determination of the source terms to the final Monte-Carlo-transport-calculation is analysed and the arising uncertainties are quantified not only by benchmarks but also by variational calculi. The background of these analyses is that the comparison with measured dose rates at different TLBs shows an overestimation by the values calculated. Regarding the studies performed, the overestimation can be mainly explained by the detector characteristics for the measurement of the neutron dose rate and additionally in case of the gamma dose rates by the energy group structure, which the calculation is based on. It turns out that the consideration of the uncertainties occurring along the computational chain can lead to even greater overestimation. Concerning the dose rate calculation at cask loadings with spent uranium fuel assemblies an uncertainty of ((+21-28) ±2) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of (+28±23-55±4) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are estimated. For mixed-loadings with spent uranium and MOX fuel assemblies an uncertainty of (+24±3-27±2) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of (+28±23-55±4) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are quantified. The results show that the computational chain has not to be modified, because the calculations performed lead to conservative dose rate predictions, even if high uncertainties at neutron dose rate measurements arise. Thus at first the uncertainties of the neutron dose rate measurement have to be decreased to enable a reduction of the overestimation of the calculated dose rate afterwards. In the present thesis the deviation of the measured and calculated

  11. Estimation of radiation dose rate in new polypropylene strainer in primary heat transport system

    Heavy water is used in Primary Heat Transport system at Dhruva research reactor. It contains suspended and ionic impurities, therefore it is required to purify heavy water for removal of impurities and to maintain grade of heavy water. For enhancing performance of purification system testing of new polypropylene filters is planned for removal of suspended impurities at flow rate of 400 lit/min. Physical properties of polypropylene changes after exposure to radiation after radiation dose of 1.0E+05 Gy it becomes brittle. Calculations of beta and gamma radiation dose rate are based on the activity of radionuclides present in heavy water used as main coolant system. Assessment of service life of new filters is carried out by calculating the radiation dose rate to polypropylene filters during in service and radiation dose rate of existing removed stainless steel strainer. (author)

  12. THE NONLINEAR CUSP-CATASTROPHE MODEL OF THE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT RATE

    2002-01-01

    In the catastrophe theory of nonlinear science,the intensity of water-flow and the coefficient of non-uniformsediment m are regarded as two bound variables, and the in-tensity of bed-load transport Φ as the state variable in the mo-tion of non-uniform sediment in cusp-catastrophe model.Based on the standard equation of the cusp-catastrophe theo-ry, the relation equation between the intensity of bed-loadtransport Φ and the intensity of water-flow has been derivedby used coordinate transform and topology transform. The e-quation of bed load transport rate was built on the cusp-catas-trophe theory of nonlinear science. The others are applied toverify this equation, that the results calculated by the cusp-ca-tastrophe equation agree well with the other equations. Thisindicates that the cusp-catastrophe equation is reasonable, and the results fully reflect the characteristics of threshold motionand transport of non-uniform sediment. The purpose of thispaper is to explore the incipient motion and transport laws ofnon-uniform sediment from the viewpoint of nonlinear science.

  13. Photon dose rates estimation for CANDU spent fuel transport and intermediate dry storage

    The nuclear energy world wide development is accompanied by huge quantities of spent nuclear fuel accumulation. Shielding analyses are an essential component of the nuclear safety, the estimations of radiation doses in order to reduce them under specified limit values being the main task here. According to IAEA data, more than 10 millions packages containing radioactive materials are annually world wide transported. The radioactive material transport safety must be carefully settled. Last decade, both for operating reactors and future reactor projects, a general trend to raise the discharge fuel burnup has been world wide registered. For CANDU type reactors, one of the most attractive solutions seems to be SEU fuel utilization. In the paper there are estimated the CANDU spent fuel photon dose rates at the shipping cask/ storage basket wall for two different fuel projects after a defined cooling period in the NPP pools. The CANDU fuel projects considered were the CANDU standard 37 rod fuel bundle with natural UO2 and SEU fuels. In order to obtain radionuclide inventory and irradiated fuel characteristics, ORIGEN-S code has been used. The spent fuel characteristics are presented, comparatively, for both types of CANDU fuels. By means of the same code the photon source profiles have been calculated. The shielding calculations both for spent fuel transport and intermediate storage have been performed by using Monte Carlo MORSE-SGC code. The ORIGEN-S and MORSE-SGC codes are both included in ORNL's SCALE 4.4a program package. A photon dose rates comparison between the two types of CANDU fuels has been also performed, both for spent fuel transport and intermediate dry storage. (authors)

  14. A convective transport theory for high rate discharge in lithium ion cells

    A solution phase transport theory considering solvent effects is developed for lithium ion cells. The solvent convection velocity is derived from a volume conservation argument, leading to a diffusive correction, a transference number gradient correction and a pore-wall flux correction to the material balance equation. The diffusive correction exactly cancels the solvent-related (1−dlnc0/dlnc) factor in the original diffusion term. The transference number gradient and pore-wall flux corrections lead to a larger effective value of the lithium ion transference number. Comparative discharge simulations are carried out for a graphite–LiMn2O4 cell with 1 M or 2 M LiPF6 solution. The convective transport theory demonstrates little cell voltage difference at low rates (1 C and 3 C) compared with the original approach that neglects convection. Nevertheless, at a 6 C rate, a maximum of 51.32 mV excess cell voltage is predicted by the convective theory for the 1 M cell. For the 2 M cell the convective theory predicts a slightly slower voltage drop at the beginning of discharge, but a faster drop at the end of the 6 C discharge. At all rates the convective theory also gives a lower salt concentration profile within the negative electrode, but higher within the positive electrode. This implies that the concentration gradient is diminished by convection. Detailed analysis shows that the transference number gradient correction is always positive during discharge and is highly rate sensitive; the pore-wall flux correction is not only rate sensitive but also proportional to the salt concentration and is thus more prominent in the 2 M cell.

  15. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  16. Noble Cantor sets acting as partial internal transport barriers in fusion plasmas

    In hot laboratory plasmas, Internal Transport Barriers (ITB) have recently been observed, localized in the radial profile 'around' rational values of the winding number ω(r)=1/q(r). Such barriers are obviously related to the perturbed magnetic structure, described by a 1+1/2 Hamiltonian in presence of a perturbation. From the point of view of non-linear Hamiltonian dynamical systems this experimental result appears highly paradoxical since rational q-values generally correspond to the less robust tori. We have studied the appearance of chaos of toroidal magnetic lines by a discrete area-preserving map named 'tokamap'. By increasing the perturbation, we have observed in a wide chaotic sea the destruction of the last confining Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) surfaces, broken and transformed into permeable Cantor sets (Cantori). The flux across a Cantorus has been computed by using refined mathematical techniques due to MacKay, Mather and Aubry. We have proved that the ITB observed in the tokamap is actually composed of two permeable Cantori with 'noble' values of ω (in the definition of Percival). More generally, between the dominant chains of rational islands q = m/m-1, the most resistant barriers between q = m+2/m+1 and m+1/m have been checked (Green, MacKay and Stark) to be localized on the 'most irrational' numbers in these Farey intervals, i.e. on the noble numbers N(1,m)≡ 1+[1/(m+1/G)] (where G is the Golden number) defined by their continuous fraction expansion N(i,m) = [i,m,(1)∞]. In conclusion, the study of the tokamap mapping allowed us to predict on mathematical basis that ITB can occur in tokamak plasmas not only 'around' rational magnetic surfaces but more precisely on noble q-values of irrational surfaces, and to localize them by the Fibonacci series of their convergent. (authors)

  17. Numerical implementation of a crystal plasticity model with dislocation transport for high strain rate applications

    Mayeur, Jason R.; Mourad, Hashem M.; Luscher, Darby J.; Hunter, Abigail; Kenamond, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper details a numerical implementation of a single crystal plasticity model with dislocation transport for high strain rate applications. Our primary motivation for developing the model is to study the influence of dislocation transport and conservation on the mesoscale response of metallic crystals under extreme thermo-mechanical loading conditions (e.g. shocks). To this end we have developed a single crystal plasticity theory (Luscher et al (2015)) that incorporates finite deformation kinematics, internal stress fields caused by the presence of geometrically necessary dislocation gradients, advection equations to model dislocation density transport and conservation, and constitutive equations appropriate for shock loading (equation of state, drag-limited dislocation velocity, etc). In the following, we outline a coupled finite element–finite volume framework for implementing the model physics, and demonstrate its capabilities in simulating the response of a [1 0 0] copper single crystal during a plate impact test. Additionally, we explore the effect of varying certain model parameters (e.g. mesh density, finite volume update scheme) on the simulation results. Our results demonstrate that the model performs as intended and establishes a baseline of understanding that can be leveraged as we extend the model to incorporate additional and/or refined physics and move toward a multi-dimensional implementation.

  18. Effect of Different Stocking Densities on Survival Rates of Nile Tilapia Fingerlings Transported in Plastic Bags.

    Abdelwahab.M. Adam Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish farmers in Sudan obtain their seed stocks mainly not from their farms and as such rely heavily on good packing conditions covering sometimes 8–12 hours transportation time to maximize fish survival and quality the study here required main objective to identified the optimum loading for the success during transporting. closed oxygenated plastic bag which was carried three densities for each one with tow replicate for every treatment for the lower loading is 75 fingerlings /l the medium is, 100 fingerlings and last density is the larger one 140 fingerlings the duration factors was 10 hours, 11 hours and 18 hours. The fingerlings was sex reversed, their size is (5g ± 0.5. The collecting data analyze used SPSS computer software version- 16.0. Analysis result shown the factor of density in the tow treatments (75 fingerlings + 100 fingerlings was the best according to the survivor rate depending to type of the periods parameter. 10 hour=94% and 11 hours = 92% and here was N.S otherwise the comparative between those and the density 140 was high significant. Variation between loading and durations is NS at P<0.05, so the conclusions is found the optimum loading during transporting period was 100/l/18 (hundred fish per litter in 18 hours period according to analysis details.

  19. Mass transport around comets and its impact on the seasonal differences in water production rates

    Comets are surrounded by a thin expanding atmosphere, and although the nucleus' gravity is small, some molecules and grains, possibly with the inclusion of ices, can get transported around the nucleus through scattering (atoms/molecules) and gravitational pull (grains). Based on the obliquity of the comet, it is also possible that volatile material and icy grains get trapped in regions, which are in shadow until the comet passes its equinox. When the Sun rises above the horizon and the surface starts to heat up, this condensed material starts to desorb and icy grains will sublimate off the surface, possibly increasing the comet's neutral gas production rate on the outbound path. In this paper we investigate the mass transport around the nucleus, and based on a simplified model, we derive the possible contribution to the asymmetry in the seasonal gas production rate that could arise from trapped material released from cold areas once they come into sunlight. We conclude that the total amount of volatiles retained by this effect can only contribute up to a few percent of the asymmetry observed in some comets.

  20. Transport mechanisms and rates for the long-lived Chernobyl deposits

    A programme of work has been carried out to determine the various transport rates and mechanisms of Chernobyl radionuclides moving from catchment areas to rivers, reservoirs, lakes and sediments. In so doing the potential for Cs to be retained by and remobilised from sediments was assessed, along with the amount of deposited radioactivity which was in soluble form and hence was available in drinking water. Only a limited Ru-103 data set was obtained before it had decayed away below detection limits. However, results from this period showed that Ru mirrored Cs in its behaviour as it was measurable in the sediments at the same time after the deposition and it was trapped in the bottom waters of the lake. A substantial Cs data set was obtained for two lakes, Windermere and Esthwaite Water and it could be interpreted, with the aid of mathematical models developed during this study, to indicate the major processes and pathways operating in the transport of Cs through lake catchments. During the initial period after the deposition a maximum of 27% of the Cs in the water column was found in the particulate form and rapidly (months) reduced to 10-15% of the total. Total water column concentrations had reduced to half their initial measured values within 15 days in Esthwaite Water and 70 days in Windermere. Cs-134 was observed in surface sediments within 7 days in Esthwaite Water (15.5 m deep) and 30 days in Windermere (65 m deep) which, from a knowledge of mixing regimes of the lakes can be interpreted in terms of similar settlement velocities of 1-2 m per day. A small proportion of Chernobyl material was rapidly moved into the sediment as shown by small concentrations of Cs-134 being found at a depth of 8 cm after one year. This indicates that a non-diffusional transport mechanism, such as bioturbation, may be important for the transport of particulate caesium in sediments. (author)

  1. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  2. EFFECTS OF PORE STRUCTURE CHANGE AND MULTI-SCALE HETEROGENEITY ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REACTION RATE UPSCALING

    Lindquist, W. Brent; Jones, Keith W.; Um, Wooyong; Rockhold, mark; Peters, Catherine A.; Celia, Michael A.

    2013-02-15

    This project addressed the scaling of geochemical reactions to core and field scales, and the interrelationship between reaction rates and flow in porous media. We targeted reactive transport problems relevant to the Hanford site - specifically the reaction of highly caustic, radioactive waste solutions with subsurface sediments, and the immobilization of 90Sr and 129I through mineral incorporation and passive flow blockage, respectively. We addressed the correlation of results for pore-scale fluid-soil interaction with field-scale fluid flow, with the specific goals of (i) predicting attenuation of radionuclide concentration; (ii) estimating changes in flow rates through changes of soil permeabilities; and (iii) estimating effective reaction rates. In supplemental work, we also simulated reactive transport systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. As a whole, this research generated a better understanding of reactive transport in porous media, and resulted in more accurate methods for reaction rate upscaling and improved prediction of permeability evolution. These scientific advancements will ultimately lead to better tools for management and remediation of DOE’s legacy waste problems. We established three key issues of reactive flow upscaling, and organized this project in three corresponding thrust areas. 1) Reactive flow experiments. The combination of mineral dissolution and precipitation alters pore network structure and the subsequent flow velocities, thereby creating a complex interaction between reaction and transport. To examine this phenomenon, we conducted controlled laboratory experimentation using reactive flow-through columns. Results and Key Findings: Four reactive column experiments (S1, S3, S4, S5) have been completed in which simulated tank waste leachage (STWL) was reacted with pure quartz sand, with and without Aluminum. The STWL is a caustic solution that dissolves quartz. Because Al is a necessary element in the formation of

  3. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates

    Atchley, Adam L.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb2 +) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb2 + concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb2 + concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb2 + concentrations are the same for all three

  4. Determining rates of chemical weathering in soils - Solute transport versus profile evolution

    Stonestrom, D.A.; White, A.F.; Akstin, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    SiO2 fluxes associated with contemporary solute transport in three deeply weathered granitoid profiles are compared to bulk SiO2 losses that have occurred during regolith development. Climates at the three profiles range from Mediterranean to humid to tropical. Due to shallow impeding alluvial layers at two of the profiles, and seasonally uniform rainfall at the third, temporal variations in hydraulic and chemical state variables are largely attenuated below depths of 1-2 m. This allows current SiO2 fluxes below the zone of seasonal variations to be estimated from pore-water concentrations and average hydraulic flux densities. Mean-annual SiO2 concentrations were 0.1-1.5 mM. Hydraulic conductivities for the investigated range of soil-moisture saturations ranged from 10-6 m s-1. Estimated hydraulic flux densities for quasi-steady portions of the profiles varied from 6 x 10-9 to 14 x 10-9 m s-1 based on Darcy's law and field measurements of moisture saturations and pressure heads. Corresponding fluid-residence times in the profiles ranged from 10 to 44 years. Total SiO2 losses, based on chemical and volumetric changes in the respective profiles, ranged from 19 to 110 kmoles SiO2 m-2 of land surface as a result of 0.2-0.4 Ma of chemical weathering. Extrapolation of contemporary solute fluxes to comparable time periods reproduced these SiO2 losses to about an order of magnitude. Despite the large range and non-linearity of measured hydraulic conductivities, solute transport rates in weathering regoliths can be estimated from characterization of hydrologic conditions at sufficiently large depths. The agreement suggests that current weathering rates are representative of long-term average weathering rates in the regoliths.SiO2 fluxes associated with contemporary solute transport in three deeply weathered granitoid profiles are compared to bulk SiO2 losses during regolith development. Due to shallow impeding alluvial layers at two of the profiles, and seasonally uniform

  5. RATE BASED TRANSPORT PROTOCOL USING DELAY INFORMATION for REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION of NODES in MANET

    K. Sasikala

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The MANET requires rate based transport protocol for node-to-node data transfer to be effective. The wellknown transport protocol processes the packets in sender, receiver and intermediate nodes and thus the energy consumption by the intermediate nodes are imperative. In this paper, a mechanism is proposed, which makes ATP as en-to-end protocol. The transmission and queuing delay is calculated and weight is assigned suitably to understand the effect of the delay in the network. The effect of recent delay is considered and more weight isassigned to the delay value and the same is stamped in the header of the packet. The header is processed in the most of the layers of sender and receiver nodes only. The intermediate node process the header only in minimized layers and thus the energy of the nodes are saved. The percentage of power consumption time is considered as evaluation parameter and NS2 simulator is considered as tool. The performance of the proposed approach is encouraging compared a recently proposed similar approach.

  6. Benchmark calculations of neutron dose rates at transport and storage casks

    The application of numerical calculations methods for demonstration of sufficient radiation shielding of radioactive waste transport and storage casks requires a validation based on appropriate measurements of gamma and neutron sources. The results of the comparison of measured data and calculations using the Monte Carlo program MCNP show deviations dependent on the loading of the cask within the standard deviation which is dominated by the measuring method. Considering the neutrons scattered at the salt MCNP (in case of disposal in the salt) tends to underestimate the nominal values, but still within the double standard deviation. This accuracy is not reached with MAVRIC. Based on AHE (active handling experiments) data benchmark calculations were performed that can be used as reference value. The total accuracy results from the accuracy of the source term and the measurement of the neutron dose rate with a deviation of 15%.

  7. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process simulations of molecular motor transport on random networks with asymmetric exit rates.

    Denisov, D V; Miedema, D M; Nienhuis, B; Schall, P

    2015-11-01

    Using the totally asymmetric simple-exclusion-process and mean-field transport theory, we investigate the transport in closed random networks with simple crossing topology-two incoming, two outgoing segments, as a model for molecular motor motion along biopolymer networks. Inspired by in vitro observation of molecular motor motion, we model the motor behavior at the intersections by introducing different exit rates for the two outgoing segments. Our simulations of this simple network reveal surprisingly rich behavior of the transport current with respect to the global density and exit rate ratio. For asymmetric exit rates, we find a broad current plateau at intermediate motor densities resulting from the competition of two subnetwork populations. This current plateau leads to stabilization of transport properties within such networks. PMID:26651730

  8. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process simulations of molecular motor transport on random networks with asymmetric exit rates

    Denisov, D. V.; Miedema, D. M.; Nienhuis, B.; Schall, P.

    2015-11-01

    Using the totally asymmetric simple-exclusion-process and mean-field transport theory, we investigate the transport in closed random networks with simple crossing topology—two incoming, two outgoing segments, as a model for molecular motor motion along biopolymer networks. Inspired by in vitro observation of molecular motor motion, we model the motor behavior at the intersections by introducing different exit rates for the two outgoing segments. Our simulations of this simple network reveal surprisingly rich behavior of the transport current with respect to the global density and exit rate ratio. For asymmetric exit rates, we find a broad current plateau at intermediate motor densities resulting from the competition of two subnetwork populations. This current plateau leads to stabilization of transport properties within such networks.

  9. A way through the dark and thorny thickets? The adjudication of "serious injury" under the narrative tests in the Transport Accident Act 1986 (Vic) and the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013 (Vic).

    Taliadoros, Jason

    2015-09-01

    The so-called "narrative" test provides the means by which injured persons who satisfy the statutory and common law definition of "serious injury" may bring proceedings for common law damages under s 93 of the Transport Accident Act 1986 (Vic) and s 134AB of the Accident Compensation Act 1985 (Vic) (or, for injuries after 1 July 2014, under ss 324-347 of the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013 (Vic)). These are among the most litigated provisions in Australia. This article outlines the legislative and political background to these provisions, the provisions themselves, and an account of the statutory and common law requirements needed to satisfy the provisions. PMID:26554209

  10. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  11. Evaluation of the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport from rate measurements.

    Reynafarje, B; Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1976-12-10

    The mitochondrial H+/site ratio (i.e. the number of protons ejected per pair of electrons traversing each of the energy-conserving sites of the respiratory chain) has been evaluated employing a new experimental approach. In this method the rates of oxygen uptake and H+ ejection were measured simultaneously during the initial period of respiration evoked by addition of succinate to aerobic, rotenone-inhibited, de-energized mitochondria. Either K+, in the presence of valinomycin, or Ca2+, was used as mobile cation to dissipate the membrane potential and allow quantitative H+ ejection into the medium. The H+/site ratio observed with this method in the absence of precautions to inhibit the uptake of phosphate was close to 2.0, in agreement with values obtained using the oxygen pulse technique (Mitchell, P. and Moyle, J. (1967) Biochem. J. 105, 1147-1162). However, when phosphate movements were eliminated either by inhibition of the phosphate-hydroxide antiporter with N-ethylamaleimide or by depleting the mitochondria of their endogenous phosphate content, H+/site ratios close to 4.0 were consistently observed. This ratio was independent of the concentration of succinate, of mitochondrial protein, of pH between 6 and 8, and of ionic composition of the medium, provided that sufficient K+ (plus valinomycin) or Ca2+ were present. Specific inhibitors of the hydrolysis of endogenous ATP or transport of other ions (adenine nucleotides, tricarboxylates, HCO3-, etc.) were shown not to affect the observed H+/site ratio. Furthermore, the replacement of succinate by alpha-glycerol phosphate, a substrate which is oxidized on the outer surface of the inner membrane and thus does not need to enter the matrix, gave the same H+/site ratios as did succinate. It is concluded that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport, when phosphate movements are eliminated, may be close to 4.0. PMID:12164

  12. The Role of Angular Momentum Transport in Establishing the Accretion Rate--Protostellar Mass Correlation

    DeSouza, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    We model the mass accretion rate $\\dot{M}$ to stellar mass $M_*$ correlation that has been inferred from observations of intermediate to upper mass T Tauri stars---that is $\\dot{M} \\propto M_*^{1.3 \\pm 0.3}$. We explain this correlation within the framework of quiescent disk evolution, in which accretion is driven largely by gravitational torques acting in the bulk of the mass and volume of the disk. Stresses within the disk arise from the action of gravitationally driven torques parameterized in our 1D model in terms of Toomre's $Q$ criterion. We do not model the hot inner sub-AU scale region of the disk that is likely stable according to this criterion, and appeal to other mechanisms to remove or redistribute angular momentum and allow accretion onto the star. Our model has the advantage of agreeing with large-scale angle-averaged values from more complex nonaxisymmetric calculations. The model disk transitions from an early phase (dominated by initial conditions inherited from the burst mode of accretion) ...

  13. Rate and mechanism of facilitated americium(III) transport through a supported liquid membrane containing a bifunctional organophosphorus mobile carrier

    The facilitated transport of Am(III) from aqueous nitrate solutions to formic acid aqueous solutions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) is described. The supported liquid membrane consists of a solution of a new (carbamoylmethyl)phosphine oxide in diethylbenzene (DEB) absorbed into a 48 μm thick microporous polypropylene film. The transport mechanism consists of a diffusion process through an aqueous diffusion film, a fast interfacial chemical reaction, and diffusion through the membrane itself. Equations describing the rate of transport are derived. They correlate the membrane permeability coefficient to diffusional parameters and to the chemical composition of the system. Different rate-controlling processes are shown to control the membrane permeability when the composition of the system is varied and as long as the transport occurs. The experimental data are quantitatively explained with the derived equations. The diffusion coefficient of the permeating species and the equilibrium constant of the fast interfacial reactions are evaluated. 13 figures, 1 table

  14. Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia Generation by Bipolar Membranes Electrodialysis: Transport Rate Model for Ion and Water through Anion Exchange Membrane

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhua; Ren, HongYan; Cong, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration of sulfuric acid and ammonia from ammonium sulfate by bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) coupling with stripping ammonia by air-blowing was studied. The result showed that it was feasible to regenerate sulfuric acid and ammonia from ammonium sulfate solution using this method. Empirical models to describe the ion and water transport behaviors through anion exchange membrane for BMED system were successfully developed. The models were valid to evaluate water transport rate an...

  15. Sugar transport and nitrate reductase activity rate in roots affect plant adaptation to cold and warm climate plants

    Kafkafi, Uzi

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in the root is controlled by 2 fluxes: 1) nitrate intake from the external solution. 2) Transport of sugar from the leaves. Nitrate reduction to ammonium or direct ammonium uptake produce ammonia in the root cell. When the rate of sugar transport to root cells is slower than their sugar consumption for respiration, ammonia will accumulate and the root cells will die from ammonia toxicity. In nature, plants can be defined with regard to the activity of their root nitrate re...

  16. The utility industry's perspective on OCRWM's plans for developing the system for transporting spent fuel under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    The electric utility industry has a vital interest in the transport program to be developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The industry's interest stems in part from the fact that the DOE's transportation program is financed by the Nuclear Waste Fund which is made up of ratepayer funds. However, the industry is also vitally interested in the DOE's transportation program because it could impact the ongoing transportation operations of all nuclear utilities, and, perhaps most importantly, without the utility industry's input, DOE is not able to develop an optimal transportation program. The NWPA contemplates that the DOE conducts its transportation program in accordance with the existing federal and state regulatory structure. DOE has significant discretion, however, in creating and implementing the business, operational and institutional aspects of its NWPA transportation program. The utility industry intends to ensure that the DOE meets the challenge to develop a safe, efficient and economically sound program to transport spent fuel and high-level waste to the appropriate federal facilities

  17. Utilization of electromigration in civil and environmental engineering--processes, transport rates and matrix changes.

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Christensen, Iben V; Rorig-Dalgård, Inge; Jensen, Pernille E; Hansen, Henrik K

    2008-07-01

    Electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) is utilized for supply or extraction of ions from various porous materials within both civil and environmental engineering. In civil engineering, most research has been conducted on the removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion while in environmental engineering remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is the issue most studied. Never the less, experiments have been conducted with utilization for several other materials and purposes within both engineering fields. Even though there are many topics of common interest in the use of electromigration for the two fields, there is no tradition for collaboration. The present paper is a review with the aim of pointing out areas of shared interest. Focus is laid on the purposes of the different processes, transport rates of various ions in different materials and on changes in the matrix itself. Desorption and dissolution of the target elements into ionic form is a key issue to most of the processes, and can be the limiting step. The removal rate is generally below 1 cm day(- 1), but it can be much less than 1 mm day(- 1) when desorption is slow and insufficient. Matrix changes occurs under the action of the applied electric field and it includes both physico-chemical and hydrological changes. Some of the solid phases is weathered and new can be formed. Increased fundamental understanding of the effects and side effects, when applying the electric field to a porous material, can lead to improvement of the known technologies and possibly to new applications. PMID:18569289

  18. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TRANSPORT RATE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY AND SOLAR FLARES

    We present a statistical study which is aimed at understanding the fact that some flares (type I flare) are associated with sharp variations of the transport rate of magnetic helicity (dH/dt) while others are not (type II flare). The sample consists of 49 M-class and X-class flares which were produced by nine isolated active regions. Using high temporal magnetograms obtained by the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, we calculate the temporal variation of dH/dt during the flaring time, and compare its profile with the soft X-ray flux. We find that type I flares have longer duration and higher peak flux in soft X-ray than type II flares. Furthermore, the ratio of the total unsigned magnetic flux of the host active region to that of the visible solar disk is also higher for type I flares, while the total flux itself is independent of the flare type. Our results show that whether the flare is associated with sharp variations of dH/dt depends on the properties of the flare and of its host active region. The relationship between dH/dt and microwave bursts is also discussed.

  19. Vitrified Waste Corrosion Rates From Field Experiment and Reactive Transport Modeling

    The Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has been used extensively by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. strategic defense arsenal. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste has accumulated in 177 buried single- and double-shell tanks. Liquid waste recovered from the tanks will be pre-treated to separate the low activity fraction from the high-level and transuranic wastes. The low-activity waste (LAW) will be immobilized in glass and placed in a near-surface disposal system on the Hanford Site. Vitrifying the LAW will generate over 160,000 m3 of glass. Before the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) can be disposed, DOE must approve a performance assessment (PA), which is a document that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. A sound scientific basis for determining the long-term release rates of radionuclides from LAW glasses must be developed if the PA is to be accepted by regulators and stakeholders. To conduct this calculation, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) used a methodology in which the waste form release rate was calculated by modeling the basic physical and chemical processes that are known to control dissolution behavior using a reactive transport code, STORM. This methodology was used instead of empirical extrapolations from laboratory ''leaching'' experiments commonly used in other PA or in the phenomenological approach of SIA ''Radon''. This methodology is preferred because the dissolution rate, and hence radionuclide release rate, from silicate glasses is not a static variable--a constant that can be derived independently of other variables in the system. Glass dissolution rate is a function of three variables (neglecting glass composition itself): temperature, pH, and composition of the fluid contacting the glass. SIA Radon has been running a field experiment for over 12 years to evaluate the behavior of a high

  20. Secondhand smoke in public places: Can Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation be a role model for effective implementation of cigarette and other tobacco products Act, 2003?

    N S Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The Indian government enacted ′The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003′ (COTPA, which prohibits smoking in public places. Aim : To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. Settings and Design : The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. Methods and Material : The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Statistical Analysis Used : Simple Averages. Results : There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Conclusions : Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.

  1. CFTR delivery to 25% of surface epithelial cells restores normal rates of mucus transport to human cystic fibrosis airway epithelium.

    Liqun Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF airway epithelium perturbs the normal regulation of ion transport, leading to a reduced volume of airway surface liquid (ASL, mucus dehydration, decreased mucus transport, and mucus plugging of the airways. CFTR is normally expressed in ciliated epithelial cells of the surface and submucosal gland ductal epithelium and submucosal gland acinar cells. Critical questions for the development of gene transfer strategies for CF airway disease are what airway regions require CFTR function and how many epithelial cells require CFTR expression to restore normal ASL volume regulation and mucus transport to CF airway epithelium? An in vitro model of human CF ciliated surface airway epithelium (CF HAE was used to test whether a human parainfluenza virus (PIV vector engineered to express CFTR (PIVCFTR could deliver sufficient CFTR to CF HAE to restore mucus transport, thus correcting the CF phenotype. PIVCFTR delivered CFTR to >60% of airway surface epithelial cells and expressed CFTR protein in CF HAE approximately 100-fold over endogenous levels in non-CF HAE. This efficiency of CFTR delivery fully corrected the basic bioelectric defects of Cl(- and Na(+ epithelial ion transport and restored ASL volume regulation and mucus transport to levels approaching those of non-CF HAE. To determine the numbers of CF HAE surface epithelial cells required to express CFTR for restoration of mucus transport to normal levels, different amounts of PIVCFTR were used to express CFTR in 3%-65% of the surface epithelial cells of CF HAE and correlated to increasing ASL volumes and mucus transport rates. These data demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that restoration of normal mucus transport rates in CF HAE was achieved after CFTR delivery to 25% of surface epithelial cells. In vivo experimentation in appropriate models will be required to determine what level of mucus transport will afford clinical benefit to CF patients

  2. Differential influence of dopamine transport rate on the potencies of cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate.

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Siciliano, Cody A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-01-21

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) levels vary across brain regions and individuals, and are altered by drug history and disease states; however, the impact of altered DAT expression on psychostimulant effects in brain has not been systematically explored. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry, we measured the effects of elevated DAT levels on presynaptic dopamine parameters as well as the uptake inhibition potency of the blockers cocaine and methylphenidate (MPH) and the releaser amphetamine (AMPH) in the nucleus accumbens core. Here we found that increases in DAT levels, resulting from either genetic overexpression or MPH self-administration, caused markedly increased maximal rates of uptake (Vmax) that were positively correlated with the uptake inhibition potency of AMPH and MPH, but not cocaine. AMPH and MPH were particularly sensitive to DAT changes, with a 100% increase in Vmax resulting in a 200% increase in potency. The relationship between Vmax and MPH potency was the same as that for AMPH, but was different from that for cocaine, indicating that MPH more closely resembles a releaser with regard to uptake inhibition. Conversely, the effects of MPH on stimulated dopamine release were similar to those of cocaine, with inverted U-shaped increases in release over a concentration-response curve. This was strikingly different from the release profile of AMPH, which showed only reductions at high concentrations, indicating that MPH is not a pure releaser. These data indicate that although MPH is a DAT blocker, its uptake-inhibitory actions are affected by DAT changes in a similar manner to releasers. Together, these data show that fluctuations in DAT levels alter the potency of releasers and MPH but not blockers and suggest an integral role of the DAT in the addictive potential of AMPH and related compounds. PMID:25474655

  3. Bed-Load Transport Rate Based on the Entrainment Probabilities of Sediment Grains by Rolling and Lifting

    Li, Jun-De; Lin, Binliang

    2016-01-01

    A function for the bed-load sediment transport rate is derived. This is achieved from the first principle by using the entrainment probabilities of the sediment grains by rolling and lifting, and by introducing two travel lengths, respectively, for the first time. The predictions from the new bed-load function agree well with the experimental results over the entire experimental range and show significant improvement over the commonly used formula for bed-load transport rate. The new function shows that, in terms of contributing to the bed-load transport rate, the total entrainment probability of the sediment grains is a weighted summation of those by the lifted and rolling grains, rather than a simple addition of the two. The function has also been used to predict the total entrainment probability, saltation length and the bed layer thickness at high bed-load transport rate. These predictions all agree well with the experimental results. It is found that, on average, the travel length for the rolling sand gr...

  4. Quantifying the coevolution of bedload transport rates and bed topography in mountain rivers: A field experiment in Reynolds Creek, ID

    Bedload transport rates in upland rivers remain difficult to predict, even to within an order of magnitude. We are conducting a field experiment by modifying the morphology of a mountain river channel and monitoring its response to better understand the evolution of bed topography and, ultimately, t...

  5. Influence of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR Polymorphism) on the Relation between Brain 5-HT Transporter Binding and Heart Rate Corrected Cardiac Repolarization Interval

    Kauppila, Esa; Vanninen, Esko; Kaurijoki, Salla; Karhunen, Leila; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Rissanen, Aila; Tiihonen, Jari; Pesonen, Ullamari; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Objective Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR polymorphism) predicts the degree of structural and functional connectivity in the brain, and less consistently the degree of vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders. It is less known how 5-HTTLPR polymorphism influences on the coupling between brain and neuronal cardiovascular control. The present study demonstrates the impact of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on the relations between heart rate (HR) corrected cardiac repolarizati...

  6. Determination of uncertainties in the calculation of dose rates at transport and storage casks; Unsicherheiten bei der Berechnung von Dosisleistungen an Transport- und Lagerbehaeltern

    Schloemer, Luc Laurent Alexander

    2014-12-17

    The compliance with the dose rate limits for transport and storage casks (TLB) for spent nuclear fuel from pressurised water reactors can be proved by calculation. This includes the determination of the radioactive sources and the shielding-capability of the cask. In this thesis the entire computational chain, which extends from the determination of the source terms to the final Monte-Carlo-transport-calculation is analysed and the arising uncertainties are quantified not only by benchmarks but also by variational calculi. The background of these analyses is that the comparison with measured dose rates at different TLBs shows an overestimation by the values calculated. Regarding the studies performed, the overestimation can be mainly explained by the detector characteristics for the measurement of the neutron dose rate and additionally in case of the gamma dose rates by the energy group structure, which the calculation is based on. It turns out that the consideration of the uncertainties occurring along the computational chain can lead to even greater overestimation. Concerning the dose rate calculation at cask loadings with spent uranium fuel assemblies an uncertainty of (({sup +21}{sub -28}) ±2) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of ({sup +28±23}{sub -55±4}) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are estimated. For mixed-loadings with spent uranium and MOX fuel assemblies an uncertainty of ({sup +24±3}{sub -27±2}) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of ({sup +28±23}{sub -55±4}) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are quantified. The results show that the computational chain has not to be modified, because the calculations performed lead to conservative dose rate predictions, even if high uncertainties at neutron dose rate measurements arise. Thus at first the uncertainties of the neutron dose rate measurement have to be decreased to enable a reduction of the overestimation of the calculated dose rate afterwards. In the present thesis

  7. High-resolution monitoring of bedload transport rates: a benchmark of two approaches (accelerometers and image processing)

    Dhont, Blaise; Rousseau, Gauthier; Ancey, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Experimental and field studies have shown how intermittent bedload transport can be at low flow rates. The development and validation of bedload-transport equations require high-resolution records over long periods of time. Two technologies are considered in the present investigation: image processing and accelerometers mounted on impact plates. The former has been successfully applied to monitor bedload transport in many flume experiments, and the latter has shown encouraging results at different field sites. Calibration is a major issue in both cases, and it is often difficult to assess the precision of the data collected. In our talk, we show how to calibrate and compare the performances of accelerometer and image-processing based techniques in laboratory conditions. The accelerometer is fixed on a perforated steel plate, which is placed vertically at the lower end of the flume. The vibrations due to the particles impacting the plate are recorded with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz. The proxy for bedload transport rate is chosen as the number of peaks above a fixed threshold of the recorded signal. Note that impact plates are usually set in flush with the bed, and to our knowledge, the vertical configuration presented here has not yet been documented. The experimental setup for image processing involves a video-camera that takes top-view images of the particles moving over a white board mounted at the outlet of the flume. Data storage poses an issue, which can be got round by pre-processing the images in real time. The bedload transport rate is estimated based on the number of particles that are identified on the images. The two technologies have the advantages of being cost-effective and demanding limited effort for implementation. They provide high-resolution bedload transport rates over several hours. Estimates of bedload discharge were found to be robust and accurate for low sediment transport rates. At higher rates, the sensors may saturate due the arrival

  8. Tunneling rates in electron transport through double-barrier molecular junctions in a scanning tunneling microscope

    Nazin, G. V.; S. W. Wu; Ho, W.

    2005-01-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope enables atomic-scale measurements of electron transport through individual molecules. Copper phthalocyanine and magnesium porphine molecules adsorbed on a thin oxide film grown on the NiAl(110) surface were probed. The single-molecule junctions contained two tunneling barriers, vacuum gap, and oxide film. Differential conductance spectroscopy shows that electron transport occurs via vibronic states of the molecules. The intensity of spectral peaks correspondi...

  9. Suspended-sediment transport rates at the 1.5-year recurrence interval for ecoregions of the United States: transport conditions at the bankfull and effective discharge?

    Simon, Andrew; Dickerson, Wendy; Heins, Amanda

    2004-03-01

    Historical flow and suspended-sediment transport data from more than 2900 sites across the United States have been analyzed in the context of estimating flow and suspended-sediment transport conditions at the 1.5-year recurrence interval flow ( Q1.5). This is particularly relevant with the renewed focus on stream restoration activities and the urgency in developing water-quality criteria for sediment. Data were sorted into the 84 Level III ecoregions to identify spatial trends in suspended-sediment concentrations and yields to meaningfully describe suspended-sediment transport rates across the United States. Arguments are developed that in lieu of form-based estimates of say the bankfull level, a flow of a given recurrence interval ( Q1.5) is more appropriate to integrate suspended-sediment transport ratings for the purpose of defining long-term transport conditions at a site (the "effective discharge"). The use of the Q1.5 as a measure of the effective discharge for suspended-sediment transport is justified on the basis of literature reports and analytic results from hundreds of sites in 17 ecoregions that span a diverse range of hydrologic and topographic conditions (i.e., Coast Range, Arizona/New Mexico Plateau, Mississippi Valley Loess Plains, Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain). There is sufficient data to also develop regional curves for the Q1.5 in all but eight of the ecoregions. At the Q1.5 the highest median suspended-sediment concentrations occur in semiarid environments (Southwest Tablelands, Arizona/New Mexico Plateau and the Mojave Basin and Range); the highest yields occur in humid regions with erodible soils and steep slopes or channel gradients (Mississippi Valley Loess Plains [MVLP] and the Coast Range). Suspended-sediment yields for stable streams are used to determine "background" or "reference" sediment transport conditions in eight ecoregions where there is sufficient field data. The median value for stable sites within a given ecoregion are

  10. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531 influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans

    Schalling Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e.g. 5-HTTLPR, rs25531. The aim of this study was to investigate if the triallelic 5-HTTLPR influences pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. 43 healthy volunteers (12 men, 31 women, mean age 26 years underwent heat pain stimulations before and after intravenous injection of Remifentanil; a rapid and potent opioid drug acting on μ-type receptors. Subjects rated their perceived pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS. All participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and the rs25531 polymorphism. We recruited by advertising, with no history of drug abuse, chronic pain or psychiatric disorders. Results At baseline, there was no difference in pain ratings for the different triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. However, the opiod drug had a differential analgesic effect depending on the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. Remifentanil had a significantly better analgesic effect in individuals with a genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression (SA/SA and SA/LG as compared to those with high expression(LA/LA, p Conclusion This is the first report showing an influence of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR on pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. Previously the 5-HTTLPR s-allele has been associated with higher risk of developing chronic pain conditions but in this study we show that the genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression is associated with a better analgesic effect of an opioid. The s-allele has been associated with downregulation of

  11. Experimental study of the relationship between injection rate shape and Diesel ignition using a novel piezo-actuated direct-acting injector

    Macian Martinez, Vicente; Payri Marín, Raúl; Ruiz Rosales, Santiago; BARDI, MICHELE; Plazas, Alejandro H.

    2014-01-01

    Injection rate shaping is one of the most attractive alternatives to multiple injection strategies; however, its implementation has been for long time impeded by limitations in the injector technology and therefore, the experimental information available in the literature about this topic is lacking. In this work, a novel prototype common-rail injector featuring direct control of the nozzle needle by means of a piezo-stack (direct-acting) allowed a fully flexible control on the nozzle nee...

  12. EFFECTS OF PORE STRUCTURE CHANGE AND MULTI-SCALE HETEROGENEITY ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REACTION RATE UPSCALING

    Peters, Catherine A [Princeton University

    2013-05-15

    This project addressed the scaling of geochemical reactions to core and field scales, and the interrelationship between reaction rates and flow in porous media. We targeted reactive transport problems relevant to the Hanford site specifically the reaction of highly caustic, radioactive waste solutions with subsurface sediments, and the immobilization of 90Sr and 129I through mineral incorporation and passive flow blockage, respectively. We addressed the correlation of results for pore-scale fluid-soil interaction with field-scale fluid flow, with the specific goals of (i) predicting attenuation of radionuclide concentration; (ii) estimating changes in flow rates through changes of soil permeabilities; and (iii) estimating effective reaction rates. In supplemental work, we also simulated reactive transport systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. As a whole, this research generated a better understanding of reactive transport in porous media, and resulted in more accurate methods for reaction rate upscaling and improved prediction of permeability evolution. These scientific advancements will ultimately lead to better tools for management and remediation of DOE legacy waste problems.

  13. Transport

    Transport is one of the major causes of environmental damage in Austria. Energy consumption, pollutants emissions, noise emissions, use of surfaces, sealing of surfaces, dissection of ecosystems and impact on landscape are the most significant environmental impacts caused by it. An overview of the transport development of passengers and freight in Austria is presented. Especially the energy consumption growth, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions by type of transport, and the emissions development (HC, particle and carbon monoxide) of goods and passengers transport are analyzed covering the years 1980 - 1999. The health cost resulting from transport-related air pollution in Austria is given and measures to be taken for an effective control of the transport sector are mentioned. Figs. 8, Table 1. (nevyjel)

  14. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    The goal of govern project is to understand and quantify the processes that the transport and dispersal of energy-related pollutants introduced to the waters of the continental shelf and slope. The report is divided into sections dealing with processes associated with suspended solids; processes associated with sediments sinks for radionuclides and other pollutants; and spreading of water characteristics and species in solution

  15. Fast evolutionary rates associated with functional loss in class I glucose transporters of Schistosoma mansoni

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Lancelot, J.; Pierce, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, NOV 19 2015 (2015), s. 980. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * glucose transporters * transcriptional regulation * phylogen * biophysics Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  16. Modulating the rate of charge transport in a metal-organic framework thin film using host:guest chemistry.

    Hod, Idan; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-01-28

    Herein we demonstrate the use of host-guest chemistry to modulate rates of charge transport in metal-organic framework (MOF) films. The kinetics of site-to-site of charge hopping and, in turn, the overall redox conductivity, of a ferrocene-modified MOF can be altered by up to 30-fold by coupling electron exchange to the oxidation-state-dependent formation of inclusion complexes between cyclodextrin and channel-tethered metallocenes. PMID:26666952

  17. The Heart Rate Responses of Dairy Cows to Two Types of Disturbances--Transportation and Aircraft Noises

    Ahn, Hoon M

    1992-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted using implanted heart rate (HR) transmitters. In the first experiment three lactating Holstein cows' HR signals were monitored telemetrically for three successive days under the normal herd management. Overall mean and standard error for these cows was 76.1 ± 0.46 bpm. In the second experiment the same three cows' HR signals were monitored with a portable computer and receiver. The cows were transported 400 kilometers one way over various road surface conditio...

  18. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  19. Using Monte Carlo transport to accurately predict isotope production and activation analysis rates at the University of Missouri research reactor

    A detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5) model of the University of Missouri research reactor (MURR) has been developed. The ability of the model to accurately predict isotope production rates was verified by comparing measured and calculated neutron- capture reaction rates for numerous isotopes. In addition to thermal (1/v) monitors, the benchmarking included a number of isotopes whose (n, γ) reaction rates are very sensitive to the epithermal portion of the neutron spectrum. Using the most recent neutron libraries (ENDF/ B-VII.0), the model was able to accurately predict the measured reaction rates in all cases. The model was then combined with ORIGEN 2.2, via MONTEBURNS 2.0, to calculate production of 99Mo from fission of low-enriched uranium foils. The model was used to investigate both annular and plate LEU foil targets in a variety of arrangements in a graphite irradiation wedge to optimize the production of 99Mo. (author)

  20. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  1. Improved color purity and electroluminescent efficiency obtained by modulating thicknesses and evaporation rates of hole block and electron transport layers

    Zhou Liang; Deng Ruiping; Feng Jing; Li Xiaona; Li Xiyan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, a series of electroluminescent (EL) devices based on trivalent europium (Eu{sup 3+}) complex Eu(TTA){sub 3}phen (TTA thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were fabricated by selecting 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) as hole block and electron transport materials, respectively. Interestingly, we found the transport of electrons decreases gradually with increasing thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq{sub 3} layers. Analyzing carrier distribution and EL spectra, we conclude that appropriately modulating the thicknesses and evaporation rates is an efficient way to decrease the accumulation of electrons in HBL, thus suppressing the EL of hole block material. On the other hand, decreasing the transport of electrons can also facilitate the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA){sub 3}phen molecules, thus further enhancing the EL efficiency. As a result, pure Eu{sup 3+} emission with the efficiency as high as 8.49 cd/A was realized by controlling the thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq{sub 3} layers to be 30 nm and 0.10 nm/s, 40 nm and 0.10 nm/s, respectively.

  2. Improved color purity and electroluminescent efficiency obtained by modulating thicknesses and evaporation rates of hole block and electron transport layers

    In this work, a series of electroluminescent (EL) devices based on trivalent europium (Eu3+) complex Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were fabricated by selecting 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as hole block and electron transport materials, respectively. Interestingly, we found the transport of electrons decreases gradually with increasing thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq3 layers. Analyzing carrier distribution and EL spectra, we conclude that appropriately modulating the thicknesses and evaporation rates is an efficient way to decrease the accumulation of electrons in HBL, thus suppressing the EL of hole block material. On the other hand, decreasing the transport of electrons can also facilitate the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, thus further enhancing the EL efficiency. As a result, pure Eu3+ emission with the efficiency as high as 8.49 cd/A was realized by controlling the thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq3 layers to be 30 nm and 0.10 nm/s, 40 nm and 0.10 nm/s, respectively.

  3. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  4. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study, volume 1

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An active controls technology (ACT) system architecture was selected based on current technology system elements and optimal control theory was evaluated for use in analyzing and synthesizing ACT multiple control laws. The system selected employs three redundant computers to implement all of the ACT functions, four redundant smaller computers to implement the crucial pitch-augmented stability function, and a separate maintenance and display computer. The reliability objective of probability of crucial function failure of less than 1 x 10 to the -9th power per flight of 1 hr can be met with current technology system components, if the software is assumed fault free and coverage approaching 1.0 can be provided. The optimal control theory approach to ACT control law synthesis yielded comparable control law performance much more systematically and directly than the classical s-domain approach. The ACT control law performance, although somewhat degraded by the inclusion of representative nonlinearities, remained quite effective. Certain high-frequency gust-load alleviation functions may require increased surface rate capability.

  5. Rating of transport and radiation source events. Draft additional guidance for the INES national officers for pilot use and feedback

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means for promptly communicating to the public in consistent terms the safety significance of any reported event associated with radioactive material and/or radiation and to any event occurring during the transport of radioactive material. As described in the 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual, events are classified on the scale at seven levels: the upper levels (4-7) are termed accidents. and the lower levels (1-3) incidents. Events which have no safety significance are classified below scale at Level 0 and termed deviations. An overview of the principles for the rating under INES together with flow charts summarizing the rating process is provided in Appendix I. The 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual provides some guidance for the rating of transport and radiation source events. At the technical meeting held in 2002 the INES National Officers requested the IAEA/NEA Secretariat to prepare additional guidance. Progress was reported at the Technical Meeting of the INES National Officers in March 2004 where preparation of this draft additional guidance was requested for pilot use. This note provides additional guidance on the rating of transport and radiation source events. It is for pilot use and feedback and is broadly consistent with the INES User.s Manual. It provides more detailed information and an expanded approach for the rating based on actual exposure of workers and members of the public. It is designed to be used as a self-standing document with limited need for reference to the INES User Manual. (author)

  6. The Impact of Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion Rates on Water Vapor Transport through Gas Diffusion Layers

    Burlatsky, S F; Gummallaa, M; Condita, D; Liua, F

    2013-01-01

    Water management in a hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is critical for performance. The impact of thermal conductivity and water vapor diffusion coefficients in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) has been studied by a mathematical model. The fraction of product water that is removed in the vapour phase through the GDL as a function of GDL properties and operating conditions has been calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the current model enables identification of conditions when condensation occurs in each GDL component and calculation of temperature gradient across the interface between different layers, providing insight into the overall mechanism of water transport in a given cell design. Water transport mode and condensation conditions in the GDL components depend on the combination of water vapor diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivities of the GDL components. Different types of GDL and water removal scenarios have been identified and related to experimentally-determined GDL proper...

  7. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1980-09-01

    The goal of govern project is to understand and quantify the processes that the transport and dispersal of energy-related pollutants introduced to the waters of the continental shelf and slope. The report is divided into sections dealing with processes associated with suspended solids; processes associated with sediments sinks for radionuclides and other pollutants; and spreading of water characteristics and species in solution. (ACR)

  8. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  9. Differential Influence of Dopamine Transport Rate on the Potencies of Cocaine, Amphetamine, and Methylphenidate

    Calipari, Erin S.; Ferris, Mark J.; Siciliano, Cody A.; JONES, SARA R.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) levels vary across brain regions and individuals, and are altered by drug history and disease states; however, the impact of altered DAT expression on psychostimulant effects in brain has not been systematically explored. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry, we measured the effects of elevated DAT levels on presynaptic dopamine parameters as well as the uptake inhibition potency of the blockers cocaine and methylphenidate (MPH) and the releaser amphetamine (AMPH) in ...

  10. The transport mechanism of bacterial Cu+-ATPases: distinct efflux rates adapted to different function

    Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel; Leeber, Blaise W.; Argüello, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Cu+-ATPases play a key role in bacterial Cu+ homeostasis by participating in Cu+ detoxification and cuproprotein assembly. Characterization of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA, a model protein within the subfamily of P1B-1 type ATPases, has provided structural and mechanistic details on this group of transporters. Atomic resolution structures of cytoplasmic regulatory metal binding domains (MBDs) and catalytic actuator, phosphorylation, and nucleotide binding domains are available. These, in combi...

  11. 78 FR 55274 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    2013-09-10

    ... ] security threat assessment to identify individuals who present a low risk to transportation security. This... the risk of compromising the information that is being stored. Access to the computer system... agency to perform a security threat assessment. The security threat assessment will be used to...

  12. Effective reaction rates for transport of particles to heterogeneous reactive (or porous) surfaces under shear

    Shah, Preyas; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2015-11-01

    Mass transfer to heterogeneous reactive (or porous) surfaces is common in applications like heterogeneous catalysis, and biological porous media transport like drug delivery. This is modeled as advection-diffusion in a shear flow to an inert surface with first order reactive patches. We study transport of point particles using boundary element simulations. We show that the heterogeneous surface can be replaced with a uniform-flux boundary condition related to the Sherwood number (S), aka, the dimensionless flux to the reactive region. In the dilute limit of reactive regions, large-scale interaction between the reactive patches is important. In the dilute limit of inert regions, [S] grows as the reciprocal of the inert area fraction. Based on the method of resistances and numerical results, we provide correlations for [S] for general reactive surfaces and flow conditions. We model finite sized particles as general spheroids, specifically for biological applications. We do Brownian Dynamics simulations to account for hydrodynamic and steric interactions with the flow field and the domain geometry, and compare to the point particle results. We observe that anisotropic particles gave a higher pore transport flux compared to spherical particles at all flow conditions.

  13. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  14. Melt transport rates in heterogeneous mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges

    Weatherley, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    Recent insights to melt migration beneath ridges suggest that channelized flow is a consequence of melting of a heterogeneous mantle, and that spreading rate modulates the dynamics of the localized flow. A corollary of this finding is that both mantle het- erogeneity and spreading rate have implications for the speed and time scale of melt migration. Here, we investigate these implications using numerical models of magma flow in heterogeneous mantle beneath spreading plates. The models predict that a broad distribution of magma flow speeds is characteristic of the sub-ridge mantle. Within the melting region, magmatic flow is fastest in regions of average fusibility; surprisingly, magmas from sources of above-average fusibility travel to the ridge in a longer time. Spreading rate has comparatively simple consequences, mainly resulting in faster segregation speeds at higher spreading rates. The computed time scales are short enough to preserve deep origin 230Th disequilibria and, under favourable parameter regi...

  15. Evaluation of particle source rate and its influence on particle transport in fusion plasma

    We have carried out numerical inversion of the Laplace transform for the observed line profile, and have derived the intensity distribution function against the atom temperature. The temperature dependence is interpreted to the spatial dependence, where other diagnostic results are used, so that the radial profile of photon emission rate is derived. The photon emission rate is then interpreted to the ionization rate with the help of collisional-radiative model calculation. From the ionization rate derived we have evaluated the particle confinement time τp as a function of the average minor radius, reff, for two discharges characterized by the different magnetic field strength. In the strong field case, a turning point is clearly seen in the τp profile at around reff = 0.6, which corresponds to the last closed magnetic flux surface. In the weak field case, the absolute confinement time is approximately one-order smaller than that in the strong field case.

  16. Concerning the order of the Ministry of Transport for the amendment to part of the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel, the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous Objects, and the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act

    The Ministry of Transport is planning to make amendments to the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel, the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous objects, and the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act, on the basis of results of a study carried out by the Working Group for the Protection of Nuclear Material, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The planned amendments to the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel cover the locking and sealing of containers, the development of transportation plans, the arrangement and operations of responsible persons and guards for its transportation, and improvement in the communications and liaison system. The amendments to the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous Objects are related to the range of nuclear fuel substances to be protected, the measures to be taken for their protection during transportation by ship, the approval by the Minister of Transport, and the notification to the Regional Maritime Safety Headquarters. The planned amendments to the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act cover the range of nuclear fuel substances to be protected, etc. (N.K.)

  17. J-ACT II. Differences in rate of valid recanalization and of a favorable outcome by site of MCA occlusion

    The background and purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the effects of alteplase differ with occlusion site of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). An exploratory analysis was made of 57 patients enrolled on the Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial II (J-ACT II). The residual vessel length (mm), determined on pretreatment MR angiography (MRA), was used to reflect the occluded site. The proportions of patients with valid recanalization (modified Mori grade 2-3) at 6 and 24 hours, and a favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1 at 3 months) were compared between the groups dichotomized according to their lengths of residual vessel. Multiple logistic regression models were generated to elucidate the predictors of valid recanalization and a favorable outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that 5 mm was the practical cutoff length for the dichotomization. In patients with M1 length <5 mm (n=12), the frequencies of valid recanalization at 6/24 hours (16.6%/25.0%) were significantly low compared with those (62.2%/82.2%) of 45 patients with a residual M1 length of ≥5 mm and M2 occlusions (p=0.008 for 6 hours, p<0.001 for 24 hours). The proportion of a favorable outcome was also small in patients with M1 length <5 mm (8.3%), as compared to the others (57.8%, p=0.004). In logistic regression models, the site of MCA occlusion (<5 mm) was the significant predictor of valid recanalization at 6/24 hours and of a favorable outcome. In patients with acute MCA occlusion, residual vessel length <5 mm on MRA can identify poor responders. (author)

  18. Stratospheric mean ages and transport rates from observations of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O

    Boering, K.A.; Wofsy, S.C.; Daube, B.C.; Schneider, H.R. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Conway, T.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Measurements of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations are reported and analyzed to investigate stratospheric transport rates. Temporal variations in tropospheric CO{sub 2} are observed to propagate into the stratosphere, showing that tropospheric air enters the lower tropical stratosphere continuously, ascends, and is transported rapidly (in less than 1 month) to both hemispheres. The mean age of stratospheric air determined from CO{sub 2} data is approximately 5 years in the mid-stratosphere. It is shown that the mean age is mathematically equivalent to a conserved tracer analogous to exhaust from stratospheric aircraft. Comparison of the mean age from models and observations indicates that current model simulations likely underestimate pollutant concentrations from proposed stratospheric aircraft by 25-100%. (author) 36 refs.

  19. Improved Convergence Rate of Multi-Group Scattering Moment Tallies for Monte Carlo Neutron Transport Codes

    Nelson, Adam

    Multi-group scattering moment matrices are critical to the solution of the multi-group form of the neutron transport equation, as they are responsible for describing the change in direction and energy of neutrons. These matrices, however, are difficult to correctly calculate from the measured nuclear data with both deterministic and stochastic methods. Calculating these parameters when using deterministic methods requires a set of assumptions which do not hold true in all conditions. These quantities can be calculated accurately with stochastic methods, however doing so is computationally expensive due to the poor efficiency of tallying scattering moment matrices. This work presents an improved method of obtaining multi-group scattering moment matrices from a Monte Carlo neutron transport code. This improved method of tallying the scattering moment matrices is based on recognizing that all of the outgoing particle information is known a priori and can be taken advantage of to increase the tallying efficiency (therefore reducing the uncertainty) of the stochastically integrated tallies. In this scheme, the complete outgoing probability distribution is tallied, supplying every one of the scattering moment matrices elements with its share of data. In addition to reducing the uncertainty, this method allows for the use of a track-length estimation process potentially offering even further improvement to the tallying efficiency. Unfortunately, to produce the needed distributions, the probability functions themselves must undergo an integration over the outgoing energy and scattering angle dimensions. This integration is too costly to perform during the Monte Carlo simulation itself and therefore must be performed in advance by way of a pre-processing code. The new method increases the information obtained from tally events and therefore has a significantly higher efficiency than the currently used techniques. The improved method has been implemented in a code system

  20. Calculation of the Ionization Rate and Electron-Transport Coefficients in an Argon Rf Discharge

    Meijer, P. M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Passchier, J. D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of an rf discharge can be modeled by using a fluid approach. For this approach, the values of the mobility and diffusion coefficients as well as the ionization rate are necessary. These values are often obtained by extrapolating the data of dc Townsend discharges. To check whether this

  1. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A;

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found between...... the plasma-to-peritoneal transport rate of albumin (index of 'lymph-imbalance') and the mass of intraperitoneal albumin (rlog = 0.82, P less than 0.001), indicating a significant role of 'lymph-imbalance' to sequestration of protein in the peritoneal cavity. Ascitic fluid albumin concentration was on...

  2. Semiempirical method for calculating equivalent dose rates of non-standard operations during transportation of SNF in dry shielded canister

    For effective implementation of ALARA approach, one should correctly know the values of expected equivalent dose rates. Doses of the personnel who will carry out preparation of workplaces will depend on accuracy of such estimation as well as the doses received by the personnel, which will perform work. In cases complicated for calculation, the most close to reality results can be received through application of so-called 'semiempirical' methods of calculation. The algorithm of calculation is given in this paper in a schematic way. Calculation algorithm used the data of EDR measurements from the container loaded with a nominal SNF, the container design specific features, the container configuration for such usage, work performance procedure technique, and also tabulated and analytical formulas of calculating radiation protection. The subsequent comparison of the measured values of equivalent dose rate with pre-computed dose rate has shown correctness of the calculation algorithm: the divergence did not exceed 3 per cent. For procedure of (from spent nuclear fuel storage pool of Unit 2 to Unit 1) the spent nuclear fuel transportation in Framatome Company manufactured container, in case of loading the container with a non-standard (other, than the design) SNF, we carried out semiempirical calculation of expected equivalent dose rates. In conclusion, correct pre-computation of dose-rate and using of principle ALARA allowed us exclude inexpedient operations (plums of water) and considerably to reduce a collective dose (almost in 8 times)

  3. A modern analog of past climatic impacts on denudation rates and sediment transport: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina

    Savi, S.; Schildgen, T. F.; Tofelde, S.; Wittmann, H.; Strecker, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The combined effects of tectonic and climatic forcing govern the evolution of landscapes, modifying erosional processes, changing river profiles, and ultimately impacting depositional systems. The complexity of the response, however, often means that we cannot predict a priori how a given landscape will react to climatic changes. The Del Medio catchment is located in the Humahuaca Basin, an intermontane valley of the Eastern Cordillera. This area coincides with a climatic divide between a sub-humid and a semi-arid environment. An extensive debris-flow fan sourced in the Del Medio catchment covers ca. 18.6 km2 of the lower basin. To investigate rates and timing of its evolution, we analyzed cosmogenic 10Be concentrations on large boulders from the fan surface, river sands and pebbles in 3 active channels, a depth profile, and bedrock exposed atop the drainage basin margins. Our CRN results illustrate the rapid rate at which the fan surface is subject to change, with each of the 16 analyzed boulder samples providing ages of river sands record very high denudation rates (from several mm/yr to tens of mm/yr), despite bedrock denudation rates of sediment transport within a catchment. Farther upstream in the more arid Humahuaca Basin, abandoned fluvial terrace sequences have been linked to wetter episodes during the late Quaternary. Within those fills, preliminary paleo-denudation rates reach values similar to those currently observed in the Del Medio catchment, while modern denudation rates from river sands are similar to the low rates observed from bedrock ridges. Taken together, these observations indicate that the Del Medio fan could be a modern analog of those older fill sequences, providing a unique opportunity to link present-day processes to those that were likely active in the past during wetter climate episodes.

  4. Redox reaction rates in shallow aquifers: Implications for nitrate transport in groundwater and streams

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater age and water chemistry data along flow paths from recharge areas to streams were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals. Results from this analysis indicate that median nitrate recharge concentrations in these agricultural areas have increased markedly over the last 50 years from 4 mg N/L in samples collected prior to 1983 to 7.5 mg N/L in samples collected since 1983. The effect that nitrate accumulation in shallow aquifers will have on drinking water quality and stream ecosystems is dependent on the rate of redox reactions along flow paths and on the age distribution of nitrate discharging to supply wells and streams.

  5. Turbulent transport measurements in a cold model of GT-burner at realistic flow rates

    Gobyzov Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work simultaneous velocity field and passive admixture concentration field measurements at realistic flow-rates conditions in a non-reacting flow in a model of combustion chamber with an industrial mixing device are reported. In the experiments for safety reasons the real fuel (natural gas was replaced with neon gas to simulate stratification in a strongly swirling flow. Measurements were performed by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF and particle image velocimetry technique (PIV at Reynolds number, based on the mean flow rate and nozzle diameter, ≈300 000. Details on experimental technique, features of the experimental setup, images and data preprocessing procedures and results of performed measurements are given in the paper. In addition to the raw velocity and admixture concentration data in-depth evaluation approaches aimed for estimation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE components, assessment of turbulent Schmidt number and analysis of the gradient closure hypothesis from experimental data are presented in the paper.

  6. Balancing drug resistance and growth rates via compensatory mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter.

    Petersen, Ines; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Dhingra, Satish K; Ecker, Andrea; Lewis, Rebecca E; de Almeida, Mariana Justino; Straimer, Judith; Henrich, Philipp P; Palatulan, Eugene; Johnson, David J; Coburn-Flynn, Olivia; Sanchez, Cecilia; Lehane, Adele M; Lanzer, Michael; Fidock, David A

    2015-07-01

    The widespread use of chloroquine to treat Plasmodium falciparum infections has resulted in the selection and dissemination of variant haplotypes of the primary resistance determinant PfCRT. These haplotypes have encountered drug pressure and within-host competition with wild-type drug-sensitive parasites. To examine these selective forces in vitro, we genetically engineered P. falciparum to express geographically diverse PfCRT haplotypes. Variant alleles from the Philippines (PH1 and PH2, which differ solely by the C72S mutation) both conferred a moderate gain of chloroquine resistance and a reduction in growth rates in vitro. Of the two, PH2 showed higher IC50 values, contrasting with reduced growth. Furthermore, a highly mutated pfcrt allele from Cambodia (Cam734) conferred moderate chloroquine resistance and enhanced growth rates, when tested against wild-type pfcrt in co-culture competition assays. These three alleles mediated cross-resistance to amodiaquine, an antimalarial drug widely used in Africa. Each allele, along with the globally prevalent Dd2 and 7G8 alleles, rendered parasites more susceptible to lumefantrine, the partner drug used in the leading first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy. These data reveal ongoing region-specific evolution of PfCRT that impacts drug susceptibility and relative fitness in settings of mixed infections, and raise important considerations about optimal agents to treat chloroquine-resistant malaria. PMID:25898991

  7. Transport safety and struggle against malevolent acts: a synergy to be developed - Protecting transports against malevolent acts, Synergies between security and safety: lessons learned from the IAEA international conference, Role of the IRSN transport operational level in the field of safety, Transparency and secret in the field of nuclear material transport

    The first article proposes an interview with the chief of the security department within the French ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transports and Housing who comments his missions and his relationships with the ASN and the French Home Office for the protection and control of nuclear materials. A second article discusses the lessons learned from an IAEA international conference about the relationship between the approaches to security and to safety. The third article briefly describes the role of the IRSN transport operational level in the field of safety. The last article discusses how opposite notions like transparency and secret are managed in the case of nuclear material transport

  8. Modified BARC nebulizer system for measuring mucociliary tracheal transport rate in smokers and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    A simple noninvasive method for in vivo monitoring of mucociliary tracheal transport rate (MTTR) is described. The technique is based on deposition of radioactive aerosols in the large airways of the lung and measuring their rate of movement as they are transported up the trachea. A technique for generating larger human serum albumin (HSA) radioaerosols, by using the BARC dry aerosol delivery system, is described. Qualitative data on bolus motion by cinescintigraphy and quantitative data for calculating the MTTR were obtained from a computer for 12 normal subjects, three asymptomatic smokers, four symptomatic smokers and 12 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mean MTTR was 4.11 + 0.84 mm/min in normals. Ten of the 12 COPD patients showed either a reduced MTTR or no motion of the boli. The motion as seen in cine mode was linear in all the 12 normals. Although MTTR in the remaining two patients with COPD was normal the bolus exhibited a spiral motion on cinescintigraphy. Asymptomatic smokers showed either reduced MTTR or spiral motion of the bolus, whereas all the symptomatic smokers showed reduced MTTR. It was observed that the movement of the boli in the symptomatic smokers and patients with COPD varied widely, showing, for example, regurgitation, spiral or axial motion, stasis and movement of the bolus from one bronchus to the other. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Transportation

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  10. Measurement of Nagasaki Pu global transport rates, comparing with SO2 from historic volcanic eruptions

    An artificial single dose contaminant was released at Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, detonating plutonium (10-15 kg) atomic bomb. A portion, 1,2 kg of 239Pu was fissioned releasing 21 kt TNT energy along with various fission products. The rest of the unexpended fissile material, 239+240Pu, 13.8 kg (3.49 x 1013 Bq), was dispersed into the atmosphere along with a fission product, 137Cs, 23.4 g (7.44 x 1013 Bq). The fate of 239+240Pu and 137Cs was investigated by analysing both local and global fallout. The highest concentration of 239+240Pu was 64.5 mBq/g (181 mBq/cm2) while it was 188 mBq/g (526 mBq/cm2) for 137Cs both at 2.8 km east from the hypocentre. The total amount of deposition in the local fallout region of 264 km2 was 37.5 g (9.48 x 1010Bq) for 239+240Pu and 3.14 mg (5.88 x 1010Bq) for 137Cs. The ratio of the local fallout against the total amount of the radionuclides released was 0.27 % for 239+240Pu and 0.134% for 137Cs. Recent advancements in analytical technology made it possible for artificial radionuclides released from the Nagasaki explosion to be detected in the Arctic ice core layer of 1945. The 239+240Pu and the 137Cs, were measured by collecting 10 ice cores on the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The deposition was 0.16 μBq/cm2 for 239+240Pu and 20 μBq/cm2 for 137Cs. During the atmospheric testing, the deposition of 239+240Pu and 137Cs varied more than 100 times with the highest peaks of over 50 μBq/cm2 for 239+240Pu and over 800 μBq/cm2 for 137Cs both occurred in 1962. Analyzing Arctic data, there are many new information for long global transport, the history of nuclear weapons development etc. (author)

  11. The influence of flow rate on inter-nucleation site heat transport

    Baltis Coen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is the influence of vertically aligned nucleation sites on each other in upward flow boiling. A setup was constructed to facilitate vertical up-flow of deminiralized water under saturation conditions. The main test section is a glass channel with a set of vertically aligned bubble generators. Each bubble generator is operated independently, where power and wall temperature are registered and the vapour bubbles are visualized by a high-speed camera. During the experiments, the downstream bubble generator (BG1 power is kept constant, while the power fed to the upstream bubble generator (BG2 is incrementally increased. Two main trends have been identified. The first trend is dominated by added convection from one site to the other. Both bubble frequency and detachment diameter on BG1 increase with increased power fed to upstream BG2. This effect decreases with increasing inter-site distance and becomes more significant with increasing liquid flow rate. When vapor bubbles start nucleating from BG2, these vapor bubbles inhibit bubble nucleation BG1 and can even lead to deactivation of this nucleation site. This second trend is only weakly dependent on inter-site distance, since the inhibition originates from bubbles flowing past BG1 in close proximity.

  12. Fitting the elementary rate constants of the P-gp transporter network in the hMDR1-MDCK confluent cell monolayer using a particle swarm algorithm.

    Deep Agnani

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein, a human multidrug resistance transporter, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. In order to understand transport kinetics via P-gp, confluent cell monolayers overexpressing P-gp are widely used. The purpose of this study is to obtain the mass action elementary rate constants for P-gp's transport and to functionally characterize members of P-gp's network, i.e., other transporters that transport P-gp substrates in hMDR1-MDCKII confluent cell monolayers and are essential to the net substrate flux. Transport of a range of concentrations of amprenavir, loperamide, quinidine and digoxin across the confluent monolayer of cells was measured in both directions, apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical. We developed a global optimization algorithm using the Particle Swarm method that can simultaneously fit all datasets to yield accurate and exhaustive fits of these elementary rate constants. The statistical sensitivity of the fitted values was determined by using 24 identical replicate fits, yielding simple averages and standard deviations for all of the kinetic parameters, including the efflux active P-gp surface density. Digoxin required additional basolateral and apical transporters, while loperamide required just a basolateral tranporter. The data were better fit by assuming bidirectional transporters, rather than active importers, suggesting that they are not MRP or active OATP transporters. The P-gp efflux rate constants for quinidine and digoxin were about 3-fold smaller than reported ATP hydrolysis rate constants from P-gp proteoliposomes. This suggests a roughly 3∶1 stoichiometry between ATP hydrolysis and P-gp transport for these two drugs. The fitted values of the elementary rate constants for these P-gp substrates support the hypotheses that the selective pressures on P-gp are to maintain a broad substrate range and to keep xenobiotics out of the cytosol, but not out of the

  13. Measurement of glucose and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose transport and phosphorylation rates in myocardium using dual-tracer kinetic experiments

    To examine the use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (2-FDG) as a glucose analog for measuring glucose utilization rate in myocardium, dual-tracer kinetic experiments with 2-FDG and 2-[3H]glucose were performed in the perfused, isolated rabbit interventricular septum to measure simultaneously the transport and phosphorylation rates of glucose and 2-FDG. Results of the present study indicated that, in the septum, (i) the transport rate constants of 2-FDG and glucose were similar in magnitude, (ii) the phosphorylation rate constant for 2-FDG was about 60% of that of glucose, (iii) hypoxia caused an increase in phosphorylation rates of glucose and 2-FDG without affecting transport. 9 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs

  14. In vitro comparison rate of dental root canal transportation using two single file systems on the simulated resin blocks

    Mohammad Javad Etesami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important stages in endodontic treatment. Single-file systems save time and reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens. This in vitro study was aimed to compare the rate of canal transportation after the preparation of the stimulated resin root canal with two single-file systems, namely Waveone and Reciproc. Materials and Methods: Thirty stimulated resin root canal blocks with size 8/0. 02 K file were randomly divided into two study groups. The preparation in Group A and Group B was performed using Reciproc and Waveone files, respectively. Pre and post- preparation photographs were taken and the images were superimposed to evaluate the inner and outer wall’s curvature tendency at three points (apical, middle and coronal using AutoCad pragram. Data were analyzed using T-test. Results: Based on the results, the degree of transportation in the inner and outer walls of the canal was less at the level of 3 millimeters (P0.05. Conclusion: Waveone showed better performance in the middle third of canal and this system maybe recommended.

  15. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    Henriksen, J H; Ring-Larsen, Helmer; Lassen, N A; Parving, H H; Winkler, K

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found betwee...... the 'lymph-imbalance' theory of ascites formation, whereas a 'fluid equilibrium' theory seems to be too simple, especially with respect to explain protein sequestration in the peritoneal cavity....... the plasma-to-peritoneal transport rate of albumin (index of 'lymph-imbalance') and the mass of intraperitoneal albumin (rlog = 0.82, P less than 0.001), indicating a significant role of 'lymph-imbalance' to sequestration of protein in the peritoneal cavity. Ascitic fluid albumin concentration was on...

  16. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  17. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. The intracellular transport of aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase occurs at different rates pre-Golgi but at the same rate post-Golgi

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M

    1985-01-01

    expression. This ratio was 0.24 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- SD) for sucrase-isomaltase as compared to 0.40 +/- 0.04 (mean +/- SD) for aminopeptidase N. Considering the slower rate of pre-Golgi transport for sucrase-isomaltase, this indicates that the two microvillar enzymes have rather similar if not identical rates...... of post-Golgi transport....... from transient (high mannose glycosylated) to mature (complex glycosylated) form was 1.7-times slower for sucrase-isomaltase than for aminopeptidase N, indicating a slower rate of migration from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. Likewise, sucrase-isomaltase appeared in the...

  18. Using 'component multiplication' in MONK to reduce pessimism in the dose rate assessment for water-filled (ullaged) transport packages

    The external dose rates from spent fuel packages consist of gamma ray and neutron components. The source of gamma rays is from fission products and actinides in the spent fuel and from activation products in structural components of the fuel element. Neutrons originate from spontaneous fission in actinides (for example from curium isotopes) within the spent fuel and from (alpha, n) reactions in oxide fuel. However, a significant number of neutrons are produced due to further fission within the fuel. This is known as neutron enhancement or multiplication (M). To treat the effects of enhancement, the neutron source may be scaled within the dose rate calculation. In a wet package, it has been customary to determine keffective (keff) for a completely water-filled package or a package with a defined water level (for the horizontal transport condition). The irradiation of the fuel is normally taken into account in calculating keff for this purpose. The neutron enhancement is then obtained by calculating M=1/(1-keff), which is then applied as a source scaling factor throughout each fuel assembly. In a wet package, there is normally an ullage volume above the water level, the package only being partially flooded. The ullage volume is designed to accommodate pressure build-up within the package. Typically the top row of fuel assemblies may be partially covered and partially uncovered by water. When the above value of M is used for fuel within the dry part of the package, dose rates above the package tend to be overestimated and can limit the carrying capability of the package. (Also, a single value of M will tend to over-predict dose rate contributions from all assemblies around the periphery). Use of component multiplication (a new feature available in the MONK computer code) enables two separate values of 'keff' to be determined for the wet and dry parts of the package. These typically differ by a factor of three, leading to differences in the enhancement, M. Use of

  19. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A; Winkler, K

    1982-01-01

    Transvascular escape rate of albumin (TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to (or during steady state returning from) the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the initial disappearance rate of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin in.......05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs with...

  20. Relationship between rate of drug uptake in brain and behavioral pharmacology of monoamine transporter inhibitors in rhesus monkeys.

    Kimmel, Heather L; Negus, S Stevens; Wilcox, Kristin M; Ewing, Sarah B; Stehouwer, Jeffrey; Goodman, Mark M; Votaw, John R; Mello, Nancy K; Carroll, F Ivy; Howell, Leonard L

    2008-09-01

    Although inhibition of dopamine transporters (DAT) and the subsequent increase in dopamine clearly play a role in the effects of psychomotor stimulants, the reinforcing effectiveness of DAT inhibitors varies. Previous studies suggest that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of these drugs account for this variability. The present studies compared the time course and behavioral effects of five phenyltropane analogs of cocaine with high affinity for DAT and varying time courses of action in rhesus monkeys. The rate of drug uptake in putamen was measured using positron emission tomography neuroimaging. The rank order of the time to peak drug uptake was cocaineCocaine and all five analogs fully substituted for the cocaine cue in animals trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. All of the drugs were self-administered under a progressive-ratio schedule of drug self-administration and reinstated previously extinguished self-administration maintained under a second-order schedule. The time to peak drug uptake corresponded closely with the time to peak discriminative stimulus effects, and there was a trend for the time of peak drug uptake to correspond negatively with the peak number of drug infusions. Collectively, these results indicate that the rate of drug entry in brain can play an important role in the behavioral pharmacology of psychomotor stimulants. PMID:18468667

  1. The Use of Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives and the Relationship between Discontinuation Rates due to Menopause and to Female and Male Sterilizations.

    Ferreira, Jessica Mayra; Monteiro, Ilza; Castro, Sara; Villarroel, Marina; Silveira, Carolina; Bahamondes, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Women require effective contraception until they reach menopause. The long acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) and the depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera®, Pfizer, Puurs, Belgium) are great options and can replace possible sterilizations. Purpose To assess the relationship between the use of LARCs and DMPA and terminations ascribed to menopause and sterilizations in a Brazilian clinic. Methods We reviewed the records of women between 12 and 50 years of age attending the clinic that chose to use a LARC method or DMPA. Cumulative termination rates due to sterilization or because the woman had reached menopause were computed using single decrement life-table analysis over 32 years. We also examined all records of surgical sterilization at our hospital between the years 1980-2012. Results Three hundred thirty-two women had continuously used the same contraceptive until menopause, and 555 women had discontinued the method because they or their partners underwent sterilization. From year 20 to year 30 of use, levonorgestrel intrauterine-releasing system (LNG-IUS - Mirena®, Bayer Oy, Turku, Finland; available since 1980), copper intrauterine device (IUD - available since 1980) and DMPA users showed a trend of cumulative higher discontinuation rates due to menopause when compared with the discontinuation rates due to sterilization. Over the study period, a steep decline in the use of sterilization occurred. Conclusion Over the past 15 years of research we have observed a trend: women usually preferred to continue using LARC methods or DMPA until menopause rather than decide for sterilization, be it their own, or their partners'. The annual number of sterilizations dropped in the same period. The use of LARC methods and DMPA until menopause is an important option to avoid sterilization, which requires a surgical procedure with potential complications. PMID:27187927

  2. Does lower dose of long-acting triptorelin maintain pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rate in long down-regulation protocol for in-vitro fertilization?

    Chen, Xin; Feng, Shu-Xian; Guo, Ping-Ping; He, Yu-Xia; Liu, Yu-Dong; Ye, De-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    The effects of pituitary suppression with one-third depot of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in GnRH agonist long protocol for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were investigated. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 3186 cycles undergoing IVF/ICSI with GnRH agonist long protocol in a university-affiliated infertility center. The pituitary was suppressed with depot triptorelin of 1.25 mg or 1.875 mg. There was no significant difference in live birth rate between 1.25 mg triptorelin group and 1.875 mg triptorelin group (41.2% vs. 43.7%). The mean luteinizing hormone (LH) level on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) starting day was significantly higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. The mean LH level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration was slightly but statistically higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. There was no significant difference in the total FSH dose between the two groups. The number of retrieved oocytes was slightly but statistically less in 1.25 mg triptorelin group than in 1.875 mg triptorelin group (12.90±5.82 vs. 13.52±6.97). There was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between the two groups (50.5% vs. 54.5%). It was suggested that one-third depot triptorelin can achieve satisfactory pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rates in a long protocol for IVF/ICSI. PMID:27072965

  3. Leptin acts in the forebrain to differentially influence baroreflex control of lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate.

    Li, Baoxin; Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Brooks, Virginia L

    2013-04-01

    Although leptin is known to increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), we tested the hypothesis that leptin also enhances baroreflex control of SNA and heart rate (HR). Using α-chloralose anesthetized male rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP), HR, lumbar SNA (LSNA), splanchnic SNA (SSNA), and renal SNA (RSNA) were recorded before and for 2 hours after lateral cerebroventricular leptin or artificial cerebrospinal fluid administration. Baroreflex function was assessed using a 4-parameter sigmoidal fit of HR and SNA responses to slow ramp (3-5 minutes) changes in MAP, induced by intravenous infusion of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Leptin (3 μg) increased (P<0.05) basal LSNA, SSNA, RSNA, HR, and MAP, and the LSNA, SSNA, RSNA, and HR baroreflex maxima. Leptin also increased gain of baroreflex control of LSNA and RSNA, but not of SSNA or HR. The elevations in HR were eliminated by pretreatment with methscopalamine, to block parasympathetic nerve activity; however, after cardiac sympathetic blockade with atenolol, leptin still increased basal HR and MAP and the HR baroreflex maximum and minimum. Leptin (1.5 μg) also increased LSNA and enhanced LSNA baroreflex gain and maximum, but did not alter MAP, HR, or the HR baroreflex. Lateral cerebroventricular artificial cerebrospinal fluid had no effects. Finally, to test whether leptin acts in the brain stem, leptin (3 μg) was infused into the 4th ventricle; however, no significant changes were observed. In conclusion, leptin acts in the forebrain to differentially influence baroreflex control of LSNA, RSNA, SSNA, and HR, with the latter action mediated via suppression of parasympathetic nerve activity. PMID:23424232

  4. Influence of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR polymorphism on the relation between brain 5-HT transporter binding and heart rate corrected cardiac repolarization interval.

    Esa Kauppila

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR polymorphism predicts the degree of structural and functional connectivity in the brain, and less consistently the degree of vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders. It is less known how 5-HTTLPR polymorphism influences on the coupling between brain and neuronal cardiovascular control. The present study demonstrates the impact of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on the relations between heart rate (HR corrected cardiac repolarization interval (QTc interval and the brain 5-HTT binding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty healthy young adults (fifteen monozygotic twin pairs (mean age 26±1.3 years, 16 females were imagined with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT using iodine-123 labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl nortropane (nor-β-CIT. Continuous ECG recording was obtained from each participant at supine rest. Signal averaged QTc interval on continuous ECG was calculated and compared with the brain imaging results. RESULTS: In the two groups [l homozygotes (n = 16, 10 females, s carriers (n = 14, 8 female] HR and the length of QTc interval were not influenced by 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. There were no significant relations between HR and 5-HTT binding in the brain. There were significant associations between QTc interval and nor-β-CIT binding in the brain in l homozygotes, but not in s carriers (correlations for QTc interval and nor-β-CIT binding of striatum, thalamus and right temporal region were -0.8--0.9, (p<0.0005, respectively. CONCLUSION: The finding of longer QTc interval with less 5-HTT binding availability in major serotonergic binding sites in l homozygotes, but not in s carriers, implicate to differentiated control of QTc interval by 5-HTTLPR polymorphism.

  5. A new partially integrated transport model for subgrid-scale stresses and dissipation rate for turbulent developing flows

    Chaouat, Bruno; Schiestel, Roland

    2005-06-01

    A new subgrid-scale turbulence model involving all the transport equations of the subgrid-scale stresses and including a dissipation rate equation is proposed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of unsteady flows which present nonequilibrium turbulence spectra. Such a situation in flow physics occurs when unsteadiness is created by forced boundary conditions, but also in more complex situations, when natural unsteadiness develops due to the existence of organized eddies. This latter phenomenon explains the instability found in a porous-walled chamber with mass injection. Due to the high value of Reynolds number, the presence of wall boundaries, and the use of relatively coarse grids, the spectral cutoff may be located before the inertial zone of the energy spectrum. The use of transport equations for all the subgrid-scale stress components allows us to take into account more precisely the turbulent processes of production, transfer, pressure redistribution effects, and dissipation, and the concept of turbulent viscosity is no longer necessary. Moreover, some backscatter effects can possibly arise. As a result of modeling in the spectral space, a formally continuous derivation of the model is obtained when the cutoff location is varied, which guaranties compatibility with the two extreme limits that are the full statistical Reynolds stress transport model of Launder and Shima and direct numerical simulation. In the present approach, due to the presence of the subgrid-scale pressure-strain correlation term in the stress equations, the new subgrid model is able to account for history and nonlocal effects of the turbulence interactions, and also to describe more accurately the anisotropy of the turbulence field. The present model is first calibrated on the well-known fully turbulent channel flow. For this test case, the LES simulation reveals that the computed velocities and Reynolds stresses agree very well with the DNS data. The application to the channel flow with wall

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PM 2.5 FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD TO DIFFERENTIATE FINE AND COARSE MODE AEROSOL (A RESPONSE TO SECTION 6102(E) OF THE TRANSPORTATION EQUITY ACT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    This report is submitted in response to Section 6102(e) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, which states: "The Administrator shall conduct a field study of the ability of the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method to differentiate those particles that ...

  7. The Elementary Mass Action Rate Constants of P-gp Transport for a Confluent Monolayer of MDCKII-hMDR1 Cells

    Tran, Thuy Thanh; Mittal, Aditya; Aldinger, Tanya; Polli, Joseph W.; Ayrton, Andrew; Ellens, Harma; Bentz, Joe

    2004-01-01

    The human multi-drug resistance membrane transporter, P-glycoprotein, or P-gp, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. Thus far, the kinetic analysis of P-gp transport has been limited to steady-state Michaelis-Menten approaches or to compartmental models, neither of which can prove molecular mechanisms. Determination of the elementary kinetic rate constants of transport will be essential to understanding how P-gp works. The experimental system we use i...

  8. Time-dependent quantum transport through an interacting quantum dot beyond sequential tunneling: second-order quantum rate equations

    A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime. (paper)

  9. Improvement of glucose uptake rate and production of target chemicals by overexpressing hexose transporters and transcriptional activator Gcr1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Kim, Daehee; Song, Ji-Yoon; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineering to increase the glucose uptake rate might be beneficial to improve microbial production of various fuels and chemicals. In this study, we enhanced the glucose uptake rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpressing hexose transporters (HXTs). Among the 5 tested HXTs (Hxt1, Hxt2, Hxt3, Hxt4, and Hxt7), overexpression of high-affinity transporter Hxt7 was the most effective in increasing the glucose uptake rate, followed by moderate-affinity transporters Hxt2 and Hxt4. Deletion of STD1 and MTH1, encoding corepressors of HXT genes, exerted differential effects on the glucose uptake rate, depending on the culture conditions. In addition, improved cell growth and glucose uptake rates could be achieved by overexpression of GCR1, which led to increased transcription levels of HXT1 and ribosomal protein genes. All genetic modifications enhancing the glucose uptake rate also increased the ethanol production rate in wild-type S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, the growth-promoting effect of GCR1 overexpression was successfully applied to lactic acid production in an engineered lactic acid-producing strain, resulting in a significant improvement of productivity and titers of lactic acid production under acidic fermentation conditions. PMID:26431967

  10. GCR Transport in the Brain: Assessment of Self-Shielding, Columnar Damage, and Nuclear Reactions on Cell Inactivation Rates

    Shavers, M. R.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Radiation shield design is driven by the need to limit radiation risks while optimizing risk reduction with launch mass/expense penalties. Both limitation and optimization objectives require the development of accurate and complete means for evaluating the effectiveness of various shield materials and body-self shielding. For galactic cosmic rays (GCR), biophysical response models indicate that track structure effects lead to substantially different assessments of shielding effectiveness relative to assessments based on LET-dependent quality factors. Methods for assessing risk to the central nervous system (CNS) from heavy ions are poorly understood at this time. High-energy and charge (HZE) ion can produce tissue events resulting in damage to clusters of cells in a columnar fashion, especially for stopping heavy ions. Grahn (1973) and Todd (1986) have discussed a microlesion concept or model of stochastic tissue events in analyzing damage from HZE's. Some tissues, including the CNS, maybe sensitive to microlesion's or stochastic tissue events in a manner not illuminated by either conventional dosimetry or fluence-based risk factors. HZE ions may also produce important lateral damage to adjacent cells. Fluences of high-energy proton and alpha particles in the GCR are many times higher than HZE ions. Behind spacecraft and body self-shielding the ratio of protons, alpha particles, and neutrons to HZE ions increases several-fold from free-space values. Models of GCR damage behind shielding have placed large concern on the role of target fragments produced from tissue atoms. The self-shielding of the brain reduces the number of heavy ions reaching the interior regions by a large amount and the remaining light particle environment (protons, neutrons, deuterons. and alpha particles) may be the greatest concern. Tracks of high-energy proton produce nuclear reactions in tissue, which can deposit doses of more than 1 Gv within 5 - 10 cell layers. Information on rates of

  11. Grain Transportation Policy and Transformation in Western Canadian Agriculture

    Doan, Darcie; Paddock, Brian; Dyer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of grain transportation policy in Canada over the last 100 years, including the inception of the Crow Rate, the replacement of the Crow Rate with the Western Grain Transportation Act(WGTA), and finally, the repeal of the WGTA. Particular emphasis is placed on the structural change to the western agricultural economy that occurred following repeal of the WGTA in 1995. When grain transportation subsidies were removed, industry responded quickly to market signals ...

  12. The importance of glucose transport activity as the rate-limiting step of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in tumor cells in vitro

    Glucose transporter (GLUT) expression and hexokinase activity are thought to be related to high [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in tumor cells, but their relative importance is still unknown. To determine which is the predominant factor in FDG uptake in tumor cells, cultured tumor cell lines and a normal cell line were studied in vitro with respect to 2-deoxyglucose (DG) uptake, hexokinase activity, and the initial uptake rate of 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) transport, which is generally accepted as indicating the amount of GLUT expressed on the plasma membrane. In 16 types of tumor cells and one fibroblast cell line, DG uptake was assessed for 60 min, the initial uptake rate of 3-O-MG transport was measured for 1 min, and total hexokinase activity, including that in the mitochondrial fraction, was determined. Across all 16 tumor cell lines, there was a significant correlation between DG uptake and 3-O-MG transport (p=0.0012, F test), but not between DG uptake and hexokinase activity. Hexokinase activity of the tumor cells was comparable to that of the human fibroblast cells in the exponential growth phase. Most tumor cells showed higher DG uptake and 3-O-MG transport than the human fibroblast cells. The results suggest that DG uptake of cultured tumor cells is governed by GLUT expression, which may be a distinct characteristic of the neoplastic process

  13. Study on leakage rates of high temperature water from wet-type transport casks for spent fuel. Pt. 2. Leakage rates from a scratch on O-ring surface and narrow wires adhering to O-ring surface

    A programme for enhancement of fuel burnup has been promoted in Japan as part of the sophisticated programme for light water reactors to reduce the fuel cost and the amount of spent fuel. As part of this fuel programme, a new wet-type transport cask has been developed to transport the high burnup fuels efficiently. The purpose of this work is to clarify the margin of safety in the evaluation of the release rate of radioactive materials from the wet-type transport cask into the environment and to establish a practical evaluation method for leakage rates on leak behaviour of high temperature water from the casks. In this paper, leakage rates of water under high pressures and at high temperatures are investigated from two kinds of leak path model. One is a disc with a scratch on the surface which simulates a defect on the seal surface of the O-ring flange and the other is narrow stainless steel wires installed on the O-ring surface which simulates hair adhering to the O-ring surface. From the results, an evaluation method for the leakage rate of water under high pressure and at high temperature from a non-circular leak path and multiple leak paths is proposed. (author)

  14. Effects of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport through a dense vegetation saturated soil system: Experiments and modeling

    Yu, Congrong; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2013-08-01

    Colloids are widely distributed in agricultural runoff, especially from croplands with manure applications. Dense vegetation has been suggested to be effective to reduce surface runoff contaminants, including colloidal particles. In this work, small scale laboratory experiments were used to determine the influence of physical and chemical factors (i.e. solution ionic strength, particle size, surface flow rate, and vegetation type) on the surface transport and removal of colloids in a dense vegetation system without drainage. Conservative tracer studies of bromide were conducted as a control to quantify the deposition of colloids onto grass surfaces and the mass exchange of colloids between the overland flow and soil underneath under various experimental conditions. The deposition of colloids enhanced with increases in solution ionic strength and particle size, and with decreases in flow rate. We also found vegetation type played an important role on colloid transport with more deposition onto Ryegrass than onto Bahia grass under the same experimental conditions. A mathematical model combining overland flow, convection-dispersion equations and exchange layer theory was developed to simulate the transport of colloids in overland flow through the dense vegetation. Simulations of the model fitted the experimental data well and helped to understand the effect of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport and removal in dense vegetation. Although additional investigations are still needed, findings from this study can inform the installation and maintenance of dense vegetation systems, such as vegetative filter strips, to reduce the loading of colloids in surface runoff.

  15. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E; McDonald, Birgitte; Williams, Terrie M; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs......, thereby decreasing foraging efficiency. We examined the ability of 12 free-ranging, juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to mitigate the effects of experimentally increased transport costs by modifying their behaviour and/or energy use in a compensatory manner. Under normal......±11 s; P<0.01). Despite incurred costs, most other dive and transit behaviours were conserved across treatments, including fixed, rhythmic swimming gaits. Because of this, and because each flipper stroke had a predictable effect on total costs (P<0.001), total energy expenditure was strongly correlated...

  16. An Act to Control and Regulate the Possession, Sale, Transport and Use of Radioactive Substances and the Possession and Use of Certain Apparatus capable of producing Radiation

    This Act covers all activities involving radioactive materials and radiation sources. It sets up a Radiological Advisory Council to advise the Minister responsible for health in Queensland on administration of the Act, regulations made thereunder and on preventing and minimising dangers arising from radioactive materials and radiation sources. It lays down the Council's composition and rules of procedure. The Act also provides for the licensing, control and registration of such materials and sources, including sanctions in case of non-compliance with its provisions. (NEA)

  17. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  18. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    Lavender, John C. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Edwards, W. Scott [Areva Federal Services, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); West, Lori D. [Materials and Energy Corporation, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  19. The relative diffusive transport rate of SrI2 in water changes over the nanometer length scale as measured by coherent quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Rubinson, Kenneth A; Faraone, Antonio

    2016-05-14

    X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to provide insight into the structures of ionic solutions for over a century, but the probes have covered distances shorter than 8 Å. For the non-hydrolyzing salt SrI2 in aqueous solution, a locally ordered lattice of ions exists that scatters slow neutrons coherently down to at least 0.1 mol L(-1) concentration, where the measured average distance between scatterers is over 18 Å. To investigate the motions of these scatterers, coherent quasielastic neutron scattering (CQENS) data on D2O solutions with SrI2 at 1, 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4 mol L(-1) concentrations was obtained to provide an experimental measure of the diffusive transport rate for the motion between pairs of ions relative to each other. Because CQENS measures the motion of one ion relative to another, the frame of reference is centered on an ion, which is unique among all diffusion measurement methods. We call the measured quantity the pairwise diffusive transport rate Dp. In addition to this ion centered frame of reference, the diffusive transport rate can be measured as a function of the momentum transfer q, where q = (4π/λ)sin θ with a scattering angle of 2θ. Since q is related to the interion distance (d = 2π/q), for the experimental range 0.2 Å(-1)≤q≤ 1.0 Å(-1), Dp is, then, measured over interion distances from 40 Å to ≈6 Å. We find the measured diffusional transport rates increase with increasing distance between scatterers over the entire range covered and interpret this behavior to be caused by dynamic coupling among the ions. Within the model of Fickian diffusion, at the longer interionic distances Dp is greater than the Nernst-Hartley value for an infinitely dilute solution. For these nm-distance diffusional transport rates to conform with the lower, macroscopically measured diffusion coefficients, we propose that local, coordinated counter motion of at least pairs of ions is part of the transport process. PMID:27096293

  20. A pore structure model for the gas transport property changes, initial oxidation rates and cumulative weight loss of AGR moderator graphite

    A quantitative model has been developed for the gas transport property variation, cumulative weight loss and initial oxidation rates of AGR moderator graphite. The model utilises the theory of dynamic moments of the pore structure to calculate the changes in physical properties brought about by radiolytic corrosion taking place within the graphite porosity. In order to account for the behaviour of the initial rate curves, and the weight loss data obtained it is necessary to invoke the presence of a group of cylindrical pore and a group of small slab-shaped pores. The latter are methane depleted. This is in addition to the pore group involved in gas transport which is best represented by cylinders of mean radius 2.13 μm. The model satisfactorily predicts the experimental weight loss data obtained from experiments in the DIDO 6V3 and BFB loops. (author)

  1. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for the 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are provided for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in such environments.

  2. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    C. Lema^itre; C. Flamant; Cuesta, J.; J.-C. Raut; Chazette, P.; P. Formenti; Pelon, J

    2010-01-01

    The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP). We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006) of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne...

  3. Predictions of dynamic changes in reaction rates as a consequence of incomplete mixing using pore scale reactive transport modeling on images of porous media.

    Alhashmi, Z; Blunt, M J; Bijeljic, B

    2015-08-01

    We present a pore scale model capable of simulating fluid/fluid reactive transport on images of porous media from first principles. We use a streamline-based particle tracking method for simulating flow and transport, while for reaction to occur, both reactants must be within a diffusive distance of each other during a time-step. We assign a probability of reaction (Pr), as a function of the reaction rate constant (kr) and the diffusion length. Firstly, we validate our model for reaction against analytical solutions for the bimolecular reaction (A+B→C) in a free fluid. Then, we simulate transport and reaction in a beadpack to validate the model through predicting the fluid/fluid reaction experimental results provided by Gramling et al. (2002). Our model accurately predicts the experimental data, as it takes into account the degree of incomplete mixing present at the sub-pore (image voxel) level, in contrast to advection-dispersion-reaction equation (ADRE) model that over-predicts pore scale mixing. Finally, we show how our model can predict dynamic changes in the reaction rate accurately accounting for the local geometry, topology and flow field at the pore scale. We demonstrate the substantial difference between the predicted early-time reaction rate in comparison to the ADRE model. PMID:26142546

  4. ACT Test

    ... ACT. It is important to evaluate how the person is responding to this ACT lower limit and to the amount of heparin ... to determine someone's heparin anticoagulant requirements, stabilize the person, and then change the monitoring tool. The ACT may be influenced by a person's platelet count ...

  5. The rate-limiting step for glucose transport into the hypothalamus is across the blood-hypothalamus interface

    Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Specialized glucosensing neurons are present in the hypothalamus, some of which neighbor the median eminence, where the blood-brain barrier has been reported leaky. A leaky blood-brain barrier implies high tissue glucose levels and obviates a role for endothelial glucose transporters in the control of hypothalamic glucose concentration, important in understanding the mechanisms of glucose sensing We therefore addressed the question of blood-brain barrier integrity at the hypothalamus for gluc...

  6. Variations in the rates of passenger usage of portable Technology on intercity buses, trains and planes: Implications for transportation planning

    Schwieterman, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use of portable electronic devices by passengers on intercity transportation services has risen markedly. To support the use of such devices, carriers have installed Wi-Fi systems, power outlets, and cell-phone signal boosters for passenger use. To fill a void in research about the effects of portable electronic technology on intercity travel behavior, this study evaluates newly collected data for 7,028 passengers on bus, train, and air trips. It explores how ...

  7. Relationship between rate of drug uptake in brain and behavioral pharmacology of monoamine transporter inhibitors in rhesus monkeys

    Kimmel, Heather L.; Negus, S. Stevens; Wilcox, Kristin M; Ewing, Sarah B.; Stehouwer, Jeffrey; Goodman, Mark M.; Votaw, John R.; Mello, Nancy K.; Carroll, F. Ivy; Howell, Leonard L.

    2008-01-01

    Although inhibition of dopamine transporters (DAT) and the subsequent increase in dopamine clearly play a role in the effects of psychomotor stimulants, the reinforcing effectiveness of DAT inhibitors varies. Previous studies suggest that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of these drugs account for this variability. The present studies compared the time-course and behavioral effects of five phenyltropane analogs of cocaine with high affinity for DAT and varying time courses of ac...

  8. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    Il' kaev, R.I.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation); Semenov, A.G.; Sergeyev, V.M.; Orlov, V.K. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, V.V.; Gotovchikov, V.T.; Seredenko, V.A. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Haire, Jonathan M.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism.

  9. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism

  10. ACTS 2014

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the...... city, its various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes...

  11. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  12. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-02

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  13. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; El Morsli, Mbark

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed.

  14. Mechanism of elemental act and calculation of rate constants of some electron-transfer outer-sphere reactions of transition metal complexes

    Examples of calculation of the rate constants for outersphere electron-transfer reactions with participation of transition metal (V, Ru) complexes characterized by an essential reorganization of intramolecular degree of freedom corresponding to the metal-ligand bond oscillation. Experimental and theoretical values of the rate constants, of activation energies and transemission coefficients are given, as well as thermodynamic characteristics (δH0, δS0). Five out of considered six reactions permit to obtain a satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment both with respext to the rate constants and the activation energies

  15. Prospects of Ga/In/Al-N Nanometer Devices: Electronic Structure, Scattering Rates, and High Field Transport

    Zandler, G.; Majewski, J. A.; Städele, M.; Vogl, P.; Compagnone, F.

    1997-11-01

    Employing first principles electronic structure calculations, we predict electronic band parameters in wide gap nitrides that are relevant for high field transport. We assess the potential of nitrides for high speed and power electronic devices by performing self-consistent Monte Carlo simulations of nanometer gate heterostructure field effect transistors. We find a significant and favorable influence of the piezoelectric fields that are induced by the inevitable interface strain between channel and buffer material on the transistor characteristics. Transit time frequencies of up to 300 GHz and transconductances of 1 kS/m are predicted.

  16. Children's Protection from Violent Programming Act. Report of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on S. 363. Senate, 105th Congress, 1st Session, Calendar No. 182.

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    Senate Bill 363 is designed to protect American children from the harm caused by viewing violence on television. The bill amends the Communications Act of 1934 to require that violent video programming be limited to broadcast after the hours when children are reasonably likely to comprise a substantial portion of the audience, unless it is…

  17. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  18. Analysis of local perfusion rate and local glucose transport rate in brain and heart in man by means of C-11-methyl-D-glucose and dynamic positron emission tomography

    Because an imbalance of perfusion, transport and metabolism may determine the ultimate damage in ischemic brain - or heart disease, it appears desirable to simultaneously determine the rates of regional perfusion and glucose utilisation, in small brain or heart regions. Local tissue perfusion rate (LPR) and unidirectional glucose transmembrane transport rate (LGTR) may be simultaneously assayed by C-11-labelled methyl-D-glucose (CMG). This sugar analogue follows the pathway of glucose via perfusion and transmembrane transport, yet does not enter cellular metabolism; it returns to blood. Following intravenous application, CMG equilibrates between blood and tissue. The CMG concentration in blood (csub(B)) at various times may be taken as internal standard, against which the tracer accumulation in tissue is evaluated. 2-5 mCi of CMG were injected into an antecubital vein of the patient and transaxial activity distribution in one selected slice of brain or chest was registered with the ECAT II scanner at 2 minute intervals for 40 minutes. The measured attenuation correction was used for image reconstruction. Different regions of brain or heart scans were then selected and time activity curves created. The data from sup. long. sinus (brain) and left ventricular cavity (heart) were taken to represent csub(B). It was concluded from the data that for diagnostic evaluation of ultimate brain or heart damage simultaneous quantitative assessment of both LPR or LGTR is of basic importance. There is evidence that the CMG technique is an excellent tool which provide the possibility to obtain this information in defined morphological regions

  19. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for an 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui

    1990-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are reviewed and supplemented for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium up to temperatures of 3000 K. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Curve fits are given for the various species properties for their efficient computation in flowfield codes. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in a high energy environment. Limitations of the approximate mixing laws are discussed for a mixture of ionized species. An electron number-density correction for the transport properties of the charged species is obtained. This correction has been generally ignored in the literature.

  20. A deterministic model for deteriorating items with displayed inventory level dependent demand rate incorporating marketing decisions with transportation cost

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an inventory model, which considers the impact of marketing strategies such as pricing and advertising as well as the displayed inventory level on the demand rate of the system. In addition, the demand rate during the stock-out period differs from that during the stock-in period by a function varied on the waiting time up to the beginning of the next cycle. Shortage are allowed and partially backlogged. Here, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow the Weibull distribution. Considering all these factors with others, different scenarios of the system are investigated. To obtain the solutions of these cases and to illustrate the model, an example is considered. Finally, to study the effects of changes of different parameters of the system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out with respect to the different parameters of the system.

  1. Na+ and K+ levels in living cells: do they depend on the rate of outward transport of Na+?

    Ling, G N; Ochsenfeld, M M

    1976-01-01

    At 25 degrees C, frog sartorius muslces rapidly gained Na+ and lost K+ in iodoacetamide and pure nitrogen. Beginning at normal levels, the concentrations of these ions in the cells reached those in the surrounding Ringer solution in 140 min. Yet during that time the Na+ efflux rate showed no sign of the slowing down demanded by Na-pump theory. The data support the view that maintenance and alterations of N1+ levels in frog muslce cells reflect adsorption on protein sites and the solubility property of bulk phase water and are independent of the rate at which Na+ leaves the cell surface. PMID:1088477

  2. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (uranium was measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Sediment storage zones were also examined in the upper 8km of the system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  3. Toward autonomous measurements of photosynthetic electron transport rates: An evaluation of active fluorescence-based measurements of photochemistry

    Silsbe, G.; Oxborough, K.; Suggett, D. J.; Forster, R. M.; Ihnken, S.; Komárek, Ondřej; Lawrenz, Evelyn; Prášil, Ondřej; Roettgers, R.; Šicner, M.; Simis, S. G. H.; Van Dijk, M. A.; Kromkamp, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, MAR 2015 (2015), s. 138-155. ISSN 1541-5856 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : REPETITION-RATE FLUOROMETRY * CAVITY ABSORPTION METER * CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.254, year: 2014

  4. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According to...

  5. Modeling the downward transport of (210)Pb in Peatlands: Initial Penetration-Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model.

    Olid, Carolina; Diego, David; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2016-01-15

    The vertical distribution of (210)Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100-150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of (210)Pb within some peat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration–Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from 210Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radionuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) in peat taking into account both incorporation of (210)Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of (210)Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous (210)Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used (210)Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. (241)Am and (137)Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where (210)Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene. PMID:26476062

  6. Estimation of dose rate of a package ({sup 223+}Ra) and evaluation of transport index; Dosisleistungsabschaetzung bei einem Versandstueck ({sup 223+}Ra) und Ermittlung der Transportkennzahl nach ADR

    Bittner, Michael [TUEV SUED Industrie Services GmbH, Region Nordost, Leipzig (Germany). Anlagensicherheit/Strahlenschutz; Richter, Jens [TUEV SUED Industrie Services GmbH, Region Nordost, Dresden (Germany). Anlagensicherheit/Strahlenschutz

    2016-08-01

    The transport index of a package is to be determined according to provisions of the ADR. It is directly related to the maximum radiation level in mSv/h at a distance of 1 m from the external surface of the package or pallet. To evaluate the existing distribution of the dose equivalent outside the package or pallet calculations of photon dose rates are required. For Monte-Carlo simulations with MCNP5 a three-dimensional model of a package containing Xofigo trademark was created, which contains all relevant sources from {sup 223}Ra and its decay chain.

  7. Urban Low-carbon Transport Share Rate by Logit Model%基于Logit模型的城市低碳交通分担率研究

    帅斌; 林渝钧; 种鹏云

    2012-01-01

    随着世界各国能源政策向可持续化方向发展,低碳问题已经成为国内外研究的热点,特别是在交通运输领域,因为低碳因素对于未来城市内部各种交通方式势必会造成影响,即各种方式分担率的变化.Logit模型是预测城市客运交通分担率的一种比较成熟的方法,文中选择经济性、快速性、方便性、舒适度、安全度、低碳因素6个服务特性建立广义费用函数,结合Logit模型建立各交通方式分担率模型,采用相关调研数据和极大似然估计法,确定模型参数,计算因低碳因素的变化前后的分担率差异,并根据碳交易价格机制计算低碳因素的经济效应.%As the world energy policy is developing in the direction of sustainability, low-carbon' problems have become a hot spot at home and abroad,especially in the field of transportation. Low-carbon factor will inevitably affect various modes of transportation within cities in the future,as the change of share rate. A Logit model which is applied in the urban passenger transportation share rate prediction is a mature approach. A generalized cost function is created by the service features of economy, speed,convenience, comfort, safety and low-carbon factor. The share rate model of various transport modes by Logit model is created, and the model parameters are determined by relevant research data and the maximum likelihood estimation method. Thus, the change share rate is calculated before and after low-carbon factor are involved,and economic effects of low-carbon factors are calculated based on the price mechanism of carbon trading.

  8. Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado

    Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

  9. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the Consumer Behavior Studies

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheer, Richard [Scheer Ventures, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Time-based rate programs1, enabled by utility investments in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), are increasingly being considered by utilities as tools to reduce peak demand and enable customers to better manage consumption and costs. There are several customer systems that are relatively new to the marketplace and have the potential for improving the effectiveness of these programs, including in-home displays (IHDs), programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs), and web portals. Policy and decision makers are interested in more information about customer acceptance, retention, and response before moving forward with expanded deployments of AMI-enabled new rates and technologies. Under the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (SGIG), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered with several utilities to conduct consumer behavior studies (CBS). The goals involved applying randomized and controlled experimental designs for estimating customer responses more precisely and credibly to advance understanding of time-based rates and customer systems, and provide new information for improving program designs, implementation strategies, and evaluations. The intent was to produce more robust and credible analysis of impacts, costs, benefits, and lessons learned and assist utility and regulatory decision makers in evaluating investment opportunities involving time-based rates. To help achieve these goals, DOE developed technical guidelines to help the CBS utilities estimate customer acceptance, retention, and response more precisely.

  10. The Transport and Fate of Helium in Martensitic Steels at Fusion Relevant He/DPA Ratios and DPA Rates

    Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, George R.; Yamamoto, Takuya; Gelles, David S.; Miao, Pifeng; Oliver, Brian M.

    2007-08-01

    Understanding, modeling and managing the effects of He and displacement damage on microstructural evolution and property changes are primary objectives of fusion materials research. We recently implemented an approach for producing controlled He-to-dpa ratios under neutron irradiation using a novel α-implantation technique. Thin 1-4 µm NiAl coatings were deposited on Eurofer-97 TEM discs to produce a uniform He deposition zone of 6 to 8 µm. The test matrix is aimed at characterizing the transport, fate and consequences of He and He-to-dpa ratio variation on alloys with a wide range of starting microstructure. We explore the effect He-to-dpa ratio and temperature on the microstructure of conventionally processed Eurofer-97. Bubbles were found at all irradiation temperatures, with estimated maximum diameters of ~12, 6.9 and 1.4 nm at 500°C (~9 dpa and 372 appm He), 400°C (~3.9 dpa and 82 appm He) and 300°C (~3.9 dpa and 89 appm He), respectively.

  11. On the electrification of road transport - Learning rates and price forecasts for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) are currently more expensive than conventional passenger cars but may become cheaper due to technological learning. Here, we obtain insight into the prospects of future price decline by establishing ex-post learning rates for HEVs and ex-ante price forecasts for HEVs and BEVs. Since 1997, HEVs have shown a robust decline in their price and price differential at learning rates of 7±2% and 23±5%, respectively. By 2010, HEVs were only 31±22 €2010 kW−1 more expensive than conventional cars. Mass-produced BEVs are currently introduced into the market at prices of 479±171 €2010 kW−1, which is 285±213 €2010 kW−1 and 316±209 €2010 kW−1 more expensive than HEVs and conventional cars. Our forecast suggests that price breakeven with these vehicles may only be achieved by 2026 and 2032, when 50 and 80 million BEVs, respectively, would have been produced worldwide. We estimate that BEVs may require until then global learning investments of 100–150 billion € which is less than the global subsidies for fossil fuel consumption paid in 2009. These findings suggest that HEVs, including plug-in HEVs, could become the dominant vehicle technology in the next two decades, while BEVs may require long-term policy support. - Highlights: ► Learning rates for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles. ► Prices and price differentials of hybrid-electric vehicles show a robust decline. ► Battery-electric vehicles may require policy support for decades.

  12. Activity of the respiratory electron transport system and respiration rates within the oxygen minimum layer of the Arabian Sea

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Shailaja, M.S.

    ) for the ETS analysis were pressure-filtered (<0.5 atm) through Whatman GF/F glass fibre filters. ETS activity was measured by the tetrazolium reduction technique (PACKARD, 1969, 1971; PACKARD et al., 1971; KENNER and AHMED, 1975) as modified by PACKARD...., 1988)\\], a factor of 0.43 (dimensionless R:ETS) has been used by most of the previous workers to convert ETS activity to the equivalent oxygen consumption rates in subsurface waters. It must be noted that this conversion factor is valid for the ETS...

  13. Proceedings of the Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium. Advances of electric drive in urban transportation systems; Actes du colloque Prop'Elec 2000. Progres de la traction electrique dans les transports urbains

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium on the advances in electric power drive in urban transportation systems. The colloquium comprises 5 sessions dealing with: 1 - public collective electric-powered transportation system: synthesis of urban guided systems (C. Soulas, INRETS), the fast travelator (A. Cote, RATP), the power supply system of METEOR automatic underground railway (P. Lagrange, W. Seiler, RATP); 2 - electrical drive in urban transportation systems: start-up of a thermal engine with super-capacitors (D. Bouquain (CREEBEL), H. Gualous, A. Djerdir, A. Berthon, J.M. Kauffmann (L2ES, IGE)), The LEV (light weight electric vehicle) project in Mendrisio (U. Schwegler, LEV/Suisse), prototype of electrical bike that use a wheel-engine (C. Espanet, F. Gustin, J.M. Kauffmann (IGE), S. Robert, M. Karmous (EICN)), TWIL: a new generation of small electrical bikes (E. Escallot, T. Bontems (EPMI)), thermal and magnetic analysis of a rectilinear movement actuator (J.C. Vannier, M. Kadiri (SUPELEC)), torque undulation and vibrations in automobile electrical drives (A.L. Bui-Van (Renault), A. Fonseca (LEG)); 3 - collective electric-powered transportation systems: STARS: autonomous transportation system with flywheel charging at the station (P. Gibard (Alstom Transport), K. Abuda, J.M. Vinassa (IXL Bordeaux)), Translhor tramway: presentation of the drive system (L. Verdier, LHOR); 4 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: batteries for electric-powered vehicles (J.F. Fauvarque, CNAM), Li-ion batteries and their application in automotive industry (T. Faugeras, SAFT), optimized drive systems for electric-powered vehicles (J. Saint-Michel, Leroy Somer), the Citroen Xsara Dynactive (S. Derou, PSA), 5 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: the electrical car in tomorrows' city (M. Parent, INRIA), the market of electric-powered vehicles in France and Europe (M. Valet, PSA). (J.S.)

  14. A punctual flux estimator and reactions rates optimization in neutral particles transport calculus by the Monte Carlo method

    One of the questions asked in radiation shielding problems is the estimation of the radiation level in particular to determine accessibility of working persons in controlled area (nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants) or to study the dose gradients encountered in material (iron nuclear vessel, medical therapy, electronics in satellite). The flux and reaction rate estimators used in Monte Carlo codes give average values in volumes or on surfaces of the geometrical description of the system. But in certain configurations, the knowledge of punctual deposited energy and dose estimates are necessary. The Monte Carlo estimate of the flux at a point of interest is a calculus which presents an unbounded variance. The central limit theorem cannot be applied thus no easy confidence level may be calculated. The convergence rate is then very poor. We propose in this study a new solution for the photon flux at a point estimator. The method is based on the 'once more collided flux estimator' developed earlier for neutron calculations. It solves the problem of the unbounded variance and do not add any bias to the estimation. We show however that our new sampling schemes specially developed to treat the anisotropy of the photon coherent scattering is necessary for a good and regular behavior of the estimator. This developments integrated in the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code add the possibility of an unbiased punctual estimate on media interfaces. (author)

  15. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications. [Radiation dose rates from shielded spent fuels and high-level radioactive waste

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Combined rate equation and Monte Carlo studies of electron transport in a GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade laser

    Comparison of the Monte Carlo and rate equation methods as applied to the study of electron transport in a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structure initially proposed by Page et al (2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 3529) is presented for a range of realistic injector doping levels. An analysis of the difference between these two methods is given. It is suggested that justified approximations of the rate equation method, originated by imposing Fermi–Dirac statistics and the same electron effective temperature for each of the energy sub-bands, can be interpreted as partial inclusion of electron–electron interactions. Results of the rate equation method may be used as good initial conditions for a more precise Monte Carlo simulation. An algorithm combining rate equation and Monte Carlo simulations is examined. A reasonable agreement between the introduced method and a fully self-consistent resolution of Monte Carlo and Schrödinger coupled with Poisson equations is demonstrated. The computation time may be reduced when the combined algorithm is used. (paper)

  17. First principles transport coefficients and reaction rates of Ar2+ ions in argon for cold plasma jet modeling

    Momentum-transfer collision cross-sections and integral collision cross-sections for the collision-induced dissociation are calculated for collisions of ionized argon dimers with argon atoms using a nonadiabatic semiclassical method with the electronic Hamiltonian calculated on the fly via a diatomics-in-molecules semiempirical model as well as inverse-method modeling based on simple isotropic rigid-core potential. The collision cross-sections are then used in an optimized Monte Carlo code for evaluations of the Ar2+ mobility in argon gas, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and collision-induced dissociation rates. A thorough comparison of various theoretical calculations as well as with available experimental data on the Ar2+ mobility and collision cross-sections is performed. Good agreement is found between both theoretical approaches and the experiment. Analysis of the role of inelastic processes in Ar2+/Ar collisions is also provided

  18. Characteristics of N2O production and transport within soil profiles subjected to different nitrogen application rates in China.

    Nan, Weige; Yue, Shanchao; Li, Shiqing; Huang, Haizhou; Shen, Yufang

    2016-01-15

    To better understand the effect of N fertilizer on the responses of subsoil N2O to N2O emissions in a high-yield plot, we investigated the subsurface N2O concentrations at seven mineral soil depths and analyzed the subsoil N2O fluxes between soil horizons. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in farmland located in the semi-humid area of the Changwu station, Shaanxi, and the results showed that the application of N fertilizer triggered the highest amount of N2O production and effluxes in the various soil layers. With an increase of N fertilizer, N2O effluxes and production significantly increased; the mean variation of 380 kg N ha(-1) treatment was much greater than that of 250 kg N ha(-1) treatment, particularly after fertilization during the maize growing season (MS). N2O concentrations increased within 30 cm and maintained low and stable values. However, N2O fluxes and production decreased with depth (below 30 cm) and then remained low (approximately zero or even negative) at depths of 30-90 cm. The cumulative N2O fluxes in the 0-15 cm soil layer accounted for 99.0% of the total amount in the soil profile, and high fluxes coincided with periods of relatively high production rates. The cumulative production of N2O also remained in step with the cumulative fluxes. In addition, more N fertilizer was applied, greater production occurred in the topsoil. A significantly positive relationship was found between N2O fluxes and mineral N, and a negative relationship was found between the fluxes and the water-filled pore space (WFPS) in the shallow soil. N2O effluxes increased with increasing amounts of N fertilizer, which was primarily due to nitrification on the Loess Plateau. PMID:26556751

  19. 46 CFR 308.408 - Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium.

    2010-10-01

    ... premium. 308.408 Section 308.408 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.408 Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. The Maritime Administrator, acting for the Secretary of Transportation,...

  20. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    C. Lema^itre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP. We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006 of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 (Lidar Embarqué pour l'étude de l'Atmosphère: Nuages Dynamique, Rayonnement et cycle de l'Eau and space-borne CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary spaceborne observations (from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account the infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of both shortwave and longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative heating rate profiles of dust during daytime and nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties may be large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day−1 and 4 K day−1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day−1 was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. The uncertainty on the

  1. Book Act

    Kivland, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Book Act was a new project by AMBruno, initiated by Sophie Loss, in which artist book-makers performed and embodied the concept or essence of their books through the medium of film or performance. The exhibition at The Tetley, Leeds, comprised the originating books and corresponding video work, with live performances on Sunday 9 March 2014. Book Act took place during the 17th International Contemporary Artists' Book Fair (7th to 9th March) and the exhibition continued until 26th March 2014.

  2. Implications for electron acceleration and transport from non-thermal electron rates at loop-top and foot-point sources in solar flares

    Simões, Paulo J A

    2013-01-01

    The interrelation of hard X-ray (HXR) emitting sources and the underlying physics of electron acceleration and transport presents one of the major questions in the high energy solar flare physics. Spatially resolved observations of solar flares often demonstrate the presence of well separated sources of bremsstrahlung emission, so-called coronal and foot-point sources. Using spatially resolved X-ray observations by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and recently improved imaging techniques, we investigate in detail the spatially resolved electron distributions in a few well observed solar flares. The selected flares can be interpreted as having a standard geometry with chromospheric HXR foot-point sources related to thick-target X-ray emission and the coronal sources characterised by a combination of thermal and thin-target bremsstrahlung. Using imaging spectroscopy technique, we deduce the characteristic electron rates and spectral indices required to explain the coronal and fo...

  3. Enhancement of marine cloud albedo via controlled sea spray injections: a global model study of the influence of emission rates, microphysics and transport

    H. Korhonen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Modification of cloud albedo by controlled emission of sea spray particles into the atmosphere has been suggested as a possible geoengineering option to slow global warming. Previous global studies have imposed changes in cloud drop concentration in low level clouds to explore the radiative and climatic effects. Here, we use a global aerosol transport model to quantify how an imposed flux of sea spray particles affects the natural aerosol processes, the particle size distribution, and concentrations of cloud drops. We assume that the proposed fleet of vessels emits sea spray particles with a wind speed-dependent flux into four regions of persistent stratocumulus cloud off the western coasts of continents. The model results show that fractional changes in cloud drop number concentration (CDNC vary substantially between the four regions because of differences in wind speed (which affects the spray efficiency of the vessels, transport and particle deposition rates, and because of variations in aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Using spray emission rates comparable to those implied by previous studies we find that the predicted CDNC changes are very small (maximum 20% and in one of the four regions even negative. The weak or negative effect is because the added particles suppress the in-cloud supersaturation and prevent existing aerosol particles from forming cloud drops. A scenario with five times higher emissions (considerably higher than previously assumed increases CDNC on average by 45–163%, but median concentrations are still below the 375 cm−3 assumed in previous studies. An inadvertent effect of the spray emissions is that sulphur dioxide concentrations are suppressed by 1–2% in the seeded regions and sulphuric acid vapour by 64–68% due to chemical reactions on the additional salt particles. The impact of this suppression on existing aerosol is negligible in the model, but should be investigated further in

  4. Enhancement of marine cloud albedo via controlled sea spray injections: a global model study of the influence of emission rates, microphysics and transport

    H. Korhonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of cloud albedo by controlled emission of sea spray particles into the atmosphere has been suggested as a possible geoengineering option to slow global warming. Previous global studies have imposed changes in cloud drop concentration in low level clouds to explore the radiative and climatic effects. Here, we use a global aerosol transport model to quantify how an imposed flux of sea spray particles affects the natural aerosol processes, the particle size distribution, and concentrations of cloud drops. We assume that the proposed fleet of vessels emits sea spray particles with a wind speed-dependent flux into four regions of persistent stratocumulus cloud off the western coasts of continents. The model results show that fractional changes in cloud drop number concentration (CDNC vary substantially between the four regions because of differences in wind speed (which affects the spray efficiency of the vessels, transport and particle deposition rates, and because of variations in aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Using spray emission rates comparable to those implied by previous studies we find that the predicted CDNC changes are very small (maximum 20% and in one of the four regions even negative. The weak or negative effect is because the added particles suppress the in-cloud supersaturation and prevent existing aerosol particles from forming cloud drops. A scenario with five times higher emissions (considerably higher than previously assumed increases CDNC on average by 45–163%, but median concentrations are still below the 375 cm−3 assumed in previous studies. An inadvertent effect of the spray emissions is that sulphur dioxide concentrations are suppressed by 1–2% in the seeded regions and sulphuric acid vapour by 64–68% due to chemical reactions on the additional salt particles. The impact of this suppression on existing aerosol is negligible in the model, but should be investigated further in

  5. Optimization of deterministic transport parameters for the calculation of the dose distribution around a high dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source

    The goal of this work was to calculate the dose distribution around a high dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using a multi-group discrete ordinates code and then to compare the results with a Monte Carlo calculated dose distribution. The unstructured tetrahedral mesh discrete ordinates code Attila version 6.1.1 was used to calculate the photon kerma rate distribution in water around the Nucletron microSelectron mHDRv2 source. MCNPX 2.5.c was used to compute the Monte Carlo water photon kerma rate distribution. Two hundred million histories were simulated, resulting in standard errors of the mean of less than 3% overall. The number of energy groups, Sn (angular order), Pn (scattering order), and mesh elements were varied in addition to the method of analytic ray tracing to assess their effects on the deterministic solution. Water photon kerma rate matrices were exported from both codes into an in-house data analysis software. This software quantified the percent dose difference distribution, the number of points within ±3% and ±5%, and the mean percent difference between the two codes. The data demonstrated that a 5 energy-group cross-section set calculated results to within 0.5% of a 15 group cross-section set. S12 was sufficient to resolve the solution in angle. P2 expansion of the scattering cross-section was necessary to compute accurate distributions. A computational mesh with 55 064 tetrahedral elements in a 30 cm diameter phantom resolved the solution spatially. An efficiency factor of 110 with the above parameters was realized in comparison to MC methods. The Attila code provided an accurate and efficient solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for the mHDRv2 source

  6. The impact of cell-specific absorption properties on the correlation of electron transport rates measured by chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic oxygen production in planktonic algae.

    Blache, Ulrich; Jakob, Torsten; Su, Wanwen; Wilhelm, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E)-curves describe the photosynthetic performance of autotrophic organisms. From these P-E-curves the photosynthetic parameters α-slope, P(max), and E(k) can be deduced which are often used to characterize and to compare different organisms or organisms in acclimation to different environmental conditions. Particularly, for in situ-measurements of P-E curves of phytoplankton the analysis of variable chlorophyll fluorescence proved its potential as a sensitive and rapid method. By using Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae), Nannochloropsis salina (Eustigmatophyceae), Skeletonema costatum and Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae), the present study investigated the influence of cellular bio-optical properties on the correlation of the photosynthetic parameters derived from fluorescence-based P-E-curves with photosynthetic parameters obtained from the measurement of oxygen evolution. It is demonstrated that small planktonic algae show a wide range of cellular absorptivity which was subject to species-specifity, growth stage and environmental conditions, e.g. nutrient limitation. This variability in bio-optical properties resulted in a great deviation of relative electron transport rates (rETRs) from oxygen-based photosynthesis rates. Thus, the photosynthetic parameters α-slope and P(max) derived from rETRs strongly depend on the specific cellular absorptivity and cannot be used to compare the photosynthetic performance of cells with different optical properties. However, it was shown that E(k) is independent of cellular absorptivity and could be used to compare samples with unknown optical properties. PMID:21571541

  7. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  8. Comparison of parameter sensitivities between a laboratory and field scale model of uranium transport in a dual domain, distributed-rate reactive system

    A laboratory-derived conceptual and numerical model for U(VI) transport at the Hanford 300A site, Washington, USA, was applied to a range of field-scale scenarios of different complexity to systematically evaluate model parameter sensitivities. The model, originally developed from column experiment data, included distributed-rate surface complexation kinetics of U(VI), aqueous speciation, and physical non-equilibrium transport processes. A rigorous parameter sensitivity analysis was carried out with respect to different state variables: concentrations, mass fluxes, total mass and spatial moments of dissolved U(VI) for laboratory systems, and various simulation scenarios that represented the field-scale characteristics at the Hanford 300A site. The field-scenarios accounted for transient groundwater flow and variable geochemical conditions driven by frequent water level changes of the nearby Columbia River. Simulations indicated that the transient conditions significantly affected U(VI) plume migration at the site. The parameter sensitivities were largely similar between the laboratory and field scale systems. Where differences existed, they were shown to result from differing degrees of U(VI) adsorption disequilibrium caused by hydraulic or hydrogeochemical conditions. Adorption disequilibrium was found to differ (i) between short duration peak flow events at the field scale and much longer flow events in the laboratory, (ii) for changing groundwater chemical compositions due to river water intrusion, and (iii) for different sampling locations at the field scale. Parameter sensitivities were also found to vary with respect to the different investigated state variables. An approach is demonstrated that elucidates the most important parameters of a laboratory-scale model that must constrained in both the laboratory and field for meaningful field application.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  10. A random walk solution for modeling solute transport with network reactions and multi-rate mass transfer in heterogeneous systems: Impact of biofilms

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The interplay between the spatial variability of the aquifer hydraulic properties, mass transfer due to sub-grid heterogeneity and chemical reactions often complicates reactive transport simulations. It is well documented that hydro-biochemical properties are ubiquitously heterogeneous and that diffusion and slow advection at the sub-grid scale typically leads to the conceptualization of an aquifer as a multi-porosity system. Within this context, chemical reactions taking place in mobile/immobile water regions can be substantially different between each other. This paper presents a particle-based method that can efficiently simulate heterogeneity, network reactions and multi-rate mass transfer. The approach is based on the development of transition probabilities that describe the likelihood that particles belonging to a given species and mobile/immobile domain at a given time will be transformed into another species and mobile/immobile domain afterwards. The joint effect of mass transfer and sequential degradation is shown to be non-trivial. A characteristic rebound of degradation products can be observed. This late rebound of concentrations is not driven by any change in the flow regime (e.g., pumping ceases in the pump-and-treat remediation strategy) but due to the natural interplay between mass transfer and chemical reactions. To illustrate that the method can simultaneously represent mass transfer, spatially varying properties and network reactions without numerical problems, we have simulated the degradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in a three-dimensional fully heterogeneous aquifer subjected to rate-limited mass transfer. Two types of degradation modes were considered to compare the effect of an active biofilm with that of clay pods present in the aquifer. Results of the two scenarios display significantly differences. Biofilms that promote the degradation of compounds in an immobile region are shown to significantly enhance degradation, rapidly producing