WorldWideScience

Sample records for acrylates

  1. Radiation sensitive acrylate composition

    This application relates to radiation-sensitive compositions and more particularly to such compositions comprising acrylated esters. As used in this specification, the term acrylated esters refers to either acrylic or methacrylic acid resins. 3 tabs

  2. Synthesis of acrylic prepolymer

    An acrylic prepolymer was synthesized from glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylic acid (AA). Butyl acetate (BAc), benzoyl peroxide (BzO), 4-methoxyphenol (MPh) and triethylamine (TEA) were used as solvent, initiator, inhibitor and catalyst respectively. Observations of the synthesis leading to the formation of acrylic prepolymer are described. (author)

  3. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  4. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  5. Acrylic purification and coatings

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  6. Hyperbranched urethane-acrylates

    Tasić Srba

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization and UV-curing of hyperbranched urethaneacrylates (HB-UA were investigated in this study. They were evaluated as oli-gomers in model UV curable coatings. HB-UAs were synthesized by reaction of an aliphatic hyperbranched polyester of the second generation (HBRG2 and an isocyanate adduct, obtained by the reaction of isophoronediisocyana-te and different hydroxy alkyl acrylates. Their thermal properties and viscosities depend on the degree of modification of HBRG2 and the type of hydroxy alkyl acrylate used. The introduction of a flexible alkoxylated spacer between the HBP core and acrylate end groups reduces steric hindrance by moving the cross linkable acrylate groups away from the HBP core and increase its reactivity. Due to the presence of abstractable H-atoms in the α-position to the ether links, HB-UAs based on poly(ethylene oxide monoacrylate are very reactive and do not show oxygen inhibition. The obtained coatings combine a high cross linking density with flexible segments between the cross links, which results in a good compromise between hardness and flexibility and have the potential to be used in different UV-curing applications.

  7. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  8. Acrylic Acid and Esters Will Be Oversupply

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drastic capacity growth The production capacity of acrylic acid in China has grown drastically in recent years. With the completion of the 80 thousand t/a acrylic acid and 130 thous and t/a acrylic ester project in Shenyang Paraffin Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., (CCR2006,No. 31) the capacity of acrylic acid in China has reached 882 thousand t/a.

  9. Bonding auto-polymerising acrylic resin to acrylic denture teeth.

    Nagle, Susan

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of an auto-polymerising acrylic resin cured to acrylic denture teeth. The surface treatments included a combination of grit-blasting and\\/or wetting the surface with monomer. Samples were prepared and then stored in water prior to shear testing. The results indicated that the application of monomer to the surface prior to bonding did not influence the bond strength. Grit blasting was found to significantly increase the bond strength.

  10. Poly(lauryl acrylate) and poly(stearyl acrylate) grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes for polypropylene composites

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    , polymerizations of lauryl or stearyl acrylate were performed, resulting in two novel polymer modifications on the MWCNT (poly(lauryl acrylate) or poly(stearyl acrylate)). The method was found to give time dependent loading of polymers as a function of time (up to 38 wt% for both acrylates), and showed a plateau...... were found to be substantially improved, where poly(lauryl acrylate) was found to be the superior surface modification, resulting in a conductive composite....

  11. SYNTHESIS OF SOAP-FREE ACRYLIC HYDROSOLS

    Li Jia; Zong-hui Liu; De-qing Wei

    2002-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate/ethyl acrylate/acrylic acid) hydrosols were prepared by employing soap-freepolymerization, and (acrylic acid/butyl acrylate) oligomer was used as the polymeric surfactant. The effect of reactioncondition on the morphology and particle size of the hydrosols was investigated. The minimum amount of acrylic acid in thehydrosols is 2%. The maximum weight average molecular weight (Mw) of polymer that assures soap-free emulsionconversion into hydrosol is about 1.2 × 105-1.3 × 105. The particle transforming process was investigated, and an obviouschange of particle diameter and morphology was observed.

  12. Radiation curing silicone acrylate systems

    Radiation curing silicone systems by either ultra violet light (UV) or electron beam (EB) is introduced. The cure is based on the polymerization of the acrylic C = C double bond via a radical chain reaction. In the EB curing process a sufficient number of radicals for spontaneous polymerization is produced due to the high radiation energy whereas with UV light the energy is not as intensive thus a photo-initiator is required for a UV process. The required high local radical concentration provided by its decay. The radical generation immediate chain-growing leads to rapid and efficient crosslinking even at room temperature. It is for this reason that silicone acrylates cure immediately. All coater capable of handling 100% thermally curing silicones are suitable for the use with Goldschmidt's RC systems

  13. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  14. Acrylates and methacrylates of formal-glycerine

    Present article is devoted acrylates and methacrylates of formal-glycerine. The formal-glycerine was obtained in the form of mixture of isomers 1.2 and 1.3 from glycerine and paraform with hydrochloric acid. The structure of obtained acrylates and methacrylates is studied by means of molecular refraction, element analysis and infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from 238U and 232Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of 222Rn during manufacturing, leading to 210Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of 238U and 232Th equivalent, and 10−8 ppt 210Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented

  16. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Cleveland, B. T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario P3Y 1N2 Canada and Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  17. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  18. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates. PMID:8334539

  19. Characterization of electron beam cured epoxy acrylate

    Epoxy resin has wide application in various industrial fields because of their good mechanical strength, superiority adhesion and low shrinkage etc. And the typical curing method for epoxy resins is thermal and press compaction. However, a curing method was used electron beam process in this study. Epoxy acrylate was fabricated from mixture of epoxy, acrylic acid, tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and hydroquinone monomethyl ether (MEHQ) with mole ratios. Then electron beam irradiation effect on the curing of the epoxy acrylate resin was investigated various absorption dose in nitrogen atmospheres at room temperature. The dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the irradiated epoxy acrylate resins were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). And the tensile and flexural strength were measured by an universal tensile machine (UTM)

  20. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  1. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Rocha, Nirlando Antonio; Vilela, Jefferson Jose, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the {sup 222}Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  2. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the 222Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  3. Rapid Output Growth of Special Acrylic Esters

    Wang Lianzhi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Acrylic esters are usually classified into general-purpose varieties and special varieties. The production and application of general-purpose varieties is already quite matured in the world and their output growth tends to be flat. Owing to the development of coatings, electronics, automobiles,textiles, printing and construction sectors, especially the application of radiation curing technology in various sectors, special acrylic esters have developed rapidly.

  4. Photochemistry of Acrylates at 222 nm

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short wavelength mission (specially Kr Cl, 222 nm) allow a photo initiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (Kr Cl excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 ml per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (max << 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, a-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the un relaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented

  5. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Occupational fingertip eczema from acrylates in a manicurist

    Denitza Zheleva; Razvigor Darlenski

    2015-01-01

    Occupational hand eczema due to acrylates present in the workplace is a disease frequently reported among dentists, printers, and fiberglass workers. Acrylate monomers are used in the production of a great variety of polymers, including nail cosmetics. Our case report demonstrates a rare clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. Our patient was working as a manicurist and the diagnostic analyses revealed sensitation to some of the (meth) acrylate compounds of h...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  8. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  9. SYNTHESIS OF BIOCOMPATIBLE ACRYLIC POLYMERS HAVING ASPIRIN-MOIETIES

    LI Fumian; GU Zhongwei; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Several new monomers, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl acrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl acrylate have been synthesized from aspirin with corresponding hydroxyalkyl or glycidyl acrylates, and then polymerized by free radical initiator.

  10. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  11. Probing the cooperative dynamics varying the side-chain length of poly(alkyl acrylate)s: ESR experiments

    Andreozzi, Laura; Autiero, Ciro; Faetti, Massimo; Giordano, Marco; Zulli, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The rotational dynamics of the tracer cholestane dissolved in unentangled nearly monodisperse poly(alkyl acrylate) melts has been investigated by means of electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Three samples of almost same molecular weight were selected, poly(methyl acrylate) poly(ethyl acrylate) and poly(n-butyl acrylate), whose linear viscoelastic properties were also characterised. Large temperature intervals were found with power laws relating shear flow relaxation and ...

  12. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate and acrylic acid onto rubber wood fiber

    Graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate and acrylic acid monomers onto rubber wood fiber (RWF) was carried out by simultaneous radiation-induced technique. The parameters affecting the grafting reaction were investigated and the optimum conditions for both monomers obtained are as follows: impregnation time = 16 hours, total dose = 30 kGy, methanol : water ratio, 3:1, monomers concentration = 40 v/v % and sulphuric acid concentration = 0.1 mol/L. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses used to characterize graft copolymers. The structural investigation by x-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the degree of crystallinity of rubber wood fiber decreased with the incorporation of poly(methyl acrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) grafts. (Author)

  13. Thermal Polymerization of N-Butyl Acrylate

    Ingham, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Simple new polymerization method enables production of n-butyl acrylate polymer of desired high molecular weight, without disadvantages that usually attend more conventional methods. Process, which is hybrid of thermal, solution, and emulsion polymerization methods, involves controlled thermal polymerization of monomer at moderate temperatures without use of catalysts or additives.

  14. UV-Curing of Nanoparticle Reinforced Acrylates

    Polymer reinforcement by silica and alumina nanoparticles evidently yields improved surface hardness. Single mixing of nanoparticles into an acrylate formulations, however, leads to highly viscous solutions inappropriate for coating procedures. The incompatibility of inorganic fillers and organic polymers can be avoided by surface modification providing an interface between the two dissimilar materials. For example, vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO) can react via hydrolysis/condensation reactions with hydroxyl groups present on the inorganic surface and should bond via the polymerisation-active vinyl group to an acrylate resin through crosslinking reactions. Grafting reactions of surface OH groups and different trialkoxysilanes were studied by thermogravimetry, infrared, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The copolymeri-zation of modified nanoparticles with the acrylate matrix has been investigated by 13C NMR spectroscopy. UV curing under nitrogen inertization revealed a lower reactivity of vinyl groups of VTMO-modified silica compared to grafted methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MEMO) which showed complete conversion of olefinic carbons (signals at 120 - 140 ppm). Under conditions of oxygen inhibition, the effect of the kind and the concentration of photoinitiator on the photopoly-merization reaction was studied. Compared to neat polyacrylate coatings the nanocomposite materials exhibit markedly improved properties, e.g., heat, scratch, and abrasion resistance. However, a much better abrasion resistance was obtained for coatings containing both silica nano-particles and corundum microparticles. In particular cases, radiation curing with 172 nm photons generated by Xe excimer was performed to obtain structured polymer surfaces, i.e., matting of the reinforced acrylate coatings

  15. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  17. METHACRYLATE AND ACRYLATE ALLERGY IN DENTAL STUDENTS.

    Maya Lyapina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of acrylic monomers is used in dentistry, and when dental personnel, patients or students of dental medicine become sensitized, it is of great importance to identify the dental ;acrylic preparations to which the sensitized individual can be exposed. Numerous studies confirm high incidence of sensitization to (meth acrylates in dentatal professionals, as well as in patients undergoing dental treatment and exposed to resin-based materials. Quite a few studies are available aiming to evaluate the incidence of sensitization in students of dental medicineThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of contact sensitization to some (meth acrylates in students of dental medicine at the time of their education, in dental professionals (dentists, nurses and attendants and in patients, the manifestation of co-reactivity.A total of 139 participants were included in the study, divided into four groups: occupationally exposed to (methacrylates and acrylic monomers dental professionals, 3-4 year-of-education students of dental medicine, 6th year–of-education students of dental medicine and patients with suspected or established sensitization to acrylates, without occupational exposure. All of them were patch-tested with methyl methacrylate (MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy phenyl]propane (bis-GMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA, and tetrahidrofurfuril metacrylate. The overall sensitization rates to methacrylates in the studied population are comparative high – from 25.9% for MMA to 31.7% for TREGDMA. Significantly higher incidence of sensitization in the group of 3-4 course students compared to the one in the group of dental professionals for MMA and TREGDMA was observed. Highest was the incidence of sensitization to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, BIS-GMA, 2-HEMA and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate in the group of patients, with

  18. Acrylic Bone Cements Modified with Starch

    Krilova, V; Vītiņš, V

    2010-01-01

    The successful result of restorative and replacement surgical operation depends significantly on properties of used bone cement. Acrylic bone cements are usually based on methylmethacrylate polymer, while monomer polymerization begins after mixing of components in mixing device and terminates in living tissue. Polymerization of methylmethacrylate is exothermic process, and temperature increase might cause tissue necrosis with concomitant implant aseptic loosening. Developed non-ionogenic and ...

  19. Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylated systems

    Complete text of publication follows. It has been generally accepted that ionizing radiation induces free radical polymerization in acrylate compounds. It is also reported that, following primary ionization events, acrylates and methacrylates scavenge thermalized electrons to give rise to radical anions and radical cations, which undergo reactions producing the corresponding free radicals. Acrylates have received the most attention in radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). 2-EHA is well known for its unique pressure-sensitive adhesive properties. An understanding of its primary mechanism of polymerization is of industrial as well as fundamental interest. High entanglement and high molecular weight between crosslinks are crucial for the high shear and peel strength, required of PSAs. Such polymers may be formed using thermal and UV-initiation in solvent or emulsion. Electron beam can also provide these properties when the monomer is polymerized at moderate dose rates and at low temperature. Pulsed electron beam provides a special advantage under conditions where the dose per pulse is below the threshold for overlap (ca. 40 Gy/pulse) and the pulse rate is high enough (>1 kHz) to maintain a quasi-heterogeneous mode at high doses rates. Maintaining low temperature in the early stages of polymerization is important in achieving good properties

  20. Performance comparison of acrylic and thiol-acrylic resins in two-photon polymerization.

    Jiang, Lijia; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yushen; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xi; Li, Dawei; Baldacchini, Tommaso; Jiang, Lan; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-06-13

    Microfabrication by two-photon polymerization is investigated using resins based on thiol-ene chemistry. In particular, resins containing different amounts of a tetrafunctional acrylic monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol molecule are used to create complex microstructures. We observe the enhancement of several characteristics of two-photon polymerization when using thiol-acrylic resins. Specifically, microfabrication is carried out using higher writing velocities and it produces stronger polymeric microstructures. Furthermore, the amount of shrinkage typically observed in the production of three-dimensional microstructures is reduced also. By means of microspectrometry, we confirm that the thiol-acrylate mixture in TPP resins promote monomer conversion inducing a higher degree of cross-linked network formation. PMID:27410383

  1. Amylase catalyzed synthesis of glycosyl acrylates and their polymerization

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Jovanovic, Danijela; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of novel (di)saccharide acrylates from starch and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (2-HEA, 2-HEMA and 4-HBA) catalyzed by various commercially available amylase preparations is demonstrated. Both liquefaction and saccharification amylases were tested as biocatalysts. Transglycosidation products were only detected in reaction mixtures containing saccharification amylases. The glycoamylase from Aspergillus niger was found t...

  2. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  3. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  4. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  5. Radiochemical coupling of acrylic acid to polyvinylchloride

    Acrylic acid was coupled radiochemically to the surface of polyvinylchloride (PVC) foils. A 500 keV electron generator served as radiation source. After neutralization with ammonia, the surface of the PVC foils got hydrophilic properties. Their capacity of water uptake increased from 0,04 mg/cm2 to about 0,5 mg/cm2 and the condensation of water takes place in form of a clear transparent film and not in form of light scattering droplets. 6 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs

  6. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  7. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Kostić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  8. MODIFICATION OF ACRYLIC LACQUER BY DOUBLE-DUTY LYOPHILIC EMULSION

    Ф.Г. Фабуляк

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  General useful properties of acrylic lacquers have been studied. References to methods to modify them are given. It has been shown possibility modifying acrylic lacquers with the help of ethylene glycol is a prospective way of improving their properties.

  9. MODIFICATION OF ACRYLIC LACQUER BY DOUBLE-DUTY LYOPHILIC EMULSION

    Фабуляк, Ф.Г.; Національний авіаційний університет; Ульянкіна, Д.С.; Національний авіаційний університет; Таран, Т.В; Національний авіаційний університет

    2012-01-01

     General useful properties of acrylic lacquers have been studied. References to methods to modify them are given. It has been shown possibility modifying acrylic lacquers with the help of ethylene glycol is a prospective way of improving their properties.

  10. Comparison of the Retinal Straylight in Pseudophakic Eyes with PMMA, Hydrophobic Acrylic, and Hydrophilic Acrylic Spherical Intraocular Lens

    Ya-wen Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the intraocular straylight value after cataract surgery. Methods. In this study, 76 eyes from 62 patients were subdivided into three groups. A hydrophobic acrylic, a hydrophilic acrylic, and a PMMA IOL were respectively, implanted in 24 eyes, 28 eyes, and 24 eyes. Straylight was measured using C-Quant at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively in natural and dilated pupils. Results. The hydrophilic acrylic IOLs showed significantly lower straylight values than those of the hydrophobic acrylic IOLs in dilated pupils at 1 week and 1 month after surgery (P0.05. Moreover, no significant difference was found in straylight between natural and dilated pupils in each group at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively (P>0.05. Conclusions. Although the hydrophobic acrylic IOL induced more intraocular straylight, straylight differences among the 3 IOLs were minimal. Pupil size showed no effect on intraocular straylight; the intraocular straylight was stable 1 week after surgery.

  11. Hyperbranched Acrylated Aromatic Polyester Used as a Modifier in UV-Curable Epoxy Acrylate Resins

    KOU,Hui-Guang; ASIF,Anila; SHI,Wen-Fang

    2003-01-01

    The viscosity, the shrinkage degree and the photoplymerization rate of the epoxy acrylate (EB600 ) blended with hyperbranched acrylated aromatic polyester ( HAAPE ) were investigated. The addition of HAAPE into EB600 largely reduces the viscosity of the blend formulation and the shrinkage degree. For example, EB600resin with 50% weight fraction of HAAPE has the 1250 cps of the viscosity and 2.0% of shrinkage degree, while the pure EB600 resin has 3000 cps of the viscosity and 10.5% of shrinkage degree. The photopolymerization rate of the rein is also promoted by HAAPE addition. The good miscibility between HAAPE and EB600 was also observed from the dynamic mechanical analysis. The tensile, flexural and compressive strength, and the thermal properties of the UVcured films are greatly improved.

  12. Use of Acrylic Acid Sodium Acrylate Polymer to Maintain Cocoa Seed Viability

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of cocoa seed storage is moisture content of the seeds because cocoa seeds will germinate if cocoa seeds moisture content is high. The objective of this research is to maintain the cocoa seeds viability in storage using acrylic acid sodium acrylate polymer (AASAP. The function of AASAP is to absorb humidity in storage due to their ability to retain water and to prevent water loss. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute and in Kaliwining Experimental Garden. This experiment was arranged by factorial randomized complete design, in wich AASAP dosages 0%; 0.1% (0.1 g/100 seeds; 0.2% (0.2 g/100 seeds, 0.3% (0.3 g/100 seeds, 0,4% (0,4g/100 seeds, combined with seeds storage period 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The experiment used 3 replications and each repli cation used 100 seeds. Parameter of observation consisted of percentage of seeds germinated in storage, percentage of seeds infected by fungi in storage, seeds moisture content, percentage of seeds germination after storage, and early growth of cocoa seedlings. The results of the experiment showed that AASAP application with some dosages cocoa seeds storage cause to germinate in storage during 2 weeks. AASAP application with some dosages in cocoa seeds storage for 2 weeks would not result in infection by fungi and did not significantly affect seed germination after storage for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and percentage of germination of cocoa seed after storage for 3 weeks decreased with increase dosage of AASAP. Higher dosage of AASAP would reduce early growth of cocoa seedling. Key words : Theobroma cacao, seed, acrylic acid sodium acrylate, seed storage, viabilty.

  13. Hydrophilic surface modification of acrylate-based biomaterials.

    Arnal-Pastor, M; Comín-Cebrián, S; Martínez-Ramos, C; Monleón Pradas, M; Vallés-Lluch, A

    2016-04-01

    Acrylic polymers have proved to be excellent with regard to cell adhesion, colonization and survival, in vitro and in vivo. Highly ordered and regular pore structures thereof can be produced with the help of polyamide templates, which are removed with nitric acid. This treatment converts a fraction of the ethyl acrylate side groups into acrylic acid, turning poly(ethyl acrylate) scaffolds into a more hydrophilic and pH-sensitive substrate, while its good biological performance remains intact. To quantify the extent of such a modification, and be able to characterize the degree of hydrophilicity of poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate) was treated with acid for different times (four, nine and 17 days), and compared with poly(acrylic acid) and a 90/10%wt. EA/AAc copolymer (P(EA-co-AAc)). The biological performance was also assessed for samples immersed in acid up to four days and the copolymer, and it was found that the incorporation of acidic units on the material surface was not prejudicial for cells. This surface modification of 3D porous hydrophobic scaffolds makes easier the wetting with culture medium and aqueous solutions in general, and thus represents an advantage in the manageability of the scaffolds. PMID:26767395

  14. Radiation induced grafting of acrylic acid onto extruded polystyrene surface

    Polystyrene materials with good solubility in liquid scintillation cocktails are used to wipe off different types of surfaces in order to determine the tritium removable contamination with the help of a liquid scintillation counter. This paper analyses hydrophilic surface modifications by radiation induced grafting of acrylic groups onto extruded polystyrene plates. Two grafting methods were used: (a) exposure of extruded polystyrene plates, immersed in aqueous acrylic acid solution, to a gamma radiation of a Co-60 source, and (b) exposure of extruded polystyrene plates to a Co-60 source, followed by the immersion of extruded polystyrene plates in aqueous acrylic acid solution. The grafting of acrylic was proved by IR spectrometry and by radiometric methods using acrylic acid labelled with tritium. - Highlights: ► Polystyrene (PS) is used to determine the removable surface contamination (RSC). ► RSC factor may be increased by PS surface modification. ► PS surface was modified by acrylic acid grafting using γ radiation 60Co source. ► Acrylic fragments insertion was determined by IR, and radiometric. ► Grafted PS discs increase RSC factor in the case of tritium contamination.

  15. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study

  16. Radiation hardening of epoxide-acrylate compositions

    Radiation setting of epoxy oligomers modified with vinyl monomers was studied. The setting was accomplished under the effect of γ-radiation of 60Co at the dose rate of 1750 Mrad/s. The content of the gel fraction in the radiation set epoxy-acrylate-styrene compositions increases by 20%, and the phase transition temperature is higher than for compositions set under normal conditions. In all compositions investigated the maximum content of the gel fraction is observed at 8-9 Mrad dose and is 60-70%, on the average. An increase in degree of setting up to 92-98% can be achieved by additional heat treatment of the compositions

  17. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-01

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  18. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  19. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  20. COMPLEX OXIDE CATALYSTS OF ACRYLIC ACID OBTAINING BY ALDOL CONDENSATION METHOD

    Nebesnyi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to solving the problem of diversification of the raw materials base for acrylate monomers obtaining,  first of all acrylic acid. Acrylic acid and its derivatives are bulk products of organic synthesis with a wide range of applications. The main industrial method of acrylic acid production is  propylene oxidation. But this method has instable economic indicators as propylene is petroleum origin raw material.It is possible to expand the resource base of acrylic aci...

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYURETHANE ACRYLATES FOR UV CURABLE COATING AGENTS

    MI NA PARK; YOUNG SOO KANG; SUN WHA OH; BYUNG HYUN AHN; MYUNG JUN MOON

    2007-01-01

    The single hydroxyl-terminated urethane acrylate oligomers were synthesized from 2-mercaptoethanol (2-MEOH), alkyl (methyl, butyl, and 2-ethylhexyl) acrylate, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, initiator), with dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. 2-MEOH was used as a functional chain transfer agent. Poly(alkyl urethane) acrylate oligomers were obtained by the reaction of single hydroxyl-terminated polyalkyl acrylates and 2-isocyanatoethyl acrylate. They were characterized by NMR, F...

  2. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  3. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics. PMID:24661889

  4. [Treatment of acrylate wastewater by electrocatalytic reduction process].

    Yu, Li-Na; Song, Yu-Dong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Shu-Quan; Zheng, Sheng-Zhi; Ll, Si-Min

    2011-10-01

    High-concentration acrylate wastewater was treated by an electrocatalytic reduction process. The effects of the cation exchange membrane (CEM) and cathode materials on acrylate reduction were investigated. It indicated that the acrylate could be reduced to propionate acid efficiently by the electrocatalytic reduction process. The addition of CEM to separator with the cathode and anode could significantly improve current efficiency. The cathode materials had significant effect on the reduction of acrylate. The current efficiency by Pd/Nickel foam, was greater than 90%, while those by nickel foam, the carbon fibers and the stainless steel decreased successively. Toxicity of the wastewater decreased considerably and methane production rate in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test increased greatly after the electrocatalytic reduction process. PMID:22279908

  5. [Reaction of 1,8-naphthyridine azides with ethyl acrylate].

    Livi, O; Ferrarini, P L; Bertini, D; Tonetti, I

    1975-12-01

    The reaction of 1,8-naphthyridine azides with ethyl acrylate leads to the formation of 2-pyrazolines instead of 1,2,3-triazolines. Some of the compounds obtained have undergone pharmacological and microbiological (antibacterial) testing. PMID:1204828

  6. Rare linking hydrogels based on acrylic acid and carbohydrate esters

    U. Akhmedov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of copolymerization of acrylic acid and esters poliallil sucrose; pentaerythritol and sorbitol, some of its laws are identified. The kinetic regularities of copolymerization and the optimum conditions of synthesis was established.

  7. BARRIER PROPERTY AND STRUCTURE OF ACRYLONITRILE/ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS

    YANG Zhenghua; LI Yuesheng

    1997-01-01

    A series of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) or ethyl acrylate (EA) as comonomer (5-23 wt%) was prepared by free-radical copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at 1.0 MPa and at 30 ℃, and those to water vapor also measured at 100% relative humidity and at 30 ℃. All the AN/acrylic copolymers are semicrystalline. As the acrylate content increase, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide are increased progressively, but those to water vapor are decreased progressively. The gas permeability coefficients of the polymers were correlated with free-volume fractions or the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  8. Construction and properties of acrylic vessels in the RENO detector

    The aim of the RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is to measure the smallest neutrino mixing angle, θ13. The RENO detector consists of four concentric cylindrical layers: the target, γ-catcher, buffer and veto. Acrylic is used for the target and γ-catcher vessels, both of which contain liquid scintillator. Acrylic was chosen because it has good transmittance in the wavelength range of 400–430nm and also does not react with liquid-scintillating solvents. In order to reduce systematic uncertainties, the target volume should be identical to a level of less than 0.1% between the near and far detectors. Furthermore, the acrylic vessel should not have any leaks. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties, design and construction of the acrylic vessels used in the RENO detector.

  9. Synthesis of highly carboxylate acrylic resins for leather impregnation

    Ollé Otero, Lluís; Solé, M.M.; Shendrik, Alexander; Labastida, L.; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of new leather finishing acrylic resins. Four resins ware synthesized varying the concentration of ethyl acrylate, and metracrylic acid. Sodium lauryl sulphate was used as emulsifying system. By means of an experimental design, an optimal resin for leather impregnation was defined. The results obtained indicated that the variation of the monomer concentration influences the resin properties, the hardness of the film, and the penetration into the leather. Most...

  10. Durability of concrete protected by an acrylic painting

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Ramos, Amparo C.; Soares, Helena I.

    2005-01-01

    The fast degradation of concrete is a problem that occurs in some structures. In order to have less degradation, the use of protection systems could be recommended. Acrylic paintings have properties that make possible its use as a protection material of concrete. In our study, one concrete that could be classified as a C33/43, was protected with two coats of an acrylic painting. The durability of the protected concrete was studied. Tests made were: capillarity absorption, oxygen perm...

  11. Transfer Reactions in Phenyl Carbamate Ethyl Acrylate Polymerizations

    Bennet, Francesca; Roelle, Thomas; Faecke, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan; Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Junkers, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The transfer reactions occurring during polymerization of 2-(phenylcarbamoyloxy)ethyl acrylate (PhCEA) were studied by a detailed product mapping with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Unlike postulated before, PhCEA exhibits the same characteristic transfer reactions as other acrylic monomers at elevated temperatures, resulting in vinyl-terminated and saturated products. Transfer to monomer via abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the ester side chain as suggested before is ...

  12. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Kostić Milena; Krunić Nebojša; Najman Stevo; Nikolić Ljubiša; Nikolić Vesna; Rajković Jelena; Petrović Milica; Igić Marko; Ignjatović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS) immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath a...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    Gratzl, Günther, E-mail: guenther.gratzl@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Paulik, Christian [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Hild, Sabine [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Science, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian [AMiSTec GmbH and Co. KG, Leitweg 13, 6345 Kössen, Tirol (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed.

  14. Application of reactive acrylate microgels in water-base coatings

    SA Sheng-shu; ZHANG Bao-hua; YANG Qing; WANG Xia-qin; MAO Zhi-ping

    2009-01-01

    Reactive acrylate microgels with different reactive groups such as carboxyl, hydroxide groups had excellent prop-erties such as quick-dry, low viscosity, high adhesion and hardness, which made them extensively used in preparing paints or in coating-modification. Reactive acrylate microgels were prepared by emulsion co-polymerization with zwitterions surfactant, anionic surfactant and nonionic surfactant as co-emulsifier. The water-base baking paints made from reactive acrylate micro-gels and melamine-formaldehyde resin had excellent combination properties. The aluminium powder can be well-dispersed in the paints. The influences of monomer components on the properties of the water-base baking paints were discussed in this paper. And the baking paints were also compared with the marketing solvent acrylate baking paints. It was found that the water-base acrylate amino baking paints had better combination properties than the organic solvent acrylate baking paints, which means that the water-base baking paints had a bright marketing future.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed

  16. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    In situ graft acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were formed by polymerizing acrylic and acrylic-mixed monomers in the presence of alkyds by introduction of a free radical initiator to promote graft formation. Two-dimensional NMR, specifically gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), was used to clarify specific graft sites of the hybrid materials. Both individual and mixed-monomer systems were produced to determine any individual monomer preferences and to model current acrylic-alkyd systems. Different classes of initiators were used to determine any initiator effects on graft location. The 2D-NMR results confirm grafting at doubly allylic hydrogens located on the fatty acid chains and the polyol segment of the alkyd backbone. The gHMQC spectra show no evidence of grafting across double bonds on either pendant fatty acid groups or THPA unsaturation sites for any of the monomer or mixed monomer systems. It was also determined that choice of initiator has no effect on graft location. In addition, a design of experiments using response surface methodology was utilized to obtain a better understanding of this commercially available class of materials and relate both the chemical and physical properties to one another. A Box-Behnkin design was used, varying the oil length of the alkyd phase, the degree of unsaturation in the polyester backbone, and acrylic to alkyd ratio. Acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were reduced with an amine/water mixture. Hydrolytic stability was tested and viscoelastic properties were obtained to determine crosslink density. Cured films were prepared and basic coatings properties were evaluated. It was found that the oil length of the alkyd is the most dominant factor for final coatings properties of the resins. Acrylic to alkyd ratio mainly influences the resin properties such as acid number, average molecular weight, and hydrolytic stability. The degree of unsaturation in the alkyd backbone has minimal effects on resin and film

  17. Tensile bond strength between auto-polymerized acrylic resin and acrylic denture teeth treated with MF-MA solution

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the effect of chemical surface treatment using methyl formate-methyl acetate (MF-MA) solution on the tensile bond strength between acrylic denture teeth and auto-polymerized acrylic resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy maxillary central incisor acrylic denture teeth for each of three different brands (Yamahachi New Ace; Major Dent; Cosmo HXL) were embedded with incisal edge downwards in auto-polymerized resin in polyethylene pipes and ground with silicone carbide paper on their ridge lap surfaces. The teeth of each brand were divided into seven groups (n=10): no surface treatment (control group), MF-MA solution at a ratio of 25:75 (v/v) for 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 60 seconds, 120 seconds, 180 seconds, and MMA for 180 seconds. Auto-polymerized acrylic resin (Unifast Trad) was applied to the ground surface and polymerized in a pressure cooker. A tensile strength test was performed with a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Dunnett T3 test (α=.05). RESULTS The surface treatment groups had significantly higher mean tensile bond strengths compared with the control group (P.05), except for the Yamahachi New Ace MF-MA 180-second group (Pteeth with auto-polymerized acrylic resin, for both conventional and cross-linked teeth. PMID:27555897

  18. Synthesis and Demulsibility of the Terpolymer Demulsifier of Acryl Resin

    KANG,Wan-Li; MENG,Ling-Wei; ZHANG,Hong-Yan; LIU,Shu-Ren

    2008-01-01

    Terpolymer demulsifier of acryl resin has been synthesized through solution polymerization with water as a dissolvent,potassium persulfate as an initiator and the monomers of methyl methacrylate,butyl acrylate and acrylic acid as starting materials.The effects of the reaction temperature,dripping time,the amount of monomers and initiator on the dehydration rate of the demulsifier were investigated by an orthogonal experiment.It shows that the stronger influence on the dehydration rate among six factors is reaction temperature,dripping time,and amount of catalyst,while monomer has weak influence.The performance of the demulsifier was evaluated under different demulsification time,temperatures and concentrations of the screened demulsifiers.The result shows that the dehydration rate of the demulsifier can reach over 67%,which is better than that by the emulsion polymerization way.

  19. Textile dyestuff adsorption by polysaccharide-g-acrylic acid

    Aimed of this study to determine the ability of polysacharide of banana peel as an adsorbent of textile dyes (Maxilon Yellow) before and after the grafting process. The grafting copolymerization process was done by using acrylic acid as monomer, then irradiated by gamma rays as initiator. Parameters observed were adsorption ability of dye, soaking time with KOH, acrylic acid concentration, irradiation dose and resistance to acids. The results showed the optimum absorption obtained at the time of KOH immersion for 3 hours, the concentration of acrylic acid by 20% and the irradiation dose of 30 kGy. Adsorption percentage of polysacharide to Maxilon Yellow after grafting increased by 18,48% compared to before grafting. Resistance to the acid test increased significantly. The results of this study are expected to overcome the problems of waste dyes in the textile industry. (author)

  20. Biocatalytic functionalization of hydroxyalkyl acrylates and phenoxyethanol via phosphorylation.

    Tasnádi, Gábor; Hall, Mélanie; Baldenius, Kai; Ditrich, Klaus; Faber, Kurt

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic phosphorylation of phenoxyethanol, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate catalyzed by acid phosphatases PhoN-Sf and PiACP at the expense of inorganic di-, tri-, hexameta- or polyphosphate was applied to the preparative-scale synthesis of phosphorylated compounds. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to enzyme immobilization, substrate concentration, pH and type of phosphate donor. The mild reaction conditions prevented undesired polymerization and hydrolysis of the acrylate ester moiety. Application of a continuous flow system allowed facile scale-up and mono-phosphates were obtained in up to 26% isolated yield with space-time yields of 0.89kgL(-1)h(-1). PMID:27422352

  1. Elastic modulus and flexural strength comparisons of high-impact and traditional denture base acrylic resins

    Nour M. Ajaj-ALKordy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the high-impact acrylic resin is a suitable denture base material for patients with clinical fracture of the acrylic denture.

  2. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue. PMID:24566021

  3. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    L. S. Acosta-Torres; Arenas, M. C.; R. E. Nuñez­-Anita; F. H. Barceló-Santana; C. A. Álvarez-Gayosso; Palacios-Alquisira, J.; J. de la Fuente-Hernández; Marcos Cajero-Juárez; V. M. Castaño

    2014-01-01

    The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resin...

  4. The development of epoxidised palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and its applications

    The topics are discussed briefly. Acrylated palm oil is prepared through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the EPOP (epoxidised palm oil products), EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) was found curable when subjected to UV (ultrviolet) light giving soft coatings. EPOLA is used as radiation curable filler/sealer, radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and satisfactorily be coated on wood substrates (rubberwood parquets)

  5. Novel azo-peresters radical initiators used for the synthesis of acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA based on two monomers: 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid were synthesized in organic solvent ethyl acetate using AIBN (2, 2'-azo-diisobutyronitrile and new synthesized azo-peresters as radical initiators. After polymerization the viscosity, molecular weight and polydispersity of synthesized acrylic PSA were evaluated. The novel synthesized radical azo-perester initiators were synthesized, isolated and compared with industrial predominant usable azo-initiator AIBN.

  6. The Evaluation of Water Sorption/Solubility on Various Acrylic Resins

    Tuna, Suleyman Hakan; Keyf, Filiz; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Uzun, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The absorption of water by acrylic resins is a phenomenon of considerable importance since it is accompanied by dimensional changes, a further undesirable effect of absorbed water in acrylic resins to reduce the tensile strength of the material. Solubility is also an important property because it represents the mass of soluble materials from the polymers. Methods Ten acrylic resin-based materials were evaluated: two heat cure acrylic resins (De Trey QC-20, Meliodent Heat Cure) and ...

  7. Triphenylphosphine-Catalyzed Michael Addition of Alcohols to Acrylic Compounds

    LIU, Hai-Ling; JIANG, Huan-Feng; WANG, Yu-Gang

    2007-01-01

    A facile triphenylphosphine-catalyzed Michael addition of alcohols to acrylic compounds was described. The reaction was carried out in open air at refluxing temperature in the presence of 10 mol% PPh3. Michael addition of saturated and unsaturated alcohols to acrylonitrile or acrylates has been examined. The reaction gaveβ-alkoxy derivatives with isolated yields of 5%-79%. PPh3 is cheaper and more stable than those trialkylphosphines previously used for the similar reactions, and the products can be easily separated from the reaction mixture via distillation.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  9. Preparations and applications in UV curing coatings of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl

    This paper introduces preparations of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl through the reactions of epoxy acrylates with butanedioic anhydride, pentanedioic anhydride, cis-butenedioic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, tetrabromophthalic anhydride and -tetrahydrophthalic anhydride. These epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl have been applied to UV-curing coatings and their effects on properties of UV-curing coatings have been studied

  10. Decarboxylation-based traceless linking with aroyl acrylic acids

    Nielsen, John

    1998-01-01

    beta-Keto carboxylic acids are known to decarboxylate readily. In our pursuit to synthesize beta-indolinyl propiophenones, we have exploited this chemistry as a mean of establishing a traceless handle. 2-Aroyl acrylic acids have been esterified to a trityl resin, after which Michael-type addition...

  11. Humidity-responsive starch-poly (methyl acrylate) films.

    Blown films prepared from starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers plasticized with urea and water display shrinkage at relative humidities greater than 50%. Shrinkage at relative humidities below approximately 75% is strongly correlated with the urea/starch weight ratio, which controls the eq...

  12. Bond strength between acrylic resin and maxillofacial silicone

    Marcela Filié Haddad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of implant dentistry improved the possibilities of rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis. However, clinically it is difficult to bond the silicone to the attachment system. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an adhesive system on the bond strength between acrylic resin and facial silicone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 120 samples were fabricated with auto-polymerized acrylic resin and MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. Both materials were bonded through mechanical retentions and/or application of primers (DC 1205 primer and Sofreliner primer S and adhesive (Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A or not (control group. Samples were divided into 12 groups according to the method used to attach the silicone to the acrylic resin. All samples were subjected to a T-peel test in a universal testing machine. Failures were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. The data were evaluated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey's HSD test (α=.05. RESULTS: The highest bond strength values (5.95 N/mm; 3.07 N/mm; 4.75 N/mm were recorded for the samples that received a Sofreliner primer application. These values were significantly higher when the samples had no scratches and did not receive the application of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A. CONCLUSIONS: The most common type of failure was adhesive. The use of Sofreliner primer increased the bond strength between the auto-polymerized acrylic resin and the Silastic MDX 4-4210 facial silicone.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLIC ESTERS IN PTC: KINETICS AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    G.Torosyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of esters of acrylic acids, which are applied for synthesis of polymeric materials by phase transfer catalysis were discussed (PTC, which is very useful for reduction of reaction consumption of materials and power.This method has substantial advantages including high speed of the process, soft condition of reaction and reduced pollution.

  14. Calibration of an Electron Linear Accelerator using an acrylic puppet

    The finality of this work is to find the dose for electron beams using acrylic puppets and inter comparing with the measurements in water, found also its respective conversion factor. With base in this, its may be realize interesting measurements for the good performance of a linear accelerator and special clinical treatments in less time. (Author)

  15. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants...

  16. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper...

  17. In-situ photopolymerization of oriented liquid-crystalline acrylates

    Broer, Dirk Jan

    1990-01-01

    The scope of this thesis concerns a new method to produce oriented polymers by the in-situ photopolymerization of oriented liquid-crystalline acrylates. The desired macroscopic molecular order is already accomplished in the monomeric state prior to the polymerization. ... Zie: Summary

  18. Design and Synthesis of Novel Fluorine-containing Acrylates

    2005-01-01

    A series of novel fluorine-containing acrylates 6a-6g were synthesized via the condensation of ethyl cyanoacetate and trifluoroacetic anhydride, followed by chloridization and the coupling reaction with amines. These new compounds exhibited some biological activity as preliminary bioassay indicated. A plausible reaction mechanism was outlined and discussed.

  19. Comparison of classical dermatoscopy and acrylic globe magnifier dermatoscopy

    Lorentzen, Henrik F; Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Weismann, Kaare

    2008-01-01

    % confidence interval 83-97%). Sensitivity for melanoma, benign melanocytic naevi and basal cell carcinoma was 100%, 98% and 85%, respectively. Specificity was 95%, 94% and 100% for melanoma, naevi and basal cell carcinoma. Acrylic globe dermatoscopy enables a diagnostic accuracy similar to epiluminescence...

  20. Analysis and Testing of Bisphenol A—Free Bio-Based Tannin Epoxy-Acrylic Adhesives

    Shayesteh Jahanshahi; Antonio Pizzi; Ali Abdulkhani; Alireza Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    A tannin-based epoxy acrylate resin was prepared from glycidyl ether tannin (GET) and acrylic acid. The influence of the reaction condition for producing tannin epoxy acrylate was studied by FT-MIR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and shear strength. The best reaction conditions for producing tannin epoxy acrylate resin without bisphenol A was by reaction between GET and acrylic acid in the presence of a catalyst and hydroquinone at 95 °C for 12 h. FT-MIR, 13C-NMR and MALDI-TOF analysis have...

  1. Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-blockpoly (acrylic acid) triblock terpolymers with highly asymmetric hydrophilic blocks: synthesis and aqueous solution properties

    Petrov, P; Yoncheva, K. (Krassimira); Mokreva, P. (Pavlina); Konstantinov, S.; J M Irache; Müller, A.H.E. (Axel H.E.)

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and aggregation behaviour in aqueous media of novel amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)- block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PEO–PnBA–PAA) triblock terpolymers were studied. Terpolymers composed of two highly asymmetric hydrophilic PEO (113 monomer units) and PAA (10–17 units) blocks, and a longer soft hydrophobic PnBA block (163 or 223 units) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) of n-butyl acrylate and tert-butyl acrylate ...

  2. Radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid on expanded polystyrene matrices

    The unfixed surface radioactive contamination for low energy β radionuclides (3H and 14C) is determined by wiping the checked surfaces with sponge of absorbent materials. The activity built up by this sponge is measured by a liquid scintillator spectrometer. In this work, a method of obtaining sponges of expanded polystyrene with hydrophobic surface by radioinduced grafting of the acrylic acid is presented. These sponges have diameters of 28 mm, thicknesses of 1.5 - 2 mm and density of 22 mg/cm3. The samples were immersed in a grafting solution with the following composition: acrylic acid 30%, Cu SO4 1%; water 69% which were deeply impregnated in repeated operations under vacuum and pressure conditions, respectively. Finally, the samples were exposed to γ radiation emitted by a 60Co source (IETI 10 000 - IFIN-HH). The dose rates were 0.3, 0.5 and 1 Mrad/h. The range of the absorbed doses was 1 - 25 Mrad. The yields of radiochemical grafting have been determined by gravimetric, spectrophotometric and radiometric methods. The grafting agent used was 3H labelled acrylic acid. The solvation capacity and the quenching characteristics of the grafted sponges in liquid scintillators, as well as the sampling yields have been analyzed as function of irradiation procedure and the percentage of grafted acrylic fragments. The superficial grafting of the acrylic acid has been carried out by the mentioned technique, leading to the increase of the wiping efficiency of the unfixed surface contaminating activity, without changes of polymer solubility in liquid scintillators and without the perturbation of the radioactivity detection process. (authors)

  3. New oil modified acrylic polymer for pH sensitive drug release: Experimental results and statistical analysis

    Panja, N.; Chattopadhyay, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    We report results of an experimental study, complemented by detailed statistical analysis of the experimental data, on the development of a more effective control method of drug delivery using a pH sensitive acrylic polymer. New copolymers based on acrylic acid and fatty acid are constructed from dodecyl castor oil and a tercopolymer based on methyl methacrylate, acrylic acid and acryl amide were prepared using this new approach. Water swelling characteristics of fatty acid, acrylic acid copo...

  4. Surface modification of nanoparticles for radiation curable acrylate clear coatings

    Bauer, F.; Gläsel, H.-J.; Hartmann, E.; Bilz, E.; Mehnert, R.

    2003-08-01

    To obtain transparent, scratch and abrasion resistant coatings a high content of nanosized silica and alumina filler was embedded in radiation-curable acrylate formulations by acid catalyzed silylation using trialkoxysilanes. 29SiMAS NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were employed to elucidate the structure of the surface-grafted methacryloxypropyl-, vinyl- and n-propyl-trimethoxysilane. In accordance with NMR findings, MALDI-TOF MS showed highly condensed oligomeric siloxanes of more than 20 monomeric silane units. A ladder-like structure of bound polysiloxanes is proposed rather than a simplified picture of tridentate silane bonding. Hence, silane coupling agents do not only modify the chemical nature of the filler surface but also strongly effect the rheological properties of the acrylate nanodispersions.

  5. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Ladan Espandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL. The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.Keywords: hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, Softec HD intraocular lens, aspheric intraocular lens, IOL

  6. Novel polymer coatings based on plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate

    Wu, Zhenning; Jiang, Juan; Benter, Maike;

    2008-01-01

    properties[4-6]. We have exploited these possibilities and prepared plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PPMEA) coatings on various polymer substrates. The PPMEA coatings were optimized using various plasma polymerization conditions and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy......Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) is cited as the most blood compatible polyme~l]. Modification of polymer surfaces with PMEA has recently brought to improved materials for such applications[1,2]. Recently PMEA and its block copolymers with PMMA with controlled characteristics have been...... synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP)[3]. This enabled a surface segregation of the more hydrophilic block to the polymer/air interface and enrichment of the surface with PMEA. Here we present another way to modify a surface with this material - plasma polymerization in a low energy...

  7. A New Process for Acrylic Acid Synthesis by Fermentative Process

    Lunelli, B. H.; Duarte, E. R.; de Toledo, E. C. Vasco; Wolf Maciel, M. R.; Maciel Filho, R.

    With the synthesis of chemical products through biotechnological processes, it is possible to discover and to explore innumerable routes that can be used to obtain products of high addes value. Each route may have particular advantages in obtaining a desired product, compared with others, especially in terms of yield, productivity, easiness to separate the product, economy, and environmental impact. The purpose of this work is the development of a deterministic model for the biochemical synthesis of acrylic acid in order to explore an alternative process. The model is built-up with the tubular reactor equations together with the kinetic representation based on the structured model. The proposed process makes possible to obtain acrylic acid continuously from the sugar cane fermentation.

  8. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  9. Radiation cross-linking of epoxide-acrylic compositions

    The process of hardening of epoxy-acryl compositions on copper, aluminium, iron, and glass substrates has been studied under the action of ionizing radiation (accelerated electrons, γ-radiation). Irradiated samples have been heat treated for 2 hours at 100 and 150 deg C for accelerating posteffect. In the epoxy oligomer-acrylic acid system structurization is completed at a dose of 10-12 Mrad. The content of gel fraction equals 30-62% when irradiation is performed in air and up to 85% when the samples are irradiated under film. The effect has been established of natural epoxy oligomers and various plasticizers on the structurization process. The possibility has been shown of obtaining heat-resistant coatings based on epoxy oligomers

  10. Acryl polymer-silica hybrid for electron beam resist

    Electron beam (EB) resist of acryl polymer-silica hybrid was investigated for fabrication of optical elements. The EB-lithography on the hybrid thin film afforded positive pattern whose depth corresponded to EB exposure dose, indicating that the hybrid was an analog resist. The positive pattern from the hybrids could be transferred to the underlying quartz glass plate by reactive ion etching (RIE) and be coated with metal thin film by its vacuum-deposition owing to the sufficient RIE resistance and heat resistance of the hybrids. The acryl polymer component would be EB sensitive and resist RIE, and the silica matrix would play a role to raise heat resistance and compatibility with the underlying quartz. (author)

  11. Surface modification of nanoparticles for radiation curable acrylate clear coatings

    To obtain transparent, scratch and abrasion resistant coatings a high content of nanosized silica and alumina filler was embedded in radiation-curable acrylate formulations by acid catalyzed silylation using trialkoxysilanes. 29SiMAS NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were employed to elucidate the structure of the surface-grafted methacryloxypropyl-, vinyl- and n-propyl-trimethoxysilane. In accordance with NMR findings, MALDI-TOF MS showed highly condensed oligomeric siloxanes of more than 20 monomeric silane units. A ladder-like structure of bound polysiloxanes is proposed rather than a simplified picture of tridentate silane bonding. Hence, silane coupling agents do not only modify the chemical nature of the filler surface but also strongly effect the rheological properties of the acrylate nanodispersions

  12. Insights on the biodegradation of acrylic reline resins

    Neves, Maria Cristina Bettencourt, 1976-

    2012-01-01

    Acrylic reline resins are extensively used in dentistry, since they readapt dentures to the continuous reabsorbed underlying tissues. Since present in the oral cavity for long periods of time, these materials are objective of the biodegradation phenomena, which represents the change on their chemical, physical and mechanical properties due to the oral environment conditions and its constituents. These processes may permanently alter the properties of the material and compromise its function. ...

  13. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Ladan Espandar; Shameema Sikder; Majid Moshirfar

    2011-01-01

    Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular le...

  14. Late opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Al-Bdour Muawyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation is considered to be a safe procedure in most cases. However, the new advances in the surgical technique namely phacoemulsification and hence the increased use of foldable intraocular lenses have given rise to new complications including late opacification of intraocular lenses. In this case we report late opacification of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens and the surgical technique for its exchange.

  15. Hydrogen bonding on the surface of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate).

    Li, Guifeng; Ye, Shen; Morita, Shigeaki; Nishida, Takuma; Osawa, Masatoshi

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen bonding on the interface and in the bulk of a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) thin film has been investigated by sum frequency generation, infrared reflection absorption, and Raman scattering measurements in different kinds of solutions containing hydrogen-bonding donators. These results indicate that the majority of the carbonyl groups on the PMEA surface are hydrogen-bonded with water or ethanol molecules, while the PMEA bulk is still dominated by the free carbonyl group. PMID:15453716

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF COAGULATION BATH IN ACRYLIC FIBER PRODUCTION

    İsmail TİYEK; BOZDOĞAN, Faruk

    2005-01-01

    In the production of acrylic fibers using wet-spinning method, fiber formation takes places in the coagulation bath. Therefore, physical properties of the fibers, produced by the wet-spinning method, is affected by coagulation bath conditions. For this reason, coagulation bath parameters have to be checked very well. In this paper, both the physical events such as diffusion and phase transition, occured in the coagulation bath, and some coagulation bath parameters that affect these physical e...

  17. Acrylic interpenetrating polymer network dielectric elastomers for energy harvesting

    Brochu, Paul; Niu, Xiaofan; Pei, Qibing

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer energy harvesters are an emerging technology that promise high power density, low cost, scalability, and the capability of fitting niche markets that have yet to be exploited. To date, materials issues that limit their overall performance have hampered the full potential of these devices. In order to supplant existing technologies, even in niche markets, dielectric elastomer generators must increase their reliability and energy density. Previous work has indicated that stiffer elastomers should be capable of higher energy densities; the increased stiffness of the elastomer films should results in lower Maxwell pressure induced strains, and thus allow the elastomer to relax further, resulting in a larger swing in capacitance and larger energy gains. In this paper we examine the use of VHB-based acrylic interpenetrating polymer network dielectric elastomers with a trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate additive network for energy harvesting purposes. We test films with varying additive content and compare their performance with highly prestrained VHB acrylic elastomers. We show that by increasing additive content, Maxwell induced strains can be suppressed and larger energy gains can be achieved at higher bias fields. Moreover, the introduction of the additive network stabilizes the highly prestrained acrylic elastomers mechanically, thereby increasing their mechanical robustness. However, the interpenetrating polymer network films suffer from an increase in viscoelastic behavior that hinders their overall performance.

  18. Acrylic microspheres-based optosensor for visual detection of nitrite.

    Noor, Nur Syarmim Mohamed; Tan, Ling Ling; Heng, Lee Yook; Chong, Kwok Feng; Tajuddin, Saiful Nizam

    2016-09-15

    A new optosensor for visual quantitation of nitrite (NO2(-)) ion has been fabricated by physically immobilizing Safranine O (SO) reagent onto a self-adhesive poly(n-butyl acrylate) [poly(nBA)] microspheres matrix, which was synthesized via facile microemulsion UV lithography technique. Evaluation and optimization of the optical NO2(-) ion sensor was performed with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. Scanning electron micrograph showed well-shaped and smooth spherical morphology of the poly(nBA) microspheres with a narrow particles size distribution from 0.6 μm up to 1.8 μm. The uniform size distribution of the acrylic microspheres promoted homogeneity of the immobilized SO reagent molecules on the microspheres' surfaces, thereby enhanced the sensing response reproducibility (<5% RSD) with a linear range obtained from 10 to 100 ppm NO2(-) ion. The micro-sized acrylic immobilization matrix demonstrated no significant barrier for diffusion of reactant and product, and served as a good solid state ion transport medium for reflectometric nitrite determination in food samples. PMID:27080889

  19. Acrylate Functionalized Tetraalkylammonium Salts with Ionic Liquid Properties

    Silvia Janietz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acrylate functionalized ionic liquids based on tetraalkylammonium salts with terminal acrylates- and methylacrylates were synthesized. Melting points and ionic conductivity of twenty compounds in six groups were determined. Within one group the effect of three different counterions was investigated and discussed. The groups differ in cationic structure elements because of their functional groups such as acrylate and methacrylate, alkyl residues at the nitrogen and number of quaternary ammonium atoms within the organic cation. The effect of these cationic structure elements has been examined concerning the compiled parameters with a view to qualifying them as components for solid state electrolytes. The newly synthesized ionic liquids were characterized by NMR and FTIR analysis. The exchange of halide ions like bromide as counter ions to weakly coordinating [PF6], [OTf] or [TFSI] reduces the melting points significantly and leads to an ion conductivity of about 10−4 S/cm at room temperature. In the case of the dicationic ionic liquid, an ion conductivity of about 10−3 S/cm was observed.

  20. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions. PMID:27078740

  1. Analysis and Testing of Bisphenol A—Free Bio-Based Tannin Epoxy-Acrylic Adhesives

    Shayesteh Jahanshahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A tannin-based epoxy acrylate resin was prepared from glycidyl ether tannin (GET and acrylic acid. The influence of the reaction condition for producing tannin epoxy acrylate was studied by FT-MIR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and shear strength. The best reaction conditions for producing tannin epoxy acrylate resin without bisphenol A was by reaction between GET and acrylic acid in the presence of a catalyst and hydroquinone at 95 °C for 12 h. FT-MIR, 13C-NMR and MALDI-TOF analysis have confirmed that the resin has been prepared under these conditions. The joints bonded with this resin were tested for block shear strength. The results obtained indicated that the best strength performance was obtained by the bioepoxy-acrylate adhesive resin prepared at 95 °C for a 12-h reaction.

  2. Preparation and properties of UV curable acrylic PSA by vinyl bonded graphene oxide

    Pang, Beili; Ryu, Chong-Min; Jin, Xin; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2013-11-01

    Acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with higher thermal stability for thin wafer handling were successfully prepared by forming composite with the graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles modified to have vinyl groups via subsequent reaction with isophorone diisocyanate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The acrylic copolymer was synthesized as a base resin for PSAs by solution radical polymerization of ethyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and acrylic acid followed by further modification with GMA to have the vinyl groups available for UV curing. The peel strength of PSA decreased with the increase of gel content which was dependent on both modified GO content and UV dose. Thermal stability of UV-cured PSA was improved noticeably with increasing the modified GO content mainly due to the strong and extensive interfacial bonding formed between the acrylic copolymer matrix and GO fillers

  3. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Full-text: The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidized palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) for example EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80 %) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70 %), where the different is around 10-15 %. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50 % at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newton's (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photo initiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glossiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photo initiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough. (author)

  4. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough

  5. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  6. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  7. Late Transition Metal and Aluminum Complexes for the Polymerization of Ethene and Acrylates

    YliheikkilÀ, Katariina

    2006-01-01

    Polyethene, polyacrylates and polymethyl acrylates are versatile materials that find wide variety of applications in several areas. Therefore, polymerization of ethene, acrylates and methacrylates has achieved a lot attention during past years. Numbers of metal catalysts have been introduced in order to control the polymerization and to produce tailored polymer structures. Herein an overview on the possible polymerization pathways for ethene, acrylates and methacrylates is presented. In ...

  8. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Treatment on Polymerization of Acrylic Fabric and Its Printing Behavior

    D M El-Zeer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic fibers have been treated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD plasma in open air to enhance surface antistatic properties. The treated surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier-Transition Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM. Plasma treatment of acrylic fabric has been found to increase the surface roughness, modify the nature and density of surface functionalities, and drastically improve the wettability and antistatic ability of acrylic fibers.

  9. Effect of Nanoclay on Thermal Conductivity and Flexural Strength of Polymethyl Methacrylate Acrylic Resin

    Tahereh Ghaffari; Ali Barzegar; Fahimeh Hamedi Rad; Elnaz Moslehifard

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The mechanical and thermal properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resin should be improved to counterweigh its structural deficiencies. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of conventional acrylic resin and acrylic resin loaded with nanoclay. Materials and Method: The methacrylate monomer containing the 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% of nanoclay was placed in an ultrasonic probe and mixed with the PMMA p...

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern

    Paula Maio; Rodrigo Carvalho; Cristina Amaro; Raquel Santos; Jorge Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with t...

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  12. Acrylic fragmentation in total hip replacements and its biological consequences.

    Jasty, M; Jiranek, W; Harris, W H

    1992-12-01

    Loosening of total joint prostheses is in part related to the fragmentation of the acrylic cement mantle surrounding the prosthesis and the biologic consequences to the particulate acrylic. Fractographic studies of femoral cement mantles retrieved at revision surgery and autopsy showed frequent fractures in varying stages of development in the cement and wear at the fracture surfaces. Defects in the cement mantle, thin mantles, sharp corners on the prosthesis, separation at the cement mantle interface, and pores in the cement were frequently associated with cement fractures. The progressive fractures and wear led to the liberation of particulate acrylic debris into the surrounding tissues. The tissues at the bone-cement interface removed at revision surgery showed that a macrophage, giant-cell foreign-body granulomatous reaction occurs in response to the particulate, but not bulk cement. This tissue can produce a variety of chemical mediators of inflammation and bone resorption, and can resorb bone in organ cultures. A granulomatous tissue reaction with a very similar appearance can be produced in experimental animals using particulate-form polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), but not the bulk form of PMMA. The tissue reaction is not mediated by the classic cell or humeral immune mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of particulate PMMA powder into fully immunocompetent C3Hf/SED mice as well as three strains of mice with progressive immunologic deficiencies (nude/nude, SCID, and triple deficient Nu-bg-XID/SED mice) led to a foreign-body reaction in all strains at five weeks as shown by histologic and immunohistochemical examination despite the differences in immune deficiency. This, along with the scarcity of lymphocytes in the human tissues, suggests that the biologic reactions to fragmented cement can be produced and sustained by nonimmune phagocytosis and activation by macrophages and giant cells without significant contribution by the immune system. PMID:1446427

  13. DSC analysis of EB-cured polyurethane-acrylate

    The gel films obtained by electron beam (EB) solid-state polymerization of urethane-acrylate prepolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two kinds of urethane-acrylates were synthesized by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for this purpose. One is a semicrystalline prepolymer (UA-251M) with a number average molecular weight (M-barn) of 3200, and the other is an amorphous one (UA-071M) with M-barn of 1450. The M-barn varied by changing M-barn of PBAD. UA-251M gel film decreased in glass transition temperature (Tg) and increased in heat capacity change (ΔCp) at Tg with increasing irradiation dose, while the Tg and ΔCp values of UA-071M gel film changed in the opposite way to those of UA-251M gel film. Above 5 Mrad, gel fraction reached more than 90 %, and the Tg and ΔCp values changed steeply for both prepolymers. This steep change in Tg and ΔCp was attributed to the crosslinking of PBAD chains as well as of terminal acryloyl groups. Since the Tg change of UA-071M gel film depends merely on the crosslinking, the crosslinking structure was evaluated using two equations which relate the shift in Tg to crosslinking. The molecular weight between crosslinking junctions was found to be larger than the M-barn of the prepolymer. The crosslinking by the EB polymerization restricted the mobility of the polymer chain less strongly than the crosslinking by the three-functional isocyanate and α,ω-dihydroxy(polypropylene oxide) with a molecular weight of 1000 did. (author)

  14. DSC analysis of EB-cured polyurethane-acrylate

    Ando, Masayuki; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    1987-10-01

    The gel films obtained by electron beam (EB) solid-state polymerization of urethane-acrylate prepolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two kinds of urethane-acrylates were synthesized by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for this purpose. One is a semicrystalline prepolymer (UA-251M) with a number average molecular weight (M-bar/sub n/) of 3200, and the other is an amorphous one (UA-071M) with M-bar/sub n/ of 1450. The M-bar/sub n/ varied by changing M-bar/sub n/ of PBAD. UA-251M gel film decreased in glass transition temperature (T/sub g/) and increased in heat capacity change (..delta..C/sub p/) at T/sub g/ with increasing irradiation dose, while the T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ values of UA-071M gel film changed in the opposite way to those of UA-251M gel film. Above 5 Mrad, gel fraction reached more than 90 %, and the T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ values changed steeply for both prepolymers. This steep change in T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ was attributed to the crosslinking of PBAD chains as well as of terminal acryloyl groups. Since the T/sub g/ change of UA-071M gel film depends merely on the crosslinking, the crosslinking structure was evaluated using two equations which relate the shift in T/sub g/ to crosslinking. The molecular weight between crosslinking junctions was found to be larger than the M-bar/sub n/ of the prepolymer. The crosslinking by the EB polymerization restricted the mobility of the polymer chain less strongly than the crosslinking by the three-functional isocyanate and ..cap alpha..,..omega..-dihydroxy(polypropylene oxide) with a molecular weight of 1000 did.

  15. INCIDENCE AND CAUSES OF FRACTURE OF ACRYLIC RESIN COMPLETE DENTURE

    Sampa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: Replacement of missing teeth and the associated structures are done with the help of artificial prosthesis. Acrylic resin, by virtue of its excellent properties is widely used as a material of choice for fabrication of denture base. In spite of its higher esthetic quality, tissue compatibility and ease of manipulation, it has an inherent deficiency of proneness to fracture. AIMS: The present study was being undertaken to find out the incidence of fracture of acrylic resin base of complete denture and analyze the cause, so that suitable remedial measures might be suggested to reduce the frequency of denture fracture. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study was conducted over a period of 18 months in the Prosthetic Department of Dr R Ahmed Dental College & Hospital, Kolkata. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The 81 reported fracture cases out of 646 complete dentures were selected for this study. Formally consent followed by detailed history was taken. After intra-oral and physical examination, the dentures were repaired following text book recommended procedure using cold cure acrylic resin and prepared for last phase of survey, which was the intra oral examination like adaptation, retention and stability of the repaired dentures in the second visit of the patients. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The data were subjected to SPSS, version 16, and statistically analyzed using cross tab. RESULTS: In the present survey, 81 cases of complete denture fractures have been reported within the survey period. CONCLUSIONS: It appears from the present study, the rate of lower complete denture fracture is more common than upper complete denture fracture

  16. Stiffness and strength of composite acrylic bone cements

    I. Knets

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different acrylic bone cements based upon PMMA-MMA system are applicable for implant fixation inbone tissue. The aim of present study is the optimisation of the structure of some new bone acrylic cements madeon the basis of PMMA-ethylmethacrylate-triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate and bone cements having additives (HAand radio pacifier, and the finding of the effect of these modifications on the flexural strength and stiffness.Design/methodology/approach: Different new bone cements on the basis of PMMA-EMA-TEGDMA system(ABC were developed experimentally. The stiffness and strength of the samples of these modified cements weredetermined in the special three point bending equipment.Findings: A comparison of the flexural properties of new PMMA-EMA-TEGDMA cements and commercialavailable PMMA-MMA cement showed that commercial bone cement had larger values of ultimate strengthand modulus of elasticity, but the difference is not very important. As concerns the polymerisation peaktemperature, then there is a significant difference between commercial PMMA-MMA cement (~ 800C andPMMA-EMA-TEGDMA modified cements (50 – 600C. The introduction of 10% and 18% of HA into solidphase does not influence essentially strength and modulus of elasticity of the PMMA-EMA-TEGDMA bonecements. The introduction of radio pacifier BaSO4 into bone cement leads to flexural strength diminishing.Low polymerisation peak temperature and appropriate mechanical properties of bone cements developed allowsregarding new 3-D structure acrylic bone cements as promising biomaterials.Research limitations/implications: It is supposed to carry out animal testing to learn more about reaction ofmodified implanted material on the biological environment.Practical implications: The new materials could be efficiently used as bone cements because they will notdamage surrounding biological tissue during curing.Originality/value: Paper is providing the new information about possibilities to

  17. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE/METHYL ACRYLATE COPOLYMER

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; PAN Zuren

    1997-01-01

    A series of vinylidene dichloride (VDC) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) as comonomer (3-12 wt%), was prepared by free-radical suspension copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at1.0 MPa and at 30℃, and those to water vapor were measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the VDC/MA copolymers studied are semicrystalline. As the MA content increases, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor are progressively increased, caused by decrease in crystalline fraction and increase in free volume of VDC/MA copolymers.

  18. Corrigendum: Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Espandar L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Espandar L, Sikder S, Moshirfar M. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision. Clin Ophthalmol. 2011;5:65–70.There was an error in the reported optic size of Lenstec’s Softec HD intraocular lens, which was reported to be 5.5 mm in Espandar et al’s work, but is 5.75 mm.Please see the specifications on Lenstec’s Web site for further details (see http://www.lenstec.com/lenstec/hd_specs.html.Read the original article

  19. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SILICONE-ACRYLATE COPOLYMER LATEX

    Mu-jie Yang; Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Silicone-acrylate copolymer latex was prepared through three different polymerization processes, i.e., the batch process, preemulsified monomer addition and the monomer addition process. The results revealed that the monomer addition process is a desirable approach to produce narrow particle size distribution latex with higher polymerization conversion and less amount of coagulum. The effect of silicone content on the glossiness and water absorption of latex film was investigated and the results showed that the glossiness of latex film is improved up to a silicone content of 10% of total monomers, but becomes impaired thereafter, whereas water absorption is reduced accordingly.

  20. A Study of an Acrylic Cerenkov Radiation Detector

    Porter, B; De Barbaro, P; Bodek, Arie; Budd, H S

    1999-01-01

    An experiment investigating the angle of Cerenkov light emitted by 3-MeV electrons traversing an acrylic detector has been developed for use in the advanced physics laboratory course at the University of Rochester. In addition to exploring the experimental phenomena of Cerenkov radiation and total internal reflection, the experiment introduces students to several experimental techniques used in actual high energy and nuclear physics experiments, as well as to analysis techniques involving Poisson statistics. [to be published in Am. J. Phys. 67 (Oct/Nov 1999).

  1. Conformational Transition of Poly (Acrylic Acid) Detected by Microcantilever Sensing

    LI Kai; LIU Hong; ZHANG Qing-Chuan; XUE Chang-Guo; WU Xiao-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) chains are grafted on one side of a microcantilever by the self-assembled method and the deflections of the microcantilever are detected as a function of medium pH from 3 to 11. It is found that when the pH varies, the microcantilever deflects because of the changing surface stress. By analysing the electrostatic repulsive effect, the surface stress change is related to the conformation transition of PAA from a collapse state to a swelling state. This method offers the interaction information among the polymer chains during the conformational transition and affords an alternative way to study conformational change of polymers.

  2. 133Xe labelling of acrylate for catheter embolisation

    A method for radio-nucleide labelling of histo-acryl/lipiodol with 133Xe gas is described. The method consists of disolving the gas in lipiodol under sterile conditions. After embolisation and angiography, the localisation of the embolising material can be determined by means of a scintillation camera. The labelling method was used in 15 patients. In all patients the position of the embolising material, as demonstrated by scintigraphy, corresponded with the radiological findings. It was not possible to demonstrate escape of the material by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  3. Neutral, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic diblock copolymers featuring poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) hydrophobic segments

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers incorporating hydrophobic poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and hydrophilic neutral poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG), anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), cationic poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), and...

  4. Synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) model compounds for filtration experiments

    Hinge, Mogens; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Scales, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    microgels. Capillary rheometry indicates that the blocks of poly(acrylic acid) are placed on the surface of the microgels. The combination of these three results reveal that the microgels have a core mainly consisting of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and a diffuse/cloudy surface consisting mainly of poly(acrylic...

  5. Formation of Methyl Acrylate from CO 2 and Ethylene via Methylation of Nickelalactones

    Bruckmeier, Christian

    2010-05-24

    The nickel-induced coupling of ethylene and CO2 represents a promising pathway toward acrylates. To overcome the high bond dissociation energies of the M-O moieties, we worked out an in situ methylation of nickelalactones to realize the β-hydride elimination and the liberation of the acrylate species. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. The mechanism study on overcoming oxygen inhibition of polyether type multifunctional acrylate

    The high reactive polyester type multifunctional acrylic resin and polyether type multifunctional acrylate was prepared and used for EB cured coatings. The experimental results have showed that when the absorbed dose reaches 60 KGy, the hardness kept to 80%. In order to overcome oxygen inhibition the authors also performed further mechanism study of anti-oxidation

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Aqueous Lubricating Properties of Amphiphilic Graft Copolymers Comprising 2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Røn, Troels; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren; Lee, Seunghwan

    2014-01-01

    Amphiphilic anionic and cationic graft copolymers possessing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) backbone and poly(methacrylic acid), poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid), and poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) grafts are constructed by merging...

  8. Contact-killing of adhering streptococci by a quaternary ammonium compound incorporated in an acrylic resin

    Mei, Li; Ren, Yijin; Loontjens, Ton J. A.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Acrylates for bonding of joint prostheses and stainless-steel brackets in orthopedics and orthodontics are prone to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, respectively, leading to serious infectious complications. Here we describe the preparation of a contact-killing acrylic resin by inc

  9. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE ACRYLATE/EPOXY RESIN INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS

    SHI Youheng; NIE Xuzong

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on polyurethane acrylate and epoxy resin was prepared by simultaneous photoinitiating by both free-radical and cationic polymerization.The effects of the polyurethane acrylate prepolymer's molecular weight, various components ratio and polymerization methods on IPN's dynamic mechanical and mechanical properties were investigated.

  10. Preparation and properties of acrylic resin coating modified by functional graphene oxide

    Dong, Rui; Liu, Lili

    2016-04-01

    To improve the dispersion and the strength of filler-matrix interface in acrylic resin, the functional graphene oxide (FGO) was obtained by surface modification of graphene oxide (GO) by γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (KH-570) and then the acrylic nanocomposites containing different loadings of GO and FGO were prepared. The structure, morphology and dispersion/exfoliation of the FGO were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, Raman, XPS, SEM and TEM. The results demonstrated that the KH-570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of GO sheets. Furthermore, the corresponding thermal, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the acrylic nanocomposites filled with the FGO were studied and compared with those of neat acrylic and GO/acrylic nanocomposites. The results revealed that the loading of FGO effectively enhanced various properties of acrylic resin. These findings confirmed that the dispersion and interfacial interaction were greatly improved by incorporation of FGO, which might be the result of covalent bonds between the FGO and the acrylic matrix. This work demonstrates an in situ polymerization method to construct a flexible interphase structure, strong interfacial interaction and good dispersion of FGO in acrylic nanocomposites, which can reinforce the polymer properties and be applied in research and industrial areas.

  11. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil–Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations

    Ashraf M. Salih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.

  12. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part I. preparation and characterization of acrylated oil

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from epoxidized soybean oil (ESOL) by using acrylic acid monomer. Triethyl amine (TEA) and hydroquinone were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. The epoxidized soybean oil acrylate (ESOLA) is done by introducing acrylic acid into oxirane groups of the epoxidized oil (ESOL). This reaction was confirmed by analytical data in terms of oxirane oxygen content, acid value, viscosity and spectroscopically analysis

  13. Effect of Beverages on the Hardness and Tensile Bond Strength of Temporary Acrylic Soft Liners to Acrylic Resin Denture Base

    Safari A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Two potential problems commonly identified with a denture base incorporating a resilient liner are failure of the bond between acrylic resin and soft liner material, and loss of resiliency of the soft liner over time. Since patients may drink different beverages, it is important to evaluate their effects on physical properties of soft lining materials.Purpose: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different beverages on the hardness of two temporary acrylic-based soft lining materials and their bond strength to the denture base resin.Materials and Method: For the hardness test; a total of 80 rectangular specimens (40mm×10mm×3mm were fabricated from a heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate. Two commercially auto-polymerized acrylic resin-based resilient liners; Coe-Soft and Visco-gel were prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions and applied on the specimens. For the tensile test, 160 cylindrical specimens (30mm×10mm were prepared. The liners were added between specimens with a thickness of 3 mm. The specimens of both soft liners were divided into 4 groups (n=10 and immersed in distilled water as the control group, Coca-Cola, 8% and 50% ethanol. All groups were stored in separate containers at 37oC for 12 days. All beverages were changed daily. The hardness was determined using a Shore A durometer and tensile bond strength was determined in a ZwickRoell testing machine at a cross-head speed of 5mm/min. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA.Results: There was no significant interaction between the soft liners and the drinks for both hardness (p= 0.748 and bond strength (p= 0.902. There were statistically signifi-cant differences between all drinks for both hardness (p< 0.001 and bond strength (p< 0.05.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it seems that drinking Coca-Cola and alcoholic beverages would not be potentially causing any problems for the temporary

  14. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  15. The study of synthesis and photocuring behaviors of organic silicon modified methylacrylate and acrylate

    Wang, Si-yuan; Zou, Ying-quan

    2012-03-01

    Ten different silicon-containing methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized by the substitution reaction of chlorosilanes or chlorosiloxanes with 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate or 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate. Using triethylamine as the catalytic agent, tetrahydrofuran as the solvent, pure products can be obtained with one-step reaction after reduced pressure distillation or column chromatography via controlling raw ratio and reaction time. In this study, one to four silicon contained methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized with simple methd and high yield. Monomers' properties were characterized through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and their viscosity and thermostability were also characterized. The polymers' have good performance on UV-curing and low surface energy.

  16. The transverse strength of acrylic resin after Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract solution immersion

    Devi Rianti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratoric experimental study was conducted on the transverse strength of acrylic resin after Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract solution immersion. The aim of this study is to know the difference of acrylic resin transverse strengths caused by immersion time variations in a concentrate solution. The study was carried out on unpolished acrylic resin plates with 65 × 10 × 2,5 mm dimension; solution with 15% Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract, and 30, 60, 90 days immersion times to measure the transverse strength and sterilized aquadest was used as control. Acrylic resin plates transverse strength was measured using Autograph AG-10 TE. The data was analyzed using One-Way Anova and LSD with 5% degree of significance. The result showed that longer immersion time will decrease the transverse strength of the acrylic resin plates. After 90 days immersion time, the transverse strength decrease is still above the recommended standard transverse strength.

  17. Desorption of biocides from renders modified with acrylate and silicone.

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Bollmann, Ulla E; Wangler, Timothy P; Bester, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Biocides are used in the building industry to prevent algal, bacterial and fungal growth on polymericrenders and thus to protect buildings. However, these biocides are leached into the environment. To better understand this leaching, the sorption/desorption of biocides in polymeric renders was assessed. In this study the desorption constants of cybutryn, carbendazim, iodocarb, isoproturon, diuron, dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone and tebuconazole towards acrylate and silicone based renders were assessed at different pH values. At pH 9.5 (porewater) the constants for an acrylate based render varied between 8 (isoproturon) and 9634 (iodocarb) and 3750 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone), respectively. The values changed drastically with pH value. The results for the silicone based renders were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high sorption constants for one polymer also had high values for the other polymer. Comparison of the octanol water partitioning constants (Kow) with the render/water partitioning constants (Kd) revealed similarities, but no strong correlation. Adding higher amounts of polymer to the render material changed the equilibria for dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone, tebuconazole, cybutryn, carbendazim but not for isoproturon and diuron. PMID:24059976

  18. Biocompatibility of alendronate-loaded acrylic cement for vertebroplasty

    T Calvo-Fernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a biological evaluation of a non-resorbable acrylic cement loaded with alendronate for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The cement formulation was based on polymethyl methacrylate and acrylic monomers; one of these had covalently linked vitamin E residues. The same cement in the absence of alendronate was used as a control. The setting of the charged cement presented a maximum polymerization temperature of 44ºC, a setting time of 24 min, a residual monomer content lower than 3 wt.%, a compressive strength of 99±10 MPa and an elastic modulus of 1.2±0.2 GPa. Cytotoxicity studies using human osteoblast cultures revealed that the leachable substances of the alendronate loaded cement collected between 1 and 7 days decreased cell viability to values lower than 80%. However, morphological changes and cellular damage in cells produced by the extracts decreased with the leak time. Cell adhesion and growth on charged cement was significantly lower than on the control. Implantation of the cement paste in the intra-femoral cavity of rabbits showed that initially the osteogenic activity was evident for the cement charged with alendronate, and the osteosynthesis process took place mainly in the trabeculae and was manifested by the presence of a non-mineralised osseous spicule. The interface between material and adjacent bone tissue was initially characterized by a variable fibrous response that in many cases it appeared reduced to thin connective tissue after a 24-week-period.

  19. Water structure and blood compatibility of poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate).

    Mochizuki, Akira; Hatakeyama, Tatsuko; Tomono, Yuka; Tanaka, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), which has excellent blood compatibility, contains a large amount of freezing bound water. In order to confirm the role of freezing bound water in determining blood compatibility, poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA) was newly synthesized and the thermal properties of water in PTHFA were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as freezing bound water was observed as cold crystallization in DSC heating curves. In addition, the blood compatibility of PTHFA, including activations of platelets, the coagulation system and the complement system, was investigated. The temperature of cold crystallization of water in PTHFA was higher than that of water in PMEA; moreover, the amount of freezing bound water in PTHFA was smaller than that in PMEA. The effect of freezing bound water on blood compatibility was investigated by comparing PTHFA, PMEA, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(2-methoxyethyl methacrylate) (PMEMA). The latter two samples showed no cold crystallization. Activations of platelets, the coagulation system and the complement system were enhanced in the following order: PMEA < PHEMA < PTHFA < PMEMA, PMEA < PMEMA < PTHFA < PHEMA and PMEA < PTHFA < PMEMA < PHEMA, respectively. The above results were reasonably explained by the amount and/or the stability of freezing bound water. PMID:19323878

  20. Characteristics and mechanisms of acrylate polymer damage to maize seedlings.

    Chen, Xian; Mao, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qin; Liao, Zongwen; He, Zhenli

    2016-07-01

    Superabsorbent acrylate polymers (SAPs) have been widely used to maintain soil moisture in agricultural management, but they may cause damage to plants, and the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, seed germination, soil pot culture, hydroponic experiments, and SAPs degradation were conducted to investigate damage characteristics and mechanisms associated with SAPs application. The Results showed that SAPs inhibited maize growth and altered root morphology (irregular and loose arrangement of cells and breakage of cortex parenchyma), and the inhibitory effects were enhanced at higher SAPs rates. After 1h SAP hydrogels treatment, root malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) content were significantly decreased. Hydroponics experiment indicated that root and shoot growth was inhibited at 2.5mgL(-1) acrylic acid (AA), and the inhibition was enhanced with increasing AA rates. This effect was exacerbated by the presence of Na(+) at a high concentration in the hydrogels. Release and degradation of AA were enhanced at higher soil moisture levels. A complete degradation of AA occurred between 15 and 20 days after incubation (DAI), but it took longer for Na(+) concentration to decrease to a safe level. These results indicate that high concentration of both AA and Na(+) present in the SAPs inhibits plant growth. The finding of this study may provide a guideline for appropriate application of SAPs in agriculture. PMID:27057990

  1. Bond strength of acrylic teeth to denture base resin after various surface conditioning methods before and after thermocycling

    Saavedra, Guilherme; Valandro, Luz Felipe; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa; Amaral, Regina; Oezcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco A.; Kimpara, Estevao T.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the durability of adhesion between acrylic teeth and denture base acrylic resin. The base surfaces of 24 acrylic teeth were flatted and submitted to 4 surface treatment methods: SM1 (control): No SM; SM2: application of a methyl methacrylate-based bonding agent (Vitacol)

  2. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of saccharide acrylate monomers from nonedible biomass.

    Kloosterman, Wouter M J; Brouwer, Sander G M; Loos, Katja

    2014-08-01

    Various cellulase preparations were found to catalyze the transglycosidation between cotton linters and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The conversion and enzyme activity were found to be optimal in reaction mixtures that contained 5 vol % of the acrylate. The structures of the products were revealed by using TLC and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction resulted in two products. The minor product originated from transglycosidation to hemicellulose and was found to be 2-(β-xylosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. The major product was identified as 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate and the yield of the product was 5 wt % based on the amount of consumed cellulose. Glycosidation products with oligosaccharide moieties could not be detected in the reaction mixture. This result can be explained by the hydrolytic activities of the used cellulase preparation. Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei was found to possess, in addition to endoglucanase activity, cellobiosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Five other cellulase preparations from different origins were tested as well for catalysis of oligosaccharide acrylate synthesis. For most cellulase preparations the major transglycosidation product appeared to be 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. Nevertheless, the endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum was found to catalyze the synthesis of 2-(β-cellobiosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. Unlike the other cellulase preparations, endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from T. longibrachiatum showed no detectable β-glucosidase activity and therefore oligosaccharide acrylate monomers were not further hydrolyzed into the monosaccharide acrylate 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. PMID:24866837

  3. Synthesis of Highly Porous Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Asymmetric Membranes

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation was applied to polysulfone-based linear block copolymers, reaching mechanical stability much higher than other block copolymers membranes used in this method, which were mainly based on polystyrene blocks. Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k) with a low polydispersity of 1.4 was synthesized by combining step-growth condensation and RAFT polymerization. Various advanced electron microscopies revealed that PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k assembles into worm-like cylindrical micelles in DMAc and adopts a “flower-like” arrangement with the PSU central block forming the shell. Computational modeling described the mechanism of micelle formation and morphological transition. Asymmetric nanostructured membranes were obtained with a highly porous interconnected skin layer and a sublayer with finger-like macrovoids. Ultrafiltration tests confirmed a water permeance of 555 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 with molecular weight cut-off of 28 kg/mol. PtBA segments on the membrane surface were then hydrolyzed and complexed with metals, leading to cross-linking and enhancement of antibacterial capability.

  4. Gel polymer electrolytes based on nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate for lithium batteries

    Kim, Dul-Sun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jang Chang [Department of Textile Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Nam-gu Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Youk, Ji Ho, E-mail: youk@inha.ac.kr [Department of Textile Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Nam-gu Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Manuel, James [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate was used as a crosslinking agent of fibers. • The GPE based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at weight ratios of 1/0.5 and 1/1. TMPTA is used to achieve crosslinking of fibers thereby improving mechanical strength. The average fiber diameters increased with increasing TMPTA concentration and the mechanical strength was also improved due to the enhanced crosslinking of fibers. GPEs based on electrospun membranes were prepared by soaking them in a liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1, v/v). The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate (weight ratio; 1/1 and 1/0.5) were investigated. Ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN–acrylate was the highest for PAN/acrylate (1/0.5) due to the proper swelling of fibers and good affinity with liquid electrolyte. Both GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate membranes show good oxidation stability, >5.0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Cells with GPEs based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed remarkable cycle performance with high initial discharge capacity and low capacity fading.

  5. Thermal Stability of Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) Copolymers

    HAN Na; ZHANG Xing-xiang; WANG Xue-chen

    2008-01-01

    Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) copolymer was synthesized by water depositing polymerization and has a typical feed ratio of 85/15. And then 1 - 3 wt% lauryl alcohol maleic anhydride (LAM) was adopted as stabilizer to mix with the acrylonitrile based copolymer. The mixtures were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR ), Gel Permeation Chromatography ( GPC ), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), optic microscope and Ubbelohde viscosimetryr etc. The melting point (Tm) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the 85/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with LAM all decrease with the increase of stabilizer content. The lowest Tg and Tm were 116.1 ℃ and 209. 1℃ respectively at the heating rate of 100℃/min when the content of LAM is 2 wt%. The 85°/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with 1 - 3 w t% LAM possess good thermal stability up to 30 min at 220 ℃.

  6. Swelling Behaviors of Polyaniline-Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogels

    ZHANG You-wei; ZHAO Jiong-xin; LI Xiao-feng; TAO Yong; WU Cheng-xun

    2005-01-01

    Using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) aqueous solution, NaOH aqueous solution, aniline(An) and ammonim persulfate(APS), PAn-PAA hydrogels with a semi-interpenetrating structure connected by physical interlocks, chemical ion bonds and hydrogen bonds wcre prepared. The swelling properties of the hydrogels in solutions of different pH values(adjusted by adding NaOH or HCl) were studied. All the hydrogels prepared have similar swelling curves (the curves of equilibrium swelling ratio vs. pH value) and reach their maximum swelling at pH of 8 - 10. The maximum swelling ratio of the hydrogels is dependent on composition, including molecular weight of PAA, polymer content of the hydrogel,and molar ratios of AA to An, APS to An, and NaOH to AA.And the compositional dependence of the swelling capacity of PAn-PAA hydrogels was also studied.

  7. Surface cross-linked humic acid - polysodium acrylate superabsorbent

    Chu, M.; Zhu, S.; Li, H.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, X. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2005-03-01

    A novel composite super-absorbent of humic acid-polysodium acrylate was invented by surface cross-linking reaction of lignite humic acid and poly. Humic acid was abstracted from leonardite and poly was synthesized by solution polymerization. Water absorbing mechanism of composite superabsorbent was explored based on FTIR and SEM. The effect of surface cross-linking reaction conditions, such as the ratio of methanol to water, cross-linking agent concentration, and the amount of humic acid on water absorbing were investigated. Experiments show that the water absorbency of superabsorbent can be greatly improved by humic acid. When the mass fraction of humic acid is 10%, the ratio of cross-linking agent to PSA is 0.2%, and the ratio of methanol to water is 1.8, the water absorbency is the best: 750 g/g for deionied water and 260 g/g for running. water. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of acrylic dielectric elastomer

    Sheng, Junjie; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; Chang, Longfei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2013-02-15

    The dielectric constant is an essential electrical parameter to the achievable voltage-induced deformation of the dielectric elastomer. This paper primarily focuses on the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant (within the range of 173 K to 373 K) for the most widely used acrylic dielectric elastomer (VHB 4910). First the dielectric constant was investigated experimentally with the broadband dielectric spectrometer (BDS). Results showed that the dielectric constant first increased with temperature up to a peak value and then dropped to a relative small value. Then by analyzing the fitted curves, the Cole-Cole dispersion equation was found better to characterize the rising process before the peak values than the Debye dispersion equation, while the decrease process afterward can be well described by the simple Debye model. Finally, a mathematical model of dielectric constant of VHB 4910 was obtained from the fitted results which can be used to further probe the electromechanical stability of the dielectric elastomers. (orig.)

  9. New initiation system for polymerization of acryl acid

    LI Hai-pu; ZHONG Hong; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan

    2005-01-01

    The redox initiation system for polyacrylate sodium of high molecular mass was designed and its effect with varying component dosage on the degree of polymerization was investigated. The results show that the proper type and amount of inorganic salt, as well as amine initiator, are conductive to the increase of degree of polymerization. The fine ingredient of the initiation system is as follows:the dosages of amine, persulphate and inorganic salt are 0.75%, 0.10% and 1.00% by mass based on acryl acid respectively, the molar ratio of sulphite to the persulphate is 1:1. Under such conditions the degree of polyacrylate can reach 7.43×107 with a acceptable polymerization time for industrial production.

  10. Laboratory analyses of two explanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

    Yunhai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two three-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs were explanted from two patients at 7 and 9 years, respectively, after implantation, because of poor fundus visualisation and/or a clinically significant decrease in visual acuity related to their opacified IOLs. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for the first time to observe the explanted IOLs. The clinical aspect seemed to correspond to the phenomenon of surface light scattering, while laboratory analyses showed dense glistenings in the central layer of the IOL optic, which had no change next to the surface. Further studies on these phenomena are needed.

  11. Microemulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate irradiated by γ-ray

    Radiation polymerization of butyl acrylate was carried out in microemulsion with high monomer and low emulsifier content. The rate of polymerization shows three intervals--the increasing period, the plateau period and the decreasing period for most cases. The length of nucleation period is independent of monomer content and temperature, and becomes longer with the increase of dose rate and the decrease of emulsifier content. The length of Rp plateau region increases with the increase of monomer and emulsifier content and with the decrease of dose rate. By studying the kinetics, the following formula were derived: Rp ∝ [M]0.93D1.27 [E]-1.07; Mn ∝ [M]0.65D0.28 [E]-1.66. (author)

  12. Radiation curable coatings from palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer

    Radiation (ultra-violet, UV) curable coatings were prepared by using palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer (PEPP-1) in combination with different reactive diluents in the presence of photoinitiator Irgacure 184 (Irg184). The effects of viscosity of coating materials, radiation dose and curing behavior were investigated. The UV cured polymeric films properties such as pendulum hardness, wettability (contact angle), gel ,content, swelling character, tensile strength, elongation at break, and deformation stability were then determined. The optimum formulations were also coated on wood substrates after which the gloss and hardness of the cured film on the wood substrate were measured. Some formulations showed promising coatings properties and has a good potential application for the wood coating industry. (Author)

  13. Polymerisation by acrylamide and acrylic acid inverse suspension

    Sergio Alejandro LLoreda Blanco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes polymerisation by inverse suspension of acrylamide monomers and acrylic acid for forming homopolymers or copolymers This type of polymersitaion's advantages are described and reasons given for why it should be studied. The article stresses the importance of these types of monomer for obtaining materials presenting great affinity for water, such as super-absorbents and controlled liberation mechanism. Important aspects are presented such as type of initiation, monomer composition and continuous phase composition; parameters are described offering an important basis for formulating a system leading to successfully obtaining the desired materials' most relevant characteristics such as particle distribution and size polymerisation kinetics, conversion and water absorption capacity respecting the system's modifiable parameters. The foregoing is important since the product can be modified, bestowing propierties on it which are suitable for its use.

  14. Study on preirradiation grafting of acrylic acid to cotton cellulose

    Grafting copolymerization of acrylic acid to cotton cellulose by using pre-irradiating method was investigated. At lower concentration of monomer (10%) the relationship between grafting yield and total dose, dose rate, reaction time and reaction temperature was measured. It was found that in the temperature range of 294 K to 323 K the grafting yield decreased with increasing of grafting reaction temperature. The grafting yields as a function of above reaction conditions were given by the expression Gr% = 5.9 x 10-10De20.27/RT(1-e-0.313te-6.87/RT), where R 8.314 x 10-3kj·K-1·mol-1, D = irradiation dose, T = reaction temperature, and t = reaction time

  15. Solubility of dense CO2 in two biocompatible acrylate copolymers

    A. R. C. Duarte

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible polymers and copolymers are frequently being used as part of controlled delivery systems. These systems can be prepared using a "clean and environment friendly" technology like supercritical fluids. One great advantage of this process is that compressed carbon dioxide has excellent plasticizing properties and can swell most biocompatible polymeric matrixes, thus promoting drug impregnation processes. Mass sorption of two acrylate biocompatible copolymers contact with supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Equilibrium solubility of dense carbon dioxide in poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylhexylacrylate and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylhexylacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate was studied by a static method at 10.0 MPa and 313 K. The reticulated copolymer had Fickean behavior and its diffusion coefficient was calculated, under operating conditions.

  16. Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials

    Bijan Heidari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a com- mon clinical occurrence, which often occurs in the midline of denture base.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold cure and heat cure acrylic resins, rein- forced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair.Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were included in the control group, and 80 were allocated to 8 experi- mental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was di- vided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were then subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated.Results: The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement.Conclusion: Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fi- bers increases the flexural strength of denture base.

  17. Mutagenicity assessment of acrylate and methacrylate compounds and implications for regulatory toxicology requirements.

    Johannsen, F R; Vogt, Barbara; Waite, Maureen; Deskin, Randy

    2008-04-01

    Esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, more commonly known as acrylates and methacrylates, respectively, are key raw materials in the coatings and printing industry, with several of its chemical class used in food packaging. The results of over 200 short-term in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies available in the open literature have been evaluated. Despite differences in acrylate or methacrylate functionality or in the number of functional groups, a consistent pattern of test response was seen in a typical regulatory battery of mutagenicity tests. No evidence of point mutations was observed when acrylic acid or over 60 acrylates and methacrylates were investigated in Salmonella bacterial tests or in hprt mutation tests mammalian cells, and no evidence of a mutagenic effect was seen when tested in whole animal clastogenicity and/or aneuploidy (chromosomal aberration/micronucleus) studies. Consistent with the in vivo testing results, acrylic acid exhibited no evidence of carcinogenicity in chronic rodent cancer bioassays. In contrast, acrylic acid and the entire acrylate and methacrylate chemical class produced a consistently positive response when tested in the mouse lymphoma assay and/or other in vitro mammalian cell assays designed to detect clastogenicity. The biological relevance of this in vitro response is questioned based on the non-concordance of in vitro results with those of in vivo studies addressing the same mutagenic endpoint (clastogenicity). Thus, in short-term mutagenicity tests, the acrylates and methacrylates behave as a single chemical category, and genotoxicity behavior of a similar chemical can be predicted with confidence by inclusion within this chemical class, thus avoiding unnecessary testing. PMID:18346829

  18. Optimization of cellulose acrylate and grafted 4-vinylpyridine and 1-vinylimidazole synthesis

    Bojanić Vaso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of cellulose acrylate synthesis by reaction with sodium cellulosate and acryloyl chloride was carried out. Optimal conditions for conducting the synthesis reaction of cellulose acrylate were as follows: the molar ratio of cellulose/potassium-t-butoxide/acryloyl chloride was 1:3:10 and the optimal reaction time was 10 h. On the basis of elemental analysis with optimal conditions for conducting the reaction of cellulose acrylate, the percentage of substitution of glucose units in cellulose Y = 80.7%, and the degree of substitution of cellulose acrylate DS = 2.4 was determined. The grafting reaction of acrylate vinyl monomers onto cellulose in acetonitrile with initiator azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN in a nitrogen atmosphere was performed, by mixing for 5 h at acetonitrile boiling temperature. Radical copolymerization of synthesized cellulose acrylate and 4-vinylpyridine, 1-vinylimidazole, 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and 9-vinylcarbazole, cellulose-poly-4-vinylpyridine (Cell-PVP, cellulose-poly-1- vinylimidazole (Cell-PVIm and cellulose-poly-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (Cell-P1V2P and cellulose-poly-9-vinylcarbazole (Cell-P9VK were synthesized. Acrylate cellulose and cellulose grafted copolymers were confirmed by IR spectroscopy, based on elementary analysis and the characteristics of grafted copolymers of cellulose were determined. The mass share of grafted copolymers, X, the relationship of derivative parts/cellulose vinyl group, Z, and the degree of grafting copolymers of cellulose (mass% were determined. In reaction of methyl iodide and cellulose-poly-4-vinylpyridine (Cell-PVP the cellulose-1-methyl-poly-4-vinylpyridine iodide (Cell-1-Me-PVPJ was synthesized. Cellulose acrylate and grafted copolymers were obtained with better thermal, electrochemical and ion-emulation properties for bonding of noble metals Au, Pt, Pd from water solutions. The synthesis optimization of cellulose acrylate was applied as a model for the synthesis of grafted

  19. Flexural strength of acrylic resins polymerized by different cycles

    Débora Barros Barbosa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of studies addressing the effect of microwave polymerization on the properties of acrylic resin, this method has received limited clinical acceptance. This study evaluated the influence of microwave polymerization on the flexural strength of a denture base resin. A conventional heat-polymerized (Clássico, a microwave-polymerized (Onda-Cryl and a autopolymerizing acrylic (Jet resins were used. Five groups were established, according to polymerization cycles: A, B and C (Onda-Cryl, short cycle - 500W/3 min, long - 90W/13 min + 500W/90 sec, and manufacturing microwave cycle - 320W/3 min + 0W/3 min + 720W/3 min; T (Clássico, water bath cycle - 74ºC/9h and Q (Jet, press chamber cycle - 50ºC/15 min at 2 bar. Ten specimens (65 x 10 x 3.3mm were prepared for each cycle. The flexural strength of the five groups was measured using a three-point bending test at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min. Flexural strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey's test was performed to identify the groups that were significantly different at 5% level. The microwave-polymerized groups showed the highest means (p<0.05 for flexural strength (MPa (A = 106.97 ± 5.31; B = 107.57 ± 3.99; C = 109.63 ± 5.19, and there were no significant differences among them. The heat-polymerized group (T showed the lowest flexural strength means (84.40 ± 1.68, and differ significantly from all groups. The specimens of a microwavable denture base resin could be polymerized by different microwave cycles without risk of decreasing the flexural strength.

  20. Synthesis and Properties of Poly (n-Octyl Acrylate) with Uniform Polystyrene Grafts

    2007-01-01

    Poly (n-octyl acrylate) with uniform polystyrene grafts (POA-g-PS) was obtained by radical copolymerization of n-octyl acrylate (OA) with PS macromer, in solution. The reactivity ratio and effects of copolymerization conditions on grafting efficiency were studied. The crude products were purified by extraction with cyclohexane and n-butanol successively. POA-g-PS exhibited a very good compatibilizing effect on the acrylic rubber/polystyrene blends. 2%-3% of the graft copolymer was enough for enhancing the tensile strength of the blends. DSC and SEM demonstrated the enhancement of compatibility in the presence of the graft copolymer.

  1. Blends of dissolved cellulose with acrylic acid copolymers or microfibrillated cellulose

    Saarikoski, Eve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop dissolved cellulose (dissolved in NaOH/ZnO) based blends with acrylic acid copolymers (poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PE-co-AA) or poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PAA-co-AA)) or microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in the way they could be used in injection molding or for film/coating applications. This thesis summarizes the research reported in five publications supported by some unpublished results. Rheological studies done in the contexts of this work...

  2. Electron beam curable branched chain polyurethane acrylates for magnetic media coatings

    Electron beam curable binder resins have been studied to realize the high quality magnetic coatings. It was supposed that resins with a higher crosslink density could lead to magnetic coatings with higher abrasion resistance. Branched chain polyurethane acrylates show a higher degree of cure by irradiation with an electron beam in comparison with linear polyurethane acrylates. This paper describes the potential wear resistance between properties of magnetic coatings and the physical properties of the cured unpigmented branched chain polyurethane acrylates that were used as the binder resins. (author)

  3. Assessment of the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins for artificial eyes

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes; Aline Portugal; Letícia Rocha Veloso; Marcelo Coelho Goiato; Daniela Micheline dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic eyes are artificial substitutes for the eyeball, made of heat-curing acrylic resin, serving to improve the esthetic appearance of the mutilated patient and his/her inclusion in society. The aim of this study was to assess the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins used for manufacturing prosthetic eyes. Thirty-six specimens measuring 64 x 10 x 3.3 mm were obtained and divided into four groups: acrylic resin for artificial sclera N1 (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São ...

  4. CROSS-REACTION PATTERNS IN GUINEA-PIGS SENSITIZED TO ACRYLIC-MONOMERS

    Clemmensen, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cross-reaction patterns of selected acrylate and methacrylate esters were investigated using the guinea pig maximization test. Methacrylates were less potent sensitizers than acrylates. Cross-sensitization was found between (meth)acrylates with closely related core structures, most extensively...... between hydroxyethyl and hydroxypropyl congeners. The importance of considering not only the functional group but also the core structure when assessing potential interactions was emphasized as butanedioldiglycidylether, hexamethylenediisocyanate and hexanedioldiacrylate - all with linear 6-atom cores...... and different functional groups - cross-reacted....

  5. Synthesis and properties of photo-curable silicone (meth)acrylate oligomers

    Photo-curable resins are widely used in various applications such as coatings, adhesives and inks, due to their high efficiencies, environmental friendly technology and saving of energy. Silicone (meth) acrylate oligomers offer an excellent slip property because of their low surface tension. In addition, they can enhance other properties like chemical resistance and heat resistance. In this research, photo-curable silicone (meth) acrylate oligomers are prepared from modified PDMS (polydimethyl siloxane) polyols, diisocyanate, carboxylic acid and hydroxyl (meth) acrylate to evaluate basic property of these oligomers. (Author)

  6. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA), oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems. (author)

  7. Regiospecific Addition of Uracil to Acrylates Catalyzed by Alkaline Protease from Bacillus subtilis

    Ying CAI; Jian Yi WU; Na WANG; Xiao Feng SUN; Xian Fu LIN

    2004-01-01

    Michael addition reactions of uracil to acrylates were catalyzed by an alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis in dimethyl sulfoxide at 55 ℃ for 72 h. The adducts were determined by TLC, IR and 1H NMR.

  8. Effect of silver nanoparticles incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material

    Mahross, Hamada Zaki; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 specimens (60 × 10 × 2 mm) of heat cured acrylic resin were constructed and divided into four groups (five for each), according to the concentration of AgNPs (1%, 2%, and 5% vol.) which incorporated into the liquid of acrylic resin material and one group without additives (control group). The dynamic viscoelastic test for the test specimens was performed using the computerized material testing system. The resulting deflection curves were analyzed by material testing software NEXYGEN MT. Results: The 5% nanoparticles of silver (NAg) had significantly highest mean storage modulus E’ and loss tangent Tan δ values followed by 2% NAg (P 0.05). Conclusion: The AgNPs incorporation within the acrylic denture base material can improve its viscoelastic properties. PMID:26038651

  9. CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF ACRYLATE ASMMETRIC Dd(Ⅱ)—CHELATING RESINS CONTAINING AMINO ACID LIGANDS

    Wangying; WangHongzuo; 等

    1995-01-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of palladium chelating resins containing chiral amino acid ligands based on lower crosslinked poly(chloroethyl acrylate) and some effects on the rate of hydrogenation were studied.

  10. Effect of microwave cured acrylic resin on candidal growth in complete denture

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of heat-cured acrylic resin denture base and microwave-cured acrylic resin denture base on candidal growth . Seven completely edentulous male patients with on history of denture wearing participated in this study. all the selected patients were re-habilitated by mucosa supported complete dentures .The dentures were constructed from conventional heat-cured acrylic resin denture base following monoplane concept of occlusion. Before dismissing the patients and one month after denture insertion, salivary samples were collected according to oral rinse technique. one month resting period was allowed so as candidal count can reach to normal, then dentures were re based using microwave-cured acrylic denture base, before denture insertion and one month after denture insertion, salivary sample were collected before and one month following the same oral rinse technique.

  11. Surface coating of jeungjing wood (Paraserianthes Falcataria (L) NIELSEN) with acrylate resins by using radiation technique

    An experiment on surface coating with acrylate resins has been done by using radiation technique to improve the quality and added value of jeunjing wood (Paraserianthes Falcataria (L) NIELSEN). Doses used in Electron Beam (BE) radiation were 20, 40, and 60 kGy. Epoxy acrylate and ester acrylate resins were used as coating materials after added with tripropylene glycol diacylate (TPGDA) monomer, 2,2-dimethyl-2hidroxy acetophenone (Darocur 1173) photoinitiator and talc as base coat. Top coat consists of este acrylate Setacure AM 548, after added with titanium dioxide OK 412 as additive respectively. Titanium dioxides in the mixture were varied at the concentration level of 0, 2, 4 and 6 % by weight. Conventional coating as comparison was carried out by using varnish as coating material. The results showed that the properties of film on jeunjing wood by EB curing are better than that of conventional one. (authors)

  12. Synthesis of acrylic acid derivatives from carbon dioxide and ethylene mediated by molecular nickel complexes

    Lee, Sin Ying Tina

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at the synthesis of acrylic acid derivatives from ethylene and CO2 and well as the investigation of β-hydride elimination reaction of nickelalactones with methyl iodide and methyl triflate to form methyl acrylate. The oxidative coupling reaction of ethylene and CO2 on nickel center was ligand selective, and gave low yields of nickelalactone product at mild synthetic conditions. Key intermediates identified and characterized in the β-H elimination reaction provided rich insight...

  13. Ligand switch in photoinduced copper-mediated polymerization: synthesis of methacrylate-acrylate block copolymers

    CHUANG, Ya-Mi; Wenn, Benjamin; Gielen, Sam; Ethirajan, Anitha; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The use of photo-induced copper-mediated radical polymerization (photoCMP) to synthesize mixed acrylate/methacrylate (methyl acrylate, MA and methyl methacrylate, MMA) block copolymers is investigated. Reactions in which only one type of ligand (Me6TREN) is used lead to unsuccessful outcomes of polymerization due to a mismatch in reactivity of the two monomers. A ligand exchange to PMDETA for methacrylate is required to obtain good block structures. Due to insufficient re-initiation of polyac...

  14. Acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid in the presence of complex oxide catalysts

    Небесний, Роман Володимирович; Піх, Зорян Григорович; Шпирка, Ірина Іванівна; Івасів, Володимир Васильович; Небесна, Юлія Віталіївна; Фуч, Уляна Василівна

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to research process of single-stage acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid, namely: to develop effective catalysts for the process of methanol oxidation to formaldehyde with its further aldol condensation with acetic acid to acrylic acid, and to determine optimum conditions for the process. Complex oxide catalysts consisting of oxides of boron, phosphorus, tungsten and vanadium supported on the silica gel have been investigated. The effect of vanadium...

  15. The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin.

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat

    2015-12-01

    Monomer remaining in denture base acrylic can be a major problem because it may cause adverse effects on oral tissue and on the properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various ultrasonic cleaner frequencies on the amount of residual monomer in acrylic resin after curing. Forty-two specimens each of Meliodent heat-polymerized acrylic resin (M) and Unifast Trad Ivory auto-polymerized acrylic resin (U) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions and randomly divided into seven groups: Negative control (NC); Positive control (PC); and five ultrasonic treatment groups: 28 kHz (F1), 40 kHz (F2), 60 kHz (F3) (M=10 min, U=5 min), and 28 kHz followed by 60 kHz (F4: M=5 min per frequency, U=2.5 min per frequency, and F5: M=10 min followed by 5 min per frequency, U=5 min followed by 2.5 min per frequency). Residual monomer was determined by HPLC following ISO 20795-1. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. There was significantly less residual monomer in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin in all ultrasonic treatment groups and the PC group than that of the NC group (p0.05). The amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly lower than that of auto-polymerized acrylic resin. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at low frequencies is recommended to reduce the residual monomer in auto-polymerized acrylic resin and this method is more practical in a clinical situation than previously recommended methods because of reduced chairside time. PMID:26190059

  16. FT-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR MONITORING THE POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLIC ACID IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Jiang Yu; Hui-zhou Liu; Jia-yong Chen

    1999-01-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the polymerization of acrylic acid in aqueous solution. A simple method to avoid the noise in the background during the signal processing via Fourier transformation was used in this work. The effects of the amount of initiator used on the polymerization are studied. When the amount of the initiator in the polymerization was increased, both the rate and extent of polymerization of acrylic acid will be increased.

  17. Intra-oral electron therapy for carcinoma of the oral cavity using transparent acrylic tubes

    Intra-oral electron therapy for carcinoma of the oral cavity is a well-established treatment modality. However, the conventional metallic tubes were inconvenient to use because the irradiation field had to be confirmed by a side mirror. We devised transparent acrylic tubes which enable the positioning easy by confirming the tumor and irradiation field directry. Seven cases of various intra-oral carcinomas were treated with these new transparent acrylic tubes and good results were obtained. (author)

  18. Effect of nanosilver on thermal and mechanical properties of acrylic base complete dentures.

    Fahimeh Hamedi-Rad; Tahereh Ghaffari; Farzad Rezaii; Ali Ramazani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), widely used as a prosthodontic base, has many disadvantages, including a high thermal expansion coefficient and low thermal conductivity, a low elasticity coefficient, low impact strength and low resistance to fatigue. This study aimed to make an in vitro comparison of the thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and tensile strength of the acrylic base of complete dentures with those of acrylic reinforced with nanosilver. Materials and Methods: F...

  19. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin “Versacryl.” Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its ...

  20. Silver hollow optical fibers with acrylic silicone resin coating as buffer layer for sturdy structure

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    For sturdy silver hollow optical fibers, acrylic silicone resin is newly used as a buffer layer between an inner silver layer and a silica capillary. This acrylic silicone resin film prevents the glass surface from chemical and mechanical micro damages during silver plating process, which deteriorate mechanical strength of the hollow fibers. In addition, it keeps high adhesion of the silver layer with the glass surface. We discuss improvement of mechanical strength of the hollow glass fibers without deterioration of optical properties.

  1. Enzymatic direct synthesis of acrylic acid esters of mono- and disaccharides

    Tsukamoto, Junko; Heabel, Sophie; Valenca, Gustavo P.; Peter, Martin; Franco, Telma

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an increased need to replace materials derived from fossil sources by renewables. Sugar-cane derived carbohydrates are very abundant in Brazil and are the cheapest sugars available in the market, with more than 400 million tons of sugarcane processed in the year 2007. The objective of this work was to study the preparation of sugar acrylates from free sugars and free acrylic acid, thus avoiding the previous preparation of protected sugar derivatives, such as glycosides, o...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil for UV cured coatings

    Habib, Firdous; Bajpai, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the curing of biodegradable polymer films which were synthesized from soybean oil through the ultraviolet radiation and their stability against thermal degradation. In this study the epoxidation of soybean oil has been carried out via peracetic method. Further, an epoxy acrylate resin was synthesized from the epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) by using acrylic acid monomer. Triethylamine (TEA) and hydroquinone were used as a catalyst and inhibitor respectively. The acrylatio...

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    Ying Nie; Min-Feng Tang; Xiao-Dong Fan; Xiang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium p...

  4. EFFECTS OF PHENOL RESIN ADDITIVE ON DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ACRYLATE RUBBER AND ITS BLENDS

    Chi-fei Wu

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of a new blend system consisting of phenol resin and polar polymer (acrylate rubber and/or chlorinated polypropylene) were investigated. It was found that the addition of phenol resin to acrylate rubber and its incompatible blend can cause a remarkable improvement in the temperature dependence of the loss tangent. As a result, the present blends are very good damping materials.

  5. Synthesis and Properties of IPN Hydrogels Based on Konjac Glucomannan and Poly(acrylic acid)

    Bing LIU; Zhi Lan LIU; Ren Xi ZHUO

    2006-01-01

    Novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels based on konjac glucomannan (KGM) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared by polymerization and cross-linking of acrylic acid (AA) in the pre-fabricated KGM gel. The IPN gel was analyzed by FT-IR. The studies on the equilibrium swelling ratio of IPN hydrogels revealed their sensitive response to environmental pH value. The results of in vitro degradation showed that the IPN hydrogels retain the enzymatic degradation character of KGM.

  6. Effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin enzyme solutions on Candida biofilm formed on acrylic resin plates

    A Jafari Nodoushan; A Fallah Tafti; Emami, P; H Ashoori

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:     Background and Aim: Denture stomatitis results from colonization of oral Candida on the surface of denture acrylic base. To control this infection,Candida biofilm formation must be prevented using mechanical and chemical decontamination. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin solutions on removal of Candida Albicans plaques formed on acrylic resin plates.   Materials and Methods : In this experimental study Candida biofilm was ...

  7. Effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin enzyme solutions on Candida biofilm formed on acrylic resin plates

    AA jafari_nodoushan; FalahTafti A; Emmami P; Ashouri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Denture stomatitis results from colonization of oral Candida on the surface of denture acrylic base. To control this infection,Candida biofilm formation must be prevented using mechanical and chemical decontamination. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin solutions on removal of Candida Albicans plaques formed on acrylic resin plates. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study Candida biofilm was formed on 220 ...

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. METHODS: Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+, a glass specimen (C- and cell control (CC. Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM and incubated for 24 h at 37o C. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. CONCLUSION: Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material.

  9. Effect of acrylic polymers on physical parameters of spheronized pellets using an aqueous coating system

    Akhter Afsana; Kibria Golam

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop ambroxol hydrochloride sustained release pellets by an extrusion-spheronization technique and subsequent coating with acrylic polymers. Acrylic polymers like Eudragit RL 30 D, Eudragit RS 30 D and Eudragit NE 30 D were used as release retarding coating polymers. The release retarding capability of these polymers was also investigated. In each case, 10% polymer on dry basis was loaded. The flow property, surface roughness as well as the drug release ...

  10. Antifungal Effect of Zataria multiflora Essence on Experimentally Contaminated Acryl Resin Plates With Candida albicans

    Jafari, Abbas Ali; Falah Tafti, Abbas; Hoseiny, Seyed Mehdi; Kazemi, Abdolhossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adherence and colonization of Candida species particularly C. albicans on denture surfaces, forms a microbial biofilm, which may result denture stomatitis in complete denture users. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal effect Zataria multiflora essence in removing of Candida albicans biofilms on experimentally contaminated resin acryl plates. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, 160 resin acrylic plates (10 × 10 × 1 mm) w...

  11. Direct initiation of the photopolymerization of acrylates by short-wavelength excimer UV radiation

    Investigations on the direct initiation of the photopolymerization of acrylates by irradiation with short-wavelength monochromatic UV light using the 222 nm emission of a KrCl* excimer lamp are reported. The reactivity of various acrylates was studied by real-time FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Laser photolysis experiments and accompanying quantum chemical calculations were performed in order to propose a possible mechanism of initiation

  12. Rapid Solid-State Photopolymerization of Cyclic Acetal-Containing Acrylates

    Berchtold, Kathryn A.; Hacioğlu, Bilge; Nie, Jun; Cramer, Neil B.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    A cyclic acetal-functionalized urethane acrylate monomer is synthesized here and polymerized in a crystalline state without the polymerization kinetics being deleteriously affected by the solid state. Depending on the processing conditions, the cyclic acetal urethane acrylate monomer exists in either a metastable liquid state or a crystalline state at ambient conditions. Due to mobility restrictions, extremely poor polymerization kinetics and functional group conversions are typically achieve...

  13. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern

    Paula Maio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  15. Dimensional change of acrylic resin plate after the reinforcement of glass fibre

    Dwiyanti Feriana Ratwita

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fibre reinforcement of polymethyl methacrylate was investigated. Glass fibres have been studied as strengthening material added to polymethyl methacrylate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensional change of acrylic resin plate after glass fibre reinforcement. As a research subject is an acrylic resin plate of 65 × 10 × 2.5 mm with the number of 32 samples were distributed randomly in 4 experimental groups. Each group consisted of 8 samples and control groups. Group 1: acrylic resin plate and 1 sheet glass fibre; group 2: acrylic resin plate and 2 sheet glass fibre; group 3: acrylic resin plate and 3 sheet glass fibre. Control group which was not given treatment. Dimensional change was measured by profile projector. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there was significant difference in dimensional change (p < 0.005. The conclusion suggested that dimensional change of the acrylic resin plates after glass fibre reinforcement minimally done 1 sheet glass fibre.

  16. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment

    Nantais, Corina Michelle

    2014-05-01

    The liquid argon target of the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector is contained by an extremely radiopure acrylic vessel. Alpha decays from the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are a source of background. If a fraction of the alpha energy is observed, or if the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay is observed, the event will not be separated from a dark matter candidate event. In addition to the low level of inherent contamination from uranium and thorium, the Pb-210 from Rn-222 diffusion during manufacturing must be measured. The limit for the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel is 1.1 x 10-20 g/g Pb-210. By vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with an ultralow background HPGe well detector and a low background alpha spectrometer, the bulk acrylic was found to have an upper limit of 10 -19 g/g Pb-210. The design, installation, commissioning, operation, and analysis for various aspects of the acrylic assay are described.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of important heterocyclic acrylic copolymers

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The acrylate monomer, 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC has been synthesized by reacting 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, with acryloyl chloride in the presence of NaOH at 0–5°C. Copolymers of 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC with vinyl acetate (VAc were synthesized in DMF (dimethyl formamide solution at 70±1°C using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator with different monomer-to-monomer ratios in the feed. The copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy. The copolymer composition was evaluated by 1H-NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance and was further used to determine reactivity ratios. The monomer reactivity ratios for AMC (M1-VAc (M2 pair were determined by the application of conventional linearization methods such as Fineman-Ross (r1 = 0.6924; r2 = 0.6431, Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6776; r2 = 0.6374 and extended Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6657; r2 = 0.6256. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that thermal decomposition of the copolymers occurred in single stage in the temperature range of 263–458°C. The molecular weights of the polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography. The homo and copolymers were tested for their antimicrobial properties against selected microorganisms.

  18. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Jang, B.W.L. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Acrylates and methacrylates are among the most widely used chemical intermediates in the world. One of the key chemicals of this type is methyl methacrylate. Of the 4 billion pounds produced each year, roughly 85% is made using the acetone-cyanohydrin process, which requires handling of large quantities of hydrogen cyanide and produces ammonium sulfate wastes that pose an environmental disposal challenge. The U.S. Department of Energy and Eastman Chemical Company are sharing the cost of research to develop an alternative process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate from syngas. Research Triangle Institute is focusing on the synthesis and testing of active catalysts for the condensation reactions, and Bechtel is analyzing the costs to determine the competitiveness of several process alternatives. Results thus far show that the catalysts for the condensation of formaldehyde and the propionate are key to selectively producing the desired product, methacrylic acid, with a high yield. These condensation catalysts have both acid and base functions and the strength and distribution of these acid-base sites controls the product selectivity and yield.

  19. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules

  20. MODIFIED ULTRAVIOLET-CURABLE WATER DISPERSIBLE POLYURETHANE-ACRYLATES

    Jian-wen Yang; Zhi-ming Wang; Zhao-hua Zeng; Hui-ya Yuan; Yong-lie Chen

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of UV-curable self-emulsified polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) prepolymer, i.e., conventional, chain extended and grafted PUAs, were prepared. The relatively small particle size of the PUA dispersions indicates that the PUA prepolymers exhibit sufficient aqueous dispersibility. The PUA prepolymers can substantially lower the interfacial tension of water. Chain-extended PUA dispersions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior and thixotropy to a greater extent than do their conventional counterpart. The chain-extended and grafted PUA photocure to higher conversion than do the conventional PU equivalent. The results of DSC measurement suggest that there exists phase mixing between the hard and the soft segment phases for the PUAs based on PEG 400 that is the comparatively short soft segment in the prepolymer. For the PUA prepolvmers based on PEG having higher Mn values, chain-extending and grafting could impede the phase separation between the hard and the soft segment domains. The adhesion, impact strength and flexibility of the photocured films were tested.

  1. Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene films

    A study has been made for the preparation of membranes by the direct radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polypropylene (PP) films. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected under which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully. The effect of different solvents such as benzene, methanol/water mixture, isopropanol/water mixture, dimethyl formamide and distilled water on the swelling and grafting process of AAc onto PP films was investigated. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) and ferric chloride were used as inhibitors to minimize the homopolymerisation of AAc and the suitable concentration of the inhibitor was found to be 1.0 and 1.5 wt% for Mohr's salt and ferric chloride, respectively. Also, the effect of monomer concentration on the rate of grafting was investigated. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be 1.1 order. This grafting system proceeded by diffusion controlled process. Some selected properties of the grafted films such as swelling behaviour, gel determination, mechanical and electrical properties were also investigated. It was found that the grafted membranes possess good hydrophilic properties which may make them promising in some practical applications. (author)

  2. Characterization of Functionalized Acrylic acid /4- Vinyl Pyridine Graft Copolymers

    Properties and characterization of the membranes prepared by radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) or/ and 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) films were carried out. The FTIR spectra for the grafted membranes were studied to evaluate the structure change as a result of grafting. The swelling behaviour of the graft copolymer in methanol was studied. It was found that the grafting of AAc and/ or 4- VP onto LDPE and PP resulted in introducing good hydrophilic properties to such polymer substrates. The hydrophilic properties were directly proportional to the amount of functional groups. The mechanical properties (Young's modulus, elongation percent and tensile strength) of the grafted membranes also, have been investigated. As the grafting degree increases, the modulus also increases. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the membranes by chemical treatment enhances its mechanical properties. The thermal parameters of the grafted membranes such as δHm1. δHm2, and Trc have been also studied by using DSC

  3. Studies on thin film materials on acrylics for optical applications

    K Narasimha Rao

    2003-02-01

    Deposition of durable thin film coatings by vacuum evaporation on acrylic substrates for optical applications is a challenging job. Films crack upon deposition due to internal stresses and leads to performance degradation. In this investigation, we report the preparation and characterization of single and multi-layer films of TiO2, CeO2, Substance2 (E Merck, Germany), Al2O3, SiO2 and MgF2 by electron beam evaporation on both glass and PMMA substrates. Optical micrographs taken on single layer films deposited on PMMA substrates did not reveal any cracks. Cracks in films were observed on PMMA substrates when the substrate temperature exceeded 80°C. Antireflection coatings of 3 and 4 layers have been deposited and characterized. Antireflection coatings made on PMMA substrate using Substance2 (H2) and SiO2 combination showed very fine cracks when observed under microscope. Optical performance of the coatings has been explained with the help of optical micrographs.

  4. Radiation induced emulsion polymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate

    The effects of radiation dose rate concentration of emulsifier and monomer content on reaction rate of radiation induced 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) emulsion polymerization have been studied. Nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene alkyl ether peregolo 0 with HLB about 15 and polyoxyethylene nonylphenolether (emulsifier OP) with HLB 15, are used as the emulsifiers in this work. It has been found that the dependence of RP on I (RP proportional to In) is changed with the index n from 0.29 for M/W = 2/8 (monomer/water in volume) to 0.91 for 5/5, where [E] of peregolo 0 is 4%. It has also been found that RP proportional to [E]0.58 for peregolo 0 and RP proportional to [E]0.51 for emulsifier OP. In order to interpret the results sufficiently, both micellar nucleation and micro-droplet nucleation have been taken into account for the emulsion polymerization of the present system irradiated without agitation, especially for the case with a higher M/W value the later may be the main nucleation process

  5. Rat hindlimb joint immobilization with acrylic resin orthoses

    C.A. da Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to propose an orthosis of light material that would be functional for the animal and that would maintain only the ankle joint immobilized. Male Wistar rats (3 to 4 months old, 250-300 g were divided into 2 groups (N = 6: control and immobilized for 7 days. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg weight and the left hindlimb was immobilized with the orthoses composed of acrylic resin model, abdominal belt and lateral supports. The following analyses were performed: glycogen content of the soleus, extensor digitorum longus, white gastrocnemius, red gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles by the phenol sulfuric method, and the weight, fiber area and intramuscular connective tissue of the soleus by the planimetric system. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student t and Wilcoxon tests. Immobilization decreased glycogen in all muscles (P < 0.05; soleus: 31.6%, white gastrocnemius: 56.6%, red gastrocnemius: 39%, extensor digitorum longus: 41.7%, tibialis anterior: 45.2% in addition to reducing soleus weight by 34% (P < 0.05. Furthermore, immobilization promoted reduction of the fiber area (43%, P < 0.05 and increased the connective tissue (200%, P < 0.05. The orthosis model was efficient comparing with another alternative immobilization model, like plaster casts, in promoting skeletal muscle alterations, indicating that it could be used as a new model in other studies related to muscle disuse.

  6. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy, E-mail: yuriy.zakrevskyy@fh-koeln.de; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana, E-mail: santer@uni-potsdam.de [Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd [Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  7. Effect of cationic monomer on properties of fluorinated acrylate latex

    Li Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Cationic fluorinated acrylate latex was prepared via semi-continuous emulsion copolymerization of cationic monomer and other monomers.The resultant latex and its film were characterized with dynamic light scattering detector and contact angle meter.Influences of amount of DMDAAC on the properties of resultant latex and its film were investigated in detail.Results show that the particle size of the latex has the minimum value and the zeta potential of the latex is increased when the amount of DMDAAC is increased.In addition,the particle size of the latex is unimodal distribution when the amount of DMDAAC is not more than 2.5%.However,the particle size of the latex is bimodal distribution when the amount of DMDAAC is more than 2.5%.The contact angle is varied slightly with the increase of amount of DMDAAC when it is not more than 2.5%.Nevertheless,the contact angle is decreased with the increase of the amount of DMDAAC when it is more than 25%.

  8. Aqueous Tape Casting Process with Styrene-acrylic Latex Binder

    CUI Xue-min; OUYANG Shi-xi; HUANG Yong; YU Zhi-yong; ZHAO Shi-ke; WANG Chang-an

    2004-01-01

    A commercial styrene-acrylic latex binder has been investigated as a good binder for aqueous Al2O3 suspensions tape-casting process. This paper focuses on the forming film mechanism of latex binder, the rheological behaviors of the suspensions, physical properties of green tapes and drying process of aqueous slurries with latex binder system. The drying process of the alumina suspensions is shown to follow a two-stage mechanism (the first stage: evaporation controlled process; and the second stage: diffusion controlled process). During the drying stage of the suspensions, the compressive force presses the latex particles and makes them be distorted, which results in cross-linking structure in contacted latex particles of the solidified tapes.A smooth-surface and high-strength green tape was fabricated by aqueous tape casting with latex binder system. The results from the SEM images of the crossing section microstructure of green tapes show that the latex is a very suitable binder for aqueous tape casting.

  9. Preparation and Application of Crosslinked Poly(sodium acrylate)-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel Alloy

    Ayman M. Atta; Gamal A. El-Mahdy; Hamad A. Al-Lohedan; Ashraf M. El-Saeed

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new method to prepare poly(sodium acrylate) magnetite composite nanoparticles. Core/shell type magnetite nanocomposites were synthesized using sodium acrylate as monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker. Microemulsion polymerization was used for constructing core/shell structures with magnetite nanoparticles as core and poly(sodium acrylate) as shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanocomposite chemical ...

  10. The development of palm oil based acrylated resins and their applications

    Since Malaysia provides 57 and 75% of the world's production and exports of palm oil respectively, it is natural that we should be in the forefront of the research of widening the use of palm oil in oleochemicals industry, which are currently increase in popularity. The presence of unsaturation in the fatty acids of vegetable oils such as palm oil, technically paves the way for the production of acrylated resins. The more unsaturated the oil, the better it will perform in the radiation curing related applications. The first acrylated palm oil was synthesised in early 1989, through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the epoxidised palm oil products, EPOP, at 100-130 deg C in the presence of triethylamine, TEA, as a catalyst and 4-methoxyphenol as an inhibitor. The acrylated products namely epoxidised palm oil (olein) acrylate, EPOLA/EPOPA, was found curable when subjected to UV or EB irradiations. The EPOLA based formulated resins were satisfactorily been used as radiation curable coating materials on various substrates such as woods, bamboos, glass, ceramics and metals without any major defects at reasonably fast cure rate. Preliminary investigations also revealed their potentials as radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and printing inks. Isocyanation of EPOLAs at 50 to 90deg C with the presence of 1% inhibitor such as 4-methoxyphenol resulted in resins called Palm oil based urethane acrylates, POBUA. This newly synthesised resins possess certain advantages over EPOLA such as higher molecular weight, better crosslinking density, abrasion resistance, tensile properties and also pendulum hardness. Early results might suggest that POBUA is in a better position to be used as resins for radiation curing of surface coating applications

  11. Effect of repeated immersion solution cycles on the color stability of denture tooth acrylic resins

    Paulo Maurício Batista da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chemical solutions have been widely used for disinfection of dentures, but their effect on color stability of denture tooth acrylic resins after repeated procedures is still unclear. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether repeated cycles of chemical disinfectants affected the color stability of two denture tooth acrylic resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty disc-shaped specimens (40 mm x 3 mm were fabricated from two different brands (Artiplus and Trilux of denture tooth acrylic resin. The specimens from each brand (n=30 were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=5 and immersed in the following solutions: distilled water (control group and 5 disinfecting solutions (1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, and 4% chlorhexidine gluconate. Tooth color measurements were made by spectrophotometry. Before disinfection, the initial color of each tooth was recorded. Further color measurements were determined after subjecting the specimens to 7, 21, 30, 45, 60, and 90 immersion cycles in each tested solution. Color differences (ΔE* were determined using the CIE L*a*b* color system. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in ΔE* among the 5 disinfectants and water during the 90 cycles of immersion for both denture tooth acrylic resins. Distilled water promoted the greatest color change in both denture tooth acrylic resins, nevertheless none of tested disinfectants promoted ΔE* values higher than 1.0 on these acrylic materials during the 90 cycles of disinfection. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated immersion cycles in disinfecting solutions alter ΔE* values, however these values do not compromise the color of the tested denture tooth acrylic resins because they are imperceptible to the human eye.

  12. Effect of light-curing, pressure, oxygen inhibition, and heat on shear bond strength between bis-acryl provisional restoration and bis-acryl repair materials

    Shim, Ji-Suk; Lee, Jeong-Yol; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to discover a way to increase the bond strength between bis-acryl resins, using a comparison of the shear bond strengths attained from bis-acryl resins treated with light curing, pressure, oxygen inhibition, and heat. MATERIALS AND METHODS Self-cured bis-acryl resin was used as both a base material and as a repair material. Seventy specimens were distributed into seven groups according to treatment methods: pressure - stored in a pressure cooker at 0.2 Mpa; oxygen inhibition- applied an oxygen inhibitor around the repaired material,; heat treatment - performed heat treatment in a dry oven at 60℃, 100℃, or 140℃. The shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine, and the shear bond strength (MPa) was calculated from the peak load of failure. A comparison of the bond strength between the repaired specimens was conducted using one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=.05). RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in the shear bond strength between the control group and the light curing, pressure, and oxygen inhibition groups. However, the heat treatment groups showed statistically higher bond strengths than the groups treated without heat, and the groups treated at a higher temperature resulted in higher bond strengths. Statistically significant differences were seen between groups after different degrees of heat treatment, except in groups heated at 100℃ and 140℃. CONCLUSION Strong bonding can be achieved between a bis-acryl base and bis-acryl repair material after heat treatment. PMID:25722837

  13. Comparative evaluation of surface porosities in conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin cured by water bath and microwave energy with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy

    Sunint Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional heat cure poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA is the most commonly used denture base resin despite having some short comings. Lengthy polymerization time being one of them and in order to overcome this fact microwave curing method was recommended. Unavailability of specially designed microwavable acrylic resin made it unpopular. Therefore, in this study, conventional heat cure PMMA was polymerized by microwave energy. Aim and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the surface porosities in PMMA cured by conventional water bath and microwave energy and compare it with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Materials and Methods: Wax samples were obtained by pouring molten wax into a metal mold of 25 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm dimensions. These samples were divided into three groups namely C, CM, and M. Group C denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by water bath method, CM denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by microwave energy, M denotes specially designed microwavable acrylic denture base resin cured by microwave energy. After polymerization, each sample was scanned in three pre-marked areas for surface porosities using the optical microscope. As per the literature available, this instrument is being used for the first time to measure the porosity in acrylic resin. It is a reliable method of measuring area of surface pores. Portion of the sample being scanned is displayed on the computer and with the help of software area of each pore was measured and data were analyzed. Results: Conventional heat cure PMMA samples cured by microwave energy showed maximum porosities than the samples cured by conventional water bath method and microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Higher percentage of porosities was statistically significant, but well within the range to be clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, conventional heat cure PMMA can be cured by

  14. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for various biomedical applications

    The purpose of this work is to prepare a pH-sensitive hydrogel membrane of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. The hydrogel was made by esterification of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and acryloyl chloride (ACl). The esterified product was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and XRD. Swelling, hemocompatibility, water vapor transmission rate, contact angle and diffusional studies were also done. Biocompatibility of the membrane was established by quantification of cell growth of L929 cells and mice splenocytes. The FTIR spectrum of the hydrogel suggested the formation of ester bonds between the hydroxyl groups of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the carbonyl group of acryloyl chloride. Water vapor transmission rate, hemocompatibility, contact angle and swelling studies indicated that the hydrogel can be tried as a wound dressing material. The hydrogel showed pH-dependent swelling behavior arising from the acidic pendant group in the polymer network. The permeability of the hydrogel membrane produced, as shown by salicylic acid diffusion, increased in response to an increase in pH of the external medium. The hydrogel membrane was permeable to salicylic acid at pH 7.2 but not at pH 2.0 (0.01N HCl). The effect of changes of pH on the hydrogel's permeability was found to be reversible. The hydrogel membrane was found to be compatible with the L929 mice fibroblast cell line and mice splenocytes. The esterified product of SCMC and ACl swells on increase of pH indicating its possible use in a pH-sensitive drug delivery system and as a wound dressing material

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cashew gum/acrylic acid nanoparticles

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara - C. Postal 6021, 60.455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Paula, Haroldo C.B. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara - C. Postal 6021, 60.455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Paula, Regina C.M. de [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara - C. Postal 6021, 60.455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], E-mail: rpaula@dqoi.ufc.br

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the preparation of nanoparticles from cashew gum (CG) and acrylic acid (AA) by free radical polymerization using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator. The yields of the nanoparticles (NP) obtained by varying the R{sub CG/AA} from 0.5 to 2.0 were between 65 and 40%. The FT-IR spectra of the NP samples showed bands characteristic of the cashew gum spectrum and a new band at 1560 cm{sup -1} assigned to the stretching vibration of COO{sup -} groups of polyacrylic acid. On increasing the R{sub CG/AA} from 0.5 to 2.0 an increase in particle size was observed. The NP with an R{sub CG/AA} of 0.5 were smaller and had higher storage stability than the NP with an R{sub CG/AA} of 1.0 or 2.0. The increase in R{sub CG/AA} had no significant effect on the zeta potential of the NP in water. The NP were dried and re-dissolved in water to observe the effect of freeze-drying on particle size. For the NP with an R{sub CG/AA} of 0.5 an increase in particle size was observed from 71 to 402 nm, however, for the NP with an R{sub CG/AA} of 1.0 or 2.0 a small variation in particle diameter was noted. The behavior of the CG/AA NP was also found to be pH sensitive.

  16. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for various biomedical applications

    Pal, Kunal; Banthia, A. K.; Majumdar, D. K.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to prepare a pH-sensitive hydrogel membrane of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. The hydrogel was made by esterification of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and acryloyl chloride (ACl). The esterified product was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and XRD. Swelling, hemocompatibility, water vapor transmission rate, contact angle and diffusional studies were also done. Biocompatibility of the membrane was established by quantification of cell growth of L929 cells and mice splenocytes. The FTIR spectrum of the hydrogel suggested the formation of ester bonds between the hydroxyl groups of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the carbonyl group of acryloyl chloride. Water vapor transmission rate, hemocompatibility, contact angle and swelling studies indicated that the hydrogel can be tried as a wound dressing material. The hydrogel showed pH-dependent swelling behavior arising from the acidic pendant group in the polymer network. The permeability of the hydrogel membrane produced, as shown by salicylic acid diffusion, increased in response to an increase in pH of the external medium. The hydrogel membrane was permeable to salicylic acid at pH 7.2 but not at pH 2.0 (0.01N HCl). The effect of changes of pH on the hydrogel's permeability was found to be reversible. The hydrogel membrane was found to be compatible with the L929 mice fibroblast cell line and mice splenocytes. The esterified product of SCMC and ACl swells on increase of pH indicating its possible use in a pH-sensitive drug delivery system and as a wound dressing material.

  17. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for various biomedical applications

    Pal, Kunal [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Banthia, A K [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Majumdar, D K [Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Formerly College of Pharmacy, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, Sector III, New Delhi 110017 (India)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this work is to prepare a pH-sensitive hydrogel membrane of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. The hydrogel was made by esterification of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and acryloyl chloride (ACl). The esterified product was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and XRD. Swelling, hemocompatibility, water vapor transmission rate, contact angle and diffusional studies were also done. Biocompatibility of the membrane was established by quantification of cell growth of L929 cells and mice splenocytes. The FTIR spectrum of the hydrogel suggested the formation of ester bonds between the hydroxyl groups of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the carbonyl group of acryloyl chloride. Water vapor transmission rate, hemocompatibility, contact angle and swelling studies indicated that the hydrogel can be tried as a wound dressing material. The hydrogel showed pH-dependent swelling behavior arising from the acidic pendant group in the polymer network. The permeability of the hydrogel membrane produced, as shown by salicylic acid diffusion, increased in response to an increase in pH of the external medium. The hydrogel membrane was permeable to salicylic acid at pH 7.2 but not at pH 2.0 (0.01N HCl). The effect of changes of pH on the hydrogel's permeability was found to be reversible. The hydrogel membrane was found to be compatible with the L929 mice fibroblast cell line and mice splenocytes. The esterified product of SCMC and ACl swells on increase of pH indicating its possible use in a pH-sensitive drug delivery system and as a wound dressing material.

  18. Synthesis of Acrylate Microemulsion Modified by Alkoxy Silane

    SUN Zhijuan; ZHANG Xinya; HUANG Hong; FU Heqing; CHEN Huanqin

    2008-01-01

    An acrylate emulsion was modified by adding vinyltriisopropoxy silane (trade name C-1706).By adding the multiple emulsifier which consists of an anionic emulsifier, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS) and nonionic emulsifier, octyl phenolic divinyl oxide (OP-10), the acryiosilane microemulsiun was synthesized by seeded emulsion polymerization. The influential factors including the kind and the adding amount of emulsifiers and the monomer variety of alkoxy silane and the added methods which influence on the properties of the microemulsion were investigated. It is found that SDBS and OP-10 as multiple emulsifiers with mass ratio of hl and the adding amount of 2.5%-3.5% can act on co-effect for emulsion polymerization. The C-1706 possesses bulky isopropoxy substituent that can reduce hydrolysis reactivity during the polymerization process, So as to not only make the process smoothly but also advance the store stability of the emulsion.Moreover, the latter-addition mode of C-1706 can restrain its hydrolysis activity and polycondensation reaction during the polymerization process of the emulsion. The structure, the film cross section, the particle size and its distribution of the microemulsion were analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Ray Spectrum (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a particle size analyzer, respectively. The results show that the particle diameter of the modified microemulsion can be controlled between 50 and 70 nm and its film hardness is 7.3. Only adding 1.5% of C-1706 into the system of emulsion polymerization can apparently improve the weathering resistance of the microemulsion, which undergo degradation with chromatism(△E) is 1.6 after 3 600 hours of QUV-aging.

  19. Acrylic Rubber Latex in Ferrocement for Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams

    D. R. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In India, the early deterioration of reinforced concrete structures has become a big social problem in recent years. An essential research is needed for the development of effective repair materials and their execution systems comes to an important issue from the viewpoint of the longevity of infrastructures at present. Ferrocement laminates are introduced to enhance the overall performance of Reinforced Concrete (RC structures and these days the use of it is a promising technology for increasing the flexural strength of deficient reinforced concrete members. Approach: The repair system aims to provide quantitative repair enhancement as well as extending the life of deteriorated concrete members. This research in particular inspired the initiation of the present work which aimed to develop a material with unique properties and a very wide range of practical applications. The mechanical properties of mortar through difference in polymer content with Acrilic Latex by ferrocement among three different volume fractions of mesh reinforcement were studied. Following the encouraging progress made in the formulation and evaluation of the polymer modified repair mortar, tests were carried out involving the application of the reinforced repair material to the soffit of the reinforced concrete beams of 3 m length. Results: The levels of damage of the original beams prior to repair did not affect the ultimate load of the strengthened beams tested. The performance of the strengthened beams was compared to the control beams with respect to cracking, deflection and ultimate strength which confirm preeminent results. Conclusion: This accomplished the fact that acrylic rubber latex modified ferrocement is a doable alternative strengthening component for the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures. Further developments in these systems will create dramatic improvement into the field of rehabilitation of old privileged structures.

  20. Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid on a Polytetrafluoroethylene Panel by an Inductively Coupled Plasma

    Lan, Yan; You, Qingliang; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Suzhen; Ni, Guohua; Nagatsu, M.; Meng, Yuedong

    2011-02-01

    Surface modification on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) panel was performed with sequential nitrogen plasma treatments and surface-initiated polymerization. By introducing COO- groups to the surface of the PTFE panel through grafting polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), a transparent poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) membrane was achieved from acrylic acid solution. Grafting polymerization initiating from the active groups was achieved on the PTFE panel surface after the nitrogen plasma treatment. Utilizing the acrylic acid as monomers, with COO- groups as cross link sites to form reticulation structure, a transparent poly (acrylic acid) membrane with arborescent macromolecular structure was formed on the PTFE panel surface. Analysis methods, such as fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were utilized to characterize the structures of the macromolecule membrane on the PTFE panel surface. A contact angle measurement was performed to characterize the modified PTFE panels. The surface hydrophilicities of modified PTFE panels were significantly enhanced after the plasma treatment. It was shown that the grafting rate is related to the treating time and the power of plasma.

  1. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent. PMID:27610302

  2. Surface morphology changes of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases

    Glaucio Serra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The finishing and polishing phases are essential to improve smoothness and shining on the surface of acrylic resins used to make removable orthodontic appliances. A good surface finishing reduces roughness, which facilitates hygiene, prevents staining and provides greater comfort to the patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze the changes on surface morphology of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases. METHODS: Thirty discs (10 mm in diameter and 5 mm in length were made with acrylic resin and randomly divided into ten groups. The control group did not receive any treatment while the other groups received gradual finishing and polishing. The last group received the entire finishing and polishing procedures. Surface morphology was qualitatively analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively analyzed through a laser profilometer test. RESULTS: The acrylic resin surfaces without treatment showed bubbles which were not observed in the subsequent phases. Wearing out with multilaminated burs, finishing with wood sandpaper and finishing with water sandpaper resulted in surfaces with decreasing irregularities. The surfaces that were polished with pumice and with low abrasive liquids showed high superficial smoothness. CONCLUSION: Highly smooth acrylic resin surfaces can be obtained after mechanical finishing and polishing performed with multilaminated burs, wood sandpaper, water sandpaper, pumice and low abrasive liquids.

  3. Direct Synthesis of Hyperbranched Poly(acrylic acid-co-3-hydroxypropionate

    Efkan Çatıker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid-co-3-hydroxypropionate (PAcHP was synthesized by base-catalyzed hydrogen transfer polymerization of acrylic acid through one step. The copolymers obtained through solution and bulk polymerization were insoluble in water and all organic solvents tried. Structural and compositional characterizations of hyperbranched PAcHP were performed by using FTIR, solid 13C-NMR, TGA, and titrimetric analysis. Acrylate fraction of the hyperbranched PAcHP obtained via bulk polymerization was determined as 60–65% by comparing TGA curves of hyperbranched PAcHP and pure poly(3-hydroxy propionate (PHP. However, analytical titration of the same sample revealed that acrylic acid units were about 47.3%. The results obtained from TGA and analytical titration were used to evaluate the chemical structure of the copolymer. Hyperbranched PAcHP exhibited hydrogel properties. Swelling behavior of the copolymer was investigated at a wide pH range and ionic strength. The dynamic swelling profiles of hyperbranched PAcHP exhibited a fast swelling behavior in the first hour and achieved the equilibrium state within 12 h in PBS. Depending on the conditions, the copolymers exhibited swelling ratios up to 2100%. As the copolymer has easily biodegradable propionate and versatile functional acrylic acid units, it can be used as not only biodegradable material in medical applications but also raw material in personal care commodities.

  4. Effects of Chairside Polishing and Brushing on Surface Roughness of Acrylic Denture Base Resins

    Seung-Kyun Kim; Ju-Mi Park; Min-Ho Lee; Jae-Youn Jung; Shipu Li; Xinyu Wang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 3 chairside polishing kits and mechanical brushing on the surface roughness of 3 different acrylic denture base resins were compared. Acrylic denture base resins (auto-polymerizing, heat-polymerizing, injected heat-polymerizing resins) were examined after a tungsten carbide bur, and after chairside polishing using 3 polishing kits and pumice. The specimens were subjected to mechanical brushing using a wear tester to simulate 30 000 strokes of brushing. The surface roughness of the acrylic denture base resin specimens was measured using a contact pro-filometer. After the test, the random polished acrylic resins were evaluated by scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Acrylic denture base resins polished using the 3 types of polishing kits had a smoother surface than those finished with the tungsten carbide bur (p <0.05). The surface of the resin polished by a TC cutter exceeded the Ra of 0.2 μm (p<0.05). The auto-polymerizing resin showed a significantly higher surface roughness than the heat-polymerizing resin and injected heat-polymerizing resin (p>0.05). In the case of polishing step wise, there was almost no change in surface roughness after brushing (p>0.05).

  5. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    Graft co polymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h-1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the super absorbent properties are found to be P H sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted super absorbent polymers.

  6. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RAT MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE TONGUE EARLY AFFECTED BY ACRYLIC RESIN MONOMER].

    Davydenko, V; Nidzelskiy, M; Starchenko, I; Davydenko, A; Kuznetsov, V

    2016-03-01

    Base materials, made on the basis of various derivatives of acrylic and methacrylic acids, have been widely used in prosthetic dentistry. Free monomer, affecting the tissues of prosthetic bed and the whole body, is always found in dentures. Therefore, study of the effect of acrylic resins' monomer on mucous membrane of the tongue is crucial. Rat tongue is very similar to human tongue, and this fact has become the basis for selecting these animals to be involved into the experiment. The paper presents the findings related to the effect of "Ftoraks" base acrylic resin monomer on the state of rat mucous membrane of the tongue and its regeneration. The microscopy has found that the greatest changes in the mucous membrane of the tongue occur on day 3 and 7 day after applying the monomer and are of erosive and inflammatory nature. Regeneration of tongue epithelium slows down. PMID:27119844

  7. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. PMID:27261731

  8. Effects of acrylamide and acrylic acid on creatine kinase activity in the rat brain

    In vitro, both acrylamide and acrylic acid inhibited creatine kinase (CK) activity in rat brain homogenates, and acrylic acid was more potent than acrylamide. In vivo, however, when given i.p. 50 mg/kg per day for 8 days to rats, only acrylamide inhibited CK activity in the brain and caused apparent neurological signs. 14C in the brain 24 h after the injection of 14C-labelled chemicals was more than 7 times greater with acrylamide than with acrylic acid. The inhibition of CK activity by acrylamide varied in eight regions of the brain; from 54% in hypothalamus to 27% in cerebellar vermis. The regional difference of CK inhibition, however, did not agree well with either 14C distribution or with the distribution in regions which appear clinically or pathologically vulnerable to acrylamide. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of UV curing reaction of dicyclopentadienyl acrylate by FT-IR

    Dicyclopentadienyl acrylate (DCPA) is characterized by low odor, low volatility, high flash point, low toxicity and low shrinkage on cure. Another advantage of DCPA is its insensitiveness to the inhibiting effect of oxygen. DCPA have wide industrial applications. It was used for the preparation of adhesives, UV-curable coatings and polymer concreted). The advantages of DCPA result from its particular structure. There are two unsaturated bonds, one acrylic double bond and one cyclic double bond, in each DCPA molecule. But, few reports on reaction behavior of the two type double bonds were issued up to date. In this paper, reaction behavior of the acrylic and the cyclic double bond of DCPA during and after LTV-curing were investigated by Fourier Transform-Infrared(FT-IR)

  10. Preparation and characteristics of acrylic acid/styrene composite plasma polymerized membranes

    Plasma polymerization has gained increasing interest for the deposition of functional plasma-polymerized membranes suitable for a wide range of applications on account of its advantageous features. In this work, acrylic acid/styrene composite plasma polymerized membranes were synthesized by plasma polymerization of a mixture of acrylic acid and styrene monomers in a low-frequency after-glow capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharge process. The structure and composition of the plasma polymerized membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the partial pressure ratio between acrylic acid (AA) and styrene (St), applied discharge power and the energy of the extracted particles have considerable effects on the structure and the content of functional groups of the deposited membranes.