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Sample records for acrylic polymers

  1. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  2. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study

  3. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-01

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  5. Novel polymer coatings based on plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate

    Wu, Zhenning; Jiang, Juan; Benter, Maike;

    2008-01-01

    properties[4-6]. We have exploited these possibilities and prepared plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PPMEA) coatings on various polymer substrates. The PPMEA coatings were optimized using various plasma polymerization conditions and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy......Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) is cited as the most blood compatible polyme~l]. Modification of polymer surfaces with PMEA has recently brought to improved materials for such applications[1,2]. Recently PMEA and its block copolymers with PMMA with controlled characteristics have been...... synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP)[3]. This enabled a surface segregation of the more hydrophilic block to the polymer/air interface and enrichment of the surface with PMEA. Here we present another way to modify a surface with this material - plasma polymerization in a low energy...

  6. Acryl polymer-silica hybrid for electron beam resist

    Electron beam (EB) resist of acryl polymer-silica hybrid was investigated for fabrication of optical elements. The EB-lithography on the hybrid thin film afforded positive pattern whose depth corresponded to EB exposure dose, indicating that the hybrid was an analog resist. The positive pattern from the hybrids could be transferred to the underlying quartz glass plate by reactive ion etching (RIE) and be coated with metal thin film by its vacuum-deposition owing to the sufficient RIE resistance and heat resistance of the hybrids. The acryl polymer component would be EB sensitive and resist RIE, and the silica matrix would play a role to raise heat resistance and compatibility with the underlying quartz. (author)

  7. Acrylic interpenetrating polymer network dielectric elastomers for energy harvesting

    Brochu, Paul; Niu, Xiaofan; Pei, Qibing

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer energy harvesters are an emerging technology that promise high power density, low cost, scalability, and the capability of fitting niche markets that have yet to be exploited. To date, materials issues that limit their overall performance have hampered the full potential of these devices. In order to supplant existing technologies, even in niche markets, dielectric elastomer generators must increase their reliability and energy density. Previous work has indicated that stiffer elastomers should be capable of higher energy densities; the increased stiffness of the elastomer films should results in lower Maxwell pressure induced strains, and thus allow the elastomer to relax further, resulting in a larger swing in capacitance and larger energy gains. In this paper we examine the use of VHB-based acrylic interpenetrating polymer network dielectric elastomers with a trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate additive network for energy harvesting purposes. We test films with varying additive content and compare their performance with highly prestrained VHB acrylic elastomers. We show that by increasing additive content, Maxwell induced strains can be suppressed and larger energy gains can be achieved at higher bias fields. Moreover, the introduction of the additive network stabilizes the highly prestrained acrylic elastomers mechanically, thereby increasing their mechanical robustness. However, the interpenetrating polymer network films suffer from an increase in viscoelastic behavior that hinders their overall performance.

  8. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  9. Use of Acrylic Acid Sodium Acrylate Polymer to Maintain Cocoa Seed Viability

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of cocoa seed storage is moisture content of the seeds because cocoa seeds will germinate if cocoa seeds moisture content is high. The objective of this research is to maintain the cocoa seeds viability in storage using acrylic acid sodium acrylate polymer (AASAP. The function of AASAP is to absorb humidity in storage due to their ability to retain water and to prevent water loss. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute and in Kaliwining Experimental Garden. This experiment was arranged by factorial randomized complete design, in wich AASAP dosages 0%; 0.1% (0.1 g/100 seeds; 0.2% (0.2 g/100 seeds, 0.3% (0.3 g/100 seeds, 0,4% (0,4g/100 seeds, combined with seeds storage period 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The experiment used 3 replications and each repli cation used 100 seeds. Parameter of observation consisted of percentage of seeds germinated in storage, percentage of seeds infected by fungi in storage, seeds moisture content, percentage of seeds germination after storage, and early growth of cocoa seedlings. The results of the experiment showed that AASAP application with some dosages cocoa seeds storage cause to germinate in storage during 2 weeks. AASAP application with some dosages in cocoa seeds storage for 2 weeks would not result in infection by fungi and did not significantly affect seed germination after storage for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and percentage of germination of cocoa seed after storage for 3 weeks decreased with increase dosage of AASAP. Higher dosage of AASAP would reduce early growth of cocoa seedling. Key words : Theobroma cacao, seed, acrylic acid sodium acrylate, seed storage, viabilty.

  10. Effect of acrylic polymers on physical parameters of spheronized pellets using an aqueous coating system

    Akhter Afsana; Kibria Golam

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop ambroxol hydrochloride sustained release pellets by an extrusion-spheronization technique and subsequent coating with acrylic polymers. Acrylic polymers like Eudragit RL 30 D, Eudragit RS 30 D and Eudragit NE 30 D were used as release retarding coating polymers. The release retarding capability of these polymers was also investigated. In each case, 10% polymer on dry basis was loaded. The flow property, surface roughness as well as the drug release ...

  11. Characteristics and mechanisms of acrylate polymer damage to maize seedlings.

    Chen, Xian; Mao, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qin; Liao, Zongwen; He, Zhenli

    2016-07-01

    Superabsorbent acrylate polymers (SAPs) have been widely used to maintain soil moisture in agricultural management, but they may cause damage to plants, and the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, seed germination, soil pot culture, hydroponic experiments, and SAPs degradation were conducted to investigate damage characteristics and mechanisms associated with SAPs application. The Results showed that SAPs inhibited maize growth and altered root morphology (irregular and loose arrangement of cells and breakage of cortex parenchyma), and the inhibitory effects were enhanced at higher SAPs rates. After 1h SAP hydrogels treatment, root malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) content were significantly decreased. Hydroponics experiment indicated that root and shoot growth was inhibited at 2.5mgL(-1) acrylic acid (AA), and the inhibition was enhanced with increasing AA rates. This effect was exacerbated by the presence of Na(+) at a high concentration in the hydrogels. Release and degradation of AA were enhanced at higher soil moisture levels. A complete degradation of AA occurred between 15 and 20 days after incubation (DAI), but it took longer for Na(+) concentration to decrease to a safe level. These results indicate that high concentration of both AA and Na(+) present in the SAPs inhibits plant growth. The finding of this study may provide a guideline for appropriate application of SAPs in agriculture. PMID:27057990

  12. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE ACRYLATE/EPOXY RESIN INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS

    SHI Youheng; NIE Xuzong

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on polyurethane acrylate and epoxy resin was prepared by simultaneous photoinitiating by both free-radical and cationic polymerization.The effects of the polyurethane acrylate prepolymer's molecular weight, various components ratio and polymerization methods on IPN's dynamic mechanical and mechanical properties were investigated.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF BIOCOMPATIBLE ACRYLIC POLYMERS HAVING ASPIRIN-MOIETIES

    LI Fumian; GU Zhongwei; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Several new monomers, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl acrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl acrylate have been synthesized from aspirin with corresponding hydroxyalkyl or glycidyl acrylates, and then polymerized by free radical initiator.

  14. New oil modified acrylic polymer for pH sensitive drug release: Experimental results and statistical analysis

    Panja, N.; Chattopadhyay, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    We report results of an experimental study, complemented by detailed statistical analysis of the experimental data, on the development of a more effective control method of drug delivery using a pH sensitive acrylic polymer. New copolymers based on acrylic acid and fatty acid are constructed from dodecyl castor oil and a tercopolymer based on methyl methacrylate, acrylic acid and acryl amide were prepared using this new approach. Water swelling characteristics of fatty acid, acrylic acid copo...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  16. Polymer coating comprising 2-methoxyethyl acrylate units synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012184029A The present invention relates to preparation of a polymer coating comprising or consisting of polymer chains comprising or consisting of units of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI ATRP) such as ARGET SI ATRP or...

  17. Properties of Low Surface Energy Fluorocarbon Polymers with Fluoro-acrylic Resins

    LIU Xiusheng; WANG Can; LIU Lanxuan; LI Jian; GAO Wanzhen

    2008-01-01

    The low surface energy fluorocarbon polymer from the synthesized fluoro-acrylic resins was developed. Then the molecule orientation principle of nonpolar and polar functional groups in the polymers was analyzed. And the contact angles of pure water drops on the surfaces of various fluoro-monomer homopolymers and interpolymers were measured. So the relation of polymers' fluoro-content with the surface energy was determined. The distribution of fluoric functional groups in the polymers was investigated. And the test results show that though the total fluorine content of the fluorocarbon polymers is relative few, their surface energy is really low due to the enrichment of fluoro-chains on the polymers surface.

  18. Gel polymer electrolytes based on nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate for lithium batteries

    Kim, Dul-Sun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jang Chang [Department of Textile Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Nam-gu Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Youk, Ji Ho, E-mail: youk@inha.ac.kr [Department of Textile Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Nam-gu Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Manuel, James [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate was used as a crosslinking agent of fibers. • The GPE based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at weight ratios of 1/0.5 and 1/1. TMPTA is used to achieve crosslinking of fibers thereby improving mechanical strength. The average fiber diameters increased with increasing TMPTA concentration and the mechanical strength was also improved due to the enhanced crosslinking of fibers. GPEs based on electrospun membranes were prepared by soaking them in a liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1, v/v). The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate (weight ratio; 1/1 and 1/0.5) were investigated. Ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN–acrylate was the highest for PAN/acrylate (1/0.5) due to the proper swelling of fibers and good affinity with liquid electrolyte. Both GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate membranes show good oxidation stability, >5.0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Cells with GPEs based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed remarkable cycle performance with high initial discharge capacity and low capacity fading.

  19. Bioinspired bioadhesive polymers: dopa-modified poly(acrylic acid) derivatives.

    Laulicht, Bryan; Mancini, Alexis; Geman, Nathanael; Cho, Daniel; Estrellas, Kenneth; Furtado, Stacia; Hopson, Russell; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-11-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of novel bioinspired bioadhesive polymers that contain Dopa, implicated in the extremely adhesive byssal fibers of certain gastropods, is reported. The novel polymers consist of combinations of either of two polyanhydride backbones and one of three amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or Dopa, grafted as side chains. Dopa-grafted hydrophobic backbone polymers exhibit as much as 2.5 × the fracture strength and 2.8 × the tensile work of bioadhesion of a commercially available poly(acrylic acid) derivative as tested on live, excised, rat intestinal tissue. PMID:23008096

  20. Novel Routes for the Design of Poly((meth)acrylic acid) Containing Polymer Structures by Controlled Radical Polymerization

    Van Camp, W

    2007-01-01

    Easy preparation of specialty polymers containing poly((meth)acrylic acid) Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) are well-known polymers in a high number of applications because of their pH-responsive nature, their hydrophylic characteristics and for their interaction with metal ions. PAA, high tech material An increasing part of high tech polymer materials introduce P(M)AA as segments in well-defined polymer structures. These can be block copolymers, polymer brushes, sta...

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  2. Applications of Acrylate-based Polymer and Silicone Resin on LPFG-based Devices

    2002-01-01

    Both acrylate-based polymer and silicone resin are proposed as recoating materials surrounding LPFGs for purposes of different applications. For the LPFG recoated with a thin layer of acrylate-based polymer, the range of wavelength shift as much as 60nm is expected when temperature changes from 0~100℃. As for that with surrounding material of silicone resin, the temperature stability is greatly improved depicted as the maximum wavelength shift of about 0.6nm with the same temperature variation. The former is potentially a broadband tunable band rejection filter or temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity. And the latter could be applied as temperature insensitive filter, demultiplexer or strain sensor.

  3. Polymer effect on lithium ion dynamics in gel polymer electrolytes: Cationic versus acrylate polymer

    In this work we study different ternary polymer gel electrolytes in order to analyze the influence of the type of polymer and its concentration on the lithium ion transport. Four ternary systems are prepared, containing either poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (PDADMATFSI) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as polymeric component, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (LiTFSI) as conducting salt, and either ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) or propylene carbonate (PC) as solvent. We study the lithium ion dynamics in dependence on polymer concentration for all systems. The samples are studied by 7Li and 19F Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments of the lithium ion as well as the TFSI− anion. The diffusion coefficients of the ions decrease strongly with increasing concentration of PMMA, but they decrease less significantly for increasing concentration of PDADMATFSI. Various comparisons of diffusion coefficient ratios highlight the role of the solvent and the polymer, respectively. Spin-lattice relaxation rates give an insight about the change in short range (local) dynamics of the lithium ion. In summary, the result show that PDADMATFSI acts as an efficient ionic cluster breaker between lithium and TFSI− and is thus a far better suitable polymer in electrolytes than PMMA

  4. Nanoparticles containing ketoprofen and acrylic polymers prepared by an aerosol flow reactor method

    Eerikäinen, Hannele; Peltonen, Leena; Raula, Janne; Hirvonen, Jouni; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline the effects of interactions between a model drug and various acrylic polymers on the physical properties of nanoparticles prepared by an aerosol flow reactor method. The amount of model drug, ketoprofen, in the nanoparticles was varied, and the nanoparticles were analyzed for particle size distribution, particle morphology, thermal properties, IR spectroscopy, and drug release. The nanoparticles produced were spherical, amorphous, and had a matrix-type...

  5. Influence of an Acrylic Polymer Blend on the Physical Stability of Film-Coated Theophylline Pellets

    Kucera, Shawn; Shah, Navnit H.; Malick, A. Waseem; Infeld, Martin H.; McGinity, James W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical stability of a coating system consisting of a blend of two sustained release acrylic polymers and its influence on the drug release rate of theophylline from coated pellets. The properties of both free films and theophylline pellets coated with the polymer blend were investigated, and the miscibility was determined via differential scanning calorimetry. Eudragit® RS 30 D was plasticized by the addition of Eudragit® NE 30 D, and the pre...

  6. Study of positron annihilation in three-dimensional oligoester acrylates polymers

    Distributions of positron annihilation according to life times in tree-dimensional polymers of oligoester acrylates (OEA) with different degree of crosslinking varying from 0.45 x 1021 to (8-9) x 1021 cm-3 have been measured. The data obtained have been used to study the size, concentration and distribution of free microvolumes in the polymers. Crosslinking gives rise to simultaneous suppression of two long-lived components in the measured distributions of annihilation. The effect is very clearly pronounced at high degrees of crosslinking in polymers on the basis of diacetylene-containing OEA. At a preset degree of crosslinking the influence of polymer composition and intermolecular interaction on the number of microvolumes was observed. 20 refs., 1 tab

  7. Preparation and characterization of high salts polymer electrolyte based on poly(lithium acrylate)

    TANG Ai-dong; HUANG Ke-long; PAN Chun-yue; LU Cui-hong

    2005-01-01

    Novel polymer electrolytes were prepared by highly mixing poly(lithium acrylate)(PPALi) with eutectic lithium salts of lithium acetate and lithium nitrate.Poly(lithium acrylate) was preparaed by inverse emulsion polymerization from crylic acid and LiOH.Phase transition temperatures were measured for all the eutectic lithium of binary system samples as a function of the concentration of Li(CH3 COO),and the mixtures exhibit the lowest phase transition temperatures of (448±2) K at about 50% (mass fraction) Li(CH3 COO).Thermogravimetry(TG)and X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis indicate the formation of a novel polymer-salt complex.The highest conductivity(approximately 4.97 ×10-5S·cm-1) is found at room temperature with the electrolyte composition of eutectic mixture of about 80% (mass fraction),poly(lithium acrylate) 20% under quickly cooling condition,which is 150%higher than that under natural cooling condition.

  8. Use of acrylic acid in the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers for the analysis of cyproheptadine

    The synthesis and comparative characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with cyproheptadine (CYP), using two different monomers, acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid (MAA), are described. Polyacids (PA) [poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)] were obtained by the radical polymerization of MAA and AA, respectively, in dichloromethane as the porogen solvent-imprinted medium. The non-covalent imprinting process was performed via thermal decomposition of an azo-initiator at 60 deg. C, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) as the initiator. The selectivities of MIPs and NIPs particles were evaluated in binding experiments of the four synthesized polymeric materials (MIPaa, MIPmaa, NIPmaa and NIPaa) with CYP. The effects of monomers on: a) the surface morphology, b) the binding capacity and c) the swelling properties of imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were studied and are presented here. Polymer material morphology was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This revealed differences in monomer function, depending on which one was employed, as well as differences in function when polymerization occurred in the presence of template or without it. Non-specific retention of the template to NIPs was higher for NIPs-PAA polymers than for NIPs-PMAA materials. In terms of specific binding (ΔQ = QMIP - QNIP), MIPmaa showed the greatest value (53.47%) in comparison with MIPaa (50.07%)

  9. Effect of acrylic polymers on physical parameters of spheronized pellets using an aqueous coating system

    Akhter Afsana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop ambroxol hydrochloride sustained release pellets by an extrusion-spheronization technique and subsequent coating with acrylic polymers. Acrylic polymers like Eudragit RL 30 D, Eudragit RS 30 D and Eudragit NE 30 D were used as release retarding coating polymers. The release retarding capability of these polymers was also investigated. In each case, 10% polymer on dry basis was loaded. The flow property, surface roughness as well as the drug release behavior of the pellets was found to be the subject of types of polymers. About 35% drug was released at the first hour in 0.1N HCl media (pH 1.2 from Eudragit RL 30 D-coated pellets but from Eudragit RS 30 D and Eudragit NE 30 D-coated pellets, only 13.75 and 2.43% drug was released, respectively. In buffer media (pH 6.8, about 54% drug was released at the first hour from Eudragit RL 30 D-coated pellets but only 64% drug was released at 10 h. From Eudragit RL 30 D- and Eudragit NE 30 D-coated pellets only 7.28 and 1.14% drug was released at 1 h, respectively, but about 5.14 and 5.86 h was required for 50% drug release from these two polymers and about 80% drug was released at 10 h. The functional groups present in the polymeric films played a significant role on in vitro release kinetics of the drug from the coated pellets. Different kinetic models like zero order, first order and Higuchi were used for fitting the drug release pattern. The Higuchi model was the best fitted for ambroxol release from the coated pellets. The drug release mechanism was derived with Korsmeyer equation.

  10. Improvement in the behavior of bromelain coupled to pNIPAm polymers containing acrylamide or acrylic acid

    Rubab Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Bromelain was coupled to N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm)polymers, synthesized using NIPAm and various concentrations of acrylamide (Ac) or acrylic acid (AAc). Incorporation of Ac/AAcinto the polymer increased the LCST (lower critical solutiontemperature) in a concentration dependent manner but AAc wasmore effective in this regard; the LCST rose to 40°C when 6 percent AAc was used. Incorporation of Ac/AAc increased the coupling of enzyme to the polymer and the η (effectiveness factor) o...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of thermal energy storage microencapsulated n-dodecanol with acrylic polymer shell

    Two kinds of (microencapsulated phase change materials) MicroPCMs with acrylic-based copolymer as shell and n-dodecanol as core were successfully fabricated via suspension-like polymerization and photo-induced microencapsulation, respectively. Morphology and core–shell structure were observed by (field emission scanning electron microscope) FE-SEM. Thermal properties of the microencapsulated n-dodecanol were investigated by (differential scanning calorimeter) DSC and (thermogravimetric analysis) TGA. The results indicate that the mass ratio of core to shell has great influence on the morphology, inner structure, microencapsulated efficiency and durability of the microcapsules. Besides, the effects of various solvents and UV irridiation time on the microcapsule surface were discussed as well. In the experiment carried out, metal-ion complexation was conducted by the reaction between Mn ion and carboxyl groups on copolymer shell to enhance the performance of the microcapsules with n-dodecanol encapsulated. As the results indicate, the physicochemical properties and thermal conductivity of the shell were improved after Mn ion complexation reaction. Supercooling phenomenon of n-dodecanol was depressed to some extent. In the end, the thermo-regulated fiber containing acrylic-based copolymer microcapsules was fabricated, and thermo-regulated performance test of the fiber was also conducted. - Graphical abstract: (a)∼(d) schematic diagram of microencapsulation and (e) microcapsule with core–shell structure. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated n-dodecanol with acrylic polymer shell. • Microencapsulated n-dodecanol was fabricated by photo-induced microencapsulation. • Acrylic-based copolymer microcapsules with manganese-ion complexation

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites in absence and presence of acrylic elastomer (ACM).

    Kumar, S; Rath, T; Mahaling, R N; Mukherjee, M; Khatua, B B; Das, C K

    2009-05-01

    Polyetherimide/Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs) nanocomposites containing as-received and modified (COOH-MWNT) carbon nanotubes were prepared through melt process in extruder and then compression molded. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the MWNTs were well dispersed and formed an intimate contact with the polymer matrix without any agglomeration. However the incorporation of modified carbon nanotubes formed fascinating, highly crosslinked, and compact network structure throughout the polymer matrix. This showed the increased adhesion of PEI with modified MWNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed high degree of dispersion of modified MWNTs along with broken ends. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a marginal increase in storage modulus (E') and glass transition temperature (T(g)) with the addition of MWNTs. Increase in tensile strength and impact strength of composites confirmed the use the MWNTs as possible reinforcement agent. Both thermal and electrical conductivity of composites increased, but effect is more pronounced on modification due to formation of network of carbon nanotubes. Addition of acrylic elastomer to developed PEI/MWNTs (modified) nanocomposites resulted in the further increase in thermal and electrical properties due to the formation of additional bond between MWNTs and acrylic elastomers at the interface. All the results presented are well corroborated by SEM and FESEM studies. PMID:19452959

  13. Use of acrylic acid in the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers for the analysis of cyproheptadine

    Feas, Xesus [Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Campus Lugo, University of Santiago de Compostela. E-27002, Lugo, Galiza (Spain); Fente, Cristina A. [Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Campus Lugo, University of Santiago de Compostela. E-27002, Lugo, Galiza (Spain)], E-mail: cfente@lugo.usc.es; Hosseini, S. Vali [Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Campus Lugo, University of Santiago de Compostela. E-27002, Lugo, Galiza (Spain); Seijas, Julio A. [Organic Chemistry, Campus Lugo, University of Santiago de Compostela. Aptdo 280, E-27080, Lugo (Spain); Vazquez, Beatriz I.; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto [Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Campus Lugo, University of Santiago de Compostela. E-27002, Lugo, Galiza (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    The synthesis and comparative characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP{sub s}) with cyproheptadine (CYP), using two different monomers, acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid (MAA), are described. Polyacids (PA) [poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)] were obtained by the radical polymerization of MAA and AA, respectively, in dichloromethane as the porogen solvent-imprinted medium. The non-covalent imprinting process was performed via thermal decomposition of an azo-initiator at 60 deg. C, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) as the initiator. The selectivities of MIP{sub s} and NIP{sub s} particles were evaluated in binding experiments of the four synthesized polymeric materials (MIP{sub aa}, MIP{sub maa}, NIP{sub maa} and NIP{sub aa}) with CYP. The effects of monomers on: a) the surface morphology, b) the binding capacity and c) the swelling properties of imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were studied and are presented here. Polymer material morphology was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This revealed differences in monomer function, depending on which one was employed, as well as differences in function when polymerization occurred in the presence of template or without it. Non-specific retention of the template to NIP{sub s} was higher for NIP{sub s}-PAA polymers than for NIP{sub s}-PMAA materials. In terms of specific binding ({delta}Q = Q{sub MIP} - Q{sub NIP}), MIP{sub maa} showed the greatest value (53.47%) in comparison with MIP{sub aa} (50.07%)

  14. Effect of an acrylic resin combined with an antimicrobial polymer on biofilm formation

    Juliê Marra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of an acrylic resin combined with an antimicrobial polymer poly (2-tert-butylaminoethyl methacrylate (PTBAEMA to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans biofilm formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Discs of a heat-polymerized acrylic resin were produced and divided according to PTBAEMA concentration: 0 (control, 10 and 25%. The specimens were inoculated (10(7 CFU/mL and incubated at 37ºC for 48 h. After incubation, the wells were washed and each specimen was sonicated for 20 min. Replicate aliquots of resultant suspensions were plated at dilutions at 37ºC for 48 h. The number of colony-forming units (CFU was counted and expressed as log (CFU+1/mL and analyzed statistically with α=.05. RESULTS: The results showed that 25% PTBAEMA completely inhibited S. aureus and S. mutans biofilm formation. A significant reduction of log (CFU+1/mL in count of S. aureus (control: 7.9±0.8A; 10%: 3.8±3.3B and S. mutans (control: 7.5±0.7A; 10%: 5.1±2.7B was observed for the group containing 10% PTBAEMA (Mann-Whitney, p0.05, P=0.079. CONCLUSIONS: Acrylic resin combined with 10 and 25% of PTBAEMA showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. mutans biofilm, but it was inactive against the C. albicans biofilm.

  15. ABS polymer electroless plating through a one-step poly(acrylic acid) covalent grafting.

    Garcia, Alexandre; Berthelot, Thomas; Viel, Pascal; Mesnage, Alice; Jégou, Pascale; Nekelson, Fabien; Roussel, Sébastien; Palacin, Serge

    2010-04-01

    A new, efficient, palladium- and chromium-free process for the electroless plating of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymers has been developed. The process is based on the ion-exchange properties of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chemically grafted onto ABS via a simple and one-step method that prevents using classical surface conditioning. Hence, ABS electroless plating can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the grafting of PAA onto ABS, (ii) the copper Cu(0) seeding of the ABS surface, and (iii) the nickel or copper metallization using commercial-like electroless plating bath. IR, XPS, and SEM were used to characterize each step of the process, and the Cu loading was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This process successfully compares with the commercial one based on chromic acid etching and palladium-based seed layer, because the final metallic layer showed excellent adhesion with the ABS substrate. PMID:20361751

  16. The stability of free radicals in densely crosslinked acrylate polymer networks

    Four types of crosslinked polymeric systems based on pentaerythritetatraacrylate (PETA) and propylene glycol - 424 -diacetonate (PGDSAA) were studied from the standpoints of free radical decay and the network density. The networks samples were prepared by two step synthesis. At first the Michael dark reaction results for multifunctional acrylates and acetoacetates in polymer network. The crosslinking continued in the second step of network formation by a photo-polymerization of the residual vinyl monomer, and pendant double bonds build up in the primary network in the first step of the synthesis. The free radical accumulation to the steady state during the irradiation, and their decay in the dark periods were studied directly in ESR spectrometer at 25 grad C. The kinetic of the radicals decay after switch of the light was used to calculate the rate constants for bimolecular termination reaction kt. These values show on the existence of long lived free radicals in the investigated polymeric networks. The stability of radicals is approximately of two decimal orders higher in networks irradiated in nitrogen compared to irradiation in air. A loss of the hyperfine structure of the spectra during repeated irradiation cycles is explained by increasing spin-spin dipolar interactions when radicals are trapped in more rigid regions of the polymer matrix. (authors)

  17. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment.

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Nemoto, Eri; Sato, Kazuhiro; Orui, Toshihiko; Otaki, Takayuki; Yoshihiro, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investigated protein adsorption, cell attachment profiles, and attachment mechanisms on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated the possibility of attachment-based cell enrichment on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells started to attach to poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA), on which proteins could adsorb well, within 1 h. HepG2 cells started to attach after 1 h. HT-1080, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cells started to attach within 30 min to PMEA, poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (30:70 mol%, PMe2A) and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (30:70 mol%, PMe3A), which suppress protein adsorption. Moreover, the ratio of attached cells from a cell mixture can be changed on PMEA analogous polymers. These findings suggested that PMEA analogous polymers can be used for attachment-based cell enrichment. PMID:26288362

  18. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate (PMEA Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment.

    Takashi Hoshiba

    Full Text Available Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PMEA substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investigated protein adsorption, cell attachment profiles, and attachment mechanisms on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated the possibility of attachment-based cell enrichment on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells started to attach to poly(butyl acrylate (PBA and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate (PTHFA, on which proteins could adsorb well, within 1 h. HepG2 cells started to attach after 1 h. HT-1080, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cells started to attach within 30 min to PMEA, poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate (30:70 mol%, PMe2A and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate (30:70 mol%, PMe3A, which suppress protein adsorption. Moreover, the ratio of attached cells from a cell mixture can be changed on PMEA analogous polymers. These findings suggested that PMEA analogous polymers can be used for attachment-based cell enrichment.

  19. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  20. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cell with poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile)-based gel polymer electrolyte

    Highlights: ► A nontoxic, easily synthesized poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) showed suitable transmittance for dye-sensitized solar cell. ► A cell with relatively large active area fabricated with this polymer material showed acceptable efficiency. ► The gel polymer matrix affected the charge recombination, I3− diffusion, double layer capacitance, and electron lifetime in the cell. - Abstract: A non-conducting, nontoxic poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAA) was prepared and used as a supporting matrix for the electrolyte of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs of active area 0.80 cm × 1.10 cm fabricated with PAA, 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, 0.5 M 3-tert-butylpyridine, and 0.1 M 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide in 3-methoxypropionitrile solvent showed an average solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.61% under simulated sunlight illumination of 100 mW cm−2, AM 1.5. The effects of the gel polymer matrix on the electrochemical properties of DSSCs were studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Relative to the non-gel reference cells, the results showed a decrease in charge recombination, ionic diffusion, and double layer capacitance and an increase in electron lifetime. These results could play an important role in determining the future direction for the development of high-performance gel polymer electrolytes.

  2. Improvement in the behavior of bromelain coupled to pNIPAm polymers containing acrylamide or acrylic acid

    Rubab Mahmood

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bromelain was coupled to N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAmpolymers, synthesized using NIPAm and various concentrations of acrylamide (Ac or acrylic acid (AAc. Incorporation of Ac/AAcinto the polymer increased the LCST (lower critical solutiontemperature in a concentration dependent manner but AAc wasmore effective in this regard; the LCST rose to 40°C when 6 percent AAc was used. Incorporation of Ac/AAc increased the coupling of enzyme to the polymer and the η (effectiveness factor of the coupled enzyme, moderately. Various studies indicate that such incorporation of hydrophilic monomers into the polymer does not impair its capacity to couple enzyme or expression of the activity of bound enzyme but seems to actually improve the stability of the enzyme against heat induced inactivation and alkaline pH.

  3. Preparation and drug-loading properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites

    Lu, Wensheng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Coordination Chemistry Institute, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Chaohu University, Chaohu 238000 (China); Shen, Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Xie, Anjian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Zhang, Weiqiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Coordination Chemistry Institute, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Chaohu University, Chaohu 238000 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites were synthesized by the dispersion polymerization method using styrene as hard monomer, acrylic acid as functional monomer, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles modified with oleic acid as core, and poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) as shell. Drug-loading properties of magnetic polymer nanocomposites with curcumin as a model drug were also studied. The results indicated that magnetic polymer nanocomposites with monodisperse were obtained, the particle size distribution was 50–120 nm, and the average size was about 100 nm. The contents of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in magnetic polymer nanocomposites were 74% and 24.7%, respectively. The drug-loading capacity and entrapment efficiency were 2.5% and 44.4%, respectively. The saturation magnetization of magnetic polymer nanocomposites at 300 K was 20.2 emu/g without coercivity and remanence. The as-prepared magnetic polymer nanocomposites have not only lots of functional carboxyl groups but also stronger magnetic response, which might have potential applications in drug carrier and targeted drug release.

  4. Novel Polymers Based on Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of 2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate

    Bednarek, Melania; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been employed in the polymerization of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA) initiated by ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate in bulk or in toluene solution at 90– 95 C with the catalytic systems Cu(I)Br/PMDETA or HMTETA. Kinetics investigations revealed that ATRP of...

  5. Chelating compounds as potential flash rust inhibitors and melamine & aziridine cure of acrylic colloidal unimolecular polymers (CUPs)

    Mistry, Jigar Kishorkumar

    Waterborne coatings on ferrous substrates usually show flash rusting which decreases the adhesion of the coating and the corrosion products can form a stain. Chelating compounds were investigated as potential flash rust inhibitors. Compounds being evaluated include amine alcohols, diamines and sulfur containing amines. A new corrosion inhibitor 2,5-bis(thioaceticacid)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (H2ADTZ) was synthesized and its performance characteristics were evaluated. It was noted that the observed structure of 1,3,4-thiadiazolidine-2,5-dithione (also known as 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD or DMcT)) has been previously reported in three different tautomeric forms including -dithiol and -dithione. The relative stability of each form as well as the synthesis and characterization of the structures of mono- and dialkylated forms of 5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thione (MTT) were examined. The methods of X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and ab-initio electronic structure calculations were combined to understand the reactivity and structure of each compound. Polymers were synthesized with a 1:7 or 1:8 ratio of acrylic acid to acrylate monomers to produce an acid rich resin. The polymers were reduced and solvent stripped to produce Colloidal Unimolecular Polymers (CUPs). These particles are typically 3-9 nanometers in diameter depending upon the molecular weight. They were then formulated into a clear coating with either a melamine (bake) or an aziridine (ambient cure) and then cured. The melamine system was solvent free, a near zero VOC and the aziridine system was very low to near zero VOC. The coatings were evaluated for their MEK resistance, adhesion, hardness, gloss, flexibility, wet adhesion, abrasion and impact resistance properties.

  6. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC).

    Ritter, Helmut; Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed. PMID:26977183

  7. Preparation and characterization of poly(lithium acrylate-arcylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes

    PAN Chun-yue; YUAN Yun-lan; CHEN Zhen-hua; XU Xian-hua; ZHANG Jian

    2005-01-01

    Through orthogonal experiment, a new type of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salt with optimum mole ratio of n(LiClO4):n(LiNO3):n(LiBr)=1.6:3.8:1.0 was prepared. The poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes were prepared with poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) and LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts. The effect of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts content on the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes was studied by alternating current impedance method, and the structures of eutectic salts and solid polymer electrolytes were characterized by differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The results show that the room temperature conductivity of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts reaches 3.11×10-4 S·cm-1. The poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes possess the highest room temperature conductivity at 70% LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts content, and exhibit lower glass transition temperature of 75 ℃ compared with that of poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) of 105 ℃. A complex may be formed in the solid polymer electrolytes from the differential thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction results show that the poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) can suppress the crystallization of eutectic salts in this system.

  8. Preparation of polymer/LDH nanocomposite by UV-initiated photopolymerization of acrylate through photoinitiator-modified LDH precursor

    Hu, Lihua; Yuan, Yan [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Wenfang, E-mail: wfshi@ustc.edu [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Graphical abstract: This is the HR-TEM micrograph of UV cured nanocomposite at 5 wt% LDH-2959 loading for a-5 sample. The dark lines are the intersections of LDH platelets. It can be seen that samples a-5 dispersed in the polymer matrix and lost the ordered stacking-structure and show the completely exfoliation after UV curing. This can be explained by the fact that the sample a-5 only containing LDH-2959 exhibited a relative lower photopolymerization rate, which was propitious to further expand the LDH intergallery to form the exfoliated structure. Research highlights: {yields} The UV cured polymer/LDH nanocomposites were prepared through the photopolymerization initiated by the photoinitiator-modified LDH precursor, LDH-2959. {yields} The exfoliated UV cured nanocomposites were achieved in the presence of LDH-2959 only. However, the UV cured nanocomposites prepared using both LDH-2959 and Irgacure 2959 showed the intercalated structure. {yields} Compared with the pure polymer, the exfoliated polymer/LDH nanocomposite showed remarkable enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties because of their well dispersion in the polymer matrix. -- Abstract: The exfoliated polymer/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposite by UV-initiated photopolymerization of acrylate systems through an Irgacure 2959-modified LDH precursor (LDH-2959) as a photoinitiator complex was prepared. The LDH-2959 was obtained by the esterification of 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (Irgacure 2959) with thioglycolic acid, following by the addition reaction with 3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560), finally intercalation into the sodium dodecyl sulfate-modified LDH. For comparison, the intercalated polymer/LDH nanocomposite was obtained with additive Irgacure 2959 addition. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and HR-TEM observations, the LDH lost the ordered stacking-structure and well dispersed in the polymer matrix at 5 wt% LDH-2959

  9. Preparation of polymer/LDH nanocomposite by UV-initiated photopolymerization of acrylate through photoinitiator-modified LDH precursor

    Graphical abstract: This is the HR-TEM micrograph of UV cured nanocomposite at 5 wt% LDH-2959 loading for a-5 sample. The dark lines are the intersections of LDH platelets. It can be seen that samples a-5 dispersed in the polymer matrix and lost the ordered stacking-structure and show the completely exfoliation after UV curing. This can be explained by the fact that the sample a-5 only containing LDH-2959 exhibited a relative lower photopolymerization rate, which was propitious to further expand the LDH intergallery to form the exfoliated structure. Research highlights: → The UV cured polymer/LDH nanocomposites were prepared through the photopolymerization initiated by the photoinitiator-modified LDH precursor, LDH-2959. → The exfoliated UV cured nanocomposites were achieved in the presence of LDH-2959 only. However, the UV cured nanocomposites prepared using both LDH-2959 and Irgacure 2959 showed the intercalated structure. → Compared with the pure polymer, the exfoliated polymer/LDH nanocomposite showed remarkable enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties because of their well dispersion in the polymer matrix. -- Abstract: The exfoliated polymer/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposite by UV-initiated photopolymerization of acrylate systems through an Irgacure 2959-modified LDH precursor (LDH-2959) as a photoinitiator complex was prepared. The LDH-2959 was obtained by the esterification of 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (Irgacure 2959) with thioglycolic acid, following by the addition reaction with 3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560), finally intercalation into the sodium dodecyl sulfate-modified LDH. For comparison, the intercalated polymer/LDH nanocomposite was obtained with additive Irgacure 2959 addition. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and HR-TEM observations, the LDH lost the ordered stacking-structure and well dispersed in the polymer matrix at 5 wt% LDH-2959 loading. The glass

  10. The effect of extended polymer chains on the properties of transparent multi-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(methyl methacrylate/acrylic acid) film

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wu, Sheng-Yen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30043, Taiwan (China); Wei, Ming-Hsiung, E-mail: ccma@che.nthu.edu.tw [Chemical Systems Research Division, Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Tao Yuan 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-07

    Optically transparent and electrically conductive thin films composed of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced polymethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid (PMMA/AA) were fabricated using a wire coating technique. Poly(acrylic acid) controls the level of MWCNT dispersion in aqueous mixtures and retains the well-dispersed state in the polymer matrix after solidification resulting from extended polymer chains by adjusting the pH value. The exfoliating the MWCNT bundles by extended polymer chains results in the excellent dispersion of MWCNT. It causes a lower surface electrical resistance at the same MWCNT content. The hydrophilic functional groups (-COO{sup -}NA{sup +}) also caused a decrease in the crystallization of PMMA and led to an increase in the transmittance.

  11. Poly(lauryl acrylate) and poly(stearyl acrylate) grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes for polypropylene composites

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    , polymerizations of lauryl or stearyl acrylate were performed, resulting in two novel polymer modifications on the MWCNT (poly(lauryl acrylate) or poly(stearyl acrylate)). The method was found to give time dependent loading of polymers as a function of time (up to 38 wt% for both acrylates), and showed a plateau...... were found to be substantially improved, where poly(lauryl acrylate) was found to be the superior surface modification, resulting in a conductive composite....

  12. Polymer radiation curing: polyolefins and acrylics. January 1970-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-December 1987

    This bibliography contains citations concerning electromagnetic radiation curing of polyolefin and acrylic polymeric resins. Processes for crosslinking by gamma, ultraviolet, and infrared radiation are emphasized; however, microwave, laser, vacuum irradiation, and ionization radiation are examined as well. The influence of radiation induced polymer crosslinking on such properties as thermal conductivity, stress/strain, electrical conductivity, tensile and impact strength is also included. (This updated bibliography contains 231 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Nemoto, Eri; Sato, Kazuhiro; Orui, Toshihiko; Otaki, Takayuki; Yoshihiro, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investiga...

  14. Study on Crosslinkable Urethane/Styrene-acrylic Polymer Composite Emulsion%交联型聚氨酯/苯丙树脂复合乳液的研究

    2001-01-01

    The Crosslinkable polyurethane/styrene-acrylic polymer composite emulsion was obtained by mixing the styrene-acrylic polymer emulsion incorporating DAAM with the polyurethane dispersion con taining hydrazine group. The influence of the amount of DAAM on styrene-acrylic polymer emulsion was studied. The crosslinking reaction between keto group and hydrazine group was proved by FTIR and TEM (transimission electron microscope) technology. Studies on the film properties show that water-resistance, solvent-resistance, tensile strength and elongation at break of the emulsion film were all improved due to the crosslinking reaction.%将双丙酮丙烯酰胺(DAAM)参与共聚的苯丙乳液与含有肼基的聚氨酯水分散体混合后,得到了交联型聚氨酯/苯丙树脂复合乳液。研究了DAAM的用量对苯丙乳液的影响。用傅里叶红外光谱和透射电镜证实了酮羰基与肼基之间发生了交联反应。对乳液膜性能的研究结果表明,交联反应提高了乳液膜的耐水性、耐溶剂性、断裂强度、断裂伸长率。

  15. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    2010-07-01

    ... premanufacturing notification under 40 CFR 723.250. Polymers exempted can be used as dispensers, resins, fibers... given in 40 CFR 723.250(b), are not automatically excluded by 40 723.250(d), and meet the tolerance exemption criteria in 40 CFR 723.250(e)(1), 40 CFR 723.250 (e)(2) or 40 CFR 723.250(e)(3)....

  16. Acrylic resins. Part II. Methacrylate polymers (citations from NTIS data base). Report for 1964--Mar 1976

    Polymethyl methacrylate, polymethacrylic acid, and all other methacrylate and methacrylic polymers, copolymers, and resins are covered in Part 2 of this bibliography. The citations include references concerning physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, synthesis, polymerization and processing. (This updated bibliography contains 172 abstracts, 25 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically stepped glassy substrates of silicate glass and acryl polymer

    Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2015-11-01

    In the nanoimprint process, the resolution limit of patterning has attracted much attention from both scientific and industrial aspects. In this article, we briefly review the main achievements of our research group on sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically patterned glassy substrates of oxide glass and polymer. By applying the sapphire (α-Al2O3 single crystal) wafers with self-organized nanopatterns of atomic steps as thermal nanoimprinting molds, we successfully transferred their nanoscale patterns onto the surfaces of glassy substrates such as soda-lime silicate glasses and poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers. The surfaces of nanoimprinted glassy materials exhibited regularly arrayed atomic stairs with 0.2-0.3 nm step height, which were in good agreement with the sub-nanopatterns of sapphire molds. These atomically stepped morphologies on the glassy substrates were found to be stable for about 1 year.

  18. Hydrotropic polymer micelles containing acrylic acid moieties for oral delivery of paclitaxel

    Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Ji Young; Huh, Kang Moo; Acharya, Ghanshyam; Park, Kinam

    2008-01-01

    Hydrotropic polymers (HPs) and their micelles have been recently developed as vehicles for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), by oral administration. The release of PTX from HP micelles, however, was slow and it took more than a day for complete release of the loaded PTX. Since the gastrointestinal (GI) transit time is known to be only several hours, pH-sensitive HP micelles were prepared for fast release of the loaded PTX responding to pH changes along the GI t...

  19. Extending framework based on the linear coordination polymers: Alternative chains containing lanthanum ion and acrylic acid ligand

    One-dimensional alternative chains of two lanthanum complexes: [La(L1)3(CH3OH)(H2O)2].5H2O (L1=anion of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid ) 1 and [La(L2)3(H2O)2].3H2O (L2=anion of trans-3-(4-methyl-benzoyl)-acrylic acid) 2 were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, element analysis, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C31H36LaN3O17, triclinic, P-1, a=9.8279(4)A, b=11.8278(5)A, c=17.8730(7)A, α=72.7960(10)o, β=83.3820(10)o, γ=67.1650(10)-bar , Z=2, R1=0.0377, wR2=0.0746; for 2: C33H37LaO14, triclinic, P-1, a=8.7174(5)A, b=9.9377(5)A, c=21.153(2)A, α=81.145(2)o, β=87.591(2)o, γ=67.345(5)o, Z=2, R1=0.0869, wR2=0.220. 1 is a rare example of the alternative chain constructed by syn-syn and anti-syn coordination mode of carboxylato ligand arranged along the chain alternatively. La(III) ions in 2 are linked by two η3-O bridges and four bridges (two η2-O and two η3-O) alternatively. Both of the linear coordination polymers grow into two- and three-dimensional networks by packing through extending hydrogen-bond network directed by ligands

  20. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    Liangming Wei; Changxin Chen; Zhongyu Hou; Hao Wei

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dim...

  1. All-acrylic film-forming colloidal polymer/silica nanocomposite particles prepared by aqueous emulsion polymerization.

    Fielding, Lee A; Tonnar, Jeff; Armes, Steven P

    2011-09-01

    The efficient synthesis of all-acrylic, film-forming, core-shell colloidal nanocomposite particles via in situ aqueous emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with n-butyl acrylate in the presence of a glycerol-functionalized ultrafine silica sol using a cationic azo initiator at 60 °C is reported. It is shown that relatively monodisperse nanocomposite particles can be produced with typical mean weight-average diameters of 140-330 nm and silica contents of up to 39 wt %. The importance of surface functionalization of the silica sol is highlighted, and it is demonstrated that systematic variation of parameters such as the initial silica sol concentration and initiator concentration affect both the mean particle diameter and the silica aggregation efficiency. The nanocomposite morphology comprises a copolymer core and a particulate silica shell, as determined by aqueous electrophoresis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Moreover, it is shown that films cast from n-butyl acrylate-rich copolymer/silica nanocomposite dispersions are significantly more transparent than those prepared from the poly(styrene-co-n-butyl acrylate)/silica nanocomposite particles reported previously. In the case of the aqueous emulsion homopolymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of ultrafine silica, a particle formation mechanism is proposed to account for the various experimental observations made when periodically sampling such nanocomposite syntheses at intermediate comonomer conversions. PMID:21776995

  2. SYNTHESIS OF SOAP-FREE ACRYLIC HYDROSOLS

    Li Jia; Zong-hui Liu; De-qing Wei

    2002-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate/ethyl acrylate/acrylic acid) hydrosols were prepared by employing soap-freepolymerization, and (acrylic acid/butyl acrylate) oligomer was used as the polymeric surfactant. The effect of reactioncondition on the morphology and particle size of the hydrosols was investigated. The minimum amount of acrylic acid in thehydrosols is 2%. The maximum weight average molecular weight (Mw) of polymer that assures soap-free emulsionconversion into hydrosol is about 1.2 × 105-1.3 × 105. The particle transforming process was investigated, and an obviouschange of particle diameter and morphology was observed.

  3. Surface Coating of Epoxy Acrylate Polymer on Teak Block Parquet (Tectona Grandis L.f.) by Ultra Violet Irradiation

    An experiment on surface coating of teak block parquet (Tectona Grandis L.f.) has been conducted using epoxy acrylate resin with the trade name of Laromer EA-81. Resin was used as the coating materials after being added with tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) and photoinisiator Darocur 1173. Irradiation was conducted using UV light at the conveyor speed of 2, 3, 4, and 5 m/min. Observed parameter were glossyness, adhesion, hardness, abrasion resistance and chemical, solvent and stain resistance. The result of the epoxy acrylate films obtained has excellent adhesion, hardness, glossyness and has good chemicals, solvent, and stain resistance except to 10 % sodium hydroxide. The coating materials of formulations II (30 % w/w TPGDN) produced better coating compared with formulation I (20 % w/w TPGDN), either for performance and film properties point of view. (author)

  4. Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliabilities of microencapsulated n-octadecane with acrylic-based polymer shells for thermal energy storage

    Highlights: ► n-Octadecane was encapsulated by p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate). ► Microcapsules using divinylbenzene as crosslinking agent have better quality. ► Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate–divinylbenzene has highest latent heat. ► Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate–divinylbenzene has greatest thermal stability. ► Phase change temperatures and enthalpies of the microcapsules varied little after thermal cycle. - Abstract: Microencapsulation of n-octadecane with crosslinked p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate) (PBA) as shells for thermal energy storage was carried out by a suspension-like polymerization. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) were employed as crosslinking agents. The surface morphologies of the microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of the as-prepared microPCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The microPCMs prepared by using DVB exhibit greater heat capacities and higher thermal stabilities compared with those prepared by using PETA. The thermal resistant temperature of the microPCM with BMA–DVB polymer was up to 248 °C. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of all the as-prepared microcapsules varied little after 1000 thermal cycles.

  5. Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliabilities of microencapsulated n-octadecane with acrylic-based polymer shells for thermal energy storage

    Qiu, Xiaolin [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin; Chu, Xiaodong; Li, Xuezhu [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Guoyi, E-mail: tanggy@tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-Octadecane was encapsulated by p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsules using divinylbenzene as crosslinking agent have better quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene has highest latent heat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene has greatest thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase change temperatures and enthalpies of the microcapsules varied little after thermal cycle. - Abstract: Microencapsulation of n-octadecane with crosslinked p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate) (PBA) as shells for thermal energy storage was carried out by a suspension-like polymerization. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) were employed as crosslinking agents. The surface morphologies of the microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of the as-prepared microPCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The microPCMs prepared by using DVB exhibit greater heat capacities and higher thermal stabilities compared with those prepared by using PETA. The thermal resistant temperature of the microPCM with BMA-DVB polymer was up to 248 Degree-Sign C. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of all the as-prepared microcapsules varied little after 1000 thermal cycles.

  6. Relationship between the Composition of Polymer of n-Alkyl Substituted Acrylate and Vinyl Amine and Their Performance on Pour Point Depression

    Jiang Qingzhe; Luo Fangmin; Song Zhaozheng; Ke Ming

    2005-01-01

    Polymer of n-alkyl substituted acrylate (PA) with the alkyl side chains C16- 30 were synthesized.Their crystallinity, solubility and effect on pour point depression were studied. Results showed that only carbon atoms located far away from polar groups of PA pour point depressants participated in crystallization.When the number of carbon atoms that participated in crystallization is about three fourths of the average carbon number of wax in crude, the effect of PA is the best. The molecular weight distribution of PA pour point depressant has little influence on the effect of pour point depression, and the average molecular weight of PA in the range of (1.5- 2.2)× 104 shows the best effect. The introduction of polar groups into the molecule of PA can improve its performance. However, a too high content of polar groups in PA would cause deterioration, and even lead to loss of PA's performance for pour point depression.

  7. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries.

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  8. Mitigation of Biofilm Formation on Corrugated Cardboard Fresh Produce Packaging Surfaces Using a Novel Thiazolidinedione Derivative Integrated in Acrylic Emulsion Polymers.

    Brandwein, Michael; Al-Quntar, Abed; Goldberg, Hila; Mosheyev, Gregory; Goffer, Moshe; Marin-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analog cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed. PMID:26909074

  9. Mitigation of Biofilm Formation on Corrugated Cardboard Fresh Produce Packaging Surfaces Using a Novel Thiazolidinedione Derivative Integrated in Acrylic Emulsion Polymers

    Brandwein, Michael; Al-Quntar, Abed; Goldberg, Hila; Mosheyev, Gregory; Goffer, Moshe; Marin-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analog cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed. PMID:26909074

  10. Polymer optical waveguide composed of europium-aluminum-acrylate composite core for compact optical amplifier and laser

    Mitani, Marina; Yamashita, Kenichi; Fukui, Toshimi; Ishigure, Takaaki

    2015-02-01

    We successfully fabricate polymer waveguides with Europium-Aluminum (Eu-Al) polymer composite core using the Mosquito method that utilizes a microdispenser for realizing a compact waveguide optical amplifiers and lasers. Rareearth (RE) ions are widely used as the gain medium for fiber lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. However, high concentration doping of rare-earth-ion leads to the concentration quenching resulting in observing less gain in optical amplification. For addressing the concentration quenching problem, a rare-earth metal (RE-M) polymer composite has been proposed by KRI, Inc. to be a waveguide core material. Actually, 10-wt% RE doping into organic polymer materials was already achieved. Hence, realization of compact and high-efficiency waveguide amplifiers and lasers have been anticipated using the RE-M polymer composite. In this paper, a microdispenser is adopted to fabricate a Eu-doped polymer waveguide. Then, it is experimentally confirmed that the low-loss waveguides are fabricated with a high reproducibility. Optical gain is estimated by measuring the amplified spontaneous emission using the variable stripe length method. The fabricated waveguide exhibits an optical gain as high as 7.1 dB/cm at 616-nm wavelength.

  11. Occupational fingertip eczema from acrylates in a manicurist

    Denitza Zheleva; Razvigor Darlenski

    2015-01-01

    Occupational hand eczema due to acrylates present in the workplace is a disease frequently reported among dentists, printers, and fiberglass workers. Acrylate monomers are used in the production of a great variety of polymers, including nail cosmetics. Our case report demonstrates a rare clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. Our patient was working as a manicurist and the diagnostic analyses revealed sensitation to some of the (meth) acrylate compounds of h...

  12. Study of ageing effects in polymer-in-salt electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile-co-butyl acrylate) and lithium salts

    Highlights: • Properties of freshly cast and aged poly(AN-co-BuA) – LiTFSI electrolytes are studied. • For fresh electrolytes, conductivity increases and Tg decreases with increasing salt content. • Ageing of polymer-in-salt electrolytes results in a drop of conductivity and a rise of Tg. • Ageing effects can be explained by changes of properties of amorphous salt domains. • Precipitation of salt is observed in electrolytes containing over 84 wt.% of LiTFSI. • Electrolytes with mixture of LiI and LiTFSI are more stable than those with LiTFSI only. -- Abstract: Polymer electrolytes composed of an acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate copolymer poly(AN-co-BuA) with addition of LiN(CF3SO2)2 (LiTFSI) or LiI and LiTFSI salt mixture are studied by impedance spectroscopy, DSC, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM. Impedance study shows that the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes containing LiTFSI is strongly dependent on the salt content and transition from “salt-in-polymer” to “polymer-in-salt” regime is observed at high salt content. Gradual changes of physical properties of the studied polymer electrolytes are observed in the course of their prolonged storage under argon atmosphere. These include the increase of glass transition temperature and decrease of ionic conductivity. In order to study the effects of this ageing process, measurements on samples of electrolyte films were repeated after several months. Precipitation of salt, which occurred at the nanometer length scale is observed with the aid of electron microscopy in electrolytes containing more than 84 wt.% of salt. Crystalline salt is not observed in electrolytes with lower amount of salt – however, the results indicate the structural changes of salt aggregates, which strongly influence transport of ions through the electrolyte. For preparation of electrolytes with mixed LiTFSI and LiI salts, a mixture of salts (16 wt.% LiI, 84 wt.% LiTFSI) is used, which exhibits the

  13. Nanoclays reinforced glass ionomer cements: dispersion and interaction of polymer grade (PG) montmorillonite with poly(acrylic acid).

    Fareed, Muhammad A; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Montmorillonite nanoclays (PGV and PGN) were dispersed in poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) for utilization as reinforcing filler in glass ionomer cements (GICs). Chemical and physical interaction of PAA and nanoclay (PGV and PGN) was studied. PAA–PGV and PAA–PGN solutions were prepared in different weight percent loadings of PGV and PGN nanoclay (0.5-8.0 wt%) via exfoliation-adsorption method. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD results of PAA–PGN demonstrated that the interlayer space expanded from 12.83 to 16.03 Å indicating intercalation whereas the absence of the peak at d(001) in PAA–PGV indicated exfoliation. XPS scans of PGV and PGN nanoclays depicted the main peak of O 1s photoelectron due to Si–O–M (M = Mg, Al, Fe) whereas, Si–O–Al linkages were identified by Si 2p or Si 2s and Al 2p or Al 2s peaks. The disappearance of the Na peak confirmed that PAA molecules exchanged sodium ions present on surface of silicate layers and significantly reduced the electrostatic van-der-Waals forces between silicate plates resulting in intercalation or exfoliation. FTIR spectra of PAA–nanoclay suspensions demonstrated the presence of a new peak at 1,019 cm(-1) associated with Si–O– stretching vibrations which increased with increasing nanoclays concentration. Information concerning the dispersion of nanoclay in PAA aqueous solutions, chemical reaction and increase interlayer space in montmorillonite nanoclay is particularly useful regarding dispersion and reinforcement of nanoclay in PAA. PMID:24077996

  14. Radiation sensitive acrylate composition

    This application relates to radiation-sensitive compositions and more particularly to such compositions comprising acrylated esters. As used in this specification, the term acrylated esters refers to either acrylic or methacrylic acid resins. 3 tabs

  15. Pyrolysis of carbonaceous particles and properties of Carbonaceous-g-Poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide superabsorbent polymer for agricultural applications

    Ghazali S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of fertilizer and water are very important in determining the production of agriculture nowadays. The excessive use of fertilizer in plantation somehow could leads to environmental pollution. The present study reported a synthesis of controlled release water retention (CRWR fertilizer coating with superabsorbent polymer (SAPs. Superabsorbent polymer (SAPs are polymers that have ability to absorb and retain large amounts of water relative to their own mass. The presence of coating layer of SAPs on fertilizer granules was believed could reduce excessive used of fertilizer by controlling their dissolution rates and also reduce the environmental pollution. In this study, the effect on the addition of carbonaceous filler in SAPs on the water absorbency was also be compared with control SAPs (without carbonaceous particles. In this study, the carbonaceous filler were obtained from pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB biomass. The synthesized of SAPs and carbonaceous-SAPs were carried out via solution polymerization technique by using monomer of poly(acrylic acid (AA, acrylamide (AM, cross linker, methylene bisacrylamide (MBA and initiator, ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS that partially neutralized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH. The CRWR fertilizer was later be prepared by coated the fertilizer granule with SAPs and carbonaceous-SAPs. The water absorbency, morphology and the bonding formation of both CRWR fertilizer were investigated by using tea-beg method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR, respectively. Moreover, the water retention studies was conducted in order to investigate the efficiency of CRWR coated with SAP and carbonaceous-SAP in retaining the water content in different soil (organic and top soil. Based on the results, the CRWR fertilizer that was coated with carbonaceous-SAP had higher water absorbency value than the CRWR fertilizer without carbonaceous-SAP. Meanwhile

  16. 聚丙烯酸-腐植酸钠复合高吸水树脂的合成研究∗%Study on the Synthesis of Poly Acrylic Acid-sodium Humate Composite Super Absorbent Polymer

    李东芳; 杜明华

    2015-01-01

    该研究采用不除去丙烯酸中阻聚剂及不通氮气的工艺,以丙烯酸、腐植酸钠为原料,通过水溶液聚合法制备了聚丙烯酸-腐植酸钠复合高吸水树脂。研究结果表明:该复合高吸水树脂在丙烯酸的中和度为60%,腐植酸钠用量为1.0g,引发剂过硫酸钾用量为55mg,交联剂N,N′-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺用量为20mg时,吸蒸馏水量最大,为1200 g/g。%The poly acrylic acid-sodium humate composite super absorbent polymer was synthesized by aqueous solution polymerization through the technology of no nitrogen and not removing polymerization inhibitor in acrylic acid. In the synthesis process, acrylic acid and sodium humate were as monomer. The study results showed that when the neutralization degree of acrylic acid was 60%,the dosage of sodium humate was 1. 0g,the dosage of initia-tor( potassium persulfate) was 55mg, and the dosage of crosslinking agent ( N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide) was 20mg,the highest distilled water-absorbing capacity of the composite super absorbent polymer was 1200g/g.

  17. Unusually Stable Hysteresis in the pH-Response of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes Confined within Nanoporous Block Polymer Thin Films.

    Weidman, Jacob L; Mulvenna, Ryan A; Boudouris, Bryan W; Phillip, William A

    2016-06-01

    Stimuli-responsive soft materials are a highly studied field due to their wide-ranging applications; however, only a small group of these materials display hysteretic responses to stimuli. Moreover, previous reports of this behavior have typically shown it to be short-lived. In this work, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains at extremely high grafting densities and confined in nanoscale pores displayed a unique long-lived hysteretic behavior caused by their ability to form a metastable hydrogen bond network. Hydraulic permeability measurements demonstrated that the conformation of the PAA chains exhibited a hysteretic dependence on pH, where different effective pore diameters arose in a pH range of 3 to 8, as determined by the pH of the previous environment. Further studies using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the fraction of ionized PAA moieties depended on the thin film history; this was corroborated by metal adsorption capacity, which demonstrated the same pH dependence. This hysteresis was shown to be persistent, enduring for days, in a manner unlike most other systems. The hypothesis that hydrogen bonding among PAA units contributed to the hysteretic behavior was supported by experiments with a urea solution, which disrupted the metastable hydrogen bonded state of PAA toward its ionized state. The ability of PAA to hydrogen bond within these confined pores results in a stable and tunable hysteresis not previously observed in homopolymer materials. An enhanced understanding of the polymer chemistry and physics governing this hysteresis gives insight into the design and manipulation of next-generation sensors and gating materials in nanoscale applications. PMID:27172428

  18. Synthesis of acrylic prepolymer

    An acrylic prepolymer was synthesized from glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylic acid (AA). Butyl acetate (BAc), benzoyl peroxide (BzO), 4-methoxyphenol (MPh) and triethylamine (TEA) were used as solvent, initiator, inhibitor and catalyst respectively. Observations of the synthesis leading to the formation of acrylic prepolymer are described. (author)

  19. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  20. Using NMR chemical shift imaging to monitor swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid): methodology and effects of polymer (in)solubility.

    Knöös, Patrik; Topgaard, Daniel; Wahlgren, Marie; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

    2013-11-12

    A new technique has been developed using NMR chemical shift imaging (CSI) to monitor water penetration and molecular transport in initially dry polymer tablets that also contain small low-molecular weight compounds to be released from the tablets. Concentration profiles of components contained in the swelling tablets could be extracted via the intensities and chemical shift changes of peaks corresponding to protons of the components. The studied tablets contained hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) as the polymer component and griseofulvin and ethanol as hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively, low-molecular weight model compounds. The water solubility of HMPAA could be altered by titration with NaOH. In the pure acid form, HMPAA tablets only underwent a finite swelling until the maximum water content of the polymer-rich phase, as confirmed by independent phase studies, had been reached. By contrast, after partial neutralization with NaOH, the polyacid became fully miscible with water. The solubility of the polymer affected the water penetration, the polymer release, and the releases of both ethanol and griseofulvin. The detailed NMR CSI concentration profiles obtained highlighted the clear differences in the disintegration/dissolution/release behavior for the two types of tablet and provided insights into their molecular origin. The study illustrates the potential of the NMR CSI technique to give information of importance for the development of pharmaceutical tablets and, more broadly, for the general understanding of any operation that involves the immersion and ultimate disintegration of a dry polymer matrix in a solvent. PMID:24106807

  1. Characterization and Absorbing Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Filled Poly (Acrylic Acid-co-Acrylamide) Super absorbent Polymer Composites

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch graft poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) super absorbent composite (OPEFB-g-(PAA-co-PAM) SAPC) was synthesized by graft copolymerization of the acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM) comonomer onto OPEFB fibre using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N-methylene bisacarylamide (MBA) as an initiator and crosslinked, respectively. The absorbency in various chloride salt solutions indicated that the absorbency decreased with increasing ionic strength of the salt solutions. Moreover, the absorbency under load (AUL) of SAPC was investigated at various applied loading and results show that, AUL decreased with increasing applied loading. Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were carried out to confirm the chemical structure and thermal properties of the synthesized super absorbent, respectively. (author)

  2. Thermal Polymerization of N-Butyl Acrylate

    Ingham, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Simple new polymerization method enables production of n-butyl acrylate polymer of desired high molecular weight, without disadvantages that usually attend more conventional methods. Process, which is hybrid of thermal, solution, and emulsion polymerization methods, involves controlled thermal polymerization of monomer at moderate temperatures without use of catalysts or additives.

  3. The Evaluation of Water Sorption/Solubility on Various Acrylic Resins

    Tuna, Suleyman Hakan; Keyf, Filiz; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Uzun, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The absorption of water by acrylic resins is a phenomenon of considerable importance since it is accompanied by dimensional changes, a further undesirable effect of absorbed water in acrylic resins to reduce the tensile strength of the material. Solubility is also an important property because it represents the mass of soluble materials from the polymers. Methods Ten acrylic resin-based materials were evaluated: two heat cure acrylic resins (De Trey QC-20, Meliodent Heat Cure) and ...

  4. UV-Curing of Nanoparticle Reinforced Acrylates

    Polymer reinforcement by silica and alumina nanoparticles evidently yields improved surface hardness. Single mixing of nanoparticles into an acrylate formulations, however, leads to highly viscous solutions inappropriate for coating procedures. The incompatibility of inorganic fillers and organic polymers can be avoided by surface modification providing an interface between the two dissimilar materials. For example, vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO) can react via hydrolysis/condensation reactions with hydroxyl groups present on the inorganic surface and should bond via the polymerisation-active vinyl group to an acrylate resin through crosslinking reactions. Grafting reactions of surface OH groups and different trialkoxysilanes were studied by thermogravimetry, infrared, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The copolymeri-zation of modified nanoparticles with the acrylate matrix has been investigated by 13C NMR spectroscopy. UV curing under nitrogen inertization revealed a lower reactivity of vinyl groups of VTMO-modified silica compared to grafted methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MEMO) which showed complete conversion of olefinic carbons (signals at 120 - 140 ppm). Under conditions of oxygen inhibition, the effect of the kind and the concentration of photoinitiator on the photopoly-merization reaction was studied. Compared to neat polyacrylate coatings the nanocomposite materials exhibit markedly improved properties, e.g., heat, scratch, and abrasion resistance. However, a much better abrasion resistance was obtained for coatings containing both silica nano-particles and corundum microparticles. In particular cases, radiation curing with 172 nm photons generated by Xe excimer was performed to obtain structured polymer surfaces, i.e., matting of the reinforced acrylate coatings

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    Ying Nie; Min-Feng Tang; Xiao-Dong Fan; Xiang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium p...

  6. The Effect of Water Acrylate Dispersion on the Properties of Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composites / Wpływ Wodnej Dyspersji Akrylanowej Na Właściwości Kompozytów Polimer-Nanorurki Węglowe

    Zygoń P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents properties of polymer composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT containing various mixtures of dispersion. Acrylates of different particle size and viscosity were used to produce composites. The mechanical strength of composites was determined by three-point bending tests. The roughness parameter of composites was determined with a profilometer and compared with the roughness parameter determined via atomic force microscopy (AFM. Also X-ray studies (phase composition analysis, crystallite sizes determination were carried out on these composites. Measurements of the surface topography using the Tapping Mode method were performed, acquiring the data on the height and on the phase imaging. The change of intensity, crystallite size and half-value width of main reflections originating from carbon within the composites have been determined using the X-ray analysis. The density of each obtained composite was determined as well as the resistivity at room temperature. The density of composites is quite satisfactory and ranges from 0.27 to 0.35 g/cm3. Different composites vary not only in strength but also in density. Different properties were achieved by the use of various dispersions. Carbon nanotubes constituting the reinforcement for a polymer composite improve the mechanical properties and conductivity composite.

  7. Preparation and properties of pure acrylic polymer latex using novel emulsifying system%新型乳化体系下纯丙聚合物乳液的制备及性能研究

    王太林; 何金国

    2015-01-01

    The acrylic polymer latex was successfully prepared via semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization, using methyl methacrylat (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA)as the monomers monobutyl itaconate (MBI) as the functional monomer, mixture of tetradecyl dimethyl hydroxy propyl betaine and octylphenol polyoxyethylene ether(OP-10) as the emulsifier and 2,2'-azobis (2-methyl propion-amidine) dihydrochloride (V-50) as the initiator. The effects of the amounts of the emulsifiers, V-50 and MBI on the properties of the latex and its film were investigated. The results showed that the optimum conditions for preparing the latex were as follows: the amounts of emulsifier, V-50 and MBI were 7%, 0.5% and 4%,respectively.%采用半连续乳液聚合法,以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA),丙烯酸正丁酯(BA)为主单体,衣康酸单丁酯(MBI)为功能性单体,偶氮二异丁脒盐酸盐(V-50)为引发剂,两性表面活性剂十四烷基二甲基羟丙基甜菜碱与烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚(O P-10)复配作为乳化剂,合成了丙烯酸酯乳液。分别探讨了乳化剂,V-50和MBI的用量对乳液及乳胶膜性能的影响。结果表明当乳化剂的用量占单体质量的7%,V-50为0.5%,MBI为4%时,乳液的综合性能最佳。

  8. 新型高分子硅铁混凝剂深度处理腈纶废水研究%STUDY ON DEPTH TREATMENT OF ACRYLIC FIBER WASTEWATER BY NEW TYPE POLYMER SILICON IRON FLOCCULANT

    王烨; 蒋进元; 周岳溪; 李清雪; 段妮妮; 刘诗一

    2012-01-01

    采用自制新型氧化混凝药剂——无机氧化性高分子硅铁混凝剂( PSF)对腈纶废水生化出水进行处理,并与聚合硫酸铁、聚合氯化铝的混凝效果进行对比试验;以出水COD去除率为评价指标,通过单因素试验优化确定出适宜条件.结果表明,在初始pH为9、CaO投加量为1.0g/L、PSF和聚丙烯酰胺投加量分别为900、6mg/L的条件下,出水COD去除率可达到30%以上.采用PSF新型混凝剂可以有效去除腈纶废水生化出水中的溶解性大的难降解有机污染物,效果明显优于其它2种混凝剂,可以作为腈纶废水深度处理的一种新型预处理药剂.%Self-made new type oxidation coagulating agent- inorganic oxidizing polymer silicon iron flocculant (PSF) was used to treat the biological effluent of acrylic fiber wastewater. Through comparison testing of coagulation effect of PFS and PAC.When using the effluent COD removal rate as the evaluation index, the single factor test optimized and determined the best test condition. The results showed that: in the initial pH was 9, CaO dosage was 1.0 g/L, oxidation and coagulant dosage was 900 mg/L, PAM dosage was 6 mg/L condition, the effluent COD removal rate can reach 30% or more. PSF new type coagulating agent can effectively remove the acrylic fiber wastewater effluent solubility of refractory organic pollutants, The effect is obviously superior to the other two coagulant, it can be used a new pretreatment agent to treat deeply acrylic fiber wastewater.

  9. STUDY ON POLYMER-RARE EARTH METAL ION COMPLEXES I. FLUORESCENT PROPERTIES OF POLY(ACRYLIC ACID-CO-4-VINYLPYRIDINE)-RARE EARTH METAL COMPLEXES

    LU Hong; FANG Shibi; JIANG Yingyan

    1987-01-01

    A kind of copolymer of acrylic acid and vinylpyridine was synthesized and the fluorescent properties of the complexes of the copolymer with Eu3+ or Tb3+ were studied. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of the complexes of the copolymer with Eu3+ was 20 times as high as that of the complexes of polyacrylic acid with Eu3+ and twice as high as that of the complexes of polyvinylpyridine with Eu3+. The effects of the composition of the copolymer and the content of Eu3+ or Tb3+ in the complexes were studied.The fluorescence lifetime of the complexes was measured and it was found that two or more kinds of energy transfer mechanism existed.

  10. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants...

  11. 含氟丙烯酸酯共聚乳液合成及性能研究%Synthesis and Properties of Fluorinated Acrylate Co-polymers

    李真; 李文秀

    2012-01-01

    以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)和全氟烷基丙烯酸酯等为主要原料,丙二醇为分子量调节剂,采用非离子阴离子复合乳化剂、氧化还原引发体系、超声微乳化技术,不同的加料方式制备出系列含氟丙烯酸酯乳液,并利用衰减全反射红外光谱(ATR-FTIR)对含氟丙烯酸酯共聚乳液胶膜进行了表征。采用接触角测定方法研究了含氟共聚乳液对织物整理后的表面性能变化,结果显示:乳液整理后的纯棉无纺布的拒水拒醇性大大提高,对水的接触角达到127o左右,对醇的最大接触角达到112o。乳液整理后的PP无纺布拒醇性明显改善,接触角达到101o左右。但拒水性能未见明显提高。%The series fluorinated acrylate copolymers were prepared by selected BA, MMA, AA and fluorinated monomer as the main raw materials, propylene glycol as the molecular regulator, an anion compound emulsifier, redox initiator system, with different way of feeding and pre-emulsificatiou of using ultrasonic wave technology. And the film of fluorine containing acrylate copolymer emulsion were characterized by using attenuated total reflection infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR). The change of surface properties of after textile finishing were measured by using the contact angle methods with containing fluorine copolymerization emulsion. The results showed that after emulsion finishing the property of water-repellency or alcohol-repellency of pure cotton non-woven fabric was greatly improved, and the contact angles of the treated cotton non-woven fabrics for water and for ethanol reached 127~ and 112~, respectively. The ethanol-repellent property of the treated PP non-woven fabrics was improved from spread to 101~ of the contact angles reached for ethanol. But water-repellent performance did not see obviously improved.

  12. Acrylic Bone Cements Modified with Starch

    Krilova, V; Vītiņš, V

    2010-01-01

    The successful result of restorative and replacement surgical operation depends significantly on properties of used bone cement. Acrylic bone cements are usually based on methylmethacrylate polymer, while monomer polymerization begins after mixing of components in mixing device and terminates in living tissue. Polymerization of methylmethacrylate is exothermic process, and temperature increase might cause tissue necrosis with concomitant implant aseptic loosening. Developed non-ionogenic and ...

  13. Late Transition Metal and Aluminum Complexes for the Polymerization of Ethene and Acrylates

    YliheikkilÀ, Katariina

    2006-01-01

    Polyethene, polyacrylates and polymethyl acrylates are versatile materials that find wide variety of applications in several areas. Therefore, polymerization of ethene, acrylates and methacrylates has achieved a lot attention during past years. Numbers of metal catalysts have been introduced in order to control the polymerization and to produce tailored polymer structures. Herein an overview on the possible polymerization pathways for ethene, acrylates and methacrylates is presented. In ...

  14. Method of free radical polymerization of copolymerization of (meth)acrylic and vinyl monomers under control and (co)polymer produced thereby

    Lecomte, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert; Teyssié, Philippe; Senninger, Thierry

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain a (co)polymer excellent in resistance to thermal decomposition by polymerizing or copolymerizing a monomer or monomers in the presence of an initiation system contg. a free-radical generator other than a bromoolefin and a catalyst comprising a Pd complex having an oxidation number of 0 and represented by a specific formula. SOLUTION: A Pd salt (e.g. Pd acetate), a ligand (e.g. triphenylphosphine), and a solvent (e.g. toluene) are charged into a reactor to form ...

  15. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  16. Hydrophilic surface modification of acrylate-based biomaterials.

    Arnal-Pastor, M; Comín-Cebrián, S; Martínez-Ramos, C; Monleón Pradas, M; Vallés-Lluch, A

    2016-04-01

    Acrylic polymers have proved to be excellent with regard to cell adhesion, colonization and survival, in vitro and in vivo. Highly ordered and regular pore structures thereof can be produced with the help of polyamide templates, which are removed with nitric acid. This treatment converts a fraction of the ethyl acrylate side groups into acrylic acid, turning poly(ethyl acrylate) scaffolds into a more hydrophilic and pH-sensitive substrate, while its good biological performance remains intact. To quantify the extent of such a modification, and be able to characterize the degree of hydrophilicity of poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate) was treated with acid for different times (four, nine and 17 days), and compared with poly(acrylic acid) and a 90/10%wt. EA/AAc copolymer (P(EA-co-AAc)). The biological performance was also assessed for samples immersed in acid up to four days and the copolymer, and it was found that the incorporation of acidic units on the material surface was not prejudicial for cells. This surface modification of 3D porous hydrophobic scaffolds makes easier the wetting with culture medium and aqueous solutions in general, and thus represents an advantage in the manageability of the scaffolds. PMID:26767395

  17. Acrylic purification and coatings

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  18. BARRIER PROPERTY AND STRUCTURE OF ACRYLONITRILE/ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS

    YANG Zhenghua; LI Yuesheng

    1997-01-01

    A series of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) or ethyl acrylate (EA) as comonomer (5-23 wt%) was prepared by free-radical copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at 1.0 MPa and at 30 ℃, and those to water vapor also measured at 100% relative humidity and at 30 ℃. All the AN/acrylic copolymers are semicrystalline. As the acrylate content increase, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide are increased progressively, but those to water vapor are decreased progressively. The gas permeability coefficients of the polymers were correlated with free-volume fractions or the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  19. Optimisation of the composition of a screen-printed acrylate polymer enzyme layer with respect to an improved selectivity and stability of enzyme electrodes.

    Mersal, G A M; Khodari, M; Bilitewski, U

    2004-09-15

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on screen-printed platinum electrodes by entrapment in a screen printable paste polymerized by irradiation with UV-light. The influences of different additives, in particular polymers and graphite, on the sensitivity and stability of the sensor and the permeability of the enzyme layer for a possible electrochemical interferent were investigated. The chosen additives were Gafquat 755N, poly-L-lysine, bovine serum albumin (BSA), sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), Nafion and graphite. All additives led to increases of glucose signals, i.e. improved the sensitivity of glucose detection with Gafquat 755N, poly-L-lysine, SDS and graphite showing the strongest influences with increases by a factor 4, 6.5, 5 and 10, respectively. Ascorbic acid was used as a model interferent showing the influence of the enzyme layer composition on the selectivity of the sensor. The addition of Gafquat 755N or poly-L-lysine led to higher signals not only for glucose, but also for ascorbic acid. SDS addition already reduced the influence of ascorbic acid, which was almost completely eliminated when Nafion (5%) and PEG (10%) were added. A comparable beneficial effect on the selectivity of the sensors was also observed for the addition of 0.5% graphite. Thus, the enzyme electrodes with PEG, Nafion or graphite as additives in the enzyme layer were applied to glucose determinations in food samples and samples obtained from E. coli cultivations. PMID:15308235

  20. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA), oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems. (author)

  1. Hyperbranched urethane-acrylates

    Tasić Srba

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization and UV-curing of hyperbranched urethaneacrylates (HB-UA were investigated in this study. They were evaluated as oli-gomers in model UV curable coatings. HB-UAs were synthesized by reaction of an aliphatic hyperbranched polyester of the second generation (HBRG2 and an isocyanate adduct, obtained by the reaction of isophoronediisocyana-te and different hydroxy alkyl acrylates. Their thermal properties and viscosities depend on the degree of modification of HBRG2 and the type of hydroxy alkyl acrylate used. The introduction of a flexible alkoxylated spacer between the HBP core and acrylate end groups reduces steric hindrance by moving the cross linkable acrylate groups away from the HBP core and increase its reactivity. Due to the presence of abstractable H-atoms in the α-position to the ether links, HB-UAs based on poly(ethylene oxide monoacrylate are very reactive and do not show oxygen inhibition. The obtained coatings combine a high cross linking density with flexible segments between the cross links, which results in a good compromise between hardness and flexibility and have the potential to be used in different UV-curing applications.

  2. In-situ photopolymerization of oriented liquid-crystalline acrylates

    Broer, Dirk Jan

    1990-01-01

    The scope of this thesis concerns a new method to produce oriented polymers by the in-situ photopolymerization of oriented liquid-crystalline acrylates. The desired macroscopic molecular order is already accomplished in the monomeric state prior to the polymerization. ... Zie: Summary

  3. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions. PMID:27078740

  4. Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylated systems

    Complete text of publication follows. It has been generally accepted that ionizing radiation induces free radical polymerization in acrylate compounds. It is also reported that, following primary ionization events, acrylates and methacrylates scavenge thermalized electrons to give rise to radical anions and radical cations, which undergo reactions producing the corresponding free radicals. Acrylates have received the most attention in radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). 2-EHA is well known for its unique pressure-sensitive adhesive properties. An understanding of its primary mechanism of polymerization is of industrial as well as fundamental interest. High entanglement and high molecular weight between crosslinks are crucial for the high shear and peel strength, required of PSAs. Such polymers may be formed using thermal and UV-initiation in solvent or emulsion. Electron beam can also provide these properties when the monomer is polymerized at moderate dose rates and at low temperature. Pulsed electron beam provides a special advantage under conditions where the dose per pulse is below the threshold for overlap (ca. 40 Gy/pulse) and the pulse rate is high enough (>1 kHz) to maintain a quasi-heterogeneous mode at high doses rates. Maintaining low temperature in the early stages of polymerization is important in achieving good properties

  5. Investigation on polyethylene-supported and nano-SiO2 doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) based gel polymer electrolyte for high voltage lithium ion battery

    Highlights: • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO2/PE based GPE was developed for high voltage lithium ion battery. • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO2/PE has uniform and interconnected pore structure. • The GPE exhibits improved ionic conductivity and compatibility with electrodes. • 5 V battery using the GPE presents excellent cyclic stability. - Abstract: Nano-SiO2 as dopant was used for preparing polyethylene-supported poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (P(MMA-co-BA)/PE) based membrane and corresponding gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), which is applied to improve the cyclic stability of high voltage lithium ion battery. P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO2/PE based membranes and corresponding GPEs were characterized with scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mechanical test, thermogravimetric analysis, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the GPE with 5 wt.% nano-SiO2 shows the best performance. Compared to the undoped membrane, the 5 wt.% nano-SiO2 doped membrane has a better pore structure and higher electrolyte uptake, leading to the enhancement in ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE from 1.23 × 10−3 to 2.26 × 10−3 S.cm−1 at room temperature. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the doped membrane is increased from 300 to 320 °C while its decomposition potential of GPE is from 5.0 to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li+). The cyclic stability of Li/GPE/Li(Li0.13Ni0.30Mn0.57)O2 cell at the high voltage range of 3.5 V ∼ 5.0 V is consequently improved, the capacity retention of the cell using the doped membrane is 92.8% after 50 cycles while only 88.9% for the cell using undoped membrane and 66.9% for the cell using liquid electrolyte

  6. Modification of hydrophobic polypeptide-based film by blending with hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid)

    Guoquan Zhu; Fagang Wang; Qiaochun Gao; Yuying Liu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a series of poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate)/poly(acrylic acid) (PBLG/PAA) polymer blend films were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The structure and morphology of the polymer blend film were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PBLG/PAA polymer blend films were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogra...

  7. Electroactive behavior assessment of poly(acrylic acid)-graphene oxide composite hydrogel in the detection of cadmium

    Bejarano-Jimenez, A.; Escobar-Barrios, V.A.; Kleijn, J.M.; Oritz-Ledon, C.A.; Chazaro-Ruiz, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers of acrylic acid-graphene oxide (PAA-GO) were synthesized with different percentage of chemical neutralization (0, 10, and 20%) of the acrylic acid monomer before its polymerization. The influence of their swelling and adsorption/desorption capacity of cadmium ions in aqueous

  8. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  9. The study of synthesis and photocuring behaviors of organic silicon modified methylacrylate and acrylate

    Wang, Si-yuan; Zou, Ying-quan

    2012-03-01

    Ten different silicon-containing methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized by the substitution reaction of chlorosilanes or chlorosiloxanes with 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate or 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate. Using triethylamine as the catalytic agent, tetrahydrofuran as the solvent, pure products can be obtained with one-step reaction after reduced pressure distillation or column chromatography via controlling raw ratio and reaction time. In this study, one to four silicon contained methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized with simple methd and high yield. Monomers' properties were characterized through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and their viscosity and thermostability were also characterized. The polymers' have good performance on UV-curing and low surface energy.

  10. 两性聚羧酸类高聚物阳离子丙烯酸酯单体 DAC 的制备及其性能%Preparation and performance of cationic acrylate monomer (DAC) for amphoteric carboxylic acid polymer

    陈宝璠

    2015-01-01

    以丙烯酸甲酯(MA)与2氯乙醇(CE)为反应原料,通过酯交换反应制备了丙烯酸氯乙醇酯(CA)中间体,再将 CA 与三甲胺(TMA)水溶液反应,合成了一种用于制备两性聚羧酸类高聚物的阳离子丙烯酸酯单体(丙烯酰氧乙基三甲基氯化铵,DAC).采用 FTIR 和1 HNMR 对 DAC 结构进行了表征,并考察了 n(TMA)/n (CA)、催化剂用量、阻聚剂用量、反应温度和反应时间对 CA 转化率和 DAC 质量分数的影响.结果显示:最佳制备工艺条件为 n(TMA)/n(CA)=1.2,催化剂用量为 CA 中间体质量的4.5%,阻聚剂用量为 CA 中间体质量的0.6%,反应温度为50℃,反应时间为3 h.以 DAC 为阳离子单体,与丙烯酸(AA)、聚乙二醇单甲醚丙烯酸酯(MPEGAA)通过反相乳液共聚合制得两性聚羧酸类高聚物,该高聚物具有优异的保坍性和较高的早期抗压强度.%A cationic acrylate monomer,[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethyl ammonium chloride,DAC),used for synthetizing amphoteric carboxylic acid polymer was prepared by reaction of 2-chloroethyl acrylate (CA)inter-mediate and trimethylamine (TMA)aqueous solution.The 2-chloroethyl acrylate (CA)intermediate was pre-pared by transesterification of methyl acrylate and 2-chloroethanol.The DAC structure was identified by means of FTIR and 1 HNMR.The influences of n (TMA)/n (CA),dosages of catalyst and polymerization inhibitor,reaction temperature and reaction time were investigated with the conversion rate of CA and mass fraction of DAC.The results show that the optimal technological conditions for the preparation includes:n(TMA)/n(CA)is 1.2,the dosage of catalyst is 4.5% and the dosage of polymerization inhibitor is 0.6%according to the mass of CA,the reaction temperature is 50 ℃ and the reaction time is 3 h.And the amphoter-ic carboxylic acid polymer was prepared by means of inverse emulsion copolymerization of DAC,acrylic

  11. Acrylic Acid and Esters Will Be Oversupply

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drastic capacity growth The production capacity of acrylic acid in China has grown drastically in recent years. With the completion of the 80 thousand t/a acrylic acid and 130 thous and t/a acrylic ester project in Shenyang Paraffin Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., (CCR2006,No. 31) the capacity of acrylic acid in China has reached 882 thousand t/a.

  12. Polymer radiation chemistry

    This article reviews some of the work carried out in the Polymer and Radiation Group at the University of Queensland over the past ten years. The objective of the work has been to investigate the relationships between polymer structure and sensitivity towards high energy radiation, including 60Co gamma radiation, electron beams and UV radiation. A range of synthetic polymers containing carboxyl groups, acrylate groups, sulfone groups, amide linkages and aromatic residues have been investigated. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  13. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil for UV cured coatings

    Habib, Firdous; Bajpai, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the curing of biodegradable polymer films which were synthesized from soybean oil through the ultraviolet radiation and their stability against thermal degradation. In this study the epoxidation of soybean oil has been carried out via peracetic method. Further, an epoxy acrylate resin was synthesized from the epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) by using acrylic acid monomer. Triethylamine (TEA) and hydroquinone were used as a catalyst and inhibitor respectively. The acrylatio...

  15. EFFECTS OF PHENOL RESIN ADDITIVE ON DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ACRYLATE RUBBER AND ITS BLENDS

    Chi-fei Wu

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of a new blend system consisting of phenol resin and polar polymer (acrylate rubber and/or chlorinated polypropylene) were investigated. It was found that the addition of phenol resin to acrylate rubber and its incompatible blend can cause a remarkable improvement in the temperature dependence of the loss tangent. As a result, the present blends are very good damping materials.

  16. Synthesis and Properties of IPN Hydrogels Based on Konjac Glucomannan and Poly(acrylic acid)

    Bing LIU; Zhi Lan LIU; Ren Xi ZHUO

    2006-01-01

    Novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels based on konjac glucomannan (KGM) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared by polymerization and cross-linking of acrylic acid (AA) in the pre-fabricated KGM gel. The IPN gel was analyzed by FT-IR. The studies on the equilibrium swelling ratio of IPN hydrogels revealed their sensitive response to environmental pH value. The results of in vitro degradation showed that the IPN hydrogels retain the enzymatic degradation character of KGM.

  17. Preparation and properties of acrylic resin coating modified by functional graphene oxide

    Dong, Rui; Liu, Lili

    2016-04-01

    To improve the dispersion and the strength of filler-matrix interface in acrylic resin, the functional graphene oxide (FGO) was obtained by surface modification of graphene oxide (GO) by γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (KH-570) and then the acrylic nanocomposites containing different loadings of GO and FGO were prepared. The structure, morphology and dispersion/exfoliation of the FGO were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, Raman, XPS, SEM and TEM. The results demonstrated that the KH-570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of GO sheets. Furthermore, the corresponding thermal, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the acrylic nanocomposites filled with the FGO were studied and compared with those of neat acrylic and GO/acrylic nanocomposites. The results revealed that the loading of FGO effectively enhanced various properties of acrylic resin. These findings confirmed that the dispersion and interfacial interaction were greatly improved by incorporation of FGO, which might be the result of covalent bonds between the FGO and the acrylic matrix. This work demonstrates an in situ polymerization method to construct a flexible interphase structure, strong interfacial interaction and good dispersion of FGO in acrylic nanocomposites, which can reinforce the polymer properties and be applied in research and industrial areas.

  18. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil–Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations

    Ashraf M. Salih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.

  19. Conformational Transition of Poly (Acrylic Acid) Detected by Microcantilever Sensing

    LI Kai; LIU Hong; ZHANG Qing-Chuan; XUE Chang-Guo; WU Xiao-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) chains are grafted on one side of a microcantilever by the self-assembled method and the deflections of the microcantilever are detected as a function of medium pH from 3 to 11. It is found that when the pH varies, the microcantilever deflects because of the changing surface stress. By analysing the electrostatic repulsive effect, the surface stress change is related to the conformation transition of PAA from a collapse state to a swelling state. This method offers the interaction information among the polymer chains during the conformational transition and affords an alternative way to study conformational change of polymers.

  20. The Modification of the Acrylate Emulsion for Water-Based Coatings

    Chen Wei-Feng; Fa-Ai Zhang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The developments of the environment friendly materials and technology are largely promoted recently.There also come some new kinds of coatings including water-based coating, powder coating, high-solid coating and UV-cured coating[1]. The emulsion polymerization is the main method for preparing the polymer for coatings. One of the most widely used polymers is acrylate resin which is not well in some properties, such as weather resistance, endurance and water resistance[2]. We hope to improve the various properties of the acrylic emulsion by adding silicone made from tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS), making it better applied in coating field.

  1. Bonding auto-polymerising acrylic resin to acrylic denture teeth.

    Nagle, Susan

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of an auto-polymerising acrylic resin cured to acrylic denture teeth. The surface treatments included a combination of grit-blasting and\\/or wetting the surface with monomer. Samples were prepared and then stored in water prior to shear testing. The results indicated that the application of monomer to the surface prior to bonding did not influence the bond strength. Grit blasting was found to significantly increase the bond strength.

  2. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca²⁺ ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch - In moulding sands, Part II.

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina; Tyliszczak, Bozena

    2015-12-01

    The hardening process of moulding sands on quartz matrices bound by polymer binders containing carboxyl and hydroxyl groups can be carried out by using physical (microwave radiation, thermal holding) and chemical (Ca(2+) cations, glutaraldehyde) cross-linking agents. The highest hardening level obtain moulding sand samples containing binders in a form of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) within the microwave radiation field, for which the bending strength is of 1.6 MPa value even after 24h from ending the agent activity. The authors focused, in this study, on finding the reason of this effect. It was shown, by means of the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods, that the chemical adsorption process activated by microwaves plays an essential role. The applied microwaves activate the polar groups present in the polymer composition structure as well as the quartz crystals surfaces (silane groups). Then the chemical adsorption occurs in the binder-matrix system within the microwave radiation field and intermolecular lattices are formed with a participation of hydrogen bridges (SiOH⋯OC, SiOH⋯OH) and COSi type bonds. PMID:26125981

  3. Radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid on expanded polystyrene matrices

    The unfixed surface radioactive contamination for low energy β radionuclides (3H and 14C) is determined by wiping the checked surfaces with sponge of absorbent materials. The activity built up by this sponge is measured by a liquid scintillator spectrometer. In this work, a method of obtaining sponges of expanded polystyrene with hydrophobic surface by radioinduced grafting of the acrylic acid is presented. These sponges have diameters of 28 mm, thicknesses of 1.5 - 2 mm and density of 22 mg/cm3. The samples were immersed in a grafting solution with the following composition: acrylic acid 30%, Cu SO4 1%; water 69% which were deeply impregnated in repeated operations under vacuum and pressure conditions, respectively. Finally, the samples were exposed to γ radiation emitted by a 60Co source (IETI 10 000 - IFIN-HH). The dose rates were 0.3, 0.5 and 1 Mrad/h. The range of the absorbed doses was 1 - 25 Mrad. The yields of radiochemical grafting have been determined by gravimetric, spectrophotometric and radiometric methods. The grafting agent used was 3H labelled acrylic acid. The solvation capacity and the quenching characteristics of the grafted sponges in liquid scintillators, as well as the sampling yields have been analyzed as function of irradiation procedure and the percentage of grafted acrylic fragments. The superficial grafting of the acrylic acid has been carried out by the mentioned technique, leading to the increase of the wiping efficiency of the unfixed surface contaminating activity, without changes of polymer solubility in liquid scintillators and without the perturbation of the radioactivity detection process. (authors)

  4. Optimization of cellulose acrylate and grafted 4-vinylpyridine and 1-vinylimidazole synthesis

    Bojanić Vaso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of cellulose acrylate synthesis by reaction with sodium cellulosate and acryloyl chloride was carried out. Optimal conditions for conducting the synthesis reaction of cellulose acrylate were as follows: the molar ratio of cellulose/potassium-t-butoxide/acryloyl chloride was 1:3:10 and the optimal reaction time was 10 h. On the basis of elemental analysis with optimal conditions for conducting the reaction of cellulose acrylate, the percentage of substitution of glucose units in cellulose Y = 80.7%, and the degree of substitution of cellulose acrylate DS = 2.4 was determined. The grafting reaction of acrylate vinyl monomers onto cellulose in acetonitrile with initiator azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN in a nitrogen atmosphere was performed, by mixing for 5 h at acetonitrile boiling temperature. Radical copolymerization of synthesized cellulose acrylate and 4-vinylpyridine, 1-vinylimidazole, 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and 9-vinylcarbazole, cellulose-poly-4-vinylpyridine (Cell-PVP, cellulose-poly-1- vinylimidazole (Cell-PVIm and cellulose-poly-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (Cell-P1V2P and cellulose-poly-9-vinylcarbazole (Cell-P9VK were synthesized. Acrylate cellulose and cellulose grafted copolymers were confirmed by IR spectroscopy, based on elementary analysis and the characteristics of grafted copolymers of cellulose were determined. The mass share of grafted copolymers, X, the relationship of derivative parts/cellulose vinyl group, Z, and the degree of grafting copolymers of cellulose (mass% were determined. In reaction of methyl iodide and cellulose-poly-4-vinylpyridine (Cell-PVP the cellulose-1-methyl-poly-4-vinylpyridine iodide (Cell-1-Me-PVPJ was synthesized. Cellulose acrylate and grafted copolymers were obtained with better thermal, electrochemical and ion-emulation properties for bonding of noble metals Au, Pt, Pd from water solutions. The synthesis optimization of cellulose acrylate was applied as a model for the synthesis of grafted

  5. Modification of hydrophobic polypeptide-based film by blending with hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid

    Guoquan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate/poly(acrylic acid (PBLG/PAA polymer blend films were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. The structure and morphology of the polymer blend film were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PBLG/PAA polymer blend films were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric (TG Analysis, Tensile Tests, and measurements of Surface Contact Angles. The results revealed that the introduction of PAA could exert great effects on the structure and properties of the polypeptide films.

  6. 21 CFR 177.1990 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers.

    2010-04-01

    .... (2) The weight average molecular weight of the copolymer is not less than 50,000 when determined by... described in ANSI/ASTM D3536-76, “Standard Test Method for Molecular Weight Averages and Molecular Weight... copolymers contain not more than 15 weight-percent of polymer units derived from methyl acrylate....

  7. Copolymers Formation by Photopolymerization of (Meth)acrylates Containing Dissolved Polyheteroarylenes

    Dmitriy A. Sapozhnikov; Tat'yana V. Volkova; Sakharova, Antonina A.; Gasanov, Rashid G.; Vanda Yu. Voytekunas; Abadie, Marc J. M.; Jean-Yves Sanchez; Vygodskii, Yakov S.

    2009-01-01

    Radical photopolymerization of (meth)acrylates in the presence of dissolved polyheteroarylenes has been investigated. The kinetics of radical polymerization of unsaturated monomers in the presence of polyheteroarylenes and model compounds has been studied by Differential Scanning Photocalorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. From the results of investigations into the kinetics and the polymer structures (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Size-exclusion Chromat...

  8. Preparation and reactivity of metal-containing monomers. Communication 3. Radiation graft polymerization of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) acrylates on polyethylene

    Graft polymerization of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) acrylates was carried out on polyethylene powder subjected to prior irradiation in the air and graft copolymers were obtained with up to 1.4 mass % metal content. The graft polymerization of metal acrylates on polyethylene proceeds 10 times more slowly than in the case of acrylic acid with virtually the complete absence of thermal homopolymerization. The graft rate is independent of the concentration of the metal-containing monomer in the range from 1 to 10 mass %. The graft polymerization of acrylates is initiated by radicals formed as a result of the decomposition of the hydroperoxide groups with subsequent predominantly bimolecular termination of the growing polymer chains in the case of Co(II) and Ni(II) acrylates and monomolecular termination in the case of Cu(II) acrylate. The effective activation energies for the graft polymerization reactions were determined

  9. Adhesion and Proliferation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells on Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate)

    Erika Kitakami; Makiko Aoki; Chikako Sato; Hiroshi Ishihata; Masaru Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells obtained from extracted teeth are a potential cell source for tissue engineering. We previously reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) is highly biocompatible with human blood cells. In this study, we investigated the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of PDL cells on PMEA and other types of polymers to design an appropriate scaffold for tissue engineering. PDL cells adhered and proliferated on all investigated polymer surfaces except fo...

  10. Synthesis and Application of a New Acrylic Ester Resin for Recycling SIPA from its Water Solution

    2005-01-01

    A new acrylic ester polymer YWB-7 resin was prepared and characterized. The properties of YWB-7 resin were compared with those of the commercial Amberlite XAD-7, Diaion HP2MG and hypercrosslinked macroporous polymer NDA-150 resins. Both surface area and micropore area of YWB-7 resin were bigger than those of XAD-7 resin and HP2MG resin. The YWB-7 resin was successfully employed to recycle 5-sodiosulfoisophthalic acids (SIPA) from its solutions with and without methanol.

  11. Radiation-initiated graft polymerization of methyl acrylate onto chrome-tanned sheepskin

    Radiation grafting method was applied to obtain leather-polymer composite. Grafting of methyl acrylate onto chrome-tanned, bluestock sheepskin was investigated under the initiatory effect of 60Co radiation of 0.20 11.50 Mrad. The percent of grafting was determined and water adsorption and shrinkage temperature measurements were carried out. It was shown that 2-4 Mrad is convenient to produce leather-polymer composite. (author)

  12. Desorption of biocides from renders modified with acrylate and silicone.

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Bollmann, Ulla E; Wangler, Timothy P; Bester, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Biocides are used in the building industry to prevent algal, bacterial and fungal growth on polymericrenders and thus to protect buildings. However, these biocides are leached into the environment. To better understand this leaching, the sorption/desorption of biocides in polymeric renders was assessed. In this study the desorption constants of cybutryn, carbendazim, iodocarb, isoproturon, diuron, dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone and tebuconazole towards acrylate and silicone based renders were assessed at different pH values. At pH 9.5 (porewater) the constants for an acrylate based render varied between 8 (isoproturon) and 9634 (iodocarb) and 3750 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone), respectively. The values changed drastically with pH value. The results for the silicone based renders were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high sorption constants for one polymer also had high values for the other polymer. Comparison of the octanol water partitioning constants (Kow) with the render/water partitioning constants (Kd) revealed similarities, but no strong correlation. Adding higher amounts of polymer to the render material changed the equilibria for dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone, tebuconazole, cybutryn, carbendazim but not for isoproturon and diuron. PMID:24059976

  13. Polymer End Group Modifications and Polymer Conjugations via " Click" Chemistry Employing Microreactor Technology

    Vandenbergh, Joke; Tura, Tiago; Baeten, Evelien; Junkers, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the development of microreactor protocols for the successful continuous flow end group modification of atom transfer radical polymerization precursor polymers into azide end-capped materials and the subsequent copper-catalyzed azide alkyne click reactions with alkyne polymers, in flow. By using a microreactor, the reaction speed of the azidation of poly(butyl acrylate), poly(methyl acrylate), and polystyrene can be accelerated from hours to seconds and full end group conve...

  14. Radiation curing silicone acrylate systems

    Radiation curing silicone systems by either ultra violet light (UV) or electron beam (EB) is introduced. The cure is based on the polymerization of the acrylic C = C double bond via a radical chain reaction. In the EB curing process a sufficient number of radicals for spontaneous polymerization is produced due to the high radiation energy whereas with UV light the energy is not as intensive thus a photo-initiator is required for a UV process. The required high local radical concentration provided by its decay. The radical generation immediate chain-growing leads to rapid and efficient crosslinking even at room temperature. It is for this reason that silicone acrylates cure immediately. All coater capable of handling 100% thermally curing silicones are suitable for the use with Goldschmidt's RC systems

  15. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent. PMID:27610302

  16. Poly(acrylic acid) interpolymer complexation: use of a fluorescence time resolved anisotropy as a poly(acrylamide) probe

    Swift, T.; Swanson, L; Rimmer, S.

    2014-01-01

    A low concentration poly(acrylamide) sensor has been developed which uses the segmental mobility of another polymer probe with a covalently attached fluorescent marker. Interpolymer complexation with poly(acrylic acid) leads to reduced segmental mobility which can be used to determine the concentration of polymer in solution. This technique could be useful in detecting the runoff of polymer dispersants and flocculants in fresh water supplies following water purification processes

  17. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  18. Modelling and manufacture of regular microstructures with high aspect ratio in acrylic plastic

    The possibility of manufacture of microstructures with high aspect ratio in industrial acrylic plastic by the method of deep X-ray lithography is investigated. A characteristic dependence of the rate of dissolution of the polymer on the dose of the radiation absorbed is obtained. Processing regimes for the formation of deep structures were selected. A model for computation of the profile of development of structures in view of large exhibition depth was suggested. 25x25 μm through channels were obtained in sheet acrylic plastic 1000 μm thick

  19. Effect of Antiadherents on the Physical and Drug Release Properties of Acrylic Polymeric Films.

    Ammar, Hussein O; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Felton, Linda A; Gad, Shadeed; Fouly, Aya A

    2016-06-01

    Antiadherents are used to decrease tackiness of a polymer coating during both processing and subsequent storage. Despite being a common excipient in coating formulae, antiadherents may affect mechanical properties of the coating film as well as drug release from film-coated tablets, but how could addition of antiadherents affect these properties and to what extent and is there a relation between the physical characteristics of the tablet coat and the drug release mechanisms? The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics of films containing different amounts of the antiadherents talc, glyceryl monostearate, and PlasACRYL(TM) T20. Eudragit RL30D and Eudragit RS30D as sustained release polymers and Eudragit FS30D as a delayed release material were used. Polymer films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic examination, and water content as calculated from loss on drying. The effect of antiadherents on in vitro drug release for the model acetylsalicylic acid tablets coated with Eudragit FS30D was also determined. Increasing talc concentration was found to decrease the ability of the polymer films to resist mechanical stress. In contrast, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and PlasACRYL produced more elastic films. Talc at concentrations higher than 25% caused negative effects, which make 25% concentration recommended to be used with acrylic polymers. All antiadherents delayed the drug release at all coating levels; hence, different tailoring of drug release may be achieved by adjusting antiadherent concentration with coating level. PMID:26314244

  20. Synthesis of Fluorinated Polymers and Evaluation of Wettability

    Tamami Kimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of fluorinated polymers were synthesized: an acrylate polymer having a fluorinated triethylene glycol as a pendant group (2a and a fluoroalkyl acrylate polymer (2b. The contact angle of these fluorinated polymers against water, non-fluorinated alcohols and fluorinated alcohols were evaluated. As compared with the fluoroalkyl polymer (2b, fluoroethylene glycol polymer (2a showed smaller contact angle against water and non-fluorinated alcohols. This supports the proposition that changing the alkyl chain into the ethylene glycol-type chain gave some interaction between etheric oxygen and water or non-fluorinated alcohols. In addition, fluoroalkyl acrylate polymer (2b showed remarkably low values of critical surface tension.

  1. The pH-responsive behaviour of poly(acrylic acid) in aqueous solution is dependent on molar mass.

    Swift, T; Swanson, L.; Geoghegan, M; Rimmer, S.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy on a series of aqueous solutions of poly(acrylic acid) containing a luminescent label showed that polymers with molar mass, Mn < 16.5 kDa did not exhibit a pH responsive conformational change, which is typical of higher molar mass poly(acrylic acid). Below this molar mass, polymers remained in an extended conformation, regardless of pH. Above this molar mass, a pH-dependent conformational change was observed. Diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ...

  2. Use of a continuous-flow microreactor for thiol-ene functionalization of RAFT-derived poly(butyl acrylate)

    Vandenbergh, Joke; Junkers, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the synthesis of functionalized RAFT-derived poly(n-butyl acrylate) polymers via the use of a continuous-flow microreactor, in which aminolysis as well as thiol-ene reactions are executed in reaction times of just 20 minutes. Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (M-n = 3800 g mol(-1), PDI = 1.10) with a trithiocarbonate end group was prepared via a conventional RAFT process. The polymer was then functionalized via aminolysis/thiol-ene reactions in the micro-flow reactor with isobornyl ...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of partially fluorinated poly(acryl) ionomers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and ESR-spectroscopic investigation of the radically induced degradation of model compounds; Synthese und Charakterisierung teilfluorierter Poly(acryl)-Ionomere als Polymerelektrolytmembranen fuer Brennstoffzellen und ESR-spektroskopische Untersuchung der radikalinduzierten Degradation von Modellverbindungen

    Schoenberger, Frank

    2008-07-09

    In the first part of this work different strategies for the design of sulfonated partially fluorinated poly(aryl)s are developed and synthetically realized. The applied concept is that partially fluorinated poly(aryl)s are distinguished from the nonfluorinated ones by an enhanced acidity. Moreover they possess higher bond dissociation energies of both the C-F bonds and any adjacent C-H bonds which should be associated with a gain in radical stability and thus in chemical and thermal stability. In order to investigate the influence of the chemical structure of (partially fluorinated) monomeric building blocks, homo-polymers with different structural units (with aromatic C-F bonds, C(CF3)2-bridged and/or CF3-substituted phenylene rings) are synthesized by polycondensation and structurally characterized (elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography). Established organic reactions, such as the Balz-Schiemann reaction, Suzuki reaction and Ullmann's biaryl synthesis, are applied for the synthesis of the specific monomers. After sulfonation of the homo-polymers (ionically crosslinked) membranes are prepared and characterized in terms of suitability as polymer electrolyte membrane in fuel cells (ion-exchange capacity, proton conductivity, thermal and chemical stability, water uptake, dimensional change). Both the chemical nature of the monomers and their constitution in the ionomer are important for the properties of the resulting membranes. Therefore microphase-separated multiblock-co-ionomers based on hydrophilic (sulfonated) and hydrophobic (partially fluorinated) telechelic macromonomers are prepared and characterized. Both the influence of the block length and the chemical nature of the used monomers on the membrane properties are comparatively investigated. On the basis of the findings gained in this part of the work, the advantages and disadvantages of partially fluorinated ionomer membranes are analyzed and discussed. The second part of

  4. Structure and Proton Conductivity in Mixtures of Poly(acrylic acid) and Imidazole

    Yang, Han-Chang; Griffin, Philip J.; Winey, Karen I.; University of Pennsylvania Team

    2015-03-01

    Proton conductivity in polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) typically involves water, which requires that during operation the humidity of the PEM be carefully controlled. In contrast, anhydrous protic polymer membranes promote proton transport by incorporating heterocyclic molecules, such as imidazole and its derivatives, into acid-containing polymers. In this work, we explore the interplay between nanoscale-structure and proton conduction of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blended at varying compositions with 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (EMI). We present the glass transition temperature from differential scanning calorimetry, morphology characterization from X-ray scattering, and proton conductivity from electrical impedance spectroscopy.

  5. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. PMID:27261731

  6. Investigation of UV curing reaction of dicyclopentadienyl acrylate by FT-IR

    Dicyclopentadienyl acrylate (DCPA) is characterized by low odor, low volatility, high flash point, low toxicity and low shrinkage on cure. Another advantage of DCPA is its insensitiveness to the inhibiting effect of oxygen. DCPA have wide industrial applications. It was used for the preparation of adhesives, UV-curable coatings and polymer concreted). The advantages of DCPA result from its particular structure. There are two unsaturated bonds, one acrylic double bond and one cyclic double bond, in each DCPA molecule. But, few reports on reaction behavior of the two type double bonds were issued up to date. In this paper, reaction behavior of the acrylic and the cyclic double bond of DCPA during and after LTV-curing were investigated by Fourier Transform-Infrared(FT-IR)

  7. Acrylates and methacrylates of formal-glycerine

    Present article is devoted acrylates and methacrylates of formal-glycerine. The formal-glycerine was obtained in the form of mixture of isomers 1.2 and 1.3 from glycerine and paraform with hydrochloric acid. The structure of obtained acrylates and methacrylates is studied by means of molecular refraction, element analysis and infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    Graft co polymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h-1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the super absorbent properties are found to be P H sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted super absorbent polymers.

  9. Deep UV patterning of acrylic masters for molding biomimetic dry adhesives

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel fabrication method for the production of biomimetic dry adhesives that allows enormous variation in fiber shapes and sizes. The technology is based on deep-UV patterning of commercial acrylic with semi-collimated light available from germicidal lamps, and combined careful processing conditions, material selection and novel developer choices to produce relatively high-aspect-ratio fibers with overhanging caps on large areas. These acrylic fibers are used as a master mold for subsequent silicone rubber negative mold casting. Because the bulk acrylic demonstrates little inherent adhesion to silicone rubbers, the master molds created in this process do not require any surface treatments to achieve high-yield demolding of interlocked structures. Multiple polymers can be cast from silicone rubber negative molds and this process could be used to structure smart materials on areas over multiple square feet. Using direct photopatterning of acrylic allows many of the desired structures for biomimetic dry adhesives to be produced with relative ease compared to silicon-based molding processes, including angled fibers and hierarchical structures. Optimized fiber shapes for a variety of polymers can be produced using this process, and adhesion measurements on a well-characterized polyurethane, ST-1060, are used to determine the effect of fiber geometry on adhesion performance.

  10. Deep UV patterning of acrylic masters for molding biomimetic dry adhesives

    We present a novel fabrication method for the production of biomimetic dry adhesives that allows enormous variation in fiber shapes and sizes. The technology is based on deep-UV patterning of commercial acrylic with semi-collimated light available from germicidal lamps, and combined careful processing conditions, material selection and novel developer choices to produce relatively high-aspect-ratio fibers with overhanging caps on large areas. These acrylic fibers are used as a master mold for subsequent silicone rubber negative mold casting. Because the bulk acrylic demonstrates little inherent adhesion to silicone rubbers, the master molds created in this process do not require any surface treatments to achieve high-yield demolding of interlocked structures. Multiple polymers can be cast from silicone rubber negative molds and this process could be used to structure smart materials on areas over multiple square feet. Using direct photopatterning of acrylic allows many of the desired structures for biomimetic dry adhesives to be produced with relative ease compared to silicon-based molding processes, including angled fibers and hierarchical structures. Optimized fiber shapes for a variety of polymers can be produced using this process, and adhesion measurements on a well-characterized polyurethane, ST-1060, are used to determine the effect of fiber geometry on adhesion performance

  11. Morphological alteration of microwave disinfected acrylic resins used for dental prostheses

    Popescu, M. C.; Bita, B. I.; Avram, A. M.; Tucureanu, V.; Schiopu, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we aim to perform a cross section morphological characterization of an acrylic polymer used for dental prostheses subjected to microwave disinfection. The method was largely investigated and the microbiological effectiveness is well established, but there are some issues regarding the in-depth alteration of the material. In our research, the surface roughness is insignificant and the samples were not polished or refined by any means. Two groups of 7 acrylic discs (20 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared from a heat-cured powder. Half of the samples embedded a stainless steel reinforcement, in order to observe the changes at the interfaces between the polymer and metallic wire. After the gradual wet microwave treatment, the specimens - including the controls - were frozen in liquid nitrogen and broken into pieces. Fragments were selected for gold metallization to ensure a good contrast for SEM imaging. We examined the samples in cross section employing a high resolution SEM. We have observed the alterations occurred at the surface of the acrylic sample and at the interface with the metallic wire along with the increase of the power and exposure time. The bond configuration of acrylate samples was analysed by FTIR spectrometry.

  12. 聚苯乙烯/聚丙烯酸丁酯自交联胶乳互穿聚合物网络的力学性能和动态力学性能%Mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of self-crosslinkable latex interpenetrating polymer network based on polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate)

    晏欣; 孙卫红; 饶秋华

    2006-01-01

    Self-crosslinkable latex interpenetrating polymer network (LIPN) based on polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) was prepared by seed emulsion polymerization. The results of tension tests showed that the LIPN crosslinked with diacetone acrylamide and adipyl dihydrazide had higher tensile strength than that of the corresponding latex interpenetrating polymer network and their tensile strength increased and permanent sets decreased with increasing the content of diacetone acrylamide, but the LIPN crosslinked by hydrogen and ionic bonds had much higher elongation at break and permanent set. These suggested that the interfacial covalent-bond crosslinked with diacetone acrylamide and adipyl dihydrazide could obviously improve mechanical and creep-resistant properties. The results of dynamic mechanical spectra showed that the self-crosslinkable LIPN crosslinked with diacetone acrylamide and adipyl dihydrazide had much more component compatibility and damping properties than the corresponding LIPN and the LIPN crosslinked by hydrogen and ionic bonds.%采用种子乳液聚合制备了聚苯乙烯/聚丙烯酸丁酯自交联胶乳互穿聚合物网络.拉伸实验结果表明,用双丙酮丙烯酰胺和己二酸二酰肼自交联的胶乳互穿聚合物网络(LIPN)比相应的胶乳互穿聚合物网络具有较高的拉伸强度,并且随双丙酮丙烯酰胺用量的增加,拉伸强度增加以及永久变形降低,但离子键和氢键交联的LIPN具有很高的扯断伸长率和很大的永久变形,这些说明用双丙酮丙烯酰胺和己二酸二酰肼界面共价键交联能很好地改善力学性能和抗蠕变性能.动态力学谱结果表明,用双丙酮丙烯酰胺和己二酸二酰肼交联的LIPN比相应的LIPN以及离子键和氢键交联的LIPN具有较好的组分相容性和阻尼性能.

  13. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from 238U and 232Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of 222Rn during manufacturing, leading to 210Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of 238U and 232Th equivalent, and 10−8 ppt 210Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented

  14. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Cleveland, B. T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario P3Y 1N2 Canada and Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  15. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  16. Thermodynamic Interactions between Polystyrene and Long-Chain Poly(n-Alkyl Acrylates) Derived from Plant Oils.

    Wang, Shu; Robertson, Megan L

    2015-06-10

    Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising sources for the derivation of polymers. Long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) are readily derived from fatty acids through conversion of the carboxylic acid end-group to an acrylate or methacrylate group. The resulting polymers contain long alkyl side-chains with around 10-22 carbon atoms. Regardless of the monomer source, the presence of alkyl side-chains in poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) provides a convenient mechanism for tuning their physical properties. The development of structured multicomponent materials, including block copolymers and blends, containing poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) requires knowledge of the thermodynamic interactions governing their self-assembly, typically described by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. We have investigated the χ parameter between polystyrene and long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylate) homopolymers and copolymers: specifically we have included poly(stearyl acrylate), poly(lauryl acrylate), and their random copolymers. Lauryl and stearyl acrylate were chosen as model alkyl acrylates derived from vegetable oils and have alkyl side-chain lengths of 12 and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. Polystyrene is included in this study as a model petroleum-sourced polymer, which has wide applicability in commercially relevant multicomponent polymeric materials. Two independent methods were employed to measure the χ parameter: cloud point measurements on binary blends and characterization of the order-disorder transition of triblock copolymers, which were in relatively good agreement with one another. The χ parameter was found to be independent of the alkyl side-chain length (n) for large values of n (i.e., n > 10). This behavior is in stark contrast to the n-dependence of the χ parameter predicted from solubility parameter theory. Our study complements prior work investigating the interactions between

  17. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates. PMID:8334539

  18. Property Research of Instant Polymerization Acrylate Size Mixture%瞬时聚合丙烯酸酯浆料的性能研究

    吴长春; 武海良; 沈艳琴; 杨微

    2011-01-01

    探讨在采用瞬时聚合法直接合成固体丙烯酸酯浆料的过程中,疏水性单体丙烯酸丁酯用量对所生成丙烯酸酯浆料性能的影响.测试了不同丙烯酸丁酯用量下反应生成物的水溶性、水溶液黏度及对涤棉粗纱黏附性,并对合成的固体丙烯酸浆料进行红外表征.结果表明:在丙烯酸的中和度为50%、氧化还原引发体系中引发剂为单体量的6%时,丙烯酸丁酯为单体量的25%时合成的浆料性能最好,所生产的浆料为丙烯酸-丙烯酸钠盐-丙烯酸丁酯共聚物.%Effect of hydrophobic monomer butyl acrylate amount on acrylate size mixture property in the process of compounding solid acrylate size mixture directly by instant polymerization was discussed. Water-soluble, solution viscosity and adhesion to polyester cotton roving of polymer were tested in condition of different butyl acrylate amount. Infrared spectroscopy was done on solid acrylate size mixture. The result shows that property of the acrylate size mixture is the best,the size mixture is acrylate,acrylic acid,butyl acrylate copolymer when acrylic acid neutralization degree is 50% ,initiator content in redox initiation system is 6% ,butyl acrylate is 25%.

  19. Structural Parameters and Swelling Behavior of pH Sensitive Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) Hydrogels

    Thakur, A; Wanchoo, R. K.; Singh, P

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, hydrogels based on acrylamide (AAm) and acrylic acid (AAc), crosslinked with N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAAm) were prepared by free radical polymerization in solution. The effect of initial AAm/AAc mole ratio and nominal crosslinking ratio (moles of crosslinking agent/moles of polymer repeat unit) on the dynamic and equilibrium swelling behaviour of hydrogels was investigated. Hydrogels were characterized by the polymer volume fraction in the swollen state (ν2,s ), the...

  20. Study of Physical and Colloid-Chemical Properties of Acrylic Polyelectrolytes of “M-PAA” Series and Their Modification

    N.O Dzhakipbekova; A. B. Isa; M. F Fatkullina; E. O Dzhakipbekov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to search for the best basic technology to replace the base in the metallization of dielectrics. We studied conducting polymersacrylic polyelectrolytes. Polyelectrolytes include high molecular weight compounds containing macromolecules and ionogenic groups. Experimental studies have shown that the rational use of HSP for the regulation of colloid-chemical processes in the production should take into account the functional structure of the polymer, its conformatio...

  1. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  2. DSC analysis of EB-cured polyurethane-acrylate

    The gel films obtained by electron beam (EB) solid-state polymerization of urethane-acrylate prepolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two kinds of urethane-acrylates were synthesized by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for this purpose. One is a semicrystalline prepolymer (UA-251M) with a number average molecular weight (M-barn) of 3200, and the other is an amorphous one (UA-071M) with M-barn of 1450. The M-barn varied by changing M-barn of PBAD. UA-251M gel film decreased in glass transition temperature (Tg) and increased in heat capacity change (ΔCp) at Tg with increasing irradiation dose, while the Tg and ΔCp values of UA-071M gel film changed in the opposite way to those of UA-251M gel film. Above 5 Mrad, gel fraction reached more than 90 %, and the Tg and ΔCp values changed steeply for both prepolymers. This steep change in Tg and ΔCp was attributed to the crosslinking of PBAD chains as well as of terminal acryloyl groups. Since the Tg change of UA-071M gel film depends merely on the crosslinking, the crosslinking structure was evaluated using two equations which relate the shift in Tg to crosslinking. The molecular weight between crosslinking junctions was found to be larger than the M-barn of the prepolymer. The crosslinking by the EB polymerization restricted the mobility of the polymer chain less strongly than the crosslinking by the three-functional isocyanate and α,ω-dihydroxy(polypropylene oxide) with a molecular weight of 1000 did. (author)

  3. DSC analysis of EB-cured polyurethane-acrylate

    Ando, Masayuki; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    1987-10-01

    The gel films obtained by electron beam (EB) solid-state polymerization of urethane-acrylate prepolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two kinds of urethane-acrylates were synthesized by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for this purpose. One is a semicrystalline prepolymer (UA-251M) with a number average molecular weight (M-bar/sub n/) of 3200, and the other is an amorphous one (UA-071M) with M-bar/sub n/ of 1450. The M-bar/sub n/ varied by changing M-bar/sub n/ of PBAD. UA-251M gel film decreased in glass transition temperature (T/sub g/) and increased in heat capacity change (..delta..C/sub p/) at T/sub g/ with increasing irradiation dose, while the T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ values of UA-071M gel film changed in the opposite way to those of UA-251M gel film. Above 5 Mrad, gel fraction reached more than 90 %, and the T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ values changed steeply for both prepolymers. This steep change in T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ was attributed to the crosslinking of PBAD chains as well as of terminal acryloyl groups. Since the T/sub g/ change of UA-071M gel film depends merely on the crosslinking, the crosslinking structure was evaluated using two equations which relate the shift in T/sub g/ to crosslinking. The molecular weight between crosslinking junctions was found to be larger than the M-bar/sub n/ of the prepolymer. The crosslinking by the EB polymerization restricted the mobility of the polymer chain less strongly than the crosslinking by the three-functional isocyanate and ..cap alpha..,..omega..-dihydroxy(polypropylene oxide) with a molecular weight of 1000 did.

  4. Catalytic routes towards acrylic acid, adipic acid and epsilon-caprolactam starting from biorenewables

    Beerthuis, R.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of bulk chemicals are derived from crude oil, but the move to biorenewable resources is gaining both societal and commercial interest. Reviewing this transition, we first summarise the types of today's biomass sources and their economical relevance. Then, we assess the biobased productions of three important bulk chemicals: acrylic acid, adipic acid and epsilon-caprolactam. These are the key monomers for high-end polymers (polyacrylates, nylon 6.6 and nylon 6, respectively) and a...

  5. Design and Characterization of Diclofenac Diethylamine Transdermal Patch using Silicone and Acrylic Adhesives Combination

    Panchaxari Dandigi M; Pampana Sowjanya; Pal Tapas; Devabhaktuni Bhavana; Aravapalli Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study The objective of the study was to develop and characterize Diclofenac Diethylamine (DDEA) transdermal patch using Silicone and acrylic adhesives combination. Methods Modified solvent evaporation method was employed for casting of film over Fluoropolymer coated polyester release liner. Initial studies included solubilization of drug in the polymers using solubilizers. The formulations with combination of adhesives were attempted to combine the desir...

  6. Characterization of electron beam cured epoxy acrylate

    Epoxy resin has wide application in various industrial fields because of their good mechanical strength, superiority adhesion and low shrinkage etc. And the typical curing method for epoxy resins is thermal and press compaction. However, a curing method was used electron beam process in this study. Epoxy acrylate was fabricated from mixture of epoxy, acrylic acid, tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and hydroquinone monomethyl ether (MEHQ) with mole ratios. Then electron beam irradiation effect on the curing of the epoxy acrylate resin was investigated various absorption dose in nitrogen atmospheres at room temperature. The dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the irradiated epoxy acrylate resins were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). And the tensile and flexural strength were measured by an universal tensile machine (UTM)

  7. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  8. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Rocha, Nirlando Antonio; Vilela, Jefferson Jose, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the {sup 222}Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  9. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the 222Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  10. Rapid Output Growth of Special Acrylic Esters

    Wang Lianzhi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Acrylic esters are usually classified into general-purpose varieties and special varieties. The production and application of general-purpose varieties is already quite matured in the world and their output growth tends to be flat. Owing to the development of coatings, electronics, automobiles,textiles, printing and construction sectors, especially the application of radiation curing technology in various sectors, special acrylic esters have developed rapidly.

  11. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin.

    Gong, Shi-Qiang; Epasinghe, D Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-Na; Kimmerling, Kirk A; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol-gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly(methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances. PMID:23485857

  12. Swelling Behaviors of Polyaniline-Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogels

    ZHANG You-wei; ZHAO Jiong-xin; LI Xiao-feng; TAO Yong; WU Cheng-xun

    2005-01-01

    Using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) aqueous solution, NaOH aqueous solution, aniline(An) and ammonim persulfate(APS), PAn-PAA hydrogels with a semi-interpenetrating structure connected by physical interlocks, chemical ion bonds and hydrogen bonds wcre prepared. The swelling properties of the hydrogels in solutions of different pH values(adjusted by adding NaOH or HCl) were studied. All the hydrogels prepared have similar swelling curves (the curves of equilibrium swelling ratio vs. pH value) and reach their maximum swelling at pH of 8 - 10. The maximum swelling ratio of the hydrogels is dependent on composition, including molecular weight of PAA, polymer content of the hydrogel,and molar ratios of AA to An, APS to An, and NaOH to AA.And the compositional dependence of the swelling capacity of PAn-PAA hydrogels was also studied.

  13. Solubility of dense CO2 in two biocompatible acrylate copolymers

    A. R. C. Duarte

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible polymers and copolymers are frequently being used as part of controlled delivery systems. These systems can be prepared using a "clean and environment friendly" technology like supercritical fluids. One great advantage of this process is that compressed carbon dioxide has excellent plasticizing properties and can swell most biocompatible polymeric matrixes, thus promoting drug impregnation processes. Mass sorption of two acrylate biocompatible copolymers contact with supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Equilibrium solubility of dense carbon dioxide in poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylhexylacrylate and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylhexylacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate was studied by a static method at 10.0 MPa and 313 K. The reticulated copolymer had Fickean behavior and its diffusion coefficient was calculated, under operating conditions.

  14. Adsorption properties of leather modified by radiation induced grafting with methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate

    Adsorption properties of leathers modified by radiation induced grafting with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate have been investigated by the McBain method. Isotherms of adsorption and desorption of water vapour have been obtained and the specific surface for various leathers calculated. No change in the adsorption properties of modified leather was noticed up to 25% content of grafted polymer. At higher polymer content deterioration of hygienic properties of modified leather was observed. From the adsorption measurements it has been concluded that the size of millipores undergoes random distribution and no specific group of pores prevails. Explanation of the observed phenomena is proposed. (author)

  15. Influência da adição da goma arábica em filmes isolados de polímero acrílico: estudo das propriedades de intumescimento e de permeabilidade Influence of arabic gum in acrylic polymer isolated films: study of swelling properties and permeability

    Victor Gustavo Santos Gabas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Goma arábica associada ao polímero acrílico Eudragit RS30D® na formação de filmes isolados foram obtidos e investigados como material potencialmente adequado à liberação modificada de fármacos. Foram preparadas dispersões aquosas de 4% (p/v e o citrato de trietila (20% massa polímero acrílico foi usado como plastificante. Dispersões foram vertidas em placa de Nylon revestida com Teflon® e colocadas em estufa a 60 ºC. A determinação do índice de intumescimento (Ii% em fluidos de simulação gástrica (FSG e intestinal (FSI, além da permeabilidade ao vapor d'água (TVA foram avaliadas. As dispersões propostas apresentaram habilidades filmogênicas. O polissacarídeo favoreceu, proporcionalmente à sua concentração, o grau de hidratação e a permeabilidade ao vapor d'água dos filmes formados. Estas particularidades observadas sugerem que os filmes constituídos por estas associações garantem acessibilidade com maior intensidade, quando comparado ao polimetacrilato individualmente, condição essa indispensável para uma biodegradação efetiva, em especial às regiões distais do trato gastrintestinal.Arabic gum combined with polymeric acrylic Eudragit RS30D® in isolated films for film coating, were obtained and investigated as potential material adapted for drug delivery systems. They were prepared aqueous dispersions of 4% (p/v, the triethyl citrate (20% w/w of the methacrylate polymer it was used with plasticizer. Sample of dispersions were poured over plate of Nylon covered with Teflon and placed in an air circulated oven at 60 ºC. Determination of the swelling index (Is% in fluids of gastric (SGF or intestinal simulation or intestinal (SIF, and the permeability to the water vapour (TVA were investigated. An increase in the amount of added polysaccharide favored the degree of hydration/swelling and permeability of the formed films. These observed particularities suggest that the films constituted by these

  16. Investigation of small molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) adsorption on γ-alumina

    Liu, Lei; Luo, Shi-Zhong [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Wang, Bin, E-mail: bin_wang@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Guo, ZhanHu [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Small molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) incorporated on γ-alumina. • PAA adsorbed primarily on outer surface of alumina at low pH. • PAA infiltrated inside alumina pore at high pH. • Polymer chain reptation motion during the infiltration. - Abstract: The interactions between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and alumina have been widely investigated. In this study, the pattern of small molecular weight PAA (M{sub W} 3000) interaction with γ-alumina has been dissected. The alumina/PAA hybrids were prepared at pH 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0, respectively. Nitrogen absorption–desorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental analysis were conducted to illustrate the characteristics of the hybrids. At pH 4.0, the coiled PAA conformation yielded polymer adsorption primarily on alumina outer surface. At higher pH values, the more stretched PAA molecules were able to infiltrate inside the alumina pores. The phenomenon is explained by the polymer chain reptation motion model. Coiled polymer chains are not oriented enough to penetrate the oxide pore channels. In contrary, stretched polymer chains are more likely to move along the pore channels.

  17. Investigation of small molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) adsorption on γ-alumina

    Highlights: • Small molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) incorporated on γ-alumina. • PAA adsorbed primarily on outer surface of alumina at low pH. • PAA infiltrated inside alumina pore at high pH. • Polymer chain reptation motion during the infiltration. - Abstract: The interactions between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and alumina have been widely investigated. In this study, the pattern of small molecular weight PAA (MW 3000) interaction with γ-alumina has been dissected. The alumina/PAA hybrids were prepared at pH 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0, respectively. Nitrogen absorption–desorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental analysis were conducted to illustrate the characteristics of the hybrids. At pH 4.0, the coiled PAA conformation yielded polymer adsorption primarily on alumina outer surface. At higher pH values, the more stretched PAA molecules were able to infiltrate inside the alumina pores. The phenomenon is explained by the polymer chain reptation motion model. Coiled polymer chains are not oriented enough to penetrate the oxide pore channels. In contrary, stretched polymer chains are more likely to move along the pore channels

  18. Acrylate metathesis via the second-generation Grubbs catalyst: unexpected pathways enabled by a PCy3-generated enolate.

    Bailey, Gwendolyn A; Fogg, Deryn E

    2015-06-17

    The diverse applications of acrylate metathesis range from synthesis of high-value α,β-unsaturated esters to depolymerization of unsaturated polymers. Examined here are unexpected side reactions promoted by the important Grubbs catalyst GII. Evidence is presented for attack of PCy3 on the acrylate olefin to generate a reactive carbanion, which participates in multiple pathways, including further Michael addition, proton abstraction, and catalyst deactivation. Related chemistry may be anticipated whenever labile metal-phosphine complexes are used to catalyze reactions of substrates bearing an electron-deficient olefin. PMID:26030596

  19. Synthesis and characterization of organometallic copolymers of acrylic acid g-polyethylene, with Mo, Fe, Co, Zn and Ni

    In this study, the preparation of a series of low density polyethylenes grafted with acrylic acid is presented. The grafting reactions were initiated by different doses of γ radiation; it was observed that grafting increased with the doses of radiation. The prepared copolymers were coordinated with different metals, as Mo, Fe, Co, Zn and Ni. The amount of metal supported on the polymer was determined by atomic absorption. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the metal chelation on the graft copolymer. The film surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. positron annihilation spectroscopy revealed a decrease on the free volume in the low density polyethylene after the grafting with acrylic acid. (Author)

  20. Durability of Polymer Modified Repair Mortars on Concrete Structures

    TCHETGNIA NGASSAM, Inès-Léana; Marceau, Sandrine; Chaussadent, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Polymer modified mortars (PMM) used as repair products present higher intrinsic properties than classic mortar due to polymer effect in the cementitious matrix. But evolution of their adhesives properties is not well known. This article deals with adhesive behavior of two PMMs made in laboratory with styrene acrylate (SA) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymers. It is highlighted that adhesion of these mortars depends on polymer amount in the mortar, on the environmental conditions, and on...

  1. Examining the thermal degradation of polymer binders using FTIR spectroscopy

    B. Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the general theoretical basis for examining polymers using FTIR infrared spectroscopy. It presents results of research on using the FTIR to analyse the course of structural changes during the thermal degradation of polymer binders exemplified by a sodium salt of the maleic acid – acrylic acid copolymer. This polymer was selected for the research due to its structure (an aliphatic structure polymer) and its physical chemistry properties (polarity, presence of reactive CO...

  2. Quartz crystal microbalance and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy characterization of bisphenol A absorption in the poly(acrylate) thin films.

    Li, Guifeng; Morita, Shigeaki; Ye, Shen; Tanaka, Masaru; Osawa, Masatoshi

    2004-02-01

    The absorption process of bisphenol A (BPA) in a number of poly(acrylate) thin films, such as poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA), poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), has been investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) measurements. Both QCM and IRRAS measurements show that the BPA molecules absorb in PMEA, PEA, and PBMA thin films but not in PMMA thin film. The differences in the BPA absorption behavior are mainly attributed to the difference in the glass transition temperature (T(g)) between these polymers. This absorption behavior also depends on the BPA concentration and polymer film thickness. Furthermore, IRRAS characterization demonstrates that the hydrogen bonding is formed between the hydroxyl group in BPA and the carbonyl group in the poly(acrylate) thin films. BPA molecule absorbed in these polymer thin films can be removed by ethanol rinse treatment. By optimizing experimental conditions for the QCM electrode modified by PMEA thin film, detection limitation of approximately 1 ppb for BPA can be realized by the in situ QCM measurement. This method is expected to be a sensitive in situ detection way for trace BPA in the environmental study. PMID:14750877

  3. Acrylic polymer nanocomposite resins for water borne coating applications

    Nobel, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Due to environmental and safety regulations the use of volatile organic components (VOC's) containing lacquers for exterior automotive purposes is under growing pressure. As a consequence there is a demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives like water borne coatings, high solid coatings,

  4. (Meth)acrylate liquid crystalline polymers for membrane applications

    Rabie, F.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Sheth, S.; Marand, E.; Martin, S. M.; Poláková, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 43 (2015), 42694_1-42694_8. ISSN 0021-8995 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : copolymers * liquid crystals * membranes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.768, year: 2014

  5. Kekuatan transversa resin akrilik hybrid setelah penambahan glass fiber dengan metode berbeda (The transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resin after glass fiber reinforcement with different method

    Intan Nirwana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of fibers have been added to acrylic resin materials to improve their mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to know the transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resins after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method. This study used rectangular specimens of 65 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 2.5 mm in thickness. There were 3 groups consisting of 6 specimens each, hybrid acrylic resin without glass fiber (control, glass fibers dipped in methyl methacrylate monomer for 15 minutes before being reinforced into hybrid acrylic resin (first method, glass fibers reinforced into a mixture of polymer powder and monomer liquid after the hybrid acrylic resin was mixed directly (second method. All of the specimens were cured for 20 minutes at 100° C. Transverse strength was measured using Autograph. The statistical analyses using one way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there were significant differences in transverse strength (p < 0.05 among the groups. The means of transverse strength were 94,94; 118,27; and 116,34 MPa. It meant that glass fibers reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin enhanced their transverse strength compared with control. Glass fiber reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin with differenciate method didn’t enhance their transverse strength.

  6. Photochemistry of Acrylates at 222 nm

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short wavelength mission (specially Kr Cl, 222 nm) allow a photo initiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (Kr Cl excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 ml per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (max << 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, a-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the un relaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented

  7. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension using hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid).

    Chen, J; Chen, M C

    2011-01-01

    A series of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(2-phenoxyethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (poly(PHEA-co-AA)), have been synthesized and characterized by Ubbelohde type viscometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectrometry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The shear thinning Non-Newtonian fluid behavior of their aqueous solution and the dependence on pH and hydrophobic group contents were found through apparent viscosity and rheological property investigating. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension was evaluated through visible absorbance data. Decolourization performance of hydrophobically associated polymer indicates two times better than that of PAA. The quantitative relationship was mainly studied. PMID:21866762

  8. Polymers grafted by ionizing radiations. Regulated desorption of fertilizers

    Study and development of copolymers for progressive liberation of fertilizers in the soil through a membrane. These copolymers are obtained by grafting a hydrophilic acrylic monomer on a hydrophobic polymer (polyolefine). Desorption of a fertilizer through a membrane of graft polymer as a function of time and grafting ratio was tested both in the laboratory and by plant growing

  9. Positron lifetime studies in vinyl polymers of medical importance

    Vinyl polymers used as artificial lens implants in ophthalmology were investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy. The structure of these polymers with free volumes offers the possibility of charging them with anti-inflammatory drugs for sustained release. A correlation between the amount of normalised free volume and the ratio of the methyl methacrylate to ethyl-hexyl-acrylate, used as polymerisation monomers, was found

  10. Positron lifetime studies in vinyl polymers of medical importance

    Marques, M. F. Ferreira; Gordo, P. M.; Gil, C. Lopes; Kajcsos, Zs.; Gil, M. H.; Mariz, M. J.; Lima, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl polymers used as artificial lens implants in ophthalmology were investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy. The structure of these polymers with free volumes offers the possibility of charging them with anti-inflammatory drugs for sustained release. A correlation between the amount of normalised free volume and the ratio of the methyl methacrylate to ethyl-hexyl-acrylate, used as polymerisation monomers, was found.

  11. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Preparation and Charcterization of Konjac Superabsorbent Polymer

    JIANG Fatang; LI Wanfen; ZHAN Xiaohui; CHEN Guofeng; ZHOU Jun; HUANG Jing; ZHANG Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    A superabsorbent polymer was prepared by grafting sodium acrylate (SA) onto Konjac flour using potassium persulfate (KPS) and N, N'-methylene bis acrylamide (MBA) as an initiator and crosslinker , respectively. The effect of various preparation conditions on its water absorbency was investigated. When the Konjac Flour content was 3.0 g , the acrylic acid ( AA ) content was 30.0 g, the amount of initiator was 0.150 g, the neutralization degree of monomer was 85% , the reaction temperature was 60 ℃ and the amount of crosslinker was 0.025 g, the polymer's absorbency was 750 times in pure water and 279 times in tap water at ambient temperature. It had also high water retention. The graft efficiency reached 67%. The analyses of FT-IR and SEM indicate that sodium acrylate is grafted on the polysaccharides of Konjac flour.

  13. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  14. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  15. Synthesis and Ionic Conductivity of Network Polymer Electrolytes with Internal Plasticizers

    Jun Jie KANG; Shi Bi FANG

    2004-01-01

    Network polymer electrolytes with free oligo(oxyethylene) chains as internal plasticizers were prepared by cross-linking poly(ethylene glycol) acrylates. The effects of salt concentration and properties of internal plasticizers on ionic conductivity were studied.

  16. Probing the cooperative dynamics varying the side-chain length of poly(alkyl acrylate)s: ESR experiments

    Andreozzi, Laura; Autiero, Ciro; Faetti, Massimo; Giordano, Marco; Zulli, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The rotational dynamics of the tracer cholestane dissolved in unentangled nearly monodisperse poly(alkyl acrylate) melts has been investigated by means of electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Three samples of almost same molecular weight were selected, poly(methyl acrylate) poly(ethyl acrylate) and poly(n-butyl acrylate), whose linear viscoelastic properties were also characterised. Large temperature intervals were found with power laws relating shear flow relaxation and ...

  17. Electron-beam induced RAFT-graft polymerization of poly(acrylic acid) onto PVDF

    This paper explores for the first time the post-radiation-induced-graft polymerization on solid substrate using reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) mechanism. Radiation-induced graft polymerization onto polymers is a potentially interesting technique to create easily new materials from highly resistant polymers, e.g. surface graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) improves its surface properties without losing its excellent mechanical properties. As a consequence of the radical nature of the polymerization processes it is difficult to control molecular weight of grafted chains, and therefore design and standardize the properties of the final product. RAFT polymerization is a suitable method to obtain monodisperse polymers. The ability of the RAFT agents to control the polymer chain length could be an interesting approach to improve the grafted polymers obtained by post-radiation-induced-graft polymerization technique. In this way, graft polymerization of AA onto electron-beam irradiated α-PVDF was performed using trithiocarbonic acid bis(1-phenylethyl) ester as a RAFT agent to control the radical polymerization. We studied several grafting parameters such as solvent, monomer concentration and grafting time in order to achieve a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) layer onto PVDF surface. Acetic acid was found to be the best solvent for many reasons, as to drive graft polymerization mainly to the polymer surface, complete solubility and stability of all reactants. Hydrolysis of PAA chains was also studied in order to remove the trithiocarbonate functionality from the grafted polymer. A mild chemical condition was achieved in order to have thiol groups that were detected onto the modified PVDF by specific enzymatic reaction

  18. Electron-beam induced RAFT-graft polymerization of poly(acrylic acid) onto PVDF

    Grasselli, M.; Betz, N.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores for the first time the post-radiation-induced-graft polymerization on solid substrate using reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) mechanism. Radiation-induced graft polymerization onto polymers is a potentially interesting technique to create easily new materials from highly resistant polymers, e.g. surface graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) improves its surface properties without losing its excellent mechanical properties. As a consequence of the radical nature of the polymerization processes it is difficult to control molecular weight of grafted chains, and therefore design and standardize the properties of the final product. RAFT polymerization is a suitable method to obtain monodisperse polymers. The ability of the RAFT agents to control the polymer chain length could be an interesting approach to improve the grafted polymers obtained by post-radiation-induced-graft polymerization technique. In this way, graft polymerization of AA onto electron-beam irradiated α-PVDF was performed using trithiocarbonic acid bis(1-phenylethyl) ester as a RAFT agent to control the radical polymerization. We studied several grafting parameters such as solvent, monomer concentration and grafting time in order to achieve a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) layer onto PVDF surface. Acetic acid was found to be the best solvent for many reasons, as to drive graft polymerization mainly to the polymer surface, complete solubility and stability of all reactants. Hydrolysis of PAA chains was also studied in order to remove the trithiocarbonate functionality from the grafted polymer. A mild chemical condition was achieved in order to have thiol groups that were detected onto the modified PVDF by specific enzymatic reaction.

  19. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate copolymer

    Lee KD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Dong Lee,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Da Hye Kim,3,4 Gyun-Taek Lim,2 Ki-Choon Choi5 1Department of Oriental Medicine Materials, Dongshin University, Naju, South Korea; 2Department of Polymer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea; 3Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Japan; 4United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan; 5Grassland and Forages Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although cisplatin is extensively used in the clinical field, its intrinsic toxicity limits its clinical use. We investigated nanoparticle formations of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate (PAA-MMA incorporating cisplatin and their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared through the ion-complex formation between acrylic acid and cisplatin. The anticancer activity of cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles was assessed with CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results: Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles have small particle sizes of less than 200 nm with spherical shapes. Drug content was increased according to the increase of the feeding amount of cisplatin and acrylic acid content in the copolymer. The higher acrylic acid content in the copolymer induced increase of particle size and decrease of zeta potential. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed a similar growth-inhibitory effect against CT26 tumor cells in vitro. However, cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed improved antitumor activity against an animal tumor xenograft model. Conclusion: We suggest that PAA-MMA nanoparticles incorporating cisplatin are promising carriers for an antitumor drug-delivery system. Keywords: cisplatin, nanoparticle, poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate, ion complexes

  20. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers’ perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  1. Real-time monitoring of graphene oxide reduction in acrylic printable composite inks

    Porro, S.; Giardi, R.; Chiolerio, A.

    2014-06-01

    This work reports the electrical characterization of a water-based graphene oxide/acrylic composite material, which was directly inkjet printed to fabricate dissipative patterns. The graphene oxide filler, which is strongly hydrophilic due to its heavily oxygenated surface and can be readily dispersed in water, was reduced by UV irradiation during photo-curing of the polymeric matrix. The concurrent polymerization of the acrylic matrix and reduction of graphene oxide filler was demonstrated by real-time resistance measurements during UV light irradiation. The presence of graphene filler allowed decreasing the resistance of the pure polymeric matrix by nearly five orders of magnitude. This was explained by the fact that clusters of reduced graphene oxide inside the polymer matrix act as preferential pathways for the mobility of charge carriers, thus leading to an overall decrease of the material's resistance.

  2. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers’ perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied

  3. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate and acrylic acid onto rubber wood fiber

    Graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate and acrylic acid monomers onto rubber wood fiber (RWF) was carried out by simultaneous radiation-induced technique. The parameters affecting the grafting reaction were investigated and the optimum conditions for both monomers obtained are as follows: impregnation time = 16 hours, total dose = 30 kGy, methanol : water ratio, 3:1, monomers concentration = 40 v/v % and sulphuric acid concentration = 0.1 mol/L. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses used to characterize graft copolymers. The structural investigation by x-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the degree of crystallinity of rubber wood fiber decreased with the incorporation of poly(methyl acrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) grafts. (Author)

  4. Clarification of the blood compatibility mechanism by controlling the water structure at the blood-poly(meth)acrylate interface.

    Tanaka, Masaru; Mochizuki, Akira

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, we reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) exhibited excellent blood compatibility, although it has a simple chemical structure. Since then, we have been investigating the reasons for its blood compatibility. In this short review, we consider the reasons for this compatibility by comparing the structure of water in hydrated PMEA to the water structure of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(meth)acrylate analogs as reference polymers. The hydrated water in PMEA could be classified into three types; free water (or freezing water), freezing-bound water (or intermediate water), and non-freezing water (or non-freezing-bound water). We found that hydrated PMEA possessed a unique water structure, observed as cold crystallization of water in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Cold crystallization is interpreted as ice formation at low temperature, an attribute of freezing-bound water in PMEA. The cold crystallization peak was observed for hydrated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA), and newly synthesized poly(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethyl acrylate), as well as various proteins and polysaccharides, which are well-known biocompatible polymers. On the other hand, cold crystallization of water was not observed in hydrated PHEMA and PMEA analogous polymers, which do not show excellent blood compatibility. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that freezing-bound water, which prevents the biocomponents from directly contacting the polymer surface or non-freezing water on the polymer surface, plays an important role in the excellent blood compatibility of PMEA. PMID:20699056

  5. HIGH SOLIDS-CONTENT NANOSIZE POLYMER LATEXES MADE BY A MODIFIED EMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION

    ZHANG Yuying; GUO Tianying; HAO Guangjie; SONG Maodao; Zhang Banghua

    2003-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles were prepared in the methyl methacrylate (MMA)/buty lmethacrylate (BA) emulsion copolymerization process by a modified microemulsion copolymerization method. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA), acrylate (AA) and methyl acrylate (MAA) were used as reactive cosurfactants. With this process high polymer: surfactant weight ratios (40:1 or greater),relatively concentrated (~30wt. %) latexes and small (~60nm) particle diameters were obtained.Properties of the latexes were characterized by TEM, DSC, dynamic light scattering, and IR spectroscopy.

  6. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A.

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294

  8. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis.

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294

  9. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis

    Amal Nawasrah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative. Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%, was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies.

  10. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  11. Solid phase graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto thermoplastics and their use as blend compatibilizers

    Subramanian, Srinivas

    This research work is an extension of some of the earlier work done on the development of solid phase grafting technique to graft various monomers onto polymers as well as postulation of the usefulness of the graft copolymers thus synthesized. Polystyrene grafted with acrylic acid, previously developed in bench scale, was synthesized in pilot-plant scale batches. Process parameter studies on the grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene and developmental studies on the grafting of maleic anhydride onto polystyrene were also done. Polymers grafted with polar molecules such as maleic anhydride and acrylic acid have been used to compatibilize immiscible blends of polar and non-polar polymers. On the same note, the applicability of the solid phase graft copolymers as blend compatibilizers were investigated and their performance was compared to commercially available compatibilizers. Solid phase graft copolymerization process is a technique to synthesize graft copolymers. Some of its salient features are use of minimal solvent to conduct the reaction and easy equipment modification. It is a low pressure and low temperature process. This technique provides a viable alternative to the environmentally hazardous, and time consuming conventional process currently in use. Hence, development of this technique could be beneficial not only to the plastics industry, but also to mankind. Also, this technique provides a low-cost and extremely easy method to develop graft copolymers such as acrylic acid functionalized polymers that are rapidly gaining popularity as blend compatibilizers and polymer reinforcing agents. A study that proves the potential of these solid phase graft copolymers as good blend compatibilizers for industrially important immiscible polymers will develop interest in the industries about this grafting process. The free radical solid phase graft copolymerization process was carried in a modified Brabender-type mixer fitted with specially designed blades to

  12. New phase diagram for N-arylacrylamide/acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer gel

    Katayama, Seiji; Shimizu, Masanori; Akahori, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Examination was made of changes in the volume of N-arylacrylamide(NAA)/acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer gel immersed in acetone-water and dioxane-water mixtures. The gel underwent reversible volume change from a swollen to collapsed state via discontinuous volume change with increase in solvent composition. Volume change at the transition point decreased with increase in NAA content, and the transition point shifted first toward lower solvent content with increase in NAA content and then toward higher solvent content. This is a volume phase transition characterized by two conventional patterns. Plots of transition solvent composition as a function of gel polymer composition indicated a nobel phase diagram for the polymer gel, which is essentially equivalent to miscibility diagram usually observed for polymer solutions.

  13. METHACRYLATE AND ACRYLATE ALLERGY IN DENTAL STUDENTS.

    Maya Lyapina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of acrylic monomers is used in dentistry, and when dental personnel, patients or students of dental medicine become sensitized, it is of great importance to identify the dental ;acrylic preparations to which the sensitized individual can be exposed. Numerous studies confirm high incidence of sensitization to (meth acrylates in dentatal professionals, as well as in patients undergoing dental treatment and exposed to resin-based materials. Quite a few studies are available aiming to evaluate the incidence of sensitization in students of dental medicineThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of contact sensitization to some (meth acrylates in students of dental medicine at the time of their education, in dental professionals (dentists, nurses and attendants and in patients, the manifestation of co-reactivity.A total of 139 participants were included in the study, divided into four groups: occupationally exposed to (methacrylates and acrylic monomers dental professionals, 3-4 year-of-education students of dental medicine, 6th year–of-education students of dental medicine and patients with suspected or established sensitization to acrylates, without occupational exposure. All of them were patch-tested with methyl methacrylate (MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy phenyl]propane (bis-GMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA, and tetrahidrofurfuril metacrylate. The overall sensitization rates to methacrylates in the studied population are comparative high – from 25.9% for MMA to 31.7% for TREGDMA. Significantly higher incidence of sensitization in the group of 3-4 course students compared to the one in the group of dental professionals for MMA and TREGDMA was observed. Highest was the incidence of sensitization to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, BIS-GMA, 2-HEMA and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate in the group of patients, with

  14. Fluorinated bio-acceptable polymers via an ATRP macroinitiator approach

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Haddletion, D.M.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Polymers derived from bio-acceptable poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMA) have been prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) utilizing an initiator prepared from a fluoroalkoxy......-bromoisobutyrate. The initiator generally also serves as an internal plasticizer lowering the glass transition temperature from the parent polymers. The surface characteristics of the fluoroinitiator containing polymers are altered compared with the nonfluorinated analogues. This is reflected in a significant...

  15. Enhanced Dielectric Constant for Efficient Electromagnetic Shielding Based on Carbon-Nanotube-Added Styrene Acrylic Emulsion Based Composite

    Chen Changxin; Zhang Song; Ni Yuwei; Cai Seng; Huang Jie; Li Yong; Li Jiang-Tao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An efficient electromagnetic shielding composite based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-filled styrene acrylic emulsion-based polymer has been prepared in a water-based system. The MWCNTs were demonstrated to have an effect on the dielectric constants, which effectively enhance electromagnetic shielding efficiency (SE) of the composites. A low conductivity threshold of 0.23 wt% can be obtained. An EMI SE of ~28 dB was achieved for 20 wt% MWCNTs. The AC conductivity (σ ac...

  16. Evaluation of the Physical Stability of Zinc Oxide Suspensions Containing Sodium Poly-(acrylate) and Sodium Dodecylsulfate

    Chabni, Malika; Bougherra, Hadda; Lounici, Hakim; Ahmed-Zaïd, Toudert; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Bertrand, Joël

    2011-01-01

    The physical stability of zinc oxide (ZnO) aqueous suspensions has been monitored during two months by different methods of investigation. The suspensions were formulated with ZnO at a fixed concentration (5 wt%), sodium poly-(acrylate), as a viscosifier, and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), as a wetting agent. The rheological study shows that the suspensions exhibit a non-Newtonian, most often shear-thinning behavior and their apparent viscosity increases with polymer concentration. The rheogram...

  17. Obtention and characterization of acrylic acid-i-polyethylene organometallic copolymers with Mo, Fe, Co, Zn, and Ni

    In this study a graft acrylic acid (AA) in low density polyethylene (PEBD) copolymers were prepared, using as reaction initiator, gamma radiation at different doses. These copolymers were coordinated with molybdenum, cobalt, iron, zinc and nickel. the obtained polymeric materials were characterized by conventional analysis techniques. It was studied the measurement parameter variation of the positron annihilation when they inter activated with this type of materials and so obtaining information about microstructure of these polymers. (Author)

  18. The Relationship Between Water Structure and Blood Compatibility in Poly(2-methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogues.

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Shingo; Kusakari, Miho; Watahiki, Shogo; Oikawa, Masahiko; Hoshiba, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    Six types of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) analogues were synthesized and the water structure in the hydrated polymers was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hydrated PMEA analogues exhibited the different amounts of intermediate water. Non-thrombogenicity evaluation was performed on PMEA analogues for platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Platelet adhesion was suppressed on PMEA analogues. In addition, the protein adsorption and deformation were suppressed by increasing the amount of intermediate water. This study demonstrates that the amount of intermediate water might play a key role in expressing the blood compatibility of polymeric materials. PMID:26017931

  19. Biofunctional polymers prepared by ionizing radiation

    Polymeric systems with biomedical and biochemical properties can be obtained by radiation induced polymerization. Those systems exhibit a pharmaceutical or biocatalytic activity if drugs or enzymes are immobilized in the polymer matrices. This work deals with the synthesis by gamma radiation of acrylic monomers and paracetamol, a drug with analgesic and anti thermic action, which can be used as medication in drug delivery systems. Besides, polyethylene and polypropylene radiation grafted with a hydrogel containing carboxylic groups (acrylic acid), showed to be a suitable substrate for the enzyme coupling, such as urease and glucose oxidase. The grafted matrices allow the immobilization of any biocomponent with protein structure. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs

  20. Synthesis and characterization of kappaphycus seaweed-poly (acrylic) acid superabsorbent hydrogel for agricultural use

    The main objective of this research is to synthesize and characterize kappaphycus seaweed-poly (acrylic) acid superabsorbent hydrogel for agricultural use. The superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), KCSW: PAA hydrogels were synthesized by using gamma radiation technique from Cobalt-60 source at absorbed dose 0f 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The effect of absorbed dose, seaweed concentration, and concentration of acrylic acid on the degree of swelling was studied and optimum swelling conditions were established. Irradiated samples of 3% KCSW, 50% neutralized AAC at an absorbed dose of 10kGy gave the highest degree of swelling and gel fraction and were found to be suitable for application in the agriculture. Samples with different concentrations of acrylic acid were characterized using FTIR and TGA. The water retention experiment in sandy soil showed high water retention capacity of KCSW: PAA hydrogel at a value of 92% for a period of 7 days. Effect of the germination of mung bean showed very promising result of 78% germination.(author)

  1. Aluminum nanoparticle/acrylate copolymer nanocomposites for dielectric elastomers with high dielectric constants

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Suki N.; Niu, Xiaofan; Liu, Chao; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomers are useful for large-strain actuation and energy harvesting. Their application has been limited by their low dielectric constants and consequently high driving voltage. Various fillers with high dielectric constants have been incorporated into different elastomer systems to improve the actuation strain, force output and energy density of the compliant actuators and generators. However, agglomeration may happen in these nanocomposites, resulting in a decrease of dielectric strength, an increase of leakage current, and in many instances the degree of enhancement of the dielectric constant. In this work, we investigated aluminum nanoparticles as nanofillers for acrylate copolymers. This metallic nanoparticle was chosen because the availability of free electrons could potentially provide an infinite value of dielectric constant as opposed to dielectric materials including ferroelectric nanocrystals. Moreover, aluminum nanoparticles have a self-passivated oxide shell effectively preventing the formation of conductive path. The surfaces of the aluminum nanoparticles were functionalized with methacrylate groups to assist the uniform dispersion in organic solutions and additionally enable copolymerization with acrylate copolymer matrix during bulk polymerization, and thus to suppress large range drifting of the nanoparticles. The resulting Al nanoparticle-acrylate copolymer nanocomposites were found to exhibit higher dielectric constant and increased stiffness. The leakage current under high electric fields were significantly lower than nanocomposites synthesized without proper nanoparticle surface modification. The dielectric strengths of the composites were comparable with the pristine polymers. In dielectric actuation evaluation, the actuation force output and energy specific work density were enhanced in the nanocomposites compared to the pristine copolymer.

  2. Thiomers: Influence of molecular mass and thiol group content of poly(acrylic acid) on efflux pump inhibition.

    Grabovac, Vjera; Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-09-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of molecular mass and thiol group content of poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugates on the permeation of sulforhodamine 101 and penicillin G. acting as substrates for multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 efflux pump. Poly(acrylic acids) of 2 kDa, 100 kDa, 250 kDa, 450 kDa and 3000 kDa were conjugated with cysteine. The thiol group content of all these polymers was in the range from 343.3 ± 48.4 μmol/g to 450.3 ± 76.1 μmol/g. Transport studies were performed on rat small intestine mounted in Ussing-type chambers. Since 250 kDa poly(acrylic acid) showed the highest permeation enhancing effect, additionally thiolated 250 kDa polyacrylates displaying 157.2 μmol/g, 223.0 ± 18.1 and 355.9 μmol/g thiol groups were synthesized in order to investigate the influence of thiol group content on the permeation enhancement. The permeation of sulforhodamine was 3.93- and 3.85-fold improved using 250 kDa poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugate exhibiting 355.9 ± 39.5 μmol/g and 223.0 ± 18.1 μmol/g thiol groups. Using the same conjugates the permeation of penicillin G was 1.70- and 1.59-fold improved, respectively. The study demonstrates that thiolated poly(acrylic acid) inhibits Mrp2 mediated transport and that the extent of inhibition depends on the molecular mass and degree of thiolation of the polymer. PMID:26238816

  3. Performance comparison of acrylic and thiol-acrylic resins in two-photon polymerization.

    Jiang, Lijia; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yushen; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xi; Li, Dawei; Baldacchini, Tommaso; Jiang, Lan; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-06-13

    Microfabrication by two-photon polymerization is investigated using resins based on thiol-ene chemistry. In particular, resins containing different amounts of a tetrafunctional acrylic monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol molecule are used to create complex microstructures. We observe the enhancement of several characteristics of two-photon polymerization when using thiol-acrylic resins. Specifically, microfabrication is carried out using higher writing velocities and it produces stronger polymeric microstructures. Furthermore, the amount of shrinkage typically observed in the production of three-dimensional microstructures is reduced also. By means of microspectrometry, we confirm that the thiol-acrylate mixture in TPP resins promote monomer conversion inducing a higher degree of cross-linked network formation. PMID:27410383

  4. Study of Physical and Colloid-Chemical Properties of Acrylic Polyelectrolytes of “M-PAA” Series and Their Modification

    N.O Dzhakipbekova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to search for the best basic technology to replace the base in the metallization of dielectrics. We studied conducting polymersacrylic polyelectrolytes. Polyelectrolytes include high molecular weight compounds containing macromolecules and ionogenic groups. Experimental studies have shown that the rational use of HSP for the regulation of colloid-chemical processes in the production should take into account the functional structure of the polymer, its conformational state of macromolecules in solution, the degree of association, dissociation of functional groups, and other factors, which necessitates studying the physical and colloidal chemical characteristics of HSP solutions depending on the concentration.

  5. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10-60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25-99 percent acrylamide and 75-1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry

  6. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10 to 60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25 to 99 percent acrylamide and 75 to 1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry. (U.S.)

  7. Amylase catalyzed synthesis of glycosyl acrylates and their polymerization

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Jovanovic, Danijela; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of novel (di)saccharide acrylates from starch and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (2-HEA, 2-HEMA and 4-HBA) catalyzed by various commercially available amylase preparations is demonstrated. Both liquefaction and saccharification amylases were tested as biocatalysts. Transglycosidation products were only detected in reaction mixtures containing saccharification amylases. The glycoamylase from Aspergillus niger was found t...

  8. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  9. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of important heterocyclic acrylic copolymers

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The acrylate monomer, 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC has been synthesized by reacting 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, with acryloyl chloride in the presence of NaOH at 0–5°C. Copolymers of 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC with vinyl acetate (VAc were synthesized in DMF (dimethyl formamide solution at 70±1°C using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator with different monomer-to-monomer ratios in the feed. The copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy. The copolymer composition was evaluated by 1H-NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance and was further used to determine reactivity ratios. The monomer reactivity ratios for AMC (M1-VAc (M2 pair were determined by the application of conventional linearization methods such as Fineman-Ross (r1 = 0.6924; r2 = 0.6431, Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6776; r2 = 0.6374 and extended Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6657; r2 = 0.6256. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that thermal decomposition of the copolymers occurred in single stage in the temperature range of 263–458°C. The molecular weights of the polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography. The homo and copolymers were tested for their antimicrobial properties against selected microorganisms.

  11. Characterization of Functionalized Acrylic acid /4- Vinyl Pyridine Graft Copolymers

    Properties and characterization of the membranes prepared by radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) or/ and 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) films were carried out. The FTIR spectra for the grafted membranes were studied to evaluate the structure change as a result of grafting. The swelling behaviour of the graft copolymer in methanol was studied. It was found that the grafting of AAc and/ or 4- VP onto LDPE and PP resulted in introducing good hydrophilic properties to such polymer substrates. The hydrophilic properties were directly proportional to the amount of functional groups. The mechanical properties (Young's modulus, elongation percent and tensile strength) of the grafted membranes also, have been investigated. As the grafting degree increases, the modulus also increases. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the membranes by chemical treatment enhances its mechanical properties. The thermal parameters of the grafted membranes such as δHm1. δHm2, and Trc have been also studied by using DSC

  12. The use of epoxidised palm oil products (EPOP) for the synthesis of radiation curable resins. II. Ultraviolet (UV) curing of epoxidised RBD palm oil acrylate (EPOLA)

    Epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and polyurethane acrylate (PUA) prepared at UTN laboratory were used as base polymers or oligomers in the formulations of ultraviolet (UV) curable resins. Mono-, di- and trifunctional monomers were utilized both as crosslinkers as well as for diluents. Curing was done by means of 20 cm wide IST UV machine with the conditions of 8A current and 4m/min conveyor speed. The properties of the cured films were investigated by using pencil hardness tester and gel content analysis

  13. Acrylic Rubber Latex in Ferrocement for Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams

    D. R. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In India, the early deterioration of reinforced concrete structures has become a big social problem in recent years. An essential research is needed for the development of effective repair materials and their execution systems comes to an important issue from the viewpoint of the longevity of infrastructures at present. Ferrocement laminates are introduced to enhance the overall performance of Reinforced Concrete (RC structures and these days the use of it is a promising technology for increasing the flexural strength of deficient reinforced concrete members. Approach: The repair system aims to provide quantitative repair enhancement as well as extending the life of deteriorated concrete members. This research in particular inspired the initiation of the present work which aimed to develop a material with unique properties and a very wide range of practical applications. The mechanical properties of mortar through difference in polymer content with Acrilic Latex by ferrocement among three different volume fractions of mesh reinforcement were studied. Following the encouraging progress made in the formulation and evaluation of the polymer modified repair mortar, tests were carried out involving the application of the reinforced repair material to the soffit of the reinforced concrete beams of 3 m length. Results: The levels of damage of the original beams prior to repair did not affect the ultimate load of the strengthened beams tested. The performance of the strengthened beams was compared to the control beams with respect to cracking, deflection and ultimate strength which confirm preeminent results. Conclusion: This accomplished the fact that acrylic rubber latex modified ferrocement is a doable alternative strengthening component for the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures. Further developments in these systems will create dramatic improvement into the field of rehabilitation of old privileged structures.

  14. Structural Characterization of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Using EPR Techniques

    Udo Kielmann; Gunnar Jeschke; Inés García-Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNCs) containing either a rubber or an acrylate polymer were prepared by drying or co-precipitating polymer latex and nanolayered clay (synthetic and natural) suspensions. The interface between the polymer and the clay nanoparticles was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques by selectively addressing spin probes either to the surfactant layer (labeled stearic acid) or the clay surface (labeled catamine). Continuous-wave (CW) EPR studies of th...

  15. Synthesis of acrylate guar-gum for delivery of bio-active molecules

    Ajeet Kumar; Arnab De; Subho Mozumdar

    2015-08-01

    Modification of natural polymers by graft copolymerization is a promising technique as it functionalizes these biopolymer to their potential, imparting desirable properties onto them. Grafting with vinyl monomers is the route for modifying the properties of the naturally occurring guar-gum for their better industrial exploitation and development of various commercial products. Acrylated guar-gum chain is synthesized and analysed using Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction techniques to gain an insight into the particle size and structural features. Chlorpyrifos is then entrapped into the polymer, and its release is studied under various conditions. Critical factors influencing the size, entrapment efficiency and release behaviour of entrapped chlorpyrifos have been studied.

  16. Adhesion and Proliferation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells on Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate

    Erika Kitakami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human periodontal ligament (PDL cells obtained from extracted teeth are a potential cell source for tissue engineering. We previously reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PMEA is highly biocompatible with human blood cells. In this study, we investigated the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of PDL cells on PMEA and other types of polymers to design an appropriate scaffold for tissue engineering. PDL cells adhered and proliferated on all investigated polymer surfaces except for poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-(n-butyl methacrylate]. The initial adhesion of the PDL cells on PMEA was comparable with that on polyethylene terephthalate (PET. In addition, the PDL cells on PMEA spread well and exhibited proliferation behavior similar to that observed on PET. In contrast, platelets hardly adhered to PMEA. PMEA is therefore expected to be an excellent scaffold for tissue engineering and for culturing tissue-derived cells in a blood-rich environment.

  17. Adhesion and proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells on poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate).

    Kitakami, Erika; Aoki, Makiko; Sato, Chikako; Ishihata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells obtained from extracted teeth are a potential cell source for tissue engineering. We previously reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) is highly biocompatible with human blood cells. In this study, we investigated the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of PDL cells on PMEA and other types of polymers to design an appropriate scaffold for tissue engineering. PDL cells adhered and proliferated on all investigated polymer surfaces except for poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly[(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-co-(n-butyl methacrylate)]. The initial adhesion of the PDL cells on PMEA was comparable with that on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In addition, the PDL cells on PMEA spread well and exhibited proliferation behavior similar to that observed on PET. In contrast, platelets hardly adhered to PMEA. PMEA is therefore expected to be an excellent scaffold for tissue engineering and for culturing tissue-derived cells in a blood-rich environment. PMID:25165689

  18. Poly(acrylic acid)-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles: synthesis and properties

    Combining the intriguing optical properties of gold nanoparticles with the inherent physical and dynamic properties of polymers can give rise to interesting hybrid nanomaterials. In this study, we report the synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-capped gold nanoparticles. The polyelectrolyte-wrapped gold nanoparticles were fully characterized and studied via a combination of techniques, i.e. UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy, dark field optical microscopy, SEM imaging, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements. Although PAA-capped nanoparticles have been previously reported, this study revealed some interesting aspects of the colloidal stability and morphological change of the polymer coating on the nanoparticle surface in an electrolytic environment, at various pH values and at different temperatures.

  19. Radiochemical coupling of acrylic acid to polyvinylchloride

    Acrylic acid was coupled radiochemically to the surface of polyvinylchloride (PVC) foils. A 500 keV electron generator served as radiation source. After neutralization with ammonia, the surface of the PVC foils got hydrophilic properties. Their capacity of water uptake increased from 0,04 mg/cm2 to about 0,5 mg/cm2 and the condensation of water takes place in form of a clear transparent film and not in form of light scattering droplets. 6 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Synthesis of ion exchange membrane by radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene

    Radiation grafting of vinyl monomers onto polymer films has been extensively studied by many workers. In the preirradiation method of grafting a polymer substrate is activated by irradiation (either in the presence or absence of oxygen) and subsequently allowed to react with a monomer. The preirradiation method was utilized in this study to synthesize an ion exchange membrane useful for a battery separator by grafting acrylic acid onto polyethylene film. The battery separator should be chemically and thermally stable, sufficiently durable in electrolyte as well as highly electrically conductive. Membranes made from regenerated cellulose, e.g., cellophane, have long been used as a separator in the batteries with alkaline electrolyte, such as silver oxide primary cell. However, it has poor durability, as short as one year, due to breakdown of the membrane during operation or storing. The acrylic acid-grafted polyethylene film was found to be quite useful for a separator in the alkaline batteries. This membrane has a high electric conductivity and an excellent durability. (author)

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on properties of acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives for technical application are widely produced. The biological properties of adhesives depend on the type of monomers used. The available literature data as experience of the authors of this study in the area of pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive, polymers used in medicine, polymerisation in aqueous media, radiation sterilization, permit to make an assumption that it is possible to elaborate the technology of production of pressure-sensitive adhesives in aqueous emulsion for medical applications. Identification of phenomena influencing the adhesive properties, especially its adhesion, cohesion, tack and durability is of great importance. The control of polymer structure is performed by means of adequate selection of conditions of synthesis and parameters of radiation processing. The authors investigate the influence on the final products of such factors as the type and amount of monomers used, their mutual ratio, as well as the ratio monomers and the dose of ionising radiation. There is no available literature information concerning the investigation of resistance of acrylic emulsion adhesive to sterilisation by electron beam. It is known from unpublished research that some adhesives are resistant to radiation, while others undergo destruction. It probably depends on the composition of emulsion, specifically on the additives which modify adhesives. Simultaneous achievement of good cohesion and adhesion in the case of such types of pressure sensitive adhesives is very difficult pressure sensitive adhesives is very difficult

  2. Poly(acrylic acid) coating induced 2-line ferrihydrite nanoparticle transport in saturated porous media

    Iron oxide and iron nanoparticles (NPs) have been used effectively for environmental remediation, but are limited in their applications by strong retention in groundwater-saturated porous media. For example, delivery of NPs to large groundwater reservoirs would require large numbers of injection wells. To address this problem, we have explored polymer coatings as a surface engineering strategy to enhance transport of oxide nanoparticles in porous media. We report here on our studies of 2-line ferrihydrite NPs and the influence of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer coatings on the colloidal stability and transport in natural sand-packed column tests simulating flow in groundwater-saturated porous media. Measurements were also made of zeta potential, hydrodynamic diameter, and polymer adsorption and desorption properties. The coated NPs have a diameter range of 30–500 nm. We found that NP transport was improved by PAA coating and that the transport properties could be tuned by adjusting the polymer concentration. Our results demonstrate that a high stability of oxide particles and improved transport can be achieved in groundwater-saturated porous media by introducing negatively charged polyelectrolytes and optimizing polymer concentrations

  3. Poly(acrylic acid) coating induced 2-line ferrihydrite nanoparticle transport in saturated porous media

    Xiang, Aishuang [Princeton University, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department (United States); Yan, Weile [Texas Tech University, Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Koel, Bruce E., E-mail: bkoel@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department (United States); Jaffe, Peter R., E-mail: jaffe@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Iron oxide and iron nanoparticles (NPs) have been used effectively for environmental remediation, but are limited in their applications by strong retention in groundwater-saturated porous media. For example, delivery of NPs to large groundwater reservoirs would require large numbers of injection wells. To address this problem, we have explored polymer coatings as a surface engineering strategy to enhance transport of oxide nanoparticles in porous media. We report here on our studies of 2-line ferrihydrite NPs and the influence of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer coatings on the colloidal stability and transport in natural sand-packed column tests simulating flow in groundwater-saturated porous media. Measurements were also made of zeta potential, hydrodynamic diameter, and polymer adsorption and desorption properties. The coated NPs have a diameter range of 30-500 nm. We found that NP transport was improved by PAA coating and that the transport properties could be tuned by adjusting the polymer concentration. Our results demonstrate that a high stability of oxide particles and improved transport can be achieved in groundwater-saturated porous media by introducing negatively charged polyelectrolytes and optimizing polymer concentrations.

  4. Super water absorbent by radiation graft polymerization of acrylic monomers onto cassava starch

    Water superabsorbent gel has been applying in personal care, agriculture, medical supplies and water purification. In agricultural application, the gel will help to control soil erosion, limit loss of nutrients and slit for plants, decrease irrigation frequency, improve infiltration, and increase water retention in prolonged arid soil and droughts. The gel absorbs many times its weight in available water. The gel from poly(acrylamide) was developed in the 60's to grow plants in the deserts. The other gel from poly(acrylic acid) was used to absorb rapidly in baby diapers, sanitary napkins. These polymers are commonly produced from natural gas, which have recently been introduced as a soil conditioner with great success. Prior to these polymers, peat moss, agro-waste (sugar-cane waste, coffee-shell, etc.), activated kaolin were the alternative soil additives to hold water (20 times its weight), but poly(acrylamide) absorbs 400 times its weight and polyacrylate is capable of absorbing greater amounts of liquid than poly(acrylamide). In addition, starch and cellulose are biodegradable naturally occurring polymers, which are not capable of holding a great amount of water, but their modification by graft polymerization or crosslinking through radiation or chemical initiation techniques, they become the potential superabsorbent polymers. Radiation initiation of chemical reactions has been widely known for making novel materials because the degree of polymerization, grafting and crosslinking process can easily be controlled. Recently, it was shown that the starch and cellulose derivatives such as carboxymethyl starch, carboxymethyl starch can be synthesized by radiation-induced crosslinking at high concentrations. Their utilization in agriculture seems to be appropriately evaluated. In this article, the graft polymerization and crosslinking of acrylic acid onto cassava starch and field trial of its product (GAM-Sorb S) are reported. (author)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization, reverse atom transfer radical polymerization and radical polymerization

    Dhruba Jyoti Haloi; Bishnu Prasad Koiry; Prithwiraj Mandal; Nikhil Kumar Singha

    2013-07-01

    This investigation reports a comparative study of poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) and conventional free radical polymerization (FRP). The molecular weights and the molecular weight distributions of the polymers were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. Structural characterization of the polymers was carried out by 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The polymerization results and the thermal properties of PEHAs prepared via ATRP, RATRP and FRP were compared.

  6. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  7. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Kostić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  8. MODIFICATION OF ACRYLIC LACQUER BY DOUBLE-DUTY LYOPHILIC EMULSION

    Ф.Г. Фабуляк

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  General useful properties of acrylic lacquers have been studied. References to methods to modify them are given. It has been shown possibility modifying acrylic lacquers with the help of ethylene glycol is a prospective way of improving their properties.

  9. MODIFICATION OF ACRYLIC LACQUER BY DOUBLE-DUTY LYOPHILIC EMULSION

    Фабуляк, Ф.Г.; Національний авіаційний університет; Ульянкіна, Д.С.; Національний авіаційний університет; Таран, Т.В; Національний авіаційний університет

    2012-01-01

     General useful properties of acrylic lacquers have been studied. References to methods to modify them are given. It has been shown possibility modifying acrylic lacquers with the help of ethylene glycol is a prospective way of improving their properties.

  10. A comparison of properties between carboxylated acrylic rubbers prepared by γ-ray irradiation and chemical method

    Acrylic rubbers (ACM) carboxylated by acrylic acid or itaconic acid were prepared by 60Co γ-ray or chemical-initiator (K2S2O8) induced emulsion copolymerization. The polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Acid value, molecular weight and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymers were determined by non-aqueous titration method and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively. Vulcanization and mechanical properties of the filled ACM were studied by rheometric measurement, gel fraction analysis, mechanical property tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The results show that the ACMs prepared by γ-ray irradiation have lower acid value, higher molecular weight and narrower PDI than chemically prepared ACMs of the same compositions. The itaconic acid carboxylated ACM has better cure characteristics and mechanical properties than the acrylic acid carboxylated ACM. The itaconic acid carboxylated ACM prepared by γ-ray irradiation has higher gel fraction and better cure characteristics as well as mechanical properties than that prepared by chemical method. (authors)