WorldWideScience

Sample records for acs evidence based

  1. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    Overhead lines at transmission level are the backbone of any national power grid today. New overhead line projects however are at the same time subject to ever greater public resistance due to the lines environmental impact. As full undergrounding of transmission lines at extra high voltage (EHV......) levels are still not seen as possibility, the future expansion of transmission grids are dependent on new solutions with lessened environment impact, especially with regard to the visual impact. In the present Thesis, composite materials and composite based overhead line components are presented and...... analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  2. Evidence based practice

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an influential interdisciplinary movement that originated in medicine as evidence-based medicine (EBM) about 1992. EBP is of considerable interest to library and information science (LIS) because it focuses on a thorough documentation of the basis for the decision...

  3. Evidence-Based Development

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... and electronic patient records for diabetes patients, this paper reports research in progress regarding the prospects and pitfalls of evidence-based development....

  4. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  5. Evidence based pediatrics.

    Elizabeta ZISOVSKA

    2015-01-01

    It is very difficult to define the entire phrase “Evidence based pediatrics”, covering all components of this overused sentence. The definition comes out of the common sentence and it means integration of the individual clinical expertize together with the best external clinically available evidence of the systematic reviews which are of interest and benefit of the individual patient.Development of clinically appropriate structured question follows PICO model, i.e. containing f...

  6. Evidence-based policy

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    research community (e.g. Boden & Epstein 2006; House of Commons 2006; Cartwright et al 2009; Rod 2010; Vohnsen 2011). This article intends to draw out some general pitfalls in the curious meeting of science and politics by focusing on a particular attempt to make evidence-based legislation in Denmark (for...

  7. Speed Control of DC Motor using AC/AC/DC Converter Based on Intelligent Techniques

    Rakan Kh Antar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available    This paper describes the application of ac/ac/dc and ac/dc converters to control the speed of a separately excited DC motor. Artificial neural network and PI controller are trained to select the desired values of firing angles for triggering thyristors of the ac/ac/dc and ac/dc bridge converters in order to control the speed of the dc motor at a desired value with constant and different load torques in order to obtain the best speed response. Simulation results show that the rising time for ac/dc and ac/ac/dc converters at 250rpm are reduced about 79% and 89% respectively, while delay time it reduced about 69% and 64% respectively. Therefore, speed response of the dc motor is more efficient for closed loop system compared with open loop also the response of ac/ac/dc converter is better than ac/dc converter.

  8. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  9. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    2015-03-01

    Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  10. Speed Control of DC Motor using AC/AC/DC Converter Based on Intelligent Techniques

    Rakan Kh Antar

    2013-01-01

       This paper describes the application of ac/ac/dc and ac/dc converters to control the speed of a separately excited DC motor. Artificial neural network and PI controller are trained to select the desired values of firing angles for triggering thyristors of the ac/ac/dc and ac/dc bridge converters in order to control the speed of the dc motor at a desired value with constant and different load torques in order to obtain the best speed response. Simulation results show that the rising time fo...

  11. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    Tas, A. Cuneyt, E-mail: c_tas@hotmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed completely inorganic solutions for the deposition of monolayers of aragonite spherules (or ooids). • Solutions mimicked the artificial seawater. • Biomimetic crystallization was performed at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. - Abstract: Aragonite (CaCO{sub 3}, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  12. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed completely inorganic solutions for the deposition of monolayers of aragonite spherules (or ooids). • Solutions mimicked the artificial seawater. • Biomimetic crystallization was performed at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. - Abstract: Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry

  13. Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine

    Christopher P Price

    2004-01-01

    @@ Whilst there have been several definitions of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), the one given by David Sackett is probably the most accurate and well accepted; he stated that "evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients"[1].

  14. Evidence-based clinical practice

    Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may be...... evidence in clinical practice. By investments in education, applied research, and The Cochrane Collaboration, evidence-based medicine may form a stronger basis for clinical practice....

  15. AC dipole based optics measurement and correction at RHIC

    Shen, X; Bai, M; White, S; Robert-Domolaize, G; Luo, Y; Marusic, A; Tomas, R

    2013-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the AC dipole based optics measurement at RHIC to extract beta functions as well as phase advances at each BPM. Existence of excessive beta-beat was observed in both rings of RHIC at polarized proton store energy. A unique global optics correction scheme was then developed and tested successfully during the RHIC polarized proton run in 2013. The feasibility of using horizontal closed orbit bump at sextupole for arc beta-beat correction was also demonstrated.

  16. Context based computational analysis and characterization of ARS consensus sequences (ACS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Krishnamachari, Annangarachari

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide experimental studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that autonomous replicating sequence (ARS) requires an essential consensus sequence (ACS) for replication activity. Computational studies identified thousands of ACS like patterns in the genome. However, only a few hundreds of these sites act as replicating sites and the rest are considered as dormant or evolving sites. In a bid to understand the sequence makeup of replication sites, a content and context-based analysis was performed on a set of replicating ACS sequences that binds to origin-recognition complex (ORC) denoted as ORC-ACS and non-replicating ACS sequences (nrACS), that are not bound by ORC. In this study, DNA properties such as base composition, correlation, sequence dependent thermodynamic and DNA structural profiles, and their positions have been considered for characterizing ORC-ACS and nrACS. Analysis reveals that ORC-ACS depict marked differences in nucleotide composition and context features in its vicinity compared to nrACS. Interestingly, an A-rich motif was also discovered in ORC-ACS sequences within its nucleosome-free region. Profound changes in the conformational features, such as DNA helical twist, inclination angle and stacking energy between ORC-ACS and nrACS were observed. Distribution of ACS motifs in the non-coding segments points to the locations of ORC-ACS which are found far away from the adjacent gene start position compared to nrACS thereby enabling an accessible environment for ORC-proteins. Our attempt is novel in considering the contextual view of ACS and its flanking region along with nucleosome positioning in the S. cerevisiae genome and may be useful for any computational prediction scheme. PMID:27508123

  17. AC-ELECTROKINETICS BASED TOOLS IN NANOENGINEERING AND MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    R. Durán

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Slllcon-based mlcroeledronics has been following the integration prognosls of MOORE's Law durlng the past decades and posslbly will do so for another decade or two. Physlcal, technological and also flnancialllmlts In the foreseeable future will slow down the contlnued expansiOn of this branch of mlcroeledronlcs and instead wlll force a new technological approach based on molecular-scale eledronics (MOLETRONICS. New tools are needed to allow molecular devlce manufaduring and nanoscale engineering with hlgh precision and produdivlty. One group of methods with the potentlal for use In such a manufaduring process Is based on a.c. eledrokinetlcs effeds, which are descrlbed and discussed in this paper.

  18. Insufficient Evidence: The Problems of Evidence-Based Nursing.

    Rolfe, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Challenges the wisdom of basing nursing practice on the findings of statistical research and offers objections to the philosophy of evidence-based nursing. Proposes rethinking what counts as evidence, suggesting a model based on reflection after the event. (SK)

  19. A New Approach for RRR Determination of Niobium Single Crystal Based on AC Magnetic Susceptibility

    Ermakov, Alexey; Korolev, Alexander V.; Singer, Waldemar; Singer, Xenia

    2011-03-01

    Residual resistivity ratio RRR is an important integral characteristic of material purity. It was proposed to determine the RRR on base of the AC susceptibility. AC susceptibility of a number of single crystal niobium samples of different orientations types ( , rpar; and differently treated (BCP 70, 150 μm, annealing 800° C/2h) was measured. The RRR value was determined on base of these results using a relation between the imaginary part of χ″ of AC magnetic susceptibility at low frequency, AC magnetic field and resistivity ρ of the sample.

  20. Evidence-Based IT Development

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based IT development aims at developing a new commercial contract model for IT projects where the cus-tomers payment is dependent on measurable effects of using the vendors system. The idea is to establish a strategic part-nership in which customer and IT vendor share the responsi-bility...

  1. Evidence-based playground design

    Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina;

    2015-01-01

    , best practice, and the theories of Affordances and Behaviour Settings. A post-occupancy evaluation was carried out through a questionnaire survey and observation studies, which revealed that a majority of the potential evidence-based affordances were actualised, and that the application of the theories...

  2. AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth

    2015-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.

  3. Neural network based PWM AC chopper fed induction motor drive

    Venkatesan Jamuna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new Simulink model for a neural network controlled PWM AC chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Closed loop speed control is achieved using a neural network controller. To maintain a constant fluid flow with a variation in pressure head, drives like fan and pump are operated with closed loop speed control. The need to improve the quality and reliability of the drive circuit has increased because of the growing demand for improving the performance of motor drives. With the increased availability of MOSFET's and IGBT's, PWM converters can be used efficiently in low and medium power applications. From the simulation studies, it is seen that the PWM AC chopper has a better harmonic spectrum and lesser copper loss than the Phase controlled AC chopper. It is observed that the drive system with the proposed model produces better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and fast transient response. .

  4. AC transport in graphene-based Fabry-Perot devices

    Rocha, Claudia G; Torres, Luis E. F. Foa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2009-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of the effects of time-dependent fields on electronic transport through graphene nanoribbon devices. The Fabry-P\\'{e}rot interference pattern is modified by an ac gating in a way that depends strongly on the shape of the graphene edges. While for armchair edges the patterns are found to be regular and can be controlled very efficiently by tuning the ac field, samples with zigzag edges exhibit a much more complex interference pattern due to their peculiar elect...

  5. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…

  6. Evidence of me” in evidence based medicine?

    Lockwood, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Evidence based medicine provides independent, validated advice about treatment options, but does it take sufficient account of individual patients' values to provide them with an optimal health outcome?

  7. Evidence-based practice in first aid

    Van de Velde, Stijn

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIn order to improve the quality of care, evidence-based practice seeks to bridge the gap between evidence and practice.While cardiopulmonary resuscitation by laypeople was extensively studied and evidence-based guidelines were published, the field of non-resuscitative first aid lagged behind in applying evidence-based practice. Taking into account the considerable burden of injury, the life-saving potential of first aid, the potential benefits of evidence-based practice, areas of ...

  8. Voltage Swell Mitigation Using Flexible AC Transmission Systems Based on Evolutionary Computing Methods

    Marwa Shahin; Ebtisam Saied; M.A. Moustafa Hassan; Fahmy Bendary

    2014-01-01

    The main subject of these paper deals with enhancing the steady-state and dynamics performance of the power grids by using new idea namely Advanced Flexible AC Transmission Systems based on Evolutionary Computing Methods. Control of the electric power system can be achieved by using the new trends as Particle Swarm Optimization applied to this subject to enhance the characteristics of controller performance. This paper studies and analyzes Advanced Flexible AC Transmission System to mitigate ...

  9. Risk Based Assessment of Subsynchronous Resonance in AC/DC Systems

    Adrees, Atia

    2014-01-01

    Risk Based Assessment of Subsynchronous Resonance in compensated AC/DC systemMrs Atia Adrees, The University of Manchester, April 2014This thesis investigates the phenomenon of subsynchronous resonance (SSR) in meshed series compensated AC/DC systems in the presence of operational uncertainties. The main contribution of this research is the novel application of risk assessment methods to SSR studies.In terms of network topology, future electric power transmission networks alongside the curren...

  10. Non-oxidized porous silicon-based power AC switch peripheries

    Menard, Samuel; Fèvre, Angélique; Valente, Damien; Billoué, Jérôme; Gautier, Gaël

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel application of porous silicon (PS) for low-power alternating current (AC) switches such as triode alternating current devices (TRIACs) frequently used to control small appliances (fridge, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, coffee makers, etc.). More precisely, it seems possible to benefit from the PS electrical insulation properties to ensure the OFF state of the device. Based on the technological aspects of the most commonly used AC switch peripheries physicall...

  11. Evidence Based Librarianship and Open Access

    Heather Morrison

    2006-01-01

    Evidence based practice, whether in librarianship or any other profession, depends on access to the evidence, and access to opportunities to share one’s own evidence. Open access (OA) is the perfect complement to evidence based librarianship. OA provides the optimum access to the evidence for librarians everwhere, and the optimum means of dissemination. This article compares examines access to the LIS literature in the print and electronic media, and the impact of open access.

  12. Non-oxidized porous silicon-based power AC switch peripheries

    Menard, Samuel; Fèvre, Angélique; Valente, Damien; Billoué, Jérôme; Gautier, Gaël

    2012-10-01

    We present in this paper a novel application of porous silicon (PS) for low-power alternating current (AC) switches such as triode alternating current devices (TRIACs) frequently used to control small appliances (fridge, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, coffee makers, etc.). More precisely, it seems possible to benefit from the PS electrical insulation properties to ensure the OFF state of the device. Based on the technological aspects of the most commonly used AC switch peripheries physically responsible of the TRIAC blocking performances (leakage current and breakdown voltage), we suggest to isolate upper and lower junctions through the addition of a PS layer anodically etched from existing AC switch diffusion profiles. Then, we comment the voltage capability of practical samples emanating from the proposed architecture. Thanks to the characterization results of simple Al-PS-Si(P) structures, the experimental observations are interpreted, thus opening new outlooks in the field of AC switch peripheries.

  13. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. PMID:27349664

  14. Evidence-Based Practice: Management of Vertigo

    Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the evidence basis for the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common diagnosis of vertigo in both primary care and subspecialty settings. Like all articles in this compilation of evidence-based practice, an overview is presented along with evidence based clinical assessment, diagnosis, and management. Summaries of differential diagnosis of vertigo and outcomes are presented.

  15. Evidence-based practice voor verpleegkundigen

    Cox, C.M.M.; Louw, D.C.P. de; Verhoef, J.; Kuiper, C.

    2004-01-01

    Om goede en verantwoorde zorg te kunnen bieden, streeft de verpleegkundige naar evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice is het gewetensvol, expliciet en oordeelkundig gebruik van het huidige beste bewijsmateriaal om beslissingen te nemen voor individuele patiënten. De praktijk van evidence-

  16. Evidence-based integrative dermatology

    Saravu R Narahari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available American recognition for medical pluralism arrived in 1991. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established under the National Institutes of Health in 1998. Following this, patients and researchers began exploring use of integrative medicine. Terence Ryan with Gerry Bodeker in Europe, Brian Berman in America, and the Indian council of Medical Research advocated traditional medicine and integrative medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD, Kerala has developed integrated allopathic (biomedical and ayurvedic therapies to treat Lymphatic Filariasis, Lichen planus, and Vitiligo. Studies conducted at the IAD have created a framework for evidence-based and integrative dermatology (ID. This paper gives an overview of advances in ID with an example of Lichen Planus, which was examined jointly by dermatologists and Ayurveda doctors. The clinical presentation in these patients was listed in a vikruthi table of comparable biomedical terms. A vikruthi table was used for drug selection in ayurvedic dermatology. A total of 19 patients were treated with ayurvedic prescriptions to normalize the vatha-kapha for 3 months. All patients responded and no side effects were recorded. In spite of advancing knowledge on ID, several challenges remain for its use on difficult to treat chronic skin diseases. The formation of new integrative groups and financial support are essential for the growth of ID in India.

  17. DNA molecular wire-based nanoelectronics: New insight and high frequency AC electrical characterization

    Wibowo, Denni Ari

    While recent research in electron-transport mechanism on a double strands DNA seems to converge into a consensus, experiments in direct electrical measurements on a long DNA molecules still lead to a conflicting result. This research investigates experimentally the attachment of DNA molecular wire to high aspect ratio three-dimensional (3D) metal electrode and the effect of temperature to its AC electrical conductivity. The 3-D microelectrode was built on a silicone oxide substrate using patterned thick layers of negative tone photoresist covered by sputtered gold on the top surface. Attachment of lambda-DNA to the microelectrode was demonstrated using oligonucleotide-DNA phosphate backbone ligation and thiol-gold covalent bonding. Electrical characterizations based on I-V and AC impedance analysis of several repeatable data points of attachment with varying lambda-DNA concentration (500 ng/microL to 0.0625 ng/microL) showed measurable and significant conductivity of lambda-DNA molecular wires. Further study was carried out by measuring I-V and impedance while ramping up the temperature to reach complete denaturation (~1100C) resulting in no current transduction. Subsequent re-annealing of the DNA through incubation in TM buffer at annealing temperature (~900C) resulted in recovery of electrical conduction, providing a strong proof that DNA molecular wire is the one generate the electrical conductivity. lambda-DNA molecular wires reported to have differing impedance response at two temperature regions: impedance increases (conductivity decrease) between 40C -- 400C, and then decreases from 400C until DNA completely denatured (~1100C). The increase conductivity after 400C is an experimental support the long distance electron transport mechanism referred as "thermal hopping" mechanism. We believe that this research represents a significant departure from previous studies and makes unique contributions through (i) modification of DNA attachment methods has increase

  18. Water-induced dc and ac degradations in TiO2-based ceramic capacitors

    Water-induced degradations of TiO2-based ceramic capacitors in the presence of dc and ac voltages are reported in this paper. Atomic hydrogen generated by electrolysis of water using dc voltages reduced TiO2-based ceramics at ambient temperature. The resulting degradation was characterized by an increase in capacitance, a large dielectric loss and a dramatic decrease in insulation resistance. Hydrogen and oxygen generated by the electrolysis of water using ac voltages reacted with TiO2-based ceramics. The resulting degradation was characterized by a decrease in capacitance, a large dielectric loss, but no noticeable changes in insulation resistance. Water played a vital role in both dc and ac degradations of TiO2-based capacitors and an effort should be made to prevent water-induced degradations

  19. Evidence-based clinical practice

    Garattini, Silvio; Jakobsen, Janus C; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    Using the best quality of clinical research evidence is essential for choosing the right treatment for patients. How to identify the best research evidence is, however, difficult. In this narrative review we summarise these threats and describe how to minimise them. Pertinent literature was consi...

  20. Defending Evidence Based Practice (Editorial

    Lindsay Glynn

    2007-07-01

    contributing to the existing literature by publishing original research. One of the strengths of the EBLIP journal is the Evidence Summaries section. Not only are these critical appraisals of previously published research, but the critical appraisals themselves are peer reviewed. The knowledge base, therefore, is being populated with original research as well as rigorously evaluated research. Am I still feeling defensive? Perhaps a little. I am sure that the time and effort that I have invested in EBLIP cannot help but create some bias. On the other hand, I have seen that evidence based practice is making an impact on how numerous individuals and institutions approach decision making. I am reading, seeing and hearing about research being designed, performed and evaluated within a new framework. EBP is standard practice in the health professions and is swiftly gaining solid ground in the social sciences, education and in government. Our profession prides itself on being on the cutting edge of information access and management: if information professionals choose not to adopt the model, which has been proven time and time again to be effective, they risk being placed outside cutting edge, innovative practice. Is that where we want to be?

  1. From evidence-based to evidence-reflected practice

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    “Knowledge” is of the utmost significance for professional practice and learning. Today, though, the established knowledge base is changing in all areas of the labour market (Alvesson, 2004). Work and society are dominated by commitment to demands for high levels of demonstrable accountability......, cost-efficiency and measurable quality. Thus, today, evidence-based practice has become an expectation and fashion, often used to emphasize the grounding of practice in research based knowledge that provides measurable evidence for best practice. But at the same time, there is a growing distrust of the...

  2. Persuasive Evidence: Improving Customer Service through Evidence Based Librarianship

    Wendy A. Abbott

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To demonstrate how evidence based practice has contributed to informaing decisions and resolving issues if concern in service delivery at Bond University Librray. Methods - This paper critically analyses three evidence based research projects conducted at Bond University Library. Each project combined a range of research methods including surveys, literature reviews and the analysis of internal performance data to find solutions to problems in library service delivery. The first research project investigated library opening hours and the feasability of twenty-four hour opening. Another project reseached questions about the management of a collection of feature films on DVD and video. The thrd project investigated issues surrounding the teaching of EndNote to undergarduate students. Results - Despite some deficiencies in the methodologies used, each evidence based research project had positive outcomes. One of the highlights asn an essential feature of the process at Bond University Library was the involvement of stakeholders. The ability to build consensus and agree action plans with stakeholders was an important outcome of that process. Conclusion - Drawing on the experience of these research projects, the paper illustrates the benefits of evidence based information practice to stimulate innovation and improve library services. Librarians, like most professionals, need to continue to develop the skills and a culture to effectively carry out evidence based practice.

  3. Evidence based management ve zdravotnictví

    Vydrová, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based management involves decision making based on the best available scientific knowledge about effective organization practice. This evidence can be obtained from internal or systematic external research. Analysis of measures to prevent infections in hemato-oncologic patients a Prague teaching hospital revealed, that current organization practices do not allow a high quality internal research assessing provided health care quality. Causes of barriers to practice evidence-based appr...

  4. Sicily statement on evidence-based practice

    Hopayian Kevork

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP. This consensus statement is based on current literature and incorporating the experience of delegates attending the 2003 Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers ("Signposting the future of EBHC". Discussion Evidence-Based Practice has evolved in both scope and definition. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources. Health care professionals must be able to gain, assess, apply and integrate new knowledge and have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances throughout their professional life. Curricula to deliver these aptitudes need to be grounded in the five-step model of EBP, and informed by ongoing research. Core assessment tools for each of the steps should continue to be developed, validated, and made freely available. Summary All health care professionals need to understand the principles of EBP, recognise EBP in action, implement evidence-based policies, and have a critical attitude to their own practice and to evidence. Without these skills, professionals and organisations will find it difficult to provide 'best practice'.

  5. Evidence Based Practice: Science? Or Art? (Editorial)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-01-01

    Evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP) is a strategy to bridge research and practice. Generally EBLIP is seen as a movement to encourage and give practitioners the means to incorporate research into their practice, where it previously may have been lacking. The widely accepted definition of EBLIP (Booth, 2000) stresses three aspects that contribute to a practice that is evidence based: 1) "the best available evidence;" 2) "moderated by user needs and preferences;" 3) "applied...

  6. Harmonic detection an AC excited generation system based on in-phase correlation filtering

    2002-01-01

    The paper reports results of investigation on the harmonic detection technique of a complicated power supply system such as an AC excited generation system, which has a variable fundamental frequency and low order harmonics with rich sub-harmonics whose frequencies are lower than the fundamental one. The in-phase correlation filtering technique, based on the frequency shifting principle, is proposed in this paper. Theoretical analysis and experimental results validate the effectiveness of this technique for the harmonic detections of AC excited generation systems.

  7. Zigzag Connected Autotransformer-Based 24-pulse AC-DC Converter

    Xiao-qiang, Chen; Hao, Qiu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a zigzag connected autotransformer-based 24-pulse AC-DC converter is designed, modeled and simulated to feed direct torque controlled induction motor drives. Winding arrangements and parameters of the autotransformer and interphase reactor are given. Moreover, the design procedure of the autotransformer is modified to make it suitable for retrofit applications. Simulation results indicate that the system is capable of eliminating up to 21st harmonics in the ac mains current. The effect of load variation and load character is also studied to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed 24-pulse converters. A set of power quality indices at ac mains and dc side are presented to compare the performance of 6-, 12- and 24-pulse converters.

  8. Making Evidence-based Practice Educational.

    Elliott, John

    2001-01-01

    Examines David Hargreaves' ideas about the nature of evidence-based practice and the future direction for educational research. States that one major theme is that current discourse about evidence-based teaching is uninformed by an articulate educational theory, therefore excluding thoughtful consideration of implications of such a theory for…

  9. The religion of evidence-based practice

    Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This chapter begins by outlining the challenges of preparing a chapter on evidence-based practice (EBP) to underpin the use of music as a therapeutic tool in treatment, in the overall frame of music, health, and wellbeing. It then reviews the terminology of EBP and evidence-based medicine, and...

  10. A Series-LC-Filtered Active Damper for AC Power Electronics Based Power Systems

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active damper with a series LC-filter for suppressing resonances in an ac power electronics based power system. The added filter capacitor helps to lower the voltage stress of the converter to be used for implementing the damper. Unlike active filters for the compensation of...

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Harmonic Stability in an AC Power-Electronics-Based Power System

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the harmonic stability caused by the interactions among the wideband control of power converters and passive components in an AC power-electronicsbased power system. The impedance-based analytical approach is employed and expanded to a meshed and balanced threephase network w...

  12. Evidence-based medicine and levels of evidence.

    Wallace, David K

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the practice of making medical decisions based on evidence gained from applying the scientific method. Published studies are evaluated using three key questions: "Are the results valid?"; "What are the results?"; and "Can the results be applied to my patients?" The hierarchy of study methods for obtaining evidence is, in order from least to most useful: laboratory research, editorials, case reports and series, case-control studies, cohort studies, and randomized clinical trials. Retrospective case series can suffer from problems such as selection of a biased sample, mixing of treatment effects, and lack of control group. Randomized clinical trials (and meta-analyses of multiple trials) provide the highest level of evidence because randomization limits confounding and prevents bias of treatment assignment. In addition, randomized trials have standardization of interventions, prospective data collection, and masked outcome measures. Although every question cannot be addressed by a randomized clinical trial, the best available evidence should be sought and used to guide treatments. PMID:21061876

  13. An active damper for stabilizing power-electronics-based AC systems

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco;

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among the parallel grid-connected converters coupled through the grid impedance tend to result in stability and power quality problems. To address them, this paper proposes an active damper based on a high bandwidth power electronics converter. The general idea behind this proposal...... experimental tests on a three-converter-based setup are carried out. The results show that the active damper can become a promising way to stabilize the power-electronics-based ac power systems....

  14. Power Balance Control in an AC/DC/AC Converter for Regenerative Braking in a Two-Voltage-Level Flywheel-Based Driveline

    Janaína G. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a flywheel as a power handling can increase the energy storage capacity and reduce the number of battery charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the ability of recovering energy of the vehicle during breaking can increase the system efficiency. The flywheel-based all-electric driveline investigated here has its novelty in the use of a double-wound flywheel motor/generator, which divides the system in two different voltage levels, enhancing the efficiency of the electric driveline. The connection of two AC electrical machines (i.e., the flywheel and the wheel motor with different and variable operation frequency is challenging. A power matching control applied to an AC/DC/AC converter has been implemented. The AC/DC/AC converter regenerates the electric power converted during braking to the flywheel machine, used here as power handling device. By controlling the power balance, the same hardware can be used for acceleration and braking, providing the reduction of harmonics and robust response. A simulation of the complete system during braking mode has been performed both in Matlab and Simulink, and their results have been compared. The functionality of the proposed control has been shown and discussed, with full regeneration achieved. A round-trip efficiency (wheel to wheel higher than 80% has been obtained.

  15. Audit-based Compliance Control (AC2) for EHR Systems

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Hartog, den J.I.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, medical data is stored and processed using paper-based files. Recently, medical facilities have started to store, access and exchange medical data in digital form. The drivers for this change are mainly demands for cost reduction, and higher quality of health care. The main concerns

  16. Design and technological peculiarities of making vacuum integrated circuit of a thermocathode-based AC amplifier

    Grigorishin, I. L.; Kotova, I. F.; Mukhurov, N. I.

    1997-02-01

    Despite promising prospects and comprehensive nature of contemporary studies aimed at developing autoemission cathodes, only thermoemitter-based vacuum integrated circuits (VIC) have been realized by now. Here, the results are presented of building and testing, in extreme environment, thermoemission VICs of a RF active oscillator and multivibrator. The microcircuits made have limited functional capabilities. To expand their capabilities the VIC of an AC amplifier was developed. This paper deals with circuit design aspects of making the AC amplifier based on the potentialities and specific features of the process of anodic oxidation of aluminium to form dielectric substrates of cathode-heating assemblies (CHA) and anode-grid assemblies (AGA). Design and technological methods are described that are used to make active (five vacuum microtriodes) and passive (resistors, capacitors, commutation) film elements. As compared to earlier devices, the AC amplifier VIC is more economical and has better characteristics in terms of miniaturization and integration. Its fundamental peculiarities are two-sided obtained through anodizing to form dielectric substrates with microrelief and superfine-structure grids of microtriodes. Some characteristics of the AC amplifier VIC are given and ways of improving them are discussed.

  17. Micro pumping methods based on AC electrokinetics and Electrorheologically actuated PDMS valves

    Soni, Gaurav; Squires, Todd; Meinhart, Carl

    2006-11-01

    We have developed 2 different micropumping methods for transporting ionic fluids through microchannels. The first method is based on Induced Charge Electroosmosis (ICEO) and AC flow field-effect. We used an AC electric field to produce a symmetric ICEO flow on a planar electrode, called `gate'. In order to break the symmetry of ICEO, we applied an additional AC voltage to the gate electrode. Such modulation of the gate potential is called field effect and produces a unidirectional pumping over the gate surface. We used micro PIV to measure pumping velocities for a range of ionic concentration, AC frequency and gate voltage. We have also conducted numerical simulations to understand the deteriorating effect of lateral conduction of surface charge on the pumping velocities. The second method is based on vibration of a flexible PDMS diaphragm actuated by an electrorheological (ER) fluid. ER fluid is a colloidal suspension exhibiting a reversible liquid-to-solid transition under an electric field. This liquid-to-solid transition can yield very high shear stress and can be used to open and close a PDMS valve. Three such valves were fabricated and actuated in a peristaltic fashion in order to achieve positive displacement pumping of fluids.

  18. Evidence-Based Dentistry: What's New?

    A. Ballini, S. Capodiferro, M. Toia, S. Cantore, G. Favia, G. De Frenza, F.R. Grassi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. Nowadays the practice of dentistry is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continually changing in dental materials and equipments, an increasingly litigious society, an increase in the emphasis of continuing professional development, the information explosion and the consumer movement associated with advances on the Internet. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the “paradigm shift” towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.

  19. Evidence-based policymaking: a critique.

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The idea that policy should be based on best research evidence might appear to be self-evident. But a closer analysis reveals a number of problems and paradoxes inherent in the concept of "evidence-based policymaking." The current conflict over evidence-based policymaking parallels a long-standing "paradigm war" in social research between positivist, interpretivist, and critical approaches. This article draws from this debate in order to inform the discussions over the appropriateness of evidence- based policymaking and the related question of what is the nature of policymaking. The positivist, empiricist worldview that underpins the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) fails to address key elements of the policymaking process. In particular, a narrowly "evidence-based" framing of policymaking is inherently unable to explore the complex, context-dependent, and value-laden way in which competing options are negotiated by individuals and interest groups. Sociolinguistic tools such as argumentation theory offer opportunities for developing richer theories about how policymaking happens. Such tools also have potential practical application in the policymaking process: by enhancing participants' awareness of their own values and those of others, the quality of the collective deliberation that lies at the heart of policymaking may itself improve. PMID:19395827

  20. Evidence-based health care in pediatrics.

    Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    This article examines current trends in the type and quality of systematic reviews underpinning the evidence base for pediatric health care. A case study is used to highlight the quality standards for the conduct and publication of systematic reviews and the processes being used to transition the evidence produced from systematic reviews into the everyday systems and processes of care. PMID:25458134

  1. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction

    E. Carlos RODRIGUEZ-MERCHAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACLreconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1 Bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB reconstruction or hamstring reconstruction (HR; 2 Double bundle or single bundle; 3 Allograft or authograft; 4 Early or late reconstruction; 5 Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6 Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analysesfocused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

  2. Robust Timing Synchronization for AC-OFDM Based Optical Wireless Communications

    Ranjha, Bilal A; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Deng, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Visible light communications (VLC) have recently attracted a growing interest and can be a potential solution to realize indoor wireless communication with high bandwidth capacity for RF-restricted environments such as airplanes and hospitals. Optical based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems have been proposed in the literature to combat multipath distortion and intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by multipath signal propagation. In this paper, we present a robust timing synchronization scheme suitable for asymmetrically clipped (AC) OFDM based optical intensity modulated direct detection (IM/DD) wireless systems. Our proposed method works perfectly for ACO-OFDM, Pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) and discrete Hartley transform (DHT) based optical OFDM systems. In contrast to existing OFDM timing synchronization methods which are either not suitable for AC OFDM techniques due to unipolar nature of output signal or perform poorly, our proposed method is suitable for...

  3. AC Versus DC Link Comparison Based on Power Flow Analysis of a Multimachine Power System

    Mohammed Abdeljalil DJEHAF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation and privatization is posing new challenges on high voltage transmission and on distributions systems as well. An increasingly liberalized market will encourage trading opportunities to be identified and developed. High voltage power electronics, such as HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems provide the necessary features to avoid technical problems in heavily loaded power systems; HVDC offers most advantages: it can be used for system interconnection and for control of power flow as well. The major benefit of HVDC is its incorporated ability for fault-current blocking, which is not possible with synchronous AC links. In addition, HVDC can effectively support the surrounding AC systems in case of transient fault conditions and it serves as firewall against cascading disturbances. This paper presents a comparison between HVDC link and an HVAC link in a 29 Bus multimachine system, based on load flow analysis using Newton-Raphson method for the AC link case, and sequential method for the HVDC link case.

  4. [Looking for evidence-based medical informatics].

    Coiera, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    e-Health is experiencing a difficult time. On the one side, the forecast is for a bright digital health future created by precision medicine and smart devices. On the other hand, most large scale e-health projects struggle to make a difference and are often controversial. Both futures fail because they are not evidence-based. Medical informatics should follow the example of evidence-based medicine, i.e. conduct rigorous research that gives us evidence to solve real world problems, synthesise that evidence and then apply it strictly. We already have the tools for creating a different universe. What we need is evidence, will, a culture of learning, and hard work. PMID:27030221

  5. Evidence-Based Dentistry: What's New?

    Ballini, A.; S Capodiferro; Toia, M.; Cantore, S.; G. Favia; De Frenza, G; Grassi, F.R.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care ...

  6. History of evidence-based medicine

    Sur, Roger L.; Dahm, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This essay reviews the historical circumstances surrounding the introduction and evolution of evidence-based medicine. Criticisms of the approach are also considered. Weaknesses of existing standards of clinical practice and efforts to bring more certainty to clinical decision making were the foundation for evidence-based medicine, which integrates epidemiology and medical research. Because of its utility in designing randomized clinical trials, assessing the quality of the literature, and ap...

  7. Evidence-based Management of Glaucoma

    Yangfan Yang; Minbin Yu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a new medical mode that is completely different from traditional experience-based medicine. The core of EBM is that decision-making during clinical practices must be based on objective research results.With the rapid development of modern ophthalmology, some former viewpoints according to experience-based medicine face challenges. Evidence-based ophthalmology (EBO) is imperative under the situation. Glaucoma, as a disease resulting in blindness, which can not be cured by operation, is thought more and more of by medical management officials and doctors. One challenge for ophthalmologists entering the 21st century will be to make clinical decisions based on valid information or evidence rather than intuition, hearsay, or peer practice. How can we do? Here reviews the application of EBM in medical management of glaucoma since EBM' s naissance and give a reference.

  8. Control Structures for VSC-based FACTS Devices under Normal and Faulted AC-systems

    Babaei, Saman

    This thesis is concerned with improving the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices performance under the normal and fault AC-system conditions by proposing new control structures and also converter topologies. The combination of the increasing electricity demand and restrictions in expanding the power system infrastructures has urged the utility owners to deploy the utility-scaled power electronics in the power system. Basically, FACTS is referred to the application of the power electronics in the power systems. Voltage Source Converter (VSC) is the preferred building block of the FACTS devices and many other utility-scale power electronics applications. Despite of advances in the semiconductor technology and ultra-fast microprocessor based controllers, there are still many issues to address and room to improve[25]. An attempt is made in this thesis to address these important issues of the VSC-based FACTS devices and provide solutions to improve them.

  9. Evidence-based equine dentistry: preventive medicine.

    Carmalt, James L

    2007-08-01

    Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance. PMID:17616326

  10. Improved signal injection based sensorless technique for PM brushless AC drives

    Li, Y; Zhu, Z.Q.; Bingham, Chris; Howe, D.

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of rotor position estimation in the conventional signal injection based sensorless control of permanent magnet brushless AC drives depends on the load current. This paper proposes an improved method, which significantly reduces the estimation error by accounting for the cross-coupling effect between the d-and q-axes. The conventional and proposed methods are described and their performance is compared by both simulation and experiment.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Harmonic Stability in an AC Power-Electronics-Based Power System

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the harmonic stability caused by the interactions among the wideband control of power converters and passive components in an AC power-electronicsbased power system. The impedance-based analytical approach is employed and expanded to a meshed and balanced threephase network which is dominated by multiple current- and voltage- controlled inverters with LCL- and LC-filters. A method of deriving the impedance ratios for different inverters is proposed by means of the nodal a...

  12. Optimization-based islanding of power networks using piecewise linear AC power flow

    Trodden, Paul; Bukhsh, Waqquas; Grothey, Andreas; McKinnon, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible optimization-based framework for intentional islanding is presented. The decision is made of which transmission lines to switch in order to split the network while minimizing disruption, the amount of load shed, or grouping coherent generators. The approach uses a piecewise linear model of AC power flow, which allows the voltage and reactive power to be considered directly when designing the islands. Demonstrations on standard test networks show thatsolution of the p...

  13. Optimization-based Islanding of Power Networks using Piecewise Linear AC Power Flow

    Trodden, P. A.; Bukhsh, W. A.; Grothey, A.; McKinnon, K. I. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible optimization-based framework for intentional islanding is presented. The decision is made of which transmission lines to switch in order to split the network while minimizing disruption, the amount of load shed, or grouping coherent generators. The approach uses a piecewise linear model of AC power flow, which allows the voltage and reactive power to be considered directly when designing the islands. Demonstrations on standard test networks show that solution of the ...

  14. Professionalism and evidence-based practice

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    The idea of evidence- based practice is influential in public welfare services, including education. The idea is controversial, however, not least because it involves a poten tial redefinition of the relation ship between knowledge, authority and professionalism. This is discussed based on a study...... of evidence- based methods in Danish pre-school education and care. The management sees the use of these methods as strengthening pre- school teacher professionalism, but the actual practices in the day-careinstitutions are ambiguous. In some cases, using the methods becomes an end in itself and...

  15. Professionalism and evidence-based practice

    Rasmussen, Palle

    of evidence- based methods in Danish pre-school education and care. The management sees the use of these methods as strengthening pre- school teacher professionalism, but the actual practices in the day-careinstitutions are ambiguous. In some cases, using the methods becomes an end in itself and......The idea of evidence- based practice is influential in public welfare services, including education. The idea is controversial, however, not least because it involves a poten tial redefinition of the relation ship between knowledge, authority and professionalism. This is discussed based on a study...... tends to displace important educational objectives. In other cases, the methods are reflectively adjusted to a given context. Used in this way only, evid ence-based practice and methodology is a valuable resource for professional practice in education. From such a perspective, at least some types of...

  16. Philosophical Background of Evidence-Based Medicine

    KWON Sang-Ok

    2004-01-01

    Through the whole history of medicine, there runs a long struggle between two principal tendencies-empiricism and rationalism. The empirical trend lays its emphasis on "experience" for the cure of the sick. The rationalistic trend lays its main emphasis on "mechanism" for the causes of diseases. The term "evidence-based medicine(EBM)", defined as "the conscious, explicit and judicious use of the best current evidence in making decisions about the individual patients", was introduced about ten...

  17. Evidence-based approach to glaucoma management

    Garudadri Chandrasekhar; Senthil Sirisha; Rao Harsha

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is an evolving new paradigm. With the advent of numerous new diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions, one needs to critically evaluate and validate them by appropriate methods before adopting them into day-to-day patient care. The concepts involved in the evaluation of diagnostic tests and therapy are discussed. For delivering the highest level of clinical care, evidence alone is not sufficient. Integrating individual clinical experience and patients′...

  18. Three-phase AC-AC power converters based on matrix converter topology matrix-reactance frequency converters concept

    Szczesniak, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    AC voltage frequency changes is one of the most important functions of solid state power converters. The most desirable features in frequency converters are the ability to generate load voltages with arbitrary amplitude and frequency, sinusoidal currents and voltages waveforms; the possibility of providing unity power factor for any load; and, finally, a simple and compact power circuit. Over the past decades, a number of different frequency converter topologies have appeared in the literature, but only the converters with either a voltage or current DC link are commonly used in industrial app

  19. The fallacy of evidence based policy

    Saltelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The use of science for policy is at the core of a perfect storm generated by the insurgence of several concurrent crises: of science, of trust, of sustainability. The modern positivistic model of science for policy, known as evidence based policy, is based on dramatic simplifications and compressions of available perceptions of the state of affairs and possible explanations (hypocognition). This model can result in flawed prescriptions. The flaws become more evident when dealing with complex issues characterized by concomitant uncertainties in the normative, descriptive and ethical domains. In this situation evidence-based policy may concur to the fragility of the social system. Science plays an important role in reducing the feeling of vulnerability of humans by projecting a promise of protection against uncertainties. In many applications quantitative science is used to remove uncertainty by transforming it into probability, so that mathematical modelling can play the ritual role of haruspices. This epistem...

  20. Interior point algorithm-based power flow optimisation of a combined AC and DC multi-terminal grid

    Farhan Beg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of power electronic equipment, lower reliability and poor power handling capacity of the semiconductor devices had stalled the deployment of systems based on DC (multi-terminal direct current system (MTDC networks. The introduction of voltage source converters (VSCs for transmission has renewed the interest in the development of large interconnected grids based on both alternate current (AC and DC transmission networks. Such a grid platform also realises the added advantage of integrating the renewable energy sources into the grid. Thus a grid based on DC MTDC network is a possible solution to improve energy security and check the increasing supply demand gap. An optimal power solution for combined AC and DC grids obtained by the solution of the interior point algorithm is proposed in this study. Multi-terminal HVDC grids lie at the heart of various suggested transmission capacity increases. A significant difference is observed when MTDC grids are solved for power flows in place of conventional AC grids. This study deals with the power flow problem of a combined MTDC and an AC grid. The AC side is modelled with the full power flow equations and the VSCs are modelled using a connecting line, two generators and an AC node. The VSC and the DC losses are also considered. The optimisation focuses on several different goals. Three different scenarios are presented in an arbitrary grid network with ten AC nodes and five converter stations.

  1. Oncology Nursing Is Evidence-Based Care.

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Brown, Carlton G

    2016-06-01

    This issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (CJON) will be the final time that you will see the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) feature column. Why? Because we have seen oncology nursing evolve in the past 20 years and EBP is everywhere! We use it in our clinics and hospital units, incorporate it into decisions about symptom management, and use evidence to develop survivorship guidelines. We discuss EBP in journal clubs and use applications on mobile devices to find the best interventions for our patients. We have oncology nurses sitting on committees to develop guidelines based on the best evidence and expert opinion. We have come a long way and it is our belief that EBP is included in almost every article in CJON and, therefore, a need no longer exists for an individual column about EBP. 
. PMID:27206287

  2. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  3. Time for evidence-based cytology

    Dey Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed.

  4. The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians

    Todd, Ross

    2008-01-01

    School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

  5. Radiation oncology. An evidence-based approach

    Radiation Oncology: An Evidence-Based Approach (ROEBA) is a reference book designed to enable radiation oncologists, including those in training, to make diagnostic and treatment decisions on the basis of the best available scientific evidence. Ease of use is ensured by a structured, reader-friendly format that offers rapid access to evidence-based recommendations. ROEBA's orientation is entirely practical, in that the focus is solely on diagnostic/staging and treatment issues. Detailed diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines are provided for multidisciplinary cancer management as well as radiation therapy techniques. The evidence underlying each recommendation is clearly and concisely explained, and the strength of the recommendations and evidence is systemically graded. Furthermore, diagnostic and treatment algorithms are provided for commonly diagnosed cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, most gastrointestinal and genitourinary tumors, and certain head and neck cancers. This ground-breaking text on radiation oncology is an essential tool for physicians in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  6. Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use

    Jaime Aparecido Cury; Livia Maria Andaló Tenuta

    2014-01-01

    Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidenc...

  7. Evidence Based Practice: Science? Or Art? (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP is a strategy to bridge research and practice. Generally EBLIP is seen as a movement to encourage and give practitioners the means to incorporate research into their practice, where it previously may have been lacking. The widely accepted definition of EBLIP (Booth, 2000 stresses three aspects that contribute to a practice that is evidence based: 1 "the best available evidence;" 2 "moderated by user needs and preferences;" 3 "applied to improve the quality of professional judgements." The area that the EBLIP movement has focused on is how to create and understand the best available research evidence. CE courses, critical appraisal checklists, and many articles have been written to address a need for librarian education in this area, and it seems that strides have been made.But very little in the EBLIP literature talks about how we make professional judgements, or moderate evidence based on our user needs and preferences. Likewise, how do we make good evidence based decisions when our evidence base is weak. These things seem to be elements we just take for granted or can’t translate into words. It is in keeping with tacit knowledge that librarians just seem to have or acquire skills with education and on the job experience. Tacit knowledge is "knowledge that is not easily articulated, and frequently involves knowledge of how to do things. We can infer its existence only by observing behaviour and determining that this sort of knowledge is a precondition for effective performance" (Patel, Arocha, & Kaufman, 1999, p.78. It is something that is difficult to translate into an article or guideline for how we work. I think of this area as the "art" of evidence based practice. And the art is crucial to being an evidence based practitioner.Science = systematized knowledge, explicit research, methodological examination, investigation, dataArt = professional knowledge of your craft, intuition

  8. Observation, Sherlock Holmes, and Evidence Based Medicine.

    Osborn, John

    2002-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM. PMID:14509997

  9. [Evidence-based medicine: an epistemological approach].

    Henao, Daniel Eduardo; Jaimes, Fabián Alberto

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based medicine gathers physician's experience and the best scientific evidence to make medical decisions. This proposal has been widely promulgated by medical opinion leaders. Despite a large literature supporting this practice, a formal discussion has not been established regarding its epistemological consequences in daily medical work. The main proposal of evidence-based medicine consists of choosing the best medical decision according to the best available results from scientific studies. Herein, the goal was to highlight inappropriate application of the scientific method used by physics to clinical science. The inaccuracy resides in describing health and disease in strictly numeric equivalents that can be homogenized on a continuous scale. Finally, the authors consider each diseased human being as a complex system, unique and particular, and that this being is defined by an historical background as well as current actual context. Therefore, evidence-based medicine possesses certain limitations that must be recognized in order to to provide better health care to patients. PMID:19753837

  10. Optimizing efficiency on conventional transformer based low power AC/DC standby power supplies

    Nielsen, Nils

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the research results for simple and cheap methods to reduce the idle- and load-losses in very low power conventional transformer based power supplies intended for standby usage. In this case "very low power" means 50 Hz/230 V-AC to 5 V-DC@1 W. The efficiency is measured on...... two common power supply topologies designed for this power level. The two described topologies uses either a series (or linear) or a buck regulation approach. Common to the test power supplies is they either are using a standard cheap off-the-shelf transformer, or one, which are loss optimized by very...

  11. A multiplexer for the ac/dc characterization of TES based bolometers and microcalorimeters

    Gottardi, Luciano; Bruijn, Marcel; Gao, Jan R; Hartog, Roland den; Hijmering, Richard; Hoevers, Henk; Khosropanah, Pourya; van der Kuur, Jan; van der Linden, Anoton; Lindeman, Marcel; Ridder, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    At SRON we are developing the Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) for the read-out of the TES-based detector array for the future infrared and X-ray space mission. We describe the performances of a multiplexer designed to increase the experimental throughput in the characterisation of ultra-low noise equivalent power (NEP) TES bolometers and high energy resolving power X-ray microcalorimeters arrays under ac and dc bias. We discuss the results obtained using the TiAu TES bolometers array fabricated at SRON with measured dark NEP below $5\\cdot 10^{-19}W/Hz^{1/2}$ and saturation power of several fW

  12. Evidence-based policymaking: A review

    Karen Nortje

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence it more effectively. Similarly, policymakers need to understand the complexities of the scientific process to improve their interaction with the scientific sphere. This literature review addresses those factors that influence the uptake of scientific evidence into policymaking, the barriers to using science in policymaking, as well as recommendations for improved science–policymaking interaction. A visual diagram of the gears of a car is used to convey the message of the complexities around the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised.

  13. How evidence-based are the recommendations in evidence-based guidelines?

    Finlay A McAlister

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment recommendations for the same condition from different guideline bodies often disagree, even when the same randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence is cited. Guideline appraisal tools focus on methodology and quality of reporting, but not on the nature of the supporting evidence. This study was done to evaluate the quality of the evidence (based on consideration of its internal validity, clinical relevance, and applicability underlying therapy recommendations in evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis of cardiovascular risk management recommendations was performed for three different conditions (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension from three pan-national guideline panels (from the United States, Canada, and Europe. Of the 338 treatment recommendations in these nine guidelines, 231 (68% cited RCT evidence but only 105 (45% of these RCT-based recommendations were based on high-quality evidence. RCT-based evidence was downgraded most often because of reservations about the applicability of the RCT to the populations specified in the guideline recommendation (64/126 cases, 51% or because the RCT reported surrogate outcomes (59/126 cases, 47%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of internally valid RCTs may not be applicable to the populations, interventions, or outcomes specified in a guideline recommendation and therefore should not always be assumed to provide high-quality evidence for therapy recommendations.

  14. Can Scholarly Communication be Evidence Based? (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice includes three papers from the Evidence Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC that took place in March 2010i. Kroth, Philips and Eldredge have written a commentary that gives an overview of the conference, and introduces us to the research papers that were presented. As well, two research presentations from the conference appear in this issue, an article by Donahue about a potential new method of communicating between scholars, and a paper by Gilliland in our Using Evidence in Practice section, detailing a library’s Open Access Day preparations.Kroth, Philips and Eldredge note that “The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence-based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and, hopefully, form new coalitions to address this topic at a local and national level.” (p 108. This conference focused on translational medicine, and looked at how to promote new methods of scholarly communication, partially through the inclusion of research papers at the conference.The inclusion of these articles and the evidence based focus of the EBSCC conference, made me ask myself, can scholarly communication be evidence based? At its core, scholarly communication is anything but a scientific issue. It is charged with emotion; from authors, publishers, librarians and others involved in the business of publishing. The recent shift to look at new models of scholarly communication has been a threat to many of the established models and sparked much debate in the academic world, especially in relation to open access. In her 2006 EBLIP commentary on evidence based practice and open access, Morrison notes, “Open Access and evidence based librarianship are a natural combination” (p. 49, and outlines her perspective on many of the reasons why. Debate continues to rage, however, regarding how authors should

  15. Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher. The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1 fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2 low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3 fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis.

  16. Radiographers' preconditions for evidence-based radiography

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential in today's health care, but its establishment requires several preconditions from individuals and organizations (e.g. knowledge, understanding, attitudes, abilities, self-confidence, support, and resources). Previous studies suggest that radiographers do generate and use evidence in their work, but evidence-based radiography (EBR) is not yet used routinely as established practice, especially in terms of research utilization. This paper aims to describe radiographers' preconditions for EBR, and their participation in research activities. Main focus is on research utilization. Using an electronic questionnaire developed for this study, a survey was conducted: data collected from Finnish radiographers and radiotherapists (N = 438) were analysed both statistically and qualitatively. The final response rate was 39%. The results suggest radiographers' preconditions for EBR to consist of knowledge of research, significance of research activities, research-orientated way of working, and support. In addition, adequate resourcing is essential. Reading scientific journals, participation in research activities, a higher degree of education, and senior post seem to be significant promoters of EBR and research utilization. The results support the notion that EBR, and especially research utilization, are not yet well-established in Finland, and radiographers' viewpoints concerning the role and significance of research evidence and research activities still seem to vary.

  17. Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension

    Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM. Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go.

  18. Critical thinking and evidence-based practice.

    Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is vital to evidence-based nursing practice. Evidence-based practice (EBP) supports nursing care and can contribute positively to patient outcomes across a variety of settings and geographic locations. The nature of EBP, its relevance to nursing, and the skills needed to support it should be required components of baccalaureate education and must be introduced early in students' development as independent, self-directed learners and as professional nurses. Among the knowledge, skills, and processes needed to support EBP, CT is paramount. The development of CT can prepare nurses with the necessary skills and dispositions (habits of mind, attitudes, and traits) to support EBP. The intents of this study were to explore the importance of CT as an essential skill to support EBP and to describe some of the strategies and processes considered key to the ongoing development of CT. PMID:16311232

  19. Creative teaching an evidence-based approach

    Sale, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This book contains an evidence-based pedagogic guide to enable any motivated teaching/training professional to be able to teach effectively and creatively. It firstly summarises the extensive research field on human psychological functioning relating to learning and how this can be fully utilised in the design and facilitation of quality learning experiences. It then demonstrates what creativity actually 'looks like' in terms of teaching practices, modelling the underpinning processes of creative learning design and how to apply these in lesson planning. The book, having established an evidence-based and pedagogically driven approach to creative learning design, extensively focuses on key challenges facing teaching professionals today. These include utilising information technologies in blended learning formats, differentiating instruction, and developing self-directed learners who can think well. The main purpose of the book is to demystify what it means to teach creatively, explicitly demonstrating the pr...

  20. Evidence Based Management as a Tool for Special Libraries

    Bill Fisher; Dav Robertson

    2007-01-01

    Objective ‐ To examine the evidence based management literature, as an example of evidence based practice, and determine how applicable evidence based management might be in the special library environment. Methods ‐ Recent general management literature and the subject‐focused literature of evidence based management were reviewed; likewise recent library/information science management literature and the subject‐focused literature of evidence based librarianshipwere reviewed to identify releva...

  1. [Acupressure and Evidence-Based Nursing].

    Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai

    2015-12-01

    Acupressure is a traditional Chinese medicine approach to disease prevention and treatment that may be operated by nurses independently. Therefore, acupressure is being increasingly applied in clinical nursing practice and research. Recently, the implementation of evidence-based nursing (EBN) in clinical practice has been encouraged to promote nursing quality. Evidence-based nursing is a method-ology and process of implementation that applies the best-available evidence to clinical practice, which is acquired through the use of empirical nursing research. Therefore, in this paper, we address the topic of acupressure within the context of empirical nursing practice. We first introduce the current status of acupressure research and provide the locations of common acupoints in order to guide future empirical nursing research and to help nurses use these acupoints in clinical practice. Finally, we describe the steps that are necessary to apply the current empirical information on acupressure as well as provide suggestions to promote safety and efficacy in order to guide nurses in the accurate application of acupressure in nursing practice. PMID:26645442

  2. UV curable lens production using molecular weight controlled PEEK based acrylic oligomer (Ac-PEEK).

    İnan, Tulay Y; Yıldız, Emel; Karaca, Birsen; Dogan, Hacer; Vatansever, Alican; Nalbant, Muhammed; Eken, Koray

    2014-08-01

    We produced UV curable lenses with properties blocking short wave UV light. In the UV-curable formulations, we used an oligomer (Ac-PEEK) with another urethan oligomer (Mw = 2000). Radically active, molecular weight controlled Ac-PEEK was obtained by reacting 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate with molecular- weight- controlled and isocyanate terminated PEEK (Mn = 4500). We characterized all synthesized monomer, oligomer and optical materials with UV/Vis spectrophotometer with interferogram, elemental analyser, mass spectrophotometer, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy and gas chromatography. Results suggested that newly synthesized oligomer with the structure of PEEK absorbs short wave UV-light. Ageing tests [ISO 11979-5, Ophthalmic implants-intraocular lenses (IOL)-Part 5: Biocompatibility] performed on the IOL materials were successful. High contact angle of the obtained lenses suggests that all lenses were hydrophobic and SEM results revealed that lenses are morphologically homogeneous. Based on all positive properties just mentioned, we safely conclude that the lenses produced in this study are very promising for IOL production. PMID:24796625

  3. Optimized list-mode acquisition and data processing procedures for ACS2 based PET systems

    PET systems using the acquisition control system version 2 (ACS2), e.g. the ECAT Exact HR PET scanner series, offer a rather restricted list-mode functionality. For instance, typical transfers of acquisition data consume a considerable amount of time. This represents a severe obstacle to the utilization of potential advantages of list-mode acquisition. In our study, we have developed hardware and software solutions which do not only allow for the integration of list-mode into routine procedures, but also improve the overall runtime stability of the system. We show that our methods are able to speed up the transfer of the acquired data to the image reconstruction and processing workstations by a factor of up to 140. We discuss how this improvement allows for the integration of list-mode-based post-processing methods such as an event-driven movement correction into the data processing environment, and how list-mode is able to improve the overall flexibility of PET investigations in general. Furthermore, we show that our methods are also attractive for conventional histogram-mode acquisition, due to the improved stability of the ACS2 system. (orig.)

  4. A self-powered AC magnetic sensor based on piezoelectric nanogenerator

    An AC magnetic field, which is a carrier of information, is distributed everywhere and is continuous. How to use and detect this field has been an ongoing topic over the past few decades. Conventional magnetic sensors are usually based on the Hall Effect, the fluxgate, a superconductor quantum interface or magnetoelectric or magnetoresistive sensing. Here, a flexible, simple, low-cost and self-powered active piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) is successfully demonstrated as an AC magnetic field sensor at room temperature. The amplitude and frequency of a magnetic field can both be accurately sensed by the NG. The output voltage of the NG has a good linearity with a measured magnetic field. The detected minute magnetic field is as low as 1.2 × 10−7 tesla, which is 400 times greater than a commercial magnetic sensor that uses the Hall Effect. In comparison to the existing technologies, an NG is a room-temperature self-powered active sensor that is very simple and very cheap for practical applications. (paper)

  5. Evidence-Based Interactive Management of Change

    Albert Fleischmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based interactive management of change means hands-on experience of modified work processes, given evidence of change. For this kind of pro-active organizational development support we use an organisational process memory and a communication-based representation technique for role-specific and task-oriented process execution. Both are effective means for organizations becoming agile through interactively modelling the business at the process level and re-constructing or re-arranging process representations according to various needs. The tool allows experiencing role-specific workflows, as the communication-based refinement of work models allows for executable process specifications. When presenting the interactive processes to individuals involved in the business processes, changes can be explored interactively in a context-sensitive way before re-implementing business processes and information systems. The tool is based on a service-oriented architecture and a flexible representation scheme comprising the exchange of message between actors, business objects and actors (roles. The interactive execution of workflows does not only enable the individual reorganization of work but also changes at the level of the entire organization due to the represented interactions.

  6. The Emergence of Evidence Based Management: The Theoretical Perspective

    Amin, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the notion of evidence based management from theoretical perspective. It throws light on the nature of ��evidence in evidence based practices from epistemological and ontological viewpoint. There is a discussion on the motives of new management ideas in the context of evidence based management. It also critically evaluates the work on evidence based management by its proponents. The critical evaluation is supported by arguments of its critics and the author's own...

  7. [Evidence based medicine for the gastroenterologist].

    Curioso, Walter H; Montori, Víctor M; Curioso, Walter I

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates the best available external evidence in the care of individual patients with the individual clinical expertise and the patient preferences. This method has been designed for use in daily clinical practice. We describe the rationale for EBM and its principles and application in this article. EBM enables gastroenterologists to update the knowledge required to provide patients with high quality medical care. EBM requires four steps: a) formulating a clinical question arising from a doubt concerning a patient; b) conducting an efficient literature search to answer this question; c) critically appraising this evidence using explicit methods to selected articles to determine the validity of their design and the clinical relevance of their results; and d) applying these results to the patient (taking into account their values and preferences and personal and social circumstances). In this paper, we explain the principles and basic concepts of EBM and their application to gastroenterology and we provide an extensive compilation of internet databases of valid information relevant to gastroenterologists. We also provide a selection of useful tools for self-directed learning of critical appraisal skills. Link updates can be accessed at the following URL: http://www.enlacesmedicos.com/e.htm PMID:15098043

  8. Prediction of persistence of combined evidence-based cardiovascular medications in patients with acute coronary syndrome after hospital discharge using neural networks.

    Bourdès, Valérie; Ferrières, Jean; Amar, Jacques; Amelineau, Elisabeth; Bonnevay, Stéphane; Berlion, Maryse; Danchin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    In the PREVENIR-5 study, artificial neural networks (NN) were applied to a large sample of patients with recent first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to identify determinants of persistence of evidence-based cardiovascular medications (EBCM: antithrombotic + beta-blocker + statin + angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-ACEI and/or angiotensin-II receptor blocker-ARB). From October 2006 to April 2007, 1,811 general practitioners recruited 4,850 patients with a mean time of ACS occurrence of 24...

  9. An estimator-based distributed voltage-predictive control strategy for ac islanded microgrids

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimator-based voltage predictive control strategy for AC islanded microgrids, which is able to perform voltage control without any communication facilities. The proposed control strategy is composed of a network voltage estimator and a voltage predictive controller for each...... distributed generator, where the voltage estimator serves as an essential tool to obtain network voltages response without using communication links, while the voltage predictive controller is able to implement offset-free voltage control for a specified bus. The dynamic performance of the proposed voltage...... control strategy is analyzed through small signal analysis method, from which the design guideline for the controller parameters is formulated. Furthermore, the robustness of the proposed voltage control strategy is investigated under a series of parameters uncertainties, including the line parameters...

  10. Stability Analysis for Isolated AC Microgrids Based on PV-Active Generators

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Coelho, Ernane A. A.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in isolated microgrids is oriented to distributed renewable energy generators, such as photovoltaic (PV) generators and their corresponding distributed energy storage systems (ESS) as an unit denoted as active generator (PV+ESS). In an isolated microgrid, every distributed...... all the distributed generators. In particular, ESS’s based on batteries require at least two different mode of charge. As consequence, the topological operation mode of the microgrid is affected by the changes of the operation mode of each distributed generator. Typically, droop control loops are used...... for interconnecting several different distributed generators in parallel to a common bus, whose parameters determine the stability and damping of the microgrid operation. In this paper, a small-signal stability analysis is applied to an isolated AC microgrid composed of (PV+ESS) active generators...

  11. Observation of the AC JOSEPHSON effect inside copper oxide based superconductors

    The experimental demonstration of the Josephson effect is a direct manifestation of the quantum phase of the superconductive order parameter and of the coupling of this phase to the electromagnetic field. The ac Josephson effect links the time evolution of the phase difference between two superconductors to the voltage between them. When this voltage is kept fixed externally, the phase difference increases linearly with time, giving rise to an oscillating supercurrent between the superconductors if they are coupled by a weak link such as a tunnel barrier. This effect depends only on the bose like character of the particles carrying the supercurrent. It was thus important to test if the Josephson effect could be observed with copper oxide based superconductors. This was achieved by our experiment performed at Saclay and by other experiments conducted independently. We will focus in this paper on our latest results and their discussion

  12. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines and School Nursing

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become the standard of health care practice. Nurses are expected to use best evidence on a wide range of topics, yet most nurses have limited time, resources, and/or skills to access and evaluate the quality of research and evidence needed to practice evidence-based nursing. EBP guidelines allow nurses…

  13. Evidence Based Practice Outside the Box (Editorial

    Lindsay Glynn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available I love food. I love cooking, baking, testing, and eating. I read about food preparation, food facts, and food service. Over the years I’ve developed my fair share of knowledge about cooking and I’m a decent cook, but I’m no chef. I guess I’m what you’d call a “foodie”. However, I have the good fortune to have a friend who is a chef and owns one of the best, and certainly the most innovative, restaurants in town. During this summer I hosted a cooking class in my home for my family with my chef friend as instructor. The Tex-Mex barbecue theme was a big hit (you can contact me for recipes, if you like, but much more fascinating was the explanation of the science behind the cooking. It turns out that there is a term for this: molecular gastronomy. Another term, and hence the genesis of my “Eureka!” moment of the summer, is evidence based cooking. Good cooking is not just following a recipe (not all of which are evidence based but at its best is the culmination of heaps of tested information regarding why and how chemical and environmental factors work together to result in a gastronomical delight. For example, will brining or marinating a pork chop make it moister? And, if brining, what temperature should the water be, how long should it soak, and how much salt is needed? Why does pounding meat increase its tenderness? What will keep guacamole from browning better – the pit or lime juice? What does baking soda do in a chocolate cake? Eggs or no eggs in fresh pasta? Like most librarians, I tend not to take information at face value. I want to know where information comes from and whether or not it is valid, based on specific factors. I’ve come to notice that evidence based, or evidence informed, practice is everywhere and has a tremendous impact on our lives. Why do you rotate the tires on your car? Evidence shows that the front tires wear more quickly (think about all those 3-pointturns, the braking, etc and therefore

  14. Design of Three Phase Solar-Based 4.5kw Ac Power Inverter Station

    Dr.J.C. Onuegbu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The design model of a 4.50Kilowatt, 3-phase, 50 hertz solar-based power generating station was examined by the paper. The power station is a dual source input generating station using 8 series connected 100A, 12V batteries per phase as backup, the solar panels being the main frame. An inverter of 12Volt direct current input voltage was incorporated to supply an output of 3-phase, 220Volts and 50 hertz alternating current. A charging circuit was installed to monitor charging level and to preserve the accumulator’s life span. The paper also looked into the solar-based power station component design model. The batteries therein are back-up and the system will ensure 24-hours reliable power supply. The setup has a normally closed switching relay ready to pickup the auxiliary battery supply within a few milliseconds after the solar source voltage drops below a stipulated level. The three phase a.c. voltage was achieved using standby on-line circuit with cascaded 741-based flip-flop at the base of the transistor drivers of the 3-phase power transformer. This model circuit reduced the load on each phase winding and facilitated reliable and uninterruptible power supply. The delta-wyeconnected transformer will guarantee proper phase shift of 120 degrees that will emulate alternating current voltage similar to the conventional generator voltage.

  15. Facile solvent extraction separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 based on room-temperature ionic liquids

    New separation methodologies for radioisotopes are crucial to many medical applications. In this work, the solvent extraction of Th-227 and Ac-225 based on ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant. Four ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][BETI]), 1-butyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BuI5][NTf2]), and 1-benzyl pyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PhCH2Py][NTf2]) with different cation or anion structural features were used as diluents for the separation of Th-227 and Ac-225. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for Th-227/Ac-225 when HDEHP was used as an extractant in these ILs. The effects of different extractant concentrations in ILs and different aqueous phase acidities on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of Th-227/Ac-225 are also presented. The success in separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 isotopes highlights great potentials of use of ionic liquids in isotope production. (orig.)

  16. [Pressure ulcer management--Evidence-based interventions].

    Rocha, J A; Miranda, M J; Andrade, M J

    2006-01-01

    Despite improved awareness and quality of care among health care personnel, pressure ulcers prevalence remains high especially in the inpatient setting. Pressure ulcers are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, affecting the quality of life of patients and their caregivers, and significantly increasing direct and indirect healthcare costs. Early risk assessment for developing a pressure ulcer is essential to decide on the appropriate preventive measures and for initiation of a tailored therapeutic approach. Interventions include strategies to reduce extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with tissue ischemia, optimization of patient's nutritional status, and local wound care. This revision intends to review current evidence-based therapeutic interventions in pressure ulcer care, and support implementation of management protocols in an inpatient ward. PMID:16987441

  17. Reducing Emergency Department Crowding: Evidence Based Strategies.

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Zabani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding has become a major barrier to receiving timely care. King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Saudi Arabia worked on identifying evidence based strategies for reducing the ED crowding by improving the intake. In addition to a review of literature, qualitative survey methods were used to identify strategies, which were classified into 10 suggested procedures categorized into three types of changes. Physical improvements include using physician cubicles, creating a team triage area and an internal waiting area for less acute patients instead of occupying beds. Technology improvements; include using informatics to update the electronic emergency record with information, using palmar scanning to instantly identify patients and using radio communication devices. Process improvements; include a scribe program to decrease clerical documentation tasks, switching between low flow and high flow processes, placing a physician in triage and using patient segmentation methods. PMID:27350468

  18. Evidence-Based Automated Program Fixing

    Pei, Yu; Furia, Carlo A; Nordio, Martin; Meyer, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Many programmers, when they encounter an error, would like to have the benefit of automatic fix suggestions---as long as they are, most of the time, adequate. Initial research in this direction has generally limited itself to specific areas, such as data structure classes with carefully designed interfaces, and relied on simple approaches. To provide high-quality fix suggestions in a broad area of applicability, the present work relies on the presence of contracts in the code, and on the availability of dynamic analysis to gather evidence on the values taken by expressions derived from the program text. The ideas have been built into the AutoFix-E2 automatic fix generator. Applications of AutoFix-E2 to general-purpose software, such as a library to manipulate documents, show that the approach provides an improvement over previous techniques, in particular purely model-based approaches.

  19. A Series-LC-Filtered Active Damper with Grid Disturbance Rejection for AC Power-Electronics-Based Power Systems

    Wang, Xiongfei; Pang, Ying; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    This letter proposes an active damper with a series LC filter for suppressing resonances in an ac power-electronics-based power system. The added series filter capacitor helps to withstand most of the system voltage, hence, allowing a lower rated converter to be used for implementing the active...

  20. Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

  1. Evidence-based treatment of metabolic myopathy

    Yan LIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the current treatments and possible adverse reactions of metabolic myopathy, and to develop the best solution for evidence-based treatment.  Methods Taking metabolic myopathy, mitochondrial myopathy, lipid storage myopathy, glycogen storage diseases, endocrine myopathy, drug toxicity myopathy and treatment as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, ClinicalKey database, National Science and Technology Library (NSTL, in order to collect the relevant literature database including clinical guidelines, systematic reviews (SR, randomized controlled trials (RCT, controlled clinical trials, retrospective case analysis and case study. Jadad Scale was used to evaluate the quality of literature.  Results Twenty-eight related articles were selected, including 6 clinical guidelines, 5 systematic reviews, 10 randomized controlled trials and 7 clinical controlled trials. According to Jadad Scale, 23 articles were evaluated as high-quality literature (≥ 4, and the remaining 5 were evaluated as low-quality literature (< 4. Treatment principles of these clinical trials, efficacy of different therapies and drug safety evaluation suggest that: 1 Acid α-glycosidase (GAA enzyme replacement therapy (ERT is the main treatment for glycogen storage diseases, with taking a high-protein diet, exercising before taking a small amount of fructose orally and reducing the patient's physical activity gradually. 2 Carnitine supplementation is used in the treatment of lipid storage myopathy, with carbohydrate and low fat diet provided before exercise or sports. 3 Patients with mitochondrial myopathy can take coenzyme Q10, vitamin B, vitamin K, vitamin C, etc. Proper aerobic exercise combined with strength training is safe, and it can also enhance the exercise tolerance of patients effectively. 4 The first choice to treat the endocrine myopathy is treating primary affection. 5 Myopathies due to drugs and toxins should

  2. Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists

    Srihari, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

  3. Evidence-based medicine in general practice specialty training

    S.E. Zwolsman

    2012-01-01

    Aio’s huisartsgeneeskunde hebben adequate kennis ten aanzien van evidence-based medicine (geneeskunde op basis van bewijs). In de huisartspraktijk is evidence-based gedrag vaak niet direct zichtbaar, maar artsen kunnen wel aangeven op welk aspect van evidence-based medicine de voorgeschreven behande

  4. NEURAL NETWORK BASED OPTIMISATION OF HARMONICS ON AC - DC SIDES OF HVDC TRANSMISSION

    Smriti Tapadar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates possibility of using Neural network for optimisation of AC - DC Harmonics of HVDC Transmission. Dependableness and potency of power transmission has been at the forefront of analysis for a few time and is presently being given essential thought owing to the inflated dependence on current. With the inflated demand for e lectricity, engineers area unit considering completely different strategies of provide arrangement to enhance the protection of electricity provide. speedy development within the field of power physical science devices particularly Insulated Gate Bipolar T ransistors (IGBTs has semiconductor diode to the High Voltage electrical energy (HVDC transmission supported Voltage supply Converters (VSCs. This new innovative technology provides substantial technical and economical benefits for direct applications c ompared to standard HVDC transmission. The VSC primarily based HVDC transmission primarily consists of two convertor stations connected by a DC cable. This analysis work presents the performance analysis of VSC based HVDC Transmission . To reinforce the pe rformance of the projected model, the management strategy is ruled by soft computing algorithmic rule i.e. Neural Network. Simulation and results show that the projected model is additional economical with the employment of Neural Network (NN.

  5. Portuguese version of the evidence-based practice questionnaire

    Pereira, Rui Pedro Gomes; Guerra, Ana; Peixoto, Maria José; Martins, Teresa; Barbieri, Maria do Céu; Carneiro, António Vaz

    2014-01-01

    1. Objectives: Evidence-based practice is defined as the process by which nurses make clinical decisions using the best available scientific evidence, according with their clinical experience and patient preferences in the context of available resources. The Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ) developed by Upton & Upton (2006) was designed to collect information and opinions on the use of evidence-based practices by health professionals and is validating its important so that it can ...

  6. Interior point algorithm-based power flow optimisation of a combined AC and DC multi-terminal grid

    Farhan Beg

    2015-01-01

    The high cost of power electronic equipment, lower reliability and poor power handling capacity of the semiconductor devices had stalled the deployment of systems based on DC (multi-terminal direct current system (MTDC)) networks. The introduction of voltage source converters (VSCs) for transmission has renewed the interest in the development of large interconnected grids based on both alternate current (AC) and DC transmission networks. Such a grid platform also realises the added advantage ...

  7. Characterization of Plasticized PEO Based Solid Polymer Electrolyte by XRD and AC Impedance Methods

    K. Ragavendran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ionic conductivity of lithium based solid polymer films prepared from poly (ethylene oxide (PEO and lithium hexafluoarsenate (LiAsF6 with varying compositions of plasticizers likedibutyl sebacate (DBS and ethylene carbonate (EC was measured by AC impedance method. Polymer film composition viz. (PEO8-LiAsF6-(DBS0.4-(EC0.1 has been evaluated as an optimum composition as evidenced from its high conductivity and freestanding ability. The high conductivity observed for the polymer electrolyte with this composition has been attributed to an enhanced amorphous character and a reduced energy barrier to the segmental motion of lithium ions in the matrix. The temperature dependence of conductivity on the polymer films, with and without plasticizers, appears to obey the Arrhenius law. However, the activation energy of the plasticized polymer film is 0.81 KJ/mol, a value considerably lower than 10 KJ/mol obtained for the unplasticized electrolyte, making the polymer to be a prospective candidate as lithium-ion conducting electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  8. Electrospun TiO2 nanofibre-based gas sensors fabricated by AC electrophoresis deposition

    E Z Karimi; J Esmaeilzadeh; E Marzbanrad

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, gas sensing properties of the sensor based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibres are reported. These nanofibres were synthesized through electrospinning of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) / titanium tetra isopropoxide. Calcination of the obtained amorphous PVP/TiO2 nanofibres resulted in nanofibres of TiO2 with the same morphology. In this step, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were applied in order to analyse these nanofibres. Then, nanofibres of TiO2 were deposited selectively by AC electrophoretic deposition on interdigitated electrodes and exposed to different concentrations of NO2 (8–50 p.p.m.) at 450–550°C. Gas sensing measurements illustrated that this sensor had adequate response to target gas at 450°C. The maximum response of gas sensors, (the ratio of sensor resistances $S = R_{\\text{gas}}/R_{\\text{N2}}$), achieved was around 30 for 50 p.p.m. NO2 at 450°C.

  9. Evidence based radiation oncology: Breast cancer

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is, similar to surgery, a local treatment. In the case of breast cancer, it is generally given after conservative or after more extensive, tumour and patient adapted, surgery. The target volumes can be the breast and/or the thoracic wall and/or the regional lymph node areas. The integration and the extent of radiotherapy as part of the comprehensive treatment of the breast cancer patient, including the amount of surgery and the sequencing with the systemic treatments, has to be well discussed with all medical specialists involved in treating breast cancer on a multidisciplinary basis. Guidelines for the appropriate prescription and execution of radiotherapy are of utmost importance. However, individualisation based on the individual patients' and tumours' characteristics should always be envisaged. Materials and methods: Based on a review of the literature the level of evidence that is available for the indications for radiotherapy is summarised, as well as the main clinical questions that are unanswered today. An overview of the recent and ongoing clinical trails in breast cancer will highlight some of the current ongoing debates. Conclusions: In the case of breast cancer, radiotherapy, given after as well conservative as extensive risk-adapted surgery, significantly reduces the risk of local and regional recurrences. Especially for patients with an intermediate to high absolute risk for local recurrences, a positive influence on overall survival has been shown, notably when appropriate radiotherapy techniques are used. Most important is that the best results that we can offer to our breast cancer patients for all clinical endpoints (local and regional control; quality of life; cosmetic results; survival) can be obtained by a multidisciplinary and patient-oriented approach, involving all those involved in the treatment of breast cancer patients

  10. School Librarianship and Evidence Based Practice: Progress, Perspectives, and Challenges

    Ross J. Todd

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper provides an overview of progress and developments surrounding evidence based practice in school librarianship, and seeks to provide a picture of current thinking about evidence based practice as it relates to the field. It addresses current issues and challenges facing the adoption of evidence based practice in school librarianship.Methods – The paper is based on a narrative review of a small but growing body of literature on evidence based practice in school librarianship, set within a broader perspective of evidence based education. In addition, it presents the outcomes of a collaborative process of input from 200 school libraries leaders collected at a School Library summit in 2007 specifically to address the emerging arena of evidence based practice in this field.Results – A holistic model of evidence based practice for school libraries is presented, centering on three integrated dimensions of evidence: evidence for practice, evidence in practice, and evidence of practice.Conclusion – The paper identifies key challenges ahead if evidence based school librarianship is to develop further. These include: building research credibility within the broader educational environment; the need for ongoing review and evaluation of the diverse body of research in education, librarianship and allied fields to make quality evidence available in ways that can enable practicing school librarians to build a culture of evidence based practice; development of tools, strategies, and exemplars to use to facilitate evidence based decision-making; and, ensuring that the many and diverse advances in education and librarianship become part of the practice of school librarianship.

  11. Art Therapy, Research and Evidence-Based Practice

    Gilroy, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Art Therapy around the world is under increasing pressure to become more "evidence-based". As a result, practitioners now need to get to grips with what constitutes "evidence", how to apply research in appropriate ways and also how to contribute to the body of evidence through their own research and other related activities. Written specifically for art therapy practitioners and students, Art Therapy, Research & Evidence Based Practice traces the background to EBP, critically reviews the ...

  12. Evidence-based medicine – an appropriate tool for evidence-based health policy? A case study from Norway

    Malterud, Kirsti; Bjelland, Anne Karen; Elvbakken, Kari Tove

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence-based policy (EBP), a concept modelled on the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM), is widely used in different areas of policymaking. Systematic reviews (SRs) with meta-analyses gradually became the methods of choice for synthesizing research evidence about interventions and judgements about quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Critics have argued that the relation between research evi...

  13. Improved rotor position estimation in extended back-EMF based sensorless PM brushless AC drives with magnetic saliency

    Li, Y; Zhu, Z.Q.; Howe, D.; Bingham, Chris

    2007-01-01

    An improved extended back-EMF based sensorless control method is proposed for a brushless AC motor equipped with an interior permanent magnet rotor. It accounts for dq-axis cross-coupling magnetic saturation by introducing an apparent mutual winding inductance. The error which results in the estimated rotor position when the influence of cross-coupling magnetic saturation is neglected is analyzed analytically, predicted by finite element analysis, and confirmed experimentally, for various d- ...

  14. Virtual Impedance Based Fault Current Limiters for Inverter Dominated AC Microgrids

    Lu, Xiaonan; Wang, Jianhui; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2016-01-01

    ), FCLs are employed to suppress the fault current and the subsequent oscillation and even instabilit y in the modern distribution network with microgrids. In this study, rather than involving extra hardware equipment, the functionality of FCL is achieved in the control diagram of DG inv erters by...... employing additional virtual impedance control loops. The proposed VI-FCL features flexible and low-cost implementation and can effectively suppre ss the fault current and the osc illation in the following fault restoration process in AC microgr ids. The systematic model of the inverter dominated AC...

  15. Teachers' Characteristics and Ratings for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy; Herman, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of schools today are not prepared to support children's social behavior needs. One challenge is that teachers may not be knowledgeable of evidence-based practices that can be utilized with children. This study explored teachers' agreement ratings for evidence-based and nonevidence-based behavior management practices for children…

  16. Evidence-Based Practice: On the Function of Evidence in Practical Reasoning

    Tone Kvernbekk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a vast literature on evidence-based practice (EBP in education. What function does evidence have in practical deliberations toward decisions about what to do? Most writers on EBP seem to think of evidence largely as quantitative data, serving as a foundation from which practice could and should be directly derived. In this paper I argue that we are better served by according a different and more indirect function to evidence in practical reasoning. To establish this claim I employ Toulmin’s model of argumentation. On this model the evidence-as-foundation view amounts to evidence as data/grounds. The model also offers a different function for evidence, as backing of the warrant, and I argue in this paper that this is a more adequate understanding of the function of evidence in practical reasoning

  17. Application of Evidence-based Prosthodontics in Practice

    雷雨; 朱智敏; CHAO Yong-lie; SHI Zong-dao; MENG Yu-kun

    2006-01-01

    The concepts and progress of evidence-based dentistry were introduced in this critical review. An extensive PubMed search was conducted to provide sound evidences for some frequently encountered problems in prosthodontic daily practice. Conlusively, it is important for prosthodontists to keep current by looking for efficient ways of interpreting high quality evidences to clinical practice.

  18. [Strategy for promoting evidence-based nursing practice in hospital].

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Tang, Lee-Chun; Chou, Shin-Shang

    2013-10-01

    Evidence-based practice has been demonstrated to improve quality of care, increase patients' satisfaction, and reduce the costs of medical care. Therefore, evidence-based practice is now central to the clinical decision-making process and to achieving better quality of care. Today, it is one of the important indicators of core competences for healthcare providers and accreditation for healthcare and educational systems. Further, evidence-based practice encourages in-school and continuous education programs to integrate evidence-based elements and concepts into curricula. Healthcare facilities and professional organizations proactively host campaigns and encourage healthcare providers to participate in evidence-based related training courses. However, the clinical evidence-based practice progress is slow. The general lack of a model for organizational follow-up may be a key factor associated with the slow adoption phenomenon. The authors provide a brief introduction to the evidence-based practice model, then described how it may be successfully translated through a staged process into the evidence-based practices of organizational cultures. This article may be used as a reference by healthcare facilities to promote evidence-based nursing practice. PMID:24096462

  19. Evidence-based practice: developing mentors to support students.

    Barry, Debbie; Houghton, Trish; Warburton, Tyler

    2016-08-17

    This article, the ninth in a series of 11, provides guidance for new and established mentors and practice teachers on evidence-based practice, the seventh domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). Evidence-based practice is an important aspect of contemporary healthcare and is central to student preparation programmes for nursing, midwifery and specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN). The article describes evidence-based practice, discussing the importance and implementation of an evidence-based approach in the context of role development for mentors and practice teachers in the preparation of nursing, midwifery and SCPHN students. PMID:27533414

  20. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials].

    Yang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient. PMID:19565800

  1. Integrating evidence-based perfusion into practices: the International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion.

    Likosky, Donald S

    2006-12-01

    There is surmounting pressure for clinicians domestically and abroad not only to practice evidence-based perfusion, but also to supplement practice with documentation thereof. In this editorial, I shall describe an international initiative aimed at embracing this dictum from patients, regulatory bodies, and payers. "Research is the only hope that the future will be different than the past"- Daniel Mintz, MD "Practical men who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.... It is ideas not vested interests which are dangerous for good or evil."-John Maynard Keynes. PMID:17312899

  2. Merging Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Schizophrenia

    Tania Lecomte

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions are an essential part of the treatment for people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. The criteria regarding what makes an intervention “evidence-based” along with a current list of evidence-based interventions are presented. Although many evidence-based interventions exist, implementation studies reveal that few, if any, are ever implemented in a given setting. Various theories and approaches have been developed to better understand and overcome implementation obstacles. Among these, merging two evidence-based interventions, or offering an evidence-based intervention within an evidence-based service, are increasingly being reported and studied in the literature. Five such merges are presented, along with their empirical support: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT with skills training; CBT and family psychoeducation; supported employment (SE and skills training; SE and cognitive remediation; and SE and CBT.

  3. New weighting factors assignment of evidence theory based on evidence distance

    Chen Liangzhou; Shi Wenkang; Du Feng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence theory has been widely used in the information fusion for its effectiveness of the uncertainty reasoning. However, the classical DS evidence theory involves counter-intuitive behaviors when the high conflict information exists. Based on the analysis of some modified methods, Assigning the weighting factors according to the intrinsic characteristics of the existing evidence sources is proposed, which is determined on the evidence distance theory. From the numerical examples, the proposed method provides a reasonable result with good convergence efficiency. In addition, the new rule retrieves to the Yager's formula when all the evidence sources contradict to each other completely.

  4. Evidence Based Complementary Intervention for Insomnia

    Lopez, Dr. Hassen H.; Bracha, Adam S.; Bracha, Dr. Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Increasing scientific evidence point to a non-pharmacological complementary treatment for insomnia: white noise. Its presentation has been shown to induce sleep in human neonates and adults, probably by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of ambient sound. White noise may be a simple, safe, cost-effective alternative to hypnotic medication in many psychiatric disorders, especially acute stress disorder and PTSD.

  5. An evidence-based view on hyperbilirubinaemia

    Dijk, Peter H.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We conducted a review of the evidence which contributes to the current care of jaundiced newborn infants. Methods: Literature was searched for reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results: Six Cochrane reviews and eight other reviews and eighteen recent RCTs are discussed.

  6. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence

    Berg, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  7. Pedagogic Research and Evidence-Based Management

    Lindsay, Roger; Breen, Rosanna; Paton-Saltzberg, Renee

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of modular schemes and a semesterised academic year are amongst the most fundamental changes ever to occur in UK higher education. There is, however, a notable lack of pedagogic research evidence on the effects upon student learning of course frameworks and the temporal structure of large-scale learning units. In the absence of…

  8. Characterization of flowreversal in anodically bonded glass-based AC electrokinetic micropumps

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Brask, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Microfluidic chips have been fabricated to study electrokinetic pumping generated by a low voltage AC signal applied to an asymmetric electrode array. A measurement procedure has been established and followed carefully resulting in a high degree of reproducibility of the measurements. Depending on...

  9. Identifying Challenges to Building an Evidence Base for Restoration Practice

    Phumza Ntshotsho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global acknowledgement of ecological restoration, as an important tool to complement conservation efforts, requires an effort to increase the effectiveness of restoration interventions. Evidence-based practice is purported to promote effectiveness. A central tenet of this approach is decision making that is based on evidence, not intuition. Evidence can be generated experimentally and in practice but needs to be linked to baseline information collection, clear goals and monitoring of impact. In this paper, we report on a survey conducted to assess practitioners’ perceptions of the evidence generated in restoration practice in South Africa, as well as challenges encountered in building this evidence base. Contrary to a recent assessment of this evidence base which found weaknesses, respondents viewed it as adequate and cited few obstacles to its development. Obstacles cited were mostly associated with planning and resource availability. We suggest that the disparity between practitioners’ perceptions and observed weaknesses in the evidence base could be a challenge in advancing evidence-based restoration. We explore opportunities to overcome this disparity as well as the obstacles listed by practitioners. These opportunities involve a shift from practitioners as users of scientific knowledge and evidence, to practitioners involved in the co-production of evidence needed to increase the effectiveness of restoration interventions.

  10. Evidence Based Nursing. A new perspective for Greek Nursing

    Christina Ouzouni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that nursing research has been developed in Greece, nevertheless the provision of nursing care is not based on current research findings, but rather on the knowledge gained by nurses during their undergraduate education. The transition of medicine in the last decade towards evidence based practice had definitely an impact on the nursing profession.The aim of this article is to briefly present evidence based nursing as a process and perspective to Greek nurses.Method: A literature search was performed in order to identify and review relevant articles concerning evidence based nursing.Conclusions: It has been supported that in the practice of evidence based nursing, a nurse has to decide whether the evidence is relevant for the individual patient. The incorporation of clinical expertise should balance the risks and benefits of a possible treatment and take into consideration the patient’s unique clinical circumstances and preferences. The stages to identify evidence for nursing practice follow firstly a question which must be addressed for a particular clinical problem. Then, a literature search is performed in order to access the evidence and critically appraise it and finally the best available evidence that fits into a particular case is utilized. Evidence based nursing bears benefits for patients, nurses and health care services, as well. In the process of implementing evidence based nursing in Greece there are several constraints. Taking these difficulties into consideration and until Greek nurses familiarize themselves with evidence based nursing care, it is necessary to constitute workgroups of nurse researchers aiming at forming clinical guidelines for nursing practice, which will based on the best available evidence.

  11. Evidence-based treatments of addiction

    O'Brien, Charles P

    2008-01-01

    Both pharmacotherapy and behavioural treatment are required to relieve the symptoms of addictive disorders. This paper reviews the evidence for the benefits of pharmacotherapy and discusses mechanisms where possible. Animal models of addiction have led to some medications that are effective in reducing symptoms and improving function but they do not produce a cure. Addiction is a chronic disease that tends to recur when treatment is stopped; thus, long-term treatment is recommended.

  12. CAN AYURVEDA BE AN EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE?

    Bali Yogitha

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of EBM empower us to formulate appropriate clinical questions, appraise the literature using the hierarchy of evidence and apply the study results to their practice. With the ever increasing demands to adopt EBM in practice, healthcare providers require educational resources that present the concepts of the EBM, research methodology and guides to publishing medical research in a simple and easy to understand format. EBM also promotes critical thinking by clinicians. It requires t...

  13. Curriculum for Evidence Based Medicine for MBBS II phase Graduates

    Saxena R; Kulkarni N; Shekhar S; Shivyogi; Prasad S; Goudar SP

    2014-01-01

    Evidence based medicine is the training of health care professionals to access, assess and apply the best scientific evidence to clinical practice. EBM is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence along with clinical expertise and patient values in making decisions about the case of individual patients. The current undergraduate curriculum of health profession is based on past knowledge accumulated for years. The scientific relevance of the mostly outdated infor...

  14. The role of evidence-based medicine in healthcare management

    Serafimov, Aleksandar; Donchovska, Danica; Marolova, Angela; Velickova, Nevenka; Milev, Mishko

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine in public health is a way of accepting decisions for group of patients or population. Such decisions are based on careful and thorough evaluation of the best available evidence on the effectiveness of decisions. Aim: The collection of evidence in health policy and health activity aims to analyze and assess the organization and management system as a whole and its individual components and to prove: level of performance, structural adequacy, cost-effectiveness of the sy...

  15. Personalizing Research: Special Educators' Awareness of Evidence-Based Practice

    Guckert, Mary; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence-based practices are considered critical to student success, a research-to-practice gap exists. This qualitative study examined practicing special education teachers' perceptions of their use of evidence-based practices. Special education teachers were interviewed and their classroom practices examined. Major themes emerged and…

  16. Evidence-based Nursing Practice: To Infinity and Beyond.

    Pape, Tess M.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an historical background for evidence-based practice and methods for assimilating research into practice. Information searching, systematic reviews, and other decision-making models are discussed using specific questions for establishing policy guidelines. Stresses the need for evidence-based practice implementing the best-known practices…

  17. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  18. Evidence-based gene predictions in plant genomes

    Automated evidence-based gene building is a rapid and cost-effective way to provide reliable gene annotations on newly sequenced genomes. One of the limitations of evidence-based gene builders, however, is their requirement for gene expression evidence—known proteins, full-length cDNAs, or expressed...

  19. Evidence-Based Assessment of Anxiety Disorders in Adults

    Antony, Martin M.; Rowa, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to the development and dissemination of evidence-based assessment strategies for anxiety disorders and associated problems. It begins with a review of the criteria that should be considered when determining whether particular assessment procedures are evidence-based. These include such factors as reliability,…

  20. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may be...

  1. Impact of incorrect tissue classification in Dixon-based MR-AC: fat-water tissue inversion

    Ladefoged, Claes Nøhr; Hansen, Adam Espe; Keller, Sune Høgild; Holm, Søren; Law, Ian; Beyer, Thomas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas; Andersen, Flemming Littrup

    2014-01-01

    Background The current MR-based attenuation correction (AC) used in combined PET/MR systems computes a Dixon attenuation map (MR-ACDixon) based on fat and water images derived from in- and opposed-phase MRI. We observed an occasional fat/water inversion in MR-ACDixon. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of this phenomenon in a large patient cohort and assess the possible bias on PET data. Methods PET/MRI was performed on a Siemens Biograph mMR (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). ...

  2. Simulation Study of AC Contactor Dynamic Contacts Contact Pressure Based on ADAMS

    Gu Yungao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-body dynamics simulation model of CJ20-25 AC contactor was established with Pro/E(Pro/Engineerin this paper. A coupling simulation with machine, electric, magnetic on the contactor has been achieved in this model. Dynamic parameters which were called use the secondary development technology of ADAMS. The dynamic contact pressure signal of an AC contactor was obtained with ADAMS’s own simultaneous solution such as electromagnetic suction, kinematics and dynamics equations. The simulation results and actual measurement of contactor contact pressure signals are very similar. However, the complexity of the measured contacts vibration is greater than the simulation results because the actual working condition is more complex. This result provides a theoretical foundation to the dynamic contacts contact pressure test.

  3. A population perspective to evidence based medicine: "evidence for population health"

    Heller, R.; Page, J.

    2002-01-01

    We explore the notion that the public health community could learn lessons from the success of evidence based medicine (EBM) and develop a public health counterpart called "Evidence for Population Health". While EBM focuses on individual patients, its public health counterpart would aim to improve the health of communities effectively and efficiently.

  4. NEURAL NETWORK BASED OPTIMISATION OF HARMONICS ON AC - DC SIDES OF HVDC TRANSMISSION

    Smriti Tapadar; Tikeshwar Gajpal

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates possibility of using Neural network for optimisation of AC - DC Harmonics of HVDC Transmission. Dependableness and potency of power transmission has been at the forefront of analysis for a few time and is presently being given essential thought owing to the inflated dependence on current. With the inflated demand for e lectricity, engineers area unit considering completely different strategies of provide arrangement to enhance the ...

  5. Online speed control of a brushless AC servomotor based on artificial neural networks

    PARTAL, Sibel; Şenol, İbrahim; BAKAN, Ahmet Faruk

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to speed estimation of brushless AC servomotors is presented. Speed control is realized in the following steps. First, the servomotor was mathematically modelled; the driver system was designed and speed control of the servomotor was accomplished with feedback. Next, a network structure representing the electrical and mechanical properties of the servomotor was built via Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and trained with the results of the first ...

  6. DC and AC linear magnetic field sensor based on glass coated amorphous microwires with Giant Magnetoimpedance

    Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect has been studied in amorphous glass-coated microwires of composition (Fe6Co94)72.5Si12.5B15. The impedance of a 1.5 cm length sample has been characterized by using constant AC currents in the range of 400 µA–4 mA at frequencies from 7 to 15 MHz and DC magnetic fields from −900 to 900 A/m. Double peak responses have been obtained, showing GMI ratios up to 107%. A linear magnetic field sensor for DC and AC field has been designed, using two microwires connected in series with a magnetic bias of 400 A/m with opposite direction in each microwire in order to obtain a linear response from ±70 (A/m)rms for AC magnetic field, and ±100 A/m for DC magnetic field. A closed loop feedback circuit has been implemented to extend the linear range to ±1 kA/m for DC magnetic field. - Highlights: • Giant Magneto Impedance phenomenon has been studied in amorphous microwires. • A combination of two microwires with a bias field has been developed to get a linear response. • An electronic circuit has been developed to obtain a sensor with a linear response. • A feedback coil have been added to increase the measurable range of the sensor

  7. Interverntion, evidence-based research and everyday life

    Dreier, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Intervention is a key concept in the technology of psychology and it plays a decisive role in evidence-based research. But analyses of this concept are remarkably sparse. Based on a critical analysis of the conception of intervention in the American Psychological Association’s guidelines for...... evidence-based research and practice, I argue that, while psychological interventions are primarily meant to work in people’s everyday lives, how interventions do so is barely addressed and poorly captured. Evidence-based research, as currently conceived, is an obstacle to overcome this shortcoming...

  8. 脉冲阻塞式交交变频系统的动态性能研究%Research on dynamic performance of AC/AC converter based on principle of pulse blocking

    陈玲; 朱虹; 纪萍

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic performance of AC/AC converter based on principle of pulse blocking is analyzed in this paper, in order to improve the stability of cycloconverter system, and to optimum the dynamic performance. The structure and principle of pulse blocking are introduced, and the main mathematical model of the type was built in SIMULINK environment in this paper. Based on the simulation experiment and results, the change of the effects of structure parameters on the dynamic performance of the system was analyzed carefully. The results of these analyses will be provided the basis for the optimization design of AC/AC converter based on principle of pulse blocking.%为了提高交交变频系统的稳定性,改善其动态性能,进行了基于脉冲阻塞斩波控制的动态性能分析。文中介绍了脉冲阻塞式交交变频系统的结构和变频原理,建立了其主要模块的数学模型,应用MATLAB环境进行了模型搭建,分析了系统中结构参数对其动态性能影响的变化规律,为脉冲阻塞式交交变频系统的性能优化设计提供了依据。

  9. Modification of evidence theory based on feature extraction

    DU Feng; SHI Wen-kang; DENG Yong

    2005-01-01

    Although evidence theory has been widely used in information fusion due to its effectiveness of uncertainty reasoning, the classical DS evidence theory involves counter-intuitive behaviors when high conflict information exists. Many modification methods have been developed which can be classified into the following two kinds of ideas, either modifying the combination rules or modifying the evidence sources. In order to make the modification more reasonable and more effective, this paper gives a thorough analysis of some typical existing modification methods firstly, and then extracts the intrinsic feature of the evidence sources by using evidence distance theory. Based on the extracted features, two modified plans of evidence theory according to the corresponding modification ideas have been proposed. The results of numerical examples prove the good performance of the plans when combining evidence sources with high conflict information.

  10. A new high-performance AC/DC power factor correction switching converter based on one-cycle control technology and active floating-charge technology

    GAO Chao

    2008-01-01

    A new family of converters, high-performance AC/DC power factor correction (PFC) switching converters with one-cycle control technology and active floating-charge technology, was derived and experimentally verified. The topology of a single-phase CCM and DCM Boost-PFC switching converter was also analyzed. Its operating prniciples and control methods were expounded. Based on these, a new type of AC/DC switching converter circuits for PFC combined with one-cycle control technology was presented herein. The proposed AC/DC switching converter significantly helps improve the converter efficiency and its power factor value.

  11. Evidence Based Nursing. A new perspective for Greek Nursing

    Christina Ouzouni; Konstantinos Nakakis

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that nursing research has been developed in Greece, nevertheless the provision of nursing care is not based on current research findings, but rather on the knowledge gained by nurses during their undergraduate education. The transition of medicine in the last decade towards evidence based practice had definitely an impact on the nursing profession.The aim of this article is to briefly present evidence based nursing as a process and perspective to Greek nurses.Method: A litera...

  12. A Third-Generation Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Lumpkins, Sarah; Steil, Jennifer; Pellis, Neal; Charles, John

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program seeks to understand and mitigate risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions center dot HRP's evidence base consists of an Evidence Report for each HRP risk center dot Three generations of Evidence Reports 1) Review articles + Good content - Limited authorship, infrequent updates 2) Wikipedia articles + Viewed often, very open to contributions - Summary of reviews, very few contributions 3) HRP-controlled wiki articles + Incremental additions to review articles with editorial control

  13. Evidence-based practice: a trainee clinical psychologist perspective

    Chapman, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the dominant model in health care; its aim is to increase the use of research evidence to inform clinical decision making. Clinical practice guidelines are the predominant method by which research is distilled into practice recommendations. Clinical psychology has its own model which promotes the integration of research evidence with clinical expertise, the scientist practitioner model (SPM). Recent developments within the United Kingdom health service, su...

  14. Information systems: the key to evidence-based health practice.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing prominence is being given to the use of best current evidence in clinical practice and health services and programme management decision-making. The role of information in evidence-based practice (EBP) is discussed, together with questions of how advanced information systems and technology (IS&T) can contribute to the establishment of a broader perspective for EBP. The author examines the development, validation and use of a variety of sources of evidence and knowledge that go beyo...

  15. Evidence base for pre-employment medical screening

    Pachman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence base for the use of pre-employment/pre-placement medical examinations. The use of pre‑employment examinations is often driven more by cultural practices than evidence. There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness in preventing health-related occupational risks. Hypertension screening is highlighted as a common pre-employment practice for which there is no standardized criteria to use to determine fitness for work. There are inherent problems in screening...

  16. Treating bipolar disorder. Evidence-based guidelines for family medicine.

    McIntyre, Roger S; Mancini, Deborah A.; Lin, Peter; Jordan, John

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based summary of medications commonly used for bipolar disorders and a practical approach to managing bipolar disorders in the office. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles from 1990 to 2003 were selected from MEDLINE using the key words "bipolar disorder," "antiepileptics," "antipsychotics," "antidepressants," and "mood stabilizers." Good-quality evidence for many of these treatments comes from randomized trials. Lithium, divalproex, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxca...

  17. Applying Evidence-based Medicine Principles to Fracture Management

    Joseph eBernstein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone has the capacity to regenerate and not scar after injury—-sometimes leaving behind no evidence at all of a prior fracture. As surgeons capable of facilitating such healing, it becomes our responsibility to help choose a treatment that minimizes functional deficits and residual symptoms. And in the case of the geriatric hip fracture, we have seen the accumulation of a vast amount of evidence to help guide us.The best method we currently have for selecting treatment plans is by the practice of evidence-based medicine. According to the now accepted hierarchy, the best is called Level I evidence (eg, well performed randomized controlled trials—but this evidence is best only if it is available and appropriate. Lower forms of accepted evidence include cohort studies, case control studies, case series and case reports, and last, expert opinion--all of which can be potentially instructive. The hallmark of evidence-based treatment is not so much the reliance on evidence in general, but to use the best available evidence relative to the particular patient, the clinical setting and surgeon experience. Correctly applied, varying forms of evidence each have a role in aiding surgeons offer appropriate care for their patients--to help them best fix the fracture.

  18. CAN AYURVEDA BE AN EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE?

    Bali Yogitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of EBM empower us to formulate appropriate clinical questions, appraise the literature using the hierarchy of evidence and apply the study results to their practice. With the ever increasing demands to adopt EBM in practice, healthcare providers require educational resources that present the concepts of the EBM, research methodology and guides to publishing medical research in a simple and easy to understand format. EBM also promotes critical thinking by clinicians. It requires that clinicians have the open-mindedness to look for and try new methods scientifically supported by the literature and it asks the clinical interventions be scrutinized and proven effective. In addition, EBM offers ways to critically evaluate the enormous amount of medical literature for value. In this way, clinical interventions and treatments are not just accepted because someone speaks of their anecdotal effectiveness, but a rigorous standard is applied to scientific data to determine whether the information has merit and applicability. Ayurveda is an Ancient Asian practice. It’s a traditional medical system used by a majority of India’s 1.1 billion populations. Ayurveda is being seen as a rich resource for new drug development by modern day pharmacologists. Ayurveda, the science of life is a branch of Atharvanaveda. It has eight specialized branches such as kayachikitsa (internal medicine, Salakya (ENT, salya tantra (ayurvedic surgery, Agada tantra (toxicology and forensic medicine, bhuta vidya (treatment of psychic diseases, kaumarabhrutya (paediatrics,rasayana tantra (rejuvenation treatments and vajikarana (aphrodisiacs.

  19. What Is "Evidence-Based Practice" in Geography Education?

    Roberts, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Educationalists developed the concept of "evidence-based practice" during the 1990s because of concern about the relevance of educational research to practitioners and about its impact on their practice. This article outlines the different kinds of research evidence related to geographical education, which might inform practice. It then discusses…

  20. Evidence-Based Management of Phonological Impairment in Children

    Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based management of phonological impairment in children is a dynamic process. Speech and language therapists need to evaluate published evidence and use their professional judgement to decide on an intervention plan, evaluate the efficacy of their intervention and re-evaluate decisions. Two case studies are presented to illustrate this…

  1. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #791

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Would anyone in your network be aware of any states that might provide differentiated funding for virtual programs based on the model used--for example, curriculum-in-a-box vs. one with high student-teacher interaction? Are you aware of any research that examines what factors to consider when developing this type of differentiated funding? This…

  2. Hall-Effect Based Semi-Fast AC On-Board Charging Equipment for Electric Vehicles

    Eva González-Romera; Enrique Romero-Cadaval; Javier Gallardo-Lozano; María Isabel Milanés-Montero

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-gri...

  3. Evidence-Based Marketing for Academic Librarians

    Yoo-Seong Song

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - In developing marketing strategies for the Business & Economics Library (BEL at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, a survey was designed to answer the following questions: - Should BEL develop marketing strategies differently for East Asian business students? - What services do graduate business students want to receive from BEL? - With whom should BEL partner to increase visibility at the College of Business? Marketing research techniques were used to gather evidence upon which BEL could construct appropriate marketing strategies. Methods - A questionnaire was used with graduate business students enrolled at UIUC. The survey consisted of four categories of questions: 1 demographics, 2 assessment of current library services, 3 desired library services, and 4 research behavior. The data were analyzed using desriptive statistics and hypothesis testing to answer the three research questions. Results - East Asian business students showed similar assessment of current services as non-East Asian international business students. Survey results also showed the graduate business students had low awareness of current library services. The Business Career Services Office was identified as a co-branding partner for BEL to increase its visibility. Conclusion - A marketing research approach was used to help BEL make important strategic decisions before launching marketing campaigns to increase visibility to graduate business students at UIUC. As a result of the survey, a deeper understanding of graduate business students' expectations and assessment of library services was gained. Students' perceptions became a foundation that helped shape marketing strategies for BEL to increase its visibility at the College of Business. Creating marketing strategies without concrete data and analysis is a risky endeavor that librarians, not just corporate marketers, should avoid.

  4. Ambulatory Medical Assistance - After Cancer (AMA-AC): A model for an early trajectory survivorship survey of lymphoma patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy

    Compaci, Gisèle; Rueter, Manuela; Lamy, Sébastien; Oberic, Lucie; Recher, Christian; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; LAURENT, GUY; Despas, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer survivorship has emerged as an important aspect of oncology due to the possibility of physical and psychosocial complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Ambulatory Medical Assistance for After Cancer (AMA-AC) procedure for monitoring lymphoma survivorship during the first year after chemotherapy. Methods AMA-AC is based on systematic general practitioner (GP) consultations and telephone interventions conducted by a nurse coordinator (NC) ...

  5. Evidence-based diagnosis of abdominal trauma

    Abdominal trauma is a common cause of death particularly in patients up to 40 years of age. In order to reduce mortality a rapid radiologic diagnosis is essential. At present, sonography plays a role only in the evaluation of minor trauma and as a ''focused assessment with sonography for trauma'' (FAST) to clarify free intraperitoneal fluid immediately on admittance in severely injured patients. However, computed tomography has proven to be a potent tool for the triage of patients with abdominal trauma, because, based on the results of the CT scan, patients can be referred for laparotomy or safely classified for ''wait and see'' treatment. Therapeutic decisions are largely based on injury severity scores and the radiologist must be familiar with them as well as with the associated therapeutic consequences. (orig.)

  6. 3-V Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitors with Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Gel Electrolyte for AC Line Filtering.

    Kang, Yu Jin; Yoo, Yongju; Kim, Woong

    2016-06-01

    State-of-the-art solid-state flexible supercapacitors with sufficiently fast response speed for AC line filtering application suffer from limited energy density. One of the main causes of the low energy density is the low cell voltage (1 V), which is limited by aqueous-solution-based gel electrolytes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a 3-V flexible supercapacitor for AC line filtering based on an ionic-liquid-based polymer gel electrolyte and carbon nanotube electrode material. The flexible supercapacitor exhibits an areal energy density that is more than 20 times higher than that of the previously demonstrated 1-V flexible supercapacitor (0.66 vs 0.03 μWh/cm(2)) while maintaining excellent capacitive behavior at 120 Hz. The supercapacitor shows a maximum areal power density of 1.5 W/cm(2) and a time constant of 1 ms. The improvement of the cell voltage while maintaining the fast-response capability greatly improves the potential of supercapacitors for high-frequency applications in wearable and/or portable electronics. PMID:27167760

  7. Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: Evidence-based recommendations

    Dworkin, Robert H.; O'Connor, Alec B.; Backonja, Miroslav;

    2007-01-01

    Patients with neuropathic pain (NP) are challenging to manage and evidence-based clinical recommendations for pharmacologic management are needed. Systematic literature reviews, randomized clinical trials, and existing guidelines were evaluated at a consensus meeting. Medications were considered...

  8. Implementing evidence-based practices in an emergency department

    Wassar Kirk, Jeanette; Nilsen, Per

    2016-01-01

    and screening routines provided a flow stop. Four associated contradictions were identified: insufficient time to implement guidelines; guilty conscience due to perceived nonadherence to evidence-based practices; newcomers having different priorities; and conflicting views of what constituted being...

  9. Evidence-based care in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Weak knowledge, weak attitude, and time shortage .are among the most significant barriers of evidence-based care in Iran. These problems require more accurate planning and more favorable policies on the part of medical science authorities.

  10. Fabrication of a flexible Ag-grid transparent electrode using ac based electrohydrodynamic Jet printing

    In the dc voltage-applied electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing of metal nanoparticles, the residual charge of droplets deposited on a substrate changes the electrostatic field distribution and interrupts the subsequent printing behaviour, especially for insulating substrates that have slow charge decay rates. In this paper, a sinusoidal ac voltage was used in the EHD jet printing process to switch the charge polarity of droplets containing Ag nanoparticles, thereby neutralizing the charge on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Printed Ag lines with a width of 10 µm were invisible to the naked eye. After sintering lines with 500 µm of line pitch at 180 °C, a grid-type transparent electrode (TE) with a sheet resistance of ∼7 Ω sq−1 and a dc to optical conductivity ratio of ∼300 at ∼84.2% optical transmittance was obtained, values that were superior to previously reported results. In order to evaluate the durability of the TE under bending stresses, the sheet resistance was measured as the number of bending cycles was increased. The sheet resistance of the Ag grid electrode increased only slightly, by less than 20% from its original value, even after 500 cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Ag (invisible) grid TEs have been fabricated on PET substrates by ac voltage applied EHD jet printing. (paper)

  11. A new fusion approach based on distance of evidences

    CHEN Liang-zhou; SHI Wen-kang; DENG Yong; ZHU Zhen-fu

    2005-01-01

    Based on the framework of evidence theory, data fusion aims at obtaining a single Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) function by combining several belief functions from distinct information sources. Dempster's rule of combination is the most popular rule of combinations, but it is a poor solution for the management of the conflict between various information sources at the normalization step. Even when it faces high conflict information, the classical Dempster-Shafer's (D-S) evidence theory can involve counter-intuitive results. This paper presents a modified averaging method to combine conflicting evidence based on the distance of evidences; and also gives the weighted average of the evidence in the system. Numerical examples showed that the proposed method can realize the modification ideas and also will provide reasonable results with good convergence efficiency.

  12. Informed Systems: Enabling Collaborative Evidence Based Organizational Learning

    Mary M. Somerville; Niki Chatzipanagiotou

    2015-01-01

    Objective – In response to unrelenting disruptions in academic publishing and higher education ecosystems, the Informed Systems approach supports evidence based professional activities to make decisions and take actions. This conceptual paper presents two core models, Informed Systems Leadership Model and Collaborative Evidence-Based Information Process Model, whereby co-workers learn to make informed decisions by identifying the decisions to be made and the information required for those dec...

  13. The place of research and Evidence Based Practice in nursing.

    HRSTKOVÁ, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    Nursing is a permanently developing field of activity. Research plays an irreplaceable role in this field. We moreover more and more often see the term Evidence Based Practice nowadays. However a lot of general nurses do not know that this term also relates to the field of nursing, where it is called Evidence Based Nursing. Quantitative research was chosen for this thesis. The research was performed in South Bohemian and Central Bohemian regions among general nurses with bachelor degree. The ...

  14. Establishing a model for evidence based collection management

    Koufogiannakis, Denise

    2007-01-01

    Establishing a model for evidence based collection management Question: How can collection managers and selectors structure their practice so that collection decisions are more evidence based? Can a model be established to provide a framework for decision making in a large academic institution? What questions need to be answered and what sources of information are most appropriate? Where does one begin to find useful information and how can it make a difference in day-to-day work? Sett...

  15. Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology

    Campbell, Jonathan M.; Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures...

  16. Comparison of Traditional Versus Evidence-Based Journal Club Formats

    Kathleen Packard, PharmD, MS, BCPS; Megan Herink, PharmD, BCPS; Thomas L. Lenz, PharmD, MA

    2011-01-01

    AbstractPurpose: The objective of the study was to compare a traditionally structured journal club with an evidence based structured journal club during an advanced clinical pharmacy rotation and to determine the best utilization that aligns with recent changes to the pharmacy school accreditation standards.Methods: The study included 21 students who completed journal club utilizing the traditional journal club format and 24 students who utilized an evidence based journal club format. Backgro...

  17. Evidence-based management of pain after haemorrhoidectomy surgery

    Joshi, G P; Neugebauer, E A M; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Haemorrhoidectomy is associated with intense postoperative pain, but optimal evidence-based pain therapy has not been described. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available literature on the management of pain after haemorrhoidal surgery.......Haemorrhoidectomy is associated with intense postoperative pain, but optimal evidence-based pain therapy has not been described. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available literature on the management of pain after haemorrhoidal surgery....

  18. How to proceed when evidence-based practice is required but very little evidence available?

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lanlo, Olivier; Walker, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background All clinicians of today know that scientific evidence is the base on which clinical practice should rest. However, this is not always easy, in particular in those disciplines, where the evidence is scarce. Although the last decades have brought an impressive production of research that is of interest to chiropractors, there are still many areas such as diagnosis, prognosis, choice of treatment, and management that have not been subjected to extensive scrutiny. Discussion In this pa...

  19. How to proceed when evidence-based practice is required but very little evidence available?

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lanlo, Olivier; Walker, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    All clinicians of today know that scientific evidence is the base on which clinical practice should rest. However, this is not always easy, in particular in those disciplines, where the evidence is scarce. Although the last decades have brought an impressive production of research that is of...... interest to chiropractors, there are still many areas such as diagnosis, prognosis, choice of treatment, and management that have not been subjected to extensive scrutiny....

  20. AN EFFICIENT ROBUST IMAGE WATERMARKING BASED ON AC PREDICTION TECHNIQUE USING DCT TECHNIQUE

    Gaurav Gupta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of technology has made several simple ways to manipulate the original content. This has brought the concern for security of the content which is easily available in open network. Digital watermarking is the most suitable solution for the defined issue. Digital watermarking is the art of inserting the logo into multimedia object to have proof of ownership whenever it is required. The proposed algorithm is useful in authorized distribution and ownership verification. The algorithm uses the concept of AC prediction using DCT to embed the watermark in the image. The algorithm has excellent robustness against all the attacks and outperforms the similar work with admirable performance in terms of Normalized Correlation (NC, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and Tamper Assessment Function (TAF.

  1. Evaluation of reliability of on-site A.C. power systems based on maintenance records

    To the end of ascertain in what extent the evaluation of reliability of emergency diesel generators (D.G.) can be improved by means of a deeper knowledge of their operating history a study has been carried-out on 21 D.G. sets: 4 D.G. of the Caorso nuclear plant (BWR, 870 MWe) and 17 D.G. in service at 6 steam-electric fossil-fuelled plants. The major points of interest resulting from this study are: 1) reliability assessments of A.C. on-site power Systems, made on the basis of outcomes of surveillance tests, may lead to results which overestimate the real performance. 2) the unreliability of a redundant System of stand-by components is determined in large extent by unavailabilities due to scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, latent failures, tests. (authors)

  2. Vector Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle AC Induction Motor Based on Improved Variable Gain PID Controller

    Gang Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration performance of EV, which affects a lot of performances of EV such as start-up, overtaking, driving safety, and ride comfort, has become increasingly popular in recent researches. An improved variable gain PID control algorithm to improve the acceleration performance is proposed in this paper. The results of simulation with Matlab/Simulink demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through the control performance of motor velocity, motor torque, and three-phase current of motor. Moreover, it is investigated that the proposed controller is valid by comparison with the other PID controllers. Furthermore, the AC induction motor experiment set is constructed to verify the effect of proposed controller.

  3. Reduction of inequalities in health: assessing evidence-based tools

    Shea Beverley

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction of health inequalities is a focus of many national and international health organisations. The need for pragmatic evidence-based approaches has led to the development of a number of evidence-based equity initiatives. This paper describes a new program that focuses upon evidence- based tools, which are useful for policy initiatives that reduce inequities. Methods This paper is based on a presentation that was given at the "Regional Consultation on Policy Tools: Equity in Population Health Reports," held in Toronto, Canada in June 2002. Results Five assessment tools were presented. 1. A database of systematic reviews on the effects of educational, legal, social, and health interventions to reduce unfair inequalities is being established through the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. 2 Decision aids and shared decision making can be facilitated in disadvantaged groups by 'health coaches' to help people become better decision makers, negotiators, and navigators of the health system; a pilot study in Chile has provided proof of this concept. 3. The CIET Cycle: Combining adapted cluster survey techniques with qualitative methods, CIET's population based applications support evidence-based decision making at local and national levels. The CIET map generates maps directly from survey or routine institutional data, to be used as evidence-based decisions aids. Complex data can be displayed attractively, providing an important tool for studying and comparing health indicators among and between different populations. 4. The Ottawa Equity Gauge is applying the Global Equity Gauge Alliance framework to an industrialised country setting. 5 The Needs-Based Health Assessment Toolkit, established to assemble information on which clinical and health policy decisions can be based, is being expanded to ensure a focus on distribution and average health indicators. Conclusion Evidence-based planning tools have much to offer the

  4. Evidence-Based Practice: The Psychology of EBP Implementation.

    Rousseau, Denise M; Gunia, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach used in numerous professions that focuses attention on evidence quality in decision making and action. We review research on EBP implementation, identifying critical underlying psychological factors facilitating and impeding its use. In describing EBP and the forms of evidence it employs, we highlight the challenges individuals face in appraising evidence quality, particularly that of their personal experience. We next describe critical EBP competencies and the challenges underlying their acquisition: foundational competencies of critical thinking and domain knowledge, and functional competencies such as question formulation, evidence search and appraisal, and outcome evaluation. We then review research on EBP implementation across diverse fields from medicine to management and organize findings around three key contributors to EBP: practitioner ability, motivation, and opportunity to practice (AMO). Throughout, important links between psychology and EBP are highlighted, along with the contributions psychological research can make to further EBP development and implementation. PMID:26361048

  5. Integration of Evidence Based Medicine into a Medical Curriculum

    Tamim, H M; Ferwana, M; Al Banyan, E; Al Alwan, I; Hajeer, AH

    2009-01-01

    The College of Medicine at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) was established in January 2004. The four-year curriculum was based on the Problem Based Learning (PBL) format and involved the web-based graduate medical program adopted from the University of Sydney, Australia. At KSAU-HS, one additional semester was added to the beginning of this curriculum to prepare the students in English language skills, PBL, Information Technology and Evidence Based Medicine (E...

  6. EVIDENCEBASED MEDICINE/PRACTICE IN SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY

    Manske, Robert C.; Lehecka, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    A push for the use of evidence‐based medicine and evidence‐based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence‐based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision‐making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate cl...

  7. Multiagent based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled AC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    Li, Chendan; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2015-01-01

    sharing based on the power rating. With various types of distributed generator (DG) units in the system, factors that closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost and efficiencies of the generator should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system....... In this paper, a multiagent based distributed method is proposed to minimize operation cost of the AC microgrid. Each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using proposed frequency scheduling method. Optimal power command is obtained through carefully designed consensus algorithm...... with only light communication between neighboring agents. Case studies verified that the proposed control strategy can effectively reduce the operation cost....

  8. Validating evidence based decision making in health care

    Nüssler, Emil Karl; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak;

    Surgeons who perform prolapse surgeries face the dilemma of choosing to use mesh, with its assumed benefits, and the risks associated with mesh. In this paper, we examine whether decisions to use mesh is evidence based. Based on data of 30,398 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register of...... Gynecological Surgery we examine factors related to decisions to use mesh. Our results indicate that decisions to use mesh are not evidence based, and cannot be explained neither by FDA safety communications, nor by medical conditions usually assumed to predict its usage. Instead, decisions to use mesh are...

  9. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  10. Annotating Evidence Based Clinical Guidelines: A Lightweight Ontology

    R. Hoekstra; A. de Waard; R. Vdovjak

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a lightweight ontology for representing annotations of declarative evidence based clinical guidelines. We present the motivation and requirements for this representation, based on an analysis of several guidelines. The ontology provides the means to connect clinical questions an

  11. Evidence-based Practice in libraries - Principles and discussions

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    2012-01-01

    The article examines problems concerning the introduction and future implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in libraries. It includes important conceptual distinctions and definitions, and it reviews the more controversial aspects of EBP, primarely based on experiences from Denmark. The...

  12. Advancing the evidence base in cancer: psychosocial multicenter trials

    Sanson-Fisher Robert; Mackenzie Lisa; Butow Phyllis; Rankin Nicole; Paul Christine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is associated with significant distress and psychosocial morbidity. Although psychosocial interventions have been developed in an attempt to improve psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients and survivors, there is continued debate about whether there is adequate high-level evidence to establish the effectiveness of these interventions. The evidence base is limited as a result of numerous challenges faced by those attempting to conduct ...

  13. Intramuscular injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri

    2014-09-30

    Intramuscular injections require a thorough and meticulous approach to patient assessment and injection technique. This article, the second in a series of two, reviews the evidence base to inform safer practice and to consider the evidence for nursing practice in this area. A framework for safe practice is included, identifying important points for safe technique, patient care and clinical decision making. It also highlights the ongoing debate in selection of intramuscular injection sites, predominately the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles. PMID:25249123

  14. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...

  15. Evaluation of Evidence-based Nursing Pain Management Practice.

    Song, Wenjia; Eaton, Linda H; Gordon, Debra B; Hoyle, Christine; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2015-08-01

    It is important to ensure that cancer pain management is based on the best evidence. Nursing evidence-based pain management can be examined through an evaluation of pain documentation. The aim of this study was to modify and test an evaluation tool for nursing cancer pain documentation, and describe the frequency and quality of nursing pain documentation in one oncology unit via the electronic medical system. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used for this study at an oncology unit of an academic medical center in the Pacific Northwest. Medical records were examined for 37 adults hospitalized during April and May 2013. Nursing pain documentations (N = 230) were reviewed using an evaluation tool modified from the Cancer Pain Practice Index to consist of 13 evidence-based pain management indicators, including pain assessment, care plan, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, monitoring and treatment of analgesic side effects, communication with physicians, and patient education. Individual nursing documentation was assigned a score ranging from 0 (worst possible) to 13 (best possible), to reflect the delivery of evidence-based pain management. The participating nurses documented 90% of the recommended evidence-based pain management indicators. Documentation was suboptimal for pain reassessment, pharmacologic interventions, and bowel regimen. The study results provide implications for enhancing electronic medical record design and highlight a need for future research to understand the reasons for suboptimal nursing documentation of cancer pain management. For the future use of the data evaluation tool, we recommend additional modifications according to study settings. PMID:26256215

  16. [Glocalization: the outlook for Taiwan evidence based health care].

    Chen, Chiehfeng

    2014-12-01

    Public attention to evidence-based health care (EBHC) has increased significantly in recent years. Key problems related to applying EBHC in current healthcare practice include the timely update of up-to-date knowledge and skills and the methodology used to implement EBHC in clinical settings. EBHC has been introduced to the Taiwan healthcare system for the past two decades. The annual EBM (Evidence based medicine) National Competition is a unique and important EBHC activity in Taiwan. EBHC has been promoted widely in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health and other professions, and EBHC-related organizations such as the Taiwan Evidence Based Medicine Association (TEBMA), and Taiwan Evidence Based Nursing Association (TEBNA), have increased in number and grown in membership. In addition to domestic developments, Taiwan is also actively involved in global organizations, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, East Asian Cochrane Alliance (EACA), and the International Society for Evidence Based Health Care (ISEHC). In Taiwan, most medical professionals work cooperatively to promote EBHC, which facilitates the gradual improvement of healthcare quality. PMID:25464951

  17. Comparison of Traditional Versus Evidence-Based Journal Club Formats

    Kathleen Packard, PharmD, MS, BCPS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The objective of the study was to compare a traditionally structured journal club with an evidence based structured journal club during an advanced clinical pharmacy rotation and to determine the best utilization that aligns with recent changes to the pharmacy school accreditation standards.Methods: The study included 21 students who completed journal club utilizing the traditional journal club format and 24 students who utilized an evidence based journal club format. Background characteristics, student reported beliefs, and mean critical evaluation skills scores were evaluated and compared in each group.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the two cohorts in mean overall percentage grade for the activity. Students in the traditional cohort received significantly higher grades for the Study Analysis and Critique section (90.97 + 12.18 versus 81.25 + 11.18, P=0.01 as well as for the Preparedness section (96.11 + 8.03 versus 85.0 + 17.13, P=0.002. Students in the evidence based cohort received statistically superior grades for the Presentation Skills section (96.43 + 6.39 versus 82.47 + 14.12, P=0.0004.Conclusion: An evidence based journal club is a reasonable and effective alternative to the traditionally structured journal club when the primary objective is to assist students in understanding evidence based concepts and to apply current literature to clinical practice.

  18. Evidence-based history taking under "time constraint"

    Alireza Moayyeri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians all through the world visit patients under time limitations. The most important troubled clinical skill under "time constraint" is the diagnostic approach. In this situation, clinicians need some diagnostic approaches to reduce both diagnostic time and errors. It seems that highly experienced physicians utilize some special tactics in this regard. Evidence-based medicine (EBM as a relatively new paradigm for clinical practice stresses on using research evidences in diagnostic evaluations. The authors aimed to evaluate experts′ strategies and assess what EBM can add to these tactics. They reviewed diagnostic strategies of some veteran internists in their busy outpatient clinics and proposed an evidence-based diagnostic model engaging clinical experience and research evidence. It appears that every clinician utilizes a set of "key pointer" questions for decision-making. In addition to use of evidence-based resources for making differential diagnosis and estimating utility of various diseases, clinicians should use "key pointers" with significant likelihood ratios and from independent systems to reduce time and errors of history taking. Clinical trainees can improve their practice by constructing their own set of pointers from valid research evidences. Using this diagnostic model, EBM can help physicians to struggle against their "time constraint".

  19. Evidence-Based Practice and School Libraries: Interconnections of Evidence, Advocacy, and Actions

    Todd, Ross J.

    2015-01-01

    This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…

  20. Pediatric Depression: Is There Evidence to Improve Evidence-Based Treatments?

    Brent, David A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been advances in our ability to treat child and adolescent depression, use of evidence-based treatments still results in many patients with residual symptoms. Advances in our understanding of cognitive, emotional, and ecological aspects of early-onset depression have the potential to lead to improvements in the assessment and…

  1. TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter Performances Under AC Bias and FDM for Athena

    Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; de Vries, C. P.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Bruijn, M. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Gao, J. R.; den Herder, J.-W.; den Hartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; Kelley, R. E.; Khosropanah, P.; Kilbourne, C. A.; van der Kuur, J.; Lee, S.-J.; van den Linden, A. J.; Porter, F. S.; Ravensberg, K.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Suzuki, T.; Wassell, E. J.; Kiviranta, M.

    2016-07-01

    Athena is a European X-ray observatory, scheduled for launch in ˜ 2028. Athena will employ a high-resolution imaging spectrometer called X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU), consisting of an array of ˜ 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter pixels. For the readout of X-IFU, we are developing frequency domain multiplexing, which is the baseline readout system. In this paper, we report on the performance of a TES X-ray calorimeter array fabricated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at MHz frequencies for the baseline of X-IFU detector. During single-pixel AC bias characterization, we measured X-ray energy resolutions (at 6 keV) of about 2.9 eV at both 2.3 and 3.7 MHz. Furthermore, in the multiplexing mode, we measured X-ray energy resolutions of about 2.9 eV at 1.3 and 1.7 MHz.

  2. Real Time Wind Turbine Simulator Based On Frequency Controlled AC Servomotor

    Emil CEANGÃ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution to the development of a real time wind turbine simulator. The simulator is designed to generate wind power on its shaft, and provide the static and dynamic characteristics of a given turbine. The general structure of the simulator is composed of two subsystems: a “soft simulator” which realizes the real time simulation of the wind turbine, on the basis of the mathematical model, an electromechanical tracking system which receives the reference signal from the softsimulator, and provides a measurable output variable transmitted as response variable to the soft-simulator. The work concerns a wind turbine simulator using a tracking system realized on the basis on a frequency controlled AC servo-motor. This servo-motor is mechanically coupled with a pendulum machine, which realises the shaft torque of the electrical generator. The experimental system is built around the DS1103 PPC Controlled Board (dSPACE, which offers a rapid control prototyping, by Matlab-Simulink software tools. Experimental results from the real time WTS are presented.

  3. Hall-Effect Based Semi-Fast AC On-Board Charging Equipment for Electric Vehicles

    Eva González-Romera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  4. TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter Performances Under AC Bias and FDM for Athena

    Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; de Vries, C. P.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Bruijn, M. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Gao, J. R.; den Herder, J.-W.; den Hartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; Kelley, R. E.; Khosropanah, P.; Kilbourne, C. A.; van der Kuur, J.; Lee, S.-J.; van den Linden, A. J.; Porter, F. S.; Ravensberg, K.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Suzuki, T.; Wassell, E. J.; Kiviranta, M.

    2016-02-01

    Athena is a European X-ray observatory, scheduled for launch in ˜ 2028. Athena will employ a high-resolution imaging spectrometer called X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU), consisting of an array of ˜ 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter pixels. For the readout of X-IFU, we are developing frequency domain multiplexing, which is the baseline readout system. In this paper, we report on the performance of a TES X-ray calorimeter array fabricated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at MHz frequencies for the baseline of X-IFU detector. During single-pixel AC bias characterization, we measured X-ray energy resolutions (at 6 keV) of about 2.9 eV at both 2.3 and 3.7 MHz. Furthermore, in the multiplexing mode, we measured X-ray energy resolutions of about 2.9 eV at 1.3 and 1.7 MHz.

  5. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented. PMID:22163697

  6. Structured analysis of iron-based amorphous alloy coating dep osited by AC-HVAF spray%通过AC-HVAF方法制备铁基非晶合金涂层的结构分析

    叶凤霞; 陈燕; 余鹏; 罗强; 曲寿江; 沈军

    2014-01-01

    本研究通过活性燃烧高速燃气喷涂(AC-HVAF)方法制备出了均匀致密的铁基非晶化合金涂层。通过调制AC-HVAF喷涂过程的工艺参数,研究了喷涂枪长、喷涂距离和送粉率对涂层非晶化程度的影响,得出控制枪长是形成高质量非晶化涂层的关键,而喷涂距离和送粉率决定了涂层的厚度和形成速率。制备出的铁基非晶合金与基体结合致密,孔隙率较低,完全的非晶化结构有效的保持了铁基非晶合金优异的力学性能,可以对基体材料进行很好的防护。%The uniform and compact Fe-based amorphous alloy coating was prepared by active combustion high velocity air fuel (AC-HVAF) spray method. By tuning the parameters of AC-HVAF spray process, the influence of the spraying gun length, spraying distance, and powder feed rate on non-crystallization has been studied carefully. Results indicate that spraying gun length is the key factor in forming perfect amorphous coating. Spraying distance and powder feed rate may determine the thickness and formation rate of the coating. The prepared coatings have a tight adhesion with the substrate, low porosity, and good non-crystallization, which would effectively maintain the excellent mechanical properties of the Fe-based amorphous alloy. The coating can provide a good protection for the substrate material.

  7. Nursing implementation science: how evidence-based nursing requires evidence-based implementation.

    Achterberg, T. van; Schoonhoven, L.J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evidence is not always used in practice, and many examples of problematic implementation of research into practice exist. The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction and overview of current developments in implementation science and to apply these to nursing. METHODS: We discuss a f

  8. Using evidence-based management in a medical practice.

    Solomon, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based management (EBMa) is the application of the evidence-based medicine process to making management decisions. EBMa has been described in a number of publications, which note the advantages of utilizing EBMa and offer generic guidance on the nature of EBMa evidence. This paper provides a specific EBMa pathway for physician practice and health system mangers to use to conduct EBMa database searches. It provides an example of conducting an EBMa search for a practice-based management problem. It describes how to do database searches using Advance Google Scholar, PubMed, and other data sources. It discusses challenges to conducting quality searches, including access to paid subscription databases, and offers suggestions to improve searches. Finally, the paper discusses the importance of establishing a culture of inquiry and using rapid cycle improvement methods to develop organizational EBMa support so health systems will devote adequate resources to information acquisition. PMID:20222263

  9. Evidence-based uncertainty in mental health nursing.

    Franks, V

    2004-02-01

    The drive towards evidence-based practice is part of a modern reflective and caring service. However there is a paradox at the heart of the notion of evidence-based care. In order to perform any systemized examination of treatment there has to be a conscious acknowledgement of uncertainty about that treatment. This is uncomfortable and when research does find evidence in favour of a treatment, there is a relief and a return to conviction about what is the best. The paradox is that it seems the most valued research practices are predicated on generalizations about patient treatments and categories. However, nursing care is based on the notion of the uniqueness of the patient and the nurse-patient relationship. Sometimes it is necessary to address the particular and not to rush to generalizations and certainty. The psychoanalytic framework promotes a capacity to tolerate uncertainty and provides a model for understanding conflicting feelings, which can occur within the nurse-patient relationship. The author proposes the psychoanalytic observational method as an adjunct to other research methods. This method places certain kinds of evidence within the rubric of evidence-based nursing practice. The evidence collected in this method is the evidence of the conscious and unconscious experience within the nurse-patient relationship. The author will describe and argue for the place of this research method within the canon of other more widely practised methods within mental health practice. She will propose that for safe practice it is necessary to value and examine the veracity of the feelings and tacit understanding of the nurse. She contends that the current climate of excessive bureaucracy and persecutory risk management is having a damaging effect on both the research process and effective nursing care. PMID:14723645

  10. Multi-Agent-Based Distributed State of Charge Balancing Control for Distributed Energy Storage Units in AC Microgrids

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent based distributed control algorithm has been proposed to achieve state of charge (SoC) balance of distributed energy storage (DES) units in an AC microgrid. The proposal uses frequency scheduling instead of adaptive droop gain. Each DES unit is taken as an agent...... and they schedule their own frequency reference given of the real power droop controller according to the SoC values of the other DES units. Further, to obtain the average SoC value of DES, dynamic average consensus algorithm is adapted by each agent. A smallsignal model of the system is developed in order...... to verify the stability of the control system and control parameters design. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and also show the robustness against communication topology changes....

  11. SoC-Based Dynamic Power Sharing Method with AC-Bus Voltage Restoration for Microgrid Applications

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.; Huang, Lipei

    shared in the energy storage system. The relationship between the droop coefficient and SoC are studied deeply and the small signal model is developed to verify the stability of the control system. It is found that the active power sharing speed becomes faster with higher exponent of SoC. At the same...... time, in order to restore the AC-bus voltage, secondary control is employed to eliminate the deviations of the voltage frequency and amplitude caused by the droop control, with the droop coefficients adjusting according to the SoCs. The model of the secondary control scheme for SoC-based droop method...... is developed and its stability is discussed. The theoretical analysis is demonstrated by both simulation and experimental results....

  12. Evidence-Based Practice and Quality Improvement in Nursing Education.

    Balakas, Karen; Smith, Joan R

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, nursing education has experienced several significant changes in response to challenges faced by healthcare organizations. Accrediting organizations have called for improved quality and safety in care, and the Institute of Medicine has identified evidence-based practice and quality improvement as 2 core competencies to include in the curricula for all healthcare professionals. However, the application of these competencies reaches far beyond the classroom setting. For nurses to possess the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to apply evidence-based practice and quality improvement to the real-world setting, academic-clinical institution partnerships are vital. PMID:27465447

  13. Strategies for searching and managing evidence-based practice resources.

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based nursing practice requires the use of effective search strategies to locate relevant resources to guide practice change. Continuing education and staff development professionals can assist nurses to conduct effective literature searches. This article provides suggestions for strategies to aid in identifying search terms. Strategies also are recommended for refining searches by using controlled vocabulary, truncation, Boolean operators, PICOT (Population/Patient Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) searching, and search limits. Suggestions for methods of managing resources also are identified. Using these approaches will assist in more effective literature searches and may help evidence-based practice decisions. PMID:25221988

  14. Proposing an Evidence-Based Strategy for Software Requirements Engineering.

    Lindoerfer, Doris; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses an evidence-based approach to software requirements engineering. The approach is called evidence-based, since it uses publications on the specific problem as a surrogate for stakeholder interests, to formulate risks and testing experiences. This complements the idea that agile software development models are more relevant, in which requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. The strategy is exemplified and applied to the development of a Software Requirements list used to develop software systems for patient registries. PMID:27577464

  15. Evidence-based investigations and treatments of recurrent pregnancy loss

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Bosch, Ernesto; Daya, Salim; Delves, Peter J; Hviid, Thomas V; Kutteh, William H; Laird, Susan M; Li, Tin-Chiu; van der Ven, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    , thrombophilic, immunologic, and immunogenetic aspects of RPL discussed methodologic problems threatening the validity of research in RPL during and after an international workshop on the evidence-based management of RPL. CONCLUSION(S): Most RPL patients have several risk factors for miscarriage, and an......OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of currently used investigations and treatments offered to women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and, from an evidence-based point of view, to evaluate the usefulness of these interventions. DESIGN: Ten experts on epidemiologic, genetic, anatomic, endocrinologic...

  16. Achievements and Limitations of Evidence-Based Medicine.

    Sheridan, Desmond J; Julian, Desmond G

    2016-07-12

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has a long history, but was revived in the early 1990s by a campaign mounted by a movement that took its name. The EBM movement focused attention on the need for greater objectivity in medical decision-making and led to the Cochrane Collaboration, which provides reviews of evidence on the basis of comparative research. Important limitations of EBM's effect on medicine have also emerged. Failure to acknowledge the limitations of clinical trials and systematic reviews has limited their applicability to individual patients' circumstances. An almost exclusive focus on drugs and devices has left vast areas of health care in an evidence vacuum. An overdependence on commissions for its research may have limited its independence in selecting what it investigates. EBM needs to widen its scope beyond drugs and devices to address many areas that often lack evidence at present, notably, health policy, management, and reforms. PMID:27386775

  17. Evidence fusion procedure based on hybrid DSm model

    Hongfei Li; Hongbin Jin; Kangsheng Tian

    2014-01-01

    Dezert-Smarandache (DSm) theory, a new informa-tion fusion theory, is widely applied in image processing, multiple targets tracking identification, and other areas for its excel ent pro-cessing ability of imperfect information. However, earlier research on DSm theory mainly focused on one sort of questions. An ev-idence fusion procedure is proposed based on the hybrid DSm model to compensate for a lack of research on the entire informa-tion procedure of DSm theory. This paper analyzes the evidence fusion procedure, as wel as correlative node input and output in-formation. Key steps and detailed procedures of evidence fusion are also discussed. Final y, an experiment il ustrates the efficiency of the proposed evidence fusion procedure.

  18. Advancing the evidence base in cancer: psychosocial multicenter trials

    Sanson-Fisher Robert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is associated with significant distress and psychosocial morbidity. Although psychosocial interventions have been developed in an attempt to improve psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients and survivors, there is continued debate about whether there is adequate high-level evidence to establish the effectiveness of these interventions. The evidence base is limited as a result of numerous challenges faced by those attempting to conduct psychosocial intervention trials within the health system. Barriers include insufficient participant recruitment, difficulty generalizing from single-trial studies, difficulty in building and managing research teams with multidisciplinary expertise, lack of research design expertise and a lack of incentives for researchers conducting intervention research. To strengthen the evidence base, more intervention studies employing methodologically rigorous research designs are necessary. Methods In order to advance the evidence base of interventions designed to improve psychosocial outcomes for cancer patients and survivors, we propose the formation of a collaborative trials group that conducts multicenter trials to test the effectiveness of such interventions. Results Establishment of such a group would improve the quality of the evidence base in psychosocial research in cancer patients, by increasing support for conducting intervention research and providing intervention research training opportunities. A multidisciplinary collaborative group conducting multicenter trials would have the capacity to overcome many of the barriers that currently exist. Conclusions A stronger evidence base is necessary to identify effective psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. The proposed formation of a psycho-oncology collaborative trials group that conducts multicenter trials to test the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions would assist in achieving this outcome.

  19. Training Methods to Improve Evidence-Based Medicine Skills

    Filiz Ozyigit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based medicine (EBM is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It is estimated that only 15% of medical interventions is evidence-based. Increasing demand, new technological developments, malpractice legislations, a very speed increase in knowledge and knowledge sources push the physicians forward for EBM, but at the same time increase load of physicians by giving them the responsibility to improve their skills. Clinical maneuvers are needed more, as the number of clinical trials and observational studies increase. However, many of the physicians, who are in front row of patient care do not use this increasing evidence. There are several examples related to different training methods in order to improve skills of physicians for evidence based practice. There are many training methods to improve EBM skills and these trainings might be given during medical school, during residency or as continuous trainings to the actual practitioners in the field. It is important to discuss these different training methods in our country as well and encourage dissemination of feasible and effective methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 245-254

  20. Feedback informed treatment: evidence-based practice meets social construction.

    Tilsen, Julie; McNamee, Sheila

    2015-03-01

    This article explores the challenges presented by the mandate for evidence-based practice for family therapists who identify with the philosophical stance of social construction. The history of psychotherapy outcome research is reviewed, as are current findings that provide empirical evidence for an engaged, dialogic practice. The authors suggest that the binary between empiricism and social construction may be unhinged by understanding empiricism as a particular discursive frame (i.e., a particular way of talking, acting, and being in the world), one of many available as a way of understanding and talking about our work. Through a case vignette, the authors introduce the evidence-based practice of Feedback Informed Treatment as an elaboration of social construction, and as an example of bridging the gap between the discursive frames of empiricism and social construction. PMID:25394600

  1. Evidence-based practices in preconception period and pregnancy

    Ümran Oskay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a special period which affects the women’s life aspect bio-psycho- social. In this period, pregnant reguires medical care and psychosocial support. It begins with the preconception period. Providing quality care during preconception period, will affect pregnancy and other periods. Quality of care and avoiding unnecessary applications will be with evidence-based practices. The purpose of health professionals is to take control/ prevent maternal and fetal health risks, protect and promote health in the period of pregnancy by physical, psychological and social holistic care. When they provide care, they must guide evidence based practices and integrate them with the clinical practices.The purpose of this review is to evaluate the degree of evidence of the interventions that are often applied preconception period and during pregnancy.

  2. Evidence Based Medicine Laboratory Tests and Preanalytical Variables

    Turhan B et al.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The practice of evidence-based medicine means logical integration of individual clinical experiences with the best available evidences from systematic research. The recent clinical practice tends to apply evidence based procedures instead of individual clinical opinions. True interpretation of laboratory results is important on diagnosis, treatment and follow-up as well as time and cost effectivity. Although clinicians expect decisive and clear results from the laboratory tests, sometimes unexpected results can be seen. Most of these occasions are resulting from demographic properties, obtaining the sample and other external factors rather then laboratory procedures. It is important to know preanalytical variations that affect the laboratory test results to make quick and accurate assessments for the primary care physicians who are getting increasing number of patients. The aim of this review is to introduce a practical source to the primary care physicians by briefing the effects of preanalytical variables on laboratory test results.

  3. A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices.

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Cheadle, Allen; Hannon, Peggy A; Forehand, Mark; Lichiello, Patricia; Mahoney, Eustacia; Snyder, Susan; Yarrow, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, we created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of our framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations. We present 2 examples illustrating the framework: EnhanceFitness, for physical activity among older adults, and American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, for chronic disease prevention among workers. We also discuss 7 practical roles that researchers play in dissemination and related research: sorting through the evidence, conducting formative research, assessing readiness of user organizations, balancing fidelity and reinvention, monitoring and evaluating, influencing the outer context, and testing dissemination approaches. PMID:22172189

  4. Evidence-based practices in preconception period and pregnancy

    Şükran Başgöl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a special period which affects the women’s life aspect bio-psycho- social. In this period, pregnant reguires medical care and psychosocial support. It begins with the preconception period. Providing quality care during preconception period, will affect pregnancy and other periods. Quality of care and avoiding unnecessary applications will be with evidence-based practices. The purpose of health professionals is to take control/ prevent maternal and fetal health risks, protect and promote health in the period of pregnancy by physical, psychological and social holistic care. When they provide care, they should be guided by evidence based practices and integrate them with the clinical practices. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the degree of evidence of the interventions that are often applied preconception period and during pregnancy.     

  5. Evidence, discovery and justification: the case of evidence-based medicine.

    Gaeta, Rodolfo; Gentile, Nelida

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop some thoughts on philosophical issues surrounding evidence-based medicine (EBM), especially related to its epistemological dimensions. After considering the scope of several philosophical concepts that are relevant to the discussion, and drawing some distinctions among different aspects of EBM, we evaluate the status of EBM and suggest that EBM is mainly a meta-methodology. Then, we outline an evaluation of the thesis that EBM is a 'new paradigm' in the practice of medicine. We argue that EBM does not seem to have arisen in the way Kuhn imagined paradigms to arise but as a conscious, deliberate proposal, more as programme than as a reality. Furthermore, there is something paradoxical about appealing to evidence or to the best evidence as a way of promoting a new paradigm. For the proposal seems to assume that there is something that by its own virtue is the best evidence for a given time. But this idea would have been rejected by Kuhn. If EBM involves a genuine new alternative in the field of medicine and shows a way in which the discipline will endure henceforth, this indicates that it is not what Kuhn once called a 'paradigm' and even, paradoxically, it is good evidence that scientific paradigms do not exist, at least in medicine. PMID:26200433

  6. Evidence or Evidence Based Practice? An Analysis of IASL Research Forum Papers, 1998-2009

    Marcia A. Mardis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Conferences are essential opportunities for professional development and for learning about research. This study analyses papers presented in the Research Forum track of the International Association of School Librarians (IASL conferences to determine whether the amount of school library research reporting increased or decreased over time; who (i.e., what author roles and affiliations has written about research; which countries were represented in the research articles; what topics were discussed in research articles; and what research methodologies were used. The aim was to determine the extent to which the Research Forum provides research evidence that relates to practice.Methods - This study continues the longitudinal analysis of published school library research begun by Clyde (1996 by analyzing Research Forum papers published in IASL conference proceedings from 1998-2009 and using the same approaches and metrics as previous studies by Clyde (e.g., 1996; 2002; 2004, Clyde and Oberg (2004, and Oberg (2006. Results - Conference paper topics, author origins, quantities, and research approaches remained static through the 11 years analyzed. The analysis reveals that the papers’ authors, methods, and topics reflected those found in previous studies of school library research. As well as replicating previous studies, the role of academic research at a practitioner-based conference was investigated. Conclusions - Based on long-established imperatives from leaders in the profession, the IASL conferences provide both evidence and evidence -based practice for school librarians from all over the world. However, when scholarly research is shared at practitioner venues, it is possible that school librarians may assume that research results constitute evidence -based practice (EBP, not evidence upon which practice should be based. This distinction is important if considering that the purpose of academic research is to objectively inform, not

  7. Prevention and primary care research for children. The need for evidence to precede "evidence-based".

    Kleinman, L C

    1998-05-01

    Medical care in the United States continues to face tremendous financial pressures. Public and private health policy claim to encourage primary care and preventive services, but also discourage services that have not been demonstrated to be effective and/or cost-effective. This article suggests a model to illustrate the conceptual relationship between traditional American medical care and "evidenced-based" medicine. It further examines how the lack of an adequate research base makes a move to purely evidence-based care premature for primary care and prevention services. The paper defines a new conceptual statistic, the uncertainty index, as the proportion of non-refuted current practice that is also not corroborated by research evidence. The greater the uncertainty index, the less appropriate is a clinical model restricted to evidence-based care. Specific theoretical barriers to outcomes research in prevention are discussed and simple criteria to determine the desirable components of care are suggested. The need for theoretical and empirical research into primary care and prevention, especially for children, is emphasized. Care that is of low risk, not of extremely high cost, and that is generally believed useful by the community of practitioners is particularly desirable in the absence of data refuting its value. PMID:9635081

  8. Evidence-Based Library Management: The Leadership Challenge

    Lakos, Amos

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an extension of the author's earlier work on developing management information services and creating a culture of assessment in libraries. The author will focus observations on the use of data in decision-making in libraries, specifically on the role of leadership in making evidence-based decision a reality, and will review new…

  9. Evidence Based Order Sets as a Nursing Care Planning System

    LaCrosse, Lisa M.; Heermann, Judith; Azevedo, Karen; Sorrentino, Catherine; Straub, Dawn; O'Dowd, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    The process for developing the nursing care planning (NCP) function for integration into a clinical information system (CIS) will be described. This NCP system uses evidence based order sets or interventions that are specific to a problem with associated patient focused goals or outcomes. The problem, order set, goal framework will eventually be used by all disciplines in the patient focused record.

  10. Fostering Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Education.

    Rambur, Betty

    1999-01-01

    Evidence-based nursing practice is impeded by low numbers of baccalaureate nurses, lack of critical perspectives toward research, the volume of information, and conflicting worldviews. Teaching strategies to address the challenge include fostering the ability to question and initiating teacher/student dialog. (SK)