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Sample records for acrylonitrile

  1. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    2010-04-01

    ..., distilled water, 8 percent or 50 percent ethanol, 3 percent acetic acid, and either n-heptane or an... conditions for the use of acrylonitrile copolymers have been, or soon will be, undertaken. Toxicity...

  2. Starch Modification by Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile

    刘瑞贤; 李莉; 茹宗玲; 张黎明; 高建平; 田汝川

    2003-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto starch under the initiation of potassium permanganate was investigated. The effect of various reaction conditions on the graft copolymerization was studied. The relationships between the grafting rate and the initiator concentration of potassium permanganate, monomer acrylonitrile and backbone starch, as well as reaction temperature were established. The oxidation reaction of starch with manganic ions and valence changes of manganic ions during the graft copolymerization were discussed. The results show that manganic ion Mn7+ underwent a series of valence changes during the graft copolymerization: Mn(Ⅶ) → Mn(Ⅳ) → Mn(Ⅲ) → Mn(Ⅱ). The grafting rate of the graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto starch is also given.

  3. Acrylonitrile Potentiates Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Rat

    Fechter, Laurence D.; Gearhart, Caroline; Shirwany, Najeeb A

    2003-01-01

    Acrylonitrile, one of the 50 most commonly produced industrial chemicals, has recently been identified as a promoter of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This agent has the potential to produce oxidative stress through multiple pathways. We hypothesize that acrylonitrile potentiates NIHL as a consequence of oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to characterize acrylonitrile exposure conditions that promote permanent NIHL in rats and determine the ability of this nitrile to prod...

  4. [Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].

    Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves. PMID:11775358

  5. Catalytic Polymerization of Acrylonitrile by Khulays Bentonite

    Matar M. Al-Esaimi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN catalyzed with exchanged Khulays bentonite . The influence of various polymerization parameters ( e.g., concentrations of Potassium Persulfate (K2S2O8 and monomer , various of organic solvents, and different temperature has been investigated. It was found that the rate of polymerization of AN was found to be dependent on monomer concentration, initiator and temperature. The activation energy of polymerization was calculated .Thermal properties of the polymer were studied by TGA and DSC techniques. © 2007 CREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 5 February 2007; Received in revised: 19 April 2007; Accepted: 7 May 2007[How to Cite: M. M. Al-Esaimi. (2007. Catalytic Polymerization of Acrylonitrile by Khulays Bentonite. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 32-36.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.1.4.6-10][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.1.4.6-10 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/4] 

  6. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation of acrylonitrile.

    Krichevskaya, Marina; Jõks, Svetlana; Kachina, Anna; Preis, Sergei

    2009-05-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of acrylonitrile (AN) on titanium dioxide in the gaseous phase was studied. AN readily undergoes photocatalytic degradation in a gas-solid system by using TiO(2) Degussa P25. The AN PCO volatile products, visible in the infrared spectra, included nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide. Longer contact time resulted in deeper oxidation of AN with decreasing hydrogen cyanide and increasing nitrogen dioxide content. The effect of temperature increasing from 60 to 130 degrees C was observed to be slightly negative in terms of AN degradation rate. However, the effect of increased temperature was noticeable in terms of the character and yields of the PCO products: HCN peaks diminished with growing peaks of NO(2). PMID:19424531

  7. Acrylonitrile characterization and high energetic photochemistry at Titan temperatures

    Toumi, A.; Piétri, N.; Chiavassa, T.; Couturier-Tamburelli, I.

    2016-05-01

    Laboratory infrared spectra of amorphous and crystalline acrylonitrile (C2H3CN) ices were recorded between 4000 and 650 cm-1. Heating up the acrylonitrile sample to 160 K shows details on the transition between amorphous and crystalline ice at ∼94 K. This molecule can be used as an indicator of the surface temperature of Titan since it is known also to be ∼94 K. The desorption energy of acrylonitrile was determined using two methods (IRTF and mass spectrometries) to be around 35 kJ mol-1. Solid phase acrylonitrile was irradiated with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light at low temperatures (20, 70, 95 and 130 K) using a microwave-discharge hydrogen flow lamp. Isoacrylonitrile, cyanoacetylene (HC3N), isocyanoacetylene (HC2NC), acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were identified as photoproducts by using FTIR spectroscopy. The branching ratio of each pathway has been calculated for the different temperatures. We have estimated the acrylonitrile, HCN and HC3N νCtbnd N stretching band strengths to be respectively A = 3.98 ×10-18 , A = 1.38 ×10-18 and A = 2.92 ×10-18cmmolecule-1 .

  8. Radiation grafting of styrene and acrylonitrile to cellulose and polyethylene

    Hassanpour, S.

    1999-06-01

    Radiation induced graft polymerization is one of the best methods for obtaining material with new properties. In this work, radiation grafting of styrene, mixture of styrene and acrylonitrile to cellulose and polyethylene in the presence of methanol as a solvent by mutual method is discussed. At a low dose rate, high grafting yields were obtained from the two systems used, due to lesser termination of free radicals with the polymer growing radicals and recombination of primary radicals, resulting in a longer chain length of the grafted copolymer. In the system of styrene and acrylonitrile, comonomer technique was used and the styrene controlled the homopolymer formation during graft polymerization. Water uptake of cellulose decreased by increasing the grafting yields. Grafted cellulose can be molded to some extent and in a high percent of grafting, a new transparent material was obtained. By radiation grafting of styrene-acrylonitrile to low density polyethylene a high degree of crosslinking was observed.

  9. Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers

    J. Stabik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to 25% by weight were prepared and tested. Additionally three commercial compounds were tested as reference formulations. The following test were performed: Shore hardness, short-term and long-term elastic recovery, tensile strength, elongation at break and migration of plasticizers from gasket material to unplasticized PVC.Findings: Application of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers as PVC modifier enhanced many properties essential for window gasket materials such as long-term and short term elastic recovery, tensile strength and elongation at break. At the same time addition of these elastomers did not change migration of other plasticizers contained in gasket material. Obtained results indicated that among tested compounds best properties as gasket material exhibited plasticized PVC with 23% of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer Chemigum P83. Reference commercial compounds exhibited worse performance properties than compounds with this acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer. Practical implications: Research programme allowed to elaborate plasticized PVC compounds modified with acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer that can be industrially applied for PVC window gaskets.Originality/value: Obtained results are of scientific and practical value. Research programme allowed to investigate the influence of elastomeric modifiers on plasticized PVC properties. Research results are also of practical importance.

  10. Commercial Application of the XYA-5 Catalyst in Acrylonitrile Unit

    Li Zhengguang

    2008-01-01

    The XYA-5 catalyst was first applied in commercial scale on an 80-kt/a acrylonitrile unit at the Daqing Refining and Chemical Company.Test results had shown that the once-through yield of acrylonitrile exceeded 80% with the unit consumption of propylene reaching 1032 kg on each ton of acryionitrile.The product quality could be easily put under control and the distribution of reaction products was reasonable with good cleaning performance and stability of the catalyst that was suitable for use on this commercial unit.

  11. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    2010-04-01

    .... (e) Accelerated extraction end test. The modified copolymer shall yield acrylonitrile monomer not in... room temperature. A sample of the extracting solvent is then withdrawn and analyzed for acrylonitrile... Acrylonitrile Monomer in Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food Simulating Solvents,” which is...

  12. Polyacrylamide polymers derived from acrylonitrile without intermediate isolation

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1977-04-05

    Hydrolyzed and neutralized acrylonitrile is polymerized in solution without isolation to produce a high molecular weight polyacrylamide useful for mobility control in secondary recovery of petroleum. The polyacrylamide optionally may be hydrolyzed, methylolated, and sulfomethylated to further enhance its water-thickening properties. This procedure reduces the cost of making polyacrylamide. (5 claims)

  13. Thermal Stability of Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) Copolymers

    HAN Na; ZHANG Xing-xiang; WANG Xue-chen

    2008-01-01

    Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) copolymer was synthesized by water depositing polymerization and has a typical feed ratio of 85/15. And then 1 - 3 wt% lauryl alcohol maleic anhydride (LAM) was adopted as stabilizer to mix with the acrylonitrile based copolymer. The mixtures were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR ), Gel Permeation Chromatography ( GPC ), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), optic microscope and Ubbelohde viscosimetryr etc. The melting point (Tm) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the 85/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with LAM all decrease with the increase of stabilizer content. The lowest Tg and Tm were 116.1 ℃ and 209. 1℃ respectively at the heating rate of 100℃/min when the content of LAM is 2 wt%. The 85°/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with 1 - 3 w t% LAM possess good thermal stability up to 30 min at 220 ℃.

  14. Study on irradiated polymerization of acrylonitrile by NMR

    Sup 13 C CP/MAS spectra and nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE) at room temperature have been measured for acrylonitrile (AN) in homophase irradiated polymerization. With the increase of radiation dose the chemical shift of cracking peaks and NOE are variation. This implies that the polymerized mechanism of AN were changed with the variation of irradiated doses and dose rate. There is the stronger affinity electron group (-CN) in acrylonitrile monomer. It may be polymerized by various ways and mechanism and be gained the polymer of difference structures and molecular weight of polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Starmicarbon and Starker obtained higher molecular weight of polyacrylonitrile by peroxysulfate-pyrosulfite in oxidation-reduction system. The superhigh molecular weight of PAN was synthesized chemically according to the method of Wu et. al. by suspension polymerization. In this paper we discussed that the relative concentrations of steric dyads and triads in the chain structure in PAN and the irradiation polymerized mechanism of acrylonitrile monomer in room temperature by different dose and dose rate

  15. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  16. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I

    Chinchilla, Diana, E-mail: Diana_Chinchilla@yahoo.com; Kilheeney, Heather, E-mail: raindropszoo@yahoo.com; Vitello, Lidia B., E-mail: lvitello@niu.edu; Erman, James E., E-mail: jerman@niu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) binds acrylonitrile in a pH-independent fashion. •The spectrum of the CcP/acrylonitrile complex is that of a 6c–ls ferric heme. •The acrylonitrile/CcP complex has a K{sub D} value of 1.1 ± 0.2 M. •CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover rate of 0.61 min{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32 ± 0.16 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} and 0.34 ± 0.15 s{sup −1}, respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1 ± 0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a “peroxygenase”-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min{sup −1} at pH 6.0.

  17. Equivalent lifetime prediction of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber for thermal aging

    Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR), which is used for O-ring material as elastomeric sealed diaphragm valve in the nuclear power plants, is examined. The thermal degradation is accelerated at 130 .deg. C by arrhenius exploit method using the activation energy calculated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature are verified for thermally aged NBR. The relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and elongation at break are also investigated. The threshold valued of thermally aged NBR is a ten year in the change of elongation at break

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Acrylonitrile Copolymers by Emulsion Technique

    Acrylonitrile (AN) binary copolymers with styrene (St) and maleic acid (MA) of different compositions were prepared by free radical emulsion copolymerization using potassium persulfate and sodium bisulfite as a redox pair initiation system and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as an emulsifier. Based on the copolymerization data of the (AN/St) and (AN/MA) in emulsion polymerization process, the reactivity ratios of the prepared copolymers were investigated by different methods. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction were studied to characterize the prepared copolymers. Physicomechanical properties of some copolymeric lattices films were also identified

  19. Structure and activity of tellurium-cerium oxide acrylonitrile catalysts

    Ammoxidation of propylene to acrylonitrile (ACN) was investigated over various silica-supported (Te,Ce)O catalysts at 360 and 4400C. The binary oxide system used consists of a single nonstoichiometric fluorite-type phase α-(Ce,Te)O2 up to about 80 mole% TeO2 and a tellurium-saturated solid solution β-(Ce,Te)O2 at higher tellurium concentrations. The ACN yield varies almost linearly with the tellurium content of (Ce,Te)O2. The β-(Ce,Te)O2 phase is the most active component of the system (propylene conversion and ACN selectivity at 440 C of 76.7 and 74%, respectively) and is slightly more selective to ACN than α-Te02. Tellurium reduces the overoxidation properties of cerium and selective oxidation occurs through Te(IV)-bonded oxygen

  20. BARRIER PROPERTY AND STRUCTURE OF ACRYLONITRILE/ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS

    YANG Zhenghua; LI Yuesheng

    1997-01-01

    A series of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) or ethyl acrylate (EA) as comonomer (5-23 wt%) was prepared by free-radical copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at 1.0 MPa and at 30 ℃, and those to water vapor also measured at 100% relative humidity and at 30 ℃. All the AN/acrylic copolymers are semicrystalline. As the acrylate content increase, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide are increased progressively, but those to water vapor are decreased progressively. The gas permeability coefficients of the polymers were correlated with free-volume fractions or the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  1. Determination of potentially carcinogenic compounds in food : trace analysis of vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin and diethylpyrocarbonate

    Lierop, van J.B.H.

    1979-01-01

    Toxicological evidence shows that some monomers present in packaging materials may be carcinogenic. These monomers, notably vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile and epichlorohydrin, may migrate from the packaging material into the food. Therefore, severe limits are set to the contents of

  2. Grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material derived from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo, a lignocellulosic biopolymer material, is of interest as feedstock for production of cellulose derivatives by chemical functionalization. Optimization of grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material (average Degree of Polymerization 816, isolated from bamboo (Dendrocalamus stictus was performed by varying the process parameters such as duration of soaking of cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution, ceric ammonium nitrate concentration, polymerization time, temperature of reaction and acrylonitrile concentration to study their influence on percent grafting and grafting efficiency. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material derived from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus in heterogenous medium can be initiated effectively with ceric ammonium nitrate. The optimum reaction conditions obtained for grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material were: duration of dipping cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution 1 hr, ceric ammonium nitrate concentration 0.02 M, acrylonitrile concentration 24.6 mol/anhydroglucose unit, temperature of reaction 40°C and polymerization time 4 hrs. The percent grafting for optimized samples is 210.3% and grafting efficiency is 97%. The characterization of the grafted products by means of FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy furnished the evidence of grafting of acrylonitrile onto the cellulosic material.

  3. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  4. The Formation and characteristics of Acrylonitrile/Urea Inclusion Compound

    Zou, Jun-Ting; Pang, Wen-Min; Shi, Lei; Lu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The formation process and composition of the acrylonitrile/urea inclusion compounds (AN/UIC) with different aging times and AN/urea molar feed ratios are studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is suggested that DSC could be one of the helpful methods to determine the guest/host ratio and the heat of decomposition. Meanwhile, the guest/host ratio and heat of deformation are obtained, which are 1.17 and 5361.53 J/mol, respectively. It is found that the formation of AN/UIC depends on the aging time. The formation process ends after enough aging time and the composition of AN/UIC becomes stable. It is suggested AN molecules included in urea canal lattice may be packed flat against each other. XRD results reveal that once AN molecules enter urea lattice, AN/UIC are formed, which possess the final structure. When AN molecules are sufficient, the content of AN/UIC increased as aging time prolonging until urea tunnels are saturated by AN.

  5. Selective Vulnerability of the Cochlear Basal Turn to Acrylonitrile and Noise

    B. Pouyatos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to acrylonitrile, a high-production industrial chemical, can promote noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in the rat even though this agent does not itself produce permanent hearing loss. The mechanism by which acrylonitrile promotes NIHL includes oxidative stress as antioxidant drugs can partially protect the cochlea from acrylonitrile+noise. Acrylonitrile depletes glutathione levels while noise can increase the formation of reactive oxygen species. It was previously noted that the high-frequency or basal turn of the cochlea was particularly vulnerable to the combined effects of acrylonitrile and noise when the octave band noise (OBN was centered at 8 kHz. Normally, such a noise would be expected to yield damage at a more apical region of the cochlea. The present study was designed to determine whether the basal cochlea is selectively sensitive to acrylonitrile or whether, by adjusting the frequency of the noise band, it would be possible to control the region of the auditory impairment. Rats were exposed to one of three different OBNs centered at different frequencies (4 kHz, 110 dB and 8 or 16 kHz at 97 dB for 5 days, with and without administration of acrylonitrile (50 mg/kg/day. The noise was set to cause limited NIHL by itself. Auditory function was monitored by recording distortion products, by compound action potentials, and by performing cochlear histology. While the ACN-only and noise-only exposures induced no or little permanent auditory loss, the three exposures to acrylonitrile+noise produced similar auditory and cochlear impairments above 16 kHz, despite the fact that the noise exposures covered 2 octaves. These observations show that the basal cochlea is much more sensitive to acrylonitrile+noise than the apical partition. They provide an initial basis for distinguishing the pattern of cochlear injury that results from noise exposure from that which occurs due to the combined effects of noise and a chemical

  6. An experimental Raman and theoretical DFT study on the self-association of acrylonitrile.

    Alía, Jose M; Edwards, Howell G M; Fawcett, W Ronald; Smagala, Thomas G

    2007-02-01

    The liquid structure of acrylonitrile (propenenitrile) has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) ab initio calculations with the 6-311++G** basis set. Two different and complementary experimental approaches were undertaken: FT-Raman spectra of 13 acrylonitrile solutions in carbon tetrachloride (concentration range=0.25-12.0 mol.L-1) were studied in detail including principal component analysis (PCA) of the CN stretching band. Furthermore, dispersive Raman spectra of neat acrylonitrile were obtained at eight different temperatures from 238 up to 343 K. The complex and asymmetric acrylonitrile Raman CN stretching band can be decomposed into two components attributed to monomeric and self-associated forms. Ab initio results fully support this assignment and suggest that the self-associated complex is a nonplanar trimer held together by dipole-dipole interactions. At ambient temperature, the composition of acrylonitrile can be expressed as a mixture of 25% monomers and 75% trimers. Close to the boiling point, trimers still represent 65% of the liquid composition. The corresponding enthalpy of association was estimated to be -22+/-2 kJ.mol-1. PMID:17266219

  7. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-01

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

  8. ABSORPTION OF CO2 AND SUBSEQUENT VISCOSITY REDUCTION OF AN ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER. (R829555)

    Acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers (AN content greater than about 85 mol%) are traditionally solution processed to avoid a cyclization and crosslinking reaction that takes place at temperatures where melt processing would be feasible. It is well known that carbon dioxide (CO

  9. New grafted copolymer of polystyrene with acrylonitrile using gamma-irradiation

    Commercial polystyrene aggregates were purified and grafted with acrylonitrile using gamma-irradiation. New copolymer was obtained, characterized and its properties were investigated. The results indicated that the best grafting percentage ratio could be obtained when the concentration of the ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) is about 0.25% and the monomer concentration is 80% at 1.5 Mrad dos

  10. New Star-Branched Poly(acrylonitrile) Architectures : ATRP Synthesis and Solution Properties

    Pitto, Valentina; Voit, Brigitte I.; Loontjens, Ton J.A.; Benthem, Rolf A.T.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been chosen as ‘‘living’’/controlled free radical polymerization system to synthesize a number of novel poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) architectures. The reaction conditions for the synthesis of linear samples with control over molar mass and molar mass dis

  11. Development of a conductimetric biosensor using immobilised Rhodococcus ruber whole cells for the detection and quantification of acrylonitrile.

    Roach, P C J; Ramsden, D K; Hughes, J; Williams, P

    2003-10-30

    A conductimetric biosensor for the detection of acrylonitrile in solution was designed and characterised using whole cells of Rhodococcus ruber NCIMB 40757, which were immobilised into a disc of dimethyl silicone sponge (ImmobaSil). The biosensor described was capable of the detection and quantification of acrylonitrile in aqueous solution, having a linear response to concentrations between 2 and 50 mM (106-2650 ppm) acrylonitrile. The biosensor has been shown to be reproducible with respect to the data obtained over a number of days, and retains stability for a minimum period of at least 5 days before recalibration of the biosensor is required. PMID:14559001

  12. Heck Arylation of Acrylonitrile with Aryl Iodides Catalyzed by a Silica-bound Arsine Palladium(0) Complex

    Ming Zhong CAI; Hong ZHAO; Rong Li ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Acrylonitrile reacts with aryl iodides in the presence of tri-n-butylamine and a catalytic amount of a silica-bound arsine palladium(0) complex to afford stereoselectively (E)-cinnamonitriles in high yields.

  13. Dimedone-catalyzed Addition of Amines into Cyano Group: Facile Synthesis of Thiazol-2-yl Substituted E-Acrylonitriles

    朱伟军; 屠兴超; 冯惠; 屠蔓苏; 姜波; 吴飞跃; 屠树江

    2012-01-01

    An efficient dimedone-catalyzed synthesis of highly functionalized thiazol-2-yl substituted E-acrylonitrile derivatives has been established through two-step reaction of a-thiocyanate ketones with malononitrile and amines. The a-thiocyanate ketones were subjected with malononitrile to provide thiazol-2-ylidenemalononitrile derivatives, followed with various amines in the presence of dimedone to yield the final thiazol-2-yl substituted acrylonitrile derivatives.

  14. Copolymerization of Indene with Acrylic Acid, Itaconic Acid and Acrylonitrile: Characterization and Reactivity Ratios

    Random copolymers of indene (In) with acrylic acid (AA), itaconic acid (IA) and acrylonitrile (AN) were synthesized by free radical polymerization in dioxane in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator at 60 degree C. The homopolymer of indene and acrylonitrile was prepared using K2MnO4 and sulphuric acid as an initiator, while acrylic acid and itaconic acid were prepared using K2S2O8 solution. The reactivity ratios of the monomers were calculated by different methods. X-ray diffraction as well as thermal analyses were studied. The latter was studied via thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The complexation with metal ions such as Cu+2 and Fe+2 was investigated. The copolymerization and the complexation processes were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Also the activation energy of the prepared copolymers was determined

  15. Nitrilase-catalysed conversion of acrylonitrile by free and immobilized cells of Streptomyces sp.

    V K Nigam; A K Khandelwal; R K Gothwal; M K Mohan; B Choudhury; A S Vidyarthi; P Ghosh

    2009-03-01

    The biotransformation of acrylonitrile was investigated using thermophilic nitrilase produced from a new isolate Streptomyces sp. MTCC 7546 in both the free and immobilized state. Under optimal conditions, the enzyme converts nitriles to acids without the formation of amides. The whole cells of the isolate were immobilized in agar-agar and the beads so formed were evaluated for 25 cycles at 50°C. The enzyme showed a little loss of activity during reuse. Seventy-one per cent of 0.5 M acrylonitrile was converted to acid at 6 h of incubation at a very low density of immobilized cells, while 100% conversion was observed at 3 h by free cells.

  16. Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed room temperature quantum cascade laser

    Manne, J.; Jäger, W.; Tulip, J.

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the use of a pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser centered at 957 cm-1 in combination with an astigmatic Herriot cell with 250 m path length for the detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile. These molecules have been identified as hazardous air-pollutants because of their adverse health effects. The spectrometer utilizes the intra-pulse method, where a linear frequency down-chirp, that is induced when a top-hat current pulse is applied to the laser, is used for sweeping across the absorption line. Up to 450 ns long pulses were used for these measurements which resulted in a spectral window of ~2.2 cm-1. A room temperature mercury-cadmium-telluride detector was used, resulting in a completely cryogen free spectrometer. We demonstrated detection limits of ~3 ppb for acrylonitrile and ~6 ppb for acrolein with ~10 s averaging time. Laser characterization and optimization of the operational parameters for sensitivity improvement are discussed.

  17. Ultrafine conducting fibers: metallization of poly(acrylonitrile-co-glycidyl methacrylate) nanofibers

    Menceloğlu, Yusuf Z.; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z.; Demir, Mustafa Muammer; Uğur, Gökçe; Ugur, Gokce; Gülgün, Mehmet Ali; Gulgun, Mehmet Ali

    2005-01-01

    Electrospun poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) and poly(acrylonitrile-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(AN-GMA)) nanofibers were coated with monodisperse silver nanoparticles by using an electroless plating technique at ambient conditions. Oxirane groups on the surface of nanofibers were replaced with reducing agent, hydrazine. Surface modified nanofibers were allowed to react with ammonia solution of AgNO3. A redox reaction takes place and metallic silver nucleate on fibers surface. Parameters aff...

  18. Adsorption of Acrylonitrile on Some Soils and Minerals from Aqueous Solutions

    WUDE-YI; N.MATSUE; 等

    1993-01-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic studies have been made on the adsorption of acrylonitrile(CH2=CHCN) on three soils and four minerals from aqueous solutions.It was shown that the organic matter was the major factor affecting the adsorption process in the soils.The conformity of the equilibrium data to linear type(one soil) and Langmuir type(two soils) isotherms indicated that different mechanisms were involved in the adsorption.This behavior appears bo be related to the hydrophobicity of soil organic matter due to their composition and E4/E6 ratio of humic acids.The adsorption kinetics were also different among the soils,indicating the difference in porosity of organic matter among the soils,and the kinetics strongly affected the adsorption capacity of soils for acrylonitrile.Acrylonitrile was slightly adsorbed from aqueous solutions on pyrophyllite with electrically neutral and hydrophobic nature,and practically not on montmorillonite and kaolinite saturated with Ca.However,much higher adsorption occurred on the zeolitized coal ash,probably caused by high organic carbon content(107g/kg).

  19. Electromechanical responses of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR and blends of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/ acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, P3TAA/NBR, were fabricated, and the electrorheological properties, dielectric, and electrical conductivities were investigated . The electrorheological properties were determined under an oscillatory shear mode in a frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s at various electric field strengths, from 0 to 2 kV/mm, at a fixed 27°C to observe the effects of acrylonitrile content (ACN in the rubber systems and the conductive particle concentration in the blends. For the pure rubber systems, the storage modulus response (ΔG′ is linearly dependent on its dielectric constant (ε′, and increases with the ACN content. For the NBR/P3TAA blends, the storage modulus response varies nonlinearly with the dielectric constant. The bending responses of the rubbers and the blends were investigated in a vertical cantilever fixture. For the pure rubber system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary linearly with electric field strength. For the blend system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary nonlinearly with electric field strength.

  20. Ab initio investigation of the passivation effect of the acrylonitrile molecule on the Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface

    Usanmaz, D., E-mail: demetusanmaz@gmail.com [Physics Program, Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Kalkanlı, Güzelyurt, KKTC, Mersin 10 (Turkey); Srivastava, G.P. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-17

    Highlights: • Different bonding configurations of acrylonitrile molecule on the Si(2 × 1) surface based on reported experimental results have been investigated. • The acrylonitrile molecule has the minimum energy configuration at the on-top adsorption site. • The adsorption of the acrylonitrile molecule passivates the Si(2 × 1) surface both chemically as well as electronically. • The resulting surface structure is passivated both chemically as well as electronically. - Abstract: Based on pseudopotentials and the density functional theory, we have investigated the atomic geometry and electronic structure of the acrylonitrile molecule adsorbed on the Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface. By considering different bonding configurations based on reported experimental results, we have investigated several possible geometries. Our total energy results suggest that the acrylonitrile molecule has the minimum energy configuration at the on-top adsorbtion site. The electronic surface properties of the most stable structure have been discussed. Our results show that the adsorption of this molecule fully passivates the Si(001)(2 × 1) surface.

  1. Ion exchange membranes based on vinylphosphonic acid-co-acrylonitrile copolymers for fuel cells

    Žitka, Jan; Bleha, Miroslav; Schauer, Jan; Galajdová, Barbora; Paidar, M.; Hnát, J.; Bouzek, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3167-3173. ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP106/12/P643 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 608931 - MAT4BAT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : vinylphosphonic acid * poly(vinylphosphonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) * ionic conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.173, year: 2014

  2. Modification of fiber properties through grafting of acrylonitrile to rayon by chemical and radiation methods

    Inderjeet Kaur; Neelam Sharma; Vandna Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Fibrous properties of rayon has been modified through synthesis of graft copolymers of rayon with acrylonitrile (AN) by chemical method using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN/HNO3) as a redox initiator and gamma radiation mutual method. Percentage of grafting (Pg) was determined as a function of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, temperature, time of reaction and the amount of water. Maximum percentage of grafting (160.01%) using CAN/HNO3 was obtained at [CAN] = 22.8...

  3. Gas permeability of polyvinyltrimethylsilane modified by irradiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile

    Gas permeability and diffusion at 20-80 deg through homogeneous polyvinyltrimethylsilane membranes modified by acrylonitrile grafting have been studied. Coefficients of diffusion and permeability of all gases under study for the samples containing PAN are lower than for pure polymer. An increase of PAN content in membranes resuls in increasing of selectivity of permeability for He-CH4, He-N2, He-CO2, H2-CH4 gas pairs. The correlation of the coefficient of diffusion with the effective cross-section of gas molecules and of the coefficient of solubility with their strength constants of the Lennard-Jones potential is observed

  4. Autodetachment dynamics of acrylonitrile anion revealed by 2D electron impact spectra

    We have measured the elastic and vibrationally inelastic differential cross sections in acrylonitrile at the scattering angle of 135°. We have found out that the bands at 2.9 and 4.4 eV are shape resonances, while sharp structures in the region 0 -0.5 eV are either boomerang structure of a shape resonance or vibrational Feshbach resonances. We gain detailed view of the autodetachment dynamics from a 2D spectrum where cross section is plotted against the incident energy and the energy loss.

  5. Positron lifetime study of polycarbonate/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) blends

    Čížek, J.; Motyčka, V.; Procházka, I.; Ilavský, Michal; Kolařík, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 363, č. 3 (2001), s. 340-342. ISSN 0255-5476. [International Conference on Positron Annihilation /12./. Munchen, 06.08.2000-12.08.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/98/0700; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : partial miscibility of polymers * polycarbonate/poly(styrene-co- acrylonitrile ) blends * positron lifetime spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2001

  6. Effect of strain on dielectric properties of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/polycarbonate blend

    Nedbal, J.; Valentová, H.; Ilavský, Michal

    Bratislava : Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2003 - (Omastová, M.). s. 58 ISBN 80-968433-2-X. [Bratislava International Conference on Modified Polymers ModPol /18./. 05.10.2003-08.10.2003, Stará Lesná] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4112901 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 166/2001/B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : dielectric properties * poly(styrene-co- acrylonitrile )/polycarbonate blends Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. ION CONDUCTION IN COMPLEX OF ACRYLONITRILE-COPOLYMERIZED COMB POLYETHER WITH LITHIUM PERCHLORATE

    XU Kang; DENG Zhenghua; WAN Guoxiang

    1991-01-01

    Poly ( oligoether methacrylate- co- acrylonitrile ) s, P ( MEOn- AN ), with oligoether pendants of different lengths were synthesized and the ion conduction property of their Li-salt complexes was studied as the function of polymer structure. At proper copolymer composition, lithium concentration and pendant length, the ion conductivity reaches 7.0×10-5S/cm at ambient temperature, together with improved mechanical strength. The ion transport in the polymer media is assisted by segmental relaxation ,which is confirmed both by the consistency between ion conductivity and Tg and by the study of TSC.

  8. Onderzoek naar de mutagene werking van acrylonitril met microorganismen Drosophila melanogaster en L5178Y muize-lymfoomcellen

    Voogd CE; van der Stel JJ; Verharen HW; Kramers PGN; Mout HCA; Knaap AGAC; Langbroek PG

    1985-01-01

    Acrylonitril was mutageen bij 5 mmol/l in de fluctuatietest zonder metabolische activering ; in gasfase werd bij 0,5 mmol/l lucht een mutagene werking gevonden. Deze stof was ook mutageen in de Ames-test voor Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 (15 mmol/plaat) met metabolische activering doch niet met de stammen TA98 en TA100. In de gasfase werd in de Ames-test geen mutagene werking gevonden, groeiremming trad op bij ca. 0,1 mmol/l lucht. Met acrylonitril werd geen mutagene werking gevonden op Dros...

  9. [Carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile and evaluation of approaches to pathogenetic correction of acrylate toxicity and antitumorigenic anthracycline doxorubicin toxicity during chemotherapy].

    Tarskikh, M M; Shumbasov, M A; Kolesnikov, S I

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis within the 20-year period showed that approximately 49% of workers who were exposed to widespread industrial poison acrylonitrile subsequently died from malignancy of different localization. The conducted experimental investigations demonstrated that acrylonitrile with the subacute intoxication of animals, the anti-tumor antibiotic doxorubicin, their combination, interwoven tumor and tumor developed against the background the introduction of acrylate and subsequent treatment doxorubicin led to onset of free-radical reactions. These reactions by themselves might stimulate development of malignancy. This fact confirms the need for antioxidant tracking of chemotherapy of tumors in the similar clinical cases. PMID:23819331

  10. Sensitive detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed quantum-cascade laser

    Manne, J.; Lim, A.; Tulip, J.; Jäger, W.

    2012-05-01

    We report on spectroscopic measurements of acrolein and acrylonitrile at atmospheric pressure using a pulsed distributed feedback quantum-cascade laser in combination with intra- and inter-pulse techniques and compare the results. The measurements were done in the frequency region around 957 cm-1. In the inter-pulse technique, the laser is excited with short current pulses (5-10 ns), and the pulse amplitude is modulated with an external current ramp resulting in a ˜2.3 cm-1 frequency scan. In the intra-pulse technique, a linear frequency down-chirp during the pulse is used for sweeping across the absorption line. Long current pulses up to 500 ns were used for these measurements which resulted in a spectral window of ˜2.2 cm-1 during the down-chirp. These comparatively wide spectral windows facilitated the measurements of the relatively broad absorption lines (˜1 cm-1) of acrolein and acrylonitrile. The use of a room-temperature mercury-cadmium-telluride detector resulted in a completely cryogen-free spectrometer. We demonstrate ppb level detection limits within a data acquisition time of ˜10 s with these methodologies.

  11. Two-dimensional spectra of electron collisions with acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile reveal nuclear dynamics

    Detailed experimental information on the motion of a nuclear packet on a complex (resonant) anion potential surface is obtained by measuring 2-dimensional (2D) electron energy loss spectra. The cross section is plotted as a function of incident electron energy, which determines which resonant anion state is populated, i.e., along which normal coordinate the wave packet is launched, and of the electron energy loss, which reveals into which final states each specific resonant state decays. The 2D spectra are presented for acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile, at the incident energy range 0.095-1.0 eV, where the incoming electron is temporarily captured in the lowest π∗ orbital. The 2D spectra reveal selectivity patterns with respect to which vibrations are excited in the attachment and de-excited in the detachment. Further insight is gained by recording 1D spectra measured along horizontal, vertical, and diagonal cuts of the 2D spectrum. The methyl group in methacrylonitrile increases the resonance width 7 times. This converts the sharp resonances of acrylonitrile into boomerang structures but preserves the essence of the selectivity patterns. Selectivity of vibrational excitation by higher-lying shape resonances up to 8 eV is also reported

  12. Two-dimensional spectra of electron collisions with acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile reveal nuclear dynamics

    Regeta, K., E-mail: khrystyna.regeta@unifr.ch; Allan, M., E-mail: michael.allan@unifr.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2015-05-14

    Detailed experimental information on the motion of a nuclear packet on a complex (resonant) anion potential surface is obtained by measuring 2-dimensional (2D) electron energy loss spectra. The cross section is plotted as a function of incident electron energy, which determines which resonant anion state is populated, i.e., along which normal coordinate the wave packet is launched, and of the electron energy loss, which reveals into which final states each specific resonant state decays. The 2D spectra are presented for acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile, at the incident energy range 0.095-1.0 eV, where the incoming electron is temporarily captured in the lowest π{sup ∗} orbital. The 2D spectra reveal selectivity patterns with respect to which vibrations are excited in the attachment and de-excited in the detachment. Further insight is gained by recording 1D spectra measured along horizontal, vertical, and diagonal cuts of the 2D spectrum. The methyl group in methacrylonitrile increases the resonance width 7 times. This converts the sharp resonances of acrylonitrile into boomerang structures but preserves the essence of the selectivity patterns. Selectivity of vibrational excitation by higher-lying shape resonances up to 8 eV is also reported.

  13. Novel in situ coordinated cerium salt/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite

    A novel rubber composite of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) filled with cerium salt particles was vulcanized via in situ coordination for the first time. The resulting materials exhibit good mechanical properties. Curing characteristics analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, tensile testing, and an equilibrium swelling method were used for the characterization of the composite. The results in this paper indicate that the composite is a kind of elastomer based on the in situ coordination crosslinking interactions between the nitrile groups (–CN) of NBR and cerium ions. The mechanical properties of vulcanized cerium salt/ NBR rubber are altered when changing the sorts of cerium salt. Moreover, these materials show good irradiation resistance because of the introduction of the cerium salt. -- Highlights: ► Cerium salts were firstly used to vulcanize the acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. ► Cerium salts act as not only crosslink agents but also reinforcing fillers in the matrix. ► These materials show good irradiation resistance and mechanical properties at same time.

  14. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.

    2012-12-01

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  15. Synthesis of diblock copolymers comprising poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) and polystyrene blocks by nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization

    Lokaj, Jan; Poláková, Lenka; Holler, Petr; Starovoytova, Larisa; Štěpánek, Petr; Diat, O.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2007), s. 1616-1622. ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GESON/03/E001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : 2-vinylpyridine-acrylonitrile copolymers * nitroxide-mediated radical copolymerization * chain extension Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.008, year: 2007

  16. Synthesis and gas permeability of block copolymers composed of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) and polystyrene blocks

    Lokaj, Jan; Brožová, Libuše; Holler, Petr; Pientka, Zbyněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2002), s. 267-278. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : azeotropic styrene- acrylonitrile copolymers * block copolymers * nitroxide-mediated copolymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.848, year: 2002

  17. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  18. Certification of mercury in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene by using isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Under the framework of a co-certification system for the development of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) among China, Japan and Korea, the 1st co-certification campaign of mercury in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) for Japanese CRMs was taken. In this campaign isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was used. First, all abundances of Hg in spike 202Hg, CRM and ABS were analyzed by MC-ICP-MS before the certification. Then the concentrations of 202Hg and Hg in ABS were determined with IDMS by Q-ICP-MS. A new procedure to reduce memory effect was used. first, dilute with 5 μg/g Au solution for 1 min; then, 5 μg/g EDTA solution for 2 min. The results accord to each other very well and this implies that the co-certification system can run swimmingly. (authors)

  19. Flame Retardant Effects of Nano-Clinoptilolite on AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS Nano-Composite

    Aboulfazl Barati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, intumescent technology has found a place in polymer science as a method of providing flame retardance to polymeric materials. On heating, fire-retardant intumescent material restricts the action of the heat flux or flame. The proposed mechanism is based on charred layer acting as physical barrier, which slows down heat and mass transfer between the gas and the condensed phases. In this paper, the flammability of intumescent fire-retardant acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS matrix composites consisting of hydromagnesite (HMg as an acid source and blowing agent, pentaerythritol (PER as a carbonisation agent and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite rich, Kansar Shargh as a synergistic agent were examined. The flammability of composites was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI measurement and horizontal burning tests. A synergistic effect in flame retardancy was observed when natural zeolites were used in combination with HMg and PER.

  20. Studies of plastic crystal gel polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile)

    Hambali, D.; Zainuddin, Z.; Supa'at, I.; Osman, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we have prepared systems of poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile) (PVdC-co-AN) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which are single plasticized-GPEs and double plasticized-GPEs. Both systems comprised plastic crystal succinonitrile SN to form plastic crystal gel polymer electrolyte (PGPE) films. The ionic conductivity of the PGPE films were analysed by means of a.c. impedance spectroscopy at room temperature as well as at the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K. The temperature dependence ionic conductivity was found to obey the VTF rule. To study the interactions among the constituents in the PGPEs, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out and hence, the complexation between them has also been confirmed.

  1. Structures and Properties Characterization of Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/Organo-palygorskite Clay Composites

    ZHANG Zhe; CHANG Ying; XU Jian; WU Zhancui; MA Hengchang; LEI Ziqiang

    2012-01-01

    Palygorskite (PGS) and vinyl tris-(2-methoxyethoxy) silane (KH-172) modified palygorskite (OPGS) were used to prepare acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/clay composites.Thermal stability of the composites was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The morphology of the fractured surface and the degree of dispersion of the clay in the ABS matrix were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results showed the variation of the crystal structure.Measurements of the tensile properties of the ABS/clay composites proved that the ABS/OPGS composited material represented the most excellent tensile property,because of good compatibility and dispersion of ABS with OPGS.

  2. Acrylonitrile-14C metabolism in rats: effect of the route of administration on the elimination of thiocyanate and other radioactive metabolites in urine and feces

    In Wistar rats, the elimination of the sum of radioactive metabolites of acrylonitrile-14C was not markedly influenced by the route of acrylonitrile administration. The elimination of thiocyanate, however, was significantly higher after oral (23% of the dose) than after intraperitoneal (4%), subcutaneous (4.6%), or intravenous (1.2%) administrations. The elimination of the sum of radioactive metabolites was highest in the first 4 hours after acrylonitrile administration and rapidly decreased whereas the excretion of thiocyanate reached the maximum between hours 8 and 14 after oral or intraperitoneal administration. Less than 1% of the radioactivity of the acrylonitrile-14C dose was eliminated in feces irrespective of the route of administration. (author)

  3. Covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase onto new modified acrylonitrile copolymer/silica gel hybrid supports.

    Godjevargova, Tzonka; Nenkova, Ruska; Dimova, Nedyalka

    2005-08-12

    New polymer/silica gel hybrid supports were prepared by coating high surface area of silica gel with modified acrylonitrile copolymer. The concentrations of the modifying agent (NaOH) and the modified polymer were varied. GOD was covalently immobilized on these hybrid supports and the relative activity and the amount of bound protein were determined. The highest relative activity and sufficient amount of bound protein of the immobilized GOD were achieved in 10% NaOH and 2% solution of modified acrylonitrile copolymer. The influence of glutaraldehyde concentration and the storage time on enzyme efficiency were examined. Glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5% is optimal for the immobilized GOD. It was shown that the covalently bound enzyme (using 0.5% glutaraldehyde) had higher relative activity than the activity of the adsorbed enzyme. Covalently immobilized GOD with 0.5% glutaraldehyde was more stable for four months in comparison with the one immobilized on pure silica gel, hybrid support with 10% glutaraldehyde and the free enzyme. The effect of the pore size on the enzyme efficiency was studied on four types of silica gel with different pore size. Silica with large pores (CPC-Silica carrier, 375 A) presented higher relative activity than those with smaller pore size (Silica gel with 4, 40 and 100 A). The amount of bound protein was also reduced with decreasing the pore size. The effect of particle size was studied and it was found out that the smaller the particle size was, the greater the activity and the amount of immobilized enzyme were. The obtained results proved that these new polymer/silica gel hybrid supports were suitable for GOD immobilization. PMID:16080168

  4. Photoinitiated decomposition of substituted ethylenes: The photodissociation of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile at 193 nm

    Blank, D.A.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ethylene and its substituted analogues (H{sub 2}CCHX) are important molecules in hydrogen combustion. As the simplest {pi}-bonded hydrocarbons these molecules serve as prototypical systems for understanding the decomposition of this important class of compounds. The authors have used the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1 to investigate the dissociation of vinyl chloride (X=Cl) and acrylonitrile (X=CN) following absorption at 193 nm. The technique uses a molecular beam of the reactant seeded in helium which is crossed at 90 degrees with the output of an excimer laser operating on the ArF transition, 193.3 nm. The neutral photoproducts which recoil out of the molecular beam travel 15.1 cm where they are photoionized by the VUV undulator radiation, mass selected, and counted as a function of time. The molecular beam source is rotatable about the axis of the dissociation laser. The authors have directly observed all four of the following dissociation channels for both systems: (1) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}X; (2) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} X + C{sub 2}H{sub 3}; (3) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}HX; and (4) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} HX + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. They measured translational energy distributions for all of the observed channels and measured the photoionization onset for many of the photoproducts which provided information about their chemical identity and internal energy content. In the case of acrylonitrile, selective product photoionization provided the ability to discriminate between channels 2 and 4 which result in the same product mass combination.

  5. Ionizing radiation effect study by electron beam on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene - ABS terpolymer

    The great advantage in the researches involving development has as objective to increase significantly the quality of the products. The ABS (acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene) resins are terpolymers formed by an elastomer and two thermoplastics amorphous components. The three different monomeric units from the terpolymer ABS contribute separately to the material characteristics exhibited. The molecular stiffness originating from polystyrene and the benzene ring hanging on the chain is responsible for the flexion module ABS. The acrylonitrile and the styrene incorporated butadiene exercises strong influence in the resistance to the impact because it reduces the bonding among them. The engineering use of this terpolymer became important due their mechanical properties and mainly, for the responses of this to tensions or deformations applied. The polymeric materials, when submitted to the ionizing radiation are modified by the transference of energy to these materials, introducing excitation and ionization of the molecules, generating chemical reactions that can produce permanent modifications in the polymeric physicochemical structure. The induced modifications can result in the polymeric material degradation or crosslinking, which can result in the improvement of some properties. This work has, as objective, to study the electron beam ionizing radiation effect, at different doses, in the properties of the polymer ABS. The studied properties were: tensile strength at break, elongation at break, Izod impact strength, flexural strength, melt flow index, Vicat softening temperature and the thermic distortion temperature. Also researches on Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA) were accomplished. From the experimental results, it was showed that for doses until 500 kGy, at 22.6 kGy/s dose rate, in the presence of air, the crosslinking process of ABS prevails. (author)

  6. Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Acrylonitrile/Butyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile and Acrylonitrile/Ethyl Hexyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile Terpolymers as a Potential Precursor for Carbon Fiber

    Siti Nurul Ain Md Jamil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of acrylonitrile (AN/butyl acrylate (BA/fumaronitrile (FN and AN/EHA (ethyl hexyl acrylate/FN terpolymers was carried out by redox polymerization using sodium bisulfite (SBS and potassium persulphate (KPS as initiator at 40 °C. The effect of comonomers, BA and EHA and termonomer, FN on the glass transition temperature (Tg and stabilization temperature was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The degradation behavior and char yield were obtained by Thermogravimetric Analysis. The conversions of AN, comonomers (BA and EHA and FN were 55%–71%, 85%–91% and 76%–79%, respectively. It was found that with the same comonomer feed (10%, the Tg of AN/EHA copolymer was lower at 63 °C compared to AN/BA copolymer (70 °C. AN/EHA/FN terpolymer also exhibited a lower Tg at 63 °C when compared to that of the AN/BA/FN terpolymer (67 °C. By incorporating BA and EHA into a PAN system, the char yield was reduced to ~38.0% compared to that of AN (~47.7%. It was found that FN reduced the initial cyclization temperature of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers to 228 and 221 °C, respectively, in comparison to that of AN/BA and AN/EHA copolymers (~260 °C. In addition, FN reduced the heat liberation per unit time during the stabilization process that consequently reduced the emission of volatile group during this process. As a result, the char yields of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers are higher at ~45.1% and ~43.9%, respectively, as compared to those of AN/BA copolymer (37.1% and AN/EHA copolymer (38.0%.

  7. Morphology of polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) and polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile-co-5-vinyltetrazole) diblock copolymers prepared by nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization and „click“ chemistry

    Gromadzki, Daniel; Lokaj, Jan; Černoch, Peter; Diat, O.; Nallet, F.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 189-199. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GESON/06/E005 Grant ostatní: Marie Curie Fellowship(EU) HPMT-CT-2001-00396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-co- acrylonitrile -co-5-vinyltetrazole) * TEMPO * click chemistry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.143, year: 2008

  8. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    A pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization method was used to introduce acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a PE nonwoven fabric. The use of acrylic acid is meant to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified fabric. The kinetics of co-graft polymerization were studied. The existence of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) graft chains was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The existence of the nitrile groups in the graft chains indicates that they are ready for further amidoximation and adsorption of heavy metal ions. - Highlights: • Acrylonitrile and acrylic acid were co-grafted onto a PE nonwoven fabric. • Pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization technique is applied. • The existence of AAc resulted in the increased hydrophilicity of the grafted fabric

  9. Ion complex membranes of acrylonitrile copolymers having methacrylic acid and amphiphilic quaternized ammonium groups for uracil molecular imprinting

    Copolymers having methacrylic acid and amphiphilic quaternized ammonium groups were used for preparation of molecular imprinting membrane of uracil (URA) template. The imprinted polymeric membranes were prepared by phase inversion molecular imprinting by using poly(acrylonitrile-co-methylacrylic acid) [P(AN-co-MAA)] and poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinylbenzyl-stearyldimethylamine chloride) [P(AN-co-SMA)]. Evidence confirmed that both copolymers were mixed to form ion complex by electrostatic interaction between the methacrylic acid and the quaternized ammonium groups. The electrostatic networks of the resultant membranes made the membrane dense and useful for molecule recognition of the template. The imprinted membranes made of different mole ratio of their copolymer segments were examined in binding of URA and other analog molecules

  10. Antibacterial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) based micelles loaded with silver nanoparticles.

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Pencheva, Daniela; Kyulavska, Mariya; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Debuigne, Antoine; Detrembleur, Christophe

    2010-04-15

    A new amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVOH-b-PAN) copolymer obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) copolymer synthesized by cobalt mediated radical polymerization was used for the preparation of PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles. The successful formation of silver loaded micelles has been confirmed by UV-vis, DLS and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and spore solution of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has been studied. PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles showed a strong bactericidal effect against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and the minimum bactericidal concentration for each system (MBC) has been determined. PMID:20074742

  11. Enhanced photorefractive performance in CdSe quantum-dot-dispersed poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) polymers

    This paper reports on the enhanced photorefractive behavior of a CdSe quantum-dot-dispersed less expensive polymer of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The capability of CdSe quantum dots used as photosensitizers and the associated photorefractive performance are characterized through a photocurrent experiment and a two-beam coupling experiment, respectively. An enhanced two-beam coupling gain coefficient of 12.2 cm-1 at 46 V/μm was observed owning to the reduced potential barrier. The photorefractive performance per CdSe quantum dot is three orders of magnitude higher than that in the sample sensitized by trinitrofluorenone in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), and almost ten times higher than that in the CdSe quantum-dot-sensitized poly(N-vinylcarbazole) polymers.

  12. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    H. F. Xie; Wang, Y. T.; Wang, C. S.; H. Y. Yin; Wang, L.L.; R. S. Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs) as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN). The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg), mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOH...

  13. Synthesis and quaternization of nitroxide-terminated poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) macroinitiators and related diblock copolymers

    Poláková, Lenka; Lokaj, Jan; Holler, Petr; Starovoytova, Larisa; Pekárek, Michal; Štěpánek, Petr

    -, 065 (2010), s. 1-10. ISSN 1618-7229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GESON/06/E005; GA ČR GA203/07/0659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : 4-vinylpyridine-acrylonitrile copolymers * block copolymers * nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.574, year: 2010 http://www.e-polymers.org/journal/papers/lpolakova_240710.pdf

  14. Investigation of the cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile, ethylacrylate and methylmethacrylate by coupled quartz crystal microbalance analysis and cyclic voltammetry

    Baute, Noëlle; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN), ethylacrylate (EA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA), has been monitored for the first time by coupled electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and cyclic voltammetry analyses. These data have been compared to the previously published analyses for methacrylonitrile (MAN). At the potential Ep1 of the less cathodic of the two voltammetric peaks observed (peak I), the polymer formed is anchored firmly to the cathode even in a good sol...

  15. Clusters of acrylonitrile in methanol/ethanol: A structure-spectra correlation by quantum chemical and polarized Raman study

    Graphical abstract: Ab initio and DFT calculations were performed to obtain the ground state geometry of neat acrylonitrile (C2H3C≡N, Acr), self-associated dimer, trimer and their hydrogen bonded complexes with methanol (M) and ethanol (E) in gas phase. Polarized Raman study was made for neat Acr and its binary mixtures with M/E. The ν(C≡N) line profile of neat Acr was analyzed to two component bands as free and self-associated Acr, respectively. The dephasing of the ν(C≡N) mode as a function of concentration was explained in terms of two contributions, one arising from micro viscosity dependence and the other from concentration fluctuation. Research highlights: → This paper deals with the Polarized Raman spectroscopic study of acrylonitrile and its hydrogen bonded complex with methanol and ethanol. → Quantum chemical study of molecular interactions of acrylonitrile clusters with methanol and ethanol. → Peak position and linewidth variation of ν(C≡N) stretching of acrylonitrile with concentration. → Spectra-structure correlation. - Abstract: Ab initio and DFT calculations were performed to obtain the ground state geometry of neat acrylonitrile (C2H3C≡N, Acr), self-associated dimer, trimer and their hydrogen bonded complexes with methanol (M) and ethanol (E) in gas phase. Polarized Raman study was made for neat Acr and its binary mixtures with M/E. The ν(C≡N) line profile of neat Acr was analyzed to two component bands at 2228.7 and 2226.9 cm-1 and attributed to free and self-associated Acr, respectively. The calculated ν(C≡N) mode of self-associated dimer/trimer complex and hydrogen bonded complex were compared with the experimentally observed Raman spectra. The dephasing of the ν(C≡N) mode as a function of concentration was explained in terms of two contributions, one arising from micro viscosity dependence and the other from concentration fluctuation. The viscosity dependent contribution, however, dominates over the concentration

  16. Preirradiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto polypropylene monofilament for biomedical applications: I. Influence of synthesis conditions

    Graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polypropylene (PP) monofilament was carried out by a preirradiation method using a 6Co gamma radiation source. The influence of synthesis conditions, such as preirradiation dose, reaction time, monomer concentration, reaction temperature and additives was determined. The grafting was considerably influenced by the instantaneous swelling of the monofilament in the reaction mixture during the course of the grafting process. The order of dependence of the rate of grafting on monomer concentration was found to be 1.04. The nature of the medium of the grafting and the additives had profound influence over the grafting reaction. The accelerative effects of solvent medium on the grafting were higher in methylethyl ketone (MEK) and dimethylformamide (DMF) as compared to methanol. At the same time, partial replacement of DMF with water led to acceleration in the grafting with peak maxima at 20% solvent composition. The addition of a small amount of sulfuric acid to the reaction mixture also resulted in a significant acceleration of the degree of grafting

  17. Nanostructured synthetic carbons obtained by pyrolysis of spherical acrylonitrile/divinylbenzene copolymers.

    Danish J Malik

    Full Text Available Novel carbon materials have been prepared by the carbonization of acrylonitrile (AN/divinylbenzene (DVB suspension porous copolymers having nominal crosslinking degrees in the range of 30-70% and obtained in the presence of various amounts of porogens. The carbons were obtained by pre-oxidation of AN/DVB copolymers at 250-350°C in air followed by pyrolysis at 850°C in an N(2 atmosphere. Both processes were carried out in one furnace and the resulting material needed no further activation. Resulting materials were characterized by XPS and low temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption. It was found that maximum pyrolysis yield was ca. 50% depending on the oxidation conditions but almost independent of the crosslinking degree of the polymers. Porous structure of the carbons was characterized for the presence of micropores and macropores, when obtained from highly crosslinked polymers or polymers oxidized at 350°C and meso- and macropores in all other cases. The latter pores are prevailing in the structure of carbons obtained from less porous AN/DVB resins. Specific surface area (BET of polymer derived carbons can vary between 440 m(2/g and 250 m(2/g depending on the amount of porogen used in the synthesis of the AN/DVB polymeric precursors.

  18. AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile with ionic liquids as reaction medium without any additional ligand

    Atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out for the first time in 1-methylimidazolium acetate ([mim][AT]), 1-methylimidazolium propionate([mim][PT]), and 1-methylimidazolium butyrate ([mim][BT]), respectively. The polymerization was approached by using ascorbic acid (VC) as a reducing agent, ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as initiator, only FeBr3 as catalyst without any additional ligand. Kinetic studies showed that both AGET ATRP of AN in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of air proceeded in a well-controlled manner. Under the same conditions, the polymerization in the presence of air provided rather slower reaction rate and showed better control of molecular weight and its distribution than in the absence of oxygen. The sequence of the apparent polymerization rate constants of AGET ATRP of AN in three ionic liquids was kapp([mim][AT]) > kapp([mim][PT]) > kapp([mim][BT]). The living nature of the polymerization was confirmed by chain end analysis and block copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with polyacrylonitrile as macroinitiator. All the three ionic liquids and FeBr3 could be recycled and reused and had no effect on the living nature of polymerization.

  19. Zinc chelates as new activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to apply several zinc chelates as activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrilebutadiene elastomer (NBR, in order to find alternatives for the conventionally used zinc oxide. In this article, we discuss the effects of different zinc complexes on the cure characteristics, crosslinks distribution in the elastomer network and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Zinc chelates seem to be good substitutes for zinc oxide as activators for sulphur vulcanization of NBR rubber, without detrimental effects on the crosslinking process and physical properties of the obtained vulcanizates. Moreover, application of zinc complexes allows to reduce the amount of zinc ions in rubber compounds by 40% compared to conventionally crosslinked vulcanizates with zinc oxide. It is a very important ecological goal since zinc oxide is classified as toxic to aquatic species and its amount in rubber products must be reduced below 2.5% at least. From a technological point of view it is a very important challenge.

  20. Kinetic studies of uranyl ion adsorption on acrylonitrile (AN) / polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating networks (IPN)

    The kinetics of the adsorption of uranyl ions on amidoximated acrylonitrile (AN)/ polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating network (IPNs) from aqueous solutions was studied as a function of time and temperature. Adsorption analyses were performed for definite uranyl ion concentrations of 1x10-2M and at four different temperatures as 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K. Adsorption time was increased from zero to 48 hours. Adsorption capacities of uranyl ions by PEG/AN IPNS were determined by gamma spectrometer. The results indicate that adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing temperature. The max adsorption capacity was found as 602 mgu/g IPN at 308K. Adsorption rate was evaluated from the curve plotted of adsorption capacity versus time, for each temperature. Rate constants for uranyl ions adsorption on amidoximated ipns were calculated for 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K at the solution concentration of 1x10-2M . The results showed that as the temperature increases the rate constant increases exponentially too. The mean activation energy of uranyl ions adsorption was found as 34.6 kJ/mole by using arrhenius equation. (author)

  1. The physical and degradation properties of starch-graft-acrylonitrile/carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber latex films.

    Misman, M A; Azura, A R; Hamid, Z A A

    2015-09-01

    Starch-graft-acrylonitrile (ANS) is compounded with carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The control XNBR and the ANS/XNBR latex films were prepared through a coagulant dipping process. The films were subjected to ageing and soil burial procedures. For the biodegradation experiment, the surface of the film was assessed after the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of soil burial. The ANS, XNBR, and ANS/XNBR colloidal stability were determined with a Malvern Zetasizer. For the dipped latex films, the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were analyzed. The addition of ANS into the XNBR latex increased the stability of the colloidal dispersions, decreased the latex film tensile strength, but increased the elongation at break due to the bipolar interaction of the ANS and XNBR particles. The ANS/XNBR latex films aged faster than the control films while the morphological analysis showed the existence of a starch crystal region and the formation of microbial colonies on the surfaces of the films. Based on the TGA-DTA curves, a higher ΔT was observed for the ANS/XNBR latex films signifying high thermal energy needed for the film to thermally degrade. PMID:26005134

  2. Regenerated thermosetting styrene-co-acrylonitrile sandwich composite panels reinforced by jute fibre: structures and properties

    Jinglong Li; Qin Peng; Anrong Zeng; Junlin Li; Xiaole Wu; Xiaofei Liu

    2016-02-01

    Jute fibres-reinforced sandwich regenerated composite panels were fabricated using industrial waste thermosetting styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN) foam scraps via compression moulding for the purpose of recycling waste SAN foam and obtaining high physical performance. The jute fibres were, respectively, treated by heat, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (5.0 wt%), and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) in order to improve the mechanical properties of the composites. The structures and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The SAN matrix got compact and some crystalline region formed in SAN matrix via compression moulding. The composite reinforced by DMAc-treated jute fibres performed optimum mechanical properties among the regenerated panels whose impact strength, flexural strength, and compressive strength were 19.9 kJ m−2, 41.7 MPa, and 61.0 MPa, respectively. Good interfacial bonding between DMAc-treated fibres and SAN matrix was verified by peel test and exhibited in SEM photographs. Besides, the water absorption of DMAc-treated fibres composite was lower than other SAN/jute fibre-reinforced sandwich composite panels.

  3. Covalent Immobilization of Lipase on Poly ( acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) Ultrafiltration Hollow Fiber Membrane

    YE Peng; XU Zhi-kang; WU Jian; DENG Hong-tao; SETA Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Lipase from Candida rugosa was covalently immobilized on the surface of an ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane fabricated from poly (acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) in which the carboxyl groups were activated with 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide(NHS), respectively. The properties of the immobilized lipase were assayed and compared with those of the free enzyme. The maximum activities were observed in a relatively broader pH value range at high temperatures for the immobilized lipase compared to the free one. It was also found that the thermal and pH stabilities of lipase were improved upon immobilization and at 50 ℃ the thermal inactivation rate constant values are 2.1×10-2 for the free lipase, 3.2×10-3 for the immobilized lipase on the EDC-activated PANCMA membrane and 3.5×10-3 for the immobilized lipase on the DCC/NHS-activated PANCMA membrane, respectively.

  4. Method for the separation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics

    Jody, Bassam J.; Arman, Bayram; Karvelas, Dimitrios E.; Pomykala, Jr., Joseph A.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    An improved method is provided for separating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) plastics from each other. The ABS and HIPS plastics are shredded to provide a selected particle size. The shredded particles of the ABS and HIPS plastics are applied to a solution having a solution density in a predefined range between 1.055 gm/cm.sup.3 and 1.07 gm/cm.sup.3, a predefined surface tension in a range between 22 dynes/cm to 40 dynes/cm and a pH in the range of 1.77 and 2.05. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the novel method is provided for separating ABS and HIPS, two solid thermoplastics which have similar densities by selectively modifying the effective density of the HIPS using a binary solution with the appropriate properties, such as pH, density and surface tension, such as a solution of acetic acid and water or a quaternary solution having the appropriate density, surface tension, and pH.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of some investigated natural and acrylonitrile rubber vulcanizations for physiotherapeutic purposes

    A trial was made to design and prepare rubber article that can be used to reactivate, strengthen and reinforce the hand muscles and fingers which had suffered from trouble movement.The investigated rubber article was prepared from natural and acrylonitrile rubber formulations. These formulations were processed in the form of compounds which contain significant quantities of fillers as Hisil, CaCO3 and TiO2.The rheological characteristics and physicochemical properties of the vulcanizations were determined according to standard tests. It was found that it is possible to prepare the designated rubber article for the desired purpose. The test results show that the prepared rubber article has a good chemical resistant against acid, alkali, and salt. Also it possesses high resistance to deterioration and deformation. The prepared article has an ability to retain its elastic property after the action of compressive forces at 70 degree C for 24 hours.This was conformed with applied commercial hand exercise therapeutic article

  6. Optical properties of polycarbonate/styrene-co-acrylonitrile blends: effects of molecular weight of the matrix.

    Yi, Ping; Xiong, Ying; Guo, Shaoyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of the molecular weight of a polycarbonate (PC) matrix on the phase morphology and optical properties of a PC/styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN) blend were investigated. A scanning electron microscope is used to analyze the phase morphology of the blends, and Mie scattering theory is used to analyze the changing laws of the optical properties of PC/SAN blends with the increasing of PC molecular weight. Results show that the average particle diameter is not strongly changed with different PC molecular weight because the values of the viscosity ratios are very close to each other. But it is obvious that the number of large particles gradually reduced while small particles (especially dmolecular weight. And the increase in small particles will result in an increase in backward scattering so the transmittance of PC/SAN blends decreases with the increase of PC molecular weight. However, the balance of the scattering coefficients and the number concentration of particles eventually lead to the haze of the blends being very close, despite having different PC molecular weights. Meanwhile, the photographs of scattering patterns indicate that the PC/SAN blends whose component weight ratios are fixed at 70:30 have excellent antiglare properties, despite the changes in molecular weight of the PC matrix. PMID:26836652

  7. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends

    Khalil Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (ML and maximum torque (MH of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2 cure time (tc90, compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties.

  8. Microstrueture and Properties of Fluoroelastomer/Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Rubber Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    CHEN Chunming; XIONG Chuanxi; YANG Jian; DONG Lijie

    2008-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks(IPNs)based on fluoroelastomer/butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber(FKM/NBR)by molten blending at a high temperature and chemical cross-linking of two components were prepared.The influence of the two networks component on the mechanical properties and thermostabilities was studied.The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of the IPNs are superior to those of the individual FKM and NBR networks due to forming the case of interpenetrating and intercross-linking between the two networks,the mechanical properties and thermal resistance exhibit higher values when 80/20(w/w)FKM and NBR is blended and respectively cured simultaneously.The co-continuous morphology of the IPNs in the blends of 80/20(w/w)FKM/NBR is found by transmission electron microscopy(TEM),the differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)determination shows that the blends of 80/20(w/w)FKM/NBR have better compatibility,and the glass transition temperature of the elastomer is -21.5℃.

  9. Latex stage blending of multiwalled carbon nanotube in carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber: Mechanical and electrical properties

    Highlights: ► MWCNT can act as a reinforcing filler in XNBR at very low concentration. ► SEM and XRD analysis confirm uniform distribution of nanotube in the matrix. ► Mechanical properties showed considerable improvement. ► Thermal stability of the composite is marginally improved. -- Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was dispersed in sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) by sonication. The dispersed MWCNT (0.05–0.3 gm) was incorporated in carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. Mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of these composites were studied. Mechanical properties of the composites increased up to an optimum concentration and then decreased. Dielectric properties of the composites were studied in the S band (frequency range 2–4 GHz) by Cavity Perturbation method. Direct current (DC) electrical conductivity shows a percolation behaviour and conductivity increased by about 10 orders of magnitude. Thermal studies were conducted using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). As expected with the very small concentration of multiwalled carbon nanotube, glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of the composite showed a marginal increase. Composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis.

  10. Peroxydisulfate initiated synthesis of potato starch-graft-poly(acrylonitrile under microwave irradiation

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato starch-graft-poly(acrylonitrile could be efficiently synthesized using small concentration of ammonium peroxydisulfate (0.0014M in aqueous medium under microwave irradiation. A representative microwave synthesized graft copolymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Under microwave conditions oxygen removal from the reaction vessel was not required and the graft copolymer was obtained in high yield using very small amount of ammonium peroxydisulfate, however using the same amount of ammonium peroxydisulfate (0.0014M on thermostatic water bath no grafting was observed up to 98°C (even in inert atmosphere. Raising the concentration of the initiator to 0.24 M resulted into 10% grafting at 50 °C but in inert atmosphere.The viscosity/shear stability of the grafted starch (aqueous solution and water/saline retention ability of the microwave synthesized graft copolymer were also studied and compared with that of the native potato starch.

  11. Modification of dicyanate ester resin by liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer

    Bisphenol A dicyanate ester (BADCy) was modified with liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (LCTBN). The cured BADCy resin was formed through the cyclotrimerization of cyanate functional groups into triazine rings, and there was the chemical reaction between BADCy and LCTBN. Mechanical performance indicated that the introduction of LCTBN into BADCy resin improved the impact strength with maintenance in flexural strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the pure resin had a smooth glassy fracture surface, whereas cured blends containing LCTBN showed rougher fracture surfaces, and exhibited enhanced impact resistance. The TEM observation showed that the two phases in the cured resins exhibit a good interaction adhesion. Thermograms of BADCy modified with LCTBN showed the little reduction of heat deflection temperature, and a reduction in thermal stability temperature by 30 K. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the pure BADCy had higher storage modulus (E') values than that of the BADCy modified with LCTBN, whereas the loss modulus (E'') was lower, and that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of modified BADCy was 229 deg. C and lower than that (249 deg. C) of pure BADCy resin.

  12. AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile with ionic liquids as reaction medium without any additional ligand

    Chen Hou, E-mail: lduchenhou@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Liang Ying; Liu Delong; Tan Zhi; Zhang Shaohong; Zheng Meiling; Qu Rongjun [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2010-05-10

    Atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out for the first time in 1-methylimidazolium acetate ([mim][AT]), 1-methylimidazolium propionate([mim][PT]), and 1-methylimidazolium butyrate ([mim][BT]), respectively. The polymerization was approached by using ascorbic acid (VC) as a reducing agent, ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as initiator, only FeBr{sub 3} as catalyst without any additional ligand. Kinetic studies showed that both AGET ATRP of AN in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of air proceeded in a well-controlled manner. Under the same conditions, the polymerization in the presence of air provided rather slower reaction rate and showed better control of molecular weight and its distribution than in the absence of oxygen. The sequence of the apparent polymerization rate constants of AGET ATRP of AN in three ionic liquids was k{sub app}([mim][AT]) > k{sub app}([mim][PT]) > k{sub app}([mim][BT]). The living nature of the polymerization was confirmed by chain end analysis and block copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with polyacrylonitrile as macroinitiator. All the three ionic liquids and FeBr{sub 3} could be recycled and reused and had no effect on the living nature of polymerization.

  13. Crack initiation and propagation on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing

    G. M. Domínguez Almaraz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation and propagation have been investigated on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing. Three controlled actions were implemented in order to carry out fatigue tests at very high frequency on this material of low thermal conductivity, they are: a The applying load was low to limit heat dissipation at the specimen neck section, b The dimensions of testing specimen were small (but fitting the resonance condition, in order to restraint the temperature gradient at the specimen narrow section, c Temperature at the specimen neck section was restrained by immersion in water or oil during ultrasonic fatigue testing. Experimental results are discussed on the basis of thermo-mechanical behaviour: the tail phenomenon at the initial stage of fatigue, initial shear yielding deformation, crazed development on the later stage, plastic strain on the fracture surface and the transition from low to high crack growth rate. In addition, a numerical analysis is developed to evaluate the J integral of energy dissipation and the stress intensity factor K, with the crack length

  14. Carbon nanotube buckypaper reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites for electronic applications.

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Gascón, David

    2013-11-27

    Novel acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) nanocomposites reinforced with pristine or functionalized single- or multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (BP) sheets were manufactured via hot-compression and vacuum infiltration. Their morphology, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties were comparatively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the infiltration process leads to better BP impregnation than the hot-press technique. BPs made from functionalized or short nanotubes form compact networks that hamper the penetration of the matrix chains, whereas those composed of pristine tubes possess large pores that facilitate the polymer flow, resulting in composites with low degree of porosity and improved mechanical performance. Enhanced thermal and electrical properties are found for samples incorporating functionalized BPs since dense networks lead to more conductive pathways, and a stronger barrier effect to the diffusion of degradation products, thus better thermal stability. According to dynamic mechanical analysis these composites exhibit the highest glass transition temperatures, suggesting enhanced filler-matrix interactions as corroborated by the Raman spectra. The results presented herein demonstrate that the composite performance can be tailored by controlling the BP architecture and offer useful insights into the structure-property relationships of these materials to be used in electronic applications, particularly for EMI shielding and packaging of integrated circuits. PMID:24171494

  15. Study of the Effect of Grafted Antioxidant on the Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymer Properties

    Abdulaziz Ibrahim Al-Ghonamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The grafting of ADPEA onto natural rubber was executed with UV radiation. Benzoyl peroxide was used to initiate the free-radical grafting copolymerization. Natural rubber-graft-N-(4-aminodiphenylether acrylamide (NR-g-ADPEA was characterized with an IR technique. The paper aims interested to determine the crosslinking density by using the ultrasonic technique. The ultrasonic velocities of both longitudinal and shear waves were measured in thermoplastic discs of NBR vulcanizates as a function of aging time. Ultrasonic velocity measurements were taken at 2 MHz ultrasonic frequency using the pulse echo method. We studied the effect of aging on the mechanical properties, crosslinking density, and the swelling and extraction phenomena for acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR vulcanizates, which contained the prepared NR-g-ADPEA and a commercial antioxidant, N-isopropyl-N−-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine. The prepared antioxidant enhanced both the mechanical properties of the NBR vulcanizates and the permanence of the ingredients in these vulcanizates.

  16. 国内外丙烯腈供需现状和发展趋势%Global Supply & Demand Situation and Developing Trend of Acrylonitrile

    吴宇红

    2012-01-01

    介绍了丙烯腈的国内外供需现状,分析了未来丙烯腈装置的投资计划及下游应用领域的需求情况,并预测了未来丙烯腈供需状况。估计到2015年全球丙烯腈产能将出现过剩,投资还需谨慎。%The global supply and demand situation of acrylinitrile was introduced.Based on anaysis of acrylinitrile plant investment plans and demand situation of downstream application filelds,the supply and demand situation of acrylonitrile in the future was predicted.It is predicted that global acrylonitrile capability would be surplus by 2015,so investment on acrylonitrile needs discretion.

  17. Influence of metal coordination on conductivity behavior in poly(butadiene-acrylonitrile)-CoCl2 system

    The metal complex formation and the electrical properties of amorphous solid polymer electrolytes, based on poly(butadiene-acrylonitrile) copolymer (PBAN) and CoCl2, have been studied over the homogeneity region of the system limited by the CoCl2 concentration of 1.89 mol kg-1. It has been found that ionic conductivity is carried out by the unipolar anion transfer at lower CoCl2 concentrations (up to 0.10 mol kg-1). As the CoCl2 concentration increases, electronic conductivity appears in addition to ionic conductivity, and the former becomes dominant, starting from 0.38 mol kg-1. It has been shown that the nature of charge carriers is determined by the composition of metal complexes formed by CoCl2 and the macromolecular solvent PBAN. At lower concentrations, the [Co2L2Cl4]0 dimers are the predominant species (L being macromolecule side groups C≡N), and their dissociation is followed by the formation of mobile Cl- anions and immobile binuclear [Co2Cl3]+ complexes. As CoCl2 concentration increases, polynuclear [ConL2Cl2n]0 (n > 2) complexes appear (L being C≡N and C=C groups of PBAN). Specific features of chemical bonds in π-complexes of transition metals result in the appearance of electronic charge carriers. The abrupt increase in conductivity observed at the highest CoCl2 concentration is connected with the formation of a percolation network of polynuclear [ConL2Cl2n]0 complexes

  18. Modification of fiber properties through grafting of acrylonitrile to rayon by chemical and radiation methods

    Inderjeet Kaur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous properties of rayon has been modified through synthesis of graft copolymers of rayon with acrylonitrile (AN by chemical method using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN/HNO3 as a redox initiator and gamma radiation mutual method. Percentage of grafting (Pg was determined as a function of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, temperature, time of reaction and the amount of water. Maximum percentage of grafting (160.01% using CAN/HNO3 was obtained at [CAN] = 22.80 × 10−3 mol/L, [HNO3] = 112.68 × 10−2 mol/L and [AN] = 114.49 × 10−2 mol/L in 20 mL of water at 45 °C within 120 min while in case of gamma radiation method, maximum Pg (90.24% was obtained at an optimum concentration of AN of 76.32 × 10−2 mol/L using 10 mL of water at room temperature with total dose exposure of 3.456 kGy/h. The grafted fiber was characterized by FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD studies. Swelling behavior of grafted rayon in different solvents such as water, methanol, ethanol, DMF and acetone was studied and compared with the unmodified rayon. Dyeing behavior of the grafted fiber was also investigated.

  19. Dynamic and kinetic aspects of the adsorption of acrylonitrile on Si(001)-2x1

    Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), photoelectron and photoabsorption spectroscopies, we have examined how acrylonitrile (H2C=CH-C≡N) reacts with the Si(001)-2x1 surface for coverages ranging from ∼1012 molecules/cm2 to ∼1014 molecules/cm2. At 300 K, in the very low coverage regime (below 1013 molecules/cm2), filled- and empty-state STM images show that the molecule bridges, via its β carbon and nitrogen ends, two silicon dangling bonds, across the trench separating two dimer rows. A cumulative-double-bond unit (C=C=N) is formed. The 300 K STM image results from the dynamic flipping of the molecule between two equivalent equilibrium positions, which can be seen when the molecular motion is slowed down at 80 K. For coverages larger than 1013 molecules/cm2, for which STM does not show ordered adsorption any more, the adsorption kinetics were observed in real-time using valence band photoemission and resonant Auger yield, associated with N 1s x-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS). At 300 K, these techniques point to a situation more complex than the one explored by STM at very low coverage. Three species (cyano-bonded, vinyl-bonded, and cumulative-double-bond species) are detected. Their distribution does not vary with increasing coverage. All dimerization-related surface states are quenched at saturation. The uptake rates versus coverage relationship points to the presence of a mobile precursor. Finally, the paper discusses a possible mechanism leading to the formation of cross-trench C=C=N unit at low coverage, and the reasons why the product branching ratio changes with increasing coverage

  20. Nanofibrous poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) membranes functionalized with gelatin and chitosan for lipase immobilization.

    Ye, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Wu, Jian; Innocent, Christophe; Seta, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    Nanofibrous membranes with an average diameter of 100 and 180 nm were fabricated from poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) by the electrospinning process. These nanofibrous membranes contain reactive groups which can be used to covalently immobilize biomacromolecules. Two natural macromolecules, chitosan and gelatin, were tethered on these nanofibrous membranes to fabricate dual-layer biomimetic supports for enzyme immobilization in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS). Lipase from Candida rugosa was then immobilized on these dual-layer biomimetic supports using glutaraldehyde (GA), and on the nascent PANCMA fibrous membrane using EDC/NHS as coupling agent, respectively. The properties of the immobilized lipases were assayed. It was found that there is an increase of the activity retention of the immobilized lipase on the chitosan-modified nanofibrous membrane (45.6+/-1.8%) and on the gelatin-modified one (49.7+/-1.8%), compared to that on the nascent one (37.6+/-1.8%). The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized lipases, K(m) and V(max), were also assayed. In comparison with the immobilized lipase on the nascent nanofibrous membrane, there is an increase of the V(max) value for the immobilized lipases on the chitosan- and gelatin-modified nanofibrous membranes. Results also indicate that the pH and thermal stabilities of lipases increase upon immobilization. The residual activities of the immobilized lipases are 55% on the chitosan-modified nanofibrous membrane and 60% on the gelatin-modified one, after 10 uses. PMID:16584770

  1. Chitosan-tethered poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) hollow fiber membrane for lipase immobilization.

    Ye, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Che, Ai-Fu; Wu, Jian; Seta, Patrick

    2005-11-01

    A protocol was used to prepare a dual-layer biomimetic membrane as support for enzyme immobilization by tethering chitosan on the surface of poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxylsuccin-imide (NHS). The chemical change of the chitosan-modified PANCMA membrane surface was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized on this dual-layer biomimetic membrane using glutaraldehyde (GA), and on the nascent PANCMA membrane using EDC/NHS as coupling agent. The properties of the immobilized enzymes were assayed and compared with those of the free one. It was found that both the activity retention of the immobilized lipase and the amount of bound protein on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane (44.5% and 66.5 mg/m2) were higher than those on the nascent PANCMA membrane (33.9% and 53.7 mg/m2). The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized lipases, Km and Vmax, were also assayed. The Km values were similar for the immobilized lipases, while the Vmax value of the immobilized lipase on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane was higher than that on the nascent PANCMA membrane. Results indicated that the pH and thermal stabilities of lipase increased upon immobilization. The residual activity of the immobilized lipase after 10 uses was 53% on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane and 62% on the nascent PANCMA membrane. PMID:15919112

  2. Microporous poly(acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate) membrane as a separator of rechargeable lithium battery

    We studied microporous poly(acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate), AMMA, membrane as the separator of Li/LiMn2O4 cell. The porous AMMA membrane was prepared by the phase inversion method with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the solvent and water as the non-solvent. We observed that morphology of the resulting membrane was strongly affected by the concentration of polymer solution: low concentration produced finger-like pores with dense skin on two surfaces of the membrane, while high concentration yielded open voids with dense layer on the other surface of the membrane. Regardless of their morphology, both membranes could be rapidly wetted by the liquid electrolyte (1.0 m LiBF4 dissolved in 1:3 wt.% mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and γ-butyrolactone (GBL)), and could be swollen at elevated temperatures, which resulted in the formation of a microporous gel electrolyte (MGE). It was shown that the resulting MGE not only had high ionic conductivity and but also had good compatibility with metal lithium even at 60 deg. C. Cyclic voltammetric test showed that the MGE had an electrochemical window of 4.9 V versus Li+/Li. At room temperature, the Li/MGE/LiMn2O4 cell showed excellent cycliability with a specific capacity of 121-125 mA h g-1 LiMn2O4. It was shown that even at 60 deg. C good mechanical strength of the MGE remained. Therefore, the MGE is suitable for the application of battery separator at elevated temperatures

  3. Pre-irradiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto chitin for adsorption of arsenic in water

    Radiation-induced grafting is an effective technique for preparation of novel materials. In this study, partially deacetylated chitin with deacetylation degree (DDA) of about 40% was graft-copolymerized with acrylonitrile (AN) by a γ-ray pre-irradiation method. The maximal grafting degree of AN onto pre-irradiated chitin at 25±1.2 kGy was 114% for AN concentration in dimethylformamide of 40% (v/v) at 70 °C for 8 h. The mixture ratio of 0.1 N NH2OH·HCl to 0.1 N NaOH was selected to be 7:3 (v/v) for amidoxime conversion of cyano-groups on grafted chitin (Chi-g-AN). The characteristics of modified chitin were depicted by the FT-IR spectra, BET area and SEM images. Adsorption equilibrium of As(III) onto Chi-g-AN converted amidoxime (Chi-g-AN-C) fits with the Langmuir model and the maximal adsorption capacity was 19.724 mg/g. The break-through times of As(III) on Chi-g-AN-C in column adsorption experiments increased with the increase in bed depths. - Highlights: • Partially deacetylated chitin was used for grafting AN by pre-irradiation. • The maximal grafting degree of AN onto chitin was 114%. • The cyano- of AN was converted into amidoxime to enhance adsorption. • The adsorption capacity of As(III) onto modified chitin was 19.724 mg/g. • Removal of arsenic in groundwater samples was tested by continuous adsorption

  4. Modeling contaminant transport and remediation at an acrylonitrile spill site in Turkey

    Şengör, S. Sevinç; Ünlü, Kahraman

    2013-07-01

    The August 1999 earthquake in Turkey damaged three acrylonitrile (AN) storage tanks at a plant producing synthetic fiber by polymerization. A numerical modeling study was carried out to analyze the groundwater flow and contaminant (AN) transport at the spill site. This study presents the application of a numerical groundwater model to determine the hydrogeological parameters of the site, where such data were not available during the field surveys prior to the simulation studies. The two- and three-dimensional transient flow and transport models were first calibrated using the first 266 days of observed head and concentration data and then verified using the remaining 540-day observed data set. Off-site migration of the contaminant plume was kept under control within the site boundaries owing to the favorable geology of the site, the characteristics of the local groundwater flow regime and the pumping operations. As expected, the applied pump-and-treat system was effective at high-permeability zones, but not fully effective at low-permeability zones. The results of long-term simulations for unconfined aquifer showed that the size of the plume in the high permeability zone shrank significantly due to the dilution by natural recharge. However, in the low permeability zone, it was not significantly affected. The study showed that accurate and sufficient data regarding the source characteristics, concentration and groundwater level measurements, groundwater pumping rates and their durations at each of the extraction points involved in the pump-and-treat system along with the hydrogeological site characterization are the key parameters for successful flow and transport model calibrations.

  5. The effect of unsaturated polyester resin from recycled PET as compatibilizer for styrene-butadiene (SBR)/ acrylonitrile-butadiene

    Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) from recycled PET flakes was prepared by depolymerization with propylene glycol and poly esterified with adipic acid. The effect of addition of 5, 10 and 15 phr of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) on the compatibility and physicomechanical properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) blends were studied. DSC, TGA, MDR, FTIR and chemical methods were used to determine the degree of compatibility. The mechanical and physical properties of the blends were found to improve with addition of 10 phr UPR for SBR/NBR blend. (author)

  6. Radiation grafting of acrylonitrile on ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer rubber. Optimization of grafting parameters and oil resistance properties

    Radiation induced grafting of acrylonitrile (ACN) on ethylene-propene diene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber film was investigated by mutual radiation grafting technique. Effect of experimental variables viz. radiation dose, dose rate, type of solvent and monomer content on extent of grafting was studied. From the kinetic studies a mathematical relation Rgα[M]0.7D0.68 showing non-linear relationship for rate of grafting with monomer concentration and dose was deduced. The grafted samples showed increased hardness and oil resistance. (author)

  7. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF WATER—ETHANOL MIXTURE THROUGH COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES.Ⅱ.ACRYLONITRILE AND MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES

    ZHangFuyao; ZhangYifeng; 等

    1993-01-01

    Acrylonitrile(AN) and maleic anhydride(MA) copolymer has been synthesized by radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite as initiator.The pervaporation properties of the copolymeric membranes prepared have been investigated for the first time. The dependences of pervaporation characteristics on coplymer composition,feed concentration and operating temperature have been studied.In order to improve the separation properties of the copolymeric membranes,the membranes were hydrolyzed with 10 wt% soldium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide aqueous solution.The hydrolyzed membranes containing more than 0.069MA mol fraction showed higher tensile strength and separation properties than the original membranes.

  8. Computational Investigation of the Competition between the Concerted Diels-Alder Reaction and Formation of Diradicals in Reactions of Acrylonitrile with Non-Polar Dienes

    James, Natalie C.; Um, Joann M.; Padias, Anne B.; Hall, H. K.; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    The energetics of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions of several 1,3-dienes with acrylonitrile, and the energetics of formation of diradicals, were investigated with density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and compared to experimental data. For the reaction of 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene with acrylonitrile, the concerted reaction is favored over the diradical pathway by 2.5 kcal/mol using B3LYP/6-31G(d); experimentally this reaction gives both cycloadduct and copolymer. The concerted ...

  9. Effect of solution-blended poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile copolymer on crystallization of poly(vinylidene fluoride

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of solution-blended poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN copolymer on crystallization of poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD. Acrylonitrile segment in SAN copolymer was partially miscible with PVDF. Styrene segment in SAN reduced the copolymer’s polarity and its miscibility with PVDF. FTIR and WAXD tests both showed as-prepared PVDF was mainly β-phase. We employed an index Aβdivided by Xc, suggesting that blended SAN could decrease the content of β-phase of PVDF. By DSC, the smaller content of PVDF made the system more miscible so that the Tg,SAN of pure SAN decreased from 86.6 to 81.6°C of sample PVDF/SAN = 20/80; further increase PVDF to 50/50, the Tg,SAN had a relative increase to be 84.2°C. However, for SAN by melt molding, Tg,SAN increased with the increase of PVDF content, which might be due to the incorporation of SAN into inter-spacing of PVDF lamellae, because PVDF molecular chains had not enough mobility to retreat from the SAN’s embrace and crystallize despite of the exit of SAN.

  10. Fire and Gas Barrier Properties of Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile Nanocomposites Using Polycaprolactone/Clay Nanohybrid Based-Masterbatch

    S. Benali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated nanocomposites are prepared by dispersion of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL grafted montmorillonite nanohybrids used as masterbatches in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN. The PCL-grafted clay nanohybrids with high inorganic content are synthesized by in situ intercalative ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone between silicate layers organomodified by alkylammonium cations bearing two hydroxyl functions. The polymerization is initiated by tin alcoholate species derived from the exchange reaction of tin(II bis(2-ethylhexanoate with the hydroxyl groups borne by the ammonium cations that organomodified the clay. These highly filled PCL nanocomposites (25 wt% in inorganics are dispersed as masterbatches in commercial poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile by melt blending. SAN-based nanocomposites containing 3 wt% of inorganics are accordingly prepared. The direct blend of SAN/organomodified clay is also prepared for sake of comparison. The clay dispersion is characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and solid state NMR spectroscopy measurements. The thermal properties are studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The flame retardancy and gas barrier resistance properties of nanocomposites are discussed both as a function of the clay dispersion and of the matrix/clay interaction.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cell with poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile)-based gel polymer electrolyte

    Highlights: ► A nontoxic, easily synthesized poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) showed suitable transmittance for dye-sensitized solar cell. ► A cell with relatively large active area fabricated with this polymer material showed acceptable efficiency. ► The gel polymer matrix affected the charge recombination, I3− diffusion, double layer capacitance, and electron lifetime in the cell. - Abstract: A non-conducting, nontoxic poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAA) was prepared and used as a supporting matrix for the electrolyte of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs of active area 0.80 cm × 1.10 cm fabricated with PAA, 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, 0.5 M 3-tert-butylpyridine, and 0.1 M 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide in 3-methoxypropionitrile solvent showed an average solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.61% under simulated sunlight illumination of 100 mW cm−2, AM 1.5. The effects of the gel polymer matrix on the electrochemical properties of DSSCs were studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Relative to the non-gel reference cells, the results showed a decrease in charge recombination, ionic diffusion, and double layer capacitance and an increase in electron lifetime. These results could play an important role in determining the future direction for the development of high-performance gel polymer electrolytes.

  12. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  13. The Protective Value of Hesperidin in Mitigating the Biochemical Perturbations and Trace Element alterations induced by Acrylonitrile in Rats

    N. M. Abdallah*, N. E. Amien**, M. R. Mohamed*, A. S. Nada**, M. A. Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acrylonitrile (a chemical pollutant has been reported to induce harmful effects in humans. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of hesperidin, a natural bioflavonoid, against the toxicity induced by acrylonitrile (AN in rats. Material&Methods: This study includes determination of serum total scavenger capacity “TSC”, liver enzymes (aspartate transaminase “ASAT”, alanine transaminase “ALAT” and alkaline phosphatase “ALP”, total proteins, albumin, glucose, creatinine, urea and lipid profile. Moreover, liver and kidney homogenate glutathione content “GSH”, catalase, superoxide dismutase “SOD”, glutathione peroxidase “GPx”, malondialdehyde “MDA” and some minerals were estimated. Results: revealed that administration of AN (orally 50mg/ kg b.wt. induced alterations in TSC level as well as liver, kidney and lipid profiles. In addition, a decrease in GSH-content and catalase, SOD and GPx activities was observed with an increase in MDA levels in both liver and kidney. There was disturbance in certain minerals such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Se, Ca, Mg and Mn. Conclusion: particularly, Hesperidin administration (orally 200 mg/kg b.wt. ameliorates the oxidative stress induced by AN, consistent with the reported antioxidant activity of hesperidin

  14. Acrylonitrile potentiates hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by moderate noise exposure in rats

    The diversity of chemical and drugs that can potentiate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has impeded efforts to predict such interactions. We have hypothesized that chemical contaminants that disrupt intrinsic antioxidant defenses hold significant risk for potentiating NIHL. If this is true, then acrylonitrile (ACN) would be expected to potentiate NIHL. ACN, one of the 50 most commonly used chemicals in the United States, is metabolized via two pathways that are likely to disrupt intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) buffering systems: (1) it conjugates glutathione, depleting this important antioxidant rapidly; (2) a second pathway involves the formation of cyanide, which can inhibit superoxide dismutase. We hypothesized that moderate noise exposure, that does not produce permanent hearing loss by itself, could initiate oxidative stress and that ACN could render the inner ear more sensitive to noise by disrupting intrinsic antioxidant defenses. Temporary and persistent effects of ACN alone (50 mg/kg, sc 5 days), noise alone (95 or 97 dB octave band noise, 4 h/day for 5 days), or ACN in combination with noise were determined using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and compound action potential (CAP) amplitudes. Histopathological damage to hair cells resulting from these treatments was also investigated using surface preparations of the organ of Corti. Individually, neither ACN nor noise exposures caused any permanent hearing or hair cell loss; only a reversible temporary threshold shift was measured in noise-exposed animals. However, when given in combination, ACN and noise induced permanent threshold shifts (13-16 dB between 7 and 40 kHz) and a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes (up to 25 dB at 19 kHz), as well as significant outer hair cell (OHC) loss (up to 20% in the first row between 13 and 47 kHz). This investigation demonstrates that ACN can potentiate NIHL at noise levels that are realistic in terms of human exposure, and that the OHCs are the

  15. Study of the radiation-induced crosslinking of a butadiene-acrylonitrile polymer in the presence of N-para-bromophenylmaleimide

    Mixtures of butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer with N-para-bromophenyl-maleimide (crosslinking sensitizer) were irradiated by exposure to the γ radiation of a 60Co source. The kinetics of crosslinking was evaluated as a function of composition, dose rate and temperature. The experimental measurements were carried out by infrared spectroscopy and magnetic resonance

  16. STUDY ON THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PYROLYSIS OF ACRYLONITRILE POLYMERS BY ON-LINE FTIR METHOD

    ZHAO Genxiang; CHEN Bangjie

    1987-01-01

    The gaseous products of high temperature pyrolysis (300℃ to 960℃) of acrylonitrile polymers were measured continuously under nitrogen atnosphere by on-line Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic method (FTIR). From the variations of characteristic peaks it was found that the nitrogen of macromolecules evolved were mainly in the form of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. During the pyrolysis amorphous carbonaceous element was formed, and crosslinked to form network structure. Three kinds of samples were used for comparison. The experimental results show that the gaseous products of volatile small molecules were HCN, NH3, CH4, C2H6 and cyanide. CO and CO2 were also formed when copolymers of PAN were thermally pyrolyzed.

  17. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    Li, Minyu [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Feng, Shujing; Fang, Shibi; Xiao, Xurui; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lin, Yuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-04-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V{sub oc} closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs. (author)

  18. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V oc closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs

  19. Pressure induced graft-co-polymerization of acrylonitrile onto Saccharum cilliare fibre and evaluation of some properties of grafted fibre

    A S Singha; Anjali Shama; Vijay Kumar Thakur

    2008-02-01

    In the present work, graft co-polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto Saccharum cilliare fibre has been carried out in the presence of potassium persulphate and ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS–KPS) as redox initiator. The reactions were carried out under pressure in an autoclave. Various reaction parameters such as pressure, time, pH, concentrations of initiator and monomer were optimized to get maximum graft yield (35.59%). Grafted and ungrafted Saccharum cilliare fibres were then subjected to evaluation of some of their properties like swelling behaviour in different solvents, moisture absorbance under different humidity levels, water uptake and resistance towards chemicals such as hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. The characterization of the graft copolymers were carried out by FTIR spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  20. Study on Exothermic Oxidation of Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS Resin Powder with Application to ABS Processing Safety

    Jenq-Renn Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative degradation of commercial grade ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin powders was studied by thermal analysis. The instabilities of ABS containing different polybutadiene (PB contents with respect to temperature were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC. Thermograms of isothermal test and dynamic scanning were performed. Three exothermic peaks were observed and related to auto-oxidation, degradation and oxidative decomposition, respectively. Onset temperature of the auto-oxidation was determined to be around 193 °C. However, threshold temperature of oxidation was found to be as low as 140 °C by DSC isothermal testing. Another scan of the powder after degeneration in air showed an onset temperature of 127 °C. Reactive hazards of ABS powders were verified to be the exothermic oxidation of unsaturated PB domains, not the SAN (poly(styrene-acrylonitrile matrix. Heat of oxidation was first determined to be 2,800 ± 40 J per gram of ABS or 4,720 ± 20 J per gram of PB. Thermal hazards of processing ABS powder are assessed by adiabatic temperature rise at process conditions. IR spectroscopy associated with heat of oxidation verified the oxidative mechanism, and these evidences excluded the heat source from the degradation of SAN. A specially prepared powder of ABS without adding anti-oxidant was analyzed by DSC for comparing the exothermic behaviors. Exothermic onset temperatures were determined to be 120 °C and 80 °C by dynamic scanning and isothermal test, respectively. The assessment successfully explained fires and explosions in an ABS powder dryer and an ABS extruder.

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile molecule as a potential acceptor in organic solar cells.

    Kazici, Mehmet; Bozar, Sinem; Yuksel, Sureyya Aydin; Ongul, Fatih; Gokce, Halil; Gunes, Serap; Goreci, Cigdem Yorur

    2016-06-10

    A novel soluble asymmetric acrylonitrile derivative, 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile (CPCPFA, 3) was synthesized in three steps by Knoevenagel condensation. The structure of the CPCPFA was characterized using UV-vis, FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and LC-MS. CPCPFA was evaluated as an electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Its optical and electronic properties as well as photovoltaic performance were investigated. PMID:27145976

  2. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile molecule as a potential acceptor in organic solar cells

    Kazici, Mehmet; Bozar, Sinem; Aydin Yuksel, Sureyya; Ongul, Fatih; Gokce, Halil; Gunes, Serap; Yorur Goreci, Cigdem

    2016-06-01

    A novel soluble asymmetric acrylonitrile derivative, 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile (CPCPFA, 3) was synthesized in three steps by Knoevenagel condensation. The structure of the CPCPFA was characterized using UV–vis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and LC-MS. CPCPFA was evaluated as an electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Its optical and electronic properties as well as photovoltaic performance were investigated.

  3. INVESTIGATION INTO THE REGIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PYRAZOLES DERIVED FROM 1, 3-DIPOLAR CYCLOADDITION OF ACRYLONITRILE WITH SOME NITRILIMINES: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

    FARID MOEINPOUR; MEHDI BAKAVOLI; ABOLGHASEM DAVOODNIA; ALI MORSALI

    2011-01-01

    1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between acrylonitrile and two N-(4-substituted)phenyl-C-(4-chlorophenyl)nitrilimines which were generated in situ afforded the new pyrazoles. The regiochemistry and reactivity of these reactions has been investigated on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) -based reactivity indexes and activation energy calculations. The theoretical 13C NMR chemical shifts of the cycloadducts which were obtained by GIAO method were comparable with the observed values.

  4. The Structure of the Free Volume in Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) from Positron Lifetime and Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT) Experiments

    Dlubek, Gunter; Bondarenko, Vladimir; Al-Qaradawi, Ilham Y.; Kilburn, Duncan; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The structure of the free volume and its temperature dependence between 25 and 190 °C of copolymers of styrene with acrylonitrile, SAN (0 to 50 mol-% AN), is studied by pressure volume temperature (PVT) experiments and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). In this second part of the work, PALS data are reported from which the temperature dependence of the mean size and size distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes) is analysed. The mean hole volume, v...

  5. 丙烯腈生殖毒理学研究概况%An Overview of the Study of Acrylonitrile on Reproductive Toxiocology

    吴鑫; 金泰; 钟先玖

    2000-01-01

    @@ 丙烯腈(acrylonitrile,ACN)为有机合成工业中广泛应用的一种重要单体物质,可合成腈纶纤维,丁腈橡胶,ABS工程塑料及某些树脂.1994年全世界的ACN生产量超过30亿磅,1995年已达到100亿磅的生产能力[1].

  6. Determination of Bound Acrylonitrile Content in Acrylonitrile-butadiene Rubber(NBR) by Infrared Spectroscopy Method%红外光谱法测定丁腈橡胶中的结合丙烯腈含量

    高杜娟; 黄世英; 赵家琳; 刘俊保

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectrometry in this article was used to determinate the bound acrylonitrile content in nitrile rubber( NBR). In the process of experimenting,the sample preparation conditions were determined and the stand-ard values of seven substitute standard sample were confirmed by Kjeldahl method,through which the quantitative calculation formula was get. And finally,the results were compared with the method of element analysis.%本文采用红外光谱法测定丁腈橡胶( NBR)中的结合丙烯腈含量,确定了样品前处理条件,通过凯氏定氮法确定7个代用标准胶中结合丙烯腈含量的标准值,得出了结合丙烯腈含量的定量计算公式,测试结果与元素分析法进行了对比。

  7. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    H. F. Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN. The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg, mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.

  8. Isolation of the ε-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin

    ε-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate ε-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating ε-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539 mg/l ε-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete ε-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences

  9. Isolation of the {epsilon}-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin

    Wang, C.-C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Shalu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chunchin@sunrise.hk.edu.tw; Lee, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-25

    {epsilon}-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate {epsilon}-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating {epsilon}-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539 mg/l {epsilon}-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete {epsilon}-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences.

  10. Isolation of the epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin.

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2007-06-25

    epsilon-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating epsilon-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539mg/l epsilon-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete epsilon-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. PMID:17161908

  11. Radiolytic preparation and characterization of hydrophilic poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinylsulfonate)-grafted porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) substrates

    Park, Byeong-Hee; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a hydrophilic copolymer of acrylonitrile (AN) and sodium vinylsulfonate (SVS) was grafted into a highly hydrophobic porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) substrate using a gamma-ray irradiation method and the grafted substrate was used as a substrate for impregnating a hydrophilic ionomer, Nafion. The results of FT-IR and TGA analysis of the prepared substrate showed that the SVS/AN monomers were successfully grafted into the porous PTFE film. The results of degree of grafting, elemental analyzer, and contact angle analysis showed that the hydrophilicity of the prepared PTFE-g-P(AN-co-VS) substrate was increased with an increase in the amount of SVS/AN graft copolymers. Also, the results of FE-SEM and Gurley number measurement showed that the pores in the substrate were reduced as the amount of SVS/AN copolymers grafted into the substrate increased. The prepared porous PTFE-g-P(AN-co-VS) substrate at an irradiation dose of 70 kGy was found to impregnate Nafion ionomer effectively compared to the original porous PTFE substrate. These results suggest that the prepared PTFE-g-P(AN-co-VS) substrate can be effectively used for the impregnation of polymer electrolyte (Nafion) to prepare a reinforced composite membrane.

  12. Acrylonitrile-contamination induced enhancement of formic acid electro-oxidation at platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    El-Nagar, Gumaa A.; Mohammad, Ahmad M.; El-Deab, Mohamed S.; Ohsaka, Takeo; El-Anadouli, Bahgat E.

    2014-11-01

    Minute amount (∼1 ppm) of acrylonitrile (AcN), a possible contaminant, shows an unexpected enhancement for the direct electro-oxidation of formic acid (FAO) at Pt nanoparticles modified GC (nano-Pt/GC) electrodes. This is reflected by a remarkable increase of the current intensity of the direct oxidation peak (Ipd, at ca. 0.3 V) in the presence of AcN, concurrently with a significant decrease of the second (indirect) oxidation current (Ipind, at ca. 0.7 V), compared to that observed in the absence of AcN (i.e., at the unpoisoned Pt electrode). The extent of enhancement depends on the surface coverage (θ) of AcN at the surface of Pt nanoparticles. AcN is thought to favor the direct FAO by disturbing the contiguity of the Pt sites, which is necessary for CO adsorption. Furthermore, XPS measurements revealed a change in the electronic structure of Pt in presence of AcN, which has a favorable positive impact on the charge transfer during the direct FAO.

  13. Effect of Vanadium and Titanium substitution over an antimony-based mixed oxide catalysts for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile

    Antimony (Sb) oxide is known to be the active phase for the ammoxidation of propane to acrylonitrile (ACN). The influenced of V and/ or Ti on the physicochemical properties of Sb-based mixed oxide catalysts were studied using catalysts prepared by slurry method. The dried precursor was calcined in air at 350-600 degree Celsius for a total of 10 h. The active phases in Sb-promoted catalysts were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) while the changes in microstructure of these catalysts were studied using physical adsorption of nitrogen gas. The catalytic activities of these catalysts were tested in a fixed-bed reactor with online GC at 420 degree Celsius with reaction feed (% v) of 5.8:7:17.4 for propane, ammonia and oxygen, respectively. Results show that promotional of Sb with V and/ or Ti has an effect on the chemical environment of the Sb-mixed oxide catalysts, leading to differences in catalytic activity of these catalysts. (author)

  14. Reclamation of post-consumer plastics for development of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene based nanocomposites with nanoclay

    Zicans, Janis; Meri, Remo Merijs; Ivanova, Tatjana; Berzina, Rita; Saldabola, Ruuta; Maksimov, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Suitability of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (R-ABS) and recycled polycarbonate (R-PC) for the development of polymer matrix nanocomposites with organically modified nanoclay (OMMT) is evaluated in comparison to virgin polymers (V-ABS and V-PC) based systems. The influence of OMMT content on the structure as well as calorimetric, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin and recycled polymers containing systems is revealed. Increase in stiffness and strength of virgin and recycled polymers based systems is observed along with rising nanoclay content. However, it is observed that reinforcing efficiency of clays on the R-ABS containing systems is reduced to certain extent in comparison to those, based on virgin polymers. It is shown, that in the presence of OMMT approximation of glass transition temperatures of both polymeric components is observed, which can testify about certain improvement of compatibility between PC and ABS. Increment of the modulus of elasticity and yield strength of the nanocomposites is associated with anisodiametric shape of OMMT, as well as with intercalation of polymer within the interlaminar space of the clay nanoparticles. It is also demonstrated that addition of nanoclay improves thermogravimetric behavior of the investigated compositions. Consequently, it is suggested that nanoclays can be used as promising functional additives and replace halogenated flame-retardants, without reducing mechanical properties of the composites.

  15. Effect of different curing systems on the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber vulcanizates

    Graphical abstract: The stress -strain behavior of NBr demonstrates a remarkable dependance on the applied curing system. Research highlights: → The cross-link density greatly affect the mechanical properties of vulcanizates. → Hardness, Young's modulus, and tensile modulus increased by increasing the cross-link density. → The radiation/coagent cured system gave higher results in thermal stability and thermal ageing than those of the sulfur cured system. -- Abstract: In the present study, the effect of different curing systems including sulfur, dicumyl peroxide, dicumyl peroxide/coagent and radiation/coagent on the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was studied. In order to correlate, the effect of curing systems on rubber, the comparison was carried out at comparable value of volume fraction of rubber in swollen gel (Vr) for NBR vulcanizates. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus, Young's modulus, tearing strength and abrasion loss of vulcanizates have been followed up for comparison. In addition, physico-chemical properties like swelling ratio, soluble fraction, and cross-link density were investigated. On the other hand, the effects of fuel, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermal ageing have been studied.

  16. The effect of trichloroethylene and acrylonitrile on RNA and ribosome synthesis and ribosome content in Saccharomyces cells.

    Lochmann, E R; Ehrlich, W; Mangir, M

    1984-04-01

    The effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) and acrylonitrile (ACN) on growth, RNA synthesis, ribosome synthesis, and ribosome content were tested in yeast cells. TCE causes a delay of the growth of a cell culture (prolongation of the lag phase), but does not cause inhibition. Cells exposed to increasing concentrations of ACN show increasing damage, so that, at a certain point of the growth curve, cell division stops altogether. Similar results were obtained when RNA synthesis was investigated: After treatment with TCE, the maximum RNA synthesis of the cell culture was retarded, but subsequently reached the same level as the untreated control cells. In the presence of ACN, however, the rate of RNA synthesis was lowered with increasing ACN concentrations. The same effect was observed upon investigation of ribosome synthesis: Whereas TCE produces only a slight effect, treatment with increasing concentrations of ACN leads to a substantial decrease in ribosome synthesis, and finally to total inhibition. Parallel to this, the content of free and membrane-bound ribosomes is diminished. Obviously, the decrease in ribosome content is caused not only by an inhibition of ribosome synthesis, but also by a degradation of existing ribosomes, as well as by induction of a ribosome-associated RNase. PMID:6714140

  17. TEMPERATURE AND pH RESPONSE, AND SWELLING BEHAVIOR OF POROUS ACRYLONITRILE-ACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER HYDROGELS

    Jian Huang; Zhi-ming Huang; Yong-zhong Bao; Zhi-xue Weng

    2006-01-01

    Macroporous acrylonitrile-acrylic acid (AN-AA) copolymer hydrogels were synthesized by free-radical solution polymerizations, using ammonium persulfate (APS)/N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) redox initiator system and alcohols porogens. The morphology, temperature and pH sensitive swelling behavior, and swelling kinetics of the resulting hydrogels were investigated. It was found that alcohol type and concentration had great influences on the pore structure and porosity of hydrogels. The pore size of hydrogel increases with the moderate increase of the length of alcohol alkyl chain. However, a further increase of alkyl length would result in the formation of cauliflower-like structure and the decrease of pore size. The porosity of hydrogels increases with the increase of porogen concentration in the polymerization medium. The hydrogels with macroporous structure swell or shrink much faster in response to the change of pH in comparison with the conventional hydrogel without macroporous structure. Furthermore, the response rate is closely related to the porosity of the hydrogels, which could be easily controlled by modulating the concentration of the porogen in the medium. The circular swelling behavior of hydrogels indicated the formation of a relaxing three-dimensional network.

  18. Preparation of Mesoporous Carbons from Acrylonitrile-methyl Methacrylate Copolymer/Silica Nanocomposites Synthesized by in-situ Emulsion Polymerization

    BAO Yongzhong; ZHAO Wenting; HUANG Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate (AN-MMA) copolymer/silica nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ emulsion polymerization initiated by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride absorbed onto colloidal silica particles,and the mesoporous carbon materials were prepared through carbonization of the obtained AN-MMA copolymer/silica nanocomposites,followed by HF etching.Thermogravimetric analysis of AN-MMA copolymer/silica nanocomposites showed that the carbon yield of copolymer was slightly decreased as silica particle incorporated.N2 adsorption-desorption,scan electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the mesoporous carbon materials.Both SEM and TEM results showed that disordered mesopores were formed in the obtained carbon material mainly through templating effect of silica nanoparticles.The diameter of mesopores was mainly distributed in the range from 5 nm to 15 nm.The mean pore diameter and total pore volume of the material increased as the mass fraction of silica in the nanocomposites increased from 0 to 24.93%.The significant increase of the mean pore diameter and the decrease of surface area for the carbon material prepared from the nanocomposite with 24.93% silica were caused by partial aggregation of silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix.

  19. The effect of distribution of monomer moiety on the pH response and mechanical properties of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) copolymers

    The pH response and mechanical properties of copolymer-based hydrogels such as poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) are usually attributed to their chemical composition. In this study, it has been shown that the architecture of the polymer chains, i.e. the distribution of comonomers in the macromolecules, also plays a major role in controlling these properties. A series of four poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acids) with fixed composition (i.e. ∼30 mol% acrylic acid moieties) were synthesized, where the block lengths of both AN (acrylonitrile) and AAc (acrylic acid) moieties in the copolymers were varied by controlling the feeding pattern of the monomers during free radical copolymerization. These copolymers were then converted into fine fibers of the same dimensions. The monomer distribution in the four copolymers was estimated using quantitative carbon 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and related to the mechanical and pH response properties of the resultant fibers. The pH response of the fibers with similar composition increased dramatically as the block length of the AAc moiety was increased, while the mechanical properties increased as a direct function of the block length of the AN moieties. The fiber's response at pH 10 in terms of the change in length increased by ∼four times while its response rate increased by ∼50 times with the increase in block length of the AAc moiety. On the other hand, the tensile properties and retractive stress increased by ∼four times with the increase in the block length of the AN moiety

  20. Use of Yb-based catalyst for AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile to simultaneously control molecular mass distribution and tacticity

    Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with 2-bromopropionitrile (BPN) as initiator, 2, 2′-bipyridine (bipy) as ligand, and tisn(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Sn(EH)2) as reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP of AN catalyzed by CuBr2, an evident increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr3 content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60,000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. - Graphical abstract: Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN with BPN as the initiator, bipy as the ligand, and Sn(EH)2 as the reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP with CuBr2 as catalyst, an obvious increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr3 content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. Highlights: ► Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN. ► The reaction simultaneously controls polydispersity and tacticity of PAN. ► Well-defined block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA was successfully prepared.

  1. Use of Yb-based catalyst for AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile to simultaneously control molecular mass distribution and tacticity

    Ma Jing; Chen Hou, E-mail: lduchenhou@hotmail.com; Zhang Min; Wang Chunhua; Zhang Ying; Qu Rongjun

    2012-08-01

    Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with 2-bromopropionitrile (BPN) as initiator, 2, 2 Prime -bipyridine (bipy) as ligand, and tisn(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Sn(EH){sub 2}) as reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP of AN catalyzed by CuBr{sub 2}, an evident increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr{sub 3} content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60,000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. - Graphical abstract: Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN with BPN as the initiator, bipy as the ligand, and Sn(EH){sub 2} as the reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP with CuBr{sub 2} as catalyst, an obvious increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr{sub 3} content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction simultaneously controls polydispersity and tacticity of PAN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Well-defined block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA was successfully prepared.

  2. The uranium recovery from aqueous solutions using amidoxime modified cellulose derivatives. Pt. 1. Preparation, characterization and amidoxime conversion of radiation grafted ethyl cellulose-acrylonitrile copolymers

    Graft copolymers were prepared by 60Co-γ irradiation of binary mixture of ethyl cellulose (EC) and acrylonitrile (AN). Conversion %-dose graphs were obtained, and 95% copolymer yield has been reached at around 8 kGy dose. Conversion of nitrile groups to amidoxime (AO) were achieved by aqueous solutions of NH2OH.HCl-NaOH at 50 C. The amidoxime conversion was followed by using FT-IR spectrophotometer and determined as percentage. After 72 h period, nearly 100% amidoxime conversion was provided. The structures of EC-g-AN and EC-g-AO were characterized by FTIR/ATR, TGA, and SEM methods.

  3. Thermal stability and kinetic study of poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization in presence of an Algerian bentonite

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) nanocomposites were successfully prepared. • These nanocomposites were of higher Tg and improved thermal stability. • Their (Eα) of thermal decomposition were higher than those of the virgin copolymer. • Increase of (Eα), confirmed change in the degradation mechanism with clay loading. - Abstract: Poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) (PEAMN20) nanocomposites were successfully prepared via free radical in situ polymerization using a bentonite from Algeria modified by Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HDTMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) investigations revealed that depending on the OMMT loading, intercalated or partially exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained. These nanocomposites exhibited an overall improved thermal stability and an increase in their glass transition temperature compared to the pure copolymer (PEMAN20) as evidenced by Thermogravimetric (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Apparent activation energies (Eα) of thermal decomposition of the elaborated nanocomposites, determined by Tang method, were higher than those of the virgin copolymer. The significant increase of (Eα), observed with PEMAN20/OMMT (1 wt%) confirmed the change in the degradation mechanism with OMMT loading and the ratio of intercalated/exfoliated structures

  4. Thermal stability and kinetic study of poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization in presence of an Algerian bentonite

    Kadi, Souad [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Laboratoire des Matériaux Polymères, Faculté de Chimie, BP 32 El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Djadoun, Saïd, E-mail: matpolylab@yahoo.fr [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Laboratoire des Matériaux Polymères, Faculté de Chimie, BP 32 El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas [Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, LPMC, UMR 7336, 06100 Nice (France)

    2013-10-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) nanocomposites were successfully prepared. • These nanocomposites were of higher T{sub g} and improved thermal stability. • Their (E{sub α}) of thermal decomposition were higher than those of the virgin copolymer. • Increase of (E{sub α}), confirmed change in the degradation mechanism with clay loading. - Abstract: Poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) (PEAMN20) nanocomposites were successfully prepared via free radical in situ polymerization using a bentonite from Algeria modified by Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HDTMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) investigations revealed that depending on the OMMT loading, intercalated or partially exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained. These nanocomposites exhibited an overall improved thermal stability and an increase in their glass transition temperature compared to the pure copolymer (PEMAN20) as evidenced by Thermogravimetric (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Apparent activation energies (E{sub α}) of thermal decomposition of the elaborated nanocomposites, determined by Tang method, were higher than those of the virgin copolymer. The significant increase of (E{sub α}), observed with PEMAN20/OMMT (1 wt%) confirmed the change in the degradation mechanism with OMMT loading and the ratio of intercalated/exfoliated structures.

  5. Acrylonitrile exposure: the effect on p53 and p21WAF1 protein levels in the blood plasma of occupationally exposed workers and in vitro in human diploid lung fibroblasts

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Binková, Blanka; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    č. 517 (2002), s. 239-250. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/1/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Acrylonitrile * p53 protein * p21WAF1 protein Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.158, year: 2002

  6. Acrylonitrile grafted to PVDF

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-03-31

    PVDF-g-PAN has been synthesized by grafting polyacrylonitrile onto polyvinylidene fluoride using an ATRP/AGET method. The novel polymer is ionically conducive and has much more flexibility than PVDF alone, making it especially useful either as a binder in battery cell electrodes or as a polymer electrolyte in a battery cell.

  7. Infrared thermochromic behaviour of a composite Sm0.65Ca0.35MnO3-poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) film

    Ammar, M. R.; Napierala, C.; Laffez, P.

    2009-05-01

    Samarium calcium perovskite manganite Sm0.65Ca0.35MnO3 was dispersed homogeneously in a solution of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). A thin film was deposited on (100) oriented silicon substrate by spin-coating and the optical thermochromic behaviour in the infrared range was studied. In the wavelength range 8-14 µm, the optical transmittance of the thermochromic composite coating exhibited a large variation between 173 and 343 K due to a semiconductor-metal first-order transition at Tc = 250 K. The thermochromic behaviour of the composite coatings was optimized. The contrast in the transmittance first increased with pigment content, then reached a maximum value.

  8. Infrared thermochromic behaviour of a composite Sm0.65Ca0.35MnO3–poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) film

    Samarium calcium perovskite manganite Sm0.65Ca0.35MnO3 was dispersed homogeneously in a solution of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). A thin film was deposited on (100) oriented silicon substrate by spin-coating and the optical thermochromic behaviour in the infrared range was studied. In the wavelength range 8–14 µm, the optical transmittance of the thermochromic composite coating exhibited a large variation between 173 and 343 K due to a semiconductor–metal first-order transition at Tc = 250 K. The thermochromic behaviour of the composite coatings was optimized. The contrast in the transmittance first increased with pigment content, then reached a maximum value

  9. One-step Preparation and Antibacterial Property of Poly(N-iso- propyl-acrylamide) Grafted Poly(acrylonitrile/styrene) Micro- spheres Immobilized with Silver Nanoparticles

    FENG,Jiao; FAN,Liheng; CHU,Hong; XIONG,Wanbin; JIANG,Jinqiang; CHEN,Mingqing

    2009-01-01

    Monodispersed silver nanoparticles were immobilized onto the surface of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted poly(acrylonitrile/styrene) (PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt) microspheres by a one-step method using AgNO3 as a silver source. This process was performed via the coordination interaction between Ag ions and amide groups on PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt microsphere surfaces with the reduction of the corresponding ions by ethanol taking place simultaneously. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra illustrated that the silver nanoparticles were successfully immobilized onto the PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt microspheres. The size and morphology of silvered microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The weight percent of silver nanoparticles immobilized onto the microspheres was 12% based on the determination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The antibacterial tests demonstrated that the as-prepared silvered microspheres showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR YIELD STRESS OF HARD POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE BLENDS AT DIFFERENT CROSSHEAD SPEEDS

    Pei-hua Du; Jie Yu; Peng-fei Lin; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zneng

    2011-01-01

    Hard poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends were prepared using injectionmolding and influence of crosshead speed on mechanical properties was examined.Based on morphology parameters obtained from transmission electron microscopy photography and the material parameters from true stress-strain curves of neat PVC and ABS,yield stresses of the blends at different crosshead speeds were simulated employing a two-dimensional nine-particle model based on the finite element analysis (FEA).The FEA results were compared with the experimental yielding stress and the good agreement validated the simulation approach.The FEA approach allowed establishing a yielding criterion related to local yielding of the interstitial matrix between ABS particles.

  11. Modification on liquid retention property of cassava starch by radiation grafting with acrylonitrile. I. Effect of γ-irradiation on grafting parameters

    Kiatkamjornwong, S.; Chvajarernpun, J.; Nakason, C.

    1993-07-01

    Radiation modification on liquid retention properties of native cassava starch, gelatinized at 85°C, by graft copolymerization with acrylonitrile was carried out by mutual irradiation to gamma-rays. A thin aluminum foil was used to cover the inner wall of the reaction vessel, so that the homopolymer concentration was reduced to be less than 1.0% with a distilled water retention value of 665 g/g of the dry weight of the saponified grafted product. Confirmation of graft copolymerization and saponification reactions was made by the infrared spectrophotometric technique. The combined effect of radiation parameters in terms of an irradiation time and a dose rate to the total dose on the extent of the grafting reaction expressed in terms of grafting parameters which directly influenced liquid retention values was evaluated in conjunction with statistical analysis.

  12. Thermosensitive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) Hydrogels with Rapid Response%非离子型凝胶球在水中的溶胀行为

    黄健; 黄志明; 包永忠; 翁志学

    2006-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) was copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) to synthesize thermosensitive bydrogels, and the on-off switch behavior of poly(NIPA-co-AN) hydrogels with different fraction of hydrophobic component (AN) was investigated. It is found that the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), the swelling ratio at certain temperature and the reswelling rate of poly(NIPA-co-AN) hydrogels decreased as AN unit fraction in copolymers increased. In order to improve the responsive rate of poly(NIPA-co-AN) hydrogels, they were further treated by surface crosslinking using N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (BIS) as a crosslinking agent. The swelling and deswelling behaviors of these copolymers were compared with those of the untreated hydrogels. The results indicated that the responsive rate of poly(NIPA-co-AN) hydrogel was improved by surface crosslinking. The resulting hydrogels bearing cyano groups with fast response have potential applications in the field of drug-controlled release and immobilization of biomolecules.

  13. Studies on blends of cycloaliphatic epoxy resin with varying concentrations of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer I: Thermal and morphological properties

    Garima Tripathi; Deepak Srivastava

    2009-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the blends of cycloaliphatic epoxy (CAE) resin toughened with liquid elastomer such as carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) have been carried out. Exothermal heat of reaction due to cross linking of the resin in the presence of diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS, an amine hardener) showed a decreasing trend with increasing rubber concentration. Enhancement of thermal stability as well as lower mass loss of the epoxy–rubber blends with increasing rubber concentration have been observed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Dynamic mechanical properties reflected a monotonic decrease in the storage modulus (′) with increasing rubber concentration. The loss modulus (″) and the loss tangent (tan ) values, however, showed an increasing trend with rise of temperature up to a maximum (peak) followed by a gradual fall in both cases.

  14. The effects of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties, fatigue life and natural weathering of styrene butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber blends

    Research highlights: → Addition of TMPTA helps to align polymer chains through crosslinking. → Improvement in fatigue life of irradiated blends due to formation of irradiation-induced crosslinks. → Excessive crosslinking caused reduction of tensile properties of irradiated SBR/NBRr blends. -- Abstract: The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the thermal properties, fatigue life and natural weathering of styrene butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR/NBRr) blends were investigated. The SBR/NBRr blends were prepared at 95/5, 85/15, 75/25, 65/35, or 50/50 blend ratios with and without the presence of a 3 part per hundred rubber (phr) of polyfunctional monomer, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). Results indicate that the crystallisation temperature (Tc) observed in polymeric blends is due to the alignment of polymer chains forming a semi-crystalline phase. Addition of TMPTA helps to align polymer chains through crosslinking. More crosslinking occurred between polymer blends with the help of TMPTA, upon irradiation. The improvement in fatigue life can also be associated with the stabilisation of SBR/NBRr blends upon irradiation and irradiation-induced crosslinking, which was accomplished with relatively low radiation-induced oxidative degradation in the presence of TMPTA. The tensile properties of both blends decreased over the periods of environmental exposure due to the effect of polymer degradation. After 6 months, the irradiated SBR/NBRr blends could not retain better retention [mainly with 25, 35 or 50 phr of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBRr) particles] due to the samples becoming brittle over the long period of outdoor exposure.

  15. The effect of acrylonitrile exposure on the expression of p53 and p21WAF1 proteins in the blood plasma of occupationally exposed workers and in human diploid lung fibroblasts

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Binková, Blanka; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    San Francisco: American Association for Cancer Research, 2002. s. 1. [Anual Meeting of AACR /93./. 06.04.2002-10.04.2002, San Francisco] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 390; GA ČR GP310/01/P030 Grant ostatní: IC(EC) 15-CT97-0302 Keywords : acrylonitrile * p53 protein * occupational exposure Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. The effect of acrylonitrile exposure on the expression of p53 and p21WAF1 proteins in the blood plasma of occupationally exposed workers and in human diploid lung fibroblasts

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Binková, Blanka; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    Amsterdam : IOS Press, 2003 - (Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Au, W.; Šrám, R.), s. 262 - (NATO Sci. Series I.. 351) R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 390; GA ČR GP310/01/P030 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) IC 15-CT97-0302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : acrylonitrile * occupational exposure * p53 protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Carboxyl-terminated Poly (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)-epoxy Resin Prepolymers for Fusion-bonded-epoxy Powder Coating

    LIU Jingcheng; JIA Xiuli; ZHANG Shengwen; LIU Ren; LIU Xiaoya

    2012-01-01

    Liquid carboxyl-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)(CTBN)-epoxy resin(EP)prepolymers were prepared with different contents of CTBN.The chemical reactions between EP and CTBN were characterized by Fourier ransform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC).The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of curing films showed phase separation,and the rubber particles were finely dispersed in the epoxy matrix.Mechanical properties analysis of curing films showed that impact strength and elongation at break increased significantly upon the addition of CTBN,indicating good toughness of the modified epoxy resins.Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the incorporation of CTBN had little effect on the thermal stability of EP.Fusion-bondedepoxy (FBE) powder coatings modified with CTBN-EP prepolymers were prepared.The experimental results demonstrate the ability of CTBN-EP prepolymers,toughening technology to dramatically enhance the flexibility and impact resistance of FBE coatings without compromising other key properties such as corrosion protection.

  18. Effects of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) on tensile properties and morphology of polypropylene (PP), recycle acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composites

    Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Omar, Latifah; Zainal, Mustaffa; Ting, Sam Sung; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    The performance of sugarcane baggase (SCB) treated with γ-APS filled polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) biocomposites were investigated. The composites with different filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 wt % were prepared using heated two roll mill by melt mixing at temperature of 180 °C. Tensile properties of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites which is tensile strength, Young Modulus and elongation at break were investigated. Increasing of treated SCB filler loading in PP/NBRr/SCB composites have increased the Young modulus however decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites. From the results, γ-APS treated SCB composites shown higher tensile strength and Young Modulus but lower elongation at break when compared to the untreated SCB composites. This is due to the stronger bonding between γ-APS treated SCB with PP/NBRr matrices. These findings was supported by micrograph pictures from morphological study. SCB filler treated with γ-APS has improved the adhesion as well as gave strong interfacial bonding between SCB filler and PP/NBRr matrices which results in good tensile strength of PP/NBRr/SCB composites.

  19. THE DISSOCIATIVE RECOMBINATION OF PROTONATED ACRYLONITRILE, CH2CHCNH+, WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NITRILE CHEMISTRY IN DARK MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF TITAN

    Measurements on the dissociative recombination (DR) of protonated acrylonitrile, CH2CHCNH+, have been performed at the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING located in the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. It has been found that at ∼2 meV relative kinetic energy about 50% of the DR events involve only ruptures of X-H bonds (where X = C or N) while the rest leads to the production of a pair of fragments each containing two heavy atoms (alongside H and/or H2). The absolute DR cross section has been investigated for relative kinetic energies ranging from ∼1 meV to 1 eV. The thermal rate coefficient has been determined to follow the expression k(T) = 1.78 x 10-6 (T/300) -0.80 cm3 s-1 for electron temperatures ranging from ∼10 to 1000 K. Gas-phase models of the nitrile chemistry in the dark molecular cloud TMC-1 have been run and results are compared with observations. Also, implications of the present results for the nitrile chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere are discussed.

  20. Simultaneous determination of acrylonitrile, carbon disulfide, methyl ethyl ketone, and isobutanol leachates by purge and trap- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    According to the Mexican General Law of the Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection, issued by the National Institute of Ecology, some chemicals such as acrylonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, carbon disulfide, and isobutanol must be monitored in industrial residues because of their toxicity. This report describes an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of these four analytes in leachates. A purge and trap concentrator coupled to a computerized gas-chromatograph-mass selective detector was used to achieve the analysis. Quantitation measurements were based on the internal standardization method, using the area ratios of the molecular ions of the analytes and the internal standard obtained by deconvolution of the data. The scope of this method as well as the validation data is reported. The method is reliable in spite of the fact that, in some cases, the analytes or the standard coeluted with other compounds of the samples. Because the data acquisition is carried out in the scan mode it is possible to detect and identify other substances in the samples. (Author)

  1. Flame retardancy mechanisms of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) in combination with zinc borate in bisphenol A polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends

    Bisphenol A polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) with and without bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) and 5 wt.% zinc borate (Znb) were investigated. The pyrolysis was studied by thermogravimetry (TG), TG-FTIR and NMR, the fire behaviour with a cone calorimeter applying different heat fluxes, LOI and UL 94. Fire residues were examined with NMR. BDP affects the decomposition of PC/ABS and acts as a flame retardant in the gas and condensed phases. The addition of Znb results in an additional hydrolysis of PC. The fire behaviour is similar to PC/ABS, aside from a slightly increased LOI and a reduced peak heat release rate, both caused by borates improving the barrier properties of the char. In PC/ABS + BDP + Znb, the addition of Znb yields a borate network and amorphous phosphates. Znb also reacts with BDP to form alpha-zinc phosphate and borophosphates that suppress the original flame retardancy mechanisms of BDP. The inorganic-organic residue formed provides more effective flame retardancy, in particular at low irradiation in the cone calorimeter, and a clear synergy in LOI, whereas for more developed fires BDP + Znb become less effective than BDP in PC/ABS with respect to the total heat evolved.

  2. Gel electrolyte derived from poly(ethylene glycol) blending poly(acrylonitrile) applicable to roll-to-roll assembly of electric double layer capacitors

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Wu, Ching-An; Hou, Sheng-Shu; Kuo, Ping-Lin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China); Hsieh, Chien-Te [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 32023 (China); Teng, Hsisheng [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2012-11-21

    The synthesis of a gelled polymer electrolyte (GPE) using poly(ethylene glycol) blending poly(acrylonitrile) (i.e., PAN-b-PEG-b-PAN) as a host, dimethyl formamide (DMF) as a plasticizer and LiClO{sub 4} as an electrolytic salt for electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is reported. The PAN-b-PEG-b-PAN copolymer in the GPE has a linear configuration for high ionic conductivity and excellent compatibility with carbon electrodes. When assembling the GPE in a carbon-based symmetric EDLC, the copolymer network facilitates ion motion by reducing the equivalent series resistance and Warburg resistance of the capacitor. This symmetric cell has a capacitance value of 101 F g{sup -1} at 0.125 A g{sup -1} and can deliver an energy level of 11.5 Wh kg{sup -1} at a high power of 10 000 W kg{sup -1} over a voltage window of 2.1 V. This cell shows superior stability, with little decay of specific capacitance after 30 000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The distinctive merit of the GPE film is its adjustable mechanical integrity, which makes the roll-to-roll assembly of GPE-based EDLCs readily scalable to industrial levels. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Microwave absorption properties of lightweight absorber based on Fe50Ni50-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres and reduced graphene oxide composites

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Junpeng; Huo, Siqi; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Yushan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a facile method to obtain the lightweight composites consisting of surface modified Fe50Ni50-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres (PANS@SMF), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and epoxy resin. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic were used for the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure PANS@SMF and RGO composites, the -10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites were enhanced. The bandwidth less than -10 dB was almost 4.5 GHz in the range of 10 GHz to 14.5 GHz, with a matching thickness of 2.5 mm. The density of the hybrid composites was in the range of 0.25-0.34 g/cm3. Therefore, the hybrid composite can be considered as a potential lightweight microwave absorber.

  4. Three-dimensional Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Framework Coated with Cu-BTC Metal-organic Frameworks for the Removal of Methylene Blue

    Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Minyue; Sun, Kaihang; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing was applied for the fabrication of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) framework. Functionalization of the ABS framework was then performed by coating of porous Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene tricarboxylic acid) metal-organic frameworks on it using a step-by-step in-situ growth. The size of the Cu-BTC particles on ABS was ranged from 200 nm to 900 nm. The Cu-BTC/ABS framework can take up most of the space of the tubular reactor that makes the adsorption effective with no need of stirring. Methylene blue (MB) can be readily removed from aqueous solution by this Cu-BTC/ABS framework. The MB removal efficiency for solutions with concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/L was 93.3% and 98.3%, respectively, within 10 min. After MB adsorption, the Cu-BTC/ABS composite can easily be recovered without the need for centrifugation or filtration and the composite is reusable. In addition the ABS framework can be recovered for subsequent reuse. A significant advantage of 3D-printed frameworks is that different frameworks can be easily fabricated to meet the needs of different applications. This is a promising strategy to synthesize new frameworks using MOFs and polymers to develop materials for applications beyond adsorption.

  5. Production of activated carbon from acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate copolymers. Akurironitoriru/akuriru san mechiru kyojugotai wo mochiita kagaku shoriho ni yoru tansokei kyuchakuzai no seizoho

    Noda, Y.; Yamada, K.; Ishibashi, K. (Government Industrial Development Lab. Hokkaido, Sapporo (Japan)); Kumamoto, S.; Takahashi, Y. (Environmental Research Inst. of Sanyu Plant Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)); Kobashi, T.; Takagi, J. (Japan Exlan Co. Ltd., Okayama (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    Carbonization of carbonaceous adsorbents, in which acrylonitrile (AN) and methyl acrylate copolymers(PANA) are used as raw materials, in order to discover high functionability, manufacture condition of the activated coal by chemical activation method using phosphate and zinc chloride as an activation promoters, and the performance of each formed products, are reported. The maximum value of methylene blue absorption quantity(MB) and the inner surface area(S) was shown by both the samples within the activation temperature range of 600[degree]C to 900[degree]C. The values of MB and S has increased linearly with the increase of activation temperature for both PANACHZ and PANACHP which are obtained by adding ZnCl2 and H3PO4 respectively in thermal condensation product(PANACH). Adsorbability of PANACHZ and PANACHP increased with the increase of activation temperature. The amounts of adsorption by activation products and organic gases of PANACHZ and PANACHP were pursued. As a result, it was revealed that the amounts of adsorption for both chars increased with the increase of activation temperature. Furthermore, adsorption quantity of butyl mercaptan gas was more than twice of comparative activated carbon on the market, and highly efficient adsorbent was obtained. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-03-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100-300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating-cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase.

  7. Zinc oxide nanorod assisted rapid single-step process for the conversion of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers to carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content

    Nain, Ratyakshi; Singh, Dhirendra; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for immobilization of polymer chains and assisted in uniform heat distribution. This facilitated rapid and efficient conversion of the polymer structure to the ladder, and subsequently, the graphitized structure. At the end of the process, the ZnO nanorods were found to completely separate from the carbonized fibers yielding pure carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content and surface area. The approach could be used to eliminate the slow, energy intensive stabilization step and achieve fast conversion of randomly laid carbon nanofiber webs in a single step to carbon nanofibers without the application of external tension or internal templates usually employed to achieve a high graphitic content in such systems.The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for

  8. Technical scheme for integration of DCC unit and acrylonitrile unit%DCC装置和丙烯腈装置一体化技术方案

    刘福安; 朱校春; 王飞

    2013-01-01

    The technical scheme for integration of DCC unit and acrylonitrile unit is presented.The internal mutual feedstock supply,the comprehensive utilization of steam and sour gas treatment technologies of the integrated unit are analyzed.The analysis of internal feedstock supply has found that the volume of intermediate storage tanks for propylene can be reduced,and the temperature of propylene from gas stripper to acrylonitrile unit is raised by 5℃.As the result,the unit energy consumption is lowered.The study of comprehensive steam utilization has concluded that a 4.0 MPa steam boiler can be saved and the steam utilization can be improved.The analysis of DCC sour gas treatment technology has concluded that the application of this technology can save a LO-CAT sulfur recovery unit for DCC unit.All these analysis demonstrate that the application of this integration technology offers good economic benefits.1.39 × 108 RMB ¥ of capital investment can be saved from no installation of a 4.0 MPa steam boiler and a LO-CAT sulfur recovery unit.The conversion of sour gas into on-spec sulfuric acid and increasing of propylene feed supply temperature can add an economic benefit of 3.67 × 106 RMB ¥ a year.%提出DCC装置和丙烯腈装置一体化技术方案,对该技术方案的物料直供、蒸汽综合利用以及酸性气处理技术进行了具体的分析.通过物料互供分析,可以适当减少丙烯的中间储存罐容,提高丙烯从气分装置进丙烯腈装置的温度约5℃,降低装置运行能耗;通过蒸汽综合利用分析,可省去一台4.0 MPa的中压蒸汽锅炉,同时还能提高蒸汽的利用效率;通过对DCC装置酸性气处理技术的分析,发现该技术方案可省去一套与DCC装置配套的LO-CAT硫黄装置.分析表明该组合技术方案有很好的经济效益,省去的一台4.0 MPa中压蒸汽锅炉和一套LO-CAT硫黄装置可为企业节约工程投资1.39×108 RMB¥;酸性气转化为合格硫酸产品和提高丙烯

  9. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen. AN epoxidation to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO) via CYP2E1 and its subsequent metabolism via epoxide hydrolases (EH) to yield cyanide is thought to be responsible for the acute toxicity and mortality of AN. Recent reports showed that male mice are more sensitive than females to the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. The present work was undertaken to assess the metabolic and enzymatic basis for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN toxicity. Male and female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received AN at 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg by gavage. Cyanide concentrations were measured at 1 or 3 h after dosing. Current data demonstrated that cyanide levels in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice of both sexes were significantly greater than in vehicle-treated controls and increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, cyanide levels in AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those measured in vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, higher levels of cyanide were detected in male wild-type mice vs females in association with greater sensitivity of males to the acute toxicity/mortality of this chemical. Using Western blot analysis, negligible difference in CYP2E1 expression with higher levels of soluble and microsomal EH (sEH and mEH) was detected in the liver of male vs female mice. In kidneys, male mice exhibited higher expression of both renal CYP2E1 and sEH than did female mice. In conclusion, higher blood and tissue cyanide levels are responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN. Further, higher expression of CYP2E1 and EH in male mice may contribute to greater formation of CEO and its subsequent metabolism to yield cyanide, respectively

  10. Copper-catalyzed retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes: chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-enones and (E)-acrylonitriles.

    Zhang, Song-Lin; Deng, Zhu-Qin

    2016-07-26

    A copper-catalyzed transfer aldol type reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes is reported, which enables chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-α,β-unsaturated ketones and (E)-acrylonitriles. A key step of the in situ copper(i)-promoted retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles is proposed to generate a reactive Cu(i) enolate or cyanomethyl intermediate, which undergoes ensuing aldol condensation with aldehydes to deliver the products. This reaction uses 1.2 mol% Cu(IPr)Cl (IPr denotes 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) as the catalyst in the presence of 6.0 mol% NaOtBu cocatalyst at room temperature or 70 °C. A range of aryl and heteroaryl aldehydes as well as acrylaldehydes are compatible with many useful functional groups being tolerated. Under the mild and weakly basic conditions, competitive Cannizzaro-type reaction of benzaldehydes and side reactions of base-sensitive functional groups can be effectively suppressed, which show synthetic advantages of this reaction compared to classic aldol reactions. The synthetic potential of this reaction is further demonstrated by the one-step synthesis of biologically active quinolines and 1,8-naphthyridine in excellent yields (up to 91%). Finally, a full catalytic cycle for this reaction has been constructed using DFT computational studies in the context of a retro-aldol/aldol two-stage mechanism. A rather flat reaction energy profile is found indicating that both stages are kinetically facile, which is consistent with the mild reaction conditions. PMID:27397647

  11. 丙烯腈吸收过程模拟优化%Simulation and Optimization of the Absorption Process to a Acrylonitrile Plant

    杨家军; 霍凤华; 崔吉成

    2015-01-01

    Throughout its history,chemical process simulation software has been widely used in chemical process design,operational evaluation and optimization.As well known by chemical technicans,the PROII software was used for the simulation of the absorption process of acrylonitrile production plant in the study.Firstly,the operating parameters of the absorption process were analyzed to determine the optimization variables.After that, the absorption tower was simulated with PROII software.By comparing the simulation results of different conditions,the process parameters related to the sbsorption process were analyzed,such as the comsuption of absorption water and side withdrawing,and the operating pressure. The optimum values in the corresponding conditions were obtained.%化工过程模拟软件发展至今已被广泛地应用于化工过程的设计计算、操作评估和优化中。该文应用化工技术人员熟知的PROII软件对丙烯腈的吸收过程进行模拟研究。首先对年产20万吨的丙烯腈生产过程吸收塔单元中的操作参数进行分析,确定要优化的参数。然后应用PROII软件对丙烯腈吸收塔进行模拟,通过改变操作参数后模拟结果的比较对操作参数中的吸收水用量、侧线采出量和吸收塔的操作压力进行了模拟分析,并得到相应条件下的最佳值。

  12. 丙烯腈吸收过程模拟优化%Simulation and Optimization of the Absorption Process to a Acrylonitrile Plant

    杨家军; 霍凤华; 崔吉成

    2015-01-01

    Throughout its history,chemical process simulation software has been widely used in chemical process design,operational evaluation and optimization.As well known by chemical technicans,the PROII software was used for the simulation of the absorption process of acrylonitrile production plant in the study.Firstly,the operating parameters of the absorption process were analyzed to determine the optimization variables.After that, the absorption tower was simulated with PROII software.By comparing the simulation results of different conditions,the process parameters related to the sbsorption process were analyzed,such as the comsuption of absorption water and side withdrawing,and the operating pressure. The optimum values in the corresponding conditions were obtained.%化工过程模拟软件发展至今已被广泛地应用于化工过程的设计计算、操作评估和优化中.该文应用化工技术人员熟知的PROII软件对丙烯腈的吸收过程进行模拟研究.首先对年产20万吨的丙烯腈生产过程吸收塔单元中的操作参数进行分析,确定要优化的参数.然后应用PROII软件对丙烯腈吸收塔进行模拟,通过改变操作参数后模拟结果的比较对操作参数中的吸收水用量、侧线采出量和吸收塔的操作压力进行了模拟分析,并得到相应条件下的最佳值.

  13. Between Ni(mnt)2 and Ni(tfd)2 dithiolene complexes: the unsymmetrical 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylonitrile-1,2-dithiolate and its nickel complexes.

    Jeannin, Olivier; Delaunay, Jacques; Barrière, Frédéric; Fourmigué, Marc

    2005-12-26

    A novel 1,2-dithiolate ligand, that is, the 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylonitrile-1,2-dithiolate, abbreviated here as tfadt, is prepared from the corresponding cyclic dithiocarbonate. This ligand, substituted with both a CN and a CF(3) group, is compared with the well-known maleonitrile- and bis(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolates. The preparation, electrochemical properties, and X-ray crystal structures of the square-planar nickel complexes, in both their dianionic diamagnetic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) and their monoanionic paramagnetic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) forms, are reported, as n-Bu(4)N(+), PPh(4)(+), and (18-crown-6)Na(+) salts, respectively. In the [(18-crown-6)Na](2)[Ni(tfadt)(2)] salt, each CN moiety of the [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) dianion is coordinated to a (18-crown-6)Na(+) cation through a CN...Na interaction [N...Na = 2.481(3) A], affording an "axle with wheels" model where two MeOH molecules act as axle caps. On the other hand, in [(18-crown-6)Na][Ni(tfadt)(2)], each (18-crown-6)Na(+) cation is coordinated on both sides by the CN groups of two monoanionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) complexes with N...Na(+) distances at 2.434(5) and 2.485(4) A, giving rise to heterobimetallic chains with alternating (18-crown-6)Na(+) and [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) ions. These two examples demonstrate the attractive ability of the CN moieties in the [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-)(,)(*)(-) complexes to coordinate metallic cationic centers. The paramagnetic salts of the anionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) complex follow Curie-type law in the 2-300 K temperature range, indicating the absence of intermolecular magnetic interactions in the solid state. The complexes are found in their trans form in all crystal structures, while density functional theory calculations establish that both forms have essentially the same energy. A cis-trans interconversion process is observed by variable-temperature NMR on the dianionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) complex with a coalescence temperature T(c) of 260 K and a free energy of

  14. Laser transmission welding of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) using a tailored high power diode-laser optical fiber coupled system

    Rodríguez-Vidal, E.; Quintana, I.; Etxarri, J.; Otaduy, D.; González, F.; Moreno, F.

    2012-06-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of polymers is a direct bonding technique which is already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobile, microfluidic, electronic and biomedicine. This technique offers several advantages over conventional methods, especially when a local deposition of energy and minimum thermal distortions are required. In LTW one of the polymeric materials needs to be transparent to the laser wavelength and the second part needs to be designed to be absorbed in IR spectrum. This report presents a study of laser weldability of ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene) filled with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). These additives are used as infrared absorbing components in the laser welding process, affecting the thermal and optical properties of the material and, hence, the final quality of the weld seam. A tailored laser system has been designed to obtain high quality weld seams with widths between 0.4 and 1.0mm. It consists of two diode laser bars (50W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a non-imaging solution: equalization of the beam quality factor (M2) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of micro step-mirrors. The beam quality factor has been analyzed at different laser powers with the aim to guarantee a coupling efficiency to the multimode optical fiber. The power scaling is carried out by means of multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality is performed in two linked steps: first by means ray tracing simulations (ZEMAX®) and second, by validation. Quality of the weld seams is analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. The optimum laser power range for three different welding speeds is determinate meanwhile the clamping pressure is held constant. Additionally, the corresponding mechanical shear tests were carried out to analyze the

  15. Study of ageing effects in polymer-in-salt electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile-co-butyl acrylate) and lithium salts

    Highlights: • Properties of freshly cast and aged poly(AN-co-BuA) – LiTFSI electrolytes are studied. • For fresh electrolytes, conductivity increases and Tg decreases with increasing salt content. • Ageing of polymer-in-salt electrolytes results in a drop of conductivity and a rise of Tg. • Ageing effects can be explained by changes of properties of amorphous salt domains. • Precipitation of salt is observed in electrolytes containing over 84 wt.% of LiTFSI. • Electrolytes with mixture of LiI and LiTFSI are more stable than those with LiTFSI only. -- Abstract: Polymer electrolytes composed of an acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate copolymer poly(AN-co-BuA) with addition of LiN(CF3SO2)2 (LiTFSI) or LiI and LiTFSI salt mixture are studied by impedance spectroscopy, DSC, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM. Impedance study shows that the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes containing LiTFSI is strongly dependent on the salt content and transition from “salt-in-polymer” to “polymer-in-salt” regime is observed at high salt content. Gradual changes of physical properties of the studied polymer electrolytes are observed in the course of their prolonged storage under argon atmosphere. These include the increase of glass transition temperature and decrease of ionic conductivity. In order to study the effects of this ageing process, measurements on samples of electrolyte films were repeated after several months. Precipitation of salt, which occurred at the nanometer length scale is observed with the aid of electron microscopy in electrolytes containing more than 84 wt.% of salt. Crystalline salt is not observed in electrolytes with lower amount of salt – however, the results indicate the structural changes of salt aggregates, which strongly influence transport of ions through the electrolyte. For preparation of electrolytes with mixed LiTFSI and LiI salts, a mixture of salts (16 wt.% LiI, 84 wt.% LiTFSI) is used, which exhibits the

  16. Comparative metabolism of methacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile to cyanide using cytochrome P4502E1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase-null mice

    Methacrylonitrile (MAN) and acrylonitrile (AN) are metabolized via glutathione (GSH) conjugation or epoxide formation. We have recently shown that CYP2E1 is essential for AN epoxidation and subsequent cyanide liberation. Current studies were designed to compare the enzymatic basis of MAN vs. AN metabolism to cyanide using wild-type (WT), CYP2E1-, and mEH-null mice. Mice received a single gavage dose of 0.047, 0.095, 0.19, or 0.38 mmol/kg of MAN or AN, and blood cyanide was measured at 1 or 3 h later. Blood cyanide levels in WT mice treated with AN or MAN were dose and time dependent. At equimolar doses, significantly higher levels of cyanide were detected in the blood of MAN- vs. AN-treated mice. Further, while significant reduction in blood cyanide levels occurred in MAN-treated CYP2E1-null vs. WT mice, AN metabolism to cyanide was largely abolished in CYP2E1-null mice. Pretreatment of mice with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT, CYP inhibitor) demonstrated that CYPs other than CYP2E1 also contribute to MAN metabolism to cyanide. Blood cyanide levels in mEH-null mice treated with aliphatic nitriles are generally lower than levels in similarly treated WT mice. Western blot analysis showed that expression of sEH was greater in male vs. female mice. The role of various epoxide hydrolases (EHs) in the production of cyanide from aliphatic nitriles is apparently structure and dose dependent. Regardless of genotype, significantly higher levels of cyanide were measured in the blood of male vs. female mice treated with MAN or AN. In conclusion, these data showed that (1) at equimolar doses, higher blood cyanide levels were detected in mice treated with MAN vs. AN; (2) while CYP2E1 is the only enzyme responsible for AN metabolism to cyanide, other CYPs also contribute to MAN metabolism; and (3) significantly higher levels of cyanide were measured in the blood of male vs. female treated with either nitrile. Higher blood cyanide levels in male vs. female mice and in MAN- vs. AN

  17. Study on Teratogenicity of Acrylonitrile in Rats by Subcutaneous Injection%皮下注射丙烯腈对大鼠致畸作用研究

    崔金山; 杨衍凯; 付守林; 张玉敏; 段志文; 李海山; 王瀛; 张岸舸

    2001-01-01

    目的评价丙烯腈对雌性大鼠有无致畸作用。方法于雌性大鼠妊娠第7~16天皮下注射丙烯腈(AN)15,25,35 mg·kg-1,常规方法检测AN的胚胎毒性和致畸作用。结果 25 mg·kg-1组死胎率、吸收胎率升高,胎鼠平均体重、体长、尾长减小,与阴性对照组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05);35 mg·kg-1组除窝平均活胎数减少,差异有显著性( P<0.05),其余各指标与阴性对照组比较差异有非常显著性(P <0.01);25,35 mg·kg-1组畸胎率、母体畸胎率、活胎畸形率升高,与对照组相比差异有显著性和/或非常显著性(P<0.05或P <0.01),且有明确的剂量效应或剂量反应关系。本实验皮下注射AN染毒的致畸最低剂量为 15 mg·kg-1,致畸指数为6.3,以骨骼畸形为主,外观畸形主要为无尾、短尾等。结论丙烯腈皮下注射染毒有明显的胚胎毒性,致畸剂量小于经口染毒阈剂量,是一种弱致畸物。%Objective The teratogenicity of acrylonitrile(AN)on fe male rats was evaluated.Methods 15,25 and 35 mg/kg AN were administ ered by subcutaneous injection to rats on the time 7~16 d of gestation.Embryoto x icity and teratogenicity of AN were examined by a traditional teratogenic method .Results At the dosage of 25 mg/kg,AN could induce higher incidence of fetal resorption and death,and decrease the average fetal body weight and le ngth with significant difference(P<0.05)when compared with neg ative controls.At the dosage of 35 mg/kg,AN could decrease average vital fet us p er litter with significant difference(P<0.05),and induce chang es of other indexes with highly significant difference(P<0.0 1).At the dosage of 25 and 35 mg/kg,AN could induce higher teras rate,maternal t eras rate and malformation rate of vital fetus with significant and/or highly s ignificant difference(P<0.05 or P<0.01),resp ectively.There existed a dose-effect or dose-response relationship between abo ve

  18. 无机盐对丙烯腈与N-乙烯基吡咯烷酮共聚物溶液黏度的影响%EFFECT OF INORGANIC SALTS ON VISCOSITY OF ACRYLONITRILE/N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE COPOLYMER SOLUTIONS

    陈厚; 王成国; 蔡华甦

    2003-01-01

    Effect of inorganic salts on viscosities of dimethyl sulphoxide(DMSO)solutions of acrylonitrile(AN)/N-vinylpyrrolidone(N-VP) copolymer was discussed. Viscosity was determined by revolving viscosimeter. It was shown that solution viscosity decreased quickly with addition of KCl and NaCl and the effect of NaCl was more prominent than KCl. As the concentration of KCl and NaCl beyond 0.025mol*L-1, the viscosity tended to increase. The viscosity increased considerably with addition of FeCl3 and CuCl2. The change of solution viscosity became less obvious with addition of ZnCl2.With increasing temperature, the viscosity of copolymer solution containing NaCl decreased most quickly and the copolymer solution containing FeCl3 decreased most slowly.

  19. Studies on the physico-mechanical and thermal characteristics of blends of DGEBA epoxy, 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate and carboxyl terminated butadiene co-acrylonitrile (CTBN)

    Toughening of blend of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate, i.e. cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CAE) with varying weight ratios (0-25 wt%) of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymer have been investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis established that the interaction between oxirane groups of DGEBA, CAE and CTBN were responsible for characteristics peak shifts in the blends compared to their counterparts. Physico-mechanical properties of the prepared samples, e.g. tensile, flexural and impact strengths showed an optimum concentration of CTBN (15 wt%) into epoxy matrix, which offered maximum toughening. Thermal stability of the prepared samples was analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetric runs. Cross-sections of the cured samples which failed during impact testing have been critically studied through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis to gain insight into the phase morphology

  20. Studies on the physico-mechanical and thermal characteristics of blends of DGEBA epoxy, 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate and carboxyl terminated butadiene co-acrylonitrile (CTBN)

    Tripathi, Garima [Department of Plastic Technology, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India); Srivastava, Deepak [Department of Plastic Technology, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)], E-mail: deepak_sri92@rediffmail.com

    2008-11-25

    Toughening of blend of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate, i.e. cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CAE) with varying weight ratios (0-25 wt%) of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymer have been investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis established that the interaction between oxirane groups of DGEBA, CAE and CTBN were responsible for characteristics peak shifts in the blends compared to their counterparts. Physico-mechanical properties of the prepared samples, e.g. tensile, flexural and impact strengths showed an optimum concentration of CTBN (15 wt%) into epoxy matrix, which offered maximum toughening. Thermal stability of the prepared samples was analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetric runs. Cross-sections of the cured samples which failed during impact testing have been critically studied through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis to gain insight into the phase morphology.

  1. GC Determination of Acetaldehyde, Acrolein and Acrylonitrile in Water with Purge and Trap Technique%吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈

    陆文娟; 王晋宇; 陈玲瑚; 赵辰

    2011-01-01

    Purge and trap technique was applied in the GC determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein and acrylonitrile in water. The analytes were purged, trapped and thermodesorbed using the Trap Vocarb 3000, and determined by CR2 with flame ionization detector (FID). Linear relationships between values of peak area and mass concentration of acetaldehyde, acrolein and acrylonitrile obtained were same in the range of 0. 020--0.20 mg·L^-1 , with detection limits (3S/N) of 0. 005, 0. 010, 0. 001mg·L^-1 respectively. Tests for recovery and precision were made by standard addition method, values of recovery found were in the range of 90. 0%-110.0% and values of RSD's (n=7) were less than 50%.%提出了吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的分析方法。样品用Trap Vocarb 3000捕集阱吹扫、捕集及热解析后,用气相色谱法氢火焰离子化检测器分析。3种化合物的质量浓度在0.020~0.20mg·L^-1的相同范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,方法的检出限(3S/N)分别为0.005,0.010,0.001mg·L^-。标准加入回收率在90.0%~110.0%之间,相对标准偏差(n=7)均小于5%。

  2. 丙烯腈-苯乙烯磺酸共聚物/层状双金属氢氧化物纳米复合质子传导聚合物电解质的制备与表征%Synthesis and characterization of proton-conducting polymer electrolytes based on acrylonitrile-styrene sulfonic acid copolymer/layered double hydroxides nanocomposites

    王盎然; 包永忠; 翁志学; 黄志明

    2008-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-sodium styrene sulfonate copolymer/layered double hydroxides nanocomposites were prepared by in situ aqueous precipitation copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) in the presence of 4-vinylbenzene sulfonate intercalated layered double hydroxides (MgAl-VBS LDHs) and transferred to acrylonitrile-styrene sulfonic acid (AN-SSA) copolymer/LDHs nanocomposites as a proton-conducting polymer electrolyte. MgAl-VBS LDHs were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and the structure and composition of MgAl-VBS LDHs were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. X-ray diffraction result of AN-SSS copolymer/LDHs nanocomposites indicated that the LDHs layers were well dispersed in the AN-SSS copolymer matrix. All the AN-SSS copolymer/LDHs nanocomposites showed significant enhancement of the decomposition temperatures compared with the pristine AN-SSS copolymer, as identified by the thermogravimetric analysis. The methanol crossover was decreased and the proton conductivity was highly enhanced for the AN-SSA copolymer/LDHs nanocomposite electrolyte systems In the case of the nanocomposite electrolyte containing 2% (by mass) LDHs, the proton conductivity of 2.60×10-3 S·m-1 was achieved for the polymer electrolyte.

  3. 氢化度与丙烯腈含量对HNBR硫化胶性能的影响%Effect of Acrylonitrile Content and Hydrogenation on Properties of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber(HNBR) Vulcanizates

    张成龙; 李再峰; 白延光; 王宁; 李岩峰; 熊召举

    2013-01-01

    研究了氢化度和丙烯腈含量对氢化丁腈橡胶(HNBR)硫化特性、力学性能、热老化性能以及热性能的影响.利用核磁共振(NMR)考察了不同型号HNBR橡胶的交联性能;并采用凝胶色谱法(GPC)对生胶的分子量和分子量分布进行了测定,给出了橡胶门尼黏度与其分子量和分子量分布之间的关系.结果表明,随着氢化度与丙烯腈含量的增加,Tg升高;硫化胶的交联密度随着不饱和度和丙烯腈含量的增加而增加;氢化度升高,硫化胶的拉伸强度变化不大,扭断伸长率和撕裂强度降低,100%定伸增加;丙烯腈含量升高,硫化胶的拉伸强度、撕裂强度和100%定伸提高,扯断伸长率变化不大.%In this paper, effects of crylonitrile content and hydrogenation on vulcanization characteristics, physical performances, thermal aging performance and thermal properties of hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) were investigated. Crosslinking density of vulcanizates was tested by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and crosslinking properties of different types of HNBR rubber were investigated further. Relative molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of raw material were tested by GPC. The relationship between molecular weight distribution and mooney viscosity of rubber was given. The glass-transition temperature is enhanced with an increase in the acrylonitrile content and hydrogenation, and the crosslinking density raises with the increase of the acrylonitrile and double bond content. High unsaturated HNBR shows low break elongation, tear strength, higher stress at 100% , and tensile strength is improved little. With the incensement in crylonitrile content, tensile strength and tear strength are improved, stress at 100% is increased, however, break elongation has little change.

  4. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  5. Morphology, mechanical, cross-linking, thermal, and tribological properties of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites prepared by melt compounding: The effect of acrylonitrile content and hydrogenation

    The purpose of this work was to prepare nanocomposites by mixing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile elastomers (NBR and HNBR). Utilization of transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS and WAXS) for advanced morphology observation of conducting filler-reinforced nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber composites is reported. Principal results were increases in hardness (maximally 97 Shore, type A), elastic modulus (maximally 981 MPa), tensile strength (maximally 27.7 MPa), elongation at break (maximally 216%), cross-link density (maximally 7.94 x 1028 m-3), density (maximally 1.16 g cm-3), and tear strength (11.2 kN m-1), which were clearly visible at particular acrylonitrile contents both for unhydrogenated and hydrogenated polymers due to enhanced distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and their aggregated particles in the applied rubber matrix. Conclusion was that multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved the performance of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber nanocomposites prepared by melt compounding.

  6. The effect of graphene oxide on the polymerization of acrylonitrile and its rheological properties%氧化石墨烯对丙烯腈聚合及溶液流变性能的影响

    巩娜娟; 吕永根; 杨常玲; 陆叶涛

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide modified polyacrylonitrile (GO/PAN) was prepared by in situ polymerization. The effects of the GO on the polymeration of acrylonitrile and the rheological properties of PAN solution were studied. The results showed that GO slightly hindered the polymerization, and the molecular weight and conversion rate of GO/PAN solution decreased with the increasing content of GO. GO facilitated the fluidity of PAN solution. All the storage modulus, loss modulus and viscosity of the GO/PAN solution decreased with the increasing content of GO, and the GO/PAN solution is prone to be viscous with increasing content of GO.%采用原位聚合法制备了氧化石墨烯/聚丙烯腈(GO/PAN)共聚物,研究了GO对丙烯腈聚合及PAN纺丝溶液流变性能的影响.结果表明,GO对聚合反应有一定的抑制作用,GO/PAN的相对分子质量和转化率均随着GO质量分数的增加而减小;GO的加入增加了PAN的流动性,GO/PAN溶液的储能模量、损耗模量和粘度均随着GO质量分数的增加而减小,并且随着GO质量分数的增加更倾向于粘性.

  7. An Investigation on the Extraction and Quantitation of a Hexavalent Chromium in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Copolymer (ABS) and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by Ion Chromatography Coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    A hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is one of the hazardous substances regulated by the RoHS. The determination of Cr (VI) in various polymers and printed circuit board (PCB) has been very important. In this study, the three different analytical methods were investigated for the determination of a hexavalent chromium in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene copolymer (ABS) and PCB. The results by three analytical methods were obtained and compared. An analytical method by UV-Visible spectrometer has been generally used for the determination of Cr (VI) in a sample, but a hexavalent chromium should complex with diphenylcarbazide for the detection in the method. The complexation did make an adverse effect on the quantitative analysis of Cr (VI) in ABS. The analytical method using diphenylcarbazide was also not applicable to printed circuit board (PCB) because PCB contained lots of irons. The irons interfered with the analysis of hexavalent chromium because those also could complex with diphenylcarbazide. In this study, hexavalent chromiums in PCB have been separated by ion chromatography (IC), then directly and selectively detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The quantity of Cr (VI) in PCB was 0.1 mg/kg

  8. 淀粉丙烯腈接枝共聚物皂化制备吸水剂%The Preparation Technology of Water-Absorbent by the Saponification of the Graft Copolymer of Starch and Acrylonitrile

    顾正彪; 吴嘉根

    2001-01-01

    通过对淀粉丙烯腈接枝共聚物(SPAN)皂化制备吸水剂HSPAN的研究表明:HSPAN为水不溶性凝胶,但具有很强的吸水能力.以氢氧化钾皂化,酸作沉淀剂,经洗涤、分散和干燥制备HSPAN的工艺路线较为理想.皂化工艺条件在用碱量为SPAN中接枝链部分摩尔数的1.1倍、皂化温度95°C以上、皂化时间大于3h,且HSPAN的平板干燥温度在70°C时最好.当SPAN接枝百分率在70%左右时,制得的HSPAN吸水率最高.%Studies on the Preparation Technology of Water-absorbent (HSPAN)by the Saponification of the graft Copolymer of Starch and Acrylonitrile (SPAN) showed that, HSPAN was a kind of gel which was insoluble in water but could absorb a great amount of water. The best technology for the preparation of HSPAN was that,after SPAN was saponified by potassium hydroxide, precipited by sulfuric acid, washed and dispersed in water again, HSPAN was obtained by drying it on a plate. Moreover, the best conditions were that,the quantity of potassium hydroxide used in saponification was 1.1 as much as the mole of polyacrylonitrile in SPAN, saponifying temperature over 95°C, reaction time more than 3 h and drying temperature at 70°C. In addition, the highest water-absorbing capacity could be obtained from the SPAN in which grafted ratio was 70% or so.

  9. 腈纶皂化制备电流变液悬浮粒子的研究%Studies on Saponification of Acrylonitrile Terpolymer for Suspending Particles of Electrorheological Fluids

    吴孟强; 陈艾

    2001-01-01

    In order to prepare suspending particles for electrorheological fluids, hetergeneous hydrolysis of acrylonitrile terpolymer is conducted in presence of saponifying agent(sodium hydroxide) in this paper. The effects of the saponification conditions such as the amount of added sodium hydroxide, time duration and temperature on the degree of saponification are studied in detail. Meanwhile, the conversion of nitrile groups is discussed with the result that the saponification of nitrile groups of the terpolymer initially yields amide groups, then slows down to carboxylic groups. The research sets a way for the preparation of dispersing particles of water-free electrorheological fluids tentatively used for controlling light transmittance.%为了制备无水电流变液用悬浮粒子,研究了腈纶在碱性条件下的多相水解。详细考察了皂化试剂氢氧化钾的用量,皂化时间和温度等皂化条件对皂化程度的影响; 讨论了氰基转化过程。研究结果表明,在皂化初期,腈纶分子链上的氰基转化为酰胺基,然后缓慢转化为羧基。给出了一条制备无水电流变液用悬浮粒子的方法,并初步考察了该类电流变液的控光特性。

  10. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing

  11. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    Lucía Johanning-Solís, Ana; Stradi-Granados, Benito A.

    2014-09-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing

  12. Caraterização composicional do AES - um copolímero de enxertia de poli(estireno-co-acrilonitrila em poli(etileno-co-propileno-co-dieno Compositional characterization of AES a graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile and poly(etyhlene-co-propylene-co-diene

    Renato Turchet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é a caracterização do AES, um copolímero de enxertia de poli(estireno-co-acrilonitrila, SAN, em poli(etileno-co-propileno-co-dieno, EPDM. Para tanto, o AES foi submetido à extração seletiva de seus componentes: o SAN livre, o EDPM livre, e o copolímero de enxertia EPDM-g-SAN. O AES e suas frações foram caracterizados por espectroscopia de infravermelho, análise elementar, calorimetria diferencial de varredura e ressonância magnética nuclear, RMN¹H e RMN13C. O AES analisado apresenta a seguinte composição em massa: 65% de EPDM-g-SAN, 13% de EPDM livre e 22% de SAN livre. O EPDM apresenta 69,8% em massa de etileno, 26,5% em massa de propileno e 4,6% em massa do dieno, 2-etilideno-5-norboneno, ENB. O SAN apresenta razão em massa acrilonitrila/estireno de 28/72 e distribuição randômica de comonômeros de estireno e acrilonitrila. Estes resultados são concordantes com a composição do AES fornecida pelo fabricante, indicando que a metodologia proposta é adequada.This work aims the characterization of AES, a graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile, SAN, and poly(etyhlene-co-propylene-co-diene, EPDM. AES was submitted to selective extraction of its components: free SAN, EPDM chains and the graft copolymer EPDM-g-SAN. AES and its fractions were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, 13C and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance. The AES has 65 wt % of EPDM-g-SAN, 13 wt % of free EPDM and 22 wt % of free SAN. EPDM has 69.8 wt % of ethylene, 26.5 wt % of propylene and 4.6 wt % of diene, 2-ethylidene-5-norbonene ENB. SAN presents acrylonitrile/styrene mass ratio of 28/72 and a random distribution of acrylonitrile and styrene comonomers. These results are in agreement with the composition reported by the AES supplier, indicating that the proposed methodology is adequate.

  13. Occupational exposure to acrylonitrile - fish analysis

    Beskid, Olena; Šrám, Radim

    Budapest : EEMS, 2000, s. P71. [Annual Meeting of EEMS /30./. Budapest (HU), 22.08.2000-26.08.2000] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) (PHARE II, AC/HEA/18) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  14. Enzymatic surface modification of acrylonitrile fibers

    Battistel, Ezio; Morra, Marco; Marinetti, Massimo

    2001-06-01

    The surface of polyacrylonitrile polymer (containing 10% acetate groups) as fibers and finely ground powder have been modified by enzymatic treatment. The enzyme used was a nitrile hydratase, member of the class of nitrile converting enzymes, present in the microorganisms Brevibacterium imperiale and Corynebacterium nitrilophilus. The pendant nitrile groups were selectively converted into the corresponding amides as assessed by XPS analysis. As indicated by the increase of the O/C atomic ratio, the fiber surface showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity. The newly formed amide groups were then able to react with the acid dyes typically used to stain natural fibers, conferring the coloring properties to the otherwise inert polymer surface.

  15. Study on Sulfomethylation of Cellulose Copolymer Copolymerized with Acrylonitrile and Acrylamide%纤维素-丙烯腈-丙烯酰胺共聚物磺甲基化改性研究

    黄统琳; 刘明华; 刘剑锋; 詹怀宇

    2011-01-01

    The nitrile spherical cellulose adsorbent (SCAN) was prepared by sulfomethylating the prepared copolymer of grafting acrylonitrile and acrylamide onto the spherical cellulose beads, doing so is in order to provide reference data for getting higher application value of cellulose. The spherical cellulose beads were prepared by NMMO (N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide) process and sequential cooling technique. The sulfomethylation process was optimized through the orthogonal experiments and single-factor experiments. The results indicate that the adsorbent prepared has a specific surface area of 207.9 m2g-1, and sulfonation degree of 56.32% can be obtained under following optimal operating conditions: the solution pH=12, the mass ratio of HCHO, NaHSO3 and copolymer is 4:6:10, the reaction temperature is 50℃ and the reaction time is 5 h. In addition, the effect of sulfonation degree on the adsorption capacity of SCAN was also studied by using berberine hydrochloride as adsorbate. The results indicate that the increase of sulfonation degree is beneficial to the adsorption capacity, the maximum adsorption capacity of SCAN could reach 16.64 mg-g-1.%研制和开发新型改性纤维素类吸附剂,将是吸附剂研究的一个焦点.研究在球形纤维素珠体接枝丙烯腈和丙烯酰胺的基础上对其进行磺甲基化改性,制备出一种含腈基球形纤维素吸附剂(SCAN),以期为纤维素高值化利用提供参考数据.球形纤维素珠体由NMMO法和程序降温法制备.并通过正交试验和单因素实验进行工艺优化.实验结果表明,SCAN具有较大比表面积—207.9 m2·g-1,且在溶液pH=12,m(HCHO)∶m(NaHSO3)∶m(copolymer)=4∶6∶10,反应温度50℃下反应5h时的磺化度最高,为56.32%,以盐酸小檗碱为吸附质,研究磺化度对吸附剂吸附效果的影响,结果表明,在实验研究的磺化度范围内,磺化度越高,吸附效果越好,最大吸附量达16.64 mg·g-1.

  16. 硅烷偶联剂改性纳米二氧化钛并接枝丙烯腈的机理%Mechanism of nano-TiO2 modified silane coupling agent and grafting acrylonitrile

    王雅珍; 陈国力; 岳成娥; 赵宇; 何子健

    2015-01-01

    主要研究了硅烷偶联剂(KH-560)改性纳米二氧化钛(TiO2)制备TiO2(KH-560)以及TiO2(KH-560)与丙烯腈(AN)接枝聚合生成TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的反应机理。通过傅里叶变换红外(FT-IR)分析确定了TiO2(KH-560)和TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的官能团结构。通过X射线光电子能谱(XPS)分析,由TiO2(KH-560)中的氧元素和碳元素结合能的微小变化,引起 C1s、O1s 化学环境的变化,来确定 TiO2(KH-560)的结构;由 TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的氧元素、碳元素和氮元素的结合能微小变化引起 C1s、O1s、N1s 化学环境的变化,从而确定了TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的结构。结合FTIR和XPS两者的分析,最终确定TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的反应机理。%The reaction mechanism of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) modified with the silane coupling agent (KH-560) grafted with acrylonitrile(AN) to produce TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN was studied. Functional group structures of TiO2 (KH-560) and TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis show that chemical environment of C1s,O1s in TiO2(KH-560) are caused by slight variations of oxygen and carbon element binding energy in TiO2(KH-560). So the structure of TiO2(KH-560) is determined. Chemical environment of C1s,O1s,and N1s in TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN are caused by slight variations of oxygen,carbon,and nitrogen element binding energy in TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN. So the structure of TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN is determined. The graft polymerization mechanism of TiO2(KH-560) and AN is determined ultimately by the analysis of both FT-IR and XPS.

  17. 丙烯腈与N-乙烯基吡咯烷酮在H2O/DMSO混合试剂中共聚反应动力学研究%Kinetics of Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile with N-Vinylpyrrolidone in H2O/Dimethyl Sulphoxide Mixture

    陈厚; 王成国; 梁英; 蔡华甦

    2003-01-01

    Kinetics of copolymerization of acrylonitrile(AN) with N-vinylpyrrolidone(NVP) initiated by azodiisobutyronitrile(AIBN) was investigated in H2O/dimethyl sulphoxide(DMSO) mixture between 50℃ and 70℃ under N2 atmosphere. The rate of copolymerization and particle size were measured respectively. The kinetic equation 0.651±0.123 1.59±0.35 1.17±0.14of copolymerization system is obtained as Rp ∝ cAIBN cAN cNVP at 60℃. The overall activation energy for copolymerization system was computed as 87.3 kJ.mol-1. Effect of additives of hydroquinone and dioxane on copolymerization was discussed. The polymerization is retarded by hydroquinone and accelerated by dioxane, which confirms the free radical copolymerization of AN with NVP.

  18. Effect of acrylonitrile on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in spermatogenic cell of mice%丙烯腈对小鼠生精细胞Bcl-2、Bax蛋白表达的影响

    裴凌云; 马国燕; 金娜; 陈亚; 冯玉娟; 党瑜慧; 薛红丽; 李芝兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of acrylonitrile exposure on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in mice spermatogenic cells. Methods Based on body weight, 250 SPF Kunming adult male mice were randomly divided into five groups; negative control group (normal saline 0. 01ml/g), three AN exposure groups (intraperitoneal injection of 1.25, 2. 50 or 5. 00 mg/kg of AN daily for 5 days, respectively) and positive control group (intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide 40mg/kg) . Mice were killed in the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day after the first exposure by cervical dislocation. Immunohistochemical method ( SABC ) was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in spermatogenic cells. Results The average optical density values of Bcl-2 at five time points of the AN 2. 50 mg/kg group and the 21th day point of the AN 1. 25 mg/kg group were significantly lower than the negative control group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Except the 21st day point of the AN 1. 25 mg/kg group, the mean optical density values of Bax in all time points of AN exposure groups were significantly higher than the negative control group (P < 0. 05 ). The decreased expression of Bcl-2 protein was most distinct in AN 2. 50mg/kg group and the positive control group at all time points. The expression of Bax protein was significantly increased in all groups at the 14th day point. Conclusion The expression of Bel-2 protein could be weakened in spermatogenic cells induced by AN, especially in the AN 2. 50 mg/kg8roup; while the expression of Bax was enhanced, and the amplitude of change in the 14th day point was more obvious.%目的 探讨丙烯腈(AN)暴露对小鼠睾丸生精细胞Bcl-2、Bax蛋白表达水平的影响.方法 将250只成年健康SPF级昆明种雄性小鼠,按体重随机分为阴性对照组、3个AN染毒组和阳性对照组,阴性对照组用生理盐水,各染毒组分别以1.25、2.50、5.00mg/kg AN腹腔注射(注射剂量为0.01 ml/g BW),每天1次,连续5天,阳性

  19. Simultaneous determination of acrylonitrile, carbon disulfide, methyl ethyl ketone, and isobutanol leachates by purge and trap- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Determinacion simultanea de acrilonitrilo, disulfuro de carbono, metiletilcetona e isobutanol en lixiviados por purga y trampa -cromatografia de gas-espectrometria de masas

    Garcia M, J.A. [Gerencia de Laboratorio Central del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo. Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152. 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-01

    According to the Mexican General Law of the Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection, issued by the National Institute of Ecology, some chemicals such as acrylonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, carbon disulfide, and isobutanol must be monitored in industrial residues because of their toxicity. This report describes an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of these four analytes in leachates. A purge and trap concentrator coupled to a computerized gas-chromatograph-mass selective detector was used to achieve the analysis. Quantitation measurements were based on the internal standardization method, using the area ratios of the molecular ions of the analytes and the internal standard obtained by deconvolution of the data. The scope of this method as well as the validation data is reported. The method is reliable in spite of the fact that, in some cases, the analytes or the standard coeluted with other compounds of the samples. Because the data acquisition is carried out in the scan mode it is possible to detect and identify other substances in the samples. (Author)

  20. Effects of milk and coenzyme Q10 on the interference of acrylonitrile on vascular endothelial functions%牛奶和辅酶Q10对丙烯腈致血管内皮功能紊乱的影响

    郭进; 王卫群; 龚辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨牛奶或辅酶Q10预处理对丙烯腈致大鼠血管内皮功能紊乱的影响.方法 将80只大鼠分为4组:对照组、单纯丙烯腈组、牛奶组、辅酶Q10组.采用灌胃染毒法,对照组仅予玉米油(丙烯腈的溶剂,1 ml/100 g),其他3组予丙烯腈25 mg/kg染毒.牛奶组和辅酶Q10组在染毒前30 min分别给予牛奶、辅酶Q10预处理.染毒12周后检测血清及主动脉组织中诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)和内皮型一氧化氮合酶(eNOS)的活力.结果 单纯丙烯腈组、牛奶组、辅酶Q10组血清iNOS水平[(42.9±2.5)U/ml、(26.5±4.4)U/ml、(26.7±3.3)U/ml]比对照组[(21.9±1.6)U/ml,P<0.05]升高.主动脉组织中iNOS在单纯丙烯腈组、牛奶组、辅酶Q10组[(0.812±0.008)、(0.773±0.019)、(0.622±0.013)U/mg蛋白]比对照组[(0.540±0.028)U/mg蛋白,P<0.05]高;而辅酶Q10组的主动脉eNOS活力[(0.471±0.011)U/mg蛋白]高于对照组、单纯丙烯腈组和牛奶组[(0.371±0.029)、(0.380±0.016)、(0.425±0.020)U/mg蛋白,P<0.05].结论 牛奶和辅酶Ql0可以缓解丙烯腈致血管内皮功能紊乱作用.%Objective To explore the influences of milk or coenzyme Q10 pretreatment to acrylonitrile on vascular endothelial functions in rats.Methods A total of 80 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:control group(Con),acrylonitrile exposure group(ACN),milk pretreatment group (M + ACN)and coenzyme Q10 pretreatment group(Q10 + ACN).The experiment was conducted by the method of gavage exposure in rats.Control group was exposed to corn oil;acrylonitrile was administered to other three groups at the doses of 25 mg/kg.The M + ACN and Q10 + ACN groups were pretreated by milk or coenzyme Q10 at 30 minutes before acrylonitrile exposureAfter a 12-week exposure,the activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS)and endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)were measured in serum and aortal tissues.Results As compared with Con group[(21.9 ± 1.6)U/ml],the activity of blood serum i

  1. Effect of bound acrylonitrile content on structure and properties of carbon black reinforced hindered phenol/nitrile rubber composites%丁腈橡胶/受阻酚AO-80/炭黑复合材料中结合丙烯腈量对其结构与性能的影响

    宋洪松; 李静; 曹亚君; 赵秀英; 王松

    2011-01-01

    在结合丙烯腈量不同的丁腈橡胶(NBR)中加入受阻酚AO-80和炭黑,制备了NBR/AO-80/炭黑(NBR/AO-80/CB)复合材料,用差示扫描量热仪、动态力学分析仪及物理机械性能测试等手段对复合材料的热性能、动态力学性能及物理机械性能进行了研究.结果表明,与纯NBR硫化胶相比,NBR/AO-80/CB复合材料的玻璃化转变温度大幅度升高,且随着NBR基质中结合丙烯腈量的增大而向高温方向移动;NBR/AO-80/CB复合材料具有较好的阻尼性能,其损耗峰的峰值高于1.22,有效阻尼温域(损耗因子不小于0.3)大于38 ℃,在不同的参考温度下均具有较宽的有效阻尼频率范围;同时,NBR/AO-80/CB复合材料具有较好的物理机械性能和耐热老化性能,尤其是N 220 S/AO-80/CB复合材料的综合性能最好.%Crosslinked nitrile rubber ( NBR )/hindered phenol (AO-80)/carbon black composites were prepared by mixing AO-80 and carbon black into NBR with different bound acrylonitrile contents. The thermal properties, dynamic mechanical properties and mechanical properties of the composites were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tester. The results showed that compared with pure NBR, the glass transition temperature of NBR/AO-80/carbon black composites increased greatly, and shifted to high temperature direction with increasing the bound acrylonitrile content of NBR. NBR/AO-80/carbon black composites showed excellent damping properties: loss factor ( tan δ) was more than 1.22, and the effective damping temperature range( tan δ equal to or more than 0. 3 ) was more than 38 ℃ ,the frequency range with high tan δ was wide at different reference temperatures. NBR/AO-80/carbon black composites had good mechanical properties and thermal aging resistance.Especially, N 220 S/AO-80/carbon black composites were the best in all-round properties.

  2. 顶空气相色谱法测定丙烯腈-苯乙烯(AS)塑料中残留的7种单体%Determination of 7 residual monomers in acrylonitrile-styrene plastic by gas chromatography with head space sampler

    朱文亮; 周勇; 陈晓鹏; 谭锦萍; 吴炜亮

    2012-01-01

    A reliable method had been developed for determination of 7 residual monomers in acrylonitrile- styrene (AS) plastic by headspace-gas chromatography. The samples were completely dissolved into N, N-diethylformamide,and then the gas after achieved equilibrium in the headspace bottle was extracted by headspace injection equipment for gas chromatography analysis. The optimum conditions of gas chromatography and headspace injection were obtained by experiments. The optimum conditions of headspace injection were usage of solvent 3mL,heating temperature 120℃ ,time for equilibrium 40min. The average recoveries of 7 residual monomers were 95.71%-106.89%,the detection limits were 0.25N1.0mg/kg. The analysis method not only improved detection efficiency,but also cut down the detection cost. Meanwhile,this method was simple, rapid,accurate,and sensitive.%建立了顸空气相色谱法测定丙烯腈-苯乙烯(AS)塑料中7种残留单体的分析方法。以N,N-二甲基甲酰胺为溶剂溶解AS塑料,于顶空装置中平衡后,进样进行气相分析。通过实验得到了优化的气相色谱分离条件及顶空条件,其中优化的顸空条件为溶剂使用量3mL,加热温度120℃,平衡时间40min。7种残留单体的平均回收率为95.71%-106.89%,检出限为0.25-1.0mg/kg。该方法既提高了检测效率,又降低了检测成本。同时,此方法还具有简便、快速、灵敏、准确等优点.

  3. Propriedades Mecânicas de Blendas de Nylon-6/Acrilonitrila-EPDM-Estireno (AES Compatibilizadas com Copolímero Acrílico Reativo (MMA-MA Mechanical Properties of Nylon-6/Acrylonitrile-EPDM-Styrene (AES Blends Compatibilized with Reactive Acrylic Copolymer (MMA-MA

    Adriane Bassani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas blendas de nylon-6 com copolímero de acrilonitrila/EPDM/estireno (AES utilizando, como agentes compatibilizantes, uma série de copolímeros reativos de metacrilato de metila-anidrido maleico (MMA-MA. As unidades anidrido maleico (MA, destes copolímeros, podem reagir com os grupos finais de cadeia do nylon-6. Como verificado através de reometria de torque, os copolímeros MMA-MA podem gerar copolímeros in situ na interface das blendas durante o processamento. O principal enfoque deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da funcionalidade e concentração dos grupos anidrido maleico do compatibilizante sobre as propriedades mecânicas das blendas. Os resultados mostraram que a incorporação dos copolímeros MMA-MA melhorou significativamente a resistência ao impacto sob entalhe das blendas nylon-6/AES. As blendas contendo copolímero MMA-MA com 1,3% em peso de MA podem ser classificadas como supertenazes e mantêm sua tenacidade em temperaturas abaixo de zero.Blends of nylon-6 with acrylonitrile/EPDM/styrene (AES using a series of methyl methacrylate-maleic anhydride (MMA-MA copolymers as compatibilizing agents were prepared. The maleic anhydride (MA units in the copolymers are capable to react with the nylon-6 end groups. The MMA-MA copolymer has a potencial to form in situ copolymers at the blend interface during melt processing as indicated by torque rheometry tests. This study focuses on the effects of functionality and concentration of the reactive maleic anhydride units of the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of these blends. The results show that incorporation of the MMA-MA copolymer significantly improves the impact strength of nylon-6/AES blends. The blend containing 1.3wt% of MA in the copolymer is supertough at room temperature, and remains tough at subzero temperatures.

  4. The effect of acrylonitrile on the level of chromosomal aberrations

    Beskid, Olena; Dušek, Zdík; Chvátalová, Irena; Stávková, Zdena; Dostál, Miroslav; Rössner st., Pavel; Šrám, Radim

    Prague : organising comittee, 2004. s. 40. [Central and Eastern European Environmental Health Conference. 24.10.2004-27.10.2004, Prague] Keywords : cytogenetic Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  5. Dielectric behaviour of polycarbonate/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) blends

    Sokol, R.; Nedbal, J.; Fähnrich, J.; Ilavský, Michal; Kolařík, Jan

    Athens : National Technical University, 1999 - (Konsta, A.; Vassilikou-Dova, A.; Vartzeli-Nikaki, K.). s. 589-592 ISBN 0-7803-5025-1. [International Symposium on Electrets /10./. 22.09.1999-24.09.1999, Delphi] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/97/1071; GA ČR GA106/98/0700 Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  6. Structure and Piezoelectricity of Poly (styrene-co-acrylonitrile) Copolymer Doped with Different Dyes

    Elhadidy, Hassan; Abdelhamid, M.I.; Aboelwafa, A.M.; Habib, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2013), s. 1277-1284. ISSN 0360-2559 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : DANS * DAST * Piezo- and pyro- electricity * SAN * structure * TDSC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2012

  7. Molecular Imprinting Fibrous Membranes of Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) Prepared by Electrospinning

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction Over the past few decades, molecular imprinting has been described as a technology for preparing "molecular doors" which can be matched to "template keys". It has been found to be a simple and effective approach to introduce specific recognition sites into synthetic polymers, namely, to create molecular imprinting polymers[1-4]. Remarkable features such as stability,ease of preparation and low cost, have made molecular imprinting polymers particularly attractive in chemical sensors, catalysis, drug delivery, and dedicated separations.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    2010-04-01

    ...) Intrinsic viscosity in acetonitrile at 25 °C is not less than 0.29 deciliter per gram as determined by ASTM method D1243-79, “Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,”...

  9. Shear and extensional rheological characterization of poly(acrylonitrile)/halloysite nanocomposite solutions

    Akhlaghi Baghoojari, Omid; Akbulut, Özge; Akbulut, Ozge; Menceloğlu, Yusuf Z.; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z.

    2015-01-01

    The shear and extensional flow properties of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution in the presence of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated at an industrially relevant concentration of the polymer. In dynamic shear rheology, the elasticity and relaxation time of PAN solutions and the availability of heterogeneous PAN domains were found to increase with HNT content. Extensional flow behavior of PAN solutions were characterized using the capillary breakup extensional rheometry and increasing...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    2010-04-01

    ...: Substances Limitation Condensation polymer of toluene sulfonamide and formaldehyde 0.15 pct maximum. (c... of Polymer Extracted from Barex 210 Resin Pellets”; “Procedure for the Determination of Molecular... multilayer construction by ASTM method D-1434-82, “Standard Method for Determining Gas...

  11. Power Efficient, Restart-Capable Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Arc Ignitor for Hybrid Rockets

    Whitmore, Stephen; Merkely, Daniel; Inkley, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Because hybrid rocket propellant materials are individually chemically stable prior to mixing within the combustion chamber, these systems possess well-known safety advantages. Unfortunately, the relative stability of traditional hybrid propellants also makes hybrid systems difficult to ignite. Hybrid ignition has historically involved one of three means, 1) pyrotechnic charges, 2) plasma torch, and 3) electric spark plugs with bi-propellant injectors. All of these methods possess distinct di...

  12. Coconut shell powder as cost effective filler in copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene rubber.

    Keerthika, B; Umayavalli, M; Jeyalalitha, T; Krishnaveni, N

    2016-08-01

    Filler is one of the major additives in rubber compounds to enhance the physical properties. Even though numerous benefits obtained from agricultural by products like coconut shell, rice husk etc., still they constitute a large source of environmental pollution. In this investigation, one of the agricultural bye product coconut shell powder (CSP) is used as filler in the compounding KNB rubber. It shows the positive and satisfied result was achieved only by the use of filler Fast Extrusion Furnace (FEF) and coconut shell powder (CSP) which was used 50% in each. The effect of these fillers on the mechanical properties of a rubber material at various loading raging from 0 to 60PHP was studied. Mercaptodibanzothiazole disulphide (MBTS) was used as an accelerator. The result shows that presence of 25% and 50% of the composites has better mechanical properties like Hardness, Tensile strength, Elongation at break and Specific gravity when compared with other two combinations. Even though both 25% and 50% of composites shows good mechanical properties, 50% of CSP have more efficient than 25% of CSP. PMID:27060197

  13. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    See, Tian Long; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin; Zhong, Xiang Li

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser-material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 0.087 J/cm2) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 1.576 J/cm2), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α-1 = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α-1 = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the Cdbnd C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas Cdbnd C bond is partially eliminated through the femtosecond laser treatment due to the difference in photon energy of the two laser beams. A reduction in the Cdbnd C bond through the chain scission process creates free radical carbons which then form crosslinks with each other or react with oxygen, nitrogen and water in air producing oxygen-rich (Csbnd O and Cdbnd O bond) and nitrogen-rich (Csbnd N) functional groups.

  14. Dielectric behaviour of polycarbonate/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) and polycarbonate/polymethylmethacrylate blends

    Ilavský, Michal; Sokol, R.; Nedbal, J.; Kolařík, Jan

    Bratislava : Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2000 - (Lacik, I.). s. 17-18 ISBN 80-968433-0-3. [Bratislava International Conference on Modified Polymers /14./. 01.10.2000-04.10.2000, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Structure of diblock copolymers containing styrene, acrylonitrile and 5-vinyltetrayole units

    Gromadzki, Daniel; Lokaj, Jan; Černoch, Peter; Diat, O.; Nallet, F.; Štěpánek, Petr

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AS CR, v. v. i, 2007 - (Kahovec, J.). s. 107 ISBN 978-80-85009-56-9. [Microsymposium on Advanced Polymer Materials for Photonics and Electronics /47./. 15.07.2007-19.07.2007, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050403; GA ČR GESON/03/E001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : diblock copolymers * SAXS * TEM Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Copolymers containing 4-vinylpyridine, acrylonitrile and styrene units by controlled radical polymerization

    Poláková, Lenka; Lokaj, Jan; Holler, Petr; Starovoytova, Larisa; Štěpánek, Petr; Diat, O.

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2006. s. 47. [SONS Networking Activity Workshop: Structure and properties of self-organized amphiphilic copolymers. 04.10.2006-07.10.2006, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GESON/03/E001 Keywords : block copolymers * nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization * 4-vinylpyridine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  17. Effect of strain on dielectric behaviour of polycarbonate/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) blend

    Valentová, H.; Nedbal, J.; Ilavský, Michal

    Bratislava : Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2000 - (Lacik, I.). s. 127-128 ISBN 80-968433-0-3. [Bratislava International Conference on Modified Polymers /14./. 01.10.2000-04.10.2000, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Ion-exchange membranes based on vinylphosphonic acid-co-acrylonitrile copolymers for fuel cells

    Žitka, Jan; Bleha, Miroslav; Schauer, Jan; Galajdová, Barbora; Paidar, M.; Bouzek, K.; Hnát, J.

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2014. s. 45. ISBN 978-80-85009-78-1. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. 18.05.2014-21.05.2014, Prague] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 608931 - MAT4BAT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PEM * vinylphosphonic acid * VPA Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  19. Enhancement the Thermal Stability and the Mechanical Properties of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymer by Grafting Antioxidant

    Abdulaziz Ibrahim Al-Ghonamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monomeric antioxidants are widely used as effective antioxidants to protect polymers against thermal oxidation. Low molecular weight antioxidants are easily lost from polymer through migration, evaporation, and extraction. Physical loss of antioxidants is considered to be major concern in the environmental issues and safety regulation as well as long life time of polymers. The grafting copolymerization of natural rubber and o-aminophenol was carried out by using two-roll mill machine. The prepared natural rubber-graft-o-Aminophenol, NR-graft-o-AP, was analysed by using Infrared and 1H-NMR Spectroscopy techniques. The thermal stability, mechanical properties, and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient were evaluated for NBR vulcanizates containing the commercial antioxidant, N-phenyl-β-naphthylamine (PBN, the prepared grafted antioxidant, NR-graft-o-AP, and the control vulcanizate. Results of the thermal stability showed that the prepared NR-graft-o-AP can protect NBR vulcanizate against thermal treatment much better than the commercial antioxidant, PBN, and control mix, respectively. The prepared grafted antioxidant improves the mechanical properties of NBR vulcanizate.

  20. Rubber-toughened polypropylene/acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene blends: Morphology and mechanical properties

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Kolařík, Jan; Kotek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2007), s. 582-592. ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP106/02/P029; GA ČR GA106/04/1051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer blends * co-continuity * predictive models Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2007

  1. Curing characteristics and dynamic mechanical behaviour of reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene/chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber blends

    Markovic, G.; Marinovic-Cincovic, M.; Valentová, H.; Ilavský, Michal; Radovanovic, B.; Budinski-Simendic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 494, - (2005), s. 475-480. ISSN 0255-5476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : adhesion strength * crosslinking * CSM Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  2. Rheological and LASER additives for higher efficiency in producing poly(acrylonitrile)-based carbon fibers

    Herbert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This work is based on the NRW Ziel2 ‘Megacarbon’ project which aims for the more resource efficient production of carbon fibers (CF) for the automotive market. In cooperation with the Dralon GmbH in Dormagen a CF precursor with properties at least equal to the industry reference fiber Bluestar was developed and used in fiber spinning experiments. For the improvement of the spinning process a hyperbranched, rheological additive was synthesized for the decrease of dynamic viscosity over a broad...

  3. NONCONVENTIONAL EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE CATALYZED BY in situ METAL COMPLEX

    Bijayashree Samal; Prafulla K.Sahoo

    2007-01-01

    Nano-sized polyacrylonitrile (PAN) particles were prepared under the catalytic effect of in situ developed CoCl2/EDTA complex with ammonium persulfate as the initiator in the absence of any added emulsifier.The emulsion polymerization was studied at varying concentrations of the initiator,monomer,complex and solvent over a temperature range of 30-70℃.The overall activation energy(Ea,49.79 kJ/mol),energy of dissociation of initiator(Ed,82.68kJ/mol),number of micelles(0.163 × 1018)and the viscosity average molecular weight of the polymer were computed.The distribution of particle sizes was determined by transmission electron microscopy(TEM).It was found that the oil-in-water polymerization was stabilized by the presence of the CoCl2/EDTA in situ complex reducing the particle size into the nano order.The average diameters of PAN nano particles,obtained by TEM,were in the range of 50-150 nm at the maximum conversion.The experimental particle size was mainly dependent on the concentration of the complex and temperature.

  4. Effect of amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile/clay combinations on the structure and properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    Kelnar, Ivan; Rotrekl, Jakub; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Hromádková, Jiřina; Strachota, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 5 (2012), s. 3477-3483. ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200500904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : epoxy nanocomposites * mechanical properties * microstructure Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2012

  5. Effect of winding layer and speed on kenaf/glass fiber hybrid reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites

    Khoni, Norizzahthul Ainaa Abdul; Sharifah Shahnaz S., B.; Ghazali, Che Mohd Ruzaidi

    2016-07-01

    The usage of natural fiber is becoming significant in composite industries due to their good performance. Single and continuous natural fibers have relatively high mechanical properties; especially their young modulus can be as high as glass fibers. Filament winding is a method to produce technically aligned composites which have high fibers content. The properties of filament winding can be tailored to meet the end product requirements. This research studied the compression properties of kenaf/glass fibers hybrid reinforced composites. Kenaf/glass fibers hybrid composite samples were fabricated by filament winding technique and their properties were compared with the properties of neat kenaf fiber and glass fibers composites. The kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites exhibited higher strength compared to the neat glass fibers composites. Composites of helical pattern, which produced at low winding speed showed better compression resistance than hoop pattern winding, which produced at high winding speed. As predicted, kenaf composite showed highest water absorption; followed by kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites while neat glass fiber has lowest water absorption capability.

  6. Conformational and Molecular Structures of α,β-Unsaturated Acrylonitrile Derivatives: Photophysical Properties and Their Frontier Orbitals

    María Judith Percino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report single crystal X-ray diffraction (hereafter, SCXRD analyses of derivatives featuring the electron-donor N-ethylcarbazole or the (4-diphenylaminophenyl moieties associated with a -CN group attached to a double bond. The compounds are (2Z-3-(4-(diphenylamino-phenyl-2-(pyridin-3-ylprop-2-enenitrile (I, (2Z-3-(4-(diphenylaminophenyl-2-(pyridin-4-yl-prop-2-enenitrile (II and (2Z-3-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl-2-(pyridin-2-ylenenitrile (III. SCXRD analyses reveal that I and III crystallize in the monoclinic space groups P2/c with Z’ = 2 and C2/c with Z’ = 1, respectively. Compound II crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with Z’ = 1. The molecular packing analysis was conducted to examine the pyridine core effect, depending on the ortho, meta- and para-positions of the nitrogen atom, with respect to the optical properties and number of independent molecules (Z’. It is found that the double bond bearing a diphenylamino moiety introduced properties to exhibit a strong π-π-interaction in the solid state. The compounds were examined to evaluate the effects of solvent polarity, the role of the molecular structure, and the molecular interactions on their self-assembly behaviors. Compound I crystallized with a cell with two conformers, anti and syn, due to interaction with solvent. DFT calculations indicated the anti and syn structures of I are energetically stable (less than 1 eV. Also electrochemical and photophysical properties of the compounds were investigated, as well as the determination of optimization calculations in gas and different solvent (chloroform, cyclohexane, methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane and dimethyl sulfoxide in the Gaussian09 program. The effect of solvent by PCM method was also investigated. The frontier HOMO and LUMO energies and gap energies are reported.

  7. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)

    Full text: Polymeric materials do not decompose easily, disposal of waste polymers is a major environmental problem of global character. Recycling is an economical alternative and environmentally recommended for polymers consumed and discarded by society. As regards the rubber in object, its natural decomposition is much slower due to their highly crosslinked, in three-dimensional networks, structures which makes it an infusible and insoluble material. Moreover, these three dimensional structures entails several problems for their recovery and reprocessing. The aim of this paper was to study the behavior of NBR rubber recycle. It was used rubber powder from industry. The powder was irradiated in master-batch composition and used directly in classical formulations for rubber vulcanization. The master-batch processed was irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150kGy in 60Co source at 5 kGy s-1 rate, at room temperature. Gamma radiation created active sites during devulcanization that promoted further integration of the rubber powder in formulations for commercial use. The processes were compared and their products were characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as tensile strength and elongation. The greatest change in the properties of polymeric materials by exposure to ionizing radiation resulted mainly of two main reactions occurring in the polymer molecule: chains scission (degradation) and crosslinking. Although these two processes occur simultaneously in all the polymers, the predominance of one or other effect depends mainly of the chemical structure of each polymer, and the irradiation conditions. In the results was observed the behavior of nitrile rubber under different doses and radiation improvement of the mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Effect of interphase interactions on the dielectric behaviour of polycarbonate/poly(styrene-.I.co./I.-acrylonitrile) blends

    Sokol, R.; Nedbal, J.; Fähnrich, J.; Ilavský, Michal; Kolařík, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2000), s. 555-562. ISSN 0170-0839 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/97/1071; GA ČR GA106/98/0700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.794, year: 2000

  9. Prediction of the creep of heterogeneous polymer blends: rubber-toughened polypropylene/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)

    Kolařík, Jan; Fambri, L.; Pegoretti, A.; Penati, A.; Goberti, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2002), s. 161-169. ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/98/0700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : creep * heterogeneous polymer blends Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2002

  10. Diblock copolymers comprising poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) and polystyrene blocks by nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization

    Lokaj, Jan; Poláková, Lenka; Holler, Petr; Starovoytova, Larisa; Štěpánek, Petr; Diat, O.

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2006. s. 41. [SONS Networking Activity Workshop: Structure and properties of self-organized amphiphilic copolymers. 04.10.2006-07.10.2006, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GESON/03/E001 Keywords : block copolymers * nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization * 2-vinylpyridine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  11. Prediction of nonlinear long-term tensile creep of heterogeneous blends: Rubber-toughened polypropylene-poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)

    Kolařík, Jan; Pegoretti, A.; Fambri, L.; Penati, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2003), s. 641-651. ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : polymer blends * creep * compliance Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2003

  12. Dielectric behaviour of polycarbonate/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) and polycarbonate/poly(methyl methacrylate) two-phase blends

    Ilavský, Michal; Sokol, R.; Nedbal, J.; Fähnrich, J.; Kolařík, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 170, - (2001), s. 79-89. ISSN 1022-1360. [Property Tailoring of Thermoplastics-Based Blends and Composites.. Bratislava, 01.10.2000-04.10.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/98/0700; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Grant ostatní: GA UK(XC) 46/98/B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : dielectric behaviour * two-phase blends Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2001

  13. Expression of p53 and p21WAF1 proteins in blood serum of acrylonitrile - exposed workers

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Binková, Blanka; Šrám, Radim

    Budapest : EEMS, 2000, s. P72. [Annual Meeting of EEMS /30./. Budapest (HU), 22.08.2000-26.08.2000] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/20 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) (PHARE II, AC/HEA/18) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  14. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente (CQMA)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Polymeric materials do not decompose easily, disposal of waste polymers is a major environmental problem of global character. Recycling is an economical alternative and environmentally recommended for polymers consumed and discarded by society. As regards the rubber in object, its natural decomposition is much slower due to their highly crosslinked, in three-dimensional networks, structures which makes it an infusible and insoluble material. Moreover, these three dimensional structures entails several problems for their recovery and reprocessing. The aim of this paper was to study the behavior of NBR rubber recycle. It was used rubber powder from industry. The powder was irradiated in master-batch composition and used directly in classical formulations for rubber vulcanization. The master-batch processed was irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150kGy in {sup 60}Co source at 5 kGy s{sup -1} rate, at room temperature. Gamma radiation created active sites during devulcanization that promoted further integration of the rubber powder in formulations for commercial use. The processes were compared and their products were characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as tensile strength and elongation. The greatest change in the properties of polymeric materials by exposure to ionizing radiation resulted mainly of two main reactions occurring in the polymer molecule: chains scission (degradation) and crosslinking. Although these two processes occur simultaneously in all the polymers, the predominance of one or other effect depends mainly of the chemical structure of each polymer, and the irradiation conditions. In the results was observed the behavior of nitrile rubber under different doses and radiation improvement of the mechanical properties. (author)

  15. Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition

    Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

  16. Design and Synthesis of Transparent Poly (acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene) and Relationship Between Its Phase Construction and Transparency

    2006-01-01

    A series of transparent ABS(T-ABS) resins were prepared by emulsion in situ suspension polymerization. The influences of the particle size and the content of rubber particles on the transparency of T-ABS resins were studied by varying the size and content of rubber particles in a single model system( rubber particles with a uniform size). The optical properties of T-ABS resins were investigated in a mixed system of SBR/PB particles and a bi-modal particle system(rubber particles with two different sizes, 70 and 400 nm in diameter) of SBR particles. It was found that when the size of the smaller particles (70 nm) in the mixed system of SBR/PB particles was in the range of 50-100 nm in diameter, the T-ABS resins showed a better transparency. These results provide a flexible and practical process for the preparation of T-ABS resins with good optical and mechanical properties.

  17. The effect of embedded carbon nanotubes on the morphological evolution during the carbonization of poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers

    Hybrid nanofibers with different concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were fabricated using the electrospinning technique and subsequently carbonized. The morphology of the fabricated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at different stages of the carbonization process was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The polycrystalline nature of the CNFs was shown, with increasing content of ordered crystalline regions having enhanced orientation with increasing content of MWCNTs. The results indicate that embedded MWCNTs in the PAN nanofibers nucleate the growth of carbon crystals during PAN carbonization

  18. Performance of CTBN(carboxyl-terminated poly (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile))-EP(diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A(DGEBA)) Prepolymers and CTBN-EP/polyetheramine (PEA) System

    SHI Minxian; HUANG Zhixiong; LI Yaming; YANG Guorui

    2009-01-01

    CTBN-EP prepolymers were synthesized from CTBN and epoxy resin under the catalysis of HTMAB.FTIR analyses indicate the formation of ester group between the carboxyl group of CTBN and the oxirane group of epoxy resin.The viscosity of modified prepolymer increases with CTBN content increasing,but the epoxy value of the prepolymer decreases greatly.DSC analyses verify that CTBN affects the curing process of CTBN-EP/PEA system.Mechanical testing presents the improved toughness of CTBN-EP/PEA curings for the decrease of tensile strength,flexural strength and compressive strength,and increase of impact strength and elongation-at-break with the CTBN content increasing.SEM micrographs show the rubber phase with many holes in diameter about 0.5-1.5μm is formed when CTBN content is lower than 10 phr.However,the pattern of SEM graph shows some stalactite-like strips when CTBN content is higher than 15 phr.Furthermore,the SEM image of 25 phr CTBN sample forms a kind of co-continuous structure.

  19. Morphology and contact angle studies of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile modified epoxy resin blends and their glass fibre reinforced composites

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the surface characteristics of blends and composites of epoxy resin were investigated. Poly(styrene-co-acylonitrile (SAN was used to modify diglycedyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA type epoxy resin cured with diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS and the modified epoxy resin was used as the matrix for fibre reinforced composites (FRP’s. E-glass fibre was used as the fibre reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces of the blends and composites were analyzed. Morphological analysis revealed different morphologies such as dispersed, cocontinuous and phase-inverted structures for the blends. Contact angle studies were carried out using water and methylene iodide at room temperature. The solid surface energy was calculated using harmonic mean equations. Blending of epoxy resin increases its contact angle. The surface free energy, work of adhesion, interfacial free energy, spreading coefficient and Girifalco-Good’s interaction parameter were changed significantly in the case of blends and composites. The incorporation of thermoplastic and glass fibre reduces the wetting and hydrophilicity of epoxy resin.

  20. Electrospun Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) Nanofibrous Membranes for Catalase Immobilization:Effect of Porphyrin Filling on the Enzyme Activity

    KE Bei-bei; WAN Ling-shu; HUANG Xiao-jun; XU Zhi-kang

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrin-filled nanofibrous membranes were facilely prepared by electrospinning of the mixtures of poly(acryionitrile-co-acrylic acid)(PANCAA) and porphyrins. 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyiporphyrin(TPP) and its metalloderivatives(ZnTPP and CuTPP) were studied as filling mediators for the immobilization of redox enzyme. Results indicate that the introduction of TPP, ZnTPP and CuTPP improves the retention activity of the immobilized catalase.Among these three porphyrins, the ZnTPP-filled PANCAA nanofibrous membrane exhibits an activity retention of 93%, which is an exciting improvement. This improvement is attributed to both the strong catalase-porphyrin affinity and the possible facilitated electron transfer induced by the porphyrin as evidenced by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and fluorescence spectroscopy studies.

  1. Optical Resolution of Phenylalanine Using D-Phe-Imprinted Poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) Membrane-pH Effect on performance

    The molecular imprinting technique was used for chiral resolution of phenylalanine (Phe). The template was introduced during polymerization and removed after polymerization by leaving imprinted cavities in the polymer matrix correspondence to template. The D-Phe imprinted membrane selectively adsorbed D-Phe, facilitated permeation of D-Phe and rejected L-Phe. These results are evidence of the availability of the chiral environment in the membrane. The membrane was found to be pH sensitive, with 0.30 rejection selectivity, 2.40 adsorption selectivity and 2.03 permselectivity being achieved at pH-2. FT-IR and FE-SEM analyses revealed that the membrane was nano-porous and very thin. (author)

  2. Gel electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile)/sulpholane with hybrid TiO2/SiO2 filler for advanced lithium polymer batteries

    Highlights: • Paper describes properties of gel electrolyte based on PAN with TMS and TiO2-SiO2. • The TiO2-SiO2 oxide composite was precipitated in the emulsion system and used as the fillers. • The capacity of the graphite anode depends on the current rate and the amount of TiO2-SiO2. • For PE3 electrolyte was obtained practical capacity more than 90% of the theoretical capacity. - Abstract: This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of ceramic fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes. Hybrid TiO2-SiO2 ceramic powders have been obtained by co-precipitation from titanium(IV) sulfate solution using sodium silicate as the precipitating agent. The resulting submicron-size powders have been applied as fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes for Li-ion batteries based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. The powders and gel electrolytes have been examined structurally and electrochemically, showing favorable properties in terms of electrolyte uptake and electrochemical characteristics in Li-ion cells

  3. 丙烯腈对蝾螈睾丸精原细胞DNA的诱导损伤%DNA Damage on Newt Testicle Spermatogonia Induced by Acrylonitrile

    黄简抒; 吴鑫; 钟先玖

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨丙烯腈(ACN)对睾丸精原细胞DNA的损伤作用及经肝微粒体酶活化前后该损伤程度的差异.方法用体外培养方法分离蝾螈睾丸精原细胞,不同浓度(0,0.1,0.4,0.8,1.6 μmol/ml)ACN染毒3 h,每个浓度分活化组(加S9)和非活化组(不加S9),另设2个阳性对照组(丝裂霉素C,1.6μg/ml,加S9)和(环磷酰胺,80μg/ml,不加S9),用单细胞凝胶电泳法检测DNA损伤程度.结果未活化ACN浓度≥0.8μmol/ml及活化后ACN浓度≥0.4 μmol/ml时,蝾螈精原细胞DNA损伤程度明显升高,彗星发生率、长尾彗星率及彗星细胞平均尾长均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),并存在剂量-反应关系,经S9活化后,ACN对DNA损伤程度比同浓度未活化组明显增强.结论ACN能诱导蝾螈睾丸精原细胞DNA损伤,并且经肝微粒体酶活化后损伤能力明显增强.

  4. BULK POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE AND VINYL ACETATE INITIATED AT ROOM TEMPERATURE%丙烯腈/醋酸乙烯酯单体的室温引发本体聚合

    杜中杰; 励杭泉

    2000-01-01

    提出了丙烯腈/醋酸乙烯酯的一种室温引发、自加热的快速共聚合方法.探讨了该聚合反应的特点,研究了氧化还原引发体系的各种变量,包括氧化剂对还原剂的质量比、不同还原剂的质量比、引发剂用量等对30 min转化率和产物分子量等的影响.

  5. 丁腈橡胶中结合丙烯腈含量的不确定度评定%Uncertainty Evaluation on Determination of Bound Acrylonitrile Content in Nitrile Rubber

    赵慧晖; 廖翼涛; 刘俊保; 杜烨; 翟月勤; 杨玉琼

    2015-01-01

    对凯氏定氮法测定丁腈橡胶(NBR)中结合丙烯腈含量的不确定度来源进行了分析,对测定过程中的主要不确定度分量进行了评定,包括滴定试样的重复性、滴定试样所消耗标液的体积、硫酸标准滴定溶液的浓度值及结合丙烯含量平均值的数值修约引入的不确定度.结果表明,结合丙烯腈含量的测定结果为(28.59 ±0.12)%,且滴定试样的重复性引入的不确定度最大.

  6. 一起丙烯腈槽罐车泄漏事故应急救援的体会%Thoughts about the Emergency Rescue Preparedness from One Leak Accident of the Acrylonitrile Tank Wagon

    周锦山

    2006-01-01

    2005年6月28日中午,在江苏丹阳后巷318省道处,发生一起运输槽罐车侧翻而引发内烯腈泄漏事故。通过对事故的应急救援处理深切体会到:剧毒化学品泄漏事故的应急救援必须运用科学应急观,采取快速而有效的也急救援行动是控制事故的唯一手段。

  7. The effect of acrylonitrile exposure on the expression of P53 and P21 WAF1 proteins in the blood plasma of occupationally exposed workers and in human diploid lung fibroblasts

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Binková, Blanka; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    Poland : Institute of Nuclear Physics, 2002. s. 69. [NATO advanced research workshop. 23.06.2002-27.06.2002, Krakow - Poland] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 390; GA ČR GP310/01/P030 Keywords : fibroblast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Preparation and Properties of Poly(Acrylonitrile-co-Methyl Acrylate) Membrane%丙烯腈-丙烯酸甲酯微孔膜的制备及成膜性能

    熊俊诚; 韩娜; 王争争; 陈素梅; 张兴祥; 王栋; 王宁; 李伟

    2014-01-01

    以摩尔比为85/15的可熔融丙烯腈-丙烯酸甲酯共聚物(85/15 AN-MA)为膜基体,用γ-丁内酯(γ-BA)和三乙酸甘油酯(GTA)复配作为混合稀释剂,采用热致相分离(TIPS)法制备了AN-MA基微孔膜.详细研究了聚合物浓度、混合稀释剂的配比和冷却速率对微孔膜的孔结构、孔隙率、水通量及力学性能的影响.研究结果表明,随着γ-BA含量的增加或凝固浴温度升高,微孔膜成型过程中存在小部分非溶剂致相分离(NIPS),形成不对称的横截面结构.增加GTA的比例或快的冷却速率更利于发生TIPS,γ-BA的质量分数为45%和50%时,微孔膜发生单纯的TIPS过程,凝固浴为0℃的乙醇浴时,AN-MA微孔膜具有更好的力学性能.

  9. Toxicity of Acrylonitrile (ACN) on Rat Sertoli Cells in Primary Dual-chamber Culture%丙烯腈对原代双室培养的大鼠睾丸支持细胞的毒性

    钟先玖; 吴鑫; 韩志英; 钱海雷; 金泰廙

    2006-01-01

    [目的]研究丙烯腈(ACN)对原代双室培养的大鼠睾丸支持细胞(Sertoli cell,Sc)的毒性,以探讨ACN诱导雄性生殖毒性机制.[方法]用已分离纯化的大鼠睾丸SC为材料,用原代双室培养方法,加和不加S9,以浓度为0、0.5、5.0、25.0μg/ml ACN染毒,于4、12、24、48 h后检测跨细胞上皮电阻(TER);染毒24、48 h后检测转铁蛋白(Trf)浓度,评价ACN体外染毒对大鼠睾丸SC的损伤.[结果]ACN浓度≥5.0μg/ml时,对TER的形成有明显抑制作用;5.0 μg/ml培养48 h、25.0μg/ml培养12 h后对已形成的TER引起下降;加S9(+S9)与不加S9(-S9),TER值接近(如25.0 μg/ml组培养12 h后+S9组为480.3,-S9组为486.3),无明显差异.浓度为25.0μg/ml时,ACN染毒引起外室Trf浓度升高,明显高于对照及其他组(P<0.05),内室Trf浓度变化不明显,因此内室与外室之间Trf浓度差值缩小.[结论]结果表明ACN对双室培养的SCTER的形成有抑制作用,对已形成的TER有降低作用;提示ACN可能对SC形成的紧密连接和"血睾屏障"有影响.

  10. 丙烯腈对雄性大小鼠血清中性激素水平的影响%Effects of Acrylonitrile on Levels of Sexual Hormone in Sera of Rats and Mice

    黄简抒; 吴鑫; 钟先玖

    2005-01-01

    目的通过研究丙烯腈(ACN)对雄性大鼠、小鼠生殖性激素水平的影响,探讨ACN诱导生殖毒性的可能机制.方法选用ICR和昆明种小鼠用不同剂量的ACN(0,6.0,12.0,24.0 mg/kg)灌胃染毒8周,选用SD雄性大鼠用不同剂量的ACN(0,7.5,15.0,30.0 mg/kg)腹腔注射染毒13周,用放射免疫分析法(RIA)检测血清中睾酮(T)及雌二醇(E\\-2)水平;选用出生后22~25 d的SD雌性大鼠,一次性腹腔注射不同剂量的ACN(5.0,15.0,30.0 mg/kg)染毒,设阴性对照组(溶剂)和阳性对照组(β-雌二醇,剂量30 μg/kg), 染毒后6 h取子宫称重.结果 ACN染毒8周后,ICR小鼠血清中T水平均低于对照组,高剂量组与对照组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01); 昆明种小鼠血清中T水平也降低,中剂量组与对照组比较,差异有显著性(P<0.05).大鼠ACN染毒13周后,低剂量组E\\-2水平明显高于对照组(P<0.05),高剂量组T水平和E\\-2水平明显低于低剂量组(P<0.05), 但与对照组比较差异无显著性.雌性SD大鼠染毒后,各剂量组子宫重量与阴性对照组之间差异无显著性,但明显低于阳性对照组.结论 ACN能诱导雄性大鼠、小鼠血清性激素水平改变,对雄性大鼠、小鼠生殖内分泌系统有影响,在本实验条件下ACN没有出现雌激素样作用.

  11. Effect of Acrylonitrile Exposure on Reproductive Outcomes of Fathers and Parents%父亲和双亲接触丙烯腈对生殖结局的影响

    王婷; 尚慧; 张建华; 郭宝清; 李林云

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨丙烯腈(ACN)对男女工生殖功能的影响.方法选择510名接触ACN作业工人,其中331名男工为父亲接触组,179人为双亲接触组,另选无ACN接触史的男工503人为对照组,比较女方的生殖结局.同时进行动物实验,小鼠静式吸入ACN,处死后取附睾检查精子畸变率.结果对接触组与对照组配偶生殖结局调查结果的比较发现,其过期产数、周岁患病例数差异均有显著性,但子代出生缺陷差异无显著性.父亲接触组和双亲接触组女方生殖结局调查结果的比较发现,其不孕率差异有显著性.动物实验结果显示,吸入ACN后,小鼠精子畸变率随着染毒时间的延长和ACN浓度的增高而增高,与对照组比较差异有显著性.结论ACN对男、女生殖系统都有一定的毒作用.

  12. 丙烯腈对小鼠肺成纤维细胞增殖分化的影响%Effect of Acrylonitrile on Proliferation and Differentiation of Mouse Lung Fibroblasts in Vitro

    端礼荣; 吴全义; 张志坚

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究丙烯腈(ACN)对小鼠肺成纤维细胞增殖分化的影响.方法 将ICR小鼠肺成纤维细胞纯化后进行细胞培养,加入二甲亚砜和浓度分别为0.01、0.5、1.0、10.0、50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml的ACN,作为对照组和染毒组,每组10个平行样.从细胞形态学角度,通过细胞计数,观察细胞生长与分化的过程,同时测定蛋白质含量、丙二醛(MDA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力.结果 浓度为0.01、0.5、1.0、10.0μg/ml的ACN对小鼠肺成纤维细胞生长无抑制作用,而浓度达到50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml时,小鼠肺成纤维细胞的增殖和分化明显受到抑制,集落形成率明显减少,细胞体积变小,且随着ACN浓度的加大,其抑制作用增大.当ACN剂量为50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml时,小鼠肺成纤维细胞相对蛋白质含量低于对照组(P<0.05).当ACN剂量为10.0、50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml时,小鼠肺成纤维细胞MDA的含量高于对照组(P<0.01).当ACN剂量为10.0、50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml时,小鼠肺成纤维细胞SOD活力低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 ACN能抑制小鼠肺成纤维细胞增殖和分化,可能与其能抑制蛋白质合成,并引起脂质过氧化有关.

  13. Anging Petrochemical Co.Adopts Novel Acrvlonitrile Catalyst Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute

    2008-01-01

    @@ The SANC catalyst for synthesis of acrylonitrile developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied in the 80 kt/a acrylonitrile unit at the Anqing Petrochemical Company.At present the bulk catalyst used in the acrylonitrile unit at Anqing Petrochemical Company cannot meet the requirements for increasingly elevating operating level.Starting May 2008 the novel SANC catalyst,developed by SPRI and manufactured by the SINOPEC Catalyst Branch Company

  14. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Part 132

    2010-07-01

    ... Acenaphthylene Acrolein; 2-propenal Acrylonitrile Aldrin Aluminum Anthracene Antimony Arsenic Asbestos 1,2... Endrin aldehyde Ethylbenzene Fluoranthene Fluorene; 9H-fluorene Fluoride Guthion Heptachlor...

  15. 40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.

    2010-07-01

    ... Acenaphthylene Acrolein; 2-propenal Acrylonitrile Aldrin Aluminum Anthracene Antimony Arsenic Asbestos 1,2... Endrin aldehyde Ethylbenzene Fluoranthene Fluorene; 9H-fluorene Fluoride Guthion Heptachlor...

  16. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. PMID:25750055

  17. Pengaruh suhu vulkanisasi terhadap sifat mekanis vulkanisat karet alam dan karet akrilonitril-butadiena

    Norma Arisanti Kinasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers possess different vulcanization characteristics. Selection of the vulcanization system and temperature affects the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber (NR and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR. In the present work, the effect of vulcanization temperature (150, 160, 170 and 180oC on the mechanical properties of NR and NBR vulcanizates was studied. The effect of different vulcanization system (semi efficient, efficient and sulfur donor was studied in NR blends, while the effect of different acrylonitrile content (26, 28 and 33 wt % was studied in NBR blends. The NBR curing characteristics and mechanical properties data showed that vulcanization at low temperature (150oC was suitable for low acrylonitrile-NBR, whereas that at high temperature (170oC was suitable for high acrylonitrile-NBR. In addition, the semi efficient system at low temperature vulcanization (150oC was suitable for natural rubber.

  18. Interface segregation in copolymer blends measured by neutron reflection and secondary ion mass spectrometry

    In polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) differing in acrylonitrile content, the SAN with the lower acrylonitrile component enriches the vacuum-polymer and polymer-substrate interfaces. The concentration profiles determined by neutron reflection measurements yield an interfacial excess of 80 and 38 A near the surface and substrate, respectively. Using contrast matching, neutron reflection is shown to be quite sensitive to segregation near buried interfaces. Depth profiles measured by neutron reflection and secondary-ion mass spectrometry are in good qualitative agreement. (orig.)

  19. 端羧基丁腈橡胶改性环氧树脂的结构与性能%Structual and Properties of Carboxyl-Terminated Poly(Butadiene-co-Acrylonitrile) Modified Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A Epoxy Resin

    刘敬成; 张胜文; 周琼; 刘仁; 刘晓亚; 王春林

    2010-01-01

    用液体端羧基丁腈橡胶(CTBN)对固体环氧树脂(EP)进行改性,合成了CTBN-EP预聚物,研究了CTBN-EP/HTP-305体系的微观形貌、力学性能和热性能.研究结果表明,随着CTBN含量的增大,冲击强度及断裂伸长率显著提高,说明通过CTBN化学预聚改性的EP韧性提高,而体系的拉伸强度和热性能略有下降.动态热机械分析(DMA)测试体系的动态力学性能结果表明,体系出现了两相结构(Tg对应温度分别是-60℃和80℃~100℃).扫描电镜(SEM)分析表明,固化过程中析出了橡胶相并均匀分散在环氧树脂基体中,形成了剪切空洞变形结构.

  20. 端羧基丁腈橡胶改性环氧树脂的结构与性能%Structure and Properties of Carboxyl-Terminated Poly(Butadiene-co-Acrylonitrile) Modified Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A Epoxy Resin

    石敏先; 黄志雄; 郦亚铭; 杨国瑞

    2008-01-01

    用液体端羧基丁腈橡胶(CTBN)对环氧树脂(EP)进行改性,合成了CTBN/EP预聚物,FT-IR分析表明,在反应中EP的环氧基开环后与CTBN的羧基反应生成了酯键.研究了CTBN/EP/聚醚胺(PEA)体系的力学性能,结果表明,随着CTBN含量的增大,其弯曲强度、拉伸强度降低,冲击强度、断裂伸长率增大,说明CTBN通过化学预聚改性的EP具有良好的韧性.SEM分析表明,固化过程中析出了橡胶相并均匀分散在环氧树脂基体中.

  1. 聚(丙烯腈-对羟基苯乙烯)与聚碳酸酯及聚四甲基双酚-A碳酸酯的相容性研究%MISCIBILITY OF POLY( ACRYLONITRILE-co-4-VINYLPHENOL) WITH BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE AND TETRAMETHYL BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE

    孟诗云; 姜苏俊; 李光宪

    2004-01-01

    在聚(丙烯腈-苯乙烯)[P(S-AN)]中苯乙烯(S)苯环的对位引入羟基基团获得聚(丙烯腈-对羟基苯乙烯)[P(AN-VPh)],P(AN-VPh)与聚碳酸酯(PC)体系及P(AN-VPh)与聚四甲基双酚-A碳酸酯(TMPC)体系的相容性实验结果表明,由于对羟基苯乙烯(VPh)的引入,使体系中同时存在"分子间特殊相互作用"和"分子内排斥性相互作用"两种效应,从而使体系的相容性获得改善.P(AN-VPh)共聚物中AN的摩尔百分含量在12.3%~49.5%范围内时,P(AN-VPh)/PC共混物体系为热力学均相体系,采用TMPC替代PC与P(AN-VPh)共混时,共聚物中AN的摩尔百分含量在0~58.9 mol%范围内TMPC/P(AN-VPh)共混物体系为热力学相容体系.通过Flory-Huggins平均场理论计算与拟合所获得的相容窗口相图与实验值较为吻合,同时获得相互作用参数TMPC-VPh=-0.19.

  2. 新型(6-氯喹喔啉-2-基氧基)苯基丙烯酸酯和丙烯腈衍生物的设计、合成及生物活性%Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel (6-chloroquinoxalin-2-yloxy) phenylacrylate and acrylonitrile derivatives

    于春睿; 徐龙鹤; 吐松; 李志念; 李斌

    2006-01-01

    以2,6-二氯喹喔啉为起始原料、经Baylis-Hillman反应设计并合成了4个结构新颖的(6-氯喹喔啉-2-基氧基)苯基丙烯酸酯和丙烯腈衍生物,其结构经红外、核磁、元素分析确认.生物活性测定结果表明2-((3-(6-氯喹喔啉-2-基氧)苯基)(羟基)甲基)丙烯酸甲酯(3a)和2-((4-(6-氯喹喔啉-2-基氧)苯基)(羟基)甲基)丙烯腈(3d)具有有效的杀菌活性,在400 g a.i./hm2的剂量下对黄瓜霜霉病的防效分别为100%和75%.

  3. Synthesis and E/Z Configuration Determination of Novel Derivatives of 3-Aryl-2-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio Acrylonitrile, 3-(Benzothiazol-2'-ylthio-4-(furan-2''-yl-3-buten-2-one and 2-(1-(Furan-2''-yl-3'-oxobut-1''-en-2-ylthio-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Adel Abou El-Khair

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Knoevenagel condensation of 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio acetonitrile (2 with either furan-2-carbaldehyde or thiophene-2-carbaldehydes leads to E-isomers 4a–b exclusively, while the condensation of the compound 2 with benzaldehyde or para-substituted benzaldehydes with an electron-donating group afforded E/Z mixtures 4c–e with preferentially formation of the E-isomer. Condensation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (3a with either 1-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio propan-2-one (5 or 2-(2'-oxo propylthio-3-phenyl-quinazolin-4(3H-one (9 leads exclusively to the Z-isomers of 6 and 10, respectively. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOE, MS and X-ray crystallographic investigations.

  4. 丙烯腈对中国仓鼠肺细胞细胞活力和间隙连接通讯功能的影响%The effects of acrylonitrile on viability and gap junctional intercellular communication in CHL cells

    张正东; 金复生; 朱瑞娟; 范卫; 金锡鹏

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨丙烯腈(ACN)对中国仓鼠肺细胞(CHL)细胞活力及细胞间隙连接通讯(GJIC)功能的影响.方法镜下观察细胞形态学改变,采用MTT法测定细胞生长半数抑制浓度(IC50),应用荧光染料示踪技术观测ACN对CHL细胞GJIC的影响.结果 ACN染毒12和24 h,细胞生长IC50分别为435.73和251.09 μg/ml.低剂量组(12.5和25.0 μg/ml)细胞形态与对照组相比无明显改变,较高剂量组(50.0~200.0 μg/ml)细胞轻度受损(0~Ⅰ级),高剂量组(800.0 μg/ml)细胞明显受损(Ⅲ级).ACN原形在无明显细胞毒性剂量(10.0~50.0 μg/ml)时即可抑制GJIC,并呈持续抑制作用,存在剂量-效应和时间-效应关系.ACN经代谢活化后,可加重对细胞GJIC的抑制作用和细胞受损程度,但在染毒12 h后停止接触,该作用在一定程度上可逆转.牛磺酸作为一种重要的抗氧化剂,预处理细胞(牛磺酸剂量为10和20 mmol/L)可明显抑制ACN对细胞GJIC的下调作用.结论 ACN在较高剂量时对CHL细胞具有毒性作用,但在无明显细胞损伤剂量时即能明显抑制细胞GJIC功能,该抑制作用在停止接触ACN或有抗氧化剂存在时可逆转,提示氧化应激在ACN所致细胞GJIC功能下调中具有重要作用.

  5. Effect of acrylonitrile on proliferation and differentiation of rat embryo spinal cord nerve cells in vitro%丙烯腈对体外培养大鼠胚胎脊髓神经细胞增殖分化的影响

    端礼荣; 吴全义; 陆荣柱

    2005-01-01

    目的研究丙烯腈(ACN)对体外培养的大鼠胚胎脊髓神经细胞增殖分化的影响.方法 16 d的大鼠胚胎脊髓组织作原代细胞培养,从细胞形态学及细胞计数观察研究细胞生长与分化过程,同时测定蛋白质含量和丙二醛(MDA)含量并与对照组进行比较.结果 10.0~100.0 mg/L ACN组明显抑制脊髓神经细胞分化、增殖、集落形成率明显减少,细胞体积小,细胞内MDA含量增加,蛋白质相对含量降低,并显示浓度效应关系.结论 ACN引起的大鼠胚胎脊髓神经细胞的增殖和分化抑制,可能与ACN诱发蛋白质合成下降和脂质过氧化物有关.

  6. Toughening of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites with rubber nanoparticles for advanced industrial applications

    N. G. Ozdemir; Zhang, T.; I. Aspin; Scarpa, F.; Hadavinia, H.; Song, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of nano carboxylic acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (CNBR-NP) and nano acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR-NP) on the interlaminar shear strength and fracture toughness of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) with dicyandiamide-cured epoxy matrix. The results show that nano-size dispersion of rubber significantly improved the Mode I delamination fracture toughness (GIC) of the CFRP by 250% and its Mode II delamination fracture toughness (GIIC) by...

  7. Development of a amidoxime resin for gallium recovering from Bayer liqueur

    Chelating resins have been prepared from acrylonitrile-divinylbenzene copolymer beads produced by suspension polymerization in in presence of an inert diluent. The copolymer beads were reacted with hydroxylamine to produce amidoxime groups in the repeating units derived from cyano groups (acrylonitrile), varied reaction conditions were employed. In this study, a set of experiments have been performed to determine the potential of the amidoxime chelating resin for the adsorption of gallium from Bayer liqueur. (author)

  8. Development of a amidoxime resin for gallium recovering from Bayer liqueur; Desenvolvimento de resinas amidoximicas para recuperacao de galio do licor de Bayer

    Coutinho, Fernanda M.B.; Magalhaes, Denise M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: fern@ima.ufrj.br; Avritscher, Waldemar [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Minas; Costa, Thais S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2000-07-01

    Chelating resins have been prepared from acrylonitrile-divinylbenzene copolymer beads produced by suspension polymerization in in presence of an inert diluent. The copolymer beads were reacted with hydroxylamine to produce amidoxime groups in the repeating units derived from cyano groups (acrylonitrile), varied reaction conditions were employed. In this study, a set of experiments have been performed to determine the potential of the amidoxime chelating resin for the adsorption of gallium from Bayer liqueur. (author)

  9. Styrene-Based Copolymer for Polymer Membrane Modifications

    Harsha Srivastava; Harshad Lade; Diby Paul; G. Arthanareeswaran; Ji Hyang Kweon

    2016-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was modified with a styrene-based copolymer. The crystalline behavior, phase, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the modified membranes were analyzed. The membrane surface roughness showed a strong dependence on the styrene-acrylonitrile content and was reduced to 34% for a PVDF/styrene-acrylonitrile blend membrane with a 40/60 ratio. The thermal and crystalline behavior confirmed the blend miscibility of both polymers. It was observed in X-ray diffr...

  10. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    Robson Fleming; Luiz Claudio Pardini; Nilton Alves; Elson Garcia; Carlos Brito Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN) which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC) by conventional suspensi...

  11. 丙烯腈对大鼠脑组织和神经胶质细胞中核因子-kB信号传导通路活性及相关基因表达的影响%Effects of acrylonitrile on the activation of nuclear factor-kB signaling pathways and related gene expression in rat brain and rat glial cells

    焦振泉; 裴晓燕; 郭云昌; 徐勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 丙烯腈(ACN)对大鼠脑组织和大鼠神经胶质细胞中核因子KB(NF-kB)信号传导通路活性及相关基因表达的影响.方法 利用micorarray和EMSA实验测定了SD大鼠经0和200mg/kg ACN分别作用14、28和90天后,大鼠脑组织NF-kB信号传导通路活性的变化及相关基因表达的变化;大鼠神经胶质细胞经0、25、50和75μg/ml ACN作用4和24h后细胞NF-kB信号传导通路活性的变化及相关基因表达的变化.结果 ACN促进大鼠脑组织(体内)和神经胶质细胞(体外)NF-kB信号传导通路相关基因(NIK、IKK、NF-kB1、NF-KB2、IkBa和c-myc)的表达.EMSA实验也进一步证实了ACN可激活大鼠脑组织和大鼠神经胶质细胞中NF-kB信号传导通路.结论 ACN诱导的氧化应激和ACN激活NF-kB信号传导通路具有一定的关系.

  12. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF MACRORETICULAR BEAD PAN/PVC IPN RESINS

    LI Yanfeng; ZHUO Renxi

    1993-01-01

    Macroreticular bead PAN/PVC IPN reans with cyano and chloro groups were synthesized by interpenetrating polymerization of acrylonitrile, or acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene into a macroporous polyvinyl chloride bead. The composition and structure of the bead IPN resins have been investigated by means of FT-IR, NMR, SEM, mercury porosimetry and elemental analysis. During the process of interpenetrating polymerization, the chain propagation obeys Bernoullian statistical law, and no grafting polymerization has been observed. The content of cyano group in the resulting IPN resins can be adjusted by the amount of acrylonitrile added. The morphology of the IPN resins basically resembles that of the polyvinyl chloride bead,whereas the pore structures vary to a certain degree

  13. (Z-3-(1H-Indol-3-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile

    Sean Parkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H18N2O3, the C=C bond of the acrylonitrile group that links the indole and the 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl rings has Z geometry, with dihedral angles between the plane of the acrylonitrile unit and the planes of the benzene and indole ring systems of 21.96 (5 and 38.94 (7°, respectively. The acrylonitrile group is planar (r.m.s. deviation from planarity = 0.037 Å. Molecules are linked into head-to-tail chains that propagate along the b-axis direction by bifurcated N—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which form an R12(5 motif between the indole NH group and the two methoxy O atoms furthest from the nitrile group.

  14. Regioselective Synthesis of Some Pyrazole Scaffolds Attached to Benzothiazole and Benzimidazole Moieties

    Nabila A. Kheder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylacetonitrile (1 or 2-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylacetonitrile (2 with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde afforded the corresponding acrylonitrile derivatives 3 or 4, respectively. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of the acrylonitrile 3 or 4 with nitrile-imine 6 gave novel pyrazole derivatives pendant to benzothiazole and benzimidazole. The pyrazoline derivative 7 was converted into the corresponding pyrazole derivative 11 via thermal elimination of hydrogen cyanide upon heating in sodium ethoxide solution. The structures of the synthesized products were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectral techniques.

  15. (Z-3-(1-Benzofuran-2-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile

    Sean Parkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H17NO4, the double bond of the acrylonitrile group separating the 1-benzofuran moiety from the 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring has Z geometry. The 1-benzofuran groups are π–π stacked with inversion-related counterparts such that the furan ring centroid–centroid distance is 3.804 (5 Å. The dihedral angle between the planes of the trimethoxyphenyl ring and the acrylonitrile group is 24.2 (2°.

  16. Thermosensitive copolymeric hydrogels with the regulated temperature of a phase transition

    The work is devoted to the methods of obtaining the thermosensitive copolymeric hydrogels based on the NIPAAm with acrylic acid and its derivatives such as acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and methylacrylate. The mechanisms of thermoinitiated phase transitions in hydrogel matrices and the regularities of the thermoinitiated release of model compounds and drugs (aniline, novocaine, and sodium diclofenac) from copolymeric hydrogel are investigated.

  17. Selective Oxidative Decarboxylation of Amino Acids to Produce Industrially Relevant Nitriles by Vanadium Chloroperoxidase

    But, A.; Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Wever, R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial nitriles from biomass: Vanadium-chloroperoxidase is successfully used to transform selectively glutamic acid into 3-cyanopropanoic acid, a key intermediate for the synthesis of bio-succinonitrile and bio-acrylonitrile, by using a catalytic amount of a halide salt. This clean oxidative dec

  18. Preparation of carboxy-group-contained polyvinyl alcohol amidoxime chelate fiber by preirradiation grafting and its adsorbability for Au(III) ions

    Carboxy-group-contained polyvinyl alcohol amidoxime chelate fiber (PVAAO-AAc) was synthesized by preirradiation graft copolymerization and amidoximation. The radiation dose and ratio of monomers, acrylonitrile and acrylic acid, influence the value of grafting rate, amidoxime group component and adsorption capacity. The properties of adsorbing Au(III) ions was systematic studied in the paper. (author)

  19. Анализ процесса получения сополимеров акрилонитрила в растворителях

    Осипенко, О. Н.; Харитонович, А. Г.; Щербина, Л. А.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. As a result of the work in the lab conditions is shown the possibility of production of fiber-forming tercopolymers of acrylonitrile with various acid comonomers. Is shown the possibility of replacement of imported 2- acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid on acrylic acid as well as toxic DMF on a more environmentally friendly DMSO.

  20. Media surface properties and the development of nitrifying biofilms in mixed cultures for wastewater treatment.

    Stephenson, Tom; Reid, E.; Avery, L. M.; Jefferson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Plastic was tested to select biofilm support media that would enhance nitrification in the presence of heterotrophs. Eight different types (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, nylon, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE), polyvinyl chloride and tufnol) were immersed in an aerobic fed-batch reactor receiving domestic settled wastewater. Nitrification rates did not correlate with biomass concentrations, nor surface roughness of the plastics as measured by atomi...

  1. 75 FR 14153 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice...

    2010-03-24

    ...; acrylonitrile; arsenic trioxide; benzene; bromine pentafluoride; butane; carbon dioxide; chlorine pentafluoride... Assessment Division (7403M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW..., 2009. Wendy C. Hamnett, Director, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. BILLING CODE 6560-50-S...

  2. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of polyacrylamide onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric (PE NWF) for phenol adsorption

    Polyethylene nonwoven fabric was functionalized using radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile by γ-rays from 60Co source. The simultaneous grafting technique was employed wherein the polyethylene fibers were irradiated in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of acrylonitrile dissolved in 1:1 water/methanol solvent. The effects of different grafting parameters to the grafting yield were evaluated. The optimum values of dose rate, absorbed dose and concentration of monomer were found to be 6kGy h-1, 25kGy and 10% w/w acrylonitrile, respectively. Using the optimum conditions, the degree of grafting of approximately 14% is achieved. The grafted polyethylene fibers were reacted with hydroxylamine to introduce amidoxime functional groups on the nonwoven fabric. The unmodified, grafted and functionalized fibers were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR - ATR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results of these tests confirmed the successful grafting of acrylonitrile and functionalization to amidoxime functional groups. The ability of the amidoximated grafted polyethylene to remove phenol from aqueous solutions was investigated. The results from Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detection (GC - FID) indicated that approximately 58% of the phenol was removed. (author)

  3. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart G of... - Organic HAP's Subject to the Wastewater Provisions for Process Units at New and Existing Sources...

    2010-07-01

    ... isobutyl ketone (Hexone) 108101 0.99 Methyl methacrylate 80626 0.98 Methyl tert-butyl ether 1634044 0.99... 107028 0.96 Acrylonitrile 107131 0.96 Allyl chloride 107051 0.99 Benzene 71432 0.99 Benzyl chloride...) 106898 0.91 Ethyl acrylate 140885 0.99 Ethylbenzene 100414 0.99 Ethyl chloride (Chloroethane) 75003...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11398 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    2010-07-01

    ... as defined at 40 CFR 70.2. Spin dope means the liquid mixture of polymer and solvent that is fed to... resulting reactor polymer solution (spin dope) is filtered and pumped directly to the fiber spinning process... synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 percent by weight of acrylonitrile units. Acrylic and...

  5. Stabilization of colour of woolenized jute by radiation chemical treatment

    The radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, acrylonitrile, and venylacetate onto jute to prevent yellowing of the jute by light is reported. Samples were irradiated with a 5000 C; gamma-source at 0.1 Mrad per hour

  6. Interlaboratory comparison of positron and positronium lifetimes in polymers

    Wastlund, C.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Maurer, F.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    used were a semi-crystalline linear polyethylene, an amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) and an amorphous copolymer of styrene-acrylonitrile. The results show that the ortho-positronium lifetimes and intensities agree fairly well between different laboratories, despite large differences in experimental...

  7. (E-2-Bromomethyl-3-(o-tolylacrylonitrile

    J. Kanchanadevi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound C11H10BrN, has an E conformation at the C=C bond of the acrylonitrile unit. The vinyl group makes a dihedral angle of 44.53 (12° with the benzene ring. In the crystal, weak C—H...π interactions involving the benzene ring are observed.

  8. Nanoclustered Palladium(0) Supported on a Gel-Type Poly-acrylonitrile–N,N-dimethylacrylamide–ethylenedimethacrylate Resin: Nanostructural Aspects and Catalytic Behaviour.

    De Zan, L.; Gasparovičová, D.; Králik, M.; Centomo, P.; Carraro, M.; Campestrini, S.; Jeřábek, Karel; Corain, B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 265, 1-2 (2007) , s. 1-8. ISSN 1381-1169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : gel-type resins * poly- acrylonitrile * hydtogenation and oxidation catalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.707, year: 2007

  9. 40 CFR 180.960 - Polymers; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    2010-07-01

    ... specified for defining a low-risk polymer in 40 CFR 723.250, as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical... Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer conforming to 21 CFR 180.22, minimum average molecular weight (in amu), 1,000... Federal Register citations affecting § 180.960, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  10. Powder diffraction in structural characterization of dienediaminoketones of the indolin-3-one series

    Vladimir V Chernyshev; Natalia S Monakhova

    2010-09-01

    Crystal structures of five derivatives of dienediaminoketones - 3-amino-3-(dimethylamino)-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)methyl]acrylonitrile (1); 3-amino-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2Hindol-2-ylidene)methyl]-3-pyperidin-1-ylacrylonitrile (2); 3-amino-3-morpholin-4-yl-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)methyl]acrylonitrile (3); 3-amino-3-[(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)methyl]acrylonitrile (4) and 3-amino-3-(benzylamino)-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)methyl]acrylonitrile (5) - were determined from powder patterns measured with the laboratory powder diffractometer. The single crystal structure of the hydrate of ethanol solvate of 3 - 3·0.33C2H6O·0.33H2O (3a) - is also presented. The hydrogen-bonding patterns of all compounds are discussed.

  11. Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide with isatin derivatives

    Radhey M. Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide, as an activated alkene, has seen little development due to its low reactivity. We have developed the reaction using isatin derivatives with acrylamide, DABCO as a promoter and phenol as an additive in acetonitrile. The corresponding aza version with acrylate and acrylonitrile has also been developed resulting in high product yields.

  12. Convenient method for 14C-labelling of a series of (E)-Styrylamidines as NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonist

    A series of (E)-Styrylamidines labeled with carbon-14 in the 1-position, were prepared from (E)-3-aryl-acrylonitrile-[cyano-14C] as a key synthetic intermediate which has been synthesized from E-β-aryl-vinyl iodides and zinc [14C]-cyanide in the presence of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium. (author)

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 126 Priority Pollutants A Appendix A to Part 423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND... Priority Pollutants 001Acenaphthene 002Acrolein 003Acrylonitrile 004Benzene 005Benzidine...

  14. Preparation and characterization of poly(lithium acrylate-arcylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes

    PAN Chun-yue; YUAN Yun-lan; CHEN Zhen-hua; XU Xian-hua; ZHANG Jian

    2005-01-01

    Through orthogonal experiment, a new type of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salt with optimum mole ratio of n(LiClO4):n(LiNO3):n(LiBr)=1.6:3.8:1.0 was prepared. The poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes were prepared with poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) and LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts. The effect of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts content on the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes was studied by alternating current impedance method, and the structures of eutectic salts and solid polymer electrolytes were characterized by differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The results show that the room temperature conductivity of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts reaches 3.11×10-4 S·cm-1. The poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes possess the highest room temperature conductivity at 70% LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts content, and exhibit lower glass transition temperature of 75 ℃ compared with that of poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) of 105 ℃. A complex may be formed in the solid polymer electrolytes from the differential thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction results show that the poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) can suppress the crystallization of eutectic salts in this system.

  15. Novel nanosized water soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimide fluorophores for potential biomedical applications: cell permeability, localization and cytotoxicity.

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Georgiev, Nikolai I; Dimov, Stefan M; Tzoneva, Rumiana; Detrembleur, Christophe; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Bojinov, Vladimir B

    2015-06-01

    Novel biocompatible water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVA-b-PAN) copolymers in the presence of synthesized fluorophores. Amphiphilic PVA-b-PAN copolymers were obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVAc-b-PAN) copolymer. The preparation of the novel fluorescence micelles consisting of PVA hydrophilic shell and PAN hydrophobic core with incorporated PDI fluorophores has been confirmed by DLS and TEM analysis. The cytotoxicity of the water-soluble fluorophores and their internalization into living cells depending on the micellar concentration have been tested. It was shown that they could successfully enter in living cells without destroying their morphology. The results obtained indicate that the novel water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded PDI fluorophores would be suitable for potential intracellular biomedical applications. PMID:25842102

  16. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.

    2013-06-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (αij) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, αeff, was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  17. Grafted wood pulp containing quaternary ammonium group and its application in the removal of different anions from aqueous solution

    Network wood pulp based on acrylonitrile has been chemically modified through different reactions to obtain group capable of anion exchange. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto wood pulp was carried out by using gamma-radiation 60Co. Factors affecting the grafting process e.g radiation dose and monomer concentration were investigated.The chemical modification of cyano groups were carried out by reaction with ethanol amine producing oxazoline group followed by quaternization of tertiary amine by reaction with benzyl chloride producing quaternary ammonium salt. The grafted and modified wood pulp were characterized by FTIR, SEM and TGA.Qualitative experiments of adsorption were conducted to evaluate the modified wood pulp on fixing sulfate, phosphate,nitrate and dichromate from aqueous solution using batch extractions. Based on the results obtained, it may be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically wood pulp containing cyano groups by different routes for its usage as anion exchanger

  18. Toughening of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites with rubber nanoparticles for advanced industrial applications

    N. G. Ozdemir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of nano carboxylic acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (CNBR-NP and nano acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR-NP on the interlaminar shear strength and fracture toughness of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP with dicyandiamide-cured epoxy matrix. The results show that nano-size dispersion of rubber significantly improved the Mode I delamination fracture toughness (GIC of the CFRP by 250% and its Mode II delamination fracture toughness (GIIC by 80% with the addition of 20 phr of CNBR-NP. For the NBR-NP system, the GIC and GIIC delamination fracture toughness of the CFRP were increased by 200 and 80% respectively with the addition of 20 phr (parts per hundred rubber of nano rubber to the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the fracture surface revealed that the toughening was mainly achieved by debonding of the nano rubber, crack path deflection and fibre bridging.

  19. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  20. Processing of polymer surfaces by laser radiation

    Kreutz, E. W.; Frerichs, H.; Stricker, J.; Wesner, D. A.

    1995-11-01

    The processing of polymer surfaces by laser radiation is investigated as a function of laser parameters (fluence, mode of operation) and processing variables (repetition rate, pulse number). Polymers under investigation are polyamide, polymethylmethacrylate, polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer, polybutadiene terephtalate, and polyoxymethylene, which are studied in air within different processing regimes such as modification of surface properties for subsequent metallization and removal of material for structuring of surface geometry. The metallization of polymers, which are pretreated by laser irradiation, wet chemical etching or plasma etching, is performed via electroplating and physical vapour deposition as a function of surface properties. The removal of polymers including non-thermal and thermal processes is done by direct processing techniques in the demagnification mode within one processing step. The diagnosis and the modelling of physical processes involved in tailoring the surface properties of polymers with laser radiation have to be implied to improve any application of these materials.

  1. Styrene-Based Copolymer for Polymer Membrane Modifications

    Harsha Srivastava

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF was modified with a styrene-based copolymer. The crystalline behavior, phase, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the modified membranes were analyzed. The membrane surface roughness showed a strong dependence on the styrene-acrylonitrile content and was reduced to 34% for a PVDF/styrene-acrylonitrile blend membrane with a 40/60 ratio. The thermal and crystalline behavior confirmed the blend miscibility of both polymers. It was observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments that the modified PVDF membranes show a drastic reduction in their crystallinity. The neat PVDF membrane has the highest degradation rate, which decreased with the addition of the styrene-based copolymer.

  2. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  3. Particle size tuning in silver-polyacrylonitrile nanocomposites

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver-polyacrylonitrile (Ag-PAN nanocomposites were in situ synthesized by simultaneous polymerization of acrylonitrile and reduction of silver ions, starting from mixtures of silver nitrate (AgNO3, acrylonitrile (AN, and UV photoinitiator (IN. The films obtained proved to be transparent and were characterized by a homogeneous dispersion of Ag nanoparticles within the PAN matrix without any macroscopic agglomeration. The particle size and number density were found to depend on both precursor salt and UV photoinitiator weight percentages. Optical and electrical properties were investigated as a function of both AgNO3 and IN amounts, too. We found that it is possible to finely tailor the metal nanoparticle size and number density and, consequently, the film optical and electrical response by adjusting the amounts of precursor salt and UV photoinitiator in the initial mixtures.

  4. Modification of the dyeing and finishing properties of polyester fabrics via gamma irradiation

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (ACN), styrene (S) and their binary mixtures with acrylamide onto polyester fiber by the direct method has been investigated. The effect of different factors that my influence the graft yield was studied to obtain the suitable conditions that improve the physical and chemical properties of polyester fabric. It was found that the solvent composition and comonomer mixture play an important role during graft copolymerization. The physical and chemical properties of the resulted graft copolymers were evaluated in terms of mechanical, thermal properties and dye ability with deferent classes of dyestuffs. The results revealed that the graft copolymerization enhances to a great extent the dye affinity particularly for basic dyes. Moreover, the thermal stability of polyester fabric was improved by graft copolymerization with polystyrene and the comonomer mixture of acrylonitrile and styrene.16 tabs.,44 figs.,86 refs

  5. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  6. Crystal structure of (E)-13-{4-[(Z)-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]phenyl}parthenolide methanol hemisolvate

    Narsimha Reddy Penthala; Shobanbabu Bommagani; Venumadhav Janganati; Sean Parkin; Crooks, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C33H35NO6 [systematic name: (Z)-3-(4-{(E)-[(E)-1a,5-dimethyl-9-oxo-2,3,7,7a-tetrahydrooxireno[2′,3′:9,10]cyclodeca[1,2-b]furan-8(1aH,6H,9H,10aH,10bH)-ylidene]methyl}phenyl)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylonitrile methanol hemisolvate], C33H35NO6·0.5CH3OH, was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylonitrile with parthenolide [systematic name: (E)-1a,5-dimethyl-8-methylene-2,3,6,7,7a,8,10a,10b-octahydrooxireno[2′,3′:9,10]cyclodeca[1,2...

  7. Treatment of Some Hazardous Industrial Pollutants by Simple Oxidation Techniques

    Central treatment of Industrial wastewater requires pretreatment of some specific pollutants which may be not effectively degraded in down stream processes in central treatment unit. Some of the hazardous pollutants in industrial wastewater including acrylonitrile, pesticides and some commonly used dyes (active and acid dyes) have been subjected individually to oxidation using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous ions in acidic solution. Treatment efficiency was monitored by chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using a specially developed concentration/COD curves. Initial concentrations (in terms of COD) were 910 PPM, 1348 and 530 ppm and the respective COD reductions were 91, 98 and 99%, for the pesticide, acrylonitrile and the reactive dye. Oxidative degradation of polared and acid green also reduced COD by 99 and 100% respectively. The obtained results confirm the appropriateness of oxidative degradation as a pretreatment for some hazardous pollutants prior to treatment in central facilities or municipal activated sludge stations

  8. Facile Synthesis of N-Tosyl Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Acrylamide via a Pd-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitrile to Amide

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Yu Mi; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    We developed an efficient palladium-catalyzed two-step protocol for the synthesis of N-tosyl aza-Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylamide. The method involved the preparation of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylonitrile and the following Pd-catalyzed hydration of nitrile with acetaldoxime. The Baylis-Hillman reaction, which involves the coupling of activated vinyl compounds with electrophiles under the catalytic influence of a tertiary amine, gives rise to adducts, so called Baylis-Hillman adducts, with a new stereocenter and has proven to be a very useful carbon-carbon bond-forming method in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules. As the activated vinyl compounds, various compounds have been used in the Baylis-Hillman reaction including acrylates, acrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, vinyl sulfones and acrylamides. However, among the activated vinyl compounds acrylamide has not been used much for the synthesis of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts due to its sluggish reactivity.

  9. Facile Synthesis of N-Tosyl Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Acrylamide via a Pd-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitrile to Amide

    We developed an efficient palladium-catalyzed two-step protocol for the synthesis of N-tosyl aza-Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylamide. The method involved the preparation of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylonitrile and the following Pd-catalyzed hydration of nitrile with acetaldoxime. The Baylis-Hillman reaction, which involves the coupling of activated vinyl compounds with electrophiles under the catalytic influence of a tertiary amine, gives rise to adducts, so called Baylis-Hillman adducts, with a new stereocenter and has proven to be a very useful carbon-carbon bond-forming method in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules. As the activated vinyl compounds, various compounds have been used in the Baylis-Hillman reaction including acrylates, acrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, vinyl sulfones and acrylamides. However, among the activated vinyl compounds acrylamide has not been used much for the synthesis of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts due to its sluggish reactivity

  10. Radiation Induced Crosslinking of Polyethylene in the Presence of Bifunctional Vinyl Monomers

    Joshi, M. S.; Singer, Klaus Albert Julius; Silverman, J.

    Several reports have been published showing that the radiation induced grafting of bifunctional vinyl monomers to low density polyethylene results in a product with an unusually high density of crosslinks. The same grafting reactions are shown to reduce the incipient gel dose by more than a factor...... of fifty. This paper is concerned with the apparent crosslinking produced by the radiation grafting of two monomers to polyethylene: acrylic acid and acrylonitrile....

  11. Development of a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive loaded with carbon nanotubes, for aluminium – polymer bonds

    Salinas-Ruiz , Maria del Mar

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the formulation of a ternary thermosetting adhesive which consists of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured with 3,3’-diamino diphenyl sulphone (3,3’-DDS) hardener and modified through the addition of carboxyl- terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Processing implications of the novel adhesive in the film form are considered in order to manufacture bonded specimens for characteris...

  12. Rheology of ABS and binary of organo clay nanocomposites; Reologia de nanocompositos de ABS e mistura binaria de argilas montmorilonita organofilicas

    Galvan, Danieli; Mazzucco, Mateus; Carneiro, Fabio; Bartoli, Julio R.; Morales, Ana Rita, E-mail: bartoli@unicamp.br [Fac. de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas-DTP/FEQ/UNICAMP-, SP (Brazil); D' Avila, Marcos A. [Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas - DEMA/FEM/UNICAMP, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clays by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder were prepared and characterized. It was studied the effects of screw torque and a binary mixture of organically modified montmorillonites on the intercalation/exfoliation of organoclays in the polymer matrix, characterized by X-ray diffraction morphological analyses and by capillary and parallel plates rheological analyses. (author)

  13. Rheology of ABS and binary of organo clay nanocomposites

    nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clays by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder were prepared and characterized. It was studied the effects of screw torque and a binary mixture of organically modified montmorillonites on the intercalation/exfoliation of organoclays in the polymer matrix, characterized by X-ray diffraction morphological analyses and by capillary and parallel plates rheological analyses. (author)

  14. PLR (Plastic Lithium Rechargeable) Batteries Using Nanoscale Materials: A Convenient Electrical Energy Power for the Future?

    J. M. Reau; J. Portier; Frison, J. C.; Deshayes, A.; C. Labrugere; Hwang, S Y; A. Poquet; Treuil, N.; Campet, G.; Choy, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    This communication describes the synthesis of: (i) non toxic and low cost nanocrystalline electrode materials which can be advantageously prepared at low temperature; (ii) highly conductive electrolyte membranes formed by the nano-encapsulation within a poly (acrylonitrile)-based polymer matrix of a solution of LiPF6 in organic solvants. The performances of rechargeable PLR (Plastic Lithium Rechargeable) batteries using the above mentioned components are presented.

  15. Study of the mechanical properties of recycled abs and recovery throught mixing with SEBS

    Peydro, M. A.; Juárez Varón, David; Samuel SANCHEZ-CABALLERO; Pla-Ferrando, R

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) through mixing with styrene-ethylene/butylene- styrene (SEBS) has been studied in this paper. To simulate recycled ABS, virgin ABS was processed through 5 cycles, at extreme processing temperatures, 220 oC and 260 oC. The virgin ABS, the virgin SEBS, the recycled ABS and the mixtures were mechanically characterized after the various cycles of reprocessing in order to evaluate their corresponding properties and correlate them with the...

  16. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge band...

  17. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  18. Functionalization of Magnetite Nanoparticles as Oil Spill Collector

    Atta, Ayman M.; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.; Sami A. Al-Hussain

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a new magnetic powder based on magnetite can be used as a petroleum crude oil collector. Amidoximes based on rosin as a natural product can be prepared from a reaction between hydroxylamine and rosin/acrylonitrile adducts. The produced rosin amidoximes were used as capping agents for magnetite nanoparticles to prepare hydrophobic coated magnetic powders. A new class of monodisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitat...

  19. Effects of melt blended poss nanofillers on pom and ABS thermal stability

    Vilà Ramírez, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis investigated the incorporation of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS) in thermoplastic base materials via melt-blending procedures. Particularly, a focus is taken on the enhancement of the thermal resistance through the addition of different types of POSS on two popular engineering plastics known by their low thermal stability, one being a semi-crystalline copolymer i.e. polyoxymethylene (POM) and the other an amorphous copolymer i.e. acrylonitrile butadiene styren...

  20. Investigation of the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene on oxide catalysts containing molybdenum and using the response method

    The response method has been used to study the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene on MoO3 and molybdenum oxide systems containing bismuth, silicon, and phosphorous ions. The response curves obtained for ammonia, propylene, CO2, acrolein, acrylonitrile in these systems are discussed and compared with individual molybdenum trioxide. It has been shown that the modifying action of ammonia on the catalyst surfaces determines the direction of the oxidative conversion of the propylene

  1. Entwicklung von Polymermembranen für die Abtrennung von Kohlendioxid aus Gasströmen

    Ballhorn, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of new polymers for selective separation of carbon dioxide with polymeric membranes is based upon the fact that amino groups in aqueous matrices facilitate the transportation of carbon dioxide. Therefore polymethacrylates and polyacrylates with different amino groups in side chains, polymers based on 4-vinylpyrridin and co-polymers of each with acrylonitrile were synthesised. Gas separation properties were tested for the gases H2, He, N2, O2, CO2 and CH4. The influence of the ...

  2. Вивчення епоксидних новолачних смол на основі карданолу та їх сумішей

    Yadav, Ranjana; Srivastava, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Cardanol-based novolac-type phenolic resin was synthesized with a mole ratio 1.0:0.5 of cardanol-toformaldehyde using a dicarboxylic acid catalyst such as succinic acid. The cardanol-based novolac-type phenolic resin may further be modified by epoxidation with epichlorohydrin excess at 393 K in a basic medium to duplicate the performance of such phenolic-type novolacs. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) has been studied by various researches with diglycidyl ether ...

  3. Développement des procédés "verts" pour modifier la surface d'ABS avant sa métallisation

    Magallon Cacho, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    The ABS is a copolymer formed by Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene used in industry whose surface can be coated with a metallic deposit. The traditional process for depositing metallic films in an auto-catalytic way is know as "Electroless", However, this process uses a sulfo-chromic mixture in the preliminary stage of the surface treatment containing Cr (VI) which is a toxic, polluting agent that needs to be replaced. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new surface modification procedures wi...

  4. Three-dimensional heterostructure of metallic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes as potential nanofiller

    Kim, Whi Dong; Huh, Jun Young; Ahn, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Beom; Lee, Dongyun; Hong, Suck Won; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the dimensionality of metallic nanoparticle-and carbon nanotube-based fillers on the mechanical properties of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer matrix was examined. ABS composite films, reinforced with low dimensional metallic nanoparticles (MNPs, 0-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs, 1-D) as nanofillers, were fabricated by a combination of wet phase inversion and hot pressing. The tensile strength and elongation of the ABS composite were increased by 39% and 6%, respe...

  5. Smart Card: Turning Point of Technology

    Abhishek Mahajan; Akash Verma; Dhruv Pahuja

    2014-01-01

    A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (icc) is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. Smart Cards are secure portable storage devices used for several applications especially security related ones involving access to system’s database either online or offline. Smart cards are made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes polyethylene terephthalate based polyesters, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene orpolycarbonate. This research is chie...

  6. Uses of 2-Ethoxy-4(3H) quinazolinone in Synthesis of Quinazoline and Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity: The Solvent Effect

    El-Hashash, Maher A.; Rizk, Sameh A.; El-Bassiouny, Fakhry A.; Darwish, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    2- Ethoxy-4(3H) quinazolinone 1 was synthesized and allowed to react with various halides, namely: alkyl, benzyl, allyl, acyl, haloacetyl, crotonyl, benzoyl, 2-furoyl and 1-naphthalenesulphonyl halides affording quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives. The reactions of compound 1 with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentasulfide, ethyl chloroformate, ethyl chloroacetate, α-bromoglucose tetraacetate, p-acylaminobenzenesulfonyl chloride, acrylonitrile, chalcone and chalcone oxide were also...

  7. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS) polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture ...

  8. Evaluation and comparison of routes to obtain pressure coefficients from high-pressure capillary rheometry data

    Cardinaels, Ruth; Van Puyvelde, Peter; Moldenaers, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A capillary rheometer equipped with a pressure chamber is used to measure the pressure-dependent viscosity of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), poly-alpha-methylstyrene-co-acrylonitrile (P alpha MSAN), and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Data analysis schemes are discussed to obtain pressure coefficients at constant shear rate and at constant shear stress. It is shown that the constant shear stress pressure coefficients have the advantage of being shear stress independent for the three polymers...

  9. Gamma radiation-processed bamboo-polymer composites. II. Mechanical properties, moisture content and water absorption characteristics

    Bamboo-polymer composites were prepared by vacuum-impregnation followed by in situ polymerization technique using four different bamboo species and a monomer system containing styrene, unsaturated polyester, acrylonitrile and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The polymerization was carried out by gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The composites were tested for mechanical properties, moisture content, water absorption and dimensional stability. The results are compared with those for the corresponding untreated bamboo samples [zero polymer loading] and are analyzed. 5 figures, 1 table

  10. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    2010-07-01

    ....37 Methyl tert-butyl ether 1634044 1.00 0.57 Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) 75092 1.00 0.77... Acrolein 107028 1.00 0.43 Acrylonitrile 107131 1.00 0.43 Allyl chloride 107051 1.00 0.89 Benzene 71432 1.00 0.80 Benzyl chloride 100447 1.00 0.47 Biphenyl 92524 0.86 0.45 Bromoform 75252 1.00 0.49...

  11. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ggg of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    2010-07-01

    ... Methyl tert-butyl ether 1634044 1.00 Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) 75092 1.00 Naphthalene 91203 0... Acrolein 107028 1.00 Acrylonitrile 107131 1.00 Allyl chloride 107051 1.00 Benzene 71432 1.00 Benzyl chloride 100447 1.00 Biphenyl 92524 0.86 Bromoform 75252 1.00 Butadiene (1,3-) 106990 1.00 Carbon...

  12. APPLICATION OF TIME-TEMPERATURE SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE TO EVALUATION OF SCATTERING INTENSITY EVOLUTION IN PHASE SEPARATION FOR PMMA/SAN BLENDS

    Mao Peng; Qiang Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Spinodal phase separation behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PMMA/SAN)blends was investigated by the time-resolved small angle light scattering (SALS) technique. It was found that the influence of temperature on the scattering intensity evolution followed the time-temperature superposition principle. The relationship between temperature and the relaxation time of scattering intensity I(t) can be well described by the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) function.

  13. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  14. Radiation Induced Crosslinking of Polyethylene in the Presence of Bifunctional Vinyl Monomers

    Joshi, M. S.; Singer, Klaus Albert Julius; Silverman, J.

    Several reports have been published showing that the radiation induced grafting of bifunctional vinyl monomers to low density polyethylene results in a product with an unusually high density of crosslinks. The same grafting reactions are shown to reduce the incipient gel dose by more than a facto...... of fifty. This paper is concerned with the apparent crosslinking produced by the radiation grafting of two monomers to polyethylene: acrylic acid and acrylonitrile....

  15. Electrografting of thin polymer films: Three strategies for the tailoring of functional adherent coatings

    Voccia, Samuel; Gabriel, Sabine; Serwas, Harry; Jérôme, Robert; Jérôme, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Cathodic electrografting is an efficient technique to impart adhesion to poly(meth)acrylate coatings onto inorganic conducting surfaces. Although this technique was restricted for many years to very few monomers ((meth)acrylonitrile and (meth)acrylates) and to deposition of very thin polymer films, recent developments have overcome these limitations. First of all, classical controlled/living polymerization techniques have been combined with cathodic electrografting as a powerful strategy for ...

  16. 40 CFR 60.489 - List of chemicals produced by affected facilities.

    2010-07-01

    ...) Linear alkyl sulfonate. 123-01-3 Linear alkylbenzene (linear dodecylbenzene). 110-16-7 Maleic acid. 108... acid. 108-24-7 Acetic anhydride. 67-64-1 Acetone. 75-86-5 Acetone cyanohydrin. 75-05-8 Acetonitrile. 98.... 79-10-7 Acrylic acid. 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile. 124-04-9 Adipic acid. 111-69-3 Adiponitrile. (b)...

  17. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS FOR 3D-PRINTING

    Є.О. Бовсуновський; Зінченко, Р. О.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the main materials used for 3D-printing. Particular attention is paid to the study of ecological and technological analysis of the effects of the most widely used material: Polylactic Acid and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, as well as their professional series and Nylon, Polyethylene Terephthalate, TPE on the environment. The article deals with the characteristic features of the physical properties of materials (material) for their intended purpose, according sharing al...

  18. The effect of exposure to different clastogens on the pattern of chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH whole chromosome painting in occupationally exposed individuals

    Beskid, Olena; Dušek, Zdík; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 594, - (2006), s. 20-29. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : occupational exposure * acrylonitrile * ethyl benzene Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  19. Pengaruh Tekanan Molding Pada Sifat-Sifat Plain Weave Komposit Thermoplastic

    Lilis Sukeksi

    2009-01-01

    Plain weave dibuat dengan cara menganyam prepreg yang dihasilkan dengan proses Pultrusion. Prepreg adalah komposit thermoplastic yang terbuat dari Acrylonitril Butadiena Stirena (ABS) dan fiber atau serat gelas.. Pengaruh tekanan molding pada sifat-sifat plain weave yang dihasilkan diamati. Sifat sifat yang diamati adalah fraksi berat fiber, fraksi ruang kosong, kekuatan tensil serta toughnessnya. Hasil yang diamati menunjukkan bahwa tekanan molding mempengaruhi sifat-sifat dari p...

  20. Synthesis of star and H-shape polymers via a combination of cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and nitrone-mediated radical coupling reactions

    Detrembleur, Christophe; Debuigne, Antoine; Altintas, Ozcan; Conradi, Matthias; Wong, Edgar H. H.; Jerome, Christine; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Junkers, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Via consecutive cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP), nitrone-mediated radical coupling (NMRC) and copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), polymers with mikto-arm star and H-shape architecture were synthesized. Poly(vinyl acetate)(40)-block-poly(acrylonitrile)(78)-Co(acac)(2) polymers were synthesized via CMRC and subsequently coupled using an alkyne functional nitrone. The coupling efficiency of the NMRC process was assessed employing N-tert-butyl alpha-phenyl nitrone (...

  1. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa

    1997-06-01

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch- g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 × 10 -1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency.

  2. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch-g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 x 10{sup -1} kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency. (author).

  3. 共聚物-深剂体系的气液平衡:新UNIFAC基团热力学模型与实验研究%Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Copolymer+solvent Systems:Experimental Data and Thermodynamic Modeling with New UNIFAC groups

    Rogério A.G. Sé; Martín Aznar

    2008-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE)data for copolymer solutions are necessary for several chemical processes.However,VLE data for copolymer solutions in the published report are rare.In this study.experimental VLE data for binary systems copolymer+solvent were obtained using a gravimetric-sorption apparatus.The studied systems were hexane+poly(21%acrylonitrile-co-butadiene),hexanc+poly(33%acrylonitrile-co-butadiene),hexane+poly(51%acrylonitrile-co-butadiene),hexanc+poly(23%styrene-co-butadiene),hexane+poly(45%styrene-co-butadiene),and benzene+poly(44%styrene-co-methyl methacrylate)in the range 50-70℃.The experimental data were correlated with the UNIFAC and Elbro-FV group contribution models for the activity coefficient.Two sets of functional groups had been used to represent the monomers in copolymers:literature groups and new proposed groups.The mean deviations between experimental and calculated mass fractions about 2.4%with ElbroFV and 13.3%witll Zhong were observed when the groups proposed in this study were USed.and of 3.5%for E1bro-FV and 13.2%for Zhong when literature groups were used.

  4. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch-g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 x 10-1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency. (author)

  5. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    Robson Fleming

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC by conventional suspension polymerization process via redox system, with an initial content of 10%/mass of the VDC monomer. The copolymer average molecular weight was obtained by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and by intrinsic viscosity analysis. To control the polymerization process continuously, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chloride content in the PAN AN/VDC copolymer structure was accomplished by using X-ray fluorescence and potentiometric titration techniques. A good correlation was found between these two techniques, leading to a straightforward verification of VDC in the polymer structure. The thermal behavior of PAN AN/VDC copolymer was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The results showed that VDC monomers exhibited a nearly stoichiometric reaction with acrylonitrile, copolymerizing about 90% of its initial mass. VDC changed significantly the polyacrylonitrile thermal behavior, decreasing the polymer degradation temperature by about 40-50°C.

  6. Use of anions of C{sub 60} as electrogenerated bases

    Niyazymbetov, M.E.; Evans, D.H. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1995-08-01

    C{sub 60} was reduced in the mixed solvent acetonitrile-toluene (2:3) to form a series of three electrogenerated bases of successively increasing basicity. These were the radical anion, the dianion, and the radical trianion of the fullerene. Cyclic voltammograms indicated that the radical anion was capable of deprotonating the relatively strong C-H acid, ethyl nitroacetate. The weaker acid, diethyl malonate, required the stronger base C{sub 60}{sup 2{minus}} in order to observe deprotonation on the voltammetric time scale. Other weak acids that react with C{sub 60}{sup 2{minus}} include diethyl methylalonate, 2-nitropropane, and n-octanethiol. The anionic electrogenerated bases were used to carry out efficient base-catalyzed synthetic reactions. These included the C{sub 60}{sup {minus}{sm_bullet}}-catalyzed reaction of ethyl nitroacetate with ethyl acrylate and acrylonitrile to form double addition products. The dianion promoted reaction of nitromethane with ethyl acrylate to form a triple addition product in good yield, as well as the reaction of diethyl malonate with acrylonitrile to give a double addition product. In this case it was demonstrated that the fullerene probase may be recycled at least two times. The dianion was also used to catalyze the addition of n-octanethiol to styrene oxide. The reactions of still weaker acids could be promoted by the highly basic C{sub 60}{sup 3{minus}}. These included the addition of pyrrole to acrylonitrile and the Wittig-Horner reaction of diethyl benzylphosphonate with benzaldehyde.

  7. Graft copolymerization of acrylo–nitrile onto delignified native bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris cellulosic and its utilization potential for heavy metal uptake from aqueous medium

    M.O. EKEBAFE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto delingnified cellulosic material obtained from Nigeria grown bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris could be initiated by a ceric ammonium nitrate redox system. Optimization of grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material was performed by varying the reaction conditions, such as the duration of soaking of cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution, concentration of ceric ammonium nitrate solution, polymerization time, temperature of reaction, and acrylonitrile concentration and saponification time, in order to study their influence on percent grafting yield and grafting efficiency. The resulting cellulosic-g-polyacrylonitrile (PAN copolymers were fractionated by extraction at 33 C with N,N’-dimethylformamide. Fractions were characterized by determining both the % add-on and the free polymer. Saponification of grafted copolymer was done by reaction with sodium hydroxide followed by methanol precipitation. The absorbent polymer so produced gave fair water retention values. The optimum reaction conditions obtained were: 20 mmol/L ceric ammonium nitrate solution in 1% nitric acid, soaking duration of 0.5 h at 40 C for a polymerization time of 2 h and saponification time of 3 h. The percent grafting was 167.89%, grafting efficiency was 93.52% and water retention value was 389 g/g. The grafting was confirmed using FTIR. Sorption of different metal ions in the mixture, e.g. Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb, by grafted cellulosic and the hydrogel was also investigated. Hydrolysis increases the sorption affinity of grafted cellulose toward water and metal ions.

  8. Experimental study on nanofiltration treatment of high-concentration acryionitrile industrial wastewater%纳滤处理高浓度丙烯腈工业废水的实验研究

    李薇; 展侠; 李继定; 郑冬菊

    2011-01-01

    The existing treatment technologies for high concentration acrylonitrile industrial wastewater are unsatisfactory. Aiming at the high concentration acrylonitrile industrial wastewater, the flocculation effects of five different flocculants were experimented by flocculation and nanofiltration processing. The optimal flocculant and amount were chosen, and the effect of nanofiltration was investigated. About 20% CODCr in the wastewater was removed through the flocculation process, and about 70% CODCr was removed through nanofiltration process. After nanofiltration in twice, the colourity and turbidity of wastewater come up to standard, which is very important for the circulating utilization of acrylonitrile industrial wastewater.%高浓度丙烯腈工业废水的处理技术在工业生产中都不理想,针对高浓度丙烯腈工业废水,采用絮凝和纳滤进行处理,测试了5种不同的絮凝剂的絮凝效果,选择最佳的絮凝剂及其用量,考察了纳滤处理高浓度丙烯腈废水的效果.经过絮凝过程除去废水中约20%的CODcr,纳滤过程除去约70%的CODcr,经过二次纳滤,废水出水色度、浊度已经达到出水指标,为实现丙烯腈生产中工业废水的绿色循环利用和零排放奠定了基础.

  9. Influence of Layer Thickness and Raster Angle on the Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed PEEK and a Comparative Mechanical Study between PEEK and ABS

    Wenzheng Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM is a rapidly growing 3D printing technology. However, printing materials are restricted to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS or poly (lactic acid (PLA in most Fused deposition modeling (FDM equipment. Here, we report on a new high-performance printing material, polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK, which could surmount these shortcomings. This paper is devoted to studying the influence of layer thickness and raster angle on the mechanical properties of 3D-printed PEEK. Samples with three different layer thicknesses (200, 300 and 400 μm and raster angles (0°, 30° and 45° were built using a polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK 3D printing system and their tensile, compressive and bending strengths were tested. The optimal mechanical properties of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK samples were found at a layer thickness of 300 μm and a raster angle of 0°. To evaluate the printing performance of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK samples, a comparison was made between the mechanical properties of 3D-printed polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS parts. The results suggest that the average tensile strengths of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK parts were 108% higher than those for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, and compressive strengths were 114% and bending strengths were 115%. However, the modulus of elasticity for both materials was similar. These results indicate that the mechanical properties of 3D-printed polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK are superior to 3D-printed ABS.

  10. Radiation graft modification of ethylene-propylene rubber. Pt. 2. Effect of additives

    The effect of multifunctional acrylic additives including TMPTA, PEGDA and PGTA on the radiation grafting of hydrophilic vinyl monomers onto ethylene-propylene elastomer (EPM rubbers) was studied. This work centres upon gamma irradiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AAm), N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto EPM rubber by the simultaneous method. Water proved to be an effective solvent but methanol lowered grafting. Sulphuric acid was detrimental to both homopolymerisation and grafting, a result consistent with the theory proposed for the role of this additive in polymer grafting systems. (author)

  11. Radiation graft modification of ethylene-propylene rubber—II. Effect of additives

    Haddadi-Asl, V.; Burford, R. P.; Garnett, J. L.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of multifunctional acrylic additives including TMPTA, PEGDA and PGTA on the radiation grafting of hydrophilic vinyl monomers onto ethylene—propylene elastomer (EPM rubbers) was studied. This work centres upon gamma irradiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AAm), N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto EPM rubber by the simultaneous method. Water proved to be an effective solvent but methanol lowered grafting. Sulphuric acid was detrimental to both homopolymerisation and grafting, a result consistent with the theory proposed for the role of this additive in polymer grafting systems.

  12. Overseas chemical industry Hand book

    This book introduces overseas chemical industry, which deals with General chemistry on economic view in the world and prospect and current situation over chemical industry, organic chemistry material on production and demand such as petrochemistry, Energy Supply, Ethylene, Propylene, BTX, Ethylene glycol, Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Vinyl Acetate Monomer, PVA, Acrylonitrile, Acrylic esters, Propylene oxide, Propylene Glycol, PPG, Phenol, Acetone, Isopropyl Alcohol, Butanol, Octanol, Methanol, Formalin, Caprolactam Cyclohexane, PTA/DMT, Polyisocyanate, MEK/MIBK, 1.4-BG/THF, Phthalic anhydride and Maleic Anhydride.

  13. Preparation of amidoximated polymer composite based on CMK-3 for selective separation of uranium from aqueous solutions

    The ability of amidoximated mesoporous carbon (AO/CMK-3) by in situ polymerizing acrylonitrile onto the surface of mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and reducing with hydroxylamine hydrochloride had been explored for the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. The monolayer maximum capacity of AO/CMK-3 was improved from 69.20 of CMK-3 to 238.7 mg/g at 298 K. Calculated thermodynamic parameters showed endothermic property of the adsorption process, while kinetic parameters indicated that the interaction followed pseudo-second kinetic model. Selective separation of U(VI) from effluent by AO/CMK-3 was achieved. (author)

  14. Reaction Mechanism for Ammonia Activation in the Selective Ammoxidation of Propene on Bismuth Molybdates

    Pudar, Sanja; Goddard, William A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report quantum mechanical studies (using the B3LYP flavor of density functional theory) for various pathways of ammonia activation on bismuth molybdates, a process required for ammoxidation of propene to acrylonitrile. Using a Mo_3O_9 cluster to model the bulk surface, we examined the activation of ammonia by both fully oxidized (MoIV) and reduced (Mo^(IV)) molybdenum sites. Our results show that ammonia activation does not take place on the fully oxidized Mo(VI) sites. Here...

  15. OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATIONS OF REVERSE-FLOW CYCLONES

    Guogang; Sun; Jianyi; Chen; Mingxian; Shi

    2005-01-01

    An optimum design approach to reverse-flow cyclones based on the concept of optimizing cyclone dimensions is introduced in this paper. This approach involves optimizing cyclone dimensions by categories, calculating cyclone performance by correlating similitude numbers and optimizing the combination of four cyclone parameters, D, KA,(-d- and vi, which has been proven to be applicable not only for single-stage cyclone, but also for multistage cyclone separators. Applications of the designed cyclones in FCC units and acrylonitrile reactors are also presented.

  16. Substrate-controlled switchable asymmetric annulations to access polyheterocyclic skeletons.

    Wang, Kai-Kai; Wang, Pan; Ouyang, Qin; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2016-09-25

    An unexpected domino process from Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates of isatins and acrylate and α-cyano-α,β-unsaturated ketones to deliver highly enantioenriched tetrahydrofuro[2',3':4,5]pyrano[2,3-b]indoles catalysed by cinchona-derived tertiary amines, involving α-regioselective cyclopropanation, ring-opening, and ring-closure cascade reactions, was disclosed. In contrast, spirooxindoles incorporating a cyclopentene motif were produced through [3+2] annulations by employing Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates from isatins and acrylonitrile under similar catalytic conditions. Density functional theory calculations were conducted to elucidate the novel domino process and the switchable annulation reactions. PMID:27546091

  17. 2-Methyl-3-{4-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethylamino]phenyl}-3H-quinazolin-4-one

    Helen P. Kavitha; Subramaniyan Arulmurugan

    2010-01-01

    This present work aims at synthesizing a novel tetrazole from quinazolinone. 3-(4-Aminophenyl)-2-methyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one is converted into a nitrile by reacting it with acrylonitrile and triton B. The nitrile on treatment with NaN3, NH4Cl and DMF yielded the corresponding tetrazole. The tetrazole obtained was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, EI-MS and elemental analysis. The compound was screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and A...

  18. Crosslinked blends and coextruded films by electron beam

    Vallat, M.F. [Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces - CNRS UPR 9069 15, rue Jean Starcky BP 2488-68057 and UHA - Mulhouse Cedex (France)]. E-mail: marie-france.vallat@uha.fr; Marouani, S. [Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces - CNRS UPR 9069 15, rue Jean Starcky BP 2488-68057 and UHA - Mulhouse Cedex (France); Perraud, S. [Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces - CNRS UPR 9069 15, rue Jean Starcky BP 2488-68057 and UHA - Mulhouse Cedex (France); Mendoza Patlan, N. [CIQA-Saltillo Croahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of polymer blends and coextruded films of hydrogenated copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (HNBR) and polyethylene-co-octene (PE-co-O) are considered before and after electron beam crosslinking. It is known that the properties are depending not only on the crosslinks in the bulk of the polymers but also on that created in the interfacial domain. It is however very difficult to have direct evidence of the interfacial crosslinks. Moreover the two polymers are not compatible and the addition of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer as a potential polymer compatibiliser is considered.

  19. Effect of Pd ions in the chemical etching solution

    Guixiang Wang; Ning Li; Deyu Li

    2007-01-01

    The acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surface was etched by dipping it into chromic acid-sulfuric acid containing a trace amount of palladium. The surface roughness, activity, and valence bond were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that with the increase of Pd concentration in the etching solution the ABS surface roughness reduced. The ratio of O to C increases and forms a large amount of O=C-O functional groups by dipping into Pd contained etching solution, thus the amount of colloids palladium adsorption increases. The carboxyl group acts as the adsorption site for the Pd/Sn catalyst.

  20. Modification of polymer membranes for lipase immobilization and application of lipase-membrane bioreactors%固定化脂肪酶聚合物膜的改性及脂肪酶膜反应器的应用

    彭立凤; 刘新喜; 杨国营; 高文玲; 谭天伟

    2001-01-01

    综述了在聚合物膜上固定化脂肪酶的方法及脂肪酶膜反应器的应用.重点讨论了纤维素膜、聚丙烯腈膜和聚砜膜表面的化学改性途径及其与脂肪酶的偶联方法.%The immobilization of lipases onto polymer membranes and the applications of lipase-membrane bioreactors were reviewed. The chemical modification of cellulose, acrylonitrile polymer and polysulfone membranes and their binding with lipase was especially discussed.

  1. Crosslinked blends and coextruded films by electron beam

    Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of polymer blends and coextruded films of hydrogenated copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (HNBR) and polyethylene-co-octene (PE-co-O) are considered before and after electron beam crosslinking. It is known that the properties are depending not only on the crosslinks in the bulk of the polymers but also on that created in the interfacial domain. It is however very difficult to have direct evidence of the interfacial crosslinks. Moreover the two polymers are not compatible and the addition of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer as a potential polymer compatibiliser is considered

  2. A low-cost lead-acid battery with high specific-energy

    S K Martha; B Hariprakash; S A Gaffoor; D C Trivedi; A K Shukla

    2006-01-01

    Lightweight grids for lead-acid battery grids have been prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) copolymer followed by coating with lead. Subsequently, the grids have been electrochemically coated with a conductive and corrosion-resistant layer of polyaniline. These grids are about 75% lighter than those employed in conventional lead-acid batteries. Commercial-grade 6V/3.5Ah (C20-rate) lead-acid batteries have been assembled and characterized employing positive and negative plates constituting these grids. The specific energy of such a lead-acid battery is about 50 Wh/kg. The batteries can withstand fast charge-discharge duty cycles.

  3. Mechanical aspects of nitrile hydratase enzymatic activity. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of Pseudonocardia thermophila JCM 3095

    Peplowski, L.; Kubiak, K.; Nowak, W.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase), an important biotechnological enzyme, has been investigated using a steered molecular dynamics computer modelling for the first time. An external force applied to the docked ligands was used to determine transport paths for acrylonitrile (substrate) and acrylamide (product). The average drag force of 120 pN within the enzyme channel is 50% higher than that in model water. The major hindrance of 500 pN is generated by βPhe37 residue. This region may be responsible for the stereoselectivity of NHases.

  4. Radiation induced grafting of monomers onto natural rubber : processes and applications

    Full text: Certain inherent mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) can be modified by grafting vinyl monomers onto the polymer backbone. This paper described the gamma radiation induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), styrene and acrylonitrile (AN) onto NR. The graft copolymers can be crosslinked by sulphur and organic accelerators. The crosslinked graft copolymers show improved modulus and hardness in their films compared to NR. However the tensile strength of the films is reduced by grafting. The methods for preparing the graft copolymers, their properties and applications are briefly described

  5. Process for the recovery and separation of plastics

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Pomykala Jr., Joseph A.

    2003-07-29

    A method of separating a portion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) from a mixture containing ABS and for separating a portion of ABS and polycarbonate (PC) from a mixture of plastics containing ABS and PC is disclosed. The method includes shredding and/or granulating the mixture of plastics containing ABS and PC to provide a selected particle size; sequentially dispersing the shredded mixture of plastics in a series aqueous solutions having different specific gravities and separating the floating fraction until the desired separation is obtained. Surface tension and pH are also variable to be controlled.

  6. Toughening of thermosetting polyimides

    Gollob, D. S.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Work directed toward increasing the resistance to crack propagation of thermoset polyimides is described. Rubber modification and Teflon microfiber impregnation techniques for increasing fracture toughness are investigated. Unmodified Kerimid 601 has a fracture surface work value of 0.20 in-lbs/sq in. Dispersed particles of amine terminated butadiene acrylonitrile liquid rubber or of silicone rubber do not raise this value much. By contrast, 5 percent of well fibrillated Teflon produces an eight-fold increase in fracture toughness. Further process improvements should increase this factor to 20-30.

  7. Sensitive on-chip methane detection with a cryptophane-A cladded Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Dullo, Firehun Tsige; Lindecrantz, Susan; Jagerska, Jana; Hansen, Jørn H; Engqvist, Stig Olov Magnus; Solbø, Stian; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2015-01-01

    Published version. Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.031564. We report a methane sensor based on an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which is cladded by a styrene-acrylonitrile film incorporating cryptophane-A. Cryptophane-A is a supramolecular compound able to selectively trap methane, and its presence in the cladding leads to a 17-fold sensitivity enhancement. Our approach, based on 3 cm-long low-loss Si3N4 rib waveguides, results in a detection limit as low as 17 ppm. Thi...

  8. Adsorption of hazardous ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter

    Othman, Sameh H. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt)]. E-mail: othman_sameh@yahoo.com; Sohsah, Mustfa A. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt); Ghoneim, Mohammad M. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt); Sokkar, Hesham H. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Badawy, Sayed M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Anadouli, Bahgat E. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    A cloth filter was synthesized by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacylic acid (AN/MAA {approx}80%/20% molar ratio) onto cotton cloth using a radiation-induced technique followed by amidoximation reaction. The fate of adsorption of radionuclide (e.g. U(VI)) on chelating cloth filter (CCF) from radioactive waste was investigated. The adsorption ability of the CCF increases as pH increases from 6 to 10. The predominant composition of the resulting complex was determined. A chemical adsorption mechanism was confirmed by examining the relationships between the adsorbed amount of radionuclide and the contact time.

  9. Adsorption of hazardous ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter

    A cloth filter was synthesized by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacylic acid (AN/MAA ∼80%/20% molar ratio) onto cotton cloth using a radiation-induced technique followed by amidoximation reaction. The fate of adsorption of radionuclide (e.g. U(VI)) on chelating cloth filter (CCF) from radioactive waste was investigated. The adsorption ability of the CCF increases as pH increases from 6 to 10. The predominant composition of the resulting complex was determined. A chemical adsorption mechanism was confirmed by examining the relationships between the adsorbed amount of radionuclide and the contact time

  10. The effects of hazardous ions adsorption on the morphological and chemical properties of reactive cloth filter

    Othman, Sameh H. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)], E-mail: othman_sameh@yahoo.com; Sohsah, Moustfa A.; Ghoneim, Mohammad M. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    Reactive cloth filter is fabricated by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacrylic acid onto cotton cloth, using mutual irradiation technique and the subsequent amidoximation of the reactive intermediate nitrile groups. The incorporation of the amidoxime/carboxyl groups was confirmed by different techniques. The effect of the hazardous ions chelation from radioactive waste on the morphological and chemical structure was studied. The cloth filter possessed good morphological and chemical stability suitable for practical use. The fabricated cloth filter can be used for low-level radioactive waste treatments.

  11. The effects of hazardous ions adsorption on the morphological and chemical properties of reactive cloth filter

    Reactive cloth filter is fabricated by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacrylic acid onto cotton cloth, using mutual irradiation technique and the subsequent amidoximation of the reactive intermediate nitrile groups. The incorporation of the amidoxime/carboxyl groups was confirmed by different techniques. The effect of the hazardous ions chelation from radioactive waste on the morphological and chemical structure was studied. The cloth filter possessed good morphological and chemical stability suitable for practical use. The fabricated cloth filter can be used for low-level radioactive waste treatments.

  12. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture load information at very high speed from the impact tests.

  13. Cooling simulation of plastic injection molding

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the cooling of mold and plastic part during injectionmolding and the continued cooling of plastic part after being ejected from mold using the heat transfer theory and Boundary Element Method (BEM) to predict the temperature distribution in both mold and plastic part,and presents the experiments carried out with plates of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) to verify the validity of the cooling analysis software used to simulate the temperature distribution in ABS plate parts, and concludes that the analysis software agree qualitatively well with actual experimental findings.

  14. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  15. Reinforcement of hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile-butadiene rubber by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HXNBR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were prepared. The dispersion of MWCNT in HXNBR matrix was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. HXNBR/MWCNT composite had shorter scorch time and optimum curing time compared with that of unfilled HXNBR. The tensile strength and modulus of HXNBR/MWCNT composites increased with increasing MWCNT content. Mooney-Rivlin equation was used to describe the stress-strain behavior of unfilled HXNBR and the strain amplification factor was taken into account for HXNBR/MWCNT composites. The Mullins effect and dynamic mechanical properties of HXNBR/MWCNT composite were also investigated.

  16. Triphenylphosphine-Catalyzed Michael Addition of Alcohols to Acrylic Compounds

    LIU, Hai-Ling; JIANG, Huan-Feng; WANG, Yu-Gang

    2007-01-01

    A facile triphenylphosphine-catalyzed Michael addition of alcohols to acrylic compounds was described. The reaction was carried out in open air at refluxing temperature in the presence of 10 mol% PPh3. Michael addition of saturated and unsaturated alcohols to acrylonitrile or acrylates has been examined. The reaction gaveβ-alkoxy derivatives with isolated yields of 5%-79%. PPh3 is cheaper and more stable than those trialkylphosphines previously used for the similar reactions, and the products can be easily separated from the reaction mixture via distillation.

  17. Characterization of nanoclays dispersion in NBR nanocomposites by X-ray diffractograms

    The main objective of this work is the study of nanoclays dispersion in NBR nanocomposites by X-ray diffraction. Nitrile rubbers NBR 3330 and NBR 3350 were used, both with 33%wt of acrylonitrile and with different Mooney viscosity. The nanoclays were bentonite, organically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30BR) and sodic montmorillonite. The results showed that the intercalation state of the filler had influence of both, the type of treatment at which clay was submitted and the molar mass of the polymer. (author)

  18. Preparation and physical properties of grafted bagasse pulp metal complexes

    The effect of grafting on the electrical properties of bleached bagasse pulp has been investigated over a frequency range 1-200 Khz. The conductivity increases upon grafting with acrylic acid or acrylonitrile. Grafted bleached bagasse pulp with acrylic acid showed an increase in the dielectric constant ε and dielectric loss ε. The bagasse/acrylic acid copolymer metal complexes have shown further increase in the conductivity. The conductivity decreases as the degree of grafting increased from 25% to 215%, indicating slower rate of complexation at higher grafting percentage

  19. 3D‐Printing inside the Glovebox: A Versatile Tool for Inert‐Gas Chemistry Combined with Spectroscopy

    Lederle, Felix; Kaldun, Christian; Namyslo, Jan C.; Hübner, Eike G.

    2016-01-01

    3D‐Printing with the well‐established ‘Fused Deposition Modeling’ technology was used to print totally gas‐tight reaction vessels, combined with printed cuvettes, inside the inert‐gas atmosphere of a glovebox. During pauses of the print, the reaction flasks out of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene were filled with various reactants. After the basic test reactions to proof the oxygen tightness and investigations of the influence of printing within an inert‐gas atmosphere, scope and limitations o...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane–polyacrylonitrile interpenetrating polymer networks

    P Mallu; Siddaramaiah; R Somashekar

    2000-10-01

    A series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of castor oil based polyurethane/polyacrylonitrile (PU/PAN: 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80) were synthesized by condensation reaction of castor oil with methylene diisocyanate and acrylonitrile, employing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDM) as initiator and crosslinkers respectively. The physical, chemical, optical and some of the mechanical properties of PU/PAN were studied. Phase stabilization in IPNs was investigated by wide angle X-ray (WAXS) profile analysis. Variation of crystal size distribution was studied in these polymer networks.

  1. Solid state support for the synthesis of [1-11C]-putrescine

    A novel solid state support was demonstrated using [11C]-HCN for the radiosynthesis of [1-11C]-putrescine by the Michael addition reaction to acrylonitrile. The silica gel support allowed near quantitative trapping of the [11C]-HCN and its efficient use under anhydrous conditions. The absence of water during the addition reaction eliminated by-product formation and reduced the overall synthesis and purification time required for the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical. A radiochemical yield of 53 ± 4 was achieved for purified product within 40 min of EOB. The process can be automated for the routine synthesis of [1-11C]-putrescine radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  2. Production of super-smooth articles

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  3. Polymeric materials for photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen production

    Abdel-Aal, H.K. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (SA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Hassan, H.H. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Mohamed, M.A.; Khairy, S.A. (National Research Center, Cairo (EG). Dept. of Solar Energy)

    1991-01-01

    Some filled-polymeric materials were selected and the properties of their electrical conduction were examined in order to investigate the possibility of using them as semiconductor electrodes for hydrogen production in photoelectrochemical cells (PEC). The activation energy and the corresponding wavelength are calculated for the polymeric materials proposed in the study. As a result, mixtures of butadiene acrylo-nitrile rubber (BNR) and polychloroprene (PCP) to which ZnO is added, proved to be potential candidates for making semiconductor electrodes for PEC used in hydrogen production. (Author).

  4. Short Fibre and Particulate-reinforced Rubber Composites

    Kavita Agarwal

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Particulate fillers (carbon black and silica and short fibre (aromatic polyamide, Kevlar have been utilised to produce rubber composites based on acrylonitrile-co-butadiene rubber (NBR. Mechanical properties of these composites have been determined and compared with unfilled rubber vulcanisate. The effect of surface treatment on the improvement of strength, in case of Kevlar, has also been considered. The influence of elevated temperature on tear strength, an important failure criterion, has been evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy has been used as a tool to correlate the topographical features associated with changes in the tear strength of the composites.

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of the selective oxidation of primary aliphatic alcohols under phase transfer catalysis

    K. Bijudas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of the oxidation of primary aliphatic alcohols has been carried out using phase transferred monochromate in benzene. Tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB are used as phase transfer catalysts (PT catalyst. The reaction shows first order dependence on both [alcohol] and [monochromate ion]. The oxidation leads to the formation of corresponding aldehyde and no traces of carboxylic acid has been detected. The reaction mixture failed to induce the polymerization of added acrylonitrile which rules out the presence radical intermediates in the reaction. Various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and a suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  6. Cross metathesis of unsaturated epoxides for the synthesis of polyfunctional building blocks

    Meriem K. Abderrezak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross metathesis of 1,2-epoxy-5-hexene (1 with methyl acrylate and acrylonitrile was investigated as an entry to the synthesis of polyfunctional compounds. The resulting cross metathesis products were hydrogenated in a tandem fashion employing the residual ruthenium from the metathesis step as the hydrogenation catalyst. Interestingly, the epoxide ring remained unreactive toward this hydrogenation method. The saturated compound resulting from the cross metathesis of 1 with methyl acrylate was transformed by means of nucleophilic ring-opening of the epoxide to furnish a diol, an alkoxy alcohol and an amino alcohol in high yields.

  7. Homoconjugation vs. Exciton Coupling in Chiral α,β-Unsaturated Bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane Dinitrile and Carboxylic Acids

    Gintautas Bagdžiūnas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The chiroptical properties of enantiomerically pure bicyclo[3.3.1]nona-2,6-diene-2,6-dicarbonitrile and related acids were studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy and theoretical computations. A consideration of the molecular structure of the synthesized difunctional compounds revealed that chromophores are predisposed to transannular through-space interaction due to a favourable conformation of the bicyclic skeleton and a rather small interchromophoric distance. Evidence for non-exciton-type coupling between the two acrylonitrile and acrylate moieties in 3 and 4, respectively, was obtained by chiroptical spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

  8. Surface quality in rapid prototype MMD process

    Lisandro Vargas Henríquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises a Manufacturing Materials and Processes MSc thesis written for the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Department. The paper shows the interaction of process, gap (deposition distance and extursion terminal velocity modelled process parameters for CEIF's (Centro de Equipos Interfacultades rapid prototype molten material deposit (MMD Titan SH-1 machine by analysing prototupes improved surface quality and resistence to tension and characterising material. The project applies experimental design criteria for orientating the selection of experimental process parameters. Acrylonitrile-buttadin-styrene (ABS had alredy been mechanically and physicochemically characterised (i.e the material used in the MMD process.

  9. A -cyanostilbene-modified Schiff base as efficient turn-on fluorescent chemosensor for Zn2+

    Aixiang Ding; Fang Tang; Tao Wang; Xutang Tao; Jiaxiang Yang

    2015-03-01

    A novel Schiff base derivative (Z)-3-(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)-2-(4-((E)-2-hydroxybenzylidene amino)phenyl)acrylonitrile (L) was designed, synthesized and characterized. L was used as a Zn2+ selective, turn-on, fluorescent chemosensor with a detection limit of 0.1M in DMF. 1:1 stoichiometric complex formation of L wih Zn2+ was confirmed through fluorescent titration experiments and Job’s plot. The enhancement of fluorescence intensity of L with addition of Zn2+ is the consequence of the inhibited isomerization of the C=N bond, namely chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect.

  10. Interfacial tension of PBT/SAN blends by the drop retraction method

    Edson Noriyuki Ito; Marcelo Massayoshi Ueki; Rosario Elida Suman Bretas; Elias Hage Junior

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the interfacial tension from the poly(butylene terephtalate) and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PBT/SAN) interface region using the drop retraction method. SAN filaments were sandwiched between two PBT films; the whole system was heated up to 240 °C, in a hot stage coupled to an optical microscope. The rheological parameters of the PBT/SAN system were obtained by parallel plates rheometry. An increase of the interfacial tension with the PBT molecular weig...

  11. Self-Assembled Organic Single Crystalline Nanosheet for Solution Processed High-Performance n-Channel Field-Effect Transistors.

    Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jong H; Whang, Dong Ryeol; Yoon, Won Sik; Park, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Submillimeter sized n-channel organic single crystalline nanosheet based on dicyanodistyrylbenzene derivative, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-pheny-lene)bis(2-(5-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (Me-4-TFPTA), is developed. Strong π-π interaction, hydrogen bonding interactions derived from cyano group (CN) as well as solvent inclusion along the lateral direction play a key role in forming nanosheet morphology. Me-4-TFPTA nanosheets exhibit excellent field-effect electron mobility of up to 7.81 cm(2) v(-1) s(-1) . PMID:27165653

  12. Crystal structure of 2-(4-chlorophenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenyl-3-(methylsulfanylacrylonitrile

    Shamantha Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H14ClNOS, the aromatic rings are inclined to one another by 64.22 (9°. The acrylonitrile group (C=C—C[triple-bond]N is planar to within 0.003 (2 Å, with the S atom and the methyl C atom displaced from this plane by 0.2317 (6 and −0.637 (2 Å, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of C—H...π interactions, forming inversion dimers. There are no other significant intermolecular interactions present.

  13. Thermal and radiochemical degradation of some PAN copolymers

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and some copolymers of acrylonitrile with divinylbenzene (AN-DVB) were investigated by the characterization of their thermal and radiation stabilities. The contribution of DVB to the thermal stability of PAN by the modification in the amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon between 6 and 20% was revealed by the evaluation of oxidation induction periods and required activation energies. The exposure of these materials to the action of γ-radiation points out the higher stability of copolymers (AN-DVB) in comparison to the relative stability of PAN

  14. The synthesis of macroreticular chelating resins containing amidoxime groups and their properties of recovery of uranium

    Macroreticular chelating resins containing amidoxime groups were successfully synthesized with divinyl benzene (DVB) cross-linking acrylonitrile (AN) copolymer beads as skeleton by suspension polymerization. Influence factors of DVB-AN beads' amidoxime reaction, such as reaction medium, reaction ratio, reaction temperature and time etc. were studied in detail. Copolymer and chelating resins with amidoxime groups having different physical properties and monomer composition were prepared successfully. The factors affecting resin chemical adsorption capacity, such as cross-linking agent, reticulating agent and polar monomer etc. were also explored. The resins had chemical adsorption capacity over 4.0 mmol/g (dry), and ideal results of recovered uranium under the conditions as described

  15. Preparation of Impact and Weather Resistant Copolymer

    LIANG; Tao

    2001-01-01

    Synthesis method of the resin is that crosslinked polybutyl acrylate latex is used as base latex. Styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) are grafted onto polybutyl acrylate latex particle and turn into core-shell copolymer. The resin is a good resin's impact modifier. There are study of influence regularity about additive emulsifier, initiator, monomer concentration, the ratio of St to AN, chain transfer to graft polymerization. A kind of core-shell resin used as impact modifier is obtained. (A) Preparation of Crosslinked Butyl Acrylate Rubber Latex  ……

  16. Preparation of Impact and Weather Resistant Copolymer

    2001-01-01

    @@ Synthesis method of the resin is that crosslinked polybutyl acrylate latex is used as base latex. Styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) are grafted onto polybutyl acrylate latex particle and turn into core-shell copolymer. The resin is a good resin's impact modifier. There are study of influence regularity about additive emulsifier, initiator, monomer concentration, the ratio of St to AN, chain transfer to graft polymerization. A kind of core-shell resin used as impact modifier is obtained. (A) Preparation of Crosslinked Butyl Acrylate Rubber Latex

  17. Radiation induced copolymerization of vinyl monomers onto husks and stems of rice cellulose

    The husks and stems of grain are major products of agricultural processes and have not been very widely used in industry. The present work involves modification of their properties to form potentially useful products. A detailed study on the graft copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile on the husks and stems of rice was carried out using a 60Co source as a means of producing ionizing radiation. The effect of different factors; e.g., dose, water content, temperature, monomers concentration, etc., on the graft copolymerization was studied, and optimum conditions are proposed for the reactions concerned. 7 figures

  18. Preparation of fibrous adsorbents containing amidoxime groups by radiation-induced grafting and application to uranium recovery from sea water

    Polypropylene fibers and polyethylene hollow fibers were used as trunk polymers and were irradiated by electron beams with a dose of 200 kGy under N2 atmosphere. Grafting of acrylonitrile to those irradiated fibers was carried out at 40 degree C for different periods of time. The degree of grafting was determined as a function of time. The fibrous adsorbents containing amidoxime groups were prepared by the reaction of acrylonitrile-grafted polymers with 3% hydroxylamine in a methanol-water mixture (1:1). Distribution of copper ions complexed with amidoxime groups at various adsorption times was obtained by electron-probe X-ray microanalysis. The amidoxime groups are homogeneously distributed in the cross section of fibrous adsorbents. The fibrous adsorbents based upon polypropylene fiber of 40 μm showed a remarkable kinetic behavior for Cu2+. Even after 15 min, the adsorption capacity was 2.32 mmol Cu2+ per gram of fiber. Also, the functionalization with hydroxylamine was carried out at different conditions to compare the adsorption characteristics of the resultant adsorbents. Despite having superficially different properties (elemental microanalysis, ion-exchange capacities, adsorption capacity for UO2+2), the polypropylene-based fibrous adsorbents showed similar adsorption properties for uranium from sea water. The adsorption tests proved the performance of the polypropylene-based fibrous adsorbents as a promising material for uranium recovery from sea water. In addition, uranium uptake of fibrous adsorbents increased in proportion to the volume of sea water

  19. 顶空-GC/FID测定水中乙醛丙烯腈吡啶

    张琢; 谷宇

    2015-01-01

    We successfully build a standard analytical method for the detection of acetaldehyde, acrylonitrile, and pyridine in water using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID).Three samples with concentration of 0.005 mg/L, 0.05 mg/L and 0.50mg/L were analyzed and showed a high recovery rate between 82%and 98%and a low relative standard deviation from 2.4%to 5.0%. These results confirm that this method has high accuracy, high precision and high reproducibility, which, consequently, is appropriate for detecting and analyzing acetaldehyde, acrylonitrile, and pyridine in water.%建立了顶空-气相色谱-氢火焰离子化检测器(GC-FID)检测水中乙醛丙烯腈吡啶的方法。根据加标浓度为0.005mg/L、0.05mg/L和0.50mg/L,回收率在82-98%之间,相对标准偏差为2.4-5.0%之间的测定结果,说明该方法准确度高、精确性高、重现性良好,符合水质测定乙醛丙烯腈吡啶的分析。

  20. Deposition of a thin electro-polymerized organic film on iron surface

    We use an electrochemical method to prepare a polymerized thin film, obtained from acrylonitrile in a solution of acetonitrile and tetraethylammonium perchlorate. The films are deposited on oxidized iron electrodes, with a surface area varying from a few mm to several cm, their thickness ranges from ten A to thousand A. This result is obtained by controlling the evolution of reactions: duplication, hydrogenation, polymerization which occur during the electrochemical reduction of acrylonitrile. The choice of suitable experimental conditions enhances the polymerization and increases the adherence of the polymer on the electrode. The usual methods of surface studies: S.E.M., A.E.S., S.I.M.S., permit the characterization of the electrode surface and the chemical composition of the deposit films. The molecular structure of polymer, and its evolution under aging or heating was studied by infrared multi-reflection spectroscopy. Very good correlation exists between the electrochemical characteristic: I = f(t), the initial surface state of the electrodes, and the homogeneity of the electro-polymerized films. Diagrams corresponding to mechanisms of different stages of electro-polymerization are proposed. (author)

  1. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 3-AMINO-2-CYANO-5- (SUBSTITUTED AMINO-4-[(UN SUBSTITUTEDPHENYL] THIOPHENES AS ANTI-TUBERCULAR AGENTS

    Kapupara Pankaj P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, due to its relentless nature, is now a major public health threat. The concomitant resurgence of TB with the MDR- or XDR-TB and HIV/AIDS pandemic has exposed the frailties of the current drug armatorium. Based on good structural similarity between BM-212, a novel antimycobacterial agent undergoing clinical trials, and diaryl thiophenes, we have designed novel diaryl thiophenes. Alkyl or aryl isothiocyanates were reacted with substituted phenylacetonitrile in the presence of NaH to afforded 3-mercapto-3-(substitutedamino-2- [(unsubstitutedphenyl]acrylonitrile (5a-h. The designed molecules, 3-amino-2-cyano-5-(substitutedamino-4- [(unsubstitutedphenyl]thiophenes (6a-h were synthesized by cyclocondention of 3-mercapto-3-(substitutedamino- 2-[(unsubstitutedphenyl]acrylonitrile (5a-h with chloroacetonitrile in ethanol. All the compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial activity on mycobacterium tuberculosis using H37Rv strain by 1% proportion method. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibited potent antimycobacterial activity with MIC values in the range of 12.5-100 µg/mL.

  2. Plasma-modified polyethylene membrane as a separator for lithium-ion polymer battery

    The surface of polyethylene (PE) membranes as a separator for lithium-ion polymer battery was modified with acrylonitrile (AN) using the plasma technology. The plasma-induced acrylonitrile coated PE (PiAN-PE) membrane was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurement. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion polymer cell fabricated with the PE and the PiAN-PE membranes were also analyzed. The surface characterization demonstrates that the enhanced adhesion of the PiAN-PE membrane resulted from the increased polar component of surface energy for the PiAN-PE membrane. The presence of the PiAN induced onto the surface of the membrane via the plasma modification plays a critical role in improving the wettability and electrolyte retention, the interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and the separator, the cycle performance of the resulting lithium-ion polymer cell assembly. The PiAN-PE membrane modified by the plasma treatment holds a great potential to be used as a high-performance and cost-effective separator for lithium-ion polymer battery.

  3. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  4. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T. [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  5. Effect of vapor- and liquid-phase radiation grafting on water permeability of porous hollow-fiber membrane

    Effect of the radiation-induced graft polymerization of monomers in vapor and liquid phases to the hollow-fiber membrane microfilter, made of porous high density polyethylene, upon the permeability of water has been studied. Determination of the flux of hollow-fiber membranes prepared by the graft polymerization of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, styrene, or acrylic acid revealed that the membranes prepared by vapor-phase grafting had a higher flux than those prepared by liquid-phase grafting. The measurement of pore volume and dimensional change revealed that hollow-fiber membrane grafted in vapor phase swells to larger extent. Cyano group of acrylonitrile and acetoxyl group of vinyl acetate, grafted to hollow-fiber membrane were converted to amide oxime and alcoholic hydroxyl group, respectively by the chemical modification. The flux of these functionalized membranes were determined and it is found that the functionalized membranes derived from vapor-phase grafted membrane had higher water permeability than those derived from liquid-phase grafted ones. (author)

  6. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Guliants, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  7. Synthesis and reactions of 4-(p-methoxybenzyl-6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl]-pyridazin-3(2H-one

    NAGWA M.S. EL-DIN HARB

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The condensation of 4-(p-methoxybenzyl-6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl]-pyridazin-3(2H-one (3, prepared by the reaction of 6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl]-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2H-one (1 and anisaldehyde, with dimethyl sulphate, formaldehyde and acrylonitrile, and also the formation of the Mannich base, proceeded smoothly at the 2-position to give compounds 4,5,6,7, respectively. 4-p-Methoxybenzyl-3-chloro-6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl]-pyridazine (9 was prepared in law yield by the action of phosphorus oxychloride on 3. The reaction of 9 with benzylamine, aniline and piperidine gave 10a,b,c, respectively. 4-p-Methoxybenzyl-6-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-napthyl]pyridazine-3(2H-thione (12 was prepared either by the action of thiourea on 9, or by the reaction of 3 with phosphorus pentasulphide. The reaction of these thiones with acrylonitrile, morpholine and piperidine to give 13 and 14 a,b, respectively, were also investigated.

  8. Preparation of Polyacrylonitrile-Kapok Hollow Microtubes Decorated with Cu Nanoparticles

    Agcaoili Apollo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel copper (Cu nanoparticle carrier was fabricated using kapok natural microtubes as a substrate. Cu nanoparticles were grown on a thin polymer film on the surface of the kapok fibers. The polymer film was deposited on the surface of the microtube using a surfactant-assisted polymerization of acrylonitrile monomers. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB was used surfactant. The contact angle decreased from 120.5 to 0 after polyacrylonitrile coating (PAN, which suggests improved hydrophilicity of the kapok fibers. Addition of 1.5 mL acrylonitrile and 0.020 – 0.035 g CTAB yielded evenly coated kapok fibers. Cu nanoparticles, with diameters of 82-186 nm, were formed on the surface of the composite by reducing 0.16 M copper sulphate (CuSO4 with hydrazine (N2H4 at 70°C. EDX reveals that more Cu nanoparticles formed on the surface of PAN-kapok composites with 0.035g CTAB due to thicker PAN coating.

  9. Preparation, characterization and application of a nanostructured composite: Octakis(cyanopropyldimethylsiloxy)octasilsesquioxane

    Octakis(cyanopropyldimethylsiloxy)octasilsesquioxane was prepared and characterized by 13C, 29Si NMR (MAS), SEM, FT-IR, XRD and thermogravimetric techniques. The four groups α, β, γ, κ (to the terminal silicon atom), associated with an acrylonitrile, were clearly seen in the 13C NMR (α-CH2 at 17.9; β-CH2 at 31.3; γ-CH2 at 50.4; κ-C?N at 59.0ppm). The 29Si NMR spectrum of the final product, exhibits only Q type silicon signal, ascribed to Q4 (-118.0ppm). The presence of acrylonitrile substituted for octameric cube confers a relative change phase and thermal stability to the material. With regard to the applications for this new material, it was intended, in this case, to react with Na2[Fe(China)5NH3] by chemical substitution. This composite was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode and the electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammogram of the modified graphite paste electrode, showed one redox couples with formal potential (E1/2ox)=0.24 V versus SCE

  10. Toxicity of different industrial effluents in Taiwan: a comparison of the sensitivity of Daphnia similis and Microtox.

    Liu, M C; Chen, C M; Cheng, H Y; Chen, H Y; Su, Y C; Hung, T Y

    2002-01-01

    Industrial effluents are known to exhibit toxicity toward different aquatic organisms. In Taiwan management of these discharges still relies on chemical and physical and physical characteristics of water, although various standard method for assessing aquatic toxicity have been proposed by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. In this study we examined the toxicity and compared the sensitivity of different types of industrial effluents using two proposed toxicity tests: the Daphnia similis acute toxicity test and the Microtox acute assay (Vibrio fischeri). Results showed that electroplating effluents were the most toxic of all the effluents tested, followed by acrylonitrile manufacturing, pulp/paper, and tannery effluents. The EC50 of an electroplating effluent for D. similis and V. fischeri (15 min) was as low as, respectively, 2.9% and 3.9% of the whole effluent. The other effluents were not acutely toxic to either organism tested. However, the tests exhibited different sensitivity toward various discharges. Only the electroplating and acrylonitrile manufacturing effluents had effects on both organisms. These results indicate the importance of the incorporation of aquatic toxicity tests into the management scheme for treated wastewaters. PMID:11979586

  11. Alternate materials of construction for geothermal applications. Progress report No. 15, October 1977--March 1978

    Steinberg, M.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1978-03-01

    A program to determine if non-metallic materials such as polymers, concrete polymer composites, and refractory cements can be utilized as materials of construction in geothermal processes is in progress. To date, several high temperature polymer concrete systems have been formulated, laboratory and field tests performed in brine, flashing brine, and steam at temperatures up to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F), and economic studies started. Laboratory data for exposure times > 2 years are available. Test results indicate that polymer concrete (PC) containing mixtures of styrene--acrylonitrile--acrylamide or methacrylamide produces composites with the best high temperature and chemical resistance obtained to date. The results show that the use of a 12 wt % concentration of a 55 wt % styrene--35 wt % acrylonitrile--5 wt % acrylamide--5 wt % trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate monomer mixture in conjunction with 88 wt % of a 70 wt % silica sand--30 wt % Portland cement aggregate produces a composite with a compressive strength at 20/sup 0/C (68/sup 0/F) in the range 25,000 to 30,000 psi. The PC is thermally stable to approximately 240/sup 0/C (464/sup 0/F). Results are also available from field exposures of up to 24 months in four geothermal environments. Good durability is indicated. Work at four of these sites is continuing, and plans to initiate tests at other sites are being implemented.

  12. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation

    Highlights: • We have proposed a method to recover antimony from electronic plastics. • The most efficient acid solution was sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide. • Gamma irradiation did not influence the antimony leaching ability. - Abstract: There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5 M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23 °C and heated to ca. 105 °C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed

  13. Effect of Reprocessing and Accelerated Weathering on Impact-Modified Recycled Blend

    Ramesh, V.; Mohanty, Smita; Biswal, Manoranjan; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of recycled polycarbonate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, high-impact polystyrene, and its blends from waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics products properties were enhanced by the addition of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier. The optimized blend formulation was processed through five cycles, at processing temperature, 220-240 °C and accelerated weathering up to 700 h. Moreover, the effect of reprocessing and accelerated weathering in the physical properties of the modified blends was investigated by mechanical, thermal, rheological, and morphological studies. The results show that in each reprocessing cycle, the tensile strength and impact strength decreased significantly and the similar behavior has been observed from accelerated weathering. Subsequently, the viscosity decreases and this decrease becomes the effect of thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. This can be correlated with FTIR analysis.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of chloramphenicol by 1-chlorobenzotriazole in acidic medium

    R C Hiremath; R V Jagadeesh; Puttaswamy; S M Mayanna

    2005-07-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an antibiotic drug having a wide spectrum of activity. The kinetics of oxidation of chloramphenicol by 1-chlorobenzotriazole (CBT) in HClO4 medium over the temperature range 293-323 K has been investigated. The reaction exhibits first-order kinetics with respect to [CBT]o and zero-order with respect to [CAP]o. The fractional-order dependence of rate on [H+] suggests complex formation between CBT and H+. It fails to induce polymerization of acrylonitrile under the experimental conditions employed. Activation parameters are evaluated. The observed solvent isotope effect indicates the absence of hydride transfer during oxidation. Effects of dielectric constant and ionic strength of the medium on the reaction rate have been studied. Oxidation products are identified. A suitable reaction scheme is proposed and an appropriate rate law is deduced to account for the observed kinetic data.

  15. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  16. Polymer concrete composites for the production of high strength pipe and linings in high temperature corrosive environments

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Fontana, J.; Kukacka, L.

    High temperature corrosive resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites are described. They comprise about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder polymerized in situ from a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of about 40 to 70% by weight of styrene, about 25 to 45% by weight acrylonitrile and about 2.5 to 7.5% by weight acrylamide or methacrylamide and about 1 to 10% by weight of a crosslinking agent. This agent is selected from the group consisting of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene; and about 80 to 88% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, and optionally Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or carbon black or mica. A free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other organic peroxides and combinations thereof to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of said inorganic filler.

  17. Detection of adulteration in acetonitrile using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques.

    Hu, Le-Qian; Yin, Chun-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Peng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in cooperation with the pattern recognition techniques were used to determine the type of neat acetonitrile and the adulteration in acetonitrile. NIR spectra were collected between 400 nm and 2498 nm. The experimental data were first subjected to analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) to reveal significant differences and potential patterns between samples. Then support vector machine (SVM) were applied to develop classification models and the best parameter combination was selected by grid search. Under the best parameter combination, the classification accuracy rates of three types of neat acetonitrile reached 87.5%, and 100% for the adulteration with different concentration levels. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM could be utilized for determining the potential adulterants including water, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acrylonitrile, methanol, and by-products associated with the production of acetonitrile. PMID:26123603

  18. Study of processing conditions on properties of ABS and clay organically modified nanocomposites; Estudo das condicoes de processamento nas propriedades de nanocompositos de ABS e argilas organofilicas

    Galvan, Danieli; Massucato, Felipe; Bartoli, Julio R., E-mail: bartoli@feq.unicamp.br [Fac. de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas - DTP/FEQ/UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); D' Avila, Marcos A. [Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas - DEMA/FEM/UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Elizabeth G. [Tezca P and D Celulas Solares, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clay were prepared by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The independent variables studied were the kind of organoclay (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) and the screw torque at levels of 45 and 70%. The effect of these variables on the intercalation/exfoliation were accessed by means of the morphological characteristics using X-ray diffraction and the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile test. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of clay in the polymeric matrix improved the mechanical properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and tensile strength of nanocomposites, being more significant for that containing Cloisite 30B. Torque was also a significant variable for the responses studied. (author)

  19. Study of processing conditions on properties of ABS and clay organically modified nanocomposites

    Nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clay were prepared by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The independent variables studied were the kind of organoclay (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) and the screw torque at levels of 45 and 70%. The effect of these variables on the intercalation/exfoliation were accessed by means of the morphological characteristics using X-ray diffraction and the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile test. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of clay in the polymeric matrix improved the mechanical properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and tensile strength of nanocomposites, being more significant for that containing Cloisite 30B. Torque was also a significant variable for the responses studied. (author)

  20. Effect of TiO2 nano fillers on the electrical conductivity of PSAN/TiO2 polymer nanocomposites

    Ningaraju, S.; Munirathnamma, L. M.; Kumar, K. V. Aneesh; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2016-05-01

    The microstructural characterization of Polystyrene co-acrylonitrile and Titanium dioxide (PSAN/TiO2) nanocomposites has been performed by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy. The decrease of positron lifetime parameters viz. o-Ps lifetime (τ3) and free volume size (Vf) up to 0.6 wt% of TiO2 is attributed to the filling of free volume holes by TiO2 nanoparticles. The increased free volume size (Vf) after 0.6 wt% of TiO2 indicates the formation of interface due to TiO2 nanoclusters. The variation of electrical conductivity at the lower and higher concentration of TiO2 in (PSAN/TiO2) nanocomposites is attributed to the blocking effect and space charge effect respectively.

  1. Macromolecular peroxo complexes of Vanadium(V) and Molybdenum(VI): Catalytic activities and biochemical relevance

    Nashreen S Islam; Jeena Jyoti Boruah

    2015-05-01

    Our recent achievements concerning the synthesis and characterization of water soluble peroxo complexes of V(V) and Mo(VI) in macroligand environment, as well as some key features of biological relevance of these compounds, such as their hydrolytic stability, activity with phosphohydrolase enzyme vis-à-vis free peroxovanadium (pV) or peroxomolybdenum (pMo) complexes, and their activity in biomimetic oxidative bromination are presented here. Immobilization of pMo species on insoluble polymer matrices viz., amino acid functionalized Merrifield resins and poly(acrylonitrile) on the other hand, afforded a set of heterogeneous catalysts highly effective in facile organic transformations such as selective oxidation of organic sulfides and oxidative bromination of aromatic substrates by H2O2, at ambient temperature. The methodologies are straightforward, high-yielding, halogen-free and the catalysts afford easy regeneration. Our findings illustrate the various features which make the procedures sustainable and synthetically useful.

  2. Sorption of 2-Chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by functionalized cross-linked polymers

    Rodrigo Martins Fráguas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the synthesis of three polymers based on styrene (STY, divinylbenzene (DVB and two different vinyl monomers: methyl methacrylate (MMA and acrylonitrile (AN. The STY-DVB, STY-DVB-MMA and STY-DVB-AN polymers were synthesized employing the aqueous suspension technique. Reaction yields were 73%, 81% and 75%, respectively. They were morphological and chemically characterized using different techniques. The extraction capacity of the polymers was evaluated using 2-chlorophenol. The polymer extraction capacities were evaluated varying contact time the (1 h, 3 h and 5 h, temperature (30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C, and pH (3, 5.6 and 8. The STY-DVB-AN polymer was the most efficient; it removed around 95% of the analyte using a contact time 50 h.

  3. SUPPRESSION OF CELL ADHESION ON POLYACRYLONITRILE-BASED MEMBRANES BY THE ANCHORING OF PHOSPHOLIPID MOIETIES

    Xiao-jun Huang; Xiao-dan Huang; Ai-fu Che; Zhi-kang Xu; Ke Yao

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the membrane surface of poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PANCHEMA) waschemically modified by anchoring of phospholipid moieties. The process involved the reaction of hydroxyl groups on the membrane surface with 2-chloro-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (COP) followed by the ring-opening reaction of COP with trimethylamine. Chemical differences between the original and the modified membranes were characterized by FT-IR and XPS. It was found that the amount of macrophage adhered on the modified membrane surface is substantially lower than that on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and PANCHEMA membranes under the same condition. The morphological change of the adherent cell is also suppressed by the generation ofphospholipid moieties on the membrane surface.

  4. Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Media Using Amidoximated Jute Fibres: A Comparative Study

    Jute Fibres were grafted with acrylonitrile (AN) induced by direct gamma irradiation. All the factors which affect the grafting process were investigated. The grafting at the optimum conditions was followed by amidoximation reaction. The conversion of AN into acryl amidoxime was studied by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The treated Jute fibres were used as an adsorbent substrate for heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Fe2+ from their solutions. The different factors which affect the adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions, such as pH, contact time, metal ions concentrations were studied and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm was highlighted. It was found that the adsorption capacity was enhanced at acidic medium of pH 4 and increased with increasing of contact time.

  5. Preparation and characterization of chelating fibers based on natural wool for removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Monier, M., E-mail: monierchem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 (Egypt); Nawar, N., E-mail: nnawar@mans.edu.eg [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 (Egypt); Abdel-Latif, D.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto natural wool fibers initiated by KMnO{sub 4} and oxalic acid combined redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Moreover, modification of the grafted wool fibers was done by changing the nitrile group (-CN) into cyano-acetic acid {alpha}-amino-acrylic-hydrazide through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by ethylcyanoacetate which eventually produce wool-grafted-poly(cyano-acetic acid {alpha}-amino-acrylic-hydrazide) (wool-g-PCAH) chelating fibers. The application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  6. Preparation and characterization of chelating fibers based on natural wool for removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions.

    Monier, M; Nawar, N; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2010-12-15

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto natural wool fibers initiated by KMnO(4) and oxalic acid combined redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Moreover, modification of the grafted wool fibers was done by changing the nitrile group (-CN) into cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by ethylcyanoacetate which eventually produce wool-grafted-poly(cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide) (wool-g-PCAH) chelating fibers. The application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. PMID:20810212

  7. Synthesis and characterization of poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate); Sintese e caracterizacao do poli(estireno-co-metacrilato de metila)

    Augustinho, Tiago R.; Abarca, Silvia A.C.; Machado, Ricardo A.F. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Alimentos - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is nowadays commonly used due its advantages over competitors. PS presents a lower cost when compared with Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and with Polyethylene Tere-phthalate (PET), and can be easier processed than polypropylene (PP). At expandable form (EPS), can be used as projective equipment, thermal insulation, floating boards, refrigerators, isothermal, and low cost applications such as packaging and disposable material. Searching for more resistant materials and with a low cost, researches with copolymers materials are being developed. In this study, copolymerization reactions were carried out by suspension polymerization using monomers styrene and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with styrene. Styrene was in the highest percentage in relation to the MMA. The MMA was selected because is a monomer that presents a higher resistance than PS. The copolymerization was confirmed by performing infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen (RMN{sup 1}H), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA). (author)

  8. Effect of gamma rays on grafting parameters and liquid retention property of cassava starch-g-PAN

    Radiation modification on liquid retention properties of native cassava starch, gelatinized at 850C, by graft copolymerization with acrylonitrile was carried out by mutual irradiation to γ-rays. A thin aluminium foil was used to cover the inner wall of the reaction vessel so that the extent of homo polymer could be reduced to be less than 1.6% with a distilled water retention value of 665 g/g of the dry weight of the saponified grafted product. Confirmations of graft copolymerization and saponification reactions were made by the infrared spectrophotometric technique. The combined effect of radiation parameters in terms of an irradiation time and a dose rate to the same total dose on the extent of grafting reaction expressed in terms of grafting parameters which directly influenced liquid retention values was evaluated in conjunction with statistical analysis

  9. Dynamic optimization of a copolymerization reactor using tabu search.

    Anand, P; Rao, M Bhagvanth; Venkateswarlu, Ch

    2015-03-01

    A novel multistage dynamic optimization strategy based on meta-heuristic tabu search (TS) is proposed and evaluated through sequential and simultaneous implementation procedures by applying it to a semi-batch styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymerization reactor. The adaptive memory and responsive exploration features of TS are exploited to design the dynamic optimization strategy and compute the optimal control policies for temperature and monomer addition rate so as to achieve the desired product quality parameters expressed in terms of single and multiple objectives. The dynamic optimization results of TS sequential and TS simultaneous implementation strategies are analyzed and compared with those of a conventional optimization technique based on iterative dynamic programming (IDP). The simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of TS for optimal control of transient dynamic systems. PMID:25466914

  10. Preparation and characterization of chelating fibers based on natural wool for removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto natural wool fibers initiated by KMnO4 and oxalic acid combined redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Moreover, modification of the grafted wool fibers was done by changing the nitrile group (-CN) into cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by ethylcyanoacetate which eventually produce wool-grafted-poly(cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide) (wool-g-PCAH) chelating fibers. The application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Hg2+, Cu2+ and Co2+. The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  11. Experimental validation of a simple, low-cost, T-junction droplet generator fabricated through 3D printing

    Three-dimensional printing has been recently proposed and assessed for continuous flow microfluidic devices. In this paper the focus is on a new application of this rapid and low cost method for microfluidic device prototyping: droplets production through a T-junction generator. The feasibility of this new methodology is assessed by means of an experimental study in which the statistical parameters which characterize the production of droplets are analyzed. Furthermore, this study assesses the validity of previous theoretical and experimental results, obtained for a PDMS T-junction droplet generator, also in the case of a 3D printed Acrylonitrile microfluidic chip. Finally, the feasibility of producing monodisperse droplets by analyzing the polydispersity index of the prepared droplets is demonstrated. (paper)

  12. Diode laser welding of ABS: Experiments and process modeling

    Ilie, Mariana; Mattei, Simone; Cicala, Eugen; Stoica, Virgil; 10.1016/j.optlastec.2008.10.005

    2010-01-01

    The laser beam weldability of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) plates is determined by combining both experimental and theoretical aspects. In modeling the process, an optical model is used to determine how the laser beam is attenuated by the first material and to obtain the laser beam profile at the interface. Using this information as the input data to a thermal model, the evolution of the temperature field within the two components can be estimated. The thermal model is based on the first principles of heat transfer and utilizes the temperature variation laws of material properties. Corroborating the numerical results with the experimental results, some important insights concerning the fundamental phenomena that govern the process could be extracted. This approach proved to be an efficient tool in determining the weldability of polimeric materials and assures a significant reduction of time and costs with the experimental exploration.

  13. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  14. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  15. Investigating the Influence of Electroplating Layer Thickness on the Tensile Strength for Fused Deposition Processed ABS Thermoplastics

    S.Kannan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM is a kind of Rapid prototyping (RP technique, which allows direct transformation of CAD files into physical models. This paper attempts to identify and study the influence of electroplating layer thickness on the mechanical strength of Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS samples developed from the FDM process. The study is conducted on the tensile test samples of ABS, built on Stratasys FDM vantage SE machine, and tested under IS specified test conditions. The electroplated samples were also subjected to acetic acid tests and surface roughness measurements to check for proper adhesion of plating. The electroplating thickness adopted was 60, 70 and 80 μm. The electroplated tensile samples indicated an increase in the tensile strength with the corresponding increase in the plating thickness. 60 μm sample exhibited lower ductility and 70, 80 μm samples exhibited enhanced ductility.

  16. On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Abs and Abs Plus Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

    Vairis, A.; Petousis, M.; Vidakis, N.; Savvakis, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of fused deposition modeling parts built with Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS plus material is presented. ASTM D638-02a specimens were built with ABS and ABS plus and they were tested on a Schenck Trebel Co. tensile test machine at three different test speeds, equal, lower, and higher to the test speed required by the ASTM D638-02a standard. The experimental tensile strength results were compared and evaluated. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, to determine failure mode of the filament strands. It was found that, as the test speed increases, specimens develop higher tensile strength and have higher elastic modulus. Specimens tested in the highest speed of the experiment had on average about 10% higher elastic modulus and developed on average about 11% higher tensile strength.

  17. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  18. Separation and Extraction of Some Heavy and Toxic Metal Ions from Their Wastes by Ionic Membranes

    Preparation and characterisation of a series of ion-exchange membranes for the purpose of separation and extraction of some heavy and toxic metal ions from their wastes have been studied. Such ion exchange membranes prepared by γ-radiation grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) in a binary monomers mixture onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) using direct technique of grafting. The reaction conditions at which grafting process proceeds successfully have been determined. Many modification treatments have been attempted for the prepared membranes to improve their ion-exchange properties. The possibility of their practical use in waste water treatment from some heavy and toxic metal ions such as Pb2+ , Cd2+ ,Cu2+ ,Fe3+ ,Sr2+ and Li+ have been investigated. These grafted membranes showed great promise for its use in the field of extraction and removal of some heavy and toxic metals from their wastes

  19. Réactivité des nitriles sur la surface Si(001)-2x1, étudiée par spectroscopies de photoémission, d'absorption X et microscopie tunnel

    RANGAN, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Les spectroscopies de photoémission, d'absorption X –assistées par des calculs DFT d'états de coeur excités – et la microscopie tunnel, ont permis de déterminer avec précision les géométries d'adsorption, sur la surface Si(001)-2×1, de quatre molécules possédant un groupe cyano, monofonctionnelle - comme l'acétonitrile - ou polyfonctionnelles - comme le benzonitrile, l'acrylonitrile et le cyanure de vinyle. La chimie organique fournit le cadre général des réactions possibles à la surface. Ce ...

  20. A low volume 3D-printed temperature-controllable cuvette for UV visible spectroscopy.

    Pisaruka, Jelena; Dymond, Marcus K

    2016-10-01

    We report the fabrication of a 3D-printed water-heated cuvette that fits into a standard UV visible spectrophotometer. Full 3D-printable designs are provided and 3D-printing conditions have been optimised to provide options to print the cuvette in either acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polylactic acid polymers, extending the range of solvents that are compatible with the design. We demonstrate the efficacy of the cuvette by determining the critical micelle concentration of sodium dodecyl sulphate at 40 °C, the molar extinction coefficients of cobalt nitrate and dsDNA and by reproducing the thermochromic UV visible spectrum of a mixture of cobalt chloride, water and propan-2-ol. PMID:27443958

  1. On the mechanism of DC conductivity in ABS copolymer thin films

    Metal-polymer-metal sandwich configuration has been used to investigate the DC conductivity in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer. Samples were prepared in the form of thin films of thicknesses in the order of 50 μ by the cast technique. All the measurements have been carried out in atmospheric pressure for temperatures T in the range 290 K 5V/m. The influence of electrode material (Ag, Al, W) was found to have no effect on the mechanism of conduction in the material. Further, the temporal variation of the current under the influence of temperature and applied field is discussed. All the data presented here show that the conduction mechanism changed from SCLC to a Poole-Frenkel mechanism at different temperatures. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs

  2. Catalytic oxidative conversion of alkanes to olefines and oxygenates

    Baerns, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    All of the direct reaction schemes described and the corresponding process schemes are still in an exploratory state. Ethylene by oxidative coupling of methane could become competitive if process schemes are developed with significantly less expenditures for separation of the product from unconverted feed. No encouragement for formaldehyde from methane can be presently derived from the existing knowledge. Liquid-phase oxidation of methane to methanol appears to be attractive but no final judgement is possible at present. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylene and propane look promising although further catalyst improvement is required. Acetic acid from ethane and acrylonitrile from propane have a certain potential as an alternative to present technology. The outlook for acrolein and acrylic acid from propane is less favourable; new concepts for catalyst design are necessary. (orig.)

  3. Effect of surface modification of Grewia optiva fibres on their physicochemical and thermal properties

    Amar S Singha; Ashvinder K Rana

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the surface modification of Grewia optiva fibre through benzoylation and graft copolymerization process. Benzoylation of Grewia optiva fibre has been carried out on mercerized fibre with varying concentrations of benzoyl chloride solution. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto Grewia optiva fibre was carried out with ceric ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator in aqueous medium under the influence of microwave radiation. Raw, graft copolymerized and benzoylated fibres were subjected to evaluation of some of their properties like swelling behaviour, moisture absorbance and chemical resistance behaviour. It has been observed that 5% benzoyl chloride treated and graft copolymerized Grewia optiva show more resistance towards moisture, water and chemicals when compared with that of raw fibre. Further morphological, structural changes, thermal stability and crystallinity of raw, graft copolymerized, pretreated and benzoylated fibres have also been studied by SEM, FTIR, TGA and XRD techniques.

  4. Effect of the structure of ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene graft copolymers on morphology and mechanical properties of SAN/EPDM blends

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene (EPDM-g-PS copolymers were synthesized to obtain different structures of graft copolymers with different graft lengths and graft densities. The structure of synthesized EPDM-g-PS copolymers was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC and by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. These presynthesized graft copolymers were added (5 phr to styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN and ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM blends, prepared to maintain the following SAN/EPDM ratios a 95/5 and b 90/10. SAN/EPDM blends were characterized by the determination of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break while their morphology was inspected by scanning electronic microscopy, SEM. The obtained results show that various structures of EPDM-g-PS copolymers influence the miscibility in SAN/EPDM blends. Optimal concentration of side branches of graft copolymers provide the finest morphology and enhance mechanical properties.

  5. Feasibility of the recovery of uranium from alkaline waste by amidoximated grafted polypropylene polymer matrix

    The amidoximated grafted polypropylene polymer matrix was prepared by post irradiation grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto thermally bonded non-woven matrix of poly(propylene) sheet using electron beams. This precursor polymer was reacted with hydroxylamine to convert AN to poly(acrylamidoxime) (AO) groups, and conditioned by treating them with 2.5 % KOH at 80 deg C for 1 h. The polymer matrix was having the degree of AN grafting ∼106 wt% and its subsequent conversion to AO groups ∼70 %. The water uptake capacity of AO polymer matrix were found to be 100 ± 5 % (w/w). Quantitative recovery of uranium from alkaline waste (ammonium diuranate supernatant) solution was achieved by this polymer matrix. The other radionuclides present in the waste solution were not extracted by the polymer matrix. For all other radionuclides, the uptake was found to be <6 %. (author)

  6. Some Investigations on Hardness of Investment Casting Process After Advancements in Shell Moulding for Reduction in Cycle Time

    Singh, R.; Mahajan, V.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work surface hardness investigations have been made on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pattern based investment castings after advancements in shell moulding for replication of biomedical implants. For the present study, a hip joint, made of ABS material, was fabricated as a master pattern by fused deposition modelling (FDM). After preparation of master pattern, mold was prepared by deposition of primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) coatings with the addition of nylon fibre (1-2 cm in length of 1.5D). This study outlines the surface hardness mechanism for cast component prepared from ABS master pattern after advancement in shell moulding. The results of study highlight that during shell production, fibre modified shells have a much reduced drain time. Further the results are supported by cooling rate and micro structure analysis of casting.

  7. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Dat Nguyen, Tien; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Nam, Jae-do; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk

    2014-06-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators.

  8. Cloth filter for recovery of uranium from radioactive waste

    Badawy, Sayed M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)]. E-mail: sayedbadawy@hotmail.com; Sokker, Hesham H. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Othman, Sameh H. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Hashem, Ali [Textile Research Division, National Research Center (Egypt)

    2005-06-01

    A cloth filter incorporated with amidoxime/carboxyl groups was synthesized for recovery of uranium from radioactive waste obtained from nuclear fuel fabrication laboratories. The cloth filter was synthesized by radiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile/methacrylic acid (AN/MA) onto a cotton cloth and followed by amidoximation reaction at a weight ratio of AN to MA of 80/20. The effect of comonomer composition on the grafting ratio and AN composition in the graft chain was studied. The reactivity of AN for grafting into the cotton cloth was found to be less than that of the MA acid. The incorporation of the functional groups was confirmed by FT-IR spectra. The cloth filter possessed good mechanical properties and thermal and chemical stability suitable for practical use. The uranium uptake ratio reached 95% at 298 K and pH 9-9.5.

  9. Comparison of two setups for induction heating in injection molding

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness......, and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper, a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated and two different coil setups were tested and compared. An experimental investigation was performed...... based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios of small structures. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was used as material, and different mold temperatures were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM). On the basis of...

  10. Injection molding of nanopatterned surfaces in the sub-micrometer range with induction heating aid

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2014-01-01

    Replication of sub-micrometer structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replica and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of induction heating embedded into the mold for the improvement of nanopattern replication....... A tool insert having a surface containing functional geometries in the sub-micrometer range was produced using aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. In order to provide elevated mold temperatures necessary for the complete replica of the pattern, a new mold setup was developed, which...... allows rapid heating of the cavity wall using an induction heating system. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple placed in the mold insert. The system was used to heat up the cavity wall with heating rates of up to 10 K/s. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used as...

  11. Fabrication of a polymer with three-dimensional structure by the ion beam graft polymerization method

    The graft polymerization method is one of the most effective techniques to produce a new polymer with unique function. To produce the polymer, we conducted experiments on radiation graft polymerization using ion beams of several hundred keV energy. A high density polyethylene (PE) film was irradiated with H+ beams, then, graft polymerization with monomer solution such as acrylic acid or acrylonitrile was conducted. Radicals generated by the interaction between the beam ions and the PE molecules become the starting point of the graft polymerization. Since the range in PE depends on ion energy, the density distribution of the graft chain can be controlled by the ion energy. Using a mask which restricts the ion beam incidence, PE sheets containing graft chains only in the unmasked area were obtained. Multiple ion beam graft polymerization can produce a polymer which has some functional bases at specified position. We have demonstrated the production of a polymer film with a three-dimensional structure.

  12. Radiation graft modification of ethylene-propylene rubber. Pt. 1. Effect of monomer and substrate structure

    Radiation grafting of hydrophilic vinyl monomers onto ethylene-propylene elastomers (EPM rubbers) by the simultaneous method was studied. The present work centres upon gamma radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AAm), N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto four different EPM rubbers. Metal-based homopolymerisation inhibitors including Mohr's salt, Cu(NO3)2 and FeSO4 were evaluated and found to prevent homopolymerisation and significantly increase graft yield. Lithium nitrate was evaluated as a graft promoter. The effect of oxygen upon grafting was also studied. The role of the type of EPM rubber on grafting efficiency for a variety of monomers was investigated, to optimise grafting conditions for each EPM rubber and monomer. The properties of the resulting copopolymers have been studied by SEM techniques. (author)

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some substituted aldonitrones by quinolinium chlorochromate in aqueous DMF medium in the absence and presence of oxalic acid

    GOVINDASAMY RAJARAJAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the oxidation of aldonitrones (nitrone by quinolinium chlorochromate (QCC was determined in 50 % DMF–water in the absence and presence of oxalic acid in order to study the effect of oxalic acid. It was considered worthwhile to investigate whether it undergoes co-oxidation or just functions as a catalyst in the reaction. The reaction was followed iodometrically. Under the employed experimental conditions, the reaction is first order each with respect to concentration of nitrone, QCC, and oxalic acid and fractional order with respect to H+ concentration. There was no discernible effect with increasing in ionic strength but the rate of oxidation decreased with decreasing dielectric constant of the medium. Addition of MnSO4 had a significant and acrylonitrile no effect on the reaction rate. A mechanism involving protonated nitrone and QCC as the reactive oxidant is proposed. The activation parameters were calculated and are presented.

  14. Discovery of the Aryl-phospho-indole IDX899, a Highly Potent Anti-HIV Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor.

    Dousson, Cyril; Alexandre, François-René; Amador, Agnès; Bonaric, Séverine; Bot, Stéphanie; Caillet, Catherine; Convard, Thierry; da Costa, Daniel; Lioure, Marie-Pierre; Roland, Arlène; Rosinovsky, Elodie; Maldonado, Sébastien; Parsy, Christophe; Trochet, Christophe; Storer, Richard; Stewart, Alistair; Wang, Jingyang; Mayes, Benjamin A; Musiu, Chiara; Poddesu, Barbara; Vargiu, Luana; Liuzzi, Michel; Moussa, Adel; Jakubik, Jocelyn; Hubbard, Luke; Seifer, Maria; Standring, David

    2016-03-10

    Here, we describe the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and identification of a clinical candidate non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with a novel aryl-phospho-indole (APhI) scaffold. NNRTIs are recommended components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV-1. Since a major problem associated with NNRTI treatment is the emergence of drug resistant virus, this work focused on optimization of the APhI against clinically relevant HIV-1 Y181C and K103N mutants and the Y181C/K103N double mutant. Optimization of the phosphinate aryl substituent led to the discovery of the 3-Me,5-acrylonitrile-phenyl analogue RP-13s (IDX899) having an EC50 of 11 nM against the Y181C/K103N double mutant. PMID:26804933

  15. Neutron protective material and method of manufacturing the material

    Object: To provide a neutron protective material which is high in flexibility and can be easily molded. Structure: Atom or ion capable of absorbing neutrons such as 6Li or 10B, for example, is adsorbed and secured to fibers having an ion exchangeability to obtain a neutron protective material. In one example, a web sheet of felt of copolymer fiber formed of acrylonitrile 93 wt% and vinyl bromide 7 wt% is reacted with pentaethylenehexamine to obtain a felt-like weak base anion exchange fiber of exchange capacity 6.2 meg/g, which is impregnated into a saturated boric acid solution for subjecting to dewatering and drying to obtain a boric acid anion exchange fiber. The thus obtained felt-like material containing 90% 10B merely has 1% of thermal neutron permeability (in this case, the felt-like material has its thickness 10 mm). (Kamimura, M.)

  16. HBS-1: A Modular Child-Size 3D Printed Humanoid

    Lianjun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An affordable, highly articulated, child-size humanoid robot could potentially be used for various purposes, widening the design space of humanoids for further study. Several findings indicated that normal children and children with autism interact well with humanoids. This paper presents a child-sized humanoid robot (HBS-1 intended primarily for children’s education and rehabilitation. The design approach is based on the design for manufacturing (DFM and the design for assembly (DFA philosophies to realize the robot fully using additive manufacturing. Most parts of the robot are fabricated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS using rapid prototyping technology. Servomotors and shape memory alloy actuators are used as actuating mechanisms. The mechanical design, analysis and characterization of the robot are presented in both theoretical and experimental frameworks.

  17. Payne effect in NBR nanocomposites with organophilic montmorillonite; Efeito Payne em nanocompositos de NBR com montmorilonita organofilica

    Bezerra, Fernando de O. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Campus Realengo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Regina C.R.; Gomes, Ailton S., E-mail: rcnunes@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Oliveira, Marcia G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ito, Edson N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work the Payne effect was evaluated as a measure of the filler-filler and filler-polymer interactions in nanocomposites of organo montmorillonite (MMTorg) on acrylonitrile-butadiene-rubber (NBR) by using the Rubber Process Analyzer – RPA 2000. The nanocomposites of NBR and MMTorg were prepared on a Berstorff two-roll mill and the evaluation of the Payne effect was carried out in unvulcanized pure gum and varying the MMTorg content from 5, 10, 15 and 20 phr. The composition with 5 phr of MMTorg showed the best filler-polymer interaction as a consequence of the smaller amount of agglomerates of the filler in the elastomeric matrix. (author)

  18. OPTIMIZATION STUDY IN MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR PC/ABS BLENDS

    Huang Chenghung; Fung Chinping; Chang Shihhsing; Hwang Jiunren; Doong Jiliang

    2003-01-01

    The optimization of injection molding process for polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) blends is studied using Taguchi method and principal component analysis (PCA). Four controllable process factors are studied at three levels each in the manufacturing process. The L9 orthogonal array is conducted to determine the optimum process factor/level combination for single quality of mechanical properties. In addition, the principal component analysis is employed to transform the correlated mechanical properties to a set of uncorrelated components and to evaluate a comprehensive index for multi-response cases. Then the optimum process factor/level combination for multiple qualities can be determined. Finally, the analysis of variance is used to find out the most influential injection molding parameter for single and multiple qualities problems.

  19. Energetics and Compatibility of Plasticizers in Composite Solid Propellants

    Rm. Muthiah

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a comparative analysis on the energetics of ester type plasticizers such as dioctyl adipate (DOA, dioctyl phthalate (DOP,dibutyl sebacate (DBS, isodecyl pelargonate (IDP, trioctylphosphate (TOF, diethyl phthalate (DEP, tricresyl phosphate (TCPand dibutyl phthalate (DBP and hydrocarbon type plasticizers such as polybutene (PB, spindle oil, naphthenic oil, polymer extender oil(PEO and poly isobutylene (PIB and the impact of some of the plasticizers on the work ability, pot life and mechanical properties of propellants based on two selected polymeric binders namely polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile (PBAN ter polymer andhydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB have been reported. The compatibility of all the plasticizers on HTPB binder was also studied at different concentration levels and temperatures using Brookfield viscometer and reported. The mechanism of plasticization is also reviewed.

  20. The influence of carbon black on curing kinetics and thermal aging of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers based on a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (NBR have excellent oil resistance but are very sensitive for degradation at very high temperatures. The aim of this applicative contribution was to determine the effect of high abrasion furnace carbon black with primary particle size 46 nm on aging properties of elastomeric materials based on NBR as network precursor. The curing kinetics was determined using the rheometer with an oscillating disk, in which the network formation process is registered by the torque variation during time. The vulcanizates were obtained in a hydraulic press at 150 °C. The mechanical properties of elastomeric composites were determined before and after thermal aging in an air circulating oven. The reinforcing effect of the filler particles was assessed according to mechanical properties before and after aging.

  1. Study on Reaction of Tolylene Diisocyanate with Polyolefine Polyols

    Zhang; Fa-Ai

    2001-01-01

    Polyurethane(PU) has been used widely. It is produced by polyisocyanate with polyol. There are many polyisocyanates and polyols. For polyols it is mainly concentrated on polyester and polyether, there is any study on polyolefine polyol. The paper mainly discuss it.By using tolylene diisocyanate(TDI,C6H4CH3(NCO)2) to react with hydroxyterminated polybutadiene(HTPB,HO-[-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-]n-OH,Mn=3805,) and hydroxy-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)(HTBN, HO-[(-CH2-CH=CHCH2-)x-(-CHCN-CH2)y-]n-OH,Mn=2267), various NCO/OH equivalent ratio NCOterminated polyurethane(PU) prepolymers are synthesized.  ……

  2. Study on Reaction of Tolylene Diisocyanate with Polyolefine Polyols

    2001-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane(PU) has been used widely. It is produced by polyisocyanate with polyol. There are many polyisocyanates and polyols. For polyols it is mainly concentrated on polyester and polyether, there is any study on polyolefine polyol. The paper mainly discuss it.By using tolylene diisocyanate(TDI,C6H4CH3(NCO)2) to react with hydroxyterminated polybutadiene(HTPB,HO-[-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-]n-OH,Mn=3805,) and hydroxy-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)(HTBN, HO-[(-CH2-CH=CHCH2-)x-(-CHCN-CH2)y-]n-OH,Mn=2267), various NCO/OH equivalent ratio NCOterminated polyurethane(PU) prepolymers are synthesized.

  3. Heat sterilizable solid-propellant development

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    The binders tested were polyurethanes made from two hydroxy-terminated polybutadienes, R-45 and Butarez HT, one hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer, Hycar 1300X 17, and a hydroxy-terminated prepolymer, Esterdiol 560, made from the dimerized fatty acid Empol 1010. The isocyanates used most extensively were isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and a polymeric diisocyanate, DDI. Stress relaxation was used to examine the chemical changes that took place in the binder when subjected to the sterilization temperatures. The thermal stability of the oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate (AP), was tested by thermogravimetry in the isothermal and nonisothermal modes. The effect of particle size, recrystallization, moisture content, and doping on the heat stability of AP could be evaluated by this method. The volatile degradation products, obtained when AP samples were aged at 135 C for prolonged periods, were analyzed by mass spectroscopy.

  4. Uranium and lead adsorption onto bentonite and zeolite modified with polyacrylamidoxime

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and bentonite (B)/zeolite (Z)-PAN composites were prepared by direct polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and AN adsorbed onto B and Z. PAN and the composites were subjected to amidoximation procedure to obtain polyacrylamidoxime (PAO), B-PAO and Z-PAO compositions. The structural features were evaluated by FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis. The adsorption dependency of the materials on ion concentration, temperature and time were investigated for Pb2+ and UO22+. The adsorption capacities of B/Z-PAO composites were higher than those of pure PAO. The values of enthalpy and entropy changes were positive. The kinetics of the adsorption was well defined by the pseudo second order rate model. For the use of 1 M HCl as a regenerative effluent, the composites were reusable for five sequential treatments without any change in their structures whereas PAO completely gelled in the first use. (author)

  5. New trends in biotechnology. Biotechnology no atarashii choryu

    Karube, I. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)

    1993-11-30

    This paper focuses on application of the recent biotechnology and introduces its new trends. What has triggered the boom in the application is when the technology has been applied to medicines in the 1970's. Beginning with insulin and interferon, various fibrinolytic agents including tPA and monoclonals have been put on markets one after another in 1991. Progress in humangenomic analysis has led to implementation of gene therapies and diagnoses using genes on gene diseases. Sweeteners used in a large quantity in the foodstuff field are fructoses made by isomerizing glucose produced by using enzymatic bioreactors. Needless to say about production of amino acid, organic acids, saccharides, antibiotics, steroids, and nucleic acid-based compounds by using enzymatic bioreactors, chemicals including acrylic amide from acrylonitrile, enzyme detergents, and bio-herbicides are available commercially. Progress in the technology is seen in all of the fields, including electronics industry and environmental preservation. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Graft-copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers

    A method of graft-copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers such as 1-vinyl-2 pyrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid and acrylamide onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. Gamma ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption and the melting point of the grafted fibers increased with the increase of the degree of grafting. Polypropilen 1-vinyl-2 pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dyes absorption of almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, dispers, and naphtol. However for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colour fastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colourfastness to washing for polypropylene grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain dyes such as v and naphtol dyes

  7. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of cellulosic fabric waste and its application in the removal of cyanide and dichromate from aqueous solution

    Graft polymerization and crosslinking in radiation processing are attractive techniques for modification of the chemical and physical properties of the conventional polymers. The graft polymerization and subsequent chemical treatment can introduce a chelate agent function into a conventional polymer such as cellulosic fabric. Cellulosic graft copolymers were prepared by the reaction of the fiber with acrylonitrile (AN) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) in DMF initiated by gamma-radiation 60Co. The grafted fabric was chemically treated with hydroxyl amine to obtain amidoxime form. Factors affecting on the grafting such as radiation dose, monomer concentration and solvent concentration as well as monomer composition was investigated. The chemically modified graft fabric was applied for recovery of cyanide and dichromate from aqueous solution. The CN show removal percent 89%, whereas dichromate has 65% removal percent

  8. Polymer thin-film transistor based on a high dielectric constant gate insulator

    Lü Wen; Peng Jun-Biao; Yang Kai-Xia; Lan Lin-Feng; Niu Qiao-Li; Cao Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper full polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) based on Poly (acrylonitrile) (PAN) as the gate dielectric and poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as the semiconductor layer were investigated by using different channel width/length ratios. Relatively high dielectric constant of the polymer dielectric layer (6.27) can remarkably reduce the threshold voltage of the transistors to below-3 V. Hole field-effect mobility of MEH-PPV of the PTFTs was about 4.8 × 10-4 cm2/Vs, and on/off current ratio was larger than 102, which was comparable with that of transistors with widely used Poly (4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) or SiO2 as gate dielectrics.

  9. Preparation of thin film nanofibrous composite NF membrane based on EDC/NHS modified PAN-AA nanofibrous substrate

    Yang, Y.; Wang, X.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes consisting of a polyamide (PA) barrier layer were successfully fabricated by interfacial polymerization (IFP) based on electrospun double-layer nanofibrous substrates, which have an ultrathin poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PAN-AA) nanofibrous layer as top layer and a thicker polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber layer as bottom porous support layer. Immersing PAN/PAN-AA nanofibrous substrates into 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) aqueous solution and piperazine (PIP) aqueous solution (0.20 wt%) sequentially for a period of time, the carboxyl groups on PAN-AA nanofibers were activated by carbodiimide and then reacted with the amide groups. The as prepared composite membrane has an integrated structure with high rejection rate (98.0%); high permeate flux (40.4 L/m2h) for MgSO4 aqueous solution (2 g/L).

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and antifungal activity of novel (Z)-N-(2-cyano-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl)-alkyl/aryl-sulfonamides derived from a Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct

    Tavares, Eder C.; Rubinger, Mayura M. M.; Zacchi, Carlos H. C.; Silva, Simone A.; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Guilardi, Silvana; Alcântara, Antônio F. de C.; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Zambolim, Laércio

    2014-06-01

    A series of allyl sulfonamides prepared from the reaction of the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct 2-[hydroxy(phenyl)methyl]acrylonitrile with primary sulfonamides (RSO2NH2), where R = C6H5 (1), 4-Fsbnd C6H4 (2), 4-Clsbnd C6H4 (3), 4-Brsbnd C6H4 (4), 4-NO2sbnd C6H4 (5), CH3 (6), CH3CH2 (7), CH3(CH2)3 (8), and CH3(CH2)7 (9), were characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. BLYP/6-31G* calculations suggested stereoselective reactions, resulting in the exclusive formation of the thermodynamically more stable Z-products. The Z-configuration of the products was confirmed by NOE difference spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The allyl sulfonamides were active against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an important agent of anthracnose in plants.

  11. Structural and Electrochemical Analysis of PMMA Based Gel Electrolyte Membranes

    Chithra M. Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New gel polymer electrolytes containing poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile and poly(methyl methacrylate are prepared by solution casting method. With the addition of 60 wt.% of EC to PVdC-AN/PMMA blend, ionic conductivity value 0.398×10-6 S cm−1 has been achieved. XRD and FT-IR studies have been conducted to investigate the structure and complexation in the polymer gel electrolytes. The FT-IR spectra show that the functional groups C=O and C≡N play major role in ion conduction. Thermal stability of the prepared membranes is found to be about 180°C.

  12. Fabrication of polystyrene/agave particle biocomposites using compression molding technique: evaluation of flammability, biodegradability, mechanical and thermal behaviour

    A S Singha; Raj K Rana

    2013-12-01

    Polystyrene (PS) composites reinforced with ungrafted and acrylonitrile (AN) grafted agave particles (AgP) have been prepared with 10–30% particle content by weight using compression molding technique. The composite specimens thus prepared were subjected to the evaluation of mechanical, chemical, flammability and biodegradability properties. PS composites with 20% particle loading exhibited optimum mechanical properties. AN grafted AgP/PS composites exhibited higher mechanical strength as compared to ungrafted AgP/PS composites. Further AN grafted AgP/PS composites exhibited better thermal properties and biodegradability as compared to PS matrix. Addition of fire retardant fillers such as magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and zinc borate lowered burning rate of PS composites considerably. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of tensile fracture surfaces of AN grafted AgP/PS composites showed better particle/matrix adhesion.

  13. Biosensor for Pesticides Based on Valerolacton Copolymer

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of amperometric biosensor based on immobilized acetycholinesterase and cholin oxidase is described and its application in the detection of organophosphate pesticides through enzyme inhibition measurements is discussed. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of acetycholinesterase or cholin oxidase covalently immobilized on two types new polymeric synthetic membranes. Two types of the copolymers were used for the synthesis of membranes - the copolymer of polyacrylamide and acrylonitrile and the new copolymer of poly- (hexanlactam-co-block-poly-(delta-valerolactone with aliphatic polyester. It is investigated the technical characteristics of biosensor like, response time, linear range and operating stability. The factors affecting the inhibition and reactivation processes were investigated too.

  14. ABS polymer electroless plating through a one-step poly(acrylic acid) covalent grafting.

    Garcia, Alexandre; Berthelot, Thomas; Viel, Pascal; Mesnage, Alice; Jégou, Pascale; Nekelson, Fabien; Roussel, Sébastien; Palacin, Serge

    2010-04-01

    A new, efficient, palladium- and chromium-free process for the electroless plating of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymers has been developed. The process is based on the ion-exchange properties of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chemically grafted onto ABS via a simple and one-step method that prevents using classical surface conditioning. Hence, ABS electroless plating can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the grafting of PAA onto ABS, (ii) the copper Cu(0) seeding of the ABS surface, and (iii) the nickel or copper metallization using commercial-like electroless plating bath. IR, XPS, and SEM were used to characterize each step of the process, and the Cu loading was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This process successfully compares with the commercial one based on chromic acid etching and palladium-based seed layer, because the final metallic layer showed excellent adhesion with the ABS substrate. PMID:20361751

  15. Impact of polymer matrix on the electromagnetic interference shielding performance for single-walled carbon nanotubes-based composites.

    Liang, Jiajie; Huang, Yi; Li, Ning; Bai, Gang; Liu, Zunfeng; Du, Feng; Li, Feifei; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng

    2013-02-01

    Composites of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), epoxy and soluble cross-linked polyurethane (SCPU) with various loadings of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared. Their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X band) was studied. Well-dispersed SWCNT composites were created in these three representative polymer matrixes. The choice of polymer matrix greatly affects the conductivity, percolation threshold, and EMI shielding properties of the SWCNT/polymer composites. Enhanced EMI SE performances were observed for the composites with better dispersed SWCNTs. Moreover, the EMI SE performances strongly correlated with SWCNT loading in the polymer matrix. The best SWCNT dispersion was achieved in the epoxy matrix: 20-30 dB EMI SE was obtained with 15 wt% SWCNTs. PMID:23646584

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of aliphatic alcohols by tetrabutylammonium tribromide

    Manju Baghmar; Pradeep K Sharma

    2001-04-01

    Oxidation of nine primary aliphatic alcohols by tetrabutylammonium tribromide (TBATB) in aqueous acetic acid leads to the formation of the corresponding aldehydes. The reaction is first order with respect to TBATB. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics is observed with respect to alcohols. The reaction failed to induce the polymerization of acrylonitrile. Tetrabutylammonium chloride has no effect on the reaction rate. The proposed reactive oxidizing species is the tribromide ion. The oxidation of [1,1-2H2]ethanol exhibits a substantial kinetic isotope effect. The effect of solvent composition indicates that the rate increases with increase in the polarity of the solvent. The reaction is susceptible to both polar and steric effects of substituents. A mechanism involving transfer of a hydride ion in the ratedetermining step has been proposed.

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some neutral and acidic -amino acids by tetrabutylammonium tribromide

    Raghvendra Shukla; Pradeep K Sharma; Kalyan K Banerji

    2004-03-01

    The oxidation of eleven amino acids by tetrabutylammonium tribromide (TBATB) in aqueous acetic acid results in the formation of the corresponding carbonyl compounds and ammonia. The reaction is first order with respect to TBATB. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics is observed with some of the amino acids while others exhibit second-order dependence. It failed to induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. The effect of solvent composition indicate that the rate of reaction increases with increase in the polarity of the medium. Addition of tetrabutylammonium chloride has no effect on the rate of oxidation. Addition of bromide ion causes decrease in the oxidation rate but only to a limiting value. The reaction is susceptible to both polar and steric effects of the substituents. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  18. A fabrication method of unique Nafion® shapes by painting for ionic polymer–metal composites

    Trabia, Sarah; Hwang, Taeseon; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMC) are useful actuators because of their ability to be fabricated in different shapes and move in various ways. However, producing unique or intricate shapes can be difficult based upon the current fabrication techniques. Presented here is a fabrication method of producing the Nafion® membrane or thin film through a painting method. Using an airbrush, a Nafion water dispersion is sprayed onto an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene surface with a stencil of the desired shape. To verify that this method of fabrication produces a Nafion membrane similar to that which is commercially available, a sample that was made using the painting method and Nafion 117 purchased from DuPont™ were tested for various characteristics and compared. The results show promising similarities. The painted Nafion sample was chemically plated with platinum and compared with a traditional IPMC for its displacement and blocking force capabilities. The painted IPMC sample showed comparable results.

  19. Investigation of the interfacial bonding in composite propellants. 1,3,5-Trisubstituted isocyanurates as universal bonding agents

    GORDANA S. USCUMLIC

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted isocyanurates (substituents: CH2CH2OH, CH2CH=CH2 and CH2CH2COOH was synthesized according to a modified literature procedure. Experimental investigations included modification of the synthetic procedure in terms of the starting materials, solvents, temperature, isolation techniques, as well as purification and identification of the products. All the synthesized isocyanurates were identified by their melting point and FTIR, 1H NMR and UV spectroscopic data. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry was also used to study the interaction between ammonium perchlorate, hydroxyl terminated poly(butadiene, carboxyl terminated poly(butadiene, poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile, poly(propylene ether, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine and the compounds synthesized in this work, which can serve as bonding agents. The results show that tris(2-hydroxyethylisocyanurate is a universal bonding agent for the ammonium perchlorate/carboxyl terminated poly(butadiene/cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine composite propellant system.

  20. Mechanism of Surface Modification for Sericite

    2007-01-01

    Surface modification of sericite by wet method was conducted with the addition of 1.0% (w/w) silane. The resulting wetting contact angle and activity ratio of sericite were 130° and 98% respectively.Good pre-evaluation indexes of oil value (40.8%) and dispersivity (14.0 mL) were obtained. When 30% of sericite was filled into acrylonitrile butadiene styrene(ABS) plastic, the bending strength and tensile strength of the composite material were reduced by 7% and 14.3% in comparison to those of pure ABS plastic, while the rigidity was increased by 3 times, and the impact strength and breaking elongation were reduced significantly.The mechanism of surface modification was investigated and the configuration of silane coupling agent on the surface of sericite was given. Infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis indicates that the adsorption of silane on the surface of sericite belongs to chemical adsorption.

  1. BP petchems unaffected by refinery sales

    Young, I.

    1996-01-17

    BP chemicals says its petrochemical activities at Lima, Ohio and Lavera, France are unlikely to be affected by the BP group`s decision to sell or close its refineries at those sites. BP purchases propylene for acrylonitrile production from its Lima and Toledo, OH refineries. {open_quotes}Until we know who the buyer [of the Lima refinery] is and the terms of the sale, it is difficult to estimate the impact,{close_quotes} BP says. The company intends to continue operating the Lima acrylo unit. BP says its chemical activities in France - including the Lavera-based Naphtachimie olefins joint venture with Elf Atochem - are excluded from any intentions for the Lavera refinery and that there is no direct impact on them. {open_quotes}Any decision on the [refinery] sale will be geared toward protecting the value of these chemical interests as well as the synergy benefits from the refinery and petrochemical complex,{close_quotes} BP says.

  2. (E-3-Anilino-2-benzoyl-3-(methylsulfanylacrylonitrile

    Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title acrylonitrile derivative, C17H14N2OS, the central aminoacrylaldehyde O=C—C=C—NH unit, wherein an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring motif, is approximately planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0234 (2 Å for the five non-H atoms. This plane makes dihedral angles of 41.04 (9 and 84.86 (10° with the two phenyl rings. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 54.82 (10°. An intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bond is also present. In the crystal, weak C—H...π and π–π interactions, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.8526 (14 Å, are observed.

  3. Modified and Unmodified Zinc Oxide as Coagent in Elastomer Compounds

    Kołodziejczak-Radzimska Agnieszka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the activity of unmodified and modified ZnO in the peroxide crosslinking of hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer (HNBR and ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPM. In the first step, zinc oxide was obtained by emulsion precipitation. Maleic acid was introduced onto the surface of ZnO using an in situ method. The unmodified and modified zinc oxide was characterized using dispersive and morphological analysis, BET surface area analysis, and elemental, spectroscopic and thermal analysis. In the second stage of the research, the ZnO/MA systems were incorporated into the structure of elastomer compounds improving the kinetic and mechanical properties of vulcanizates. The proposed modification method had a favorable effect on the physicochemical properties of the zinc oxide and on the kinetic and mechanical properties of the vulcanizates. This study demonstrated that modification of zinc oxide by maleic acid is a promising technique.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW HEXADENTATE SEQUESTRANT IN THE ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAPROPIONIC ACID CLASS

    Mihaela Cazacu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (E-385 as such and/or derivatized (salified occupies a separate chapter, of wide interest in food sciences, because of its coordinating (sequestering competences towards various organic and/or inorganic structures (especially metal cations with small geometric dimensions. This paper aims to diversify the structural range of these hexadentate ligands, by accessing a synthetic protocol different from the classic one, the cyanoethylation of primary amine functional groups of ethylenediamine (ED. In this paper are considered the main dependences of the yields of nucleophilic addition of the amino groups to the activated double bond in acrylonitrile (AN monomer, on the operating parameters (temperature, processing time, molar ratio of reactants, and finally the preliminary data on the coordinating (sequestering competence of ethylenediaminetetrapropionic acid (EDTP. The conclusions drawn support further research to extend the area of hexadentate sequestering structures.

  5. A Novel Class of Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Synthesis and Evaluation of (E-2-(Benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-3-heteroarylacrylonitriles

    Jorge Trilleras

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available (E-2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-3-heteroarylacrylonitriles are described as a new class of selective inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. The most potent compound in the series exhibited good AChE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 64 µM. Compound 7f was found to be more selective than galanthamine in inhibiting AChE and it showed a moderate selectivity index. Kinetic studies on AChE indicated that a competitive type of inhibition pattern exist for these acrylonitrile derivates. Molecular docking models of the ligand-AChE complexes suggest that compound 7g is located on the periphery of the AChE active site.

  6. Synthesis of Oligodeoxynucleotides Using Fully Protected Deoxynucleoside 3′-Phosphoramidite Building Blocks and Base Recognition of Oligodeoxynucleotides Incorporating N3-Cyano-Ethylthymine

    Mitsuo Sekine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN synthesis, which avoids the formation of side products, is of great importance to biochemistry-based technology development. One side reaction of ODN synthesis is the cyanoethylation of the nucleobases. We suppressed this reaction by synthesizing ODNs using fully protected deoxynucleoside 3′-phosphoramidite building blocks, where the remaining reactive nucleobase residues were completely protected with acyl-, diacyl-, and acyl-oxyethylene-type groups. The detailed analysis of cyanoethylation at the nucleobase site showed that N3-protection of the thymine base efficiently suppressed the Michael addition of acrylonitrile. An ODN incorporating N3-cyanoethylthymine was synthesized using the phosphoramidite method, and primer extension reactions involving this ODN template were examined. As a result, the modified thymine produced has been proven to serve as a chain terminator.

  7. TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOURS OF ABS AND PA6 POLYMERMETAL SLIDING COMBINATIONS UNDER DRY FRICTION, WATER ABSORBED AND ELECTROPLATED CONDITIONS

    MITHUN V. KULKARNI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 and poly-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS sliding against metal under dry sliding, water absorption and electroplated (EP conditions were studied by using a pin-ondisc tribometer. The effect of applied load and sliding speed on the tribological behaviours of the polymer–metal sliding combinations under dry sliding, water absorbed and EP conditions were also investigated. The worn surfaces were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Experimental results showed that ABS samples under water absorbed conditions showed higher wear loss compared to normal samples and the EP samples had exhibited lower wear loss compared to the water absorbed samples. Similarly EP-PA6 samples exhibited excellent wear resistance when compared with EP-ABS samples. Further, it was observed that the frictional heat produced on account of sliding action had a significant effect on the tribological behaviours of samples under dry sliding and water absorbed conditions.

  8. Friction and wear of HNBR with different fillers under dry rolling and sliding conditions

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxide cured hydrogenated acrylonitrile/butadiene rubber (HNBR compounds with 20 parts per hundred rubber (phr active fillers, such as carbon black (CB, multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT and silica were produced and their friction and wear properties under unlubricated rolling and sliding conditions were evaluated. The network-related properties of the HNBR compounds were deduced from dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The coefficient of friction (COF and the specific wear rate (Ws were determined in different home-made test rigs. The CB and MWCNT containing HNBR compounds exhibited the best resistance to rolling and sliding wear, respectively, among the HNBR systems studied. The worn surfaces were inspected in scanning electron microscope (SEM and the wear mechanisms were analyzed and discussed in respect to the types of wear and fillers.

  9. Rôle des matériaux-supports sur la mise en place du biofilm : Application au démarrage d’un procédé de méthanisation

    Habouzit, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Dans les systèmes anaérobies de traitement d'eaux usées, la biomasse microbienne complexe incluant archées et bactéries peut être maintenue au sein du procédé par l'adhésion aux supports solides sous forme de biofilm. Le but de ce travail est d'évaluer l'impact des propriétés des matériaux supports sur l’adhésion et la colonisation du consortium méthanogène. Différents matériaux (le polyéthylène, le polypropylène, le chlorure de polyvinyle, l’acrylonitrile butadiène styrène, le polycarbonate,...

  10. Advances in DCC Process and Catalyst for Propylene Production from Heavy Oils

    Xie Chaogang; Gao Yongcan

    2008-01-01

    Deep Catalytic Cracking (DCC) developed by RIPP (Research Institute of Petroleum Processing),SINOPEC is a catalytic conversion process derived from the FCC process using heavy feedstocks for producing raw materials used in the petrochemical industry,such as ethylene and propylene.It was firstly demonstrated in 1990 and has been commercialized since 1994.Up to now,seven units have been put into production inside and outside China,and many other DCC units are under construction and in the phase of design now.Products of propylene and ethylene from DCCU have been used as feedstock for manufacturing high quality polypropylene,polyethylene and acrylonitrile.Many innovations on technological process,and preparation of catalytic materials used in the DCC process will be presented in this paper.

  11. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. PMID:20395134

  12. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  13. Cryogenically assisted abrasive jet micromachining of polymers

    The abrasive jet micromachining (AJM) of elastomers and polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for use in micro-fluidic devices was found to be very slow or impossible at room temperature. To enhance the material removal rate in such materials, a stream of liquid nitrogen (LN2) was injected into the abrasive jet, cooling the target to cryogenic temperatures. Erosion rate measurements on the three polymeric materials (PDMS, ABS and PTFE) with and without the use of LN2 were compared along with the profiles of micromachined channels and holes. It was found that the use of LN2 cooling caused brittle erosion in PDMS, allowing it to be micromachined successfully. An erosion rate increase was also observed in PTFE and ABS at high and intermediate impact angles. The use of LN2 also was found to reduce particle embedding

  14. Development of compact slip detection sensor using dielectric elastomer

    Choi, Jae-young; Hwang, Do-Yeon; Kim, Baek-chul; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we developed a resistance tactile sensor that can detect a slip on the surface of sensor structure. The presented sensor device has fingerprint-like structures that are similar with the role of the humans finger print. The resistance slip sensor that the novel developed uses acrylo-nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as a dielectric substrate and graphene as an electrode material. We can measure the slip as the structure of sensor makes a deformation and it changes the resistance through forming a new conductive route. To manufacture our sensor, we developed a new imprint process. By using this process, we can produce sensor with micro unit structure. To verify effectiveness of the proposed slip detection, experiment using prototype of resistance slip sensor is conducted with an algorithm to detect slip and slip is successfully detected. We will discuss the slip detection properties.

  15. China seeks Korean partners

    In mid-February an eight-member Chinese delegation from the Ministry of Chemicals visited South Korea in search of petrochemicals joint venture partners. The delegation opened negotiations with Seoul-based Lucky (polyacetal resins, polymethacrylates, and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]); Hanyang Chemical (PVC); Samsung Petrochemical (aromatics); Korea Steel Chemical (carbon black); Il Shin Chemical (film for agricultural use); Shinsung Chemical (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene); Shin-A Chemical (expanded polystyrene). Meanwhile, Daelim (Seoul) is negotiating on a project to build 70,000-m.t./year octanol and butanol plants at Zhenjiang, China, plus shore tanks for its ethylene and propylene exports at Zhangbei and Liu Jiang. Daelim officials will visit China again in May

  16. SIMULATION OF ELECTRICAL FIELD FOR THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF BIRD'S NEST PATTERNED STRUCTURES BY ELECTROSPINNING

    Xiang-yu Ye; Yi-ning Jin; Xiao-jun Huang; Lei Luo; Zhi-kang Xu

    2013-01-01

    In our previous work,it was found that large Bird's Nest patterned nanofibrous membranes can be simply electrospun from chlorinated polypropylene solution doped with an ionic liquid,and a plausible formation mechanism of Bird's Nest patterned architectures was proposed.Here,we use Ansoft Maxwell version 12 software (3D,electrostatic solver) to simulate the electrical field distribution of the electrospirming setup,and to clarify the rationality of proposed formation mechanism.Calculation results clearly show that the introduction of charged nanofibrous bundles would produce a similar patterned electrical field distribution,which definitely confirms the important role of surface residual charges.The proposed mechanism can be well extended to other polymer systems including polystyrene,poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) and chitosan/poly(ethvlene oxide).

  17. In vitro anti-influenza screening of several Euphorbiaceae species: structure of a bioactive Cyanoglucoside from Codiaeum variegatum.

    Forero, Jorge Eduardo; Avila, Liliana; Taborda, Natalia; Tabares, Paula; López, Albeiro; Torres, Fernando; Quiñones, Winston; Bucio, María A; Mora-Pérez, Yolanda; Rugeles, Maria Teresa; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Echeverri, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    A bio-guided screening against influenza A virus (FLUAV) was carried out with seven Euphorbiaceae species. The results showed that chromatographic fractions from Phyllantus niruri, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Codiaeum variegatum had relevant anti-FLUAV activity, although only chromatographical subfractions from C. variegatum kept the activity. From this plant, the active compound against FLUAV was isolated. Its structure was assigned as 2-(3,4,5)-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxymethyl)acrylonitrile (1) on the basis of NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound displayed virucidal activity without impairment of haemagglutination properties of the used virus strain. This is the first report indicating antiviral activity of a cyanoglucoside. PMID:18851862

  18. Investigation of the Properties of Immobilized Horseradish Peroxidase on Magnetic Particles

    Ivanov T.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particles coated with copolymer of acrylamide and acrylonitrile have been prepared. Those particles were used as a matrix for a covalent binding of peroxidase. The periodic-oxidized enzyme was bound to the matrix by immobilization procedure at 4°C for 18 hours. The immobilized enzyme showed relative activity of 86%. The following results were obtained for pH and optimum temperature of the immobilized enzyme - 7.0 and 30°C, respectively. The analysis of the kinetic parameters of the immobilized enzyme showed values of Vmax - 0.0517 M.10-6/sec and Km - 2.3x10-4 M.

  19. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators. (paper)

  20. Use of Liquid Rubber and Epoxy Resins in the Formulation of Sealants%液体端氨基丁腈橡胶和环氧树脂制备的密封胶及性能

    张俊生; 陈庆民

    2011-01-01

    The performance of sealants based on liquid Amine-Terminated Butadiene Acrylonitrile (ATBN) and epoxy was outlined. The sealants have inherent resistance to high temperature and, in addition, exhibit high flexibility at temperatures as low as 253K due to their chemical structure the ATBN. Sealants based on this technology possess more excellent physical properties than traditional sealants such as low-molecular-weight polysulfide (Thiokols LP) sealants or silicon sealant. Dynamic mechanical analysis shows ATBN and epoxy form two phases in the sealants. The tensile strength and the ultimate elongation increase with increasing content of acrylonitrile of ATBN. Sealants based on ATBN show good properties on resistance to compression.%利用端氨基丁腈橡胶(ATBN)和韧性环氧树脂制备了一系列高力学强度的密封胶.力学性能测试结果表明,调节固化剂和补强填料的用量,可以得到一系列拉伸强度在5.6MPa~11.2MPa,伸长率在150%~550%之间的密封胶.丁腈橡胶中丙烯腈的含量越高,密封胶的断裂伸长率也越高,拉伸强度则在增加到一定程度后,基本保持不变.动态力学分析研究显示,该密封肢体系在软硬段的作用下,存在着两相结构.该密封胶具有优良的耐高低温和耐压缩性能.