WorldWideScience

Sample records for acrylamides

  1. Acrylamide carcinogenicity.

    Klaunig, James E

    2008-08-13

    The induction of cancer by chemicals is a multiple-stage process. Acrylamide is carcinogenic to experimental mice and rats, causing tumors at multiple organ sites in both species when given in drinking water or by other means. In mice, acrylamide increased the incidence and multiplicity of lung tumors and skin tumors. In two bioassays in rats, acrylamide administered in drinking water consistently induced mesotheliomas of the testes, thyroid tumors, and mammary gland tumors. In addition, brain tumors appeared to be increased. In one of the rat bioassays, pituitary tumors, pheochromocytomas, uterine tumors, and pituitary tumors were noted. The conversion of acrylamide metabolically to the reactive, mutagenic, and genotoxic product, glycidamide, can occur in both rodent and humans. Glycidamide and frequently acrylamide have been positive for mutagenicity and DNA reactivity in a number of in vitro and in vivo assays. The effects of chronic exposure of glycidamide to rodents have not been reported. Epidemiologic studies of workers for possible health effects from exposures to acrylamide have not shown a consistent increase in cancer risk. Although an increase in the risk for pancreatic cancer (almost double) was seen in highly exposed workers, no exposure response relationship could be determined. The mode of action remains unclear for acrylamide-induced rodent carcinogenicity, but support for a genotoxic mechanism based on in vitro and in vivo DNA reactivity assays cannot be ruled out. In addition, the pattern of tumor formation in the rat following chronic exposure supports a genotoxic mode of action but also suggests a potential role of endocrine modification. PMID:18624430

  2. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  3. Megaoesophagus due to acrylamide neuropathy.

    Satchell, P M; McLeod, J G

    1981-01-01

    Greyhound dogs exposed to oral acrylamide for a period of eight weeks developed a sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy that had many features in common with acrylamide neuropathy seen in other species. Most of the animals also developed the clinical and radiological features of megaoesophagus. The association of neuropathy and megaoesophagus suggests that an axonopathy of the vagus may be an aetiological factor in this disorder.

  4. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  5. A review of mechanisms of acrylamide carcinogenicity.

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2007-03-01

    The fact that acrylamide, a proven rodent carcinogen, is present in significant quantities (up to several mg/kg of foodstuff) in a wide range of commonly consumed human foods is alarming. Attempts to determine a possible involvement of dietary acrylamide in human cancers have not been conclusive, however. To resolve the carcinogenicity of acrylamide to humans, the as yet unknown mechanism of action of acrylamide needs to be unraveled. The present review is a synopsis of research on the known and hypothetical modes of action of acrylamide of relevance for carcinogenesis. Both genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action of acrylamide are discussed with special emphasis on DNA adduct-targeted mutagenesis. Mechanistic data are presented from various experimental systems including in vitro experiments and in vivo rodent and human studies with special focus on mouse models. Human exposure data, including estimates of daily intake of dietary acrylamide in different populations and the corresponding cancer risk assessments are provided. The significant gaps in knowledge, which currently preclude a more definitive evaluation of human cancer risk due to exposure to dietary acrylamide, are highlighted. Future directions for research on acrylamide and cancer are outlined, and potential challenges are underscored. PMID:17234719

  6. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit; Skibsted, Leif

    2008-01-01

    cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars. In...... contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  7. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit;

    2008-01-01

    contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation.......Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount of...... cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars. In...

  8. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide diminishing in potato slices and strips was studied in relation to frying temperature and some pre-treatments. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8 percent Prior to frying...... frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes...... surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mu m/kg) even when they were fried at 190 degrees C. Potato immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced acrylamide formation by almost 70% for slices fried at 150 degrees C. Color represented by the parameters L* and a* showed high correlations (r(2...

  9. Assessing phytoremediation potentials of selected tropical plants for acrylamide

    In biotechnology, acrylamide is being used in DNA and RNA analysis using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses procedure. Polymerized acrylamide is degraded into acrylamide through time; it is converted into a hazardous contaminant that is carcinogenic and neurotoxic to animals and humans. Because ...

  10. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  11. Dietary acrylamide and risk of prostate cancer

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide has been designated by IARC as a “probable human carcinogen.” High levels are formed during cooking of many commonly consumed foods including French fries, potato chips, breakfast cereal, and coffee. Two prospective cohort studies and two case-control studies in Europe found no association between acrylamide intake and prostate cancer. We examined this association in a large prospective cohort of 47,896 U.S. men in the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study, using updated dietary ac...

  12. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray in the...... positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by...

  13. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  14. Update on the National Acrylamide Project

    Acrylamide, a suspected human carcinogen that may delay fetal development, is a Maillard reaction product that forms when carbohydrate-rich foods are cooked at high temperatures. Processed potato products, including French fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acry...

  15. Acrylamide neurotoxicity on the cerebrum of weaning rats

    Su-min Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg. However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was significantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohistochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.

  16. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2009-04-15

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (P(trend) = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  17. Effects of consumer food preparation on acrylamide formation.

    Jackson, Lauren S; Al-Taher, Fadwa

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide is formed in high-carbohydrate foods during high temperature processes such as frying, baking, roasting and extrusion. Although acrylamide is known to form during industrial processing of food, high levels of the chemical have been found in home-cooked foods, mainly potato- and grain-based products. This chapter will focus on the effects of cooking conditions (e.g. time/temperature) on acrylamide formation in consumer-prepared foods, the use of surface color (browning) as an indicator of acrylamide levels in some foods, and methods for reducing acrylamide levels in home-prepared foods. As with commercially processed foods, acrylamide levels in home-prepared foods tend to increase with cooking time and temperature. In experiments conducted at the NCFST, we found that acrylamide levels in cooked food depended greatly on the cooking conditions and the degree of "doneness", as measured by the level of surface browning. For example, French fries fried at 150-190 degrees C for up to 10 min had acrylamide levels of 55 to 2130 microg/kg (wet weight), with the highest levels in the most processed (highest frying times/temperatures) and the most highly browned fries. Similarly, more acrylamide was formed in "dark" toasted bread slices (43.7-610.7 microg/kg wet weight), than "light" (8.27-217.5 microg/kg) or "medium" (10.9-213.7 microg/kg) toasted slices. Analysis of the surface color by colorimetry indicated that some components of surface color ("a" and "L" values) correlated highly with acrylamide levels. This indicates that the degree of surface browning could be used as an indicator of acrylamide formation during cooking. Soaking raw potato slices in water before frying was effective at reducing acrylamide levels in French fries. Additional studies are needed to develop practical methods for reducing acrylamide formation in home-prepared foods without changing the acceptability of these foods. PMID:16438318

  18. Acrylamide in Food – EU versus FDA Approaches

    Gabriel Mustăţea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a versatile organic compound that finds its way into many products in our everyday life. The presence of acrylamide in foods dates from 2002, when a series of studies published in Sweden, confirmed its presence in high temperatures processed foods. At EU level, first adopted measure was Commission Recommendation on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food, on May 2007, extended then by Commission Recommendation 2010/307/EU. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA then, collected and compiled data, each year (2007-2010, and published an annual report. On January 2011 was adopted the Recommendation on the investigations into the levels of acrylamide in food and then, on November 2013 was adopted Commission Recommendation 2013/647/EU on investigation into levels of acrylamide in food. Based on these, EFSA had published, in June 2015 a comprehensive risk assessment on acrylamide in food. The FDA first published a draft regarding Detection and Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods, in 2003 followed in 2004 by the Action Plan for Acrylamide in Food. In 2006 FDA published Survey Data on Acrylamide in food then in 2009, in August (updated in November a Federal Register Notice entitled: Acrylamide in food: Request for comments and for scientific data and information. Their findings have been materialized, in November 2013, into a powerful tool for industry: Draft Guidance for industry: Acrylamide in Foods. Despite research implications that exposure to acrylamide from food is safe, some consumers may choose to take measures to further reduce their acrylamide exposure. 

  19. Toxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite – Glicydamide

    Daria Pingot; Kacper Pyrzanowski; Jaromir Michałowicz; Bożena Bukowska

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic chemical compound commonly used in many branches of industry. It is mainly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamides, which are widely employed in plastics, paints, varnishes, adhesives and mortars production. Acrylamide is also applied in the cellulose-paper and cosmetic industries to produce toiletries and cosmetics. The interest in acrylamide increased in 2002, when Swedish scientists showed that a considerable amount of this substance is formed during frying and b...

  20. Acrylamide exposure impairs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function

    Yao, Xue; Yan, Licheng; Yao, Lin; GUAN, Weijun; Zeng, Fanxu; Cao, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that chronic acrylamide exposure leads to central and peripheral neu-ropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. In this study, we examined the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and its ability to secrete transthyretin and transport leptin of rats exposed to acrylamide for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Transthyretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid began to decline on day 7 after acrylamide exposure. The sodium fluorescein level in cerebrospin...

  1. Formation of acrylamide in potato products and its dietary exposure

    Mestdagh, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide is formed during baking and frying of potato and cereal foodstuffs and is considered as a suspected human carcinogen. Potatoes are particularly susceptible to the formation of this process contaminant. Due to their frequent consumption, these products moreover contribute significantly to the dietary acrylamide exposure. Therefore, this study focuses on these foodstuffs. The Maillard reaction plays a key role in the formation of acrylamide. This reaction also contributes to the plea...

  2. Toxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite – Glicydamide

    Daria Pingot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a synthetic chemical compound commonly used in many branches of industry. It is mainly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamides, which are widely employed in plastics, paints, varnishes, adhesives and mortars production. Acrylamide is also applied in the cellulose-paper and cosmetic industries to produce toiletries and cosmetics. The interest in acrylamide increased in 2002, when Swedish scientists showed that a considerable amount of this substance is formed during frying and baking of various foods. Studies concerning toxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite - glicydamide showed their neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Neverthless, in humans only neurotoxic effect of acrylamide has been clearly evidenced. Genotoxic nature of acetylamide manifests itself mainly in its metabolic conversion to the epoxide derivative glicydamide. Carcinogenic effects of acrylamide have been shown in animal studies. Epidemiological studies have not provided explicit evidence that acrylamide supplied with the diet can initiate the formation of tumors in humans. Acrylamide exposure is assessed by measuring specific compounds (adducts formed during the reaction of acrylamide with hemoglobin and DNA. Med Pr 2013;64(2:259–271

  3. ACRYLAMIDE, FOOD AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES RECOMMENDATION

    G. Carrabs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure, often deceitful, to the acrylamide has determined notable apprehension in many consumers, so much that the Committee of the European Communities has financed the project HEATOX and has emanated the recommendation 2007/331. It is ascertained that proposed strategies have not brought to great changes in the food process chains, and neither in the traditional catering and housewife, for which more incisive measures are wished.

  4. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms. PMID:26751864

  5. Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide with isatin derivatives

    Radhey M. Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide, as an activated alkene, has seen little development due to its low reactivity. We have developed the reaction using isatin derivatives with acrylamide, DABCO as a promoter and phenol as an additive in acetonitrile. The corresponding aza version with acrylate and acrylonitrile has also been developed resulting in high product yields.

  6. Acrylamide exposure impairs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function.

    Yao, Xue; Yan, Licheng; Yao, Lin; Guan, Weijun; Zeng, Fanxu; Cao, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies show that chronic acrylamide exposure leads to central and peripheral neu-ropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. In this study, we examined the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and its ability to secrete transthyretin and transport leptin of rats exposed to acrylamide for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Transthyretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid began to decline on day 7 after acrylamide exposure. The sodium fluorescein level in cerebrospinal fluid was increased on day 14 after exposure. Evans blue concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was increased and the cerebrospinal fluid/serum leptin ratio was decreased on days 21 and 28 after exposure. In comparison, the cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin ratio was increased on day 28 after exposure. Our findings show that acrylamide exposure damages the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and impairs secretory and transport functions. These changes may underlie acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25206854

  7. [Hydrodynamic properties of exopolysaccharide-acrylamide copolymer].

    Votselko, S K

    2000-01-01

    The method for producing copolymer EPAA of exopolysaccharide (EPS)--polyacrylamide (PAA) has been presented which was based on microbial exopolysaccharides (enposane, xampane), their mixture and model EPS (xanthane sigma, rodopol P-23). The copolymer was produced by acrylamide polymerization in 1-2% water solutions of polysaccharides, the concentration of acrylamide in the reaction mixture being 4.7-2% and that of polysaccharides 0.1-1% of the weight. Hydrodynamic parameters of the studied polymers have been determined, their heterogenity as to molecular-weight characteristics has been demonstrated. Molecular-weight distribution of copolymers showed that the content of low-molecular fractions decreased, thus the Mw values were (0.08-0.2) x 10(6) Da in contrast to that of exopolysaccharides possessing Mw (1.2-0.4) x 10(6) Da and of polyacrylamide possessing Mw within (2-30) x 10(6) Da. The value of efficient viscosity of copolymers ranged from 120 to 131 mPa.s that was lower than that of polyacrylamide (500 mPa.s), and higher than that of exopolysaccharides (42 mPa.s), and it depended on the sample, raw material, production conditions. A possibility has been shown to produce a new copolymer based on microbial polysaccharides enposane and xampane in the process of acrylamide polymerization. It has been found out that the studied copolymers EPAA differ from initial ones as to their hydrodynamical properties, which determines their preference: better solubility, good glueing properties, prolonged term of preservation, resistance to bacterial pollution. PMID:11300081

  8. Development of solid radioactive sources in acrylamide

    The development of water-equivalent solid sources of 133 Ba prepared from an aqueous solution of acrylamide by polymerization by a high dose 60Co irradiation is described. The main resin characteristics were measured, such as: density, effective atomic number and uniformity. The variation of these parameters was in the range of 1,08 to 1,16 g.cm-3 for density, 3.7 to 4.0 for effective atomic number and 2.8 to 7.2% for the uniformity. These values are in agreement with the literature. (author)

  9. Science communication and the Swedish acrylamide "alarm".

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2003-01-01

    On April 24, 2002 the Swedish National Food Administration along with a group of researchers at the University of Stockholm raised an alarm regarding potential health risks associated with eating fried and baked foods such as potatoes and bread. Scientists had found high levels of acrylamide (up to 500 times more acrylamide than that allowed in drinking water by the World Health Organisation), a substance widely believed to cause cancer, in cooked high starch foods. The outcomes of this "alarm" were immediate. In Sweden sales of chips fell by 30-50 percent over a 3-day period following the press conference, and share prices among several fried food manufacturers fell substantially, as stock analysts were fearful that consumption of fried foods would decrease significantly. Four days after the press conference, however, consumers began eating fried food as normal and a number of researchers and journalists in Sweden and elsewhere took the view that the alarm had been both exaggerated and ill placed. In this study, I evaluate the science communication process associated with the scare, based on a content analysis of a select group of Swedish broad sheets from just previous to the April 2002 press conference to the present time (December 2002). In addition, the study is based on interviews with the various Swedish regulators involved in the process itself (in particular at the Swedish National Food Administration) as well as with the scientists responsible for the study at Stockholm University and relevant journalists and politicians. PMID:14530144

  10. Acrylamide in bread. Effect of prooxidants and antioxidants

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Granby, Kit; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    2008-01-01

    Addition of 1% aqueous rosemary extract with approximately 40 mg of gallic acid equivalents or comparable addition of rosemary oil or of dried rosemary leaves to wheat dough reduced the content of acrylamide in wheat buns by 62, 67 and 57%, respectively, compared to wheat buns without rosemary....... Increasing the addition of aqueous rosemary extract to 10% did not decrease the acrylamide content further compared to the addition of a 1% extract. The spice dittany showed less effect in wheat buns compared to rosemary and even increased acrylamide formation slightly. The effect of antioxidants on...

  11. Acrylamide content and antioxidant capacity in thermally processed fruit products

    Kristína Kukurová; Oana Emilia Constantin; Zuzana Dubová; Blanka Tobolková; Milan Suhaj; Zografia Nystazou; Gabriela Rapeanu; Zuzana Ciesarová

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide as a known processing contaminant was determined in various heat-treated plum products purchased from a local market using LC/ESI-MS-MS. The highest level of acrylamide in the range up to 60 μg/kg was detected in a plum stew known as a "povidla", and in prunes, respectively. These products typically undergo intensive heat treatment that may take from several hours to days. Using a fruit dehydrator in home production of prunes, a low level of acrylamide under LOQ (15 μg/kg) wa...

  12. ATTEMPT TO REDUCE ACRYLAMIDE CONTENT IN ROASTED CHICORY

    Gabriela Zięć

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the formation of acrylamide during roasting of chicory roots by soaking the fresh roots in a solution of calcium chloride, by the use of different temperature and time of roasting of dried roots, as well as by the addition of the enzyme (asparaginase during roasting of dried roots. It was shown, that with increasing roasting temperature of chicory roots from 100 - 175 ° C the acrylamide content also increased, while at a temperature of 210 ° C the growth was inhibited. Increasing roasting time from 10 - 25 minutes resulted in an increased acrylamide content. Soaking the roots in the CaCl2 solution for 20 minutes reduced the formation of acrylamide during the roasting approximately by 40%, similarly as the application of asparaginase to the dried roots during the roasting process.

  13. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    . Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...... per 5 min at 25 degrees C, reduces acrylamide formation in potato chips by 11 percent after frying at 170 degrees C. However when the slices are blanched directly in the 3 g/100g of NaCl solution at 60 degrees C for 30 min, their acrylamide formation increased surprisingly by similar to 90 percent...

  14. Acrylamide diminishing in potato chips by using commercial Asparaginase

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit;

    2011-01-01

    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the food safety world when they presented preliminary findings of acrylamide in some fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries. Asparagine is an aminoacid precursor of acrylamide formation through Maillard reaction. Asparaginase...... enzyme converts free asparagine into aspartic acid; another amino acid that does not form acrylamide and also maintains intact the food sensorial properties. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of different temperature-time asparaginase treatments over the acrylamide content of...... potato chips. Control and asparaginase treated potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min. Potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) Rinsing in distilled water (control A); (ii) Blanching in hot water at 85 °C for 3.5 min (control B...

  15. Thermal Polymerization of Acrylamide by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Kishore, K.; Santhanalakshmi, KN

    1981-01-01

    Thermal polymerization of acrylamide was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Latent heat of fusion \\bigtriangleup Hf and enthalpy of polymerization \\bigtriangleup Hp values were found to be 36 and $-18.0 kcal mol^{-1}$, respectively. The overall activation energy E for the polymerization was calculated to be $19 k cal mol^{-1}$ up to 60% conversion. The added free-radical inhibitor (benzoquinone) was found to desensitize the thermal polymerization of acrylamide suggesting the polyme...

  16. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Acrylamide Induced Testicular Damage

    Lebda, Mohamed; Gad, Shereen; Gaafar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acrylamide is very toxic to various organs and associated with significant increase of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of alpha-lipoic acid on the oxidative damage induced by acrylamide in testicular and epididymal tissues. Material and methods: Forty adult male rats were divided into ...

  17. Isolation and characterization of an acrylamide-degrading Bacillus cereus.

    Shukor, M Y; Gusmanizar, N; Azmi, N A; Hamid, M; Ramli, J; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2009-01-01

    Several local acrylamide-degrading bacteria have been isolated. One of the isolate that exhibited the highest growth on acrylamide as a nitrogen source was then further characterized. The isolate was tentatively identified as Bacillus cereus strain DRY135 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GP plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. The isolate grew optimally in between the temperatures of 25 and 30 degrees C and within the pH range of 6.8 to 7.0. Glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, citric acid and sucrose supported growth with glucose being the best carbon source. Different concentrations of acrylamide ranging from 100 to 4000 mg l(-1) incorporated into the growth media shows that the highest growth was obtained at acrylamide concentrations of between 500 to 1500 mg l(-1). At 1000 mg l(-1) of acrylamide, degradation was 90% completed after ten days of incubation with concomitant cell growth. The metabolite acrylic acid was detected in the media during degradation. Other amides such as methacrylamide, nicotinamide, acetamide, propionamide and urea supported growth with the highest growth supported by acetamide, propionamide and urea. Strain DRY135, however was not able to assimilate 2-chloroacetamide. The characteristics of this isolate suggest that it would be useful in the bioremediation of acrylamide. PMID:20112864

  18. In Vivo Doses of Acrylamide and Glycidamide in Humans after Intake of Acrylamide-Rich Food

    Vikström, Anna C.; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Naruszewicz, Marek; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Granath, Fredrik N.; Törnqvist, Margareta A.

    2011-01-01

    For assessment of cancer risk from acrylamide (AA) exposure through food, the relation between intake from food in humans and the in vivo doses (area under the concentration-time curve, AUC) of AA (AUC-AA) and of its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide (GA) (AUC-GA) is used as a basis for extrapolation between exposure levels and between species. In this study, AA-rich foods were given to nonsmokers: a high intake of 11 mu g AA/kg body weight (bw) and day for 4 days or an extra (medium) intake o...

  19. Role of antioxidants and phytochemicals on acrylamide mitigation from food and reducing its toxicity

    Kahkeshani, Niloofar; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the presence of acrylamide in lots of fried and baked foods raises concerns due to its potential to cause toxicity and cancer in animals and human. Consequently, a number of papers have focused on evaluation of various chemicals in reduction of acrylamide in various food sources, as well as decreasing its related toxicities. In addition, plants are important sources of diverse metabolites demonstrating either possible effectiveness in acrylamide toxicity or reduction of acrylamide c...

  20. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour. PMID:25494681

  1. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide diminishing in potato slices and strips was studied in relation to frying temperature and some pre-treatments. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8 percent Prior to frying......, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 30 and 70 min; 70 degrees C for 8 and 40 min; 90 degrees C for 2 and 9 min); (ii) immersed in a citric acid solutions of 10 g/L for half an hour Potato...... strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 40 percent. Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in similar ways to potato slices. Glucose and asparagine contents were determined in potato slices and strips before...

  2. Holographic recording in acrylamide photopolymers: thickness limitations.

    Mahmud, Mohammad Sultan; Naydenova, Izabela; Pandey, Nitesh; Babeva, Tzwetanka; Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2009-05-10

    Holographic recording in thick photopolymer layers is important for application in holographic data storage, volume holographic filters, and correlators. Here, we studied the characteristics of acrylamide-based photopolymer layers ranging in thickness from 250 microm to 1 mm. For each thickness, samples with three different values of absorbance were studied. By measuring the diffraction efficiency growth of holographically recorded gratings and studying the diffraction patterns obtained, the influence of scattering on the diffraction efficiency of thick volume holographic gratings was analyzed. It was found that, above a particular thickness and absorbance, the diffraction efficiency significantly decreased because of increased holographic scattering. From the diffraction efficiency dependence on absorbance and thickness it is possible to choose photopolymer layer properties that are suitable for a particular holographic application. This study was carried out to determine the highest layer thickness that could be used for phase code multiplexed holographic data storage utilizing thick photopolymer layers as a recording medium. Based on our studies to date we believe that the layer to be used for phase coded reference beam recording with 0.1 absorbance at 532 nm can have a thickness up to 450 microm. The potential use of thicker layers characterized by low scattering losses is part of our continuing research. PMID:19424384

  3. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    Mariano Malaguarnera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.

  4. Characterization of trypsin-derived peptides acrylamide-adducted hemoglobin

    Even though there are a number of sources for human exposure to acrylamide, reliable biomarkers of exposure are not available. In an effort to develop such a biomarker, the authors are characterizing peptides derived from trypsin digests of acrylamide-adducted hemoglobin. For this, radiolabeled acrylamide was incubated with this, radiolabeled acrylamide was incubated with purified human hemoglobin (Ao) and decomposition products removed by dialysis. When the adducted hemoglobin was separated by reverse-phase HPLC, radioactivity eluted with the α and β subunits, suggesting covalent binding. Digestion of individual subunits with trypsin followed by reverse phase HPLC, indicated that most of the radioactivity associated with the α subunit co-eluted with a single peptide. Similar results were observed for the β subunit except that significant amounts of radioactivity eluted with the solvent front, suggesting that radioactivity was released by trypsin digestion. Currently, these preparation are under further characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This approach will aid in the identification of the adducted will aid in the identification of the adducted peptide and subsequent preparation of an acrylamide-specific antibody

  5. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide formation in potato slices fried at two different temperatures ( 170 and 190 degrees C) was investigated under different pre-processing conditions. Potato slices (Saturna variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were either fried at 170 degrees C per 5 min or 190 degrees C per 3.5 min to....... Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...... per 5 min at 25 degrees C, reduces acrylamide formation in potato chips by 11 percent after frying at 170 degrees C. However when the slices are blanched directly in the 3 g/100g of NaCl solution at 60 degrees C for 30 min, their acrylamide formation increased surprisingly by similar to 90 percent...

  6. Acrylamide reduction under different pre-treatments in French fries

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit; Troncoso, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation in French fries was investigated in relation under different processing conditions and the content of glucose and asparagine of the strips before frying. Potato strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents...... solution of 10,g/L for an hour; (iii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10 and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min). Acrylamide content was determined in French fries while the glucose and asparagine content in the...... total color difference showed high correlation (r(2) of 0.854) with the acrylamide content of French fries....

  7. SYNTHESIS AND FLOCCULABILITY OF SODIUM ALGINATE GRAFTED WITH ACRYLAMIDE

    Kaiqiang Xu; Xiongli Xu; Zhiji Ding; Meihua Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Graft copolymers of sodium alginate (SA) with acrylamide (AM) were synthesized using aceric ion initiated solution polymerization technique. The acrylamide conversions were studied by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, molecular weight of sodium alginate and reaction time. The flocculation performance of the graft copolymer(SAG) was investigated in kaolin suspension and also in dyeing waste water. It was found that SAG is more efficient in flocculation behavior as compared to polyacrylamide and SA in kaolin suspension, and in removal capacities for CODCr and colority in dyeing wastewater.

  8. Liquid crystal of nanocellulose whiskers' grafted with acrylamide

    Jie Yang; Dai Yong Ye

    2012-01-01

    12% acrylamide (AM) was grafted onto the surface of nanocellulose whiskers (NCW),which was self-assembled to be the chiral nematic suspension at 3% content.The acrylamide grafted NCW (AM-g-NCW) was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).The grafting ratio was measured by elemental analysis.The degrees of crystallinity of the AM-g-NCW were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD).The liquid crystalline properties of the AM-g-NCW were investigated by the polarizing optical microscopy (POM).The AM-g-NCW was found to self-assembly to be a lyotropic state.

  9. Acrylamide reduction in potato chips by using commercial asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit;

    2011-01-01

    (control II). Blanching in hot water (ii) was almost as effective as asparaginase potato immersion (iii) in order to diminish acrylamide formation in potato chips (acrylamide reduction was ∼17% of the initial acrylamide concentration). When potato slices were blanched before asparaginase immersion, the...... acrylamide content of the resultant potato chips was reduced considerably by almost 90%. We have demonstrated that blanching of potato slices plus asparaginase treatment is an effective combination for acrylamide mitigation during frying. It seems to be that blanching provokes changes in the microstructure...... of potato tissue leading to an easier and more effective diffusion of asparaginase....

  10. Kinetics for the distribution of acrylamide in French fries, fried oil and vapour during frying of potatoes.

    Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Chen, Ming-Jen; Tseng, Tzu-Ping; Cheng, Li-Hsin; Huang, Li-Jen; Yeh, Tai-Sheng

    2016-11-15

    Kinetic analysis for the formation of acrylamide in heated foods has been typically performed using only measured data of acrylamide in foods; however, its possible loss caused by release from heated foods into fried oil and air has seldom been considered. The results obtained from the monitoring of acrylamide by frying French fries indicated that acrylamide is distributed in three phases: French fries, frying oil, and air. From the evolved gas analysis of acrylamide and the measured concentration profile of the total acrylamide amount present in these phases, the kinetic behaviour for acrylamide formation does not obey the commonly used model of two-step consecutive reactions during frying, while a lumped kinetic model was proposed for the total acrylamide amount. Moreover, a high acrylamide level in air was observed, implying that, apart from consumers of French fries, fast-food restaurant workers are potentially subject to occupational hazards from acrylamide inhalation. PMID:27283682

  11. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl;

    2005-01-01

    85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...

  12. Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide

    Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

  13. Successful Treatment of Acute Lethal Dose of Acrylamide Poisoning

    Ali Banagozar Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylamide (C3H5NO is a vinyl monomer. This water-soluble crystalline solid is a colorless, odorless agent which is used in scientific laboratories and some industries. Acrylamide has cellular oxidative effects. Acute or chronic poisoning with this agent happens as a result of skin, respiratory, or oral contacts. Clinical manifestations depend on the dose, duration, and frequency of contact. Management of these patients consists of conservative and palliative therapies to reduce the oxidative effects. Case: The case was a 29-year-old girl with a Master of Sciences degree in genetics who worked in a university research center with previous history of depression. She had ingested 100cc of 30% Acrylamide solution for intentional suicide attempt. The patient was successfully managed using N-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C, and melatonin. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment with recommended agents together with supportive therapies can save the life of patients exposed to potentially lethal doses of acrylamide, although intentional or accidental.

  14. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants...

  15. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper...

  16. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...... potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30-2300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCI solution in relation to acrylamide formation in the prepared potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170......% NaCI solution at 25 °) for 5 min; (iv) Blan ching in hot water at 90°) for 5 min plus immersion in a distilled water at 25 °) for 5 min. Raw potato slices were used as control. Blanching reduced the acrylamide content of potato chips with 12 %. On the other hand, when potato slices were immersed in...

  17. Mechanism and Modeling for Polymerization of Acrylamide in Inverse Microemulsions

    LiXiao; ZhangWeiying; YuanHuigen

    2004-01-01

    After discussion on the mechanism of polymer particle nucleation and growth in inverse microemulsion polymerization, a schematic physical model for polymerization of acrylamide in inverse microemulsions was presented. Furthermore, several key problems in mathematically modeling of inverse microemulsion polymerization were pointed out.

  18. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    Hong Jiang; Yi Xiang; Xingyue Hu; Huaying Cai

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3-4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because function-al recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce neurotoxic substances that cause retrograde necrotizing neuropathy and inhibit nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A. This study investigated whether acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. A tibial nerve sprouting model was established through local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the right gastrocnemius muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intramuscular injection, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 3%acrylamide every 3 days for 21 days. Nerve sprout-ing appeared 2 weeks after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and single-fiber electromyography revealed abnormal conduction at the neuromuscular junction 1 week after intra-muscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. Following intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide, the peak muscle ifber density decreased. Electromyography jitter value were restored to normal levels 6 weeks after injection. This indicates that the maximal decrease in ifber density and the time at which functional conduction of neuromuscular junction was restored were delayed. Addition-ally, the increase in tibial nerve ifbers was reduced. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A and may be used to prolong the clinical dosage of botulinum toxin type A.

  19. Determination of acrylamide level in popular Iranian brands of potato and corn products.

    Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Nikkhah, Elham; Kazemi, Abdollah; Oskooei, Mojtaba; Raters, Marion

    2010-10-01

    Acrylamide is a chemical found in starchy foods that have been cooked at high temperatures. These include crisps, chips, bread and crisp breads. It was first discovered by scientists in Sweden in 2002. The Objective of this study is to determine the level of acrylamide in popular Iranian brands of potato crisps and corn products, produced by domestic food industrial factories. For this reason 7 brands of potato and 8 brands of corn products (10 each) were collected, crashed and after preparing the extracts of each sample, using LC-MS-MS spectrometry for measuring acrylamide amount. Results showed that in different brands of potato and corn products there were different amounts (244-1688 microg/kg) and (<30-410 microg/kg) of acrylamide, respectively. As acrylamide is a dangerous toxin for human health, so it needs to reduce the level of acrylamide in these products that are used extensively by people specially children. PMID:20600544

  20. Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips.

    Ayvaz, Huseyin; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-05-01

    The most common methods for acrylamide analysis in foods require the use of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Although these methods have great analytical performance, they need intensive sample preparation, highly specialised instrumentation, and are time consuming. In this study, portable and handheld infrared spectrometers were evaluated as rapid methods for screening acrylamide in potato chips and their performances were compared to those of benchtop infrared systems. The acrylamide content of 64 commercial potato chips (169-2453 μg/kg) was determined by LC-MS/MS. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed to predict acrylamide levels. Overall, good linear correlation was found between the predicted acrylamide levels and actual measured acrylamide concentrations by LC-MS/MS (rPred > 0.90 and SEP potato chips. PMID:25529665

  1. Effects of acrylamide and acrylic acid on creatine kinase activity in the rat brain

    In vitro, both acrylamide and acrylic acid inhibited creatine kinase (CK) activity in rat brain homogenates, and acrylic acid was more potent than acrylamide. In vivo, however, when given i.p. 50 mg/kg per day for 8 days to rats, only acrylamide inhibited CK activity in the brain and caused apparent neurological signs. 14C in the brain 24 h after the injection of 14C-labelled chemicals was more than 7 times greater with acrylamide than with acrylic acid. The inhibition of CK activity by acrylamide varied in eight regions of the brain; from 54% in hypothalamus to 27% in cerebellar vermis. The regional difference of CK inhibition, however, did not agree well with either 14C distribution or with the distribution in regions which appear clinically or pathologically vulnerable to acrylamide. (orig.)

  2. Occurrence of Acrylamide in breakfast cereals and biscuits available in Italy

    CAPEI, R.; PETTINI, L.; LO NOSTRO, A.; Pesavento, G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Acrylamide, produced during thermal processing of carbohydrate-rich foods, is classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine acrylamide levels in biscuits and breakfast cereals considering the widespread use of these products for all ages. Method. Acrylamide determination was carried out in 56 samples by HPLC-UV technique. Results and discussion. The results showed a co...

  3. Raman Spectroscopy for the Characterization of the Polymerization Rate in an Acrylamide-based Photopolymer

    Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Naydenova, Izabela; Byrne, Hugh; Martin, Suzanne; Howard, Robert; Toal, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Investigations of polymerization rates in an acrylamide-based photopolymer are presented. The polymerization rate for acrylamide and methylenebisacrylamide was determined by monitoring the changes in the characteristic vibrational peaks at 1284 cm-1 and 1607 cm-1 corresponding to the bending mode of CH bond and CC double bonds of acrylamide and in the characteristic peak at 1629 cm-1 corresponding to carbon-carbon double bond of methylenebisacrylamide using Raman spectroscopy. To study the de...

  4. IMPACT OF PRE-TREATMENTS ON THE ACRYLAMIDE FORMATION AND ORGANOLEPTIC EVOLUTION OF FRIED POTATO CHIPS

    Samir Abdel-Monem Ahmed Ismial; Rehab Farouk Mohammed Ali; Mohsen Askar; Wafaa Mahmoud Samy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different pre-frying treatments on reduction of acrylamide formation of fried potato Moreover; the impact of different phenol compounds and leaves on acrylamide formation was evaluated. In addition, the effects of these treatments on the sensorial quality of fried potato chips were studied. Results showed that blanching process caused significant decreases in acrylamide content of fried potato. The highest decrease was observ...

  5. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)

    The graft copolymer poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)-g- polyacrylamide [P (HB-g-AAm)] was synthesized by radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto poly (3-hydroxybutyrate). The study was conducted by the simultaneous irradiation method. The structure of [P (HB-g-AAm)] was identified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of the graft copolymer was also studied by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). From the results it was found that FTIR studies showed new signals (stretching -N-H) as strong evidence of grafting. The grafting degree was found to be 10 % and the thermodynamic parameter obtained from the DSC thermogram of plain PHB and the graft copolymer varied showing decrease in the material crystallinity and increase in the glass transition temperature. These results demonstrate that the radiation induced graft copolymerization reaction of acrylamide onto PHB was successively achieved. (Author)

  6. Characterization of Grafted Polypropylene-Acrylamide Films for Dye Removal

    The graft copolymerization of Acrylamide onto polypropylene film using the direct gamma irradiation technique was studied. The factors affecting the grafting process such as type of solvent, inhibitor, radiation dose, and monomer concentration on the grafting yield were studied. It was found that the additions of 0.5 wt % , Mohr's salt reduced effectively the homo polymerization of acrylamide. The change in chemical structural of the pp-films due to grafting was investigated using IR, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimeterical analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). PP-g-p(AAm) films were allowed to react with two ionic dyes; organic reactive blue dye (Remazol Brilliant Bright Blue) and organic reactive red dye (Drimarene Scarlet K-2 G). The sshas been analyzed with visible spectrophotometry at 460 nm for dyed grafted film by red dye and at 490 nm for dyed grafted film by blue dye

  7. Porous poly(methylmethacrylate and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide

    Nikolić Ljubiša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of two types of porous polymers: poly(methyl methacrylate and copolymers of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide were investigated in this study. Poly(methyl methacrylate was synthesized in suspension, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone as the protective colloid, and benzoyl peroxide as the initiator. The synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide was initiated in emulsion in the presence of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt, followed by a sol-gel process, and completely reacted to the solid state. Potassium persulfate was used as the initiator, and tetramethylol glycoluril as the cross-linking agent. Both types of syntheses were carried out in the presence of ethyl acetate. The porosity, specific surface and distribution of the pore sizes of the obtained polymers were determined by mercury porosimetry. The polymers were used as inert carriers for the immobilization of enzymes and whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.

  8. Kinetic modeling of acrylamide formation in aqueous reaction systems and potato crisps : Text & Figures

    Knol, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide can be formed in foods that have undergone a high temperature treatment (>120 °C) such as French fries, crisps, coffee and bread, due to the Maillard reaction. The evidence of acrylamide in foods posing a risk for different types of cancer has been strengthened. Mitigation of acrylamide formation in foods is, therefore, of great importance. The aim of this PhD study was to derive mathematical models that describe the formation of acrylamide as a function of product and processin...

  9. Acrylamide elution from roasted barley grains into mugicha and its formation during roasting.

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated acrylamide elution from roasted barley grain into mugicha and its formation during roasting of the grain. Mugicha is an infusion of roasted barley grains. Highly water-soluble acrylamide was easily extracted to mugicha from milled roasted barley grains in teabags. On the other hand, the acrylamide concentration in mugicha prepared from loose grain increased with longer simmering and steeping times. During roasting in a drum roaster, the acrylamide concentration of the grain increased as the surface temperature rose, reaching a maximum at 180-240°C. Above this temperature, the acrylamide concentration decreased with continued roasting, exhibiting an inverted 'U'-shaped curve. For most of the samples, the acrylamide concentration showed good correlation with the value of the colour space parameter L*. The dark-coloured roasted barley grains with lower L* values contained lower amounts of acrylamide as a result of deep roasting. The level of asparagine in barley grains was found to be a significant factor related to acrylamide formation in roasted barley products. The data are an important contribution to the mitigation of acrylamide intake from mugicha. PMID:26678848

  10. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    Jiang, Hong; Xiang, Yi; Hu, XingYue; Cai, Huaying

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3–4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because functional recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce n...

  11. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  12. Reactivity of acrylamide with coffee melanoidins in model systems

    Pastoriza, S.; Rufián-Henares, J.T.; Morales, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee and its substitutes have been described as complex matrices for acrylamide (ACR) analysis due to both analytical interferences and ACR instability in the matrix. Melanoidins are multifunctional and biochemically active polymers which are formed in large extent during coffee roasting. Model systems composed of ACR (elimination studies) or glucose-asparagine (ACR formation/elimination studies) with/without melanoidins was heated at 180 °C. Washed sea sand and cellulose microcrystalline w...

  13. Low-acrylamide French fries and potato chips

    Rommens, Caius M; Yan, Hua; Swords, Kathy; Richael, Craig; Ye, Jingsong

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is produced in starchy foods that are baked, roasted or fried at high temperatures. Concerns about the potential health issues associated with the dietary intake of this reactive compound led us to reduce the accumulation of asparagine, one of its main precursors, in the tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum). This metabolic change was accomplished by silencing two asparagine synthetase genes through ‘all-native DNA’ transformation. Glasshouse-grown tubers of the transformed intragen...

  14. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2009-01-01

    salt solution, the acrylamide only decreased with 3 %. Interestingly, when blanched potato slices were immersed in NaCl solution and then fried, the acrylamide concentrations of the potato chips decreased with 66 %. Blanching seems to make the NaCI diffusion in potato tissue easier leading to a...... °C) for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼ 2.0 %). Prior to frying, the potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) Blanching in hot water at 90°) for 5 min; (H) lmmersio n in a 3% NaCI solution at 25 °) for 5 min; (Hi) BIa nching in hot water at 90°) for 5 min plus immersio n in a 3......% NaCI solution at 25 °) for 5 min; (iv) Blan ching in hot water at 90°) for 5 min plus immersion in a distilled water at 25 °) for 5 min. Raw potato slices were used as control. Blanching reduced the acrylamide content of potato chips with 12 %. On the other hand, when potato slices were immersed in...

  15. Quartz Microbalance Sensor for the Detection of Acrylamide

    Christoph A. Schalley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Several macrocycles of the Hunter-Vögtle type have been identified as superior host compounds for the detection of small amounts of acrylamide. When coated onto the surface of a quartz microbalance, these compounds serve as highly sensitive and selective sensor-active layers for their use in electronic noses. In this study, differently substituted macrocycles were investigated including an open-chain analogue and a catenane. Their structure and functional groups are correlated with their observed affinities to acrylamide and related acids and amides. The much smaller response of the open-chain compound and the almost absent sensor response of the catenane suggest that binding occurs within the cavity of the macrocycle. Theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data even though they do not yet take into account the arrangement of the macrocycles in the sensor-active layer. The lower detection limit of acrylamide is 10 parts per billion (ppb, which is impressively low for this type of sensor. Other related compounds such as acrylic acid, propionamide, or propionic acid show no or significantly lower affinities to the macrocycles in these concentration ranges.

  16. Preparation and characterisation of acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel

    Klinpituksa, P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel, a superabsorbent polymer, was prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution of acrylamide (AAm and maleic acid (MA : monomer and comonomer, respectively. Potassium persulfate and N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylethylenediamine were used as an initiator system. Also, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA were used as crosslinkers. Different compositions of acrylamide, maleic acid and crosslinkers were employed. Water swelling, equilibrium water content and swelling power of the hydrogel formed were determined. The result showed that the swelling in water at equilibrium of hydrogels was in the range of 8,420-10,300% and 3,160- 3,560%, equilibrium water content was in the range of 0.9880-0.9902 and 0.9630-0.9727 and swelling power was in the range of 84-103 and 31-36 using 1%EGDMA and 1%MBA as crosslinkers, respectively. The diffusion of water into hydrogel followed non-Fickian character based on swelling power.

  17. 40 CFR 721.6540 - Acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and polyalkyl, aminoalkyl meth-a-cryl-a-mide...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6540 Acrylamide, polymers... as acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and poly-al-kyl, amino alkyl...

  18. Metabolic and histopathological alterations in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis induced by chronic exposure to acrylamide.

    Larguinho, Miguel; Cordeiro, Ana; Diniz, Mário S; Costa, Pedro M; Baptista, Pedro V

    2014-11-01

    Although the neurotoxic and genotoxic potential of acrylamide has been established in freshwater fish, the full breadth of the toxicological consequences induced by this xenobiotic has not yet been disclosed, particularly in aquatic invertebrates. To assess the effects of acrylamide on a bivalve model, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), two different setups were accomplished: 1) acute exposure to several concentrations of waterborne acrylamide to determine lethality thresholds of the substance and 2) chronic exposure to more reduced acrylamide concentrations to survey phases I and II metabolic endpoints and to perform a whole-body screening for histopathological alterations. Acute toxicity was low (LC50≈400mg/L). However, mussels were responsive to prolonged exposure to chronic concentrations of waterborne acrylamide (1-10mg/L), yielding a significant increase in lipid peroxidation plus EROD and GST activities. Still, total anti-oxidant capacity was not exceeded. In addition, no neurotoxic effects could be determined through acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. The findings suggest aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)-dependent responses in mussels exposed to acrylamide, although reduced comparatively to vertebrates. No significant histological damage was found in digestive gland or gills but female gonads endured severe necrosis and oocyte atresia. Altogether, the results indicate that acrylamide may induce gonadotoxicity in mussels, although the subject should benefit from further research. Altogether, the findings suggest that the risk of acrylamide to aquatic animals, especially molluscs, may be underestimated. PMID:25262075

  19. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF FAST AXONAL ORGANELLE TRANSPORT IN THE SCIATIC NERVE OF RATS TREATED WITH ACRYLAMIDE

    The effects of acrylamide on fast axonal transport have been measured primarily using the indirect methods of isotope or enzyme accumulation. e report the first direct evaluation of the effects of sub-chronic acrylamide dosing (150, 300 or 500 mg/kg total dose) on the fast axonal...

  20. Metabolismus und Bioverfügbarkeit der Lebensmittelkontaminante Acrylamid in Ratte und Mensch

    Berger, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Bei Acrylamid handelt es sich um ein genotoxisches Kanzerogen, welches beim Erhitzen von Lebensmitteln gebildet wird. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde untersucht, inwieweit spezifische Lebensmittelmatrices die Bioverfügbarkeit und den Metabolismus von Acrylamid beeinflussen. Lebkuchen als zuckerhaltiges, fettarmes und trockenes Lebensmittel auf Getreidebasis und Pommes frites (fett- und wasserreich; Kartoffelbasis) die entweder direkt aus der Kartoffel geschnitten (mit intakter Gewebestruktur) o...

  1. The carcinogenicity of dietary acrylamide intake: A comparative discussion of epidemiological and experimental animal research

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Baars, B.-J.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Since 2002, it is known that the probable human carcinogen acrylamide is present in commonly consumed carbohydrate-rich foods, such as French fries and potato chips. In this review, the authors discuss the body of evidence on acrylamide carcinogenicity from both epidemiological and rodent studies, i

  2. Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Troise, A.D.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide detection still represents one of the hottest topics in food chemistry. Solid phase cleanup coupled to liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometry detection along with GC-MS detection are nowadays the gold standard procedure for acrylamide quantitation thanks to high rep

  3. Quantification of acrylamide in foods selected by using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Delević Veselin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is toxic and probably carcinogenic compound, made as a result of high-temperature thermal treatment of carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs. In this article a method is improved for the extraction and quantitation of acrylamide in foods produced based on corn flour that are represented in our traditional diet. Acrylamide extraction was carried out using reduced volume of saturated solution of bromine water and the GC - MS method for the quantification was shown. Quantification of acrylamide was preceded by: sample homogenization, acrylamide extraction using water, extract purification using solid phase extraction, bromination, using a reduced volume of bromine water solution, dehydrobromination with sodium thiosulfate and transformation of dibromopropenamide in 2,3- 2- bromopropenamide using triethylamine. Regression and correlation analysis were applied for the probability level of 0.05. Calibration is performed in the concentration range 5-80 ug/kg with a detection limit 6.86 mg / kg and the limits of quantification 10.78 ug/kg and the coefficient of determination R2 > 0.999. Calibration curve was obtained: y = 0,069x + 0,038. Recovery values were an average from 97 to 110%. Proposed GC-MS method is simple, precise and reliable for the determination of acrylamide in the samples of thermal treated foods. Our results show that the tested foods quantify the presence of acrylamide in concentrations of 18 to 77 mg/kg acrylamide depending on whether the food was prepared by cooking or baking.

  4. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  5. High-efficiency sample preparation approach to determine acrylamide levels in high-fat foods.

    Li, Xiaodan; Li, Jinwei; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2016-08-01

    An improved sample preparation method was developed to enhance acrylamide recovery in high-fat foods. Prior to concentration, distilled deionized water was added to protect acrylamide from degradation, resulting in a higher acrylamide recovery rate from fried potato chips. A Chrome-Matrix C18 column (2.6 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) was used for the first time to analyze acrylamide levels using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, displaying good separation of acrylamide from interference. A solid-phase extraction procedure was avoided, and an average recovery of >89.00% was achieved from different food matrices for three different acrylamide spiking levels. Good reproducibility was observed, with an intraday relative standard deviation of 0.04-2.38%, and an interday relative standard deviation of 2.34-3.26%. Thus, combining the improved sample preparation method for acrylamide analysis with the separation on a Chrome-Matrix C18 column (2.6 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry is highly useful for analyzing acrylamide levels in complex food matrices. PMID:27279364

  6. Cross-Coupling of Acrylamides and Maleimides under Rhodium Catalysis: Controlled Olefin Migration.

    Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Oh, Yongguk; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Lee, Suk Hun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kim, In Su

    2016-06-01

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct cross-coupling reaction of electron-deficient acrylamides with maleimides is described. This protocol displays broad functional group tolerance and high efficiency, which offers a new opportunity to access highly substituted succinimides. Dependent on the substituent positions of acrylamides and reaction conditions, olefin migrated products were obtained with high regio- and stereoselectivity. PMID:27182717

  7. Birth weight, head circumference, and prenatal exposure to acrylamide from maternal diet

    Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Hardie, Laura J; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Mendez, Michelle A; Merlo, Domenico F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Rydberg, Per; Segerbäck, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Törnqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents.......Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents....

  8. Model studies on acrylamide generation from glucose/asparagine in aqueous glycerol

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Granby, Kit; Apostolopoulou, A.; Skibsted, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33......Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33...

  9. Acrylamide formation in vegetable oils and animal fats during heat treatment.

    Daniali, G; Jinap, S; Hajeb, P; Sanny, M; Tan, C P

    2016-12-01

    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g. PMID:27374529

  10. Patented Techniques for Acrylamide Mitigation in High-Temperature Processed Foods

    Mariotti, Salome; Pedreschi, Franco; Antonio Carrasco, José;

    2011-01-01

    Heating foods has many advantages since it adds taste, color, texture and minimizes harmful germs, among others. Flavor and aroma compounds are produced via the Maillard reaction, where various hazardous com-pounds may form as well, such as acrylamide. Maillard reaction is believed to be the main...... route for acrylamide for-mation between reducing sugars (glucose and fructose), sucrose, and the amino acid asparagine, and, consequently, a variety of technologies have been developed to reduce acrylamide concentration in thermally processed foods based ei-ther on: (i) Changing process parameters (e...... acrylamide reduction in foods processed at high temperatures are mentioned and briefly analyzed in order to develop new mitigation techniques for acrylamide in different food matrixes....

  11. Patented Techniques for Acrylamide Mitigation in High-Temperature Processed Foods

    Mariotti, Salome; Pedreschi, Franco; Antonio Carrasco, José; Granby, Kit

    2011-01-01

    route for acrylamide for-mation between reducing sugars (glucose and fructose), sucrose, and the amino acid asparagine, and, consequently, a variety of technologies have been developed to reduce acrylamide concentration in thermally processed foods based ei-ther on: (i) Changing process parameters (e...... acrylamide reduction in foods processed at high temperatures are mentioned and briefly analyzed in order to develop new mitigation techniques for acrylamide in different food matrixes.......Heating foods has many advantages since it adds taste, color, texture and minimizes harmful germs, among others. Flavor and aroma compounds are produced via the Maillard reaction, where various hazardous com-pounds may form as well, such as acrylamide. Maillard reaction is believed to be the main...

  12. Maternal acrylamide treatment reduces ovarian follicle number in newborn guinea pig offspring.

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Kostro, Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical which has toxic effects on reproduction. In this study, we investigated whether acrylamide administered prenatally can induce follicular atresia in the newborn guinea pig ovary. Another aim was to describe the localization of vimentin filaments and determine their participation in atresia. After prenatal acrylamide treatment, the pool of primordial and primary follicles was significantly reduced. The number of caspase 3 and TUNEL positive oocytes increased compared to the control group. There were no differences in Lamp1 (autophagy marker) staining. A vimentin immunosignal was present in the granulosa cells of primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Interestingly, in contrast to the control group, the oocytes from all follicles in the ACR-treated females were negative for vimentin. These data suggest that prenatal exposure to acrylamide reduced the number of ovarian follicles by inducing follicular atresia mediated by oocyte apoptosis. Acrylamide-induced apoptosis may be associated with destruction of vimentin filaments. PMID:23994668

  13. Deep frying: the role of water from food being fried and acrylamide formation

    Gertz Christian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of acrylamide during food frying is generally influenced by food type, thermal treatment and equipment. The acrylamide concentration is increased when frying oils containing a higher level of polar materials or silicone or larger amounts of diglycerides. This effect may be caused by moisture escaping from food that has an enhancing effect on the heat transfer. It was noticed that if the moisture in the frying operation was bound by special adsorbents, the acrylamide content could be reduced by more than 50%. The effects of several additives like citric acid on the formation of acrylamide during frying of chips were also investigated. The mechanism of acrylamide formation in fried foods is discussed to explain these findings.

  14. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  15. Detection of acrylamide in potato chips using a fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots.

    Hu, Qinqin; Xu, Xiahong; Li, Zhanming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianping; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2014-04-15

    Acrylamide is a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen, but is found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple and sensitive methods for on-line detection of acrylamide are needed to ensure food safety. In this paper, a novel fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots (QDs) was proposed for detecting acrylamide in potato chips. The functional QDs were prepared by their binding with N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS), which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FR-IR) spectra. The carbon-carbon double bonds of NAS modified QDs polymerized with assistance of photo initiator under UV irradiation, leading to QDs getting closer along with fluorescence intensity decreasing. Acrylamide in the sample participated in the polymerization and induced an increase of fluorescence intensity. This method possessed a linear range from 3.5×10(-5) to 3.5 g L(-1) (r(2)=0.94) and a limit of detection of 3.5×10(-5) g L(-1). Although the sensitivity and specificity cannot be compared with standard LC-MS/MS analysis, this new method requires much less time and cost, which is promising for on-line rapid detection of acrylamide in food processing. PMID:24252761

  16. Grafting copolymerization of acrylamides onto preirradiated PP films

    Chen, Jie; Nho, Young Chang; Kwon, Oh Hyun; Hoffman, Allan S.

    1999-06-01

    Acrylamide (AAm), N,N-Dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm) and N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl) methacrylamide (DMAPMAAm) were grafted onto polypropylene (PP) films by preirradiation grafting respectively. The effect of irradiation dose, solvent systems and reaction time on the degree of grafting were determined. The grafted sample films were verified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR) and the determination of water contact angle. The blood compatibility of the grafted PP films were evaluated by the determination of platelet adsorption and thrombus. The blood compatibility of grafted PP films seems better than that of original PP films.

  17. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar...... chips. Glucose content decreased in similar to32% in potato slices soaked 90 min in distilled water. Soaked slices showed on average a reduction of acrylamide formation of 27%, 38% and 20% at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Blanching...... to1.7 g water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) soaked in distilled water for 0 min (control), 40 min and 90 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50degreesC for 30 and 70 min; 70degreesC for 8...

  18. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar...... to1.7 g water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) soaked in distilled water for 0 min (control), 40 min and 90 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50degreesC for 30 and 70 min; 70degreesC for 8...... chips. Glucose content decreased in similar to32% in potato slices soaked 90 min in distilled water. Soaked slices showed on average a reduction of acrylamide formation of 27%, 38% and 20% at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Blanching...

  19. Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl

    Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    half of this percentage (∼27%) could be attributed to the effect of NaCl and 35% to the effect of the slight heating treatment during salt immersion step (25 °C for 5 min). Blanching seems to make the NaCl diffusion in potato tissue easier leading to a significant acrylamide reduction in the potato...... slices (unblanched or raw potato slices); (2) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min in water; (3) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in a 1 g/100 g NaCl solution at 25 °C for 5 min; (4) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in a 3 g/100 g NaCl solution at 25 °C for 5 min; (5) slices...... blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in distilled water at 25 °C for 5 min; and (6) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min in a 3 g/100 g NaCl solution. Blanching followed by the immersion of potato slices in 1 g/100 g NaCl solution was effective in reducing acrylamide content in ∼62%; however, almost...

  20. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide formation and changes in color of fried potato strips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 40 g...... water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10 and...... 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed a...

  1. Modulation Of Acrylamide-Induced Biochemical Alterations In Albino Rats

    Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial neurotoxic chemical that has been recently found in carbohydrate rich foods cooked at high temperature. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of rosemary extract against ACR-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental rats were divided into four groups included a control group, a group treated orally with rosemary extract by supercritical fluid extractor (150 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, a group treated orally with ACR (50 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and a group treated orally with rosemary extract + acrylamide for 14 days. The results indicated that treatment with ACR alone resulted in a significant decrease in the haematological parameters, triglycerides, insulin, creatine kinase and choline esterase while the concentrations of urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were increased. Treatment with rosemary extract during ACR treatment reduced the effects induced by ACR. It could be concluded that rosemary extract exhibited a protective action against ACR-induced biochemical alterations in rats. For this reason, rosemary is recommended to be used in cooked food due to its palatable taste and prophylactic effect.

  2. IMPACT OF PRE-TREATMENTS ON THE ACRYLAMIDE FORMATION AND ORGANOLEPTIC EVOLUTION OF FRIED POTATO CHIPS

    Samir Abdel-Monem Ahmed Ismial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different pre-frying treatments on reduction of acrylamide formation of fried potato Moreover; the impact of different phenol compounds and leaves on acrylamide formation was evaluated. In addition, the effects of these treatments on the sensorial quality of fried potato chips were studied. Results showed that blanching process caused significant decreases in acrylamide content of fried potato. The highest decrease was observed for those samples blanched in MgCl2 (0.1 M, L-cysteine (0.05 M and 0.01 M of citric acid solutions, 97.97, 97.17 and 93.43%, respectively. Soaking of potato slices in water or different solutions significantly reduced the formation of acrylamide. The decreases in acrylamide content ranged from 61.61 to 97.47%. Soaking in crude, semi-purified asparaginase solutions, blanching in hot water plus immersing in the enzyme solutions and soaking in phenolic acid solutions caused significant reduction in the formation of acrylamide of potato chips. Addition of fresh leaves into frying oil significantly influenced acrylamide formation. Oregano, rosemary, bamboo, guava and olive leaves caused the greatest reductions. Potato slices blanched in distilled water at 65°C, NaCl, Mg Cl2 and 0.1 M glutamine had significantly the highest scores of overall acceptability.

  3. Influence of processing conditions on acrylamide content in black ripe olives.

    Casado, Francisco J; Montaño, Alfredo

    2008-03-26

    The presence of acrylamide was investigated in different presentations of commercial black ripe olives, a well-known sterilized alkali-treated product. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after bromination of acrylamide, using (13C3)acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for commercial ripe olives showed good precision and accuracy of the method, with repeatability below 3% and recoveries between 94 and 105%. Acrylamide was detected in all samples, but its concentration varied significantly from 176 to 1578 microg/kg of pulp. The effects of different processing conditions (two preservation methods and three darkening methods), cultivar (Hojiblanca or Manzanilla), and presentation form (pitted or sliced olives) on acrylamide content were evaluated in experiments performed in an olive-processing plant. All canned samples were sterilized at 121 degrees C for 30 min. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the effects of darkening method and olive cultivar were the most pronounced. Acrylamide contents did not significantly differ after 6 months of storage. The small amounts of free amino acids and reducing sugars found in olives before sterilization did not significantly correlate with the acrylamide formed. PMID:18303816

  4. Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats

    Almoeiz Y. Hammad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

  5. Acrylamide Reduction in Potato Chips by Selection of Potato Variety Grown in Iran and Processing Conditions

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, S.; Nikoopour, Hooshang; Kobarfard, Farzad; Parsapour, Mahdi; Moslehishad, Maryam; Hassanabadi, Hassan; Frias, Jesus Maria; Hashemi, Maryam; Dahaghin, Ezzat

    2013-01-01

    Background Acrylamide as a possible carcinogen is known to form in heated carbohydrate-rich food such as potato chips. In this study, the effect of three potato varieties (Agria, Sante and Savalan) and two blanching conditions ((75˚C for 9 min and 83˚C for 2.5 min) on the concentration of precursors and acrylamide reduction in potato chips was investigated. Results Results revealed that potato variety and blanching time-temperature ere important parameters for acrylamide formation in...

  6. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. PMID:26079224

  7. DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN FOOD BY GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Michaela Vieriková

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  Acrylamide in food was determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS after bromination of acrylamide and underivatized acrylamide was quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS. Two different sample preparation methods were used and optimised. The GC-MS method was used for various food matrices like breads, potato crisps, potato crackers, french fries. The UPLC-MS method was used for analysis of coffee. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for acrylamide were 7 µg.kg-1 and 20 µg.kg-1 by GC-MS, 9 µg.kg-1  and 30 µg.kg-1 by UPLC-MS. For both methods the reproducibility, given as relative standard deviation was    doi:10.5219/61  

  8. The use of asparaginase to reduce acrylamide levels in cooked food.

    Xu, Fei; Oruna-Concha, Maria-Jose; Elmore, J Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Strategies proposed for reducing the formation of the suspected carcinogen acrylamide in cooked foods often rely on a reduction in the extent of the Maillard reaction, in which acrylamide is formed from the reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars. However, the Maillard reaction also provides desirable sensory attributes of cooked foods. Mitigation procedures that modify the Maillard reaction may negatively affect flavour and colour. The use of asparaginase to convert asparagine to aspartic acid may provide a means to reduce acrylamide formation, while maintaining sensory quality. This review collates research on the use of enzymes, asparaginase in particular, to mitigate acrylamide formation. Asparaginase is a powerful tool for the food industry and it is likely that its use will increase. However, the potential adverse effects of asparaginase treatment on sensory properties of cooked foods and the need to achieve sufficient enzyme-substrate contact remain areas for future research. PMID:27211635

  9. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. PMID:26304386

  10. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard;

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease...... makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric.We applied an exposure...... due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach.This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological...

  11. Formation of magnetite nanoparticles in poly(acrylamide) gels

    Starodubtsev, Sergey G [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Saenko, Evheniy V [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Dokukin, Maxim E [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Aksenov, Viktor L [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, Vera V [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 117333 (Russian Federation); Zanaveskina, Irina S [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 117333 (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, Alexei R [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2005-03-16

    Magnetic gels with magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in a matrix of poly(acrylamide) gel were studied. Magnetite was synthesized through coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the gel phase, in the solution of linear polymer and in aqueous solution without polymer in alkaline media. The effects of network structure and of the concentration of iron salts in the swollen networks on the composition, structure and properties of magnetic gels have been studied by electron diffraction, XRD, transmission electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. The average size of magnetite nanoparticles, D, is of the order of 10 nm. It decreases with the increase of polymer concentration in the gel phase. In the dried gels the particles form spherical aggregates (diameter about 150 nm), whereas in the solution of linear polymer, in the aqueous solution of iron salts and in the gel with high content of polymer the aggregates have irregular shape.

  12. Mechanistic studies on uranyl ion initiated photopolymerization of acrylamide

    The mechanism of the uranyl ion photoinitiated polymerization of acrylamide has been studied in aqueous solutions and in acetone. Steady-state and dynamic luminescence quenching studies show that initiation proceeds through a thermally activated bimolecular interaction between *UO22+ and monomer involving electron or charge transfer. Results from various studies show that the mechanism previously suggested for this process, involving energy transfer, is incorrect. ESR studies suggest that initiation involves formation of a uranium(V)-radical pair. Polymerization then proceeds through a radical mechanism in both solvents. With the exception of the chloride, the yields do not depend upon the counter-ion. Polymer is frequently produced with adsorbed uranyl ions, which can be separated by dialysis. In agreement with previous studies, photopolymerization proceeds without significant overall reduction in the uranyl concentration. It is shown that this is probably due to any intermediate uranium(V) being reoxidized by monomer, with concurrent thermal initiation of polymerization. (orig.)

  13. SYSTEME ACRYLAMIDE/4VP/BENTONITE,PROPRIETES ET APPLICATIONS.

    BENZEMRA, NASSIBA

    2015-01-01

    nous avons réalisé la polymérisation radicalaire de l’acrylamide en solution aqueuse dans les conditions adiabatiques ,en utilisant le persulfate d'ammonium comme initiateur .Centre technique de polymérisation nous permet d'obtenir des polymères de trais grandes masses moléculaires .les produits obtenus ont été caractérisés . l'hydrolyse basique du polyamide en solution a 60°C est étudiée .les superpolyamides hydrolysés sont caractérisés par spectroscopie Infra-Rouge a transformée de fourr...

  14. Acrylamide: formation, occurrence in food products, detection methods, and legislation.

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Dionisopoulou, Niki

    2014-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing the most recent updates in the field of acrylamide (AA) formation (mechanism, conditions) and the determination of AA in a number of foods (fried or baked potatoes, chips, coffee, bread, etc). The methods applied for AA detection [Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (NACE), High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS), Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Solid-Phase MicroExtraction-Gas Chromatography (SPME-GC), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and MicroEmulsion ElectroKinetic Chromatography (MEEKC) are presented and commented. Several informative figures and tables are included to show the effect of conditions (temperature, time) on the AA formation. A section is also included related to AA legislation in EU and US. PMID:24345045

  15. Polymerisation by acrylamide and acrylic acid inverse suspension

    Sergio Alejandro LLoreda Blanco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes polymerisation by inverse suspension of acrylamide monomers and acrylic acid for forming homopolymers or copolymers This type of polymersitaion's advantages are described and reasons given for why it should be studied. The article stresses the importance of these types of monomer for obtaining materials presenting great affinity for water, such as super-absorbents and controlled liberation mechanism. Important aspects are presented such as type of initiation, monomer composition and continuous phase composition; parameters are described offering an important basis for formulating a system leading to successfully obtaining the desired materials' most relevant characteristics such as particle distribution and size polymerisation kinetics, conversion and water absorption capacity respecting the system's modifiable parameters. The foregoing is important since the product can be modified, bestowing propierties on it which are suitable for its use.

  16. The effect of domestic preparation of some potato products on acrylamide content.

    Michalak, Joanna; Gujska, Elżbieta; Klepacka, Joanna

    2011-11-01

    The influence that food heating has on the concentration of acrylamide in home-cooked potato dishes prepared by high-temperature, such as pan-frying, deep-frying, roasting and microwave heating was analyzed. The experiment was performed with commercially available deep-frozen par-fried French fries and deep-frozen par-fried potato products other than French fries (cubes, wedges, noisettes, pancakes). Acrylamide was found in all deep-frozen par-fried French fries and other deep-frozen par-fried potato products before domestic preparation. The mean level of acrylamide content in all frozen potato products before preparation was found to be 322 μg/kg. Potato products were then prepared at 180 °C for 3 min and at 220 °C for 10 min. After domestic preparation (roasting, pan-frying, deep-frying and microwave heating) it was found that the level of acrylamide in all products increased. Acrylamide content in the analyzed samples significantly increased as the temperature and time of processing increased. The statistical analysis showed significant differences (P food preparation. The level of acrylamide increased with the increased heating temperature and heating time. Additionally, the preparation method of roasting was significantly lower in acrylamide content (P < 0.05) than the preparation method of microwaving although both preparation methods used the same conditions (time and temperature). These results suggest that microwaving might be more favourable to the formation of acrylamide than conventional heating methods, such as roasting. PMID:21853292

  17. Charakterisierung der DNA-schädigenden Wirkung von Acrylamid in Lebensmitteln am Modell der Ratte

    Feld, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Die alpha,beta-ungesättigte Carbonylverbindung Acrylamid entsteht beim Erhitzen von kohlenhydratreichen Lebensmitteln aus der Reaktion von Aminosäuren (hauptsächlich Asparagin) und reduzierenden Zuckern als Nebenprodukt der Maillard-Reaktion. In Langzeitstudien an Ratten wurde ein kanzerogenes Potential von Acrylamid nachgewiesen, was zu seiner Klassifizierung als „wahrscheinlich kanzerogen am Menschen“ (Kategorie 2a) durch die International Agency for Research on Cancer führte. Als Auslöser ...

  18. Potential Risk of Acrylamide Formation in Different Cultivars of Amaranth and Quinoa

    Graeff, S.; Stockmann, F.; Weber, A.; Berhane, B; Mbeng, K.J.; Rohitrattana, R.; Salazar, P.; Shoko, P.; Kaul, H.-P.; W. Claupein

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a potential human carcinogen, is formed in strongly heated carbohydrate-rich food as a part of the Maillard-reaction. The amino acid asparagine (Asn) and reducing sugars are considered to be the main precursors for AA formation. So far, research in AA has mainly focused on potato and cereal products, indicating the relevance of species, cultivars, amount of N fertilizer, and climatic conditions. Potential additional sources of acrylamide in food products might be pseudocereal...

  19. Acrylamide mitigation strategies: critical appraisal of the FoodDrinkEurope toolbox.

    Palermo, M; Gökmen, V; De Meulenaer, B; Ciesarová, Z; Zhang, Y; Pedreschi, F; Fogliano, V

    2016-06-15

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D resources, however no comments about the pro and cons of the different measures were provided to advise the potential users. Experts of the field are aware that not all the strategies proposed have equal value in terms of efficacy and cost/benefit ratio. This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. Five authors from different geographical areas having a publication record on acrylamide mitigation strategies worked independently ranking the efficacy of the acrylamide mitigation strategies taking into account three key parameters: (i) reduction rate; (ii) side effects; and (iii) applicability and economic impact. On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. As expected, all strategies selected in the Toolbox turned out to be useful, however, not at the same level. The use of enzyme asparaginase and the selection of low sugar varieties were considered the best mitigation strategies in bakery and in potato products, respectively. According to authors' opinion most of the other mitigation strategies, although effective, either have relevant side effects on the sensory profile of the products, or they are not easy to implement in industrial production. The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context. PMID:26666890

  20. Acrylamide in relation to asparagine in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread.

    Granby, Kit; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Christensen, Tue; Kann, Mette; Skibsted, Leif H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to the contents of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. The asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in a reduced acrylamide contents in the products. In wheat bread 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14g kg-1) was left after yeast fermentation and baking, while for rye bread 82% of the asparagine was left after sourdough fermentation and baking. The ...

  1. Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments

    Sanny, M.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations.  The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in the preparation of French fries in food service establishments (FSE).  The variation ininitial concentration of reducing sugars, variable frying conditions and food ha...

  2. Acrylamide formation in low-fat potato snacks and its correlation with color development

    Majcher, Malgorzata A.; Jeleñ, Henryk H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin at Agricultural University of Poznań a recipe and technological process of low-fat potato snacks (7% of fat) production, using a combination of extrusion and a roasting process was developed. Due to the character of the product obtained, the amount of acrylamide was analyzed. At the same time, influence of temperature and time of heating on acrylamide formation was verified as well as correlated with color developmen...

  3. Update on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007 to 2010

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food by the European Commission (EC) were extended in 2010 (EC, 2010). The new Recommendation includes a revised categorisation of food products for monitoring purposes. This report describes the results of European acrylamide monitoring during the period from 2007 to 2010 using the revised product categorisation with 10 main food categories and an additional 26 sub-categories. Twenty-five European countries submitted a total ...

  4. Multiplexed holographic data page storage on a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer memory

    Fernández Varó, Elena; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Márquez Ruiz, Andrés; García Llopis, Celia; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Holographic data pages were multiplexed in different thickness layers of a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer. This material is formed of acrylamide photopolymers, which are considered interesting materials for recording holographic memories. A liquid crystal device was used to modify the object beam and store the data pages. A peristrophic multiplexing method is used to store a large number of data pages in the same spot in the material. The bit error rate was calculated fitting the h...

  5. On-line stacking techniques for the nonaqueous capillary electrophoretic determination of acrylamide in processed food

    In the present study, field amplified sample stacking (FASS) techniques in the nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis method (NACE) were introduced for the on-line concentration of the acrylamide to improve acrylamide detection at 210 nm by diode-array detection. Acetonitrile (ACN) as a nonaqueous solvent permits acrylamide to be protonated through the change of its acid-base chemistry, allowing capillary electrophoretic separation of this compound. Choosing 30 mmol L-1 HClO4, 20 mmol L-1 NaClO4, 218 mmol L-1 CH3COOH in ACN as the separation electrolyte and employing sample stacking methods, the LOD value of acrylamide was decreased to 2.6 ng mL-1 with electrokinetic injection and 4.4 ng mL-1 with hydrodynamic injection. Optimized stacking conditions were applied to the determination of acrylamide in several foodstuffs. The method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and widely applicable for the determination of acrylamide in food samples

  6. Rapid determination of acrylamide contaminant in conventional fried foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Zhang, Yu; Dong, Yi; Ren, Yiping; Zhang, Ying

    2006-05-26

    Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was successfully developed and applied for the rapid determination of acrylamide in conventional fried foods, such as potato crisps, potato chips, and fried chicken wings. The method included defatting with n-hexane, extraction with aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), derivatization with potassium bromate (KBrO3) and potassium bromide (KBr), and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The final acrylamide extract was analyzed by GC-ECD for quantification and by GC-MS for confirmation. The chromatographic analysis was performed on the HP-INNOWax capillary column, and good retention and peak response of acrylamide were achieved under the optimal conditions (numbers of theoretical plates N = 83,815). The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.1 microg kg(-1) on the basis of ECD technique. Recoveries of acrylamide from conventional samples spiked at levels of 150, 500 and 1000 microg kg(-1) (n = 4 for each level) ranged between 87 and 97% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 4%. Furthermore, the GC-ECD method showed that no clean-up steps of acrylamide derivative would be performed prior to injection and was slightly more sensitive than the MS/MS-based methods. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that this method should be regarded as a new, low-cost, and robust alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide. PMID:16580677

  7. Acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Olsen, Anja; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    2008-01-01

    within a prospective cohort study on the association between breast cancer and exposure to acrylamide using biomarkers. N-terminal hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide in red blood cells were analyzed (by LC/MS/MS) as biomarkers of exposure on 374 breast cancer......Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed in several foods during high-temperature processing. So far, epidemiological studies have not shown any association between human cancer risk and dietary exposure to acrylamide. The purpose of this study was to conduct a nested case control study...... cases and 374 controls from a cohort of postmenopausal women. The adduct levels of acrylamide and glycidamide were similar in cases and controls, with smokers having much higher levels (similar to 3 times) than nonsmokers. No association was seen between acrylamide-hemoglobin levels and breast cancer...

  8. Protective effect of rosemary on acrylamide motor neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rat offspring: postnatal follow-up study.

    Al-Gholam, Marwa A; Nooh, Hanaa Zakaria; El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Barbary, Abd El-Moneum; Fokar, Ahmed Zo El

    2016-03-01

    The direct interactive effects of rosemary and acrylamide on the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord remains unknown. Our goal is to confirm the protective effects of rosemary against motor neuronal degeneration induced by acrylamide in the developing postnatal rat spinal cord using a postnatal rat model. We assigned the offspring of treated female rats into control, rosemary; acrylamide group; and recovery groups. This work depended on clinical, histopathological, morphometrically, immunohistochemical and genetic methods. In the acrylamide group, we observed oxidation, motor neuron degeneration, apoptosis, myelin degeneration, neurofilament reduction, reactive gliosis. Whoever, concomitant rosemary intake and withdrawal of acrylamide modulate these effects. These findings proof that dietary rosemary can directly protect motor neuron against acrylamide toxicity in the mammalian developing spinal cord. PMID:27051566

  9. Effective treatment for suppression of acrylamide formation in fried potato chips using L-asparaginase from Bacillus subtilis

    Onishi, Yohei; Prihanto, Asep A.; Yano, Shigekazu; Takagi, Kazuyoshi; Umekawa, Midori; Wakayama, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that acrylamide, a potential carcinogen, is formed from the reaction of L-asparagine (L-Asn) and reducing sugars contained in foods during heating processes and free asparagine is a limiting factor for acrylamide formation. It has been reported that potato products such as potato chips, which are made through heating processes, contain high levels of acrylamide. To decrease the amount of L-Asn in potatoes using L-asparaginase, effective treatment conditions of sliced pota...

  10. Determining the amount of Acrylamide in Potato Chips Using Xanthydrol as a Derivative Representative with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Maryam Zokaei; Marzieh Kamankesh; Saeideh Shojaei; Abdorreza Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the production process of foods rich in carbohydrates and some other foods containing precursors of acrylamide formation, there is the possibility of acrylamide creation, which is a mutagen and carcinogen material. This study aims to introduce and optimize a new method for determining acrylamide in potato chips using xanthydrol as a derivative representative with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Materials and Methods: Important factors in the derivatizat...

  11. Update on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007 to 2010

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recommendations on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food by the European Commission (EC were extended in 2010 (EC, 2010. The new Recommendation includes a revised categorisation of food products for monitoring purposes. This report describes the results of European acrylamide monitoring during the period from 2007 to 2010 using the revised product categorisation with 10 main food categories and an additional 26 sub-categories. Twenty-five European countries submitted a total of 13 162 acrylamide results for the four-year period including 2 200 results for the year 2010. During the monitoring period, time trends in acrylamide levels for the food categories were estimated. In 2010, middle bound mean acrylamide values ranged from 31 μg/kg for ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ to 1 350 μg/kg for ‘coffee substitutes’. The highest 95th percentile value of 8 044 μg/kg was reported for ‘instant coffee’. The trend analysis showed only few changes in acrylamide levels from 2007 to 2010. At main food category level, a ‘common European trend’ was a decrease in acrylamide levels for ‘processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and an increase for ‘coffee and coffee substitutes’. As a ‘common European trend’ at sub-category level, acrylamide levels of ‘biscuits and rusks for infants and young children’ and ‘non-potato savoury snacks’ showed a decrease and an increase was seen for ‘crisp bread’. A marginal decrease was observed for the sub-category ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and a marginal increase was observed for ‘French fries from fresh potatoes’ as well as for ‘instant coffee’. Although only applicable from 2011, acrylamide levels were compared with indicative values recommended by the EC. Indicative values were exceeded in the case of 3-20 % of samples in different food categories based on

  12. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark.

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Nauta, Maarten; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric. We applied an exposure-based approach and proposed a model of three components: an exposure, health-outcome, and DALY-module. We estimated BoD using two approaches for estimating cancer risk based on toxicological data and two approaches for estimating DALY. In Denmark, 1.8 healthy life years per 100.000 inhabitants are lost each year due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach. This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological choices and assumptions used in BoD studies is necessary before use in policy making. PMID:26845613

  13. The genotoxicity of acrylamide and glycidamide in big blue rats.

    Mei, Nan; McDaniel, Lea P; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Xiaoqing; Shaddock, Joseph G; Mittelstaedt, Roberta A; Azuma, Mizuo; Shelton, Sharon D; McGarrity, Lynda J; Doerge, Daniel R; Heflich, Robert H

    2010-06-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a mutagen and rodent carcinogen, recently has been detected in fried and baked starchy foods, a finding that has prompted renewed interest in its potential for toxicity in humans. In the present study, we exposed Big Blue rats to the equivalent of approximately 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight/day of AA or its epoxide metabolite glycidamide (GA) via the drinking water, an AA treatment regimen comparable to those used to produce cancer in rats. After 2 months of dosing, the rats were euthanized and blood was taken for the micronucleus assay; spleens for the lymphocyte Hprt mutant assay; and liver, thyroid, bone marrow, testis (from males), and mammary gland (females) for the cII mutant assay. Neither AA nor GA increased the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes. In contrast, both compounds produced small (approximately twofold to threefold above background) but significant increases in lymphocyte Hprt mutant frequency (MF, p genotoxicity in tumor target tissue was weak, in combination with the responses in surrogate tissues, the results are consistent with AA being a gene mutagen in the rat via metabolism to GA. PMID:20200216

  14. Determination of acrylamide in starch-based foods by HPLC with pre-column ultraviolet derivatization.

    Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Liu, Aiming

    2011-01-01

    A new method is developed for the determination of acrylamide in starch-based foods. The method included the extraction of acrylamide with water, defatting with hexane, derivatization with potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) and potassium bromide (KBr), liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-hexane (4:1), and concentration. The final analyte (2-bromopropenamide, 2-BPA) is analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection for quantification and by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for confirmation. The chromatographic analysis is performed on an ODS-3 C(18) column, and good retention and peak response of acrylamide are achieved under the optimal conditions. The limit of detection and quantitation are estimated to be 15 and 50 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of acrylamide from the commercial samples are spiked at levels of 50-1000 μg/kg, and range between 89.6 and 102.0%. These results show that this method should be regarded as a new, low-cost, and robust alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide. PMID:22080811

  15. Effect of chitosan on the formation of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural in model, biscuit and crust systems.

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-10

    Chitosan has been popular as a natural food preservative due to its antibacterial and antifungal activities. It may be used in thermally processed foods such as bread to delay staling and improve the microbial stability during the shelf-life. However, the thermal process could lead to the formation of harmful compounds in bakery products through chemical reactions, in which chitosan could take part. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan on the formation of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in different model systems. Addition of acid to the asparagine-glucose model system decreased the initial rate of acrylamide formation to approx. 4-times. The chitosan included model system contained higher acrylamide than the asparagine-glucose-acid model but still lower than the asparagine-glucose model system. The HMF content was decreased in the presence of acid due to acid-catalyzed degradation. Additionally, HMF is a potent carbonyl source and utilized in the Maillard reaction. In biscuit samples, addition of acid or chitosan solution to the dough did not significantly affect the acrylamide formation (p > 0.05), however addition of acid increased the formed HMF. In crust samples, acrylamide formation was decreased by acid, while chitosan showed no additional decrease. No interaction was found between HMF and chitosan. The results suggest that the effect of chitosan should be carefully evaluated apart from the effect of acid, in which chitosan was solubilized. PMID:27406058

  16. A Monte Carlo risk assessment model for acrylamide formation in French fries.

    Cummins, Enda; Butler, Francis; Gormley, Ronan; Brunton, Nigel

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the likely human exposure to the group 2a carcinogen, acrylamide, from French fries by Irish consumers by developing a quantitative risk assessment model using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Various stages in the French-fry-making process were modeled from initial potato harvest, storage, and processing procedures. The model was developed in Microsoft Excel with the @Risk add-on package. The model was run for 10,000 iterations using Latin hypercube sampling. The simulated mean acrylamide level in French fries was calculated to be 317 microg/kg. It was found that females are exposed to smaller levels of acrylamide than males (mean exposure of 0.20 microg/kg bw/day and 0.27 microg/kg bw/day, respectively). Although the carcinogenic potency of acrylamide is not well known, the simulated probability of exceeding the average chronic human dietary intake of 1 microg/kg bw/day (as suggested by WHO) was 0.054 and 0.029 for males and females, respectively. A sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of the selection of appropriate cultivars with known low reducing sugar levels for French fry production. Strict control of cooking conditions (correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.35 for frying time and temperature, respectively) and blanching procedures (correlation coefficient -0.25) were also found to be important in ensuring minimal acrylamide formation. PMID:19659557

  17. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    Graft co polymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h-1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the super absorbent properties are found to be P H sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted super absorbent polymers.

  18. Determination of Residual Acrylamide in Medical Polyacrylamide Hydrogel by High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectroscopy

    WEI-WEI LI; HUI LI; ZHI-FEI LIU; QUN QIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine residual acrylamide in medical polyacrylamide hydrogel by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Methods After 13C3 labeled acrylamide was added, the sample was extracted with water and then cleaned up with ExtrelutTM 20. The polyaerylamide hydrogel sample and 20 clinical cases were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution quantifying technique in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Results Acrylamide was separated from polyacrylamide hydrogel. The concentration of acrylamide in polyacrylamide hydrogel ranged from 3.9×109 to 3.1×108g/L in the 20 clinical cases. The peak area was favorable linear and the range was up to 3 000 μg/L. The recovery rate was 103.1% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.20%, when the mark level was 50 μg/L. Conclusion HPLC-MS is a rapid, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of residual acrylamide in medical polyacrylamide hydrogel.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(2-Hydroxyethylethylmethacrylate-Co-Acrylamide Hydrogel for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    Prachi U. Trivedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, the swellable polymeric materials have been used widely as a carrier for drug delivery systems and have gained attention owing to their peculiar characteristics like swelling in aqueous medium, pH or temperature sensitivity or sensitivity towards external stimuli. Hydrogels being biocompatible due to their high water content and low interfacial tension with the biological fluids have been helpful as targetable carriers for bioactive drugs with tissue specificity. The purpose of research is to provide the targeted drug release in the intestine for a prolong period of time. pH sensitive hydrogel, 2-Hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide was prepared by polymerization in aqueous solution from 2-Hydroxyethlmethacrylate(2-HEMA and acrylamide monomers using N,N-Methylenebis(acrylamide as a cross linker. It was shown that the swelling behavior of 2-HEMA-co-acrylamide can be controlled by changing the molar concentration of acrylamide. The hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, tests to assess swellability, drug loading and dissolution techniques.

  20. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of head-neck and thyroid cancers : results from the netherlands cohort study

    Schouten, L.J.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide exposure has been related to an increased incidence of oral and thyroid tumors in animal studies. In 1986, 120,852 persons (aged 55-69 years) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Dietary acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was based on chemical

  1. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  2. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per;

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method for analy...

  3. The volume of Purkinje cells decreases in the cerebellum of acrylamide-intoxicated rats, but no cells are lost

    Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Tandrup, T; Braendgaard, H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide intoxication on the numbers of granule and Purkinje cells and the volume of Purkinje cell perikarya have been evaluated with stereological methods. The analysis was carried out in the cerebella of rats that had received a dose of 33.3 mg/kg acrylamide, twice a week, for 7...

  4. Pre-irradiation induced graft copolymerization of MCC powder with acrylamide

    Microcrystalline cellulose-graft-Acrylamide (MCC-g-AM) was synthesized by 60Co γ-rays pre-irradiation method. The effects of various reaction conditions on the grafting degree and the utilization ratio of acrylamide were studied. The structures of the grafted copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The highest grafting degree and utilization ratio of acrylamide were more than 65%, which was obtained at reaction time of 3 h, pre-absorbed dose of 35 kGy, reaction temperature of 40 degree C, MCC/AM mass ratio of 0.5:1, Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O/AM mass ratio of 0.01%, and AM monomer concentration of 5%. (authors)

  5. Pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure and survival after breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women

    Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Outzen, Malene;

    2012-01-01

    especially regards endocrine related tumors. In human epidemiological studies, dietary exposure to acrylamide has also been suggested related to higher risk of endocrine related tumors, like estrogen sensitive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure......, measured by acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AA-Hb and GA-Hb), were associated to mortality in breast cancer cases. Among 24,697 postmenopausal women included into a Danish cohort between 1993 and 1997, 420 developed breast cancer before 2001 and 110 died before 2009. AA-Hb and GA......-Hb concentrations measured in blood samples were related to mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Estimates are given per 25pmol/g globin higher levels.Among non-smokers, higher concentrations of GA-Hb were associated to a higher hazard rate of breast cancer specific mortality (HR (95% CI): 1.63 (1...

  6. New corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether for mild steel in 1 M HCl

    Ma, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Shan, Mingli; Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Tang, Qunwei

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of good inhibition performance has been a persistent objective for advanced inhibitor industry. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of a new corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether (AAME) from N-Methylol acrylamide (N-MAM) for mild steel in 1 M HCl. The resultant adsorption films have inhibition efficiency as high as 96.2%. Moreover, a theoretical investigation is also launched to demonstrate the potential mechanism behind the promising corrosion behaviors. This work represents a significant step forward, as it demonstrates how to make scalable AAME inhibitors as well as to enhance inhibition performances for high-efficiency and cost-effective corrosion inhibition platforms.

  7. Dietary acrylamide exposure among Finnish adults and children: The potential effect of reduction measures

    Hirvonen, Tero; Jestoi, Marika; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa; Virtanen, Suvi M; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Kontto, Jukka; Virtamo, Jarmo; Simell, Olli; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A deterministic exposure assessment using the Nusser method that adjusts for within-subject variation and for nuisance effects among Finnish children and adults was carried out. The food consumption data covered 2,038 adults (25?74 years old) and 1,514 children of one, three, and six years of age, with the data on foods? acrylamide content obtained from published Finnish studies. We found that acrylamide exposure was highest among the three-year-old children (median: 1.01 ...

  8. Kinetics of formation of acrylamide and Schiff base intermediates from asparagine and glucose

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik; Skibsted, Leif H.

    2008-01-01

    From the concentration of glucose and asparagine as reactants and of acrylamide as product each determined by LC-MS during reaction in an acetonitrile/water (68:32) model system at pH 7.6 (0.04 M phosphate buffer) and from the relative concentration of the Schiff base intermediate, the......, formation of the Schiff base is accordingly rate determining, while at lower temperatures, decarboxylation becomes rate determining. Aminopropionamide was only detected at reaction times at which acrylamide formation already is significant in favor of, a reaction path including direct formation of...

  9. Multiplexed holographic data page storage on a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer memory.

    Fernández, Elena; Ortuño, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi; Márquez, Andrés; García, Celia; Beléndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2008-09-01

    Holographic data pages were multiplexed in different thickness layers of a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer. This material is formed of acrylamide photopolymers, which are considered interesting materials for recording holographic memories. A liquid crystal device was used to modify the object beam and store the data pages. A peristrophic multiplexing method is used to store a large number of data pages in the same spot in the material. The bit error rate was calculated fitting the histograms of the images to determine what parameters improve the quality of the images. PMID:18758515

  10. Acrylamide, an in vivo thyroid carcinogenic agent, induces DNA damage in rat thyroid cell lines and primary cultures.

    Chico Galdo, V; Massart, C; Jin, L; Vanvooren, V; Caillet-Fauquet, P; Andry, G; Lothaire, P; Dequanter, D; Friedman, M; Van Sande, J

    2006-09-26

    Chronic treatment of rats with acrylamide induces various tumors among which thyroid tumors are the most frequent. The aim of the present study was to develop an in vitro model of acrylamide action on thyroid cells to allow the investigation of the mechanism of this tumorigenic action. The first part of the study considered as targets, characteristics of thyroid metabolism, which could explain the thyroid specificity of acrylamide action: the cAMP mitogenic effect and the important H2O2 generation by thyroid cells. However, acrylamide did not modulate H2O2 or cAMP generation in the thyroid cell models studied. No effect on thyroid cell proliferation was observed in the rat thyroid cell line FRTL5. On the other hand, as shown by the comet assay, acrylamide induced DNA damage, as the positive control H2O2 in the PC Cl3 and FRTL5 rat thyroid cell lines, as well as in thyroid cell primary cultures. The absence of effect of acrylamide on H2AX histone phosphorylation suggests that this effect does not reflect the induction of DNA double strand breaks. DNA damage leads to the generation of mutations. It is proposed that such mutations could play a role in the carcinogenic effect of acrylamide. The mechanism of this effect can now be studied in this in vitro model. PMID:16859826

  11. Isolation and characterization of an acrylamide-degrading yeast Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 KCTC 11960BP.

    Rahim, M B H; Syed, M A; Shukor, M Y

    2012-10-01

    As well as for chemical and environmental reasons, acrylamide is widely used in many industrial applications. Due to its carcinogenicity and toxicity, its discharge into the environment causes adverse effects on humans and ecology alike. In this study, a novel acrylamide-degrading yeast has been isolated. The isolate was identified as Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 using ITS rRNA analysis. The results showed that the best carbon source for growth was glucose at 1.0% (w/v). The optimum acrylamide concentration, being a nitrogen source for cellular growth, was at 500 mg l(-1). The highest tolerable concentration of acrylamide was 1500 mg l(-1) whereas growth was completely inhibited at 2000 mg l(-1). At 500 mg l(-1), the strain MBH completely degraded acrylamide on day 5. Acrylic acid as a metabolite was detected in the media. Strain MBH23 grew well between pH 6.0 and 8.0 and between 27 and 30 °C. Amides such as 2-chloroacetamide, methacrylamide, nicotinamide, acrylamide, acetamide, and propionamide supported growth. Toxic heavy metals such as mercury, chromium, and cadmium inhibited growth on acrylamide. PMID:22144174

  12. Determining the amount of Acrylamide in Potato Chips Using Xanthydrol as a Derivative Representative with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Maryam Zokaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the production process of foods rich in carbohydrates and some other foods containing precursors of acrylamide formation, there is the possibility of acrylamide creation, which is a mutagen and carcinogen material. This study aims to introduce and optimize a new method for determining acrylamide in potato chips using xanthydrol as a derivative representative with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Materials and Methods: Important factors in the derivatization and measurement processes were optimized using the one-factor-at-a-time method. The peak areas were assumed as the GC-MS response to evaluate the extraction efficiency of acrylamide, and optimization for all tests was performed two times. Figures of merit of the proposed method were evaluated. The amount of acrylamide in four potato chips samples, obtained from the market in Tehran city, was determined using the proposed method. Results: The optimum amounts of effective parameters, including derivatization temperature at 25oC, derivatization time (40 min, xanthydrol volume (40 µL, extracted solvent volume (500 µL and pH=7 were determined. The figures of merit for the proposed method were at the ideal range. The maximum and minimum amounts of acrylamide in the chip samples were also measured. Conclusions: The performance and reliability of proposed method as a simple, efficient and rapid method for determining acrylamide in potato chip samples were demonstrated.

  13. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies: the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer.

    Mathilda L Bongers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in many everyday foods. Since the finding of its presence in foods in 2002, epidemiological studies have found some suggestive associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and the risk of various cancers. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate for the first time the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of several histological subtypes of lymphatic malignancies. METHODS: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 120,852 men and women followed-up since September 1986. The number of person years at risk was estimated by using a random sample of participants from the total cohort that was chosen at baseline (n =5,000. Acrylamide intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire combined with acrylamide data for Dutch foods. Hazard ratios (HRs were calculated for acrylamide intake as a continuous variable as well as in categories (quintiles and tertiles, for men and women separately and for never-smokers, using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After 16.3 years of follow-up, 1,233 microscopically confirmed cases of lymphatic malignancies were available for multivariable-adjusted analysis. For multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma, HRs for men were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.27 and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.61 per 10 µg acrylamide/day increment, respectively. For never-smoking men, the HR for multiple myeloma was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.85. No associations were observed for women. CONCLUSION: We found indications that acrylamide may increase the risk of multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma in men. This is the first epidemiological study to investigate the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies, and more research into these observed associations is warranted.

  14. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  15. DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN RAT SERUM AND SCIATIC NERVE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON-CAPTURE DETECTION

    A modified method for the derivatization and analysis of acrylamide as 2-bromopropenamide by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was validated in serum and sciatic nerve from rats. he method was accurate and precise over the concentration range of 2240 to 74700 ppm (w/v...

  16. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  17. Biomarkers of Human Exposure to Acrylamide and Relation to Polymorphisms in Metabolizing Genes

    Duale, N.; Bjellaas, T.; Alexander, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is formed in heat treated carbohydrate rich foods in the so-called Maillard reaction. AA is readily absorbed in the body and converted to glycidamide (GA) by epoxidation by the CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E) enzyme. Both AA and GA may be detoxified through direct conjunction to...

  18. PREPARATION OF STARCH-G-POLY(ACRYLAMIDE) COPOLYMERS USING REACTIVE EXTRUSION

    Graft copolymers of starch and poly(acrylamide)(PAAm) were prepared using a 30-mm corotating twin screw extruder with ammonium persulfate as the initiator. Feed rates at 50% moisture content ranged from 109 g/min to 325 g/min, with screw speeds in the range 100 rpm to 300 rpm. Under most condition...

  19. Michael addition reactions of cyclanones with acrylamides: Producing 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives or ene-lactams

    2008-01-01

    The electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) in the electrophilic alkenes employed in the Michael addition reaction are almost only CO2R, CN, COR, NO2, and SO2Ph. Although amides (CONR1R2) are also typical electron-withdrawing groups and are of great importance in organic synthesis, they are scarcely em-ployed as the EWGs of the electrophilic alkenes in the Michael addition reaction. In this work, the Mi-chael reactions of acrylamide and its derivatives with cyclanones were successfully carried out in the presence of enough radical inhibitors. The amide groups play a key role in producing the preferred products. The N-substituted acrylamides, including N-monosubstituted and N,N-disubstituted acryla-mides could react with cyclohexanone (CHn) to give the expected 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives; how-ever, acrylamide reacting with cyclohexanone only produced ene-lactam. Cyclanones also have effects on the products, while the ring size of cyclanones influences the reaction yield and the α-substituent decides the ratio of resulting isomeric ene-lactams.

  20. Michael addition reactions of cyclanones with acrylamides: Producing 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives or ene-lactams

    DAI WeiFeng; WANG ChaoHua; ZHANG Xi; ZHANG JinMing; LANG MeiDong

    2008-01-01

    The electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) in the electrophilic alkenes employed in the Michael addition reaction are almost only CO2R, CN, COR, NO2, and SO2Ph. Although amides (CONR1R2) are also typical electron-withdrawing groups and are of great importance in organic synthesis, they are scarcely em-ployed as the EWGs of the electrophilic alkenes in the Michael addition reaction. In this work, the Mi-chael reactions of acrylamide and its derivatives with cyclanones were successfully carried out in the presence of enough radical inhibitors. The amide groups play a key role in producing the preferred products. The N-substituted acrylamides, including N-monosubstituted and N,N-disubstituted acryla-mides could react with cyclohexanone (CHn) to give the expected 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives; how-ever, acrylamide reacting with cyclohexanone only produced ene-lactam. Cyclanones also have effects on the products, while the ring size of cyclanones influences the reaction yield and the o-substituent decides the ratio of resulting isomeric ene-lactams.

  1. Determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid by isocratic liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Pierri, Marianna; Contursi, Michela

    2006-02-24

    The electrochemical behaviour of the polycrystalline platinum electrode towards the oxidation/reduction of short-chain unsaturated aliphatic molecules such as acrylamide and acrylic acid was investigated in acidic solutions. Analytes were separated by reverse phase liquid chromatographic and quantified using a pulsed amperometric detection. A new two-step waveform, is introduced for detection of acrylamide and acrylic acid. Detection limits (LOD) of 20 nM (1. 4 microg/kg) and 45 nM (3.2 microg/kg) were determined in water solutions containing acrylamide and acrylic acid, respectively. Compared to the classical three-step waveform, the proposed two-step waveform shows favourable analytical performance in terms of LOD, linear range, precision and improved long-term reproducibility. The proposed analytical method combined with clean-up procedure accomplished by Carrez clearing reagent and subsequent extraction with a strong cation exchanger cartridges (SPE), was successfully used for the quantification of low concentrations of acrylamide in foodstuffs such as coffee and potato fries. PMID:16426623

  2. 78 FR 68852 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for...

  3. Impact of solvent selection on graft polymerization of acrylamide onto starch

    The impact on polymer properties [molecular weight, monomer conversion, graft content, graft efficiency and anhydroglucose units between grafts (AGU/graft)] that result from changing the solvent for the graft co-polymerization of acrylamide onto starch from water to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was eval...

  4. Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The use of liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and direct analysis real-time high-resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) defines a new scenario in the analysis of thermal-induced toxicants, such as acrylamide. Several factors contribute to the definition of the com

  5. Application of a PVA/Acrylamide photopolymer for data page storage as a holographic memory

    Fernández Varó, Elena; García Llopis, Celia; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada

    2007-01-01

    Holographic data pages have been stores into a PVA/Acrylamide photopolymer. During storage process, some parameters like exposure time, beam ratio and intensity beam have been controlled to obtain high quality images after reconstruction process. Bit Error Rate (BER) has been calculated by fitting the histograms to the images.

  6. Characterization of acrylamide-based monoliths for CEC separations of branched oligosaccharides in analytical glycobiology

    Guryča, Vilém; Palm, A. K.; Novotný, M. V.; Michálek, Jiří

    Bratislava : Ústav polymérov, 2004. s. 105. [Slovensko-české dni o polyméroch /3./. 26.09.2004-29.09.2004, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : acrylamide * monoliths * capillary electrochromatography Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  7. Genotoxic effects of acrylamide and glycidamide in mouse lymphoma cells.

    Mei, Nan; Hu, Jiaxiang; Churchwell, Mona I; Guo, Lei; Moore, Martha M; Doerge, Daniel R; Chen, Tao

    2008-02-01

    In addition to occupational exposures to acrylamide (AA), concerns about AA health risks for the general population have been recently raised due to the finding of AA in food. In this study, we evaluated the genotoxicity of AA and its metabolite glycidamide (GA) in L5178Y/Tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells. The cells were treated with 2-18 mM of AA or 0.125-4 mM of GA for 4 h without metabolic activation. The DNA adducts, mutant frequencies and the types of mutations for the treated cells were examined. Within the dose range tested, GA induced DNA adducts of adenine and guanine [N3-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-adenine and N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine] in a linear dose-dependent manner. The levels of guanine adducts were consistently about 60-fold higher across the dose range than those of adenine. In contrast, no GA-derived DNA adducts were found in the cells treated with any concentrations of AA, consistent with a lack of metabolic conversion of AA to GA. However, the mutant frequency was significantly increased by AA at concentrations of 12 mM and higher. GA was mutagenic starting with the 2mM dose, suggesting that GA is much more mutagenic than AA. The mutant frequencies were increased with increasing concentrations of AA and GA, mainly due to an increase of proportion of small colony mutants. To elucidate the underlying mutagenic mechanism, we examined the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at four microsatellite loci spanning the entire chromosome 11 for mutants induced by AA or GA. Compared to GA induced mutations, AA induced more mutants whose LOH extended to D11Mit22 and D11Mit74, an alteration of DNA larger than half of the chromosome. Statistical analysis of the mutational spectra revealed a significant difference between the types of mutations induced by AA and GA treatments (P=0.018). These results suggest that although both AA and GA generate mutations through a clastogenic mode of action in mouse lymphoma cells, GA induces mutations via a DNA adduct

  8. Quantification of Acrylamide in Various Belgian Potato Products Using Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection

    Douny, Caroline; Widart, Joëlle; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; de Pauw, Edwin; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide (CH2=CHCONH2), a neurotoxic and potentially carcinogenic substance for human health, is in the glare of the spotlights for a few years. This is mostly due to the fact that acrylamide was found worldwide in various heated foodstuffs. Levels reported in the literature vary from 25 to 2000 ìg/kg and potato products are considered as the most contaminated. A possible pathway of synthesis of acrylamide is the Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and the amino acid asparagine. The a...

  9. Evaluation of the Antitoxic Effect of Phthalides from Apium graveolens in Acrylamide Intoxication I. Evolution of the Hepatic Cytolysis and Proteosynthetic Parameters in Acrylamide Intoxication on the Background of Phthalide Protection

    Cornelia PRISACARU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a toxic compound formed during thermical processing of foods that contain amino acids, mainly asparagine, and reducing sugars. The toxicodynamics of acrylamide, exerted mainly by its major metabolite glycidamide, is expressed by mutagenic, carcinogenic and imunosupressive effects. Due to its toxicity and its high prevalence in aliments, the present paper approaches a possible way of reducing the toxic effects of acrylamide by using phytotherapeutical means. In this direction, the antitoxic potential of some phytopreparates obtained from Apium graveolens (Apii aetheroleum, extractive solutions from A. radix, A. folium and A. semen were monitorized on the background of acrylamide intoxication. The antitoxic potential of phthalides has been evaluated by determining biochemical parameters: hepatic cytolysis parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanil aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and protesosynthesis parameters (colinesterase, total poteins, albumins. The biochemical investigation confirmed the antitoxic potential fo phthalides from celery, the highest protection being obtained for the phytopreparate from Apii semen.

  10. Robust modelling of heat-induced reactions in an industrial food production process exemplified by acrylamide generation in breakfast cereals

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Lennox, Martin; Granby, Kit;

    2008-01-01

    Data from an industrial case study of breakfast cereal production indicated that the generated amounts of acrylamide are greatly dependent upon the combined effects of temperature and heating time in a roasting step process. Two approaches to obtain process models for acrylamide generation were...... importance of robustness in the developed models. The correlations obtained for predicting acrylamide generation in the case study present a useful tool for food processing industry to minimize acrylamide generation. In the present case it was possible by lowering process temperature and prolonging residence...... difficulties in applying multi-parameter models and emphasized the advantages of "classical" approaches to process modelling, especially for use in an industrial context. The study faced with a significant degree of variability in the data, due to fluctuations in the process, which also emphasized the...

  11. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry

    Wenyang Zhang; Zhiwei Yuan; Lulu Huang; Jie Kang; Ruowei Jiang; Hongying Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under b...

  12. Improvement in the behavior of bromelain coupled to pNIPAm polymers containing acrylamide or acrylic acid

    Rubab Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Bromelain was coupled to N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm)polymers, synthesized using NIPAm and various concentrations of acrylamide (Ac) or acrylic acid (AAc). Incorporation of Ac/AAcinto the polymer increased the LCST (lower critical solutiontemperature) in a concentration dependent manner but AAc wasmore effective in this regard; the LCST rose to 40°C when 6 percent AAc was used. Incorporation of Ac/AAc increased the coupling of enzyme to the polymer and the η (effectiveness factor) o...

  13. Should veterinarians consider acrylamide that potentially occurs in starch-rich foodstuffs as a neurotoxin in dogs?

    L. Le Roux-Pullen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Three clinically healthy Labrador puppies developed ataxia, hypermetria and convulsions shortly after eating the burnt crust of maize porridge. Two of the puppies died. Acrylamide toxicity was considered based on the history of all 3 puppies developing nervous signs after being exposed to a starch-based foodstuff that was subjected to high temperature during preparation. Acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity is thought to partially result from a distal axonopathy.

  14. A Degradable, Thermo-sensitive Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-Based Scaffold with Controlled Porosity for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Galperin, Anna; Long, Thomas J.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-based scaffold with degradability and controlled porosity. Biodegradable poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) hydrogels were synthesized by photo-copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane and polycaprolactone dimethacrylate. The hydrogels’ phase transition temperature, swelling and viscoelastic properties, as well as hydrolytic degradability at 25 and 37°C, were explored. A sphere-templating technique was...

  15. Studies on Biohemical Mechanism of Neurotoxicity Induced by Acrylamide in Rats

    HEXIWEN; LUJING; 等

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide on calmoduline(CaM),cAMP,cGMP,Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase and 45Ca2+ uptake in nervous system were detrmined in Wistar rats(ip,10or 50mg·kg-1 for 12d),The results indicate that acrylamide caused an alteration in calcium homeostasis in rat brain by decreasing the Ca2+ -sequestering capacity of microsomes,and this may occur due to an efflux of calcium secondary to a microsomal structure damage.The changes of CaM in nervous system coupled with potential alteration in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration could affect many CaM-dependent enzymes(i.e.Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase)and cyclic AMP system,and CaM or cAMP is known to be“toxicological second messenger”that could initiate neurotoxicity,though more work is needed to elucidate the details of the mechanism.

  16. The radiation grafting of acrylamide to polymer substrates in the presence of cupric ion

    Medical applications for synthetic polymers are widespread. They are used as components of therapeutic or diagnostic devices, or tissue substitutes. Since the living body is largely aqueous in nature, much effort has gone into making polymeric biomaterial interfaces as similar to this environment as possible. The covalent grafting of hydrophilic polymers to strong hydrophobic polymer supports is one useful and efficient way to deposit such a hydrophilic surface region. Polyacrylamide has shown evidence of being bio-compatible, although some controversy exists with respect to its blood compatibility. Techniques have been developed for grafting acrylamide to other polymers via ceric ion initiation and plasma polymerization. The study reported here is concerned with the grafting of acrylamide to polymer supports (e.g. silicone rubber, polyesterurethane, polyethylene) for evaluation as a new biomaterial. The substrate polymers were immersed in aqueous monomer solutions with/without Cu(NO3)2 and irradiated in a cobalt 60 source. (U.K.)

  17. Color development and acrylamide content of pre-dried potato chips

    Pedreschi, Franco; León, Jorge; Mery, Domingo;

    2007-01-01

    to 1.8% (total basis) for color quantification. Acrylamide concentration was determined only in final chips fried at 120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C and compared with that of two brands of commercial chips produced in Chile (Moms and Frito Lay). Color values in L*a*b* units were recorded......The objective of this work was to study the development of color formation in pre-dried potato slices during frying and acrylamide formation in the final potato chips. Color measurement was done by using an inexpensive computer vision technique which allowed quantifying representatively...... and precisely the color of complex surfaces such as those of potato chips in L*a*b* units from RGB images. Prior to frying, potato slices (Desiree variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were blanched in hot water at 85 degrees C for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were considered as the control. Slices of the same...

  18. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    Pedersen, Grete S; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J;

    2010-01-01

    breast cancer cases were ascertained, with hormone receptor status information for 43%. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to determine hazard ratios in quintiles of dietary acrylamide intake stratifying on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and smoking status. No...... study showed some indications of a positive association between dietary acrylamide intake and receptor-positive breast cancer risk in postmenopausal never-smoking women. Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our observations....... risk of postmenopausal breast cancer stratified by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. This study was embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, which was initiated in 1986 enrolling 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. After 13.3 years of follow-up, 2225 incident...

  19. Acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization: in situ, real-time monitoring using nir spectroscopy

    M. M. E. Colmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of on-line NIR spectroscopy for the prediction of the evolution of monomer concentration, conversion and average particle diameter in acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization was evaluated. The spectral ranges were chosen as those representing the decrease in concentration of monomer. An increase in the baseline shift indicated that the NIR spectra were affected by particle size. Multivariate partial least squares calibration models were developed to relate NIR spectra collected by the immersion probe with off-line conversion and polymer particle size data. The results showed good agreement between off-line data and values predicted by the NIR calibration models and these latter were also able to detect different types of operational disturbances. These results indicate that it is possible to monitor variables of interest during acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerizations.

  20. Quantitation of acrylamide (and polyacrylamide): critical review of methods for trace determination/formulation analysis and future-research recommendations. Final report

    Polyacrylamides (esp. polyelectrolytes) have gained wide usage in water treatment (as flocculants/coagulants), tertiary oil recovery, and various other applications such as sewer grouts. Unreacted, residual acrylamide monomer (2-propenamide: CH2=CH-C(=O)-NH2) is usually present in the various bulk commercial formulations at low fractional percentages. Although the polymers are relatively nontoxic, acrylamide can elicit severe neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. For health concerns, use of polyacrylamides in drinking water has been subjected to closer evaluation during the last decade. Currently, dosage standards are indirectly based on the maximum concentration of acrylamide that would result from use of a commercial formulation of known acrylamide content. Although numerous methods of chemical analysis exist for determining the acrylamide content of a polyacrylamide formulation, no standardized method has been adopted for directly determining trace concentrations of acrylamide in water (e.g., at the sub-parts-per-billion level, ng-micrograms/L). This report represents the first in-depth literature review of methods for determining acrylamide monomer. Over 100 references were reviewed, and those that deal specifically with acrylamide determination are annotated in detail. The approach was to unify the general chemistry of acrylamide (and amides) with the published methods for quantitation

  1. Study on grafting reaction of acrylamide onto pre-irradiated polypropylene fibers

    Grafting reaction of acrylamide onto pre-irradiated polypropylene fibers in inert medium (N2) has been studied. The grafting degree has been determined as a function of radiation dose, monomer concentration, temperature and reaction time. The experimental results showed that the best condition of grafting reaction was 10% methanol/water solvent, temperature 70 degree C, and reaction time 3 h. The mechanism of grafting reaction was characterized with ESR

  2. Sensitive radioimmunoassays using partially purified gamma globulins coupled to enzacryl (acrylamide polymer) solid support

    Enzacryl polythiolactone is a cross-linked acrylamide polymer with an active thiolactone group, capable of coupling to lysine, serine and tyrosine residues. Gamma globulins from antisera specific to human chorionic gonadotropin, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-foetoprotein or casein were isolated using Protein A Sepharose and were subsequently coupled to enzacryl. The resulting coupled antibodies were found to provide greater sensitivity and convenience in radioimmunoassay studies than conventional double antibody precipitation methods using the same antisera. (Auth.)

  3. Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

    Soghra Mehri; Khalil Abnous; Alireza Khooei; Seyed Hadi Mousavi; Vahideh Motamed Shariaty; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s):Acrylamide (ACR) has many applications in different industries. ACR damages the central and the peripheral nervous system in human and animals. Importance of ACR-induced neurotoxicity encouraged researchers to find both different mechanisms involved in ACR neurotoxicity and potent neuroprotective agents. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of crocin, an active constituent of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on ACR-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat...

  4. Swelling and mechanical behavior of ionized poly(acrylamide-co-N,N’-diethylacrylamide) gels

    Sedláková, Zdeňka; Alenichev, I.; Hanyková, L.; Ilavský, Michal

    Ljubljana: European Polymer Federation, Slovenian Chemical Society, 2007 - (Pezdir, B.), P8.4.22_1-P8.4.22_2 [European Polymer Congress. Portoroz (SI), 02.07.2007-05.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100500651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : random copolymers * acrylamide * N,N-diethylacrylamide * swelling and mechanical behavior Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.europolymer.org/

  5. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic study of phase transition in solutions of acrylamide/N-isopropylmethacrylamide copolymers

    Šťastná, J.; Hanyková, L.; Spěváček, Jiří

    Granada : European Polymer Federation, 2011. s. 1049. ISBN 978-84-694-3124-5. [European Polymer Congress 2011, Congress of the Specialized Group of Polymers /12./. 26.06.2011-01.07.2011, Granada] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phase transition * aqueous solutions * acrylamide/N-isopropylmethacrylamide copolymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Flocculation Efficiency of Poly(Acrylamide-Co-Acrylic Acid) Obtained by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Gabriela Craciun; Elena Manaila; Maria-Daniela Stelescu

    2013-01-01

    A correlation between physicochemical characteristics of flocculants obtained by electron beam irradiation and their efficiency for wastewater treatment is presented. For real wastewater treatment, our interest was focused upon total suspended solids, fatty matter, and chemical oxygen demand. Flocculation studies were carried out using a standard jar test. A treatment option based on poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) for wastewater taken from a slaughterhouse plant is presented.

  7. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation in reconstituted potato chips during frying

    Miao, YuTian; Zhang, HuanJie; Zhang, LuLu; Wu, SiJia; Sun, Yijia; Shan, Yu; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In our present paper, the effect of water activity and processing conditions in reconstituted potato chips was considered as a model to investigate the changes of acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The results suggested that the formation of AA and HMF was highly correlated with frying temperature and time. Water activity could also influence the formation of AA and HMF. Meanwhile, the formation of HMF has significant correlation with the formation of AA in reconstituted potat...

  8. Ion exchange kinetics of alkaline earth metals on acrylamide zirconium(IV) phosphate cation exchanger

    The kinetics of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) exchange with H(I) on acrylamide zirconium(IV) phosphate has been studied applying the Nernst-Planck equation. The rate of exchange is found to be particle diffusion controlled at a metal ion concentration ≥ 0.01M in aqueous medium. The energy and entropy of activation vary linearly with the ionic radii and mobilities. (author)

  9. APPLICATION OF SURFACE GRAFTED POLY N-ISOPROPYL ACRYLAMIDE BY RADIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PROTEIN SOLUTION CONCENTRATION

    SUN Yishi; LI Huaizhong; LIU Pengfei; HA Hongfei

    1991-01-01

    Poly N-isopropyl acrylamide (abbreviated as PNIPA) as a kind of thermally sensitive hydrogel is utilized to concentrate Bovin Serum Albumin (BSA) solution. In order to decrease its surface adsorption to BSA in aqueous solution, surface layer grafting of the gels by radiation technology was carried out. The results showed that hydroxyl propyl methacrylate (HPMA) grafted gel exhibited a low level of BSA adsorption and still kept the original thermally sensitive properties of PNIPA hydrogels.

  10. Optimization of an acrylamides-based photopolymer for reflection holographic recording

    Jallapuram, Raghavendra

    2005-01-01

    Photopolymers have been the subject of special attention in the last two decades. The advantage of being self-developing makes them a practical alternative to silver halide photographic emulsions in holographic interferometry applications. This thesis is aimed at understanding diffusion properties and optimization of an acrylamide-based green sensitized photopolymer material for reflection holographic recording. The composition of the photopolymer includes a green sensitive dye (erythrosine B...

  11. Study of an Acrylamide-based Photopolymer for use as a Holographic Data Storage Medium

    Sherif, Hosam; Naydenova, Izabela; Martin, Suzanne; McGinn, Colm; Berger, G; Denz, C.; Toal, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    An acrylamide-based photopolymer formulated in the Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics has been investigated with a view to further optimisation for holographic optical storage. Series of 15 to 30 gratings were angularly multiplexed in a volume of the photopolymer layers with different thickness at a spatial frequency of 1500 lines/mm. Since the photopolymer is a saturable material, an exposure scheduling method was used to exploit the entire dynamic range of the material and allow e...

  12. Characterisation of an Acrylamide-based Photopolymer for Data Storage Utilizing Holographic Angular Multiplexing

    Sherif, Hosam; Naydenova, Izabela; Martin, Suzanne; McGinn, Colm; Toal, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    An acrylamide-based photopolymer formulated in the Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics has been investigated with a view to further optimisation for holographic optical storage. Series of 18 to 30 gratings were angularly multiplexed in a volume of photopolymer layer at a spatial frequency of 1500 lines/mm. Since the photopolymer is a saturable material, an exposure scheduling method was used to exploit the entire dynamic range of the material and allow equal strength holographic grat...

  13. Characterisation of an acrylamide-based photopolymer for holographic data storage

    Sherif, Hosam

    2005-01-01

    An acrylamide-based photopolymer, formulated in the Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics, was investigated as a recording material for holographic data storage applications. Holographic data storage (HDS) is an optical storage technique, which theoretically allows densities as high as tens of TB/cm2 with data transfer rates of many GB/s/. HDS has unique advantages, such as the ability to perform parallel data searches (associative recall) and implement novel encryption techniques. At ...

  14. EU database on acrylamide levels in food ? update and critical review on data collection

    Wenzl, Thomas; Anklam, Elke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The European Commission?s Directorate General Joint Research Centre has been collecting data produced in EU Member States on the acrylamide (AA) content of food since 2003. More than 9000 individual data have been received from official food control laboratories directly or via their Competent Authorities, and from the food industry. Before entering the database, the data were assessed for their reliability. This paper presents an update of the database as well as results ...

  15. Inhibiting evaluation of β-Cyclodextrin-modified acrylamide polymer on alloy steel in sulfuric solution

    Highlights: • β-Cyclodextrin-modified acrylamide polymer is a mixed inhibitor for X70 in H2SO4. • Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing of inhibitor concentration. • The polymer inhibitor is effective even at higher temperature. • EIS and polarization results are in good agreement. • The adsorption of polymer on metal surface obeys the Langmuir isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibiting performance of β-Cyclodetrin-modified acrylamide polymer (poly(AM-co-A-β-CD-co-NaAA)) on X70 steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The polarization curves results reveal that polymer acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase by increasing the polymer concentration up to maximum 84.9% for 150 mg L−1 at 303 K. The adsorption is confirmed to obey the Langmuir isotherm. The SEM and EDS results demonstrate that X70 surface is protected by β-Cyclodextrin-modified acrylamide polymer

  16. Modification of HTPB-based polyurethane with temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) for biomaterial usage.

    Yang, Jen Ming; Yang, Shu Jyuan; Lin, Hao Tzu; Chen, Jan Kan

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based polyurethane with dimethyol propionic acid (DPA) as chain extender was synthesized by solution polymerization. The HTPB-based polyurethane was modified by UV radiation with N-isopropyl acrylamide monomer to get poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-modified polyurethane (PUDPANIPAAm). The cohesive energy (E(coh)), molar volume (V), solubility parameter (delta), molecular weight (W(M)), volume per gram (V(g)), and the density (1/V(g)) of PUDPANIPAAm were calculated by group contribution methods. To evaluate the application of PUDPANIPAAm for wound dressing and transplantation of cell sheet, the measurement of water content, water vapor transmission rate, and gas permeation on the PUDPANIPAAm membrane was evaluated. The biocompatibility of these membranes, cell adhesion, and proliferation assay were conducted in the cell culture. The effect of thermosensitivity of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) on cell detachment was also evaluated in the primary study. The results showed that these PUDPANIPAAm membranes are thermosensitive. The modification of PU with poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) reduced the water vapor transmission rate and permeability of gas through PUDPANIPAAm membrane. PUDPANIPAAm membranes could support cell adhesion and growth. Owing to the thermosensitive nature of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide), the relative cell numbers detached from PUDPANIPAAm membranes were larger than those detached from the polystyrene dish. PMID:16649182

  17. Effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential in potato.

    Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S; Halford, Nigel G

    2013-07-10

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is used routinely in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivation to maximize yield. However, it also affects sugar and free amino acid concentrations in potato tubers, and this has potential implications for food quality and safety because free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results in the formation of color, aroma, and flavor compounds, but also some undesirable contaminants, including acrylamide, which forms when the amino acid that participates in the final stages of the reaction is asparagine. Another mineral, sulfur (S), also has profound effects on tuber composition. In this study, 13 varieties of potato were grown in a field trial in 2010 and treated with different combinations of N and S. Potatoes were analyzed immediately after harvest to show the effect of N and S fertilization on concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential. The study showed that N application can affect acrylamide-forming potential in potatoes but that the effect is type- (French fry, chipping, and boiling) and variety-dependent, with most varieties showing an increase in acrylamide formation in response to increased N but two showing a decrease. S application reduced glucose concentrations and mitigated the effect of high N application on the acrylamide-forming potential of some of the French fry-type potatoes. PMID:23768004

  18. L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and glutathione protect xenopus laevis embryos against acrylamide-induced malformations and mortality in the frog embryo teratogenesis assay (FETAX)

    Dietary acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose during heat processing (baking, frying) of plant-derived foods such as potato fries and cereals. After consumption, acrylamide is a...

  19. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous analysis of acrylamide and the precursors, asparagine and reducing sugars in bread

    Nielsen, N.J.; Granby, Kit; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Skibsted, L.H.

    -112% for acrylamide spiked at 30, 250 mu g kg(-1) and 97-101% for asparagine spiked at 70, 140 mg kg(-1). Sorbitol was used as internal standard for fructose and glucose. Samples were diluted to obtain acceptable recoveries in saccharide analyses. LODs were 13 mu g kg(-1) for acrylamide and 2 mg kg(-1) for...

  20. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  1. A Voltammetric Biosensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Hemoglobin for Detection of Acrylamide in Water Extracts from Potato Crisps

    Hanna Radecka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control them by quantitative and qualitative assays. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb as a result of the reaction the -NH2 group of the Nterminal valine with acrylamide. In this work we present the use of glassy carbon electrodes coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and Hb for voltammetric detection of acrylamide in water solutions. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.0×10-9 M. The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato crisps showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

  2. New copolymer of acrylamide with allyl methacrylate and its capacity for the removal of azo dyes

    Yeliz Yildirim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The copolymerization reactions of Acrylamide (AA with the different mole ratios of allyl methacrylate (AMA such as 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25 were studied by radical polymerization under argon atmosphere using 2,2’-Azobis (isobutyronitri1e (AIBN as initiator. The copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. FTIR spectra showed that the C=O, C-N and N-H groups in copolymers remained during the copolymerization. It is concluded from the thermograms that Poly(AA-co-AMA copolymers which contained different ratios of monomer and comonomer exhibit similar thermal behavior. Adsorption capacity, kinetic and isotherm studies of Direct Brown 2 onto the copolymers have been evaluated. Different factors such as the monomer ratio, pH, initial dye concentration, copolymer dosage and contact time affecting the removal process were studied. It was found that the adsorption process agreed with the Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduskevich model and the adsorption of Direct Brown 2 depended on the acrylamide content and pH of the solution. The standard Gibb’s free energy was determined as - 14.7 kJ/mol, which means that adsorption occurred spontaneously and the process is feasible. Increasing the acrylamide content led to increased adsorption of Direct Brown 2 on the copolymer. Moreover, adsorption kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. These results show that Poly(AA-co-AMA can be used as adsorbent for water pollutants such as Direct Brown 2 and has potential applications in related industrial and environmental areas.

  3. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels. PMID:25204396

  4. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door acrylamide met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Acrylamide bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro vanaf 0,1 mg/ml (1,4 mmol/l), zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metaboliosche activering (S9). Tevens induceerde acrylamide in deze cellen een significante toename in het aantal zuster-chromatide uitwisselingen (SCE's) per cel, zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metabolische activering (S9) bij concentraties van 0,6 en 1 mg/ml (respec...

  5. Chemical and biochemical activities of sonochemically synthesized poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)/silica nanocomposite

    Chowdhury, Pranesh; Saha, Swadhin Kr; Guha, Arun; Saha, Samar Kr

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPA) grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MPSNP) leading to novel inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposite has been synthesized sonochemically in an aqueous medium without additives like cross-linker, hydrophobic agent, organic solvent. The colloidal stability of MPSNP is enhanced significantly due to encapsulation of the polymer. The composites are characterized by TEM, FTIR and TGA. The chemical and biochemical activities of the sonochemically synthesized materials have been studied in the light of reaction with acid-base, protein adsorption, antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility and nonthrombogenic property. Advantages of sonochemical synthesis compared to other techniques have been evaluated.

  6. Reflection mode holographic recording in methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide films

    C S Rajesh; R Anjana; S S Sreeroop; C Sudha Kartha

    2014-02-01

    Photopolymer systems can produce good image quality holograms that does not require any post-processing and are environmentally stable with good diffraction efficiency. The present work reports the development of a methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide (MBPVA/AA) photopolymer system for recording white light reflection holograms. Reflection gratings were recorded in the photopolymer films with different concentrations of methylene blue (MB). Various parameters affecting the holographic properties of the samples were also studied. The holographic performance of the material is found to depend on its chemical composition and the recording parameters.

  7. Synthesis of Fullerene-Acrylamide Copolymer Nanoball and Its Lubrication Properties

    JIANG,Gui-Chang(江贵长); GUAN,Wen-Chao(官文超); ZHENG,Qi-Xin(郑启新)

    2004-01-01

    A novel fullerene-acrylamide copolymer was synthesized via radical polymerization. It is soluble in polar solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide etc. The product was characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis and GPC. TEM analysis shows that the average particle diameter is about 46 nm. Four-ball tests show that the addition of a certain concentration of the fullerene copolymer to base stock (2 wt% triethanolamine and 0.5 wt% OPZ aqueous solution) can effectively raise the load-carrying capacity (PB value) and the antiwear ability. SEM analysis shows that the addition results in reducing diameter of wear scar and decreasing wear.

  8. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies

    Claeys, Wendie Liliane; Baert, Katleen; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Vercammen, Jan; Daenens, Paul; Meulenaer, Bruno De; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Huyghebaert, André

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 ?g/kg bw/day (P97.5 = 1.6 ?g/kg bw/day) with as main contributors to the average intake c...

  9. Dependence of crystallinity degree with induced grafting by gamma radiation of N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide

    N,N' -dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) graft copolymerization onto polyethylene films was carried out, using a organic solvent as a reaction medium and gamma rays from a 60 Co source for surface activation. Thermal analysis revealed the crystallinity and the grafting inversely proportional. The DSC curves fusion peaks decreased with grafting rate increase, the peak almost disappearing in the curve of PE 440% grafted. It was concluded that the graft occurs not only on the surface but also in the substrate bulk, being the PE absorption of DMAA an important factor for build up of grafted mass. (author)

  10. Characterization and Stability of Emulsion Gels Based on Acrylamide/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer

    Bonacucina, Giulia; Cespi, Marco; Palmieri, Giovanni F.

    2009-01-01

    Sepineo P 600, a concentrated dispersion of acrylamide/sodium acryloyldimethyl taurate copolymer in isohexadecane, has self-gelling and thickening properties and the ability to emulsify oily phases, which make it easy to use in the formulation of gels and o/w emulsion gels. In this paper, gels were prepared using a Sepineo P 600 concentration between the 0.5% and 5% (w/w), and then emulsion gel was also prepared from the 3% Sepineo gel by adding a specific amount of almond oil. All the prepar...

  11. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part I: study of a synthesis procedure including solubilization of N-adamantyl-acrylamide via complex formation with a water-soluble cyclodextrin.

    Al-Massaedh, Ayat Allah; Pyell, Ute

    2013-04-19

    A new synthesis procedure for highly crosslinked macroporous amphiphilic N-adamantyl-functionalized mixed-mode acrylamide-based monolithic stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is investigated employing solubilization of the hydrophobic monomer by complexation with a cyclodextrin. N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide is synthesized and characterized as a hydrophobic monomer forming a water soluble-inclusion complex with statistically methylated-β-cyclodextrin. The stoichiometry, the complex formation constant and the spatial arrangement of the formed complex are determined. Mixed-mode monolithic stationary phases are synthesized by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, a water soluble crosslinker (piperazinediacrylamide), a hydrophilic monomer (methacrylamide), and a negatively charged monomer (vinylsulfonic acid) in aqueous medium in bind silane-pretreated fused silica capillaries. The synthesized monolithic stationary phases are amphiphilic and can be employed in the reversed- and in the normal-phase mode (depending on the composition of the mobile phase), which is demonstrated with polar and non-polar analytes. Observations made with polar analytes and polar mobile phase can only be explained by a mixed-mode retention mechanism. The influence of the total monomer concentration (%T) on the chromatographic properties, the electroosmotic mobility, and on the specific permeability is investigated. With a homologues series of alkylphenones it is confirmed that the hydrophobicity (methylene selectivity) of the stationary phase increases with increasing mass fraction of N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide in the synthesis mixture. PMID:23489493

  12. Radiation graft copolymer of acrylamide onto polypropylene fibers for metal uptake

    In an attempt to modify polypropylene (PP) fibres for ion exchanger, grafting of acrylamide (AAm) monomers by the pre-irradiation method in inert medium (N2) has been studied. Grafting was carried out in water and methanol solvent system. The percentage of grafting has been determined as a function of total dose, monomer concentration, temperature and period of grafting reaction. Water was found to be the best solvent for affording high percentage of grafting but along with it a high concentration of homopolymer was formed which was difficult to separate. The addition of a small amount of methanol reduced effectively the formation of acrylamide homopolymer. The results showed the best condition of grafting were total dose 20 kGy, 10% methanol/water as a solvent, temperature 50 deg. C, and reaction period of 2 hours. The yield of grafting was found to be 210%. The study and the effect of reaction temperature revealed that the calculated activation energy for the grafting process is 5,0 kcal/mol. The PP-g-AAm fiber was characterized with FTIR and DSC. It was found that PP-g-AAm fibers showed high selectivity toward Cu(II) compared with Co(II) and Fe(III) ions

  13. Novel composition of polymer gel dosimeters based on N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide for radiation therapy

    A new composition of polymer gel dosimeters is developed based on radiation induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 20 Gy. The polymerization occurs and increases with increasing absorbed dose. The dose response of polymer gel dosimeters was studied using nuclear magnetic imaging (NMR) for relaxation rate (R2) of water proton. Dose rate, energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed. - Highlights: • This manuscript relates to polymer gel dosimeter for used in radiotherapy. • Polymer gel containing N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide has been introduced. • Polymerization of NHMA gel increases gradually with increasing absorbed dose. • Response of NHMA gel was slightly affected by dose rate and energy of radiation

  14. Development of Graft Copolymer Flocculant Based on Acrylamide and Acrylic Acid for the dewatering of coal

    Most coal preparation processes were carried out in water medium. The water content of coal product has a negative impact on handling and specific energy value. The moisture content may be attributed to the proportion of fine coal, which presents the greatest dewatering problem. A novel polymeric flocculant has been developed by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with acrylic acid (AAc) using gamma irradiation technique. The grafted copol621621ymer P(AAm/AAc) was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of reaction parameters, such as total absorbed dose, and monomer concentration on grafting yield were investigated. The flocculation performance of the graft copolymer P(AAm/AAc) was investigated in coal suspension. It was observed that the grafting ratio was one of the key factors for the flocculating effects. The copolymers with various grafting ratios showed different flocculating properties. It was found that as the grafting ratio increased, the flocculating effect also increased. The flocculation performance of the grafted copolymer was better than that of the commercial flocculant, poly-acrylamide (Magnafloc 1011).

  15. Optimizing the calcium content of a copolymer acrylamide gel matrix for dark-grown seedlings

    Myers, P. N.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    A copolymer acrylamide acrylate gel was investigated as the sole root matrix for dark-grown seedlings of soybean (Glycine max Merr. 'Century 84'). Increasing Ca2+ in the hydrating solution of the hydrogel from 1 to 10 mM decreased its water-holding capacity from 97 to 46 mL g-1, yet water potential of the medium remained high, sufficient for normal plant growth at all Ca2+ concentrations tested. Elongation rate of dark-grown soybean seedlings over a 54-hour period was 0.9, 1.5, and 1.8 mm h-1 with 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mM Ca2+, respectively, but did not increase with further increases in Ca2+ concentration. Further study revealed that Na+ was released from the hydrogel medium and was taken up by the seedlings as Ca2+ increased in the medium. In dry hypocotyl tissue, sodium content correlated negatively with calcium content. Despite the presence of Na+ in the hydrogel, seedling growth was normal when adequate Ca2+ was added in the hydrating solution. Acrylamide hydrogels hold good potential as a sole growth matrix for short-term experiments with dark-grown seedlings without irrigation.

  16. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done by...... using an inexpensive computer vision technique which allowed quantifying in a more precise and representative way the color in L*a*b* units of complex surfaces such as those of potato slices during frying. The effect of potato slice soaking in NaCl was evaluated not only for color change but also for......Cl solution of 0.02 g/l 5 min at 200 rpm of agitation. These samples were considered as NaCl soaked potato chips. Blanched and soaked slices were fried at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8% (total basis) for color evaluation. Acrylamide content was evaluated...

  17. Label-free DNA hybridization detection with molecular beacon immobilized in photopolymerized acrylamide gel microarray

    Wang, Hong; Li, Jiong; Liu, Quanjun; Liu, Heping; Lu, Zuhong; Zhu, Jijun

    2001-10-01

    Photopolymerized acrylamide gel microarray used to immobilize the molecular beacon for label free DNA hybridization detection is described in this paper. Polyacrylamide gel microarray was prepared by UV photopolymerization of 4% acrylamide in 40% glycerol, 0.002%methylene blue, 0.012% TEMED and 0.1M phosphate buffer (PHequals7) with a Relpel-silane pretreated quartz mask. This kind of three-dimensional gel microarray provides more than 100 times great immobilization capacity. The hybridization and other processes with it resemble a homogeneous liquid phase reaction rather than a heterogeneous liquid-solid interface reaction. The specially designed molecular beacons contain a 15 base loop sequence with 5 base pair stem, a 20 base thymine as spacer, a 5'-end amino group for immobilization, a fluorescein in the middle of the sequence as the fluorophore and a 3'-end DABCYL as the quencher. Between the 5'-end amino group and the stem, the 20 base thymine is used to minimize destability caused by 5'-end immobilization. Confocal microscope was used to investigate the fluorescence intensity of gel immobilized molecular beacon probes. After hybridization we can easily distinguish complementary and noncomplementay targets with gel-immobilized molecular beacon probes. Image analysis showed that the fluorescence intensity ratio of complementary to noncomplementay probes is great than 5. The potential applications of gel-immobilized molecular beacon microarray are mutation detection, pathogenic detection, etc. in a parallel, cost saving and label-free detection way.

  18. SWELLING BEHAVIOR OF ACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL IN DIFFERENT SOLVENTS AND pHs

    M. F. Mina; M. M. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Swelling property of acrylamide hydrogels, prepared from aqueous solutions of acrylamide monomer having concentrations in the range of 10-60 wt% by γ-ray irradiation method using a Co-60 gamma radiation source at doses ranging 1-30.0 kGy, has been investigated under various swelling media. These swelling media were basically solvents (solutions), produced by dissolving methanol, ethanol, glucose, sucrose, sodium chloride and sodium persulfate individually with distilled water, and solutions prepared with phs = 3, 7 and 10. The investigation was performed in order to observe the effect of these solvents and phs as well as the influence of monomer concentrations, radiation doses and times on swelling behavior of hydrogels. Swelling values were found higher for hydrogels prepared with lower monomer concentrations (ca.20 wt%) and radiation doses (ca. 5 kGy) and showed a leveling off tendency within 24 h. The glucose solvent and the buffer solution of pH = 10 revealed significant increase of swelling of hydrogels as compared to other solutions. Results are explained based on crosslinking density in hydrogel, polymer-solvent/polymer-polymer interactions in solutions,permeability of molecules in solutions and ionization capacity of hydrogel in pH.

  19. Terahertz Absorption Spectroscopy of Benzamide, Acrylamide, Caprolactam, Salicylamide, and Sulfanilamide in the Solid State

    Ye Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz absorption spectra of the similarly structured molecules with amide groups including benzamide, acrylamide, caprolactam, salicylamide, and sulfanilamide in the solid phase at room temperature and 7.8 K for salicylamide are reported and compared to infrared vibrational spectral calculations using density functional theory. The results of THz absorption spectra show that the molecules have characteristic bands in the region of 0.2–2.6 THz (~7–87 cm−1. THz technique can be used to distinguish different molecules with amide groups. In the THz region benzamide has three bands at 0.83, 1.63, and 1.73 THz; the bands are located at 1.44 and 2.00 THz for acrylamide; the bands at 1.24, 1.66 and 2.12 THz are observed for caprolactam. The absorption bands are located at 1.44, 1.63, and 2.39 THz at room temperature, and at 1.22, 1.46, 1.66, and 2.41 THz at low temperature for salicylamide. The bands at 1.63, 1.78, 2.00, and 2.20 THz appear for sulfanilamide. These bands in the THz region may be related to torsion, rocking, wagging, and other modes of different groups in the molecules.

  20. Dietary acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats: Dataset of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation markers.

    Jin, Xiaolei; Coughlan, Melanie; Roberts, Jennifer; Mehta, Rekha; Raju, Jayadev

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that dietary acrylamide, at doses (10 and 50 mg/kg diet) known to cause rodent tumors, lowered serum total high density lipoprotein and total testosterone, increased serum lipase, and lowered lymphocytes levels together with other hematological parameters in male F344 rats exposed for 10 weeks (doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2014.11.009 [1]). Here we present data related to the role of food-borne acrylamide exposure (at 0, 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg diet) in the presence of low (7% wt/wt) or high (23.9% wt/wt) dietary fat on serum and urinary markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in F344 rats. Briefly, urine and serum samples were collected from the experimental animals a day prior to or at the time of necropsy, respectively and processed for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay estimations of biochemical markers. Urine samples were analyzed for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and isoprostane, and serum samples for total antioxidant capacity, paraoxonase 1 activity, c-reactive protein, homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, thromboxin 2, and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine. PMID:27014731

  1. Development and Validation of a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Prediction of Acrylamide Content in French-Fried Potato.

    Adedipe, Oluwatosin E; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Truong, Van-Den; Yencho, G Craig

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 μg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various pretreatments and cook times (n = 84) and obtained from quick-service restaurants (n = 64) were used for model development and validation. Acrylamide was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and reflectance spectra (400-2500 nm) of each freeze-dried sample were captured on a Foss XDS Rapid Content Analyzer-NIR spectrometer. Partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and PLS regression modeling demonstrated that NIRS could accurately detect acrylamide content as low as 50 μg/kg in the model potato matrix. Prediction errors of 135 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.98) and 255 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.93) were achieved with the best PLS models for acrylamide prediction in Russet Norkotah French-fried potato and multiple samples of unknown varieties, respectively. The findings indicate that NIRS can be used as a screening tool in potato breeding and potato processing research to reduce acrylamide in the food supply. PMID:26806330

  2. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    Barleany, Dhena Ria, E-mail: dbarleany@yahoo.com; Ulfiyani, Fida; Istiqomah, Shafina; Rahmayetty [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon, Banten (Indonesia); Heriyanto, Heri; Erizal [Centre for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w{sup −1} acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g{sup −1} of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g{sup −1} and 523 g g{sup −1} for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll. PMID:27570278

  4. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C. Acry

  5. Biphasic equilibrium dialysis of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) nanogels synthesized at decreased temperatures for targeted delivery of thermosensitive bioactives

    Musial, W.; Michálek, Jiří; Pluta, J.; Jaromin, A.; Pietka-Ottlik, M.; Přádný, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 2013 (2013), 925235_1-925235_9. ISSN 1687-9422 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrogel nanoparticles * thermosensitive nanogel * poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2013

  6. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w−1 acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g−1 of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g−1 and 523 g g−1 for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  7. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    Barleany, Dhena Ria; Ulfiyani, Fida; Istiqomah, Shafina; Heriyanto, Heri; Rahmayetty, Erizal

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w-1 acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g-1 of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g-1 and 523 g g-1 for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  8. Environmental risk assessment of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide from a grouting agent used in the tunnel construction of Romeriksporten, Norway.

    Weideborg, M; Källqvist, T; Odegård, K E; Sverdrup, L E; Vik, E A

    2001-08-01

    Increased focus on the possible evironmental risk associated with large-scale use of grouting agents has revealed that leakage of chemicals from grouting activities may cause harm to the environment. Chemical grouting agents are used to reduce water leakages in e.g. tunnel constructions. The present study focuses on monitoring results and environmental risk caused by releases of non-polymerised monomers during use of the acrylamide-based grouting agent Rhoca-Gil (Siprogel). Drainage water from the tunnel Romeriksporten was monitored with respect to acrylamide and methylolacrylamide, as leakage of these substances was observed earlier in connection with similar constructions where Rhoca-Gil was used. Concentrations of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide in the draining water showed that these substances leaked out both in connection with the injection of Rhoca-Gil and in connection with after-injection using other grouting agents. Gel formation studies with Rhoca-Gil showed that a low degree of polymerisation (and hence, large leakages of monomers) can be expected if the product is diluted with water. Results from investigation of the environmental fate of methylolacrylamide showed that this substance is chemically transformed at the high-pH conditions of the tunnel. Ecotoxicological testing of the substances and an environmental effects assessment for the receiving water (River Alna and the Oslofjord) showed that the discharge of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide may have caused effects on the aquatic life in the river and in a limited area of the fjord. PMID:11456163

  9. Dietary determinants for Hb-acrylamide and Hb-glycidamide adducts in Danish non-smoking women

    Outzen, Malene; Egeberg, Rikke; Dragsted, Lars; Christensen, Jane; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen that is formed in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. The validity of FFQ to assess AA exposure has been questioned. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate dietary determinants of Hb-AA and Hb-glycidamide (GA) adducts. The...

  10. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-related Compounds in Complex Aqueous Environmental Samples

    The development of a liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS)‐based strategy for the detection and quantitation of acrylamide and surfactant‐related compounds in aqueous complex environmental samples.

  11. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-Related Compounds in Complex Matrix Environmental Water Samples

    Ethoxylated alcohols, alkylphenols, and acrylamide are emerging contaminants with many different routes into the environment. Ethoxylated alcohols are used ubiquitously as surfactants in both industrial and household products. The use of ethoxylated alcohols and alkylphenols as s...

  12. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous analysis of acrylamide and the precursors, asparagine and reducing sugars in bread

    Nielsen, N.J.; Granby, Kit; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg;

    2006-01-01

    A LC-MS-MS method for simultaneous determination of acrylamide, asparagine, fructose, glucose and sucrose in bread was developed. The method is based on aqueous extraction by blending. After centrifugation the samples were cleaned up by solid phase extraction on C18 cartridges conditioned with 2 m......L of methanol and 2 x 2 mL of water and subsequently flushed with sample solution before the actual analytical sample fractions were collected. Analytes were separated on a Hypercarb column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 mu m) and detected by tandem MS with electrospray ionisation. Acrylamide and saccharides were...... ionised in positive mode. Asparagine in wheat bread was detectable at lower levels using negative ion mode. To compensate for matrix induced signal suppression D-3-acrylamide and N-15(2)-asparagine were used as internal standards for acrylamide and asparagine, respectively. Recoveries were in the range 93...

  13. Changing of network characteristics of acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels by alteration of irradiation dose rate

    Poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) P(AAm/MA) hydrogels were prepared by irradiating the ternary mixtures of AAm/MA and water by gamma rays at ambient temperature at very low (0.18 kGy/h), and moderate dose rate (3.0 kGy/h). The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of hydrogels prepared at 3.0 kGy/h dose rate increased from 520% to 3900% with increasing MA mole content in the gel system from 0% to 5.2%. On the other hand, no systematic dependence of swelling on MA content was observed for hydrogels obtained at low dose rate irradiation due to formation of inhomogeneous network structure and large pores in the gel. Pore structure of hydrogels was monitored by using scanning electron microscope. Systematic swelling of P(AAm/MA) hydrogels prepared at moderate dose rates can be explained with homogeneous pore size distribution of network

  14. Frozen concentration fluctuations of poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel decomposed by neutron spin echo

    By employing neutron spin echo (NSE) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we first determined the nano-scale q-behaviors of the frozen concentration fluctuations in a swollen poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide) (NIPA) gel. For a NIPA gel, we observed a crossover from collective diffusion to Zimm single chain dynamics as scattering vector q increases, which is well established for a semidilute polymer solution. We further observed significant retardation of decay of NSE for a NIPA gel at low q, which is attributed to the elastic scattering from the frozen concentration fluctuations. After a careful analysis of two decay curves of a NIPA gel and solution, it turned out that the elastic scattering, occupying about 40% of the total intensity at q=0, decreases obeying q-4 at high q. (author)

  15. New phase diagram for N-arylacrylamide/acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer gel

    Katayama, Seiji; Shimizu, Masanori; Akahori, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Examination was made of changes in the volume of N-arylacrylamide(NAA)/acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer gel immersed in acetone-water and dioxane-water mixtures. The gel underwent reversible volume change from a swollen to collapsed state via discontinuous volume change with increase in solvent composition. Volume change at the transition point decreased with increase in NAA content, and the transition point shifted first toward lower solvent content with increase in NAA content and then toward higher solvent content. This is a volume phase transition characterized by two conventional patterns. Plots of transition solvent composition as a function of gel polymer composition indicated a nobel phase diagram for the polymer gel, which is essentially equivalent to miscibility diagram usually observed for polymer solutions.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of methacrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride and N-substituted acrylamide ionomers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium ionomers of Methacrylamidopropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride with N-substituted acrylamides were prepared at 55±1°C using azobiscyanovaleric acid (ACVA initiator. The monomers and ionomers were characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and the copolymer composition was calculated from elemental analysis data. The reduced viscosity of ionomers in methanol behaves as non-polyelectrolytes at lower mole percentage and as polyelectrolyte at higher mole percentage. The molecular weights of ionomers were found to be high and the polydispersity index values indicate termination mainly by disproportionation. The glass transition temperature (Tg of ionomers were greater than those of the corresponding homopolymers, attributed to a reduction in segmental mobility. The initial decomposition temperature (IDT showed that the stability of ionomers increases with increasing mole percentage of ionic content.

  17. Enhanced protein retention on poly(caprolactone) via surface initiated polymerization of acrylamide

    Ma, Yuhao; Cai, Mengtan; He, Liu; Luo, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the biocompatibility or extend the biomedical application of poly(caprolactone) (PCL), protein retention on PCL surface is often required. In this study, poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) brushes were grown from PCL surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and served as a protein-capturing platform. Grafted PAAm was densely packed on surface and exhibited superior protein retention ability. Captured protein was found to be resistant to washing under detergent environment. Furthermore, protein structure after being captured was investigated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the CD spectra verified that secondary structure of captured proteins was maintained, indicating no denaturation of protein happened for retention process.

  18. Rapid Synthesis of Superabsorbent Smart-Swelling Bacterial Cellulose/Acrylamide-Based Hydrogels for Drug Delivery

    Manisha Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of solubilized and dispersed bacterial cellulose (BC on the physicochemical characteristics and drug release profile of hydrogels synthesized using biopolymers. Superabsorbent hydrogels were synthesized by graft polymerization of acrylamide on BC solubilized in an NaOH/urea solvent system and on dispersed BC by using N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker under microwave irradiation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the resulting hydrogels confirmed the grafting, and an X-ray diffraction pattern showed a decrease in the crystallinity of BC after the grafting process. The hydrogels exhibited pH and ionic responsive swelling behavior, with hydrogels prepared using solubilized BC (SH having higher swelling ratios. Furthermore, compared to the hydrogels synthesized using dispersed BC, the hydrogels synthesized using solubilized BC showed higher porosity, drug loading efficiency, and release. These results suggest the superiority of the hydrogels prepared using solubilized BC and that they should be explored further for oral drug delivery.

  19. Controlled radical polymerization of an acrylamide containing L-alanine moiety via ATRP.

    Rafiee, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Homopolymerization of an optically active acrylamide having an amino acid moiety in the side chain, N-acryloyl-L-alanine (AAla) was carried out via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) at room temperature using 2-hydroxyethyl-2'-methyl-2'-bromopropionate (HMB) or sodium-4-(bromomethyl)benzoate (SBB) as initiator in pure water, methanol/water mixture and pure methanol solvents. The polymerization reaction resulted in the optically active biocompatible amino acid-based homopolymer in good yield with narrow molecular weight distribution. The number average molecular weight increased with conversion and polydispersity was low. The structure and molecular weight of synthesized polymer were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques and size-exclusion chromatography. PMID:26385362

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Copolymer Rice Straw Cellulose-Acrylamide Hydrogels Using Gamma Irradiation

    Rice straw cellulose available as waste biomass was graft copolymerized with acrylamide monomer by simultaneous gamma irradiation as initiator. The effects of bleaching of cellulose and irradiation dose were evaluated. Evidence of grafting is obtained from comparison of Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) of the cellulose and grafted cellulose. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that crystallinity was reduced through graft copolymerization. Kinetic investigations of the graft copolymerization were also carried out, and the rate constant parameter (kp/kt0.5) has been found to be 4.9922 l0.5. mol-0.5.s-0.5. The results show that for the same dose, grafting efficiency is higher with bleached cellulose form than with unbleached form. The grafting efficiency and the gel fraction increases with increasing total irradiation doses. At higher radiation doses crosslink density starts to increase considerably while swelling degree decreases with the increasing crosslink density. (author)

  1. Crystal morphology modification by the addition of tailor-made stereocontrolled poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)

    Munk, Tommy; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Hietala, Sami;

    2012-01-01

    . One such additive is the thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM). The use of PNIPAM as a crystallization additive provides a possibility to affect viscosity at separation temperatures and nucleation and growth rates at higher temperatures. In this study, novel PNIPAM derivatives...... composition. Optical light microscopy and Raman and FTIR spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the NF crystals and possible interaction with PNIPAM. A drastic change in the growth mechanism of nitrofurantoin crystals as monohydrate form II (NFMH-II) was observed in the presence of PNIPAM; the...... the polymer was aggregated or not. However, with increased additive concentration slower nucleation and growth rates of the crystals were observed. Heating of the crystallization medium resulted in phase separation of the PNIPAM. The phase separation had an influence on the achieved crystal morphology...

  2. Enhancement of spectrum strength in holographic sensing in nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer.

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Hongpeng; Mao, Dongyao; Geng, Yaohui; Wang, Weibo; Sun, Liping; Lv, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Holographic sensing of organic vapor is characterized at transmission and reflection geometries in ZSM-5 nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer. Nano-zeolites as absorption medium are dispersed into the polymer to enhance the absorptivity to organic vapor. Obvious enhancements of spectrum strength are observed during the sensing process. Two primary factors causing the enhancement, absorption of nanozeolites and photopolymerization induced by broadband white light, are analyzed experimentally. Significant increment provides a quick and intuitive identification strategy for holographic sensing. Accompanying with the wavelength blue-shift, the shrinkage of sample is measured quantitatively under homogeneous white light. It is further demonstrated that the significance of nanozeolites absorption. Finally a theoretical model with mutual diffusion is used to simulate the swelling process. This study provides significant foundation for the application of holographic sensor. PMID:26561180

  3. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation in reconstituted potato chips during frying.

    Miao, YuTian; Zhang, HuanJie; Zhang, LuLu; Wu, SiJia; Sun, YiJia; Shan, Yu; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    In our present paper, the effect of water activity and processing conditions in reconstituted potato chips was considered as a model to investigate the changes of acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The results suggested that the formation of AA and HMF was highly correlated with frying temperature and time. Water activity could also influence the formation of AA and HMF. Meanwhile, the formation of HMF has significant correlation with the formation of AA in reconstituted potato chips. A typical exponential growth curve was observed by plotting AA levels vs HMF content which were all determined under different heating condition: [Formula: see text]. The model could be used as a tool for estimating the formation of AA when the content of HMF was known. PMID:25477673

  4. Radiation-grafting of acrylamide onto silicone rubber films for diclofenac delivery

    Magaña, Hector; Palomino, Kenia; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose M.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the pre-irradiation grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto silicone rubber films (SR) and evaluates the effect of gamma-ray radiation conditions on the grafting yield, which in turn may influence the performance of the grafted materials as components of drug-eluting devices. Pristine and modified SR were characterized using FTIR-ATR, DSC, TGA, swelling, and water contact angle analysis in order to elucidate the effects of AAm grafting onto SR. Grafted films with content in AAm ranging from 0.81% to 22.20% showed excellent cytocompatibility against fibroblasts, and capability to uptake the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Amount of drug loaded directly correlated with the grafting degree of the films. Drug release studies were performed at pH 7.4 and 37 °C (physiological conditions). Most grafted films released the drug in a sustained way for at least three hours.

  5. The acrylamide (S)-1 differentially affects Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine;

    2006-01-01

    The family of Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels consists of five members. Kv7.2 and 3 are the primary molecular correlates of the M-current, but also Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 display M-current characteristics. M-channel modulators include blockers (e.g., linopirdine) for cognition enhancement and openers (e.......g., retigabine) for treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of a Bristol-Myers Squibb compound (S)-N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-yl-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-acrylamide [(S)-1] on cloned human Kv7.1-5 potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage...... both retigabine and (S)-1 or BMS204352 were applied simultaneously. In conclusion, (S)-1 differentially affects the Kv7 channel subtypes and is dependent on a single tryptophan for the current enhancing effect in Kv7.4....

  6. Optical and MRI investigations of an optimized acrylamide-based polymer gel dosimeter

    The first purpose of this research was improvement of sensitivity of the normoxic acrylamide-based polymer gel dosimeter. Another aim of this study was investigation of the absorbance of the irradiated gels as well as their relaxation rate variations. In addition, a new optical parameter, area under the absorbance spectrum (AUS), was investigated. Sensitivity improvement was performed by adding glucose and urea to the previously reported acrylamide-based polymer gel formulation and new formulation was named PAGATUG. The formulation which gives the nearest tissue elemental composition has been determined to be 3 % bis, 3 % AA, 5 % gelatine, 5 mM THPC, 0.01 mM HQ, 8.5 % glucose, and 3 % urea. The differences in electron density, number of electrons per gram and effective atomic number of PAGATUG gel were no more than 1, 0.5, and 0.8 % of the corresponding values for the soft tissue respectively. PAGATUG gels were irradiated by 60Co radiotherapy unit photon beams with different doses and imaged using a 1.5T Siemens Avanto MRI scanner for different post irradiation times. In addition, the absorbance of the irradiated gels were evaluated using a double beam spectrophotometer. We found that the R2-sensitivity of polymer gel was improved by a factor of more than 2.6 in respect of the previously reported PAGAT polymer gel. Dose-absorbance sensitivity was obtained as 0.89 Au Gy-1 and the results showed more stable response in respect of R2 investigation. An AUS-sensitivity of 107.7 Au nm Gy-1 indicated to steep response variation. This read out parameter showed an acceptable linearity and dynamic dose range. (author)

  7. Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride

    Wan Aida Wan Mustapha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm sugar-like flavouring (PSLF is a type of flavour product that is formed by heating amino acids and sugar under specific heating conditions. Unfortunately, PSLF has a salty taste and contains high amounts of acrylamide. Hence, the objective of this research was to reduce saltiness and acrylamide without negatively affecting the aroma properties of PSLF. A decrease in the sodium phosphate (NaHPO4 buffer concentration from 0.20 to 0.02 M was found to reduce sodium to approximately 15% of the level found in original PSLF. A further decrease (~25% in the sodium content was achieved by removing monobasic sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4 from the buffer system. Meanwhile, the addition of CaCl2 at 20–40 mg/L reduced the acrylamide content in PSLF by as much as 58%. A CaCl2 concentration of 20 mg/mL was most favourable as it most efficiently suppressed acrylamide formation while providing an acceptably high flavour yield in PSLF. In view of the high acrylamide content in PSLF, additional work is necessary to further reduce the amount of acrylamide by controlling the asparagine concentration in the precursor mixture.

  8. Radiation synthesis of low swelling acrylamide based hydrogels and determination of average molecular weight between cross-links

    A comparative analysis of determination of cross-link density (νe) of hydrogels by using swelling tests and mechanical measurements has been made. Poly(acrylamide/methacrylamide) P(AAm/MAAm) and poly(acrylamide/hydroxyethyl methacrylate) P(AAm/HEMA) hydrogels were prepared by using gamma rays and used as model hydrogel systems. The uniaxial compression test was applied to cylindrical gel samples in the swollen state at pH 7. Stress-strain curves of hydrogels were evaluated to calculate the shear modulus values. The average molecular weight between cross-links (M-barc) and νe obtained from mechanical measurements were significantly different than the values obtained from swelling experiments. Large differences were attributed to the uncertainty on the value of the χ parameter used in the Flory-Rehner equation. ±1% change in this parameter doubled or reduced the M-barc value of hydrogel to half value

  9. Synthesis and property characterization of cassava starch grafted poly(acrylamide-co-(maleic acid)) superabsorbent via γ-irradiation

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and maleic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using γ-rays as a initiator were carried out. Various important parameters of total dose, dose rate, monomer-to-cassava starch ratio and maleic acid content were studied. Addition of 2% ww-1 diprotic acid of maleic acid into the reaction mixture yields a saponified starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 2256g g -1 of its dried weight. The water absorption of these saponified graft copolymers insaline and buffer solutions was also measured. The water absorption depends largely on the cationic type and concentration of these solutions in terms of ionic strength. This research explains a charge transfer mechanism for graft copolymerization of maleic acid and acrylamide onto cassava starch, and describes the influential parameters that affect grafting efficiency and water absorption. (author)

  10. RAFT Polymerization of N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)-propyl]acrylamide and Its Versatile Use in Silica Hybrid Materials.

    Maçon, Anthony L B; Greasley, Sarah L; Becer, C Remzi; Jones, Julian R

    2015-12-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and characterization of an alkoxysilane acrylamide monomer using a trithiocarbonate chain transfer agent are described. Poly(N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]acrylamide) (PTMSPAA) homopolymers are obtained with good control over the polymerization. A linear increase in the molecular weight is observed whereas the polydispersity values do not exceed 1.2 regardless of the monomer conversion. Moreover, PTMSPAA is used as a macro-RAFT agent to polymerize N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM). By varying the degree of polymerization of NIPAM within the block copolymer, different sizes of thermoresponsive particles are obtained. These particles are stabilized by the condensation of the alkoxysilane moieties of the polymers. Furthermore, a co-network of silica and PTMSPAA is prepared using the sol-gel process. After drying, transparent mesoporous hybrids are obtained with a surface area of up to 400 m(2) g(-1). PMID:26288010

  11. Improvement in the behavior of bromelain coupled to pNIPAm polymers containing acrylamide or acrylic acid

    Rubab Mahmood

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bromelain was coupled to N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAmpolymers, synthesized using NIPAm and various concentrations of acrylamide (Ac or acrylic acid (AAc. Incorporation of Ac/AAcinto the polymer increased the LCST (lower critical solutiontemperature in a concentration dependent manner but AAc wasmore effective in this regard; the LCST rose to 40°C when 6 percent AAc was used. Incorporation of Ac/AAc increased the coupling of enzyme to the polymer and the η (effectiveness factor of the coupled enzyme, moderately. Various studies indicate that such incorporation of hydrophilic monomers into the polymer does not impair its capacity to couple enzyme or expression of the activity of bound enzyme but seems to actually improve the stability of the enzyme against heat induced inactivation and alkaline pH.

  12. Electron Beam Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylamide/Acrylic Acid Hydrogels Using Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate as Cross-Linker

    Gabriela Craciun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the synthesis and characterization of hydrogels prepared by free-radical copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid in aqueous solutions using potassium persulfate as initiator and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as cross-linker, via the radiation technique. The samples were subjected to electron beam treatment in the dose range of 2 to 4 kGy and the influence of the absorbed dose and amount of cross-linker on the swelling properties, diffusion coefficient, and network parameters of hydrogels was investigated. A possible reaction mechanism for acrylamide/acrylic acid/trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate hydrogels was also suggested. The structure and morphology of hydrogels were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  13. Structural Parameters and Swelling Behavior of pH Sensitive Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) Hydrogels

    Thakur, A; Wanchoo, R. K.; Singh, P

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, hydrogels based on acrylamide (AAm) and acrylic acid (AAc), crosslinked with N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAAm) were prepared by free radical polymerization in solution. The effect of initial AAm/AAc mole ratio and nominal crosslinking ratio (moles of crosslinking agent/moles of polymer repeat unit) on the dynamic and equilibrium swelling behaviour of hydrogels was investigated. Hydrogels were characterized by the polymer volume fraction in the swollen state (ν2,s ), the...

  14. Poly(acrylic acid) interpolymer complexation: use of a fluorescence time resolved anisotropy as a poly(acrylamide) probe

    Swift, T.; Swanson, L; Rimmer, S.

    2014-01-01

    A low concentration poly(acrylamide) sensor has been developed which uses the segmental mobility of another polymer probe with a covalently attached fluorescent marker. Interpolymer complexation with poly(acrylic acid) leads to reduced segmental mobility which can be used to determine the concentration of polymer in solution. This technique could be useful in detecting the runoff of polymer dispersants and flocculants in fresh water supplies following water purification processes

  15. A facile metal-free "grafting-from" route from acrylamide-based substrate toward complex macromolecular combs

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2013-01-01

    High-molecular-weight poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) was used as a model functional substrate to investigate phosphazene base (t-BuP 4)-promoted metal-free anionic graft polymerization utilizing primary amide moieties as initiating sites. The (co)polymerization of epoxides was proven to be effective, leading to macromolecular combs with side chains being single- or double-graft homopolymer, block copolymer and statistical copolymer. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Direct determination of acrylamide in food by gas chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Simple and rapid gas chromatographic (GC) method employing a high-resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer that enables direct analysis (no derivatization) of acrylamide in various heat-processed foodstuffs has been developed and validated. Co-isolation of acrylamide precursors such as sugars and asparagine, constituting the risk of results overestimation due to additional formation of analyte in hot GC injector, is avoided by the extraction with n-propanol followed by solvent exchange to acetonitrile (MeCN). Introduction of a novel purification strategy, dispersive solid phase extraction, based on addition of primary-secondary amine (PSA) sorbent into deffated extract in MeCN, provides a significant reduction of some abundant matrix co-extracts (mainly free fatty acids). Isotope dilution technique (d3-acrylamide as an internal standard) is employed for compensation of potential target analyte losses and/or matrix-inducted chromatographic response enhancement. Limits of quantifications (LOQs) ranged between 15 and 40 μg kg-1 and recoveries were between 97 and 108% depending on the examined food matrix. The repeatability of measurements (expressed as relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was as low as 1.9% for potato crisps containing acrylamide at a level of 1 mg kg-1. Slightly higher values (R.S.D. < 4.0%) were achieved for breakfast cereals and crisp bread with approximately 10 times lower content of this processing contaminant. Trueness of results generated by this new method was demonstrated via FAPAS[reg] (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) interlaboratory proficiency tests

  17. IMMOBILIZATION OF Saccharomyces Cerevisiae USING POLY(ACRYLAMIDE) GEL FOR ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF R(-)-MANDELIC ACID

    LI Zhongqin; GUO Daiping; HUANG Xinghua; YANG Kai; XU Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the poly(acrylamide) hydrogel used to immobilize saccharomyces cerevisiae for asymmetric synthesis of R(-)-mandelic acid was prepared with free radical ploymerization in deionized water at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the composition of hydrogel, loading amount of cells and culture conditions on the asymmetric synthesis was investigated. Results show that PAAm hydrogel is a feasible carrier for immobilization of cells which is a potential alternative method to prepare enantiomerically pure R(-)-mandelic acid.

  18. Improved methods for the fluorographic detection of weak β-emitting radioisotopes in agarose and acrylamide gel electrophoresis media

    The use of acetic acid as a solvent for diphenyloxazole (PPO) in fluorographic procedures has been investigated. It is demonstrated to be superior to both dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol with respect to its suitability in both agarose and acrylamide gel electrophoresis systems. In addition, a method has been developed for impregnating fragile gels such as those used for immunodiffusion with PPO in preparation for fluorography. (Auth.)

  19. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food

    Petersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on acrylamide (AA) in food. AA has widespread uses as an industrial chemical. It is also formed when certain foods are prepared at temperatures above 120 °C and low moisture, especially in foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars. The CONTAM Panel evaluated 43 419 analytical results from food commodities. AA was found at the highest levels in solid coffee substitutes and coffee, and in potato fried products. Mean and 95th percentile dietar...

  20. Evidence for the complex relationship between free amino acid and sugar concentrations and acrylamide-forming potential in potato

    Muttucumaru, N.; Powers, S. J.; Elmore, J. S.; Briddon, A; Mottram, D. S.; Halford, N. G.

    2014-01-01

    Free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results not only in the formation of colour, aroma and flavour compounds, but also undesirable contaminants, including acrylamide, which forms when the amino acid that participates in the reaction is asparagine. In this study, tubers of 13 varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which had been produced in a field trial in 2010 and sampled immediately after harvest or...

  1. Determination of Threshold Exposure and Intensity for Recording Holograms in Thick Green-Sensitive Acrylamide-Based Photopolymer

    Mahmud, Mohammad Sultan; Naydenova, Izabela; Bebeva, Tzwetanka; Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    For optical data storage applications, it is essential to determine the lowest intensity (also known as threshold intensity) below or at which no data page or grating can be recorded in the photosensitive material, as this in turn determines the data capacity of the material. Here, experiments were carried out to determine the threshold intensity below which the formation of a simple hologram—a holographic diffraction grating in a green-sensitized acrylamide-based photopolymer—is not possible...

  2. Influence of acrylamide monomer addition to the acrylic denture-base resins on mechanical and physical properties

    Elif Aydogan Ayaz; Rukiye Durkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding acrylamide monomer (AAm) on the characterization, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal degradation temperature of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture-base resins. Specimens (n510) were fabricated from a conventional heat-activated QC-20 (Qc-) and a microwave heat-activated Acron MC (Ac-) PMMA resins. Powder/liquid ratio followed the manufacturer’s instructions for the control groups (Qc-c and Ac-c) and for the copolymer groups, the resins were prepared with 5%(25), 10%(210), 15%(215) and 20%(220) acrylamide contents, according to the molecular weight ratio, respectively. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured by a three-point bending test. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test (a50.05) to determine significant differences between the groups. The chemical structures of the resins were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a heating rate of 10 6C?min21 from 35 6C to 600 6C. Control groups from both acrylic resins showed the lowest flexural strength values. Qc-15 showed significant increase in the flexural strength when compared to Qc-c (P,0.01). Ac-10 and Ac-15 showed significance when compared to Ac-c (P,0.01). Acrylamide incorporation increased the elastic modulus in Qc-10, Qc-15 and Qc-20 when compared to Qc-c (P,0.01). Also significant increase was observed in Ac-10, Ac-15 and Ac-20 copolymer groups when compared to Ac-c (P,0.01). According to the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results, acrylamide copolymerization was confirmed in the experimental groups. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PMMA is increased by the insertion of AAm.

  3. 1H NMR study of temperature-induced phase separation in solutions of poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co-acrylamide) copolymers

    Kouřilová, H.; Šťastná, J.; Hanyková, L.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Spěváček, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2010), s. 1299-1306. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phase-separation * poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) aqueous solution * poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co- acrylamide ) copolymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.518, year: 2010

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hydrogels based on copolymers 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate -co- zwitterionic carboxybetaine (meth)acrylamide for tissue engineering

    Kostina, Nina Yu.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar Adolfo; Michálek, Jiří; Brynda, Eduard

    Granada : European Polymer Federation, 2011. s. 1310. ISBN 978-84-694-3124-5. [European Polymer Congress 2011, Congress of the Specialized Group of Polymers /12./. 26.06.2011-01.07.2011, Granada] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : hydrogels * zwitterionic carboxybetaine (meth) acrylamide * 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  5. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4/Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) Nanocomposites Synthesized in Inverse Miniemulsions: Magnetic and Particle Properties.

    Cui, Qinmin; Zhu, Shudi; Yan, Yingjie; Ye, Quanlin; Ziener, Ulrich; Cao, Zhihai

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, superparamagnetic Fe3O4/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) nanocomposites were synthesized by one-step inverse miniemulsion copolymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide and N,N'-methylene diacrylamide. The loading of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the nanocomposites was 27 wt%, and the saturation moment of the nanocomposites was 12.4 emu x g(-1). Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared through a coprecipitation method. The amount of stabilizer (poly(acrylic acid)) significantly influenced the size and size distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and, therefore, their magnetic properties. Superparamagnetism of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles was preserved in the nanocomposites. The effects of synthetic parameters on the particle properties, namely surfactant loading, concentration of ferrofluid, type of lipophobe and initiator, and amount of cross-linker were investigated. Nanocomposites of Fe3O4/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) displayed a guava-like morphology, which they could retain after being redispersed in polar solvents. PMID:26369088

  6. Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-co-Acrylamide Hydrogels for the Controlled Release of Bromelain from Agroindustrial Residues of Ananas comosus.

    Croisfelt, Fernanda; Martins, Bianca C; Rescolino, Robson; Coelho, Diego F; Zanchetta, Beatriz; Mazzola, Priscila G; Goulart, Luis Ricardo; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias B; Silveira, Edgar

    2015-12-01

    This works reports the purification of bromelain extracted from Ananas comosus industrial residues by ethanol purification, its partial characterization from the crude extract as well as the ethanol purified enzyme, and its application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels. Bromelain was recovered within the 30-70 % ethanol fraction, which achieved a purification factor of 3.12-fold, and yielded more than 90 % of its initial activity. The resulting purified bromelain contained more than 360 U · mg(-1), with a maximum working temperature of 60 °C and pH of 8.0. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels presented a swelling rate of 125 %, which was capable of loading 56 % of bromelain from the solution, and was able to release up to 91 % of the retained bromelain. Ethanol precipitation is suitable for bromelain recovery and application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels based on its processing time and the applied ethanol prices. PMID:26287766

  7. Advanced lignin-acrylamide water treatment agent by pulp and paper industrial sludge: synthesis, properties and application.

    Rong, Hongyan; Gao, Baoyu; Zhao, Yanxia; Sun, Shenglei; Yang, Zhonglian; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2013-12-01

    A novel flocculant LA (lignin-acrylamide polymer), which was used as aid for aluminum sulfate and polyaluminum chloride in this study, was prepared by grafting acrylamide onto lignin that deriving from pulp and papermaking sludge. Physicochemical properties of LA were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental outcome indicated acrylamide was grafted onto the lignin backbone successfully. The effects of LA addition were evaluated on coagulation performance and floc characteristics as a function of aluminum (Al) dosage, such as floc size, growth rate, strength and recoverability. Effects of different dosing sequences, Al dosed first and LA dosed first, were also investigated. LA used as coagulant aid markedly enhanced the removal efficiency of turbidity and dissolved organic carbon, especially at low Al dosages. The dissolved organic carbon removal efficiencies of aluminum sulfate and polyaluminum chloride at the Al dosage range selected in this study were improved more than 30% and 5% by LA, respectively. LA dramatically enlarged floc size and it was in the order: Al dosed first > LA dosed first > Al. Floc strength and recoverability were also improved by LA. LA played a significant role in charge neutralization, adsorption and bridging in floc formation. PMID:24649666

  8. Analysis of acrylamide in food products by microchip electrophoresis with on-line multiple-preconcentration techniques.

    Wu, Minglei; Chen, Wujuan; Wang, Guan; He, Pingang; Wang, Qingjiang

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, a microchip electrophoresis method based on on-line multiple-preconcentration techniques combining field-amplified sample stacking and reversed-field stacking was developed for highly efficient analysis of acrylamide in food products. The related mechanism as well as important parameters governing separation and preconcentration have been investigated in order to obtain maximum resolution and sensitivity. The best separation was achieved using a 100mM borate solution at pH 9.3 as running buffer, and a sensitivity enhancement factor of 432 was obtained using this concentration method under optimal conditions. The detection limit of acrylamide was 1ng/mL, which was comparable to those previously obtained using CE methods with on-line preconcentration techniques and was 41-700 times lower than those previously reported CE methods without concentration process. The proposed method also gave satisfactory and reliable results in the analysis of acrylamide in potato chips and French fries. PMID:27173547

  9. Effect of Storage on Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural Contents in Selected Processed Plant Products with Long Shelf-life.

    Michalak, Joanna; Gujska, Elżbieta; Czarnowska, Marta; Klepacka, Joanna; Nowak, Fabian

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of storage and temperature duration on the stability of acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in selected foods with long shelf-life. Products were analysed fresh and stored at temperatures of 4 and 25 °C after 6 and 12 months (with the exception of soft bread samples, which were analysed after 15 and 30 days). The AA and HMF contents were determined with RP-HPLC coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). AA and HMF were not stable in many processed plant products with a long shelf-life. The highest AA reduction and the largest increase in HMF content were observed in the samples stored at a higher temperature (25 °C) for 12 months. It was found that an initial water activity of 0.4 is favourable to HMF formation and that AA reduction may be considerably greater in stored products with a low initial water activity. The kind of product and its composition may also have a significant impact on acrylamide content in stored food. In the final period of storage at 25 °C, acrylamide content in 100% cocoa powder, instant baby foods, 20% cocoa powder and instant coffee was 51, 39, 35 and 33% lower than in products before storage, respectively. It was observed that a large quantity of ε-NH2 and SH groups of amino acids in some products can be assumed as the reason for the significant AA degradation. PMID:26768597

  10. The effect of heat treatments on the synthesis of acrylamide and its quantification by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detetector

    Delević Veselin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of thermal treatment (cooking, baking and frying on the content of acrylamide in potato was followed by gas chromatography with nitrogen - phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Sample preparation was performed in the conventional manner, applying heat treatment as follows: in boiling water at 110 0C for 30 minutes, by baking in an oven for 30 minutes at 2200 C, and frying in oil for 15 minutes at 250 0C. Quantification of acrylamide are preceded: homogenization of the sample, extraction, and evaporation of the extract. The calibration is performed in the concentration range 0-10 mg/kg and obtained value for R2 was higher than 0,99. Llimit of detection and limit of quantification were determined and obtained values were 0,26 mg/kg and 0,41 mg/kg, respectively. Recovery values were ranged from 102% to 110% and confirmed that metod is accurate. The proposed GC-NPD method is simple, reliable, and accurate for determination of the content of acrylamide in food samples. Obtained results show that the content of acrylamide in potato prepared by heat-cooking were below LOD while for samples trathed by baking or frying were in range from 0,6 mg/kg to 2,7 mg/kg. By comparing the content of acrylamide in potato we concluded that heat treatment has a major impact on the synthesis of acrylamide and it would be desirable to develop a process for the preparation of French fries and potato chips with low or no acrylamide content with textured attractive for consummation.

  11. Acrylamide effects on kinesin-related proteins of the mitotic/meiotic spindle

    The microtubule (MT) motor protein kinesin is a vital component of cells and organs expressing acrylamide (ACR) toxicity. As a mechanism of its potential carcinogenicity, we determined whether kinesins involved in cell division are inhibited by ACR similar to neuronal kinesin [Sickles, D.W., Brady, S.T., Testino, A.R., Friedman, M.A., and Wrenn, R.A. (1996). Direct effect of the neurotoxicant acrylamide on kinesin-based microtubule motility. Journal of Neuroscience Research 46, 7-17.] Kinesin-related genes were isolated from rat testes [Navolanic, P.M., and Sperry, A.O. (2000). Identification of isoforms of a mitotic motor in mammalian spermatogenesis. Biology of Reproduction 62, 1360-1369.], their kinesin-like proteins expressed in bacteria using recombinant DNA techniques and the effects of ACR, glycidamide (GLY) and propionamide (a non-neurotoxic metabolite) on the function of two of the identified kinesin motors were tested. KIFC5A MT bundling activity, required for mitotic spindle formation, was measured in an MT-binding assay. Both ACR and GLY caused a similar concentration-dependent reduction in the binding of MT; concentrations of 100 μM ACR or GLY reduced its activity by 60%. KRP2 MT disassembling activity was assayed using the quantity of tubulin disassembled from taxol-stabilized MT. Both ACR and GLY inhibited KRP2-induced MT disassembly. GLY was substantially more potent; significant reductions of 60% were achieved by 500 μM, a comparable inhibition by ACR required a 5 mM concentration. Propionamide had no significant effect on either kinesin, except KRP2 at 10 mM. This is the first report of ACR inhibition of a mitotic/meiotic motor protein. ACR (or GLY) inhibition of kinesin may be an alternative mechanism to DNA adduction in the production of cell division defects and potential carcinogenicity. We conclude that ACR may act on multiple kinesin family members and produce toxicities in organs highly dependent on microtubule-based functions

  12. Chemoprevention of Barley and Sage against acrylamide-Induced genotoxic, biochemical and histopathological alterations in rats

    Sekena, H. Abd El-Aziem1, Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahab2, Mahmoud A. M3Azza M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR has recently been found in fried and backed foods, suggesting widespread public exposure. ACR is an industrial chemical material that causes neurotoxicity in humans and was designated as a probable human carcinogen by IARC and USEPA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of barley and sage against ACR mutagenicity and biochemical and histopathological changes in rats. Forty mature male rats were divided into eight groups and were fed barley and/or sage-supplemented diet (5% with or without ACR (50 mg/kg b.w. The biochemical results revealed that ACR increased Alanine amino transferase (ALT, Aspartate amino transferase (AST, triglycerides (TG, cholesterol and uric acid. Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells were significantly increased in ACR-treated animals. Severe pathological lesions included testicular degeneration, oedema, spermatid giant cells formation and necrosis of spermatid cells were found in the testis of ACR-treated group. The kidney of this group showed degenerative changes. Cotreatment with barley and/or Sage and ACR resulted in a significant improvement in all the parameters tested. It could be concluded that these plants contain antioxidant compounds and may be useful when add as food additive to the food cooked on a higher temperature.

  13. Radiation preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive hydrogel of acrylamide/β-cyclodextrin copolymer

    A β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based monomer (MAH-β-CD) containing vinyl and carboxyl functional groups was synthesized by reaction of β-CD with maleic anhydride (MAH). By copolymerization of the monomer with acrylamide (AAm), a novel hydrogel, poly (AAm-co-MAH-β-CD) with pH and ionic strength sensitivities plus molecular inclusion function, was obtained by irradiating the aqueous solution mixture of AAm and MAH-β-CD with electron beam. The effect of the feed ratio of components and irradiation dose on the swelling and deswelling properties of the hydrogel was systematically studied. Swelling ratio of the hydrogel was tested under different environment of pH and ionic strength. The results indicate that the copolymer hydrogels did not show any noticeable change in swelling at lower pH (pH<5). However, they showed an abrupt increase in swelling at pH 5-8 due to the ionization of carboxyl groups. (authors)

  14. Investigation of Carbon Nano structures Prepared by Thermolysis of Poly Acrylamide

    Carbon nano structures have been synthesized by thermal annealing of Poly (acryl amidosulfonic acid) gel. Poly (acryl amidosulfonic acid) gel had been prepared using the technique of chain polymerization utilizing acrylamide and ammonium persulphate. Differential thermal analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis were performed on the gel. Results showed the occurrence of three important conversions at 250 degree C, 350 degree C, and 460 degree C which leads to the formation of carbon nano structures. X-ray investigation of the products implied the formation of carbon nano structures with average size of 4 ± 1 nm. Conclusions showed that proceeding after the mentioned steps of gel treatment at 250 degree C, 350 degree C, and 460 degree C is necessary to obtain narrower crystal size distribution. Morphology obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) explained the ability of the prepared material to adsorb ions from aqueous solution. The SEM Results showed average particle size of the formed fine particles as 150 nm, while X-ray diffraction showed that the crystal size is of about 4 ± 1 nm

  15. Co-grafting of acrylamide and vinyl imidazole onto EB pre-irradiated silanized silica gel

    Silica-based adsorbent was prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AAM) and vinyl imidazole (VIM) onto the silanized silica. The silanized silica was pre-irradiated by electron beam and then reacted with AAM/VIM mixture solution under various conditions. FTIR, TG-DTA and XPS spectra manifested that AAM and VIM were successfully grafted onto the silica surface. The effects of monomer composition, absorbed dose, reaction time and reaction temperature on the grafting yield were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal reaction conditions were as follows: AAM/VIM mole ratio 6:4 with a total concentration of 4 mol/L, absorbed dose 100 kGy, reaction temperature 60 oC and reaction time 18 h. The SS-g-AAM/VIM adsorbent is expected to be useful for the removal of heavy-metal-ions from wastewater. - Highlights: → AAM and VIM were co-grafted to silanized silica by EB pre-irradiation grafting. → The grafted chain was characterized by thermo-analysis, FTIR and XPS. → Physical adsorption of monomer to silica plays an important role in radiation grafting.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of super absorbent poly (acrylamide-co-potassium acrylate) hydrogels by radiation technique

    A series of super absorbent hydrogels were prepared from acrylamide (AAm) and potassium acrylate (KA) by gamma irradiation technique at room temperature. The solution containing potassium acrylate 15% and different concentrations of AAm (10-16%) were irradiated by gamma rays (20-40 kGy). The hydrogels produced by irradiation were characterized by fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The gel fraction, kinetics of swelling and the equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) were studied. Under irradiation dose of 20 kGy and concentration of AAM 10 %), poly(AAm-co-KA) hydrogel with high gel fraction (99.08%) and very high EDS (420 g/g) were obtained. The capacity of hydrogel to adsorb metal ion Cu2+and Fe3+were investigated. It is shown than 10 minutes the hydrogel could adsorb Cu2+ ion up to 95 %, and Fe3+ ion up to 55 % in 80 minutes. This hydrogel has a potential to be used for soil conditioning and ion metal absorbent. (author)

  17. Radiation induced polymerization and crosslinking behavior of N-hydroxy methyl acrylamide in aqueous solutions

    The reaction of N-hydroxy methyl acrylamide (NHMA) with the eaq-, ·OH and ·H radicals of water radiolysis were studied in dilute solutions using pulse radiolysis technique. The rate constants for the initiation reaction of NHMA monomer with hydrated electron (5.6x109 dm3 mol-1 s-1), hydroxyl radical (3.4x109 dm3 mol-1 s-1) and H atom (3.5x109 dm3 mol-1 s-1) were found to be diffusion controlled. The reactions of some oxidizing radicals like N3·, SO4·- and reducing species like COO·-, (CH3)2·COH with NHMA have also been studied. The results show that oxidation and reduction potentials for NHMA/NHMA·+ and NHMA/NHMA·- couples are between 1.3 and 2.4 V and more than -1.9 V, respectively. Poly(NHMA) (PNHMA) hydrogels were synthesized by γ-irradiation and the conditions of synthesis such as total dose, dose rate, effects of oxygen and nitrogen, and concentration of monomer on gel formation characteristics were investigated. Maximum gel content (64%) has been achieved for 4 kGy dose (dose rate, 8k Gy h-1) for air free 10% (w/v) monomer solution

  18. Estimation of dietary exposure to acrylamide of Polish teenagers from an urban environment.

    Wyka, Joanna; Tajner-Czopek, Agnieszka; Broniecka, Anna; Piotrowska, Ewa; Bronkowska, Monika; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary exposure to acrylamide (AA) in a group of teenagers (n = 261) from an urban environment. The intake of AA from food was estimated based on a 7-day food record diary (consecutive days). The food rations obtained (n = 1827) were used to calculate the amounts of the consumed food products, which were the main sources of AA. In the case of girls, the estimated dietary intake of AA per kg body weight (BW) amounted to 0.09 µg/kg BW/day (50th percentile), 0.32 µg/kg BW/day (75th percentile) and 1.04 µg/kg BW/day (95th percentile), and among boys it was 0.13, 0.41, and 1.18 µg/kg BW/day, respectively. The main sources of AA exposure were French fries, potato crisps, corn flakes, bread and salty sticks. The lowest values for margin of exposure (MOE) were calculated for the P95th percentiles of exposure, and ranged from 152 to 173. PMID:25445510

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF THE SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL BY γ-RAY IRRADIATION

    M.A. Chowdhury; M.M. Alam; M.F. Mina; F. Akhtar; S.E. Kabir

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogels have been synthesized from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% aqueous solutions of acrylamide monomer by gamma radiation employing doses in the range of 0.2-30 kGy from a Co-60 source. The effect of solution concentration, γ-ray dose, pH and time was studied in order to observe the optimizing conditions in the characterization of hydrogels. Gel fraction increases with dose for all concentrations indicating hundred-percentage conversion of gel at doses ≥5 kGy for homogenous solutions in the range of 20%-50% concentration. On the other hand, 10% solution provides conversion less than 86% even at 30 kGy, whereas 60% monomer makes an inhomogeneous solution which stile gives about 100% gel fraction. Swelling of hydrogels under water with respect to time varies with both the doses and concentrations due to the change of crosslinking density in the gels. The maximum volume change of hydrogels during swelling and water desorption mainly occurs within 24 h. Swelling is also enhanced with the rise of pH due to change of ionic content of the solvent. Considering the amount of gel fraction and the properties of hydrogel, the samples prepared from 20% solution at 5kGy show better results. Moreover, the effect of bacteria on hydrogel was found to be nil, suggesting a prohibition of growth of microorganism in it.

  20. Photoinitiated Polymerization of Cationic Acrylamide in Aqueous Solution: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sludge Dewatering Performance

    Huaili Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A copolymer of acrylamide (AM with acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC as the cationic monomer was synthesized under the irradiation of high-pressure mercury lamp with 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (V-50 as the photoinitiator. The compositions of the photoinduced copolymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, ultraviolet spectra (UV, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The effects of 6 important factors, that is, photo-initiators concentration, monomers concentration, CO(NH22 (urea concentrations, pH value, mass ratio of AM to DAC, and irradiation time on the molecular weight and dissolving time, were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were that the photo-initiators concentration was 0.3%, monomers concentration was 30 wt.%, irradiation time was 60 min, urea concentration was 0.4%, pH value was 5.0, and mass ratio of AM to DAC was 6 : 4. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with activated sludge using jar test. The zeta potential of supernatant at different cationic monomer contents was simultaneously measured. The results demonstrated the superiority of the copolymer over the commercial polyacrylamide as a flocculant.

  1. Nicotine-selective radiation-induced poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) hydrogels

    Nicotine-selective poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) (AAm/MA) hydrogels prepared by γ-irradiation were used in experiments on swelling, diffusion, and interactions of the pharmaceuticals nicotine, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nikethamide. For AAm/MA hydrogel containing 60 mg maleic acid and irradiated at 5.2 kGy, the studies indicated that swelling increased in the following order; nicotine>nicotinamide>nikethamide>nicotinic acid>water. Diffusions of water and the pharmaceuticals within the hydrogels were found to be non-Fickian in character. AAm/MA hydrogel sorbed only nicotine and did not sorb nicotinamide, nikethamide and nicotinic acid in the binding experiments. S-type adsorption in Giles's classification system was observed. Some binding and thermodynamic parameters for AAm/MA hydrogel-nicotine system were calculated using the Scatchard method. The values of adsorption heat and free energy of this system were found to be negative whereas adsorption entropy was found to be positive. (author)

  2. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  3. Solution properties of the acrylamide-modified cellulose polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions.

    Song, Yongbo; Zhou, Jinping; Li, Qian; Lue, Ang; Zhang, Lina

    2009-07-27

    A novel cellulose-based polyelectrolyte (AM-C) containing acylamino (DS=0.625) and carboxyl (DS=0.148) groups was homogeneously synthesized from cellulose with acrylamide in NaOH/urea aqueous solutions. Solution properties of AM-C in aqueous solutions were investigated by laser light scattering, rheometry, and viscometry. The results indicated that AM-C could form large aggregates spontaneously in water with or without the addition of salts by the strong hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction between acylamino and carboxyl groups. Steady-shear flow study showed a Newtonian behavior of the solutions in the dilute regime while a shear-thinning behavior as the concentration increases. The critical concentration (c(e)) for transition from dilute to concentrated solution was determined to be 0.7wt%. Aqueous solutions of AM-C displayed good thermo-stability, reversible liquid-like characters attributing to the chemical modification. The derivation from Cox-Merz rule at relatively low concentration was related to the co-existence of single chain and large aggregates of AM-C in dilute regime. As the polymer concentration increased, the AM-C system was transformed into a homogeneous entanglement structure, resulting in the disappearance of deviations from the Cox-Merz rule. PMID:19464674

  4. Radiation grafting of acrylamide onto starch-filled low density polyethylene

    Bagheri, Rouhallah; Naimian, Franak; Sheikh, Nassrin

    1997-04-01

    Acrylamide (AAm) was grafted on the surface of starch-filled low density polyethylene (SLDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) films by the mutual irradiation technique at doses from 0.75 to 5 kGy. The effect of dose, solvents and dihydroxybenzoquinone on the degree of grafting was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the weight measurement method of extracted films at a constant monomer concentration (10% w/w). An ultraviolet spectrophotometer was also used to elucidate the results of the above methods. Grafting on SLDPE and LDPE samples reaches a maximum followed by a slight decrease with increasing dose. A higher degree of grafting was obtained on SLDPE samples compared with that on LDPE. An induction period was observed in the case of the samples prepared in tetrahdyrfuran (THF) as the solvent compared with those in chloroform. Addition of benzene to chloroform and THF (50% v/v) accelerates the rate of AAm grafting on the samples. Dihydroxybenzoquinone inhibits the grafting reactions of the samples especially in the THF solutions. The water uptake measurement of the samples correlates with the degree of grafting.

  5. Reversible Self-Assembly of Backbone-Thermoresponsive Long Chain Hyperbranched Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide

    Ting-Ting Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we mainly described the reversible self-assembly of a backbone-thermoresponsive, long-chain, hyperbranched poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide (LCHBPNIPAM in aqueous solution. Here, we revealed a reversible self-assembly behavior of LCHBPNIPAM aqueous solution derived from temperature. By controlling the temperature of LCHBPNIPAM aqueous solution, we tune the morphology of the LCHBPNIPAM self-assemblies. When the solution temperature increased from the room temperature to the lower critical solution temperature of PNIPAM segments, LCHBPNIPAM self-assembled from multi-compartment vesicles into solid micelles. The morphology of LCHBPNIPAM self-assemblies changed from solid micelles to multi-compartment vesicles again when the temperature decreased back to the room temperature. The size presented, at first, an increase, and then a decrease, tendency in the heating-cooling process. The above thermally-triggered self-assembly behavior of LCHBPNIPAM aqueous solution was investigated by dynamic/static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance in D2O, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results indicated that LCHBPNIPAM aqueous solution presents a reversible self-assembly process. The controlled release behaviors of doxorubicin from the vesicles and micelles formed by LCHBPNIPAM further proved the feasibility of these self-assemblies as the stimulus-responsive drug delivery system.

  6. Radiation-grafting of acrylamide onto silicone rubber films for diclofenac delivery

    This work focuses on the pre-irradiation grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto silicone rubber films (SR) and evaluates the effect of gamma-ray radiation conditions on the grafting yield, which in turn may influence the performance of the grafted materials as components of drug-eluting devices. Pristine and modified SR were characterized using FTIR-ATR, DSC, TGA, swelling, and water contact angle analysis in order to elucidate the effects of AAm grafting onto SR. Grafted films with content in AAm ranging from 0.81% to 22.20% showed excellent cytocompatibility against fibroblasts, and capability to uptake the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Amount of drug loaded directly correlated with the grafting degree of the films. Drug release studies were performed at pH 7.4 and 37 °C (physiological conditions). Most grafted films released the drug in a sustained way for at least three hours. - Highlights: • SR–g-AAm depends on dose, monomer concentration, and reaction time and temperature. • Diclofenac sodium salt is loaded and released in a sustained way from SR–g-AAm films. • SR–g-AAm films are cytocompatible and have potential as components of drug–device

  7. Synthesis and characterization of acrylamide-acrylic acid hydrogels and adsorption of some textile dyes

    Acrylamide (AAm)-acrylic acid (AAc) hydrogels have been prepared at AAm initial compositions of 15%, 20% and 30%. AAm-AAc monomer mixtures have been irradiated in a 60Co-γ source at different doses and percent conversions have been determined gravimetrically. 100% conversion of monomers into hydrogels was achieved at 8 kGy dose. These hydrogels were swollen in distilled water at pH 3.03, 4.18, 4.68, 5.05, 5.30, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0. The results of swelling tests at pH 8.0 indicated that poly(AAm-AAc) hydrogels prepared from solution containing 15% (mol%) AAm showed maximum % swelling as 3000%. Poly(AAm-AAc) hydrogels have been considered for the removal of some textile dyes from aqueous solutions. Among the two common textile dyes tested, Janus Green B (JGB) has showed the highest adsorption capacity while Congo Red (CR) was not adsorbed by these hydrogels. Adsorption isotherms were constructed for JGB and poly(AAm/AAc) gel systems. It is concluded that cross-linked poly(AAm/AAc) hydrogels can be successfully used in the purification of waste water containing certain textile dyes

  8. Relation between dietary acrylamide exposure and biomarkers of internal dose in Canadian teenagers.

    Brisson, Benjamin; Ayotte, Pierre; Normandin, Louise; Gaudreau, Éric; Bienvenu, Jean-François; Fennell, Timothy R; Blanchet, Carole; Phaneuf, Denise; Lapointe, Caroline; Bonvalot, Yvette; Gagné, Michelle; Courteau, Marilène; Snyder, Rodney W; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen found in several foods. Little information is available regarding exposure of adolescents, a subgroup potentially consuming more AA-rich foods. We investigated the relationship between dietary AA intake and levels of biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolites and hemoglobin adducts) in 195 non-smoking teenagers of Montreal Island aged 10-17 years. Dietary habits and personal characteristics were documented by questionnaire. AA and its metabolites were quantified in 12-h urine collections by LC-MS/MS. Hemoglobin adducts from 165 blood samples were also analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Most prevalent urinary metabolites were NACP and NACP-S, with respective geometric mean concentrations of 31.2 and 14.2 μmol/mol creatinine. Geometric mean concentrations of AAVal and GAVal (hemoglobin adducts of AA and glycidamide (GA) with N-terminal valine residues) were 45.4 and 45.6 pmol/g globin, respectively. AA intake during the 2 days before urine collection was a significant predictor of NACP+NACP-S urinary concentrations (P<0.0001). AA intakes during the month before blood collection (P<0.0001) and passive smoking (P<0.05) were associated with adduct levels. Levels of hemoglobin adducts were above biomonitoring equivalent values corresponding to a 1 × 10(-4) excess cancer risk, which may indicate the need to reduce AA exposure in the population. PMID:23756700

  9. EFFECT OF GAMMA RAYS IN THE PREPARATION OF POLYMER AND HYDROGEL FROM ACRYLAMIDE MONOMER

    M. M. Alam; M. F. Mina; F. Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    The formation of polymer and hydrogel from aqueous solutions having 20, 30 and 40% concentrations of acrylamide monomer by γ-ray irradiation processing in the dose range 0.06-30 kGy using a Co-60 source and their characterization have been observed. Polymer conversion and gel fraction are found to depend on radiation doses. Polymer conversion increases with the increase of dose, depending on the solution concentration, where maximum conversion is achieved at 0.18, 0.16 and 0.10 kGy for 20%, 30% and 40% concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, gel fraction increases with dose from the gel point (0.12 kGy) for all concentrations, where 100% conversion of gel occurs at doses ≥ 5 kGy. Tensile strength, viscosity and molecular weight (Mw) of polymer samples increase with both the dose and the concentration, showing a high value of Mw up to ≈108. Swelling of hydrogels under water with respect to time varies due to the variation of cross-linking density formed in the gels and the maximum swelling mainly occurs within 24 h. A remarkable change of surface morphology reveals characteristic features of monomer, polymer and hydrogel films.

  10. Removal of cationic dyes by poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels in aqueous solutions

    Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid (poly(AAm-co-AAc)) hydrogels prepared by irradiating with γ-radiation were used in experiments on swelling, diffusion, and uptake of some cationic dyes such as Safranine-O (SO) and Magenta (M). Poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels irradiated at 8.0 kGy have been used for swelling and diffusion studies in water and cationic dye solutions. The maximum swellings in water, and SO, and M solutions observed are 2700%, 3500%, and 4000%, respectively. Diffusions of water and cationic dyes within hydrogels have been found to be non-Fickian in character. Adsorption of the cationic dyes onto poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels is studied by the batch adsorption technique. The adsorption type was found Langmuir type in the Giles classification system. The moles of adsorbed dye for SO and M per repeating unit in hydrogel (binding ratio, r) have been calculated as 3834x10-6 and 1323x10-6, respectively. These results show that poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels can be used as adsorbent for water pollutants such as cationic dyes

  11. Synthesis and Phase Behavior of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b- Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride and Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide- co-Acrylamide-b-Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride

    Milica Spasojević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine and poly(N- isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine copolymers was accomplished by combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and ring opening polymerization (ROP. For this purpose, a di-functional initiator with protected amino group was successfully synthetized. The ATRP of N-isopropylacrylamide yielded narrowly dispersed polymers with consistent high yields (~80%. Lower yields (~50% were observed when narrowly dispersed random copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylamide where synthesized. Amino-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylamide were successfully used as macroinitiators for ROP of N6-carbobenzoxy-L- lysine N-carboxyanhydride. The thermal behavior of the homopolymers and copolymers in aqueous solutions was studied by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR.

  12. Investigations on the effect of antioxidant type and concentration and model system matrix on acrylamide formation in model Maillard reaction systems.

    Constantinou, Costas; Koutsidis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The formation of acrylamide in model Maillard reaction systems containing phenolic compounds was examined, with regards to phenolic type, concentration, and model system matrix. In dry glyoxal/asparagine waxy maize starch (WMS) systems, 9 out of 10 examined phenolics demonstrated an inhibiting effect, with the most significant reductions (55-60%) observed for caffeoylquinic acids. In WMS glucose/asparagine systems, examination of three different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μmol/g WMS) suggested a 'minimum effective concentration' for epicatechin and caffeic acid, whilst addition of caffeoylquinic acids resulted in dose-dependent acrylamide reduction (25-75%). The discordant results of further studies utilising different matrices (dry and wet-to-dry) indicated that, apart from the nature and chemical reactivity, the matrix and the physical state of the reactants might be important for acrylamide formation. PMID:26617015

  13. Facile Synthesis of N-Tosyl Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Acrylamide via a Pd-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitrile to Amide

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Yu Mi; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    We developed an efficient palladium-catalyzed two-step protocol for the synthesis of N-tosyl aza-Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylamide. The method involved the preparation of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylonitrile and the following Pd-catalyzed hydration of nitrile with acetaldoxime. The Baylis-Hillman reaction, which involves the coupling of activated vinyl compounds with electrophiles under the catalytic influence of a tertiary amine, gives rise to adducts, so called Baylis-Hillman adducts, with a new stereocenter and has proven to be a very useful carbon-carbon bond-forming method in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules. As the activated vinyl compounds, various compounds have been used in the Baylis-Hillman reaction including acrylates, acrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, vinyl sulfones and acrylamides. However, among the activated vinyl compounds acrylamide has not been used much for the synthesis of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts due to its sluggish reactivity.

  14. Facile Synthesis of N-Tosyl Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Acrylamide via a Pd-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitrile to Amide

    We developed an efficient palladium-catalyzed two-step protocol for the synthesis of N-tosyl aza-Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylamide. The method involved the preparation of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylonitrile and the following Pd-catalyzed hydration of nitrile with acetaldoxime. The Baylis-Hillman reaction, which involves the coupling of activated vinyl compounds with electrophiles under the catalytic influence of a tertiary amine, gives rise to adducts, so called Baylis-Hillman adducts, with a new stereocenter and has proven to be a very useful carbon-carbon bond-forming method in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules. As the activated vinyl compounds, various compounds have been used in the Baylis-Hillman reaction including acrylates, acrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, vinyl sulfones and acrylamides. However, among the activated vinyl compounds acrylamide has not been used much for the synthesis of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts due to its sluggish reactivity

  15. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide disturbs expression of metallothionein, proinflammatory cytokines and induces genotoxicity: Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney of adult rats.

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Nesrine; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-09-01

    The individual toxic effects of aluminum and acrylamide are known but there is no data on their combined effects. The present study investigates the toxic effects after combined exposure to these toxicants on: (i) oxidative stress during combined chronic exposure to aluminum and acrylamide on kidney function (ii) correlation of oxidative stress with metallothionein (MT) and inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Rats were exposed to aluminum (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to aluminum chloride or acrylamide alone and in combination induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in the 24-h urine volume and uric acid levels in plasma and an increase of plasma creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels. Nephrotoxicity was objectified by a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, advanced oxidation protein, and protein carbonyl contents, whereas reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, vitamin C levels, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities showed a significant decline. Superoxide dismutase activity and its gene expression were increased. Aluminum and acrylamide co-exposure exhibited synergism in various biochemical variables and also in DNA damage. Kidney total MT levels and genes expression of MT1, MT2, and proinflammatory cytokines were increased. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide exhibited synergism and more pronounced toxic effects compared with their individual effects based on various biochemical variables, genotoxic, and histopathological changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1044-1058, 2016. PMID:25858877

  16. Reduction of acrylamide level through blanching with treatment by an extremely thermostable L-asparaginase during French fries processing.

    Zuo, Shaohua; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid. It is normally used as an antineoplastic drug applied in lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapy and as a food processing aid in baked or fried food industry to inhibit the formation of acrylamide. The present study demonstrates cloning, expression, and characterization of a thermostable L-asparaginase from Thermococcus zilligii AN1 TziAN1_1 and also evaluates the potential for enzymatic acrylamide mitigation in French fries using this enzyme. The recombinant L-asparaginase was purified to homogeneity by nickel-affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme displayed the maximum activity at pH 8.5 and 90 °C, and the optimum temperature was the highest ever reported. The K m, k cat, and k cat/K m values toward L-asparagine were measured to be 6.08 mM, 3267 s(-1), and 537.3 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enzyme retained 70 % of its original activity after 2 h of incubation at 85 °C. When potato samples were treated with 10 U/mL of L-asparaginase at 80 °C for only 4 min, the acrylamide content in final French fries was reduced by 80.5 % compared with the untreated control. Results of this study revealed that the enzyme was highly active at elevated temperatures, reflecting the potential of the T. zilligii L-asparaginase in the food processing industry. PMID:26077968

  17. Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride

    Wan Aida Wan Mustapha; Chun Wai Ho; Faridah Abas; Chin Ping Tan; Phui Yee Tan

    2013-01-01

    Palm sugar-like flavouring (PSLF) is a type of flavour product that is formed by heating amino acids and sugar under specific heating conditions. Unfortunately, PSLF has a salty taste and contains high amounts of acrylamide. Hence, the objective of this research was to reduce saltiness and acrylamide without negatively affecting the aroma properties of PSLF. A decrease in the sodium phosphate (NaHPO4) buffer concentration from 0.20 to 0.02 M was found to reduce sodium to approximately 15% of ...

  18. Bio-rational design of photosystem Ⅱ inhibitors (Ⅷ)——Molecular design, synthesis and inhibitory activity of acrylates (acrylamides)

    刘华银; 沙印林; 谭惠芬; 杨华铮; 来鲁华

    1999-01-01

    Molecular modeling of acrylates (acrylamides) with D1 protein of Pisum sativum is presented. Studies show that the binding force mainly includes H-bond interaction, Van der Waals and π-ring stacking interaction. It was found that SER 268 in D1 protein might be an important binding site. It is important for high inhibitory activity of compounds whether an electronegative atom in alkyl of ester linkage could make H-bond interaction with SER 268 in D1 protein. Thus some new acrylates (acrylamides) were designed and synthesized, Bioassay indicated that these new compounds showed expected Hill reaction inhibitory activity.

  19. POLYMERIC IONIC CONDUCTORS MODIFIED WITH POLAR GROUPS:PART Ⅰ. IONIC CONDUCTION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY OF LI-COMPLEX BASED ON ACRYLAMIDE- COPOLYMERIZED METHACRYLATES

    DENG Zhenghua; XU Kang; WAN Guoxiang

    1992-01-01

    Acrylamide was introduced onto the chain of poly[oligo(oxyethylene) methacrylate] as a polar constituent, and the effect of its presence on the mechanical strength and ionic conduction properties of Li-salt complex based on the resultant copolymer was investigated. The introduction of the polar constituent raises chain rigidity, retards crystallization of oligo(oxyethylene) domain and promotes the dissociation of lithium salt. The factors work on the mechanical and conduction properties synergistically, therefore both of the properties are improved simultaneously as the consequence of acrylamide- introduction.

  20. Onderzoek naar de mutagene werking van acrylamide met microorganismen, Drosophila melanogaster en L5178Y muize-lymfoomcellen

    Voogd CE; van der Stel JJ; Verharen HW; Kramers PGN; Mout HCA; Knaap AGAC; Langebroek PG

    1984-01-01

    Met acrylamide is met Klebsiella pneumoniae ur-pro- geen mutagene werking gevonden bij 141 mmol/l (10 g/liter) of minder. Met de Salmonella typhimurium stammen TA 100, TA 1535, TA 102, TA 98 en TA 1537 is geen mutagene werking aangetoond bij 100 mg per plaat of minder, zowel met als zonder metabolische activering. Met Drosophila melanogaster is met een injectie van 0,2 mul van een 40 of 50 mmol/l acrylamideoplossing een geringe doch niet significante verhoging van de mutatiefrequentie gevonde...

  1. NMR study of temperature-induced phase transition in solutions of poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co-acrylamide) copolymers

    Spěváček, Jiří; Kouřilová, H.; Šťastná, L.; Hanyková, L.; Sedláková, Zdeňka

    Glasgow : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2010. D14_P15. [MACRO 2010 - IUPAC World Polymer Congress /43./: Polymer Science in the Service of Society. 11.07.2010-16.07.2010, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : temperature-induced phase transition * poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co- acrylamide ) copolymers * NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry https://rsc.conference-services.net/resources/728/1990/pdf/Macro2010_0501.pdf

  2. 1H NMR and DSC study of temperature induced phase transition in solutions of acrylamide/N-isopropylmethacrylamide copolymers

    Šťastná, J.; Hanyková, L.; Spěváček, Jiří

    Zagreb : Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, 2010 - (Volovšek, V.; Bistričić, L.; Šapić, I.). s. 41 ISBN 978-953-6470-52-5. [European Symposium on Polymer Spectroscopy /18./. 19.09.2010-22.09.2010, Zadar] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : temperature induced phase transition * acrylamide /N-isopropylmethacrylamide statistical copolymers * NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  3. Preparation and Investigation of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide Membranes in Temperature Responsive Drug Delivery

    Elham Khodaverdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPhysiological changes in the body may be utilized as potential triggers for controlled drug delivery. Based on these mechanisms, stimulus–responsive drug delivery has been developed.Materials and MethodsIn this study, a kind of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide membrane was prepared by radical copolymerization. Changes in swelling ratios and diameters of the membrane were investigated in terms of temperature. On-off regulation of drug permeation through the membrane was then studied at temperatures below and above the phase transition temperature of the membrane. Two drugs, vitamin B12 and acetaminophen were chosen as models of high and low molecular weights here, respectively. ResultsIt was indicated that at temperatures below the phase transition temperature of the membrane, copolymer was in a swollen state. Above the phase transition temperature, water was partially expelled from the functional groups of the copolymer. Permeation of high molecular weight drug models such as vitamin B12 was shown to be much more distinct at temperatures below the phase transition temperature when the copolymer was in a swollen state. At higher temperatures when the copolymer was shrunken, drug permeation through the membrane was substantially decreased. However for acetaminophen, such a big change in drug permeation around the phase transition temperature of the membrane was not observed. ConclusionAccording to the pore mechanism of drug transport through hydrogels, permeability of solutes decreased with increasing molecular size. As a result, the relative permeability, around the phase transition temperature of the copolymer, was higher for solutes of high molecular weight.

  4. Antibacterial activity of starch/acrylamide/allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide copolymers synthesized by gamma irradiation

    Starch/acrylamide/allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide (St/AM/TP) copolymers were synthesized by simultaneous gamma irradiation and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR techniques, weight measurement and titration method. Moreover, their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus were explored by the viable cell counting method in sterile distilled water. At St/AM/TP 6:8.4:5.6 g, copolymers with higher graft ratio (G) and higher (AM+TP) graft efficiency (EAM+TP) were obtained at 3 and 6 kGy, while cationic degree (CD) and TP graft efficiency (ETP) continuously increased with absorbed dose from 1 to 6 kGy. All of the copolymers were capable of killing >99.75% of 107 CFU/ml S. aureus within 30 mins. Moreover, at 3 kGy, G, EAM+TP and ETP increased with AM/TP from 0:14 to 11.2:2.8 g at St/(AM+TP) 6:14 g, while the optimum CD and antibacterial activity were achieved at AM/TP 7:7 and 8.4:5.6 g. In addition, at 3 kGy, G, EAM+TP and CD increased with St/(AM+TP) from 6:3 to 6:18 g at AM/TP 8.4:5.6 g, while the optimum antibacterial activity was achieved at 6:10 to 6:18 g, and the optimum ETP was achieved at 6:14. - Highlights: • Cationic starch is prepared from AM and TP by Gamma irradiation. • Cationic starch is characterized by FTIR, NMR, weight method and titration method. • Grafting ratio and cationic degree depend on absorbed dose and composition. • Cationic starch shows good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus

  5. Mesoscopic simulation of a micellar poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-b-(polyethylene oxide) copolymer system

    Bautista-Reyes, Rubén; Soto-Figueroa, César; Vicente, Luis

    2016-05-01

    In this article we studied the micellar formation of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-b-polyethylene oxide (PNIPAM-b-PEO) copolymers in an aqueous system. From molecular simulations the dependence on temperature of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ for PNIPAM and PEO in water is obtained and compared with available experimental results and values from other theoretical calculations. By means of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) we then simulated the coil-globule transition for PNIPAM chains in water with a transition temperature of around 305 K. The simulations for PNIPAM-b-PEO copolymers showed that at room temperature the chains are miscible in an aqueous phase but with a temperature increase the system turns into micelles at T  =  305 K. The change in micelle anisotropy due to a different ratio PNIPAM/PEO of chains is also analyzed. What is observed is that for large PEO the large number of dissolved PEO chains gives a large corona size and the micelle is not spherical but obloide and as the number of PNIPAM is increased the micelle acquires a spherical shape. As an important application we considered the system micelle-water/anionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM]+[PF6]-). By increasing the temperature of the system from 306 K it is shown that at T  =  345 K there is a transfer of the micelle from water to the ionic liquid phase and this was due to the change in the relative affinity of PEO to water and ionic liquid expressed by the change in χ. All the simulation outcomes are qualitatively consistent with experimental results and thus to our knowledge we give the first set of χ values for the interaction between PNIPAM and water in a wide range of temperature values.

  6. Acrylamide-induced prenatal programming of intestine structure in guinea pig.

    Tomaszewska, E; Dobrowolski, P; Puzio, I; Prost, L; Kurlak, P; Sawczuk, P; Badzian, B; Hulas-Stasiak, M; Kostro, K

    2014-02-01

    Potential effects of prenatal administration of acrylamide (ACR) on postnatal development of the small intestine were not examined experimentally yet. The aim of this study was to establish changes of morphological parameters of the small intestine damaged by prenatal action of ACR in guinea pigs. The 3 mg/kg body weight of ACR was given in drinking water every day during the last 35 days of the pregnancy in guinea pigs. The histomorphometry of the duodenum and jejunum was determined. Immunohistochemical staining with anti cadherin antibody was performed. Maternal treatment with ACR led to the decrease of the expression of cadherin in the epithelium. Maternal ACR treatment increased the number of total, divided and inactive crypt, and the number of damaged villi in the duodenum and jejunum of newborn guinea pigs. The thickness of myenteron and submucosa, mucosa fractal dimension and the depth of crypts in the duodenum were increased by ACR. Additionally, in offspring born by mothers administered with ACR the decrease of villi epithelium thickness and active crypt number was observed. Moreover, ACR decreased goblet cells and inact villi number in the duodenum, mucosa thickness and crypts width in the jejunum. Intestine absorptive surface was affected by ACR in the jejunum as well. Results of measurements showed that maternal ACR treatment had negative influence on small intestine histomorphometry. ACR acting prenatally influenced small intestine nervous plexuses that became enlarged by 2.5 times compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results showed the negative impact of maternal ACR treatment on histological structure, integrity and innervation of small intestine wall as well as on absorptive function of small intestine mucosa. PMID:24622835

  7. Biodegradation of the cross-linked copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate by soil bacteria.

    Oksińska, Małgorzata P; Magnucka, Elżbieta G; Lejcuś, Krzysztof; Pietr, Stanisław J

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking and the high molecular weight of superabsorbent copolymers (SAPs) are the two main causes of their resistance to biodegradation. However, SAP particles are colonized by microorganisms. For the purposes of this study, the dry technical copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate containing 5.28 % of unpolymerized monomers was wrapped in a geotextile and incubated in unsterile Haplic Luvisol soil as a water absorbing geocomposite. The highest number of soil bacteria that colonized the hydrated SAP and utilized it as the sole carbon and energy source was found after the first month of incubation in soil. It was equal to 7.21-7.49 log10 cfu g(-1) of water absorbed by the SAP and decreased by 1.35-1.61 log10 units within the next 8 months. During this time, the initial SAP water holding capacity of 1665.8 g has decreased by 24.40 %. Moreover, the 5 g of SAP dry mass has declined by 31.70 %. Two bacteria, Rhizobium radiobacter 28SG and Bacillus aryabhattai 31SG isolated from the watered SAP were found to be able to biodegrade this SAP in pure cultures. They destroyed 25.07 and 41.85 mg of 300 mg of the technical SAP during the 60-day growth in mineral Burk's salt medium, and biodegradation activity was equal to 2.95 and 6.72 μg of SAP μg(-1) of protein, respectively. B. aryabhattai 31SG and R. radiobacter 28SG were also able to degrade 9.99 and 29.70 mg of 82 mg of the ultra-pure SAP in synthetic root exudate medium during the 30-day growth, respectively. PMID:26817471

  8. Implementation of Chitosan Inductively Modified by GAMMA Rays Copolymerization With Acrylamide in the Decontamination of Aqueous Basic Dye Solution

    The modification induced by gamma rays for the natural polymer chitosan was established using the monomer acrylamide. The hydrogel obtained was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of absorbed dose (kGy) and chitosan: acrylamide ratio on the gel % was studied. The impact of the polymerization variables was observed on the swelling % of the prepared hydrogel with water. The highest equilibrium degree of swelling of the prepared chitosan-AAm hydrogel (380 g/g) was predicted at 75 % AAm and absorbed dose of 10 kGy for 97.7% gel as a gel fraction yield percent. The removal of the basic blue dye (Astrazone blue BG-200%) from aqueous solutions was discussed. The adsorption capacity of basic dye onto chitosan-AAm was increased from 24.5 mg/g to 47.2 mg/g by increasing ph from 4 to 9. Factors affecting the adsorption process as well as ph and the concentration of the basic blue dye solutions, absorbed dose of gamma radiation for optimum gel fraction yield percent and its AAm monomer content were studied

  9. Preparation of thermosensitive membranes by radiation grafting of acrylic acid/ N-isopropyl acrylamide binary mixture on PET fabric

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Mishra, Swaiti; Saxena, Shalini

    2008-05-01

    Thermosensitive membranes were prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of monomers on PET fabrics. A binary mixture of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) was grafted on polyester fabric as a base material to introduce thermosensitive poly( N-isopropyl acrylamide) pendant chains having LCST slightly higher than 37 °C in the membrane. The influence of ferrous sulfate, radiation dose and monomer composition on the degree of grafting was studied. The structure of the grafted fabric was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The thermosensitive nature of the fabric was monitored by swelling at different temperatures. The graft copolymerization of AA with NIPAAm enhanced the LCST of the resultant membrane to ˜37 °C. The moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) and air permeability of the fabric decreased slightly, may be due to the slight blocking of the fabric pores. The immobilization of tetracycline hydrochloride as the model drug and its release characteristics at different temperatures were monitored.

  10. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  11. Synthesis of poly(N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide) functionalized porous silica for application in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Bui, Nhat Thi Hong; Jiang, Wen; Sparrman, Tobias; Irgum, Knut

    2012-12-01

    Porous silica coated by a highly hydrophilic and nonionic tentacle-type polymeric layer was synthesized by free radical "grafting from" polymerization of N-[2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl]-2-propenamide (TRIS-acrylamide) in partly aqueous solutions. The radical initiator sites were incorporated on the silica surfaces via a two-step reaction comprising thionyl chloride activation and subsequent reaction with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The surface-bound tert-butylperoxy groups were then used as thermally triggered initiators for graft polymerization of TRIS-acrylamide. The synthesized materials were characterized by diffusive reflectance Fourier transform infrared specotroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and CHN elemental analysis. Photon correlation spectroscopy was used to determine changes in ζ-potentials resulting from grafting, (29)Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy was used to assess the ratio of silanol to siloxane groups in the substrate and the grafted material, and the changes in surface area and mesopore distribution were determined by nitrogen cryosorption. Chromatographic evaluation in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mode showed that the materials were suitable for use as stationary phases, featuring good separation efficiency, a comparatively high retention, and a selectivity that differed from most commercially available HILIC phases. A comparison of this neutral phase with a previously reported N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-linked TRIS-type hydrophilic tentacle phase with weak anion exchange functionality revealed substantial differences in retention patterns. PMID:23184369

  12. Swelling Behaviors and Characterization of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Graft-Poly (Acrylamide) Super absorbent Polymer Composites

    The development on a class of technologically advanced materials like super absorbent polymer composites (SAPC) involved multidisciplinary research started when its potential is recognized. Oil palm empty fruit bunch-graft-poly (acrylamide) (OPEFB-g-PAAm) SAPC was synthesized via simultaneous crosslinking and graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) monomer onto OPEFB backbone with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and ammonium persulphate (APS) acts as crosslinked and initiator, respectively, along with neutralization using solution polymerization method. Systematically, variables that affect the swelling behaviors of OPEFB-g-PAAm SAPC were optimized. The effects of initiator, crosslinked and filler concentration as well as solvent quantity and the degree of neutralization on water absorbency of OPEFB-g-PAAm SAPC were studied. Maximum absorbency of OPEFB-g-PAAm SAPC was achieved at 589.06 g/ g when the amount of APS and MBA were 1.5 wt. % and 0.15 wt. %, respectively, and the OPEFB loading was at 10 wt. %. The optimum amount of solvent used was 15 mL and the degree of neutralization was 20 %. The chemical structure of the OPEFB-g-PAAm SAPC was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A mechanism pathway in synthesizing OPEFB-g-PAAm SAPC was suggested. (author)

  13. Histological, Scanning And Transmission Electron Microscopic Studies On The Possible Protective Role Of Ginger Extract Against AcrylamideInduced Intestinal Damage In Mice

    Hala Galal El-Tantawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of ginger Zingeber officinale extract (ZOE against the acrylamide (AC which is an industrial chemical used in water treatment and it is synthesized during cooking of starch food at high temperature. Method: Thirty adult male albino mice, each weighs 20-25 g were divided into three groups (10 mice/group: (Icontrol group. (IIacrylamide treated group. (III acrylamide & ginger group. Acrylamide was given to experimental animals in the drinking water at a non-lethal dose of 200 p.p.m for 10 weeks (3 days/week. Ginger extract was orally administrated at 50 mg/L (~5 ml/day for 10 weeks (3 days/week. The ileum samples were collected for light microscope study and for scanning and transmission electron microscope examination. Results: This study revealed that acrylamide induces pathological changes of the ileum of the treated mice specially the absorptive epithelial cells. The scanning electron microscopic study revealed damage of the ileal villi, some red blood corpuscles appeared at the site of damage. The transmission electron microscopic examination clearly demonstrated degeneration of most cell organelles as mitochondria, deterioration and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilatation of Golgi apparatus. Conclusion: The administration of ginger extract decreased the histological alterations and ensuring the anti-inflammatory, and antitoxic effects of ZOE at its chosen dosage level

  14. Application of the standard addition method for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed starchy foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Zhu, Yonghong; Li, Genrong; Duan, Yunpeng; Chen, Shiqi; Zhang, Chun; Li, Yanfei

    2008-08-15

    A gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the standard addition method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. The method entails extraction of acrylamide with water, filtration, defatting with n-hexane, derivatization with hydrobromic acid and saturated bromine-water, and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The sample pretreatment required no SPE clean-up and concentration steps prior to injection. The final extract was analyzed by GC-ECD. The chromatographic analysis was performed on polar columns, e.g. Supelcowax-10 capillary column, and good retention and peak response of the analyte were achieved under the optimal conditions. The qualification of the analyte was by identifying the peak with same retention time as standard compound 2,3-DBPA and confirmed by GC-MS. GC-MS analysis confirmed that 2,3-DBPA was converted to 2-BPA nearly completely on the polar capillary column, whether or not treated with triethylamine. A four-point standard addition protocol was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.6μg/kg on the basis of ECD technique. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a low-cost, convenient, and reliable alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide. PMID:26050006

  15. Effect of different molecular weight chitosans on the mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of the resultant Maillard reaction products.

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Yi

    2016-05-15

    Mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated in a food model system. The system was composed of elements of mixtures and their combination including fructose, asparagine and different molecular weight chitosans. All solutions were heated, and then analyzed for acrylamide content, MRPs absorbance, pH, color, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial activity and kinematic viscosity. The fructose, asparagine and chitosan mixture had more MRPs compared to other mixtures. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities and reducing power results showed that all solutions containing a combination of two or three reactants had antioxidant capacities. Acrylamide content has a positive correlation with absorbance values at OD294 and OD420 but a negative correlation with the CIB L(∗) value of a solution (p<0.01). Experimental results evidenced that low molecular weight (50-190 kDa) chitosan can be used to mitigate the formation of acrylamide. PMID:26776011

  16. Nerve conduction, visual evoked responses and electroretinography in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide containing grouting agents.

    Goffeng, Lars Ole; Heier, Mona Skard; Kjuus, Helge; Sjöholm, Hans; Sørensen, Kjell Aage; Skaug, Vidar

    2008-01-01

    The study examines possible persisting effects on the peripheral nervous system and visual system in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide during grouting work. We compared neurophysiological function in 44 tunnel workers previously exposed during grouting operations (2-10 years post exposure), with 49 tunnel workers with no history of exposure to acrylamide. Nerve conduction velocities (NCV), distal delay, F-response and amplitude in median and ulnar nerves of the right arm, peroneal, sural and tibial nerves of the right leg, visual evoked response (VER) and electroretinography (ERG) were measured. VER and ERG were also performed in 24 subjects more recently exposed to acrylamide grout (16 months post exposure). Exposure to acrylamide containing grouts was assessed by questionnaires. A statistically significant reduction in the mean sensory NCV of the sural nerve (p=0.005), as well as a non-significant reduction of sural amplitude was found in the previously exposed group compared to the control group. VER latencies to the onset of the occipital potential (N75) were prolonged in both exposed groups compared to the control group (pgrouting operations. PMID:18353610

  17. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate) thermoresponsive amphiphilic copolymers: synthesis, characterization and self-assembly behavior in aqueous solutions

    Škvarla, J.; Zedník, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Pispas, S.; Štěpánek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, December (2014), s. 124-132. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoresponsive block copolymers * poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide ) * light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  18. Colloid molecular weight estimation by gel chromatography/acrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Size or molecular weight (MW) estimation of radiolabeled collides in aqueous solutions has long been a problem. The authors have prepared several minimicroaggregated albumin colloids (mμAA) by heat denaturation of stannous-containing HSA solutions at pH 7.0, 7.5, and 8.5). The resulting colloids were labeled with Tc-99m and compared with Au-198 colloid and Tc-99m-antimony sulfide colloid (Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S3) by gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis. Tc-99mm-mμAA aggregated at pH 7.0 and the Au-198 colloid appeared in the external void volume of a BioRad A5.0 agarose column indicating an apparent MW of > 5 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The pH7.5 Tc-99m-mμAA, migrated within the filtration range of the column as did a small fraction of Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/, suggesting that the MW is between 6 x 10/sup 4/ - 5 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The Tc-99m-mμAA, aggregated at pH 8.5, had an apparent MW on gel filtration similar to that of untreated albumin, MW 6.6 x 10-/sup 4/ daltons. The mobilities of the colloids, on acrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, were consistent with the results on gel chromatography. The largest colloids, Au-198 colloid and pH 7.0 Tc-99m-mμAA, barely entered the separating gel; intermediate sized colloids, a small fraction of Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/ and pH 7.5 Tc-99m-mμAA migrated farther into the separating gel; while pH 8.5 Tc-99m-mμAA had mobility approaching that of untreated albumin. Lymphoscintigraphy studies using these colloids in animals showed the predicted, particle size-related differences in migration and clearance. The authors conclude that gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis are useful methods for estimating the apparent size of the colloidal particles

  19. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were ≤ 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  20. Determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using polymeric ionic liquid-based sorbent coatings in solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Ho, Tien D; Zhang, Cheng; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-06-01

    This study describes a simple and rapid sampling method employing a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coating in direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the trace-level analysis of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder. The crosslinked PIL sorbent coating demonstrated superior sensitivity in the extraction of acrylamide compared to all commercially available SPME coatings. A spin coating method was developed to evenly distribute the PIL coating on the SPME support and reproducibly produce fibers with a large film thickness. Ninhydrin was employed as a quenching reagent during extraction to inhibit the production of interfering acrylamide. The PIL fiber produced a limit of quantitation for acrylamide of 10μgL(-1) and achieved comparable results to the ISO method in the analysis of six coffee powder samples. PMID:27157428

  1. Drug delivery system prepared by ionizing radiation of the N,N-dimethyl acrylamide with acryloyloxy-acetanilide copolymerization

    Radiation induced polymerization has been used in biomaterials used in systems which such as drug delivery (DDS). This work describes the copolymerization of the monomers by gamma rays N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and acryloyloxy-acetanilide (AOA) for the immobilization of paracetamol, an analgesic and anti thermic drug. Dimethylformamide solutions were used in two concentrations of DMAA and AOA (FDMAA/AOA = 0,85/015 and 0,70/0,30, where F = molar fraction in the monomer feed). The samples were irradiated in the dose range of 30-800 Gy. The copolymer poly(DMAA-co-AOA) characterization was carried out by FTIR and 1HRMN. The hydrolysis was studied considering the formation of sodium salts of 4-hydroxy acetanilide at different times of treatment using colorimetric assay. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs

  2. An interesting grafting reactivity of EB preirradiated polypropylene film[Radiation grafting; Polypropylene; Free radical; peroxide; Acrylic acid; Acrylamide

    Chen Jie E-mail: chenjjd@online.sh.cn; Yang Liming; Chen Liqin; Wu Minhong; Nho, Y.C.; Kaetsua, Isao

    2004-02-01

    An interesting grafting reactivity of electron beam preirradiated polypropylene (PP) film was found by grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) and acrylamide (AAm) repeatedly or intermittently. The preirradiated PP film could be grafted several times intermittently and the free radicals or peroxides on the samples could be determined after several times grafting reaction. The effects of storage time, reaction time and repeated reaction times on the degree of grafting were investigated. The trapped radicals, peroxy-radicals and peroxides on the preirradiated and reacted PP films were determined by using electron spin resonance (ESR) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), respectively. An interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) with both temperature and pH sensitive properties was obtained by two times grafting of AAm and AAc onto preirradiated PP film.

  3. Radiation-induced graft polymermization of acrylamide onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene/ Hexaflouropropylene/vinylidene fluoride) (TFB) films

    Dessouki, A. M.; Taher, N. H.; El-Boohy, H. A.

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene/ hexafluoropropylene/vinylidene fluoride) (TFB) films has been investigated. The appropriate reaction conditions at which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully were selected. It was observed that the grafting process was enhanced remarkably by using distilled water as diluent. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) was used as inhibitor to minimize the homopolymerization of AAm and the suitable concentration of such inhibitor was found to be 3.5wt%. The dependence of the grafting rate on the monomer concentration was calculated to be 2.8 order. Some properties of the grafted films such as water uptake, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and chemical and thermal stability were investigated. An improvement in these properties was observed which makes possible the use of these membranes in some practical applications.

  4. Ibuprofen microencapsulation within acrylamide-grafted chitosan and methylcellulose interpenetrating polymer network microspheres: Synthesis, characterization, and release studies.

    Bulut, Emine

    2016-06-01

    This study deals with the development of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) microspheres of acrylamide (AAm) grafted onto a chitosan (CS) backbone and methylcellulose (MC). Chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide (CS-g-PAAm) was synthesized by cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate-induced free radical graft polymerization. The grafting percentage was found to be 50.58%. The synthesized graft copolymer and MC were used to prepare microspheres by the water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion-crosslinking method, and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) as drug delivery matrices of ibuprofen (IBU). The release of IBU from microspheres decreased when the amount of CS-g-PAAm in the polymer matrix and amount of crosslinker added were increased, while it increased with the increase of the IBU/polymer ratio. PMID:25749277

  5. Radiation crosslinking of poly(N-vinylimidazole) in aqueous solution in the presence of N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide

    The effect of N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MbAA) concentration on the process of radiation crosslinking of poly(N-vinylimidazole) (PVI) in aqueous solutions of the polymer was investigated. For each irradiated sample extractions for definite periods of time were carried out. The kinetics curve of releasing sol fraction were drawn and absorption spectra of these fractions were recorded. The percent of sol fraction decreases with increasing radiation dose and MbAA concentration. Within the range of doses and MbAA concentrations used, the percent of sol fraction ranged from 23.9 to 54.0%. On the basis of the gel-sol analysis the gel doses (D*) were determined. From the values of the gel doses the radiation yield of crosslinking [G(x)] was calculated. The radiation yields are relatively high and vary from G(x) = 10 to 54. (author)

  6. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Silica Nanoparticle-Reinforced Poly(acrylamide) Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Zaragoza, Josergio; Babhadiashar, Nasim; O'Brien, Victor; Chang, Andrew; Blanco, Matthew; Zabalegui, Aitor; Lee, Hohyun; Asuri, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    Current studies investigating properties of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers have shown that nanocomposites often exhibit improved properties compared to neat polymers. However, over two decades of research, using both experimental studies and modeling analyses, has not fully elucidated the mechanistic underpinnings behind these enhancements. Moreover, few studies have focused on developing an understanding among two or more polymer properties affected by incorporation of nanomaterials. In our study, we investigated the elastic and thermal properties of poly(acrylamide) hydrogels containing silica nanoparticles. Both nanoparticle concentration and size affected hydrogel properties, with similar trends in enhancements observed for elastic modulus and thermal diffusivity. We also observed significantly lower swellability for hydrogel nanocomposites relative to neat hydrogels, consistent with previous work suggesting that nanoparticles can mediate pseudo crosslinking within polymer networks. Collectively, these results indicate the ability to develop next-generation composite materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties by increasing the average crosslinking density using nanoparticles. PMID:26301505

  7. Preparation and characterization of ZnS/poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) dendritical nanocomposites by γ-irradiation

    Zinc sulfide poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [ZnS/P(AM-co-AA)] nanocomposites with a dendritical structure were successfully prepared in one step by γ-irradiation technique in an aqueous system at room temperature and under ambient pressure. The results from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis and IR spectrum of the final product showed the formation of ZnS nanoparticles and the polymerization of monomers, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the as-prepared product centered at 450 nm, which showed an obvious red shift compared with the ZnS bulk material. The presence of copolymer was considered to be the main reason that influenced the shape and photoluminescence property of the composite

  8. Physical properties of hemoglobin-poly(acrylamide) hydrogel-based oxygen carriers: effect of reaction pH.

    Patton, Jaqunda N; Palmer, Andre F

    2006-02-28

    This work examines the physical properties of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) chemically cross-linked to a pH responsive polymer (poly(acrylamide)) with the goal of taking advantage of the polymer's pH sensitivity to generate low-P50 oxygen carriers for application in physiological conditions characterized by deviations from normal pH. BHb-hydrogel-based oxygen carriers encapsulating 10-16 g/dL BHb displayed P50s liposomes (i.e. Hb-LGs) and change conformations between the R and T states. The magnitude of the zeta potential of Hb-LGs and Hb-NHPs was shown to be within the range of stored red blood cells and within the range of limited flocculation. Taken together, this work describes the preparation and characterization of oxygen carriers with increased oxygen affinities compared to those of red blood cells. PMID:16489809

  9. Synthesis, swelling and drug release behavior of poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide-co-N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide) hydrogel

    In this study, poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide-co-N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide) (poly(DEA-co-NHMAA)) hydrogels were synthesized by changing the initial DEA/NHMAA mole ratio, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and total monomer concentration. The thermosensitive and mechanical performances were optimized by altering the above parameters. The hydrogels were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In comparison with the PDEA hydrogel, the equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) and lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the hydrogels increased with the increase of NHMAA content in the feed. The swelling kinetics was also studied. The release behaviors of the model drug, aminophylline, are found dependent on hydrogel composition and environmental temperature, which suggests that these materials have potential application as intelligent drug carriers.

  10. Synthesis of porous poly(acrylamide hydrogels using calcium carbonate and its application for slow release of potassium nitrate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous poly(acrylamide was synthesized using calcium carbonate microparticles and subsequent acid treatment to remove the calcium carbonate. Methylenebisacrylamide and ammonium persulfate/sodium metabisulfite were used as crosslinking agent and redox initiator, respectively. The porous structure of resulted hydrogels was confirmed using SEM micrographs. The effect of methylenebisacrylamide concentration and calcium carbonate amount on the swelling of the hydrogels was investigated. The results showed that the effect of methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate variables on the swelling is reverse. The hydrogels were subsequently utilized for the loading of potassium nitrate. Potassium nitrate as active agent was loaded into hydrogels and subsequently the release of this active agent was investigated. In these series of investigation, the effect of content of loading, methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate amount on the release of potassium nitrate from hydrogels was investigated.

  11. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches. PMID:15759749

  12. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Silica Nanoparticle-Reinforced Poly(acrylamide Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Josergio Zaragoza

    Full Text Available Current studies investigating properties of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers have shown that nanocomposites often exhibit improved properties compared to neat polymers. However, over two decades of research, using both experimental studies and modeling analyses, has not fully elucidated the mechanistic underpinnings behind these enhancements. Moreover, few studies have focused on developing an understanding among two or more polymer properties affected by incorporation of nanomaterials. In our study, we investigated the elastic and thermal properties of poly(acrylamide hydrogels containing silica nanoparticles. Both nanoparticle concentration and size affected hydrogel properties, with similar trends in enhancements observed for elastic modulus and thermal diffusivity. We also observed significantly lower swellability for hydrogel nanocomposites relative to neat hydrogels, consistent with previous work suggesting that nanoparticles can mediate pseudo crosslinking within polymer networks. Collectively, these results indicate the ability to develop next-generation composite materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties by increasing the average crosslinking density using nanoparticles.

  13. Studies on the grafting of acrylamide onto xanthan gum by co-irradiation and its application performance

    Xanthan gum-graft-Acrylamide (XG-g-AM) was synthesized by 60Co γ-rays radiation. The effects of the different reaction conditions on the grafting degree and the grafting efficiency were explored. The structures of the grafted copolymers were characterized by means of Element Analysis (EA), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) respectively. The experiment results show that the optimized grafting reaction parameters, XG concentration of 10 g/L, AM and XG Mass ratio of 3:1, the total absorption dose of 6.0 kGy can make the grafting degree up to 128.5 % and the grafting efficiency to 80.4 %. And the flocculation performance of XG-g-AM has been also confirmed. (authors)

  14. Novel sol–gel methodology to produce LaCoO3 by acrylamide polymerization assisted by γ-irradiation

    In this paper we report the synthesis of LaCoO3 (LCO) nano-particles with two methodologies: the conventional sol–gel reaction of acrylamide (AA) polymerization using a cross-linking agent (methylenebisacrylamide or MBA) with the activation of the polymerization reaction by thermo-chemical initiator (azobisisobutyrnitrile or AIBN). The second was a novel sol–gel methodology in which the polymerization of AA monomers was done without MBA and the initiation was achieved by gamma radiation. With thermochemical initiator a xerogel with a foam and porous structure was obtained, while the gamma-irradiation of the mixture leads to the formation of a compact resin with entrapped cations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that formation of the product begins around 500 °C and according to analysis of microscopy images of powders calcined in 700 °C the average sizes of particles are 20 nm and 42 nm for samples obtained using γ-irradiation and AIBN as initiators, respectively. TEM images also show differences in particle morphology. Those synthesized using AIBN as initiator are dispersed, while those with γ-irradiation are in aggregates. - Highlights: ► LaCoO3 nano-crystallites were synthesized by two different polyacrylamide sol–gel processes. ► Acrylamide polymerization reaction initiated by gamma irradiation and by thermo-chemical agent. ► Polymerization reaction with thermo-chemical initiator produces a porous gel. ► Xerogel obtained using gamma radiation is compact resin. ► LaCoO3 powders produced by both methods differ in the size and morphology of particles.

  15. Synthesis and Solution Properties of Zwitterionic Copolymer of Acrylamide with 3-[(2-Acrylamido)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate

    Xiao, Hui; Hu, Jing; Jin, Shuailin; Li, Rui Hai [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China)

    2013-09-15

    A novel zwitterionic monomer 3-[(2-acrylamido)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate (DMADAS) was designed and synthesized in this study. Then it was polymerized with acrylamide (AM) by free radical polymerization in 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution with ammonium persulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) and sodium sulfate (NaHSO{sub 3}) as initiator. The structure and composition of DMADAS and acrylamide-3-[(2-acrylamido)-dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate copolymer (P-AM-DMADAS) were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR and elemental analyses. Isoelectric point (IEP) of P-AM-DMADAS was tested by nanoparticle size and potential analyzer. Solution properties of copolymer were studied by reduced viscosity. Antipolyelectrolyte behavior was observed and was found to be enhanced with increasing DMADAS content in copolymer. The results showed that the viscosity of P-AM-DMADAS is 5.472 dl/g in pure water. Electrolyte was added, which weakened the mutual attraction between sulfonic acid group and quaternary ammonium group. The conformation became loose, which led to the increase of reduced viscosity. The ability of monovalent and divalent cation influencing the viscosity of zwitterionic copolymer obeyed the following sequence: Li{sup +} < Na{sup +} < K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} < Ca{sup 2+} < Ba{sup 2+}, and that of anion is in the order: Cl{sup -} < Br{sup -} < I{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ≅ SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}.

  16. Effect of acid additives on graft copolymerization and water absorption of graft copolymers of cassava starch and acrylamide/acrylic acid

    Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide or acrylic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, nitric acid or maleic acid at a specific dose rate to a fixed total dose. Homopolymer or free copolymer was extracted by water to obtain the pure graft copolymer, which was subsequently saponified with 5% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 90 min. The saponified graft copolymer was investigated for the effect of acid additives and water absorption. The addition of 2% maleic acid into the grafting reaction containing acrylamide-to-starch ratio of 2.5:1 can produce the superabsorbent copolymer having water absorption as high as 2,256 ± 25 g g-1. The effect of acid additive was explained. (author)

  17. Development of dummy molecularly imprinted based on functionalized silica nanoparticles for determination of acrylamide in processed food by matrix solid phase dispersion.

    Arabi, Maryam; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    A novel technique was applied for the synthesis of dummy molecularly imprinted silica nanoparticles (DMISNPs). DMISNPs were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The material was used as dispersant for the analysis of biscuit and bread samples using matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD). Of advantages of such approach may be counted as the simplicity of synthesis procedure, low consumption of organic solvent, mild working temperature during the synthesis, high binding capacity and affinity. The effect of various parameters such as sample-to-dispersant ratio and eluents volume on extraction recovery was investigated and optimized by central composite design under response surface methodology. It was proven that the proposed dispersant leads to high affinity toward acrylamide even in complicated matrices. Quantification of the acrylamide was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). PMID:27211623

  18. Characterization and Absorbing Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Filled Poly (Acrylic Acid-co-Acrylamide) Super absorbent Polymer Composites

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch graft poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) super absorbent composite (OPEFB-g-(PAA-co-PAM) SAPC) was synthesized by graft copolymerization of the acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM) comonomer onto OPEFB fibre using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N-methylene bisacarylamide (MBA) as an initiator and crosslinked, respectively. The absorbency in various chloride salt solutions indicated that the absorbency decreased with increasing ionic strength of the salt solutions. Moreover, the absorbency under load (AUL) of SAPC was investigated at various applied loading and results show that, AUL decreased with increasing applied loading. Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were carried out to confirm the chemical structure and thermal properties of the synthesized super absorbent, respectively. (author)

  19. Frozen concentration fluctuations in a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel studied by neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering

    By employing neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined the structure factor of the frozen concentration fluctuations on nano-length scales in a swollen poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel. The frozen contribution, showing a plateau at the low scattering wavenumber q (-1) and a rapid decrease close to q-4 at high q (>0.02 A-1), is intimately related to the abnormal butterfly scattering pattern appearing at low q under deformation. (orig.)

  20. Direct determination of acrylamide in potato chips by using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Hajipour, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide is a potentially toxic and carcinogenic substance present in many high-consumption foods. Recently, this matter has been placed in category of "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by National Toxicology Program (NTP). Therefore, simple and cost-effective determination of acrylamide in food samples has attracted intense interest. The most reported techniques for this purpose are GC-MS and LC-MS, which are very expensive and available in few laboratories. In this research, for the first time, a rapid, easy and low-cost method is introduced for sensitive and precise determination of acrylamide in foodstuffs, using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system after its direct trapping in the upper atmosphere of samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The effects of main experimental variables were studied and the optimized parameters were obtained as the type of fiber, carboxen/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/DVB/PDMS); extraction time, 30 min; extraction temperature, 60°C; moisture content, 10 µL water per 1g of sample; desorption time, 2 min; and desorption temperature, 230°C. The linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 0.77-50 µg g(-1), with regression coefficient of 0.998. The detection and quantification limits of the proposed method were 0.22 and 0.77 µg g(-1), respectively. The recoveries, for different food samples, were 79.6-95.7%. The repeatability of measurements, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were found to be 4.1-8.0% (n=9). The proposed HS-SPME-GC-FID method was successfully carried out for quantifying of trace levels of acrylamide in some processed food products (chips and French fries), sold in open local markets. PMID:26695284

  1. A Green Approach to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles in Starch-co-Poly(acrylamide) Hydrogels by Tridax procumbens Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

    Siraj Shaik; Madhusudana Rao Kummara; Sudhakar Poluru; Chandrababu Allu; Jaffer Mohiddin Gooty; Chowdoji Rao Kashayi; Marata Chinna Subbarao Subha

    2013-01-01

    A series of starch-co-poly(acrylamide) (starch-co-PAAm) hydrogels were synthesized by employing free radical redox polymerization. A novel green approach, Tridax procumbens (TD) leaf extract, was used for reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver nanoparticles in the starch-co-PAAm hydrogel network. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TE...

  2. The regioselective synthesis of spirooxindolo pyrrolidines and pyrrolizidines via three-component reactions of acrylamides and aroylacrylic acids with isatins and α-amino acids.

    Pavlovskaya, Tatyana L; Yaremenko, Fedor G; Lipson, Victoria V; Shishkina, Svetlana V; Shishkin, Oleg V; Musatov, Vladimir I; Karpenko, Alexander S

    2014-01-01

    The regioselective three-component condensation of azomethine ylides derived from isatins and α-amino acids with acrylamides or aroylacrylic acids as dipolarophiles has been realized through a one-pot 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition protocol. Decarboxylation of 2'-aroyl-2-oxo-1,1',2,2',5',6',7',7a'-octahydrospiro[indole-3,3'-pyrrolizine]-1'-carboxylic acids is accompanied by cyclative rearrangement with formation of dihydropyrrolizinyl indolones. PMID:24454564

  3. In-house–validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for survey of acrylamide in various processed foods from Korean market

    Lee, Sanghee; Yoo, Miyoung; Koo, Minseon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Shin, Dongbin

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a chemical found in starchy foods that have been cooked at high temperatures. The objective of this study is to monitor the levels of AA in a total of 274 samples of potato chips, chips (except potato chips), biscuits, French fries, breakfast cereals, chocolate products, tea, seasoned laver, and nut products sampled in Korean market. These processed foods include (1) potato chips, (2) chips (except potato chips), (3) biscuits, (4) French fries, (5) breakfast cereals, (6) ch...

  4. Silica-Supported Arsine Palladium(0) Complex: a Highly Active and Stereoselective Catalyst for Arylation of Butyl Acrylate and Acrylamide

    蔡明中; 赵红; 胡文英

    2005-01-01

    A silica-supported arsine palladium(O) complex has been prepared from y-chloropropyltriethoxysilane via immobilization on fumed silica, followed by reaction with potassium diphenylarsenide and palladium chloride, and then reduction with hydrazine hydrate. The complex has been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and it is a highly active and stereoselective catalyst for arylation of butyl acrylate and acrylamide with aryl halides, affording a variety of tram-butyl cinnamates and trans-cinnamamides in high yields.

  5. Optimization of a thick polyvinyl alcohol-acrylamide photopolymer for data storage using a combination of angular and peristrophic holographic multiplexing

    Fernández Varó, Elena; García Llopis, Celia; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2006-01-01

    The capability of polyvinyl alcohol-acrylamide photopolymer materials to obtain angularly multiplexed holographic gratings has been demonstrated [Appl. Phys. B 76, 851 (2003)]. A combination of two multiplexing methods -peristrophic and angular multiplexing- is used to record 60 holograms. An exposure schedule method is used to optimize the capability of the photopolymerizable holographic material and obtain holograms with a higher, more uniform diffraction efficiency. In addition, because of...

  6. Characterization of a PVA/acrylamide photopolymer: influence of a cross-linking monomer in the final characteristics of the hologram

    Neipp López, Cristian; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Márquez Ruiz, Andrés; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada

    2003-01-01

    The use of high thickness photopolymers for holographic recording is particularly promising for storage of data information. Therefore it is interesting to characterize such materials in order to improve the quality of the holograms recorded on them. In this work we make use of a first harmonic diffusion model to characterize a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer. In particular we analyze the effect of adding a cross-linking monomer to this material in the temporal evolution of the tran...

  7. Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide in ethanol and its application in medical X-ray film as a covering agent

    The radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide in ethanol has been studied. Using this method, the aqueous solution of PAM at certain concentrations and pH value has been successfully applied to the production of medical x-ray film emulsion as a covering agent. Using the product mentioned the same quality of medical x-ray film can be produced with a decrease in the consumption of silver. (author)

  8. NMR and DSC study of temperature-induced phase transition in aqueous solutions of poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co-acrylamide) copolymers

    Šťastná, J.; Hanyková, L.; Spěváček, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 17 (2012), s. 1811-1817. ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : temperature induced phase transition * thermosensitive copolymer * poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co- acrylamide ) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.161, year: 2012

  9. Immobilization of poly(acrylamide) brushes onto poly(caprolactone) surface by combining ATRP and “click” chemistry: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of protein adhesion

    Highlights: • Poly(caprolacone) (PCL) film surface was chemically modified by a novel method through combining ATRP and “click” chemistry. • Poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) of tailored chain length were synthesized and “clicked” onto PCL surface. • The modified PCL surface showed reduced BSA and Fg adsorption, and the protein resist ability in terms of chain length through its impact on grafting reaction and modified surface was investigated. - Abstract: Developments of poly(caprolactone) in blood-contacting applications are often restricted due to its intrinsic hydrophobicity. One common way to improve its hemocompatibility is to attach hydrophilic polymers. Here we developed a non-destructive method to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) onto poly(caprolactone) (PCL) surface. In this strategy, azido-ended PCL with low molecular weights was synthesized and blended with PCL to create a surface with “clickable” property. Alkyne-ended poly(acrylamide)s with controlled chain lengths were then synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and finally were immobilized onto PCL surface by “click” reaction. The occurrence of immobilization was verified qualitatively by water contact angle measurement and quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PAAm grafted surface exhibited fouling resistant properties, as demonstrated by reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) adhesion

  10. Immobilization of poly(acrylamide) brushes onto poly(caprolactone) surface by combining ATRP and “click” chemistry: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of protein adhesion

    Ma, Yuhao; Bian, Xinxiu; He, Liu; Cai, Mengtan; Xie, Xiaoxiong [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Luo, Xianglin, E-mail: luoxl@scu.edu.cn [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Material and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Poly(caprolacone) (PCL) film surface was chemically modified by a novel method through combining ATRP and “click” chemistry. • Poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) of tailored chain length were synthesized and “clicked” onto PCL surface. • The modified PCL surface showed reduced BSA and Fg adsorption, and the protein resist ability in terms of chain length through its impact on grafting reaction and modified surface was investigated. - Abstract: Developments of poly(caprolactone) in blood-contacting applications are often restricted due to its intrinsic hydrophobicity. One common way to improve its hemocompatibility is to attach hydrophilic polymers. Here we developed a non-destructive method to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) onto poly(caprolactone) (PCL) surface. In this strategy, azido-ended PCL with low molecular weights was synthesized and blended with PCL to create a surface with “clickable” property. Alkyne-ended poly(acrylamide)s with controlled chain lengths were then synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and finally were immobilized onto PCL surface by “click” reaction. The occurrence of immobilization was verified qualitatively by water contact angle measurement and quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PAAm grafted surface exhibited fouling resistant properties, as demonstrated by reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) adhesion.

  11. 焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺含量测定分析%A STUDY ON DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN BAKED WHEAT GERM

    贾志成; 任文明

    2011-01-01

    利用气相色谱对焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺的浓度进行了测定,并比较不同焙烤条件下麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量,结果显示丙烯酰胺在0.125μg,/ml 1mL-2.0μ,g/ml 1mL浓度范围内具有良好的线性(R2 =0.999),加标平均回收率在88.1% ~ 104.6%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于6.7%;焙烤温度相同时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量会随着焙烤时间的增加而变大,焙烤时间相同,当焙烤温度在170℃ ~ 200℃范围内时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量随着温度的升高而不断减少.%The wheat germ was used as sample, setting 140 ℃ , 170 ℃ , 200 ℃ as the baking temperature, and each temperature level was matched with different process time (The times are 10,15 and 20 min) for baking. After adding methacrylami as the internal standard,the sample was extracted by water and then deproteinized by carrez solution and defatted by n - hexane, extracted with ethyl acetate, then evaporated to 1 m 1. The concentration of acrylamide is determined by gas chromatography to compare the content of ac-rylamide of baked germ at different baking conditions. Results were shown The linear ranges of concentration of acrylamide was 0. 125μg/mL~2.0 μg/mL(R2 =0.999). The average recoveries from 88. 1% to 104.6% , and the relative standard derivations were lower than 6.7% ; When the baking temperature is the same, the content of acrylamide in wheat will improve with the increase of bakmg time. When baking time duration was the same, the content level of acrylamide decreased with the increase of baking temperature (170℃ ~200℃).

  12. Acrylamide Retards the Slow Axonal Transport of Neurofilaments in Rat Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons and the Corresponding Mechanisms.

    An, Lihong; Li, Guozhen; Si, Jiliang; Zhang, Cuili; Han, Xiaoying; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Lulu; Xie, Keqin

    2016-05-01

    Chronic acrylamide (ACR) exposure induces peripheral-central axonopathy in occupational workers and laboratory animals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we first investigated the effects of ACR on slow axonal transport of neurofilaments in cultured rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons through live-cell imaging approach. Then for the underlying mechanisms exploration, the protein level of neurofilament subunits, motor proteins kinesin and dynein, and dynamitin subunit of dynactin in DRG neurons were assessed by western blotting and the concentrations of ATP was detected using ATP Assay Kit. The results showed that ACR treatment results in a dose-dependent decrease of slow axonal transport of neurofilaments. Furthermore, ACR intoxication significantly increases the protein levels of the three neurofilament subunits (NF-L, NF-M, NF-H), kinesin, dynein, and dynamitin subunit of dynactin in DRG neurons. In addition, ATP level decreased significantly in ACR-treated DRG neurons. Our findings indicate that ACR exposure retards slow axonal transport of NF-M, and suggest that the increase of neurofilament cargoes, motor proteins, dynamitin of dynactin, and the inadequate ATP supply contribute to the ACR-induced retardation of slow axonal transport. PMID:26721510

  13. Thermo-responsive, UV-active poly(phenyl acrylate-b-poly(diethyl acrylamide block copolymers

    M. Maric

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The homopolymerization of phenyl acrylate (PA was investigated for the first time by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP with the succinimidyl form of the SG1-based unimolecular initiator 2-[N-tert-butyl-2,2-(dimethylpropyl-aminooxy]propionic acid (BlocBuilder MA. The control of PPA homopolymerization was improved by the use of 15 mol% additional free nitroxide SG1 ([tert-butyl[1-(diethoxyphosphoryl-2,2-dimethylpropyl]amino]oxidanyl and dispersities, Mw/Mn, of around 1.2 were achieved. A PPA homopolymer was then successfully chain-extended with diethyl acrylamide (DEAAm to form a block copolymer of PPA-b-PDEAAm where the PDEAAm segment is thermo-responsive, while the PPA block is potentially UV-active. The thermo-responsive behavior of the block copolymer in 0.5 wt% aqueous solution was studied by UV-Vis spectrometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS, indicating cloud point temperatures of 26–30°C, close to that reported for PDEAAm homopolymers.

  14. Fabrication of chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/CuS nanocomposite for controlled drug delivery and antibacterial activity.

    Pathania, Deepak; Gupta, Divya; Agarwal, Shilpi; Asif, M; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2016-07-01

    In present study, we reported the synthesis of chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/CuS (CPA/CS) nanocomposite for controlled delivery of ofloxacin. The CPA/CS nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. From the FTIR spectra, the various groups present in CPA/CS nanocomposite were monitored. The homogeneity, morphology and crystallinity of the CPA/CS nanocomposite were ascertained from SEM/EDX and XRD data, respectively. The kinetics of ofloxacin drug delivery was investigated at different pH. The drug released studies were investigated at different pH (2.2, 7.4 and 9.4) and time intervals (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16h). The drug release behavior depends upon the pH of medium and the nature of matrix. The maximum drug loading efficiency of 85% was recorded for CPA/CS. The maximum drug release of 76% was observed at 2.2. pH after 18h onto CPA/CS. Nanocomposites were also tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria. About 97% killing of E. coli was observed after 24h. PMID:27127073

  15. Optimal Design for Reactivity Ratio Estimation: A Comparison of Techniques for AMPS/Acrylamide and AMPS/Acrylic Acid Copolymerizations

    Alison J. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble polymers of acrylamide (AAm and acrylic acid (AAc have significant potential in enhanced oil recovery, as well as in other specialty applications. To improve the shear strength of the polymer, a third comonomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS, can be added to the pre-polymerization mixture. Copolymerization kinetics of AAm/AAc are well studied, but little is known about the other comonomer pairs (AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc. Hence, reactivity ratios for AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc copolymerization must be established first. A key aspect in the estimation of reliable reactivity ratios is design of experiments, which minimizes the number of experiments and provides increased information content (resulting in more precise parameter estimates. However, design of experiments is hardly ever used during copolymerization parameter estimation schemes. In the current work, copolymerization experiments for both AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc are designed using two optimal techniques (Tidwell-Mortimer and the error-in-variables-model (EVM. From these optimally designed experiments, accurate reactivity ratio estimates are determined for AMPS/AAm (rAMPS = 0.18, rAAm = 0.85 and AMPS/AAc (rAMPS = 0.19, rAAc = 0.86.

  16. In-Vitro Release of Ketoprofen Behavior Loaded in Polyvinyl Alcohol / Acrylamide Hydrogels Prepared by Gamma Irradiation

    Hydrogels based on various ratios of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and acrylamide (AAm) were prepared by gamma radiation. The formed hydrogels were characterized by spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and swelling studied. It was found that the thermal stability of the hydrogel decreases as the AAm content increases in the hydrogel. The higher the AAm content in the hydrogel, the lower the values of Tm and ΔHm. Ketoprofen was adopted as a model drug to study the adsorption and release behavior of (PVA/AAm) hydrogel. The drug adsorption was decreased by increasing AAm ratio in the hydrogel. From the in vitro drug release study in ph progressive media, the basic medium was showed comparatively the highest release and the (PVA/AAm) hydrogel of composition (70/30) was found to be the highest release one. The mechanism of Ketoprofen release from the (PVA/AAm) matrix was found to be non-Fickian mechanism for all investigated hydrogels at ph 7.

  17. Diffractive Optical Elements with a Large Angle of Operation Recorded in Acrylamide Based Photopolymer on Flexible Substrates

    Hoda Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A holographic device characterised by a large angular range of operation is under development. The aim of this study is to increase the angular working range of the diffractive lens by stacking three layers of high efficiency optical elements on top of each other so that light is collected (and focussed from a broader range of angles. The angular range of each individual lens element is important, and work has already been done in an acrylamide-based photosensitive polymer to broaden the angular range of individual elements using holographic recording at a low spatial frequency. This paper reports new results on the angular selectivity of stacked diffractive lenses. A working range of 12° is achieved. The diffractive focussing elements were recorded holographically with a central spatial frequency of 300 l/mm using exposure energy of 60 mJ/cm2 at a range of recording angles. At this spatial frequency with layers of thickness 50 ± 5 µm, a diffraction efficiency of 80% and 50% was achieved in the single lens element and combined device, respectively. The optical recording process and the properties of the multilayer structure are described and discussed. Holographic recording of a single lens element is also successfully demonstrated on a flexible glass substrate (Corning(R Willow(R Glass for the first time.

  18. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods. PMID:26699696

  19. Ultravilolet-radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide onto the melt-blown polypropylene filter element by dynamic method

    2007-01-01

    By dynamic method under UV irradiation, commercial melt-blown polypropylene (PPMB) filter element was modified with acrylamide (AAm) using benzophenone (BP) as initiator. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope verified that polyacrylamide chain was grafted on the fiber surface of PPMB filter element. Elemental content analysis with energy dispersive X-ray of fibers revealed that the polymerization content in the inner part of filter element was relatively higher than that in the outer. Degree of grafting changed with initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature and reached 2.6% at the reaction condition: CBP=0.06 mol/L, CAAm=2.0 mol/L, irradiation time: 80 min, 60℃. Relative water flux altered with the hydrophilicity and pore size of filter element. In the antifouling test, the modified filter gave greater flux recovery (approximately 70%) after filtration of the water extract of Liuweidihuang, suggesting that the fouling layer was more easily reversible due to the hydrophilic nature of the modified filter.

  20. Evaluation of acrylamide-removing properties of two Lactobacillus strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system.

    Rivas-Jimenez, L; Ramírez-Ortiz, K; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; Garcia, H S; Hernandez-Mendoza, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of Lactobacillus reuteri NRRL 14171 and Lactobacillus casei Shirota to remove dietary acrylamide (AA) under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system. The effects of different AA levels or bacteria concentration on toxin removal by Lactobacillus strains were assessed. Thereafter, AA-removing capability of bacteria strains under either fasting or postprandial simulated gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated. Commercial potato chips were analyzed for their AA content, and then used as a food model. Average AA content (34,162μg/kg) in potato chips exceeded by ca. 34-fold the indicative values recommended by the EU. Toxin removal ability was dependent on AA content and bacterial cell concentration. A reduction on bacterial viability was observed in the food model and at the end of both digestive processes evaluated. However, bacteria survived in enough concentrations to remove part of the toxin (32-73%). Both bacterial strains were able to remove AA under different simulated gastrointestinal conditions, being L. casei Shirota the most effective (ca. 70% removal). These findings confirmed the risk of potato chips as dietary AA exposure for consumers, and that strains of the genus Lactobacillus could be employed to reduce the bioavailability of dietary AA. PMID:27393995

  1. Two-way shift of wavelength in holographic sensing of organic vapor in nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer.

    Mao, Dongyao; Geng, Yaohui; Liu, Hongpeng; Zhou, Ke; Xian, Lihong; Yu, Dan

    2016-08-10

    Holographic sensing of alcohol organic vapor is characterized in detail at transmission and reflection geometries in Y nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer. The two-way shift of the diffraction spectrum and its temporal evolution with various vapor concentrations are measured. Obvious blueshifts of diffraction spectrum peaks are observed and analyzed in two recording geometries. The competition mechanism between decreasing the average refractive index and swelling the grating fringe space is proposed for exploring the wavelength shift mechanism. In the reflection grating, as organic vapor increases, the redshift after the blueshift of the wavelength peaks are observed clearly. We further demonstrate the significance of this competition mechanism. In the low concentration region, at transmission <700  ppm and reflection <400  ppm in nanozeolites dispersed polymer, the blueshift of the wavelength is a significant factor in identifying an organic vapor with a low refractive index. These experimental results provide a probability for improving the applicability of a holographic sensor. This work can accelerate the development of the holographic sensing strategy and provide a novel identification method for organic vapor. PMID:27534461

  2. Swelling of Superabsorbent Poly(Sodium-Acrylate Acrylamide) Hydrogels and Influence of Chemical Structure on Internally Cured Mortar

    Krafcik, Matthew J.; Erk, Kendra A.

    Superabsorbent hydrogel particles show promise as internal curing agents for high performance concrete (HPC). These gels can absorb and release large volumes of water and offer a solution to the problem of self-dessication in HPC. However, the gels are sensitive to ions naturally present in concrete. This research connects swelling behavior with gel-ion interactions to optimize hydrogel performance for internal curing, reducing the chance of early-age cracking and increasing the durability of HPC. Four different hydrogels of poly(sodium-acrylate acrylamide) are synthesized and characterized with swelling tests in different salt solutions. Depending on solution pH, ionic character, and gel composition, diffrerent swelling behaviors are observed. As weight percent of acrylic acid increases, gels demonstrate higher swelling ratios in reverse osmosis water, but showed substantially decreased swelling when aqueous cations are present. Additionally, in multivalent cation solutions, overshoot peaks are present, whereby the gels have a peak swelling ratio but then deswell. Multivalent cations interact with deprotonated carboxylic acid groups, constricting the gel and expelling water. Mortar containing hydrogels showed reduced autogenous shrinkage and increased relative humidity.

  3. Biphasic Equilibrium Dialysis of Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide Nanogels Synthesized at Decreased Temperatures for Targeted Delivery of Thermosensitive Bioactives

    Witold Musial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles, referred to also as nanogels, are of special interest for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Due to small size in the range below the diameter of the capillaries, they are proposed as drug delivery carriers. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of composition and reaction conditions during synthesis of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide cross-linked by polyethylene glycol diacrylate on the purification rates of the polymer. Six types of thermosensitive nanogels were prepared by surfactant-free dispersion polymerization and assessed in terms of process yield, composition, and size at temperatures below and over volume phase temperature. During the diffusion of impurities, in the course of dialysis, assessed by the conductometric method, the remarkable influence of temperature and initiator concentration on the process was revealed. The release rates varied in the range between 9.63 · 10−2 and 1.39 · 10−1 h−1 in the first stage of the process, whereas in the second stage they were between 2.09 · 10−2 and 6.28 · 10−2 h−1. The evaluated time to obtain acceptable purity of the preparation was estimated to be in the range of 18 days. More detailed research should be directed towards the influence of the structure of obtained material on the purification process.

  4. Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations potato chips). PMID:24176333

  5. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions

    Sedghi, Roya, E-mail: r_sedghi@sbu.ac.ir; Heidari, Bahareh; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite. • Colorimetric chemosensor. • Determination of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions. • Environmental samples. - Abstract: In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO{sub 2}/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions

    Highlights: • Poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite. • Colorimetric chemosensor. • Determination of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions. • Environmental samples. - Abstract: In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO2/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L−1, respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples

  7. Preparation of pH- and thermo-sensitive hydrogel by two-step grafting of acrylamide and acrylic acid onto preirradiated polyethylene film

    Two-step grafting reaction of acrylamide (AAm) and acrylic acid (AAc) onto preirradiated polyethylene (PE) film were performed. The effects of irradiation dose, reaction temperature and reaction time on the grafting yield were studied. The effect of reaction time of the first step grafting on the yield of the second step grafting was also evaluated. The original and the irradiated PE films were tested by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR). The AAm and AAc grafted PE film appeared thermo- and pH-sensitive which are similar to the interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel. (author)

  8. Technical Report, Outcome of the public consultation on the draft Scientific Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants on the Food Chain (CONTAM) on acrylamide in food

    Petersen, Annette

    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) has endorsed its draft Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of acrylamide (AA) in food. The opinion has undergone a public consultation from 1 July 2014 to 15 September 2014. Overall, EFSA has...... received 120 comments from various interested parties including national agencies, academia, industry and individuals in their private capacity. This report summarises the outcome of the public consultation, and lists and provides a brief summary of the comments received and how they were taken into...... account when finalising the Scientific Opinion for adoption....

  9. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of methyl parathion based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes–poly(acrylamide) nanocomposite film modified electrode

    Highlights: ► A sensitive electrochemical sensor for detecting methyl parathion in environmental samples. ► The preparation, characterization and application of this novel MWCNTs–PAAM nanocomposite. ► The MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE exhibited a high adsorption and strong affinity toward methyl parathion. ► Wide linear range and low detection limit of the proposed method for detecting methyl parathion. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry method was developed for detecting methyl parathion based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes–poly(acrylamide) (MWCNTs–PAAM) nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode. The novel MWCNTs–PAAM nanocomposite, containing high content of amide groups, was synthesized by PAAM polymerizing at the vinyl group functionalized MWCNTs surface using free radical polymerization. The MWCNTs–PAAM nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical behavior and interference studies of MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE for methyl parathion were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE exhibited a high adsorption and strong affinity toward methyl parathion compared with some metal ions and nitroaromatic compounds, which exist in environmental samples. The adsorbed amount of methyl parathion on the MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE approached the equilibrium value upon 5 min adsorption time. A linear calibration curve for methyl parathion was obtained in the concentration range from 5.0 × 10−9 to 1.0 × 10−5 mol L−1, with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10−9 mol L−1. The MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE was proved to be a suitable sensing tool for the fast, sensitive and selective determination of methyl parathion in environmental water samples.

  10. Determination of threshold exposure and intensity for recording holograms in thick green-sensitive acrylamide-based photopolymer.

    Mahmud, Mohammad Sultan; Naydenova, Izabela; Babeva, Tzwetanka; Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    For optical data storage applications, it is essential to determine the lowest intensity (also known as threshold intensity) below or at which no data page or grating can be recorded in the photosensitive material, as this in turn determines the data capacity of the material. Here, experiments were carried out to determine the threshold intensity below which the formation of a simple hologram--a holographic diffraction grating in a green-sensitized acrylamide-based photopolymer--is not possible. Two main parameters of the recording layers--dye concentration and thickness--were varied to study the influence of the density of the generated free radicals on the holographic properties of these layers. It was observed that a minimum concentration per unit volume of free radicals is required for efficient cross-linking of the created polymer chains and for recording a hologram. The threshold intensity below which no hologram can be recorded in the Erythrosin B sensitized layers with absorbance less than 0.16 was 50 μW/cm(2). The real-time diffraction efficiency was analyzed in the early stage of recording. It was determined that the minimum intensity required to obtain diffraction efficiency of 1% was 90 μW/cm(2), and the minimum required exposure was 8 mJ/cm(2). It was also determined that there is an optimum dye concentration of 1.5 × 10(-7) mol/L for effective recording above which no increase in the sensitivity of the layers is observed. PMID:20885463

  11. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of methyl parathion based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-poly(acrylamide) nanocomposite film modified electrode

    Zeng, Yanbo [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan Road(N), Shanghai, 200062 (China); College of Biological, Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China); Yu, Dajun; Yu, Yanyan [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan Road(N), Shanghai, 200062 (China); Zhou, Tianshu [Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan Road(N), Shanghai, 200062 (China); Shi, Guoyue, E-mail: gyshi@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan Road(N), Shanghai, 200062 (China)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sensitive electrochemical sensor for detecting methyl parathion in environmental samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preparation, characterization and application of this novel MWCNTs-PAAM nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE exhibited a high adsorption and strong affinity toward methyl parathion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wide linear range and low detection limit of the proposed method for detecting methyl parathion. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry method was developed for detecting methyl parathion based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-poly(acrylamide) (MWCNTs-PAAM) nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode. The novel MWCNTs-PAAM nanocomposite, containing high content of amide groups, was synthesized by PAAM polymerizing at the vinyl group functionalized MWCNTs surface using free radical polymerization. The MWCNTs-PAAM nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical behavior and interference studies of MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE for methyl parathion were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE exhibited a high adsorption and strong affinity toward methyl parathion compared with some metal ions and nitroaromatic compounds, which exist in environmental samples. The adsorbed amount of methyl parathion on the MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE approached the equilibrium value upon 5 min adsorption time. A linear calibration curve for methyl parathion was obtained in the concentration range from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}, with a detection limit of 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1}. The MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE was proved to be a suitable sensing tool for the fast, sensitive and selective determination of methyl parathion in environmental water samples.

  12. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part III. Optimization of the chromatographic efficiency.

    Al-Massaedh, Ayat Allah; Pyell, Ute

    2014-01-17

    In a previous article we described the synthesis of amphiphilic monolithic stationary phases by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, piperazinediacrylamide, methacrylamide and vinylsulfonic acid in aqueous medium in pre-treated fused silica capillaries of 100μ.m I.D. In this work, a series of N-adamantyl-group containing acrylamide-based continuous beds is synthesized under variation of different synthesis parameters. The studied synthesis parameters are (i) concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate, (ii) concentration of the initiator ammonium persulfate, and (iii) concentration of the negatively charged monomer vinylsulfonic acid in the polymerization mixture. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chromatographic efficiency is studied under isocratic conditions for a homologues series of alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode at constant composition of the mobile phase via capillary electrochromatography with varied electric field strength. With varied concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate or varied concentration of the initiator ammonium persulfate in the polymerization mixture, a strong impact on the chromatographic efficiency is observed, while there is only a minor influence when varying the molar fraction of the charged monomer VSA. The absence of a significant influence of extra-column band broadening effects on the determined efficiency is confirmed. There is a good repeatability (with respect to capillary-to-capillary variation and run-to-run variation) reached for the theoretical plate heights obtained for DMF and selected alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode. PMID:24296296

  13. Immobilization of Styrene-acrylamide Co-polymer on Either Silica Particles or Inner Surface of Silica Capillary for the Separation of D-Glucose Anomers

    Styrene-acrylamide co-polymer was immobilized on porous partially sub-2 μm silica monolith particles and inner surface of fused silica capillary (50 μm ID and 28 cm length) to result in μLC and CEC stationary phases, respectively, for separation of anomeric D-glucose derivatives. Reversed addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization was incorporated to induce surface polymerization. Acrylamide was employed to incorporate amide-functionality in the stationary phase. The resultant μLC and CEC stationary phases were able to separate isomers of D-glucose derivatives with high selectivity and efficiency. The mobile phase of 75/ 25 (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN)/water with 0.1% TFA, was used for HPLC with a packed column (1 mm ID, 300 mm length). The effects of pH and ACN composition on anomeric separation of D-glucose in CEC have been examined. A mobile phase of 85/15 (v/v) ACN/30 mM sodium acetate pH 6.7 was found the optimized mobile phase for CEC. The CEC stationary phase also gave good separation of other saccharides such as maltotriose and Dextran 1500 (MW∼1500) with good separation efficiency (number of theoretical plates ∼300,000/m)

  14. Immobilization of Styrene-acrylamide Co-polymer on Either Silica Particles or Inner Surface of Silica Capillary for the Separation of D-Glucose Anomers

    Ali, Faiz; Kim, Yune Sung; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Styrene-acrylamide co-polymer was immobilized on porous partially sub-2 μm silica monolith particles and inner surface of fused silica capillary (50 μm ID and 28 cm length) to result in μLC and CEC stationary phases, respectively, for separation of anomeric D-glucose derivatives. Reversed addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization was incorporated to induce surface polymerization. Acrylamide was employed to incorporate amide-functionality in the stationary phase. The resultant μLC and CEC stationary phases were able to separate isomers of D-glucose derivatives with high selectivity and efficiency. The mobile phase of 75/ 25 (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN)/water with 0.1% TFA, was used for HPLC with a packed column (1 mm ID, 300 mm length). The effects of pH and ACN composition on anomeric separation of D-glucose in CEC have been examined. A mobile phase of 85/15 (v/v) ACN/30 mM sodium acetate pH 6.7 was found the optimized mobile phase for CEC. The CEC stationary phase also gave good separation of other saccharides such as maltotriose and Dextran 1500 (MW∼1500) with good separation efficiency (number of theoretical plates ∼300,000/m)

  15. Synthesis of Sodium Humate-Acrylamide Graft Copolymer%腐植酸钠-丙烯酰胺接枝共聚物的合成

    马淑清; 生金峰; 张荣明

    2011-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of sodium humate onto acrylamide initiated by potassium peroxydisulfate was studied through aqueous solution polymerization method. The influential factors, such as reaction temperature, reaction time, initiator amount and reactant mass ratio were explored. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows:reaction temperature of 70℃, reaction time of 6 h, initiator amount of 2. 5% ,the mass ratio of acrylamide to sodium humate(g :g) of 50: 1. The structure of product was characterized by IR.%采用水溶液聚合方法,以过硫酸钾为引发剂,以腐植酸钠、丙烯酰胺为原料进行接枝共聚反应.考察了引发剂用量、物料比、反应温度和反应时间等因素对合成腐植酸钠—丙烯酰胺接枝共聚物的影响.确定最佳聚合工艺条件为:反应温度70℃、反应时间6h、引发剂用量2.5%、丙烯酰胺与腐植酸钠质量比(g:g)50:1.通过红外光谱对共聚物的结构进行了表征.

  16. Polymerization of acrylamide initiated with Ce(IV- and KMnO4–mercaptosuccinic acid redox systems in acid-aqueous medium

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available By using mercaptosuccinic acid-cerium(IV sulfate and mercaptosuccinic acid-KMnO4 redox systems in acid aqueous medium, the polymerization of acrylamide monomer was performed at room temperatures. Water soluble acrylamide polymers which contain mercaptosuccinic acid end-groups were synthesized. The dependence of polymerization yield and the molecular weight of polymer on the initiator concentration(nMSA=nCe(IV at different acid concentrations, polymerization time, temperature, and concentration of sulfuric acid was investigated. The decrease in the initiator concentration resulted in an increase in the molecular weights but a decrease in the yield. The increase of reaction temperature from 20 to 60°C resulted in an increase in the molecular weights and slight decrease of the yield of polymer. Cerium and manganese ions are reduced to Ce(III and Mn(II ions respectively in polymerization reaction. The existence of Ce(III ion bound to polymer was investigated by UV-visible spectrometry and fluorescence measurements. The amount of Mn(II which is incorporated to the polymer was determined.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions.

    Sedghi, Roya; Heidari, Bahareh; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2015-03-21

    In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO2/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples. PMID:25497023

  18. Concentration of bulk solution and initiator volume in polymerization of acrylamide aqueous solution%丙烯酰胺水溶液聚合中本体溶液浓度和引发剂量的研究

    贾亚宁

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the preparation for concentration of bulk solution in polymerization of acrylamide aqueous solution as well as initiator volume.%本文对丙烯酰胺水溶液聚合本体溶液浓度和引发剂量进行了研究.

  19. Effect of chemical structure on the volume-phase transition in neutral and weakly charged poly(N-alkyl(meth)acrylamide) hydrogels studied by ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering

    Tirumala, V. R.; Ilavsky, J.; Ilavský, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, - (2006), 234911/1-234911/10. ISSN 0021-9606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(N-alkyl(meth) acrylamide ) hydrogels * volume phase transition * critical temperature Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  20. Matrix-compatible sorbent coatings based on structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids for the determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using solid-phase microextraction.

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Nan, He; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-12

    Nine crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME sorbent coatings were designed and screened in this study for the trace level determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the ionic liquid (IL) monomer was tailored by introducing different functional groups to the cation and the nature of the IL crosslinker was designed by altering both the structure of the cation as well as counteranions. The extraction efficiency of the new PIL coatings towards acrylamide was investigated and compared to a previously reported PIL sorbent coating. All PIL fibers exhibited excellent analytical precision and linearity. The PIL fiber coating consisting of 50% 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylbenzimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide as IL crosslinker in 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl)imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL monomer resulted in a limit of quantitation of 0.5μgL(-1) with in-solution SPME sampling. The hydroxyl moiety appended to the IL cation was observed to significantly increase the sensitivity of the PIL coating toward acrylamide. The quantitation of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder was performed using the different PIL-based fibers by the method of standard addition after a quenching reaction using ninhydrin to inhibit the formation of interfering acrylamide in the GC inlet, mainly by asparagine thermal degradation. Excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10% were obtained on the real coffee samples and the structure of the coatings appeared intact by scanning electron microscopy after coffee sampling proving the matrix-compatibility of the PIL sorbent coatings. PMID:27423776

  1. STUDY ON THE IMMOBILIZATION OF PAPAIN WITH A MACROPOROUS BEAD CARRIER OF COPOLYMER CONTAINING MONOMER UNITS OF N-AMINOETHYL ACRYLAMIDE AND VINYL ALCOHOL

    Yan-feng Li; Jun-rong Li; Lian-di Fu; Yao-zeng Li

    2000-01-01

    A kind of macroporous bead carrier of copolymer containing monomer units ofN-aminoethyl acrylamide and vinyl alcohol was synthesized, i.e. the MR-AA carrier. Papain was immobilized on the carrier using glutaraldehyde as the coupling agent. The enzymatic activity of the immobilized papain was compared with free papain using casein as a substrate, and the effects of glutaraldehyde concentration, pH, temperature, time and papain amount added on the activity recovery were also investigated. The results show that the MR-AA carrier contains reactive primary amine groups, hydrophilic amido links and hydroxyl groups, as well as macroporous structures based on its matrix (MR-AV matrix), furthermore, the activity recovery of papain in the immobilization could reach 48%~58%. In comparison with free papain, the resulting immobilized papain exhibits a remarkable thermostability and better reusability.

  2. Chimie des acrylamides chiraux : nouvelles méthodologies et application à la synthèse de nouvelles architectures moléculaires

    gratais, alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions permettant la création de liaisons carbone-carbone sont des outils essentiels dans le domaine de la synthèse organique. Elles permettent d'accéder à des structures de plus en plus complexes. Cependant le contrôle de ces réactions en utilisant des partenaires hautement fonctionnalisés reste un enjeu majeur.Le développement de nouvelles méthodologies de synthèse basées sur la réactivité des acrylamides chiraux dérivés d'acides aminés est étudié dans ces travaux. Une nouvelle versi...

  3. Temperature-modulated quenching of quantum dots covalently coupled to chain ends of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) brushes on gold

    A thermo-responsive polymer/quantum dot platform based on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes 'grafted from' a gold substrate and quantum dots (QDs) covalently attached to the PNIPAM layer is presented. The PNIPAM brushes are grafted from the gold surface using an iniferter-initiated controlled radical polymerization. The PNIPAM chain ends are functionalized with amine groups for coupling to water-dispersible COOH-functionalized QDs. Upon increasing the temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM the QD luminescence is quenched. The luminescence was observed to recover upon decreasing the temperature below the LCTS. The data obtained are consistent with temperature-modulated thickness changes of the PNIPAM layer and quenching of the QDs by the gold surface via nonradiative energy transfer.

  4. Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of (E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-[4-(phenylamino) quinazoline-7-yl] Acrylamide

    ZHAO Hui-Ming; ZHANG Yang; CHEN Jie

    2012-01-01

    Geometry optimization and subsequent harmonic vibration calculations of prior synthesized (E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-[4-(phenyl-amino) quinazoline-7-yl] acrylamide were carried out by DFT/B3LYP method with both 6-31G and 6-311G basis sets.The Infrared (IR) spectrum of the title compound was recorded in the field of 400-4000 cm 1 and then assigned.The correlation analyses between the scaled theoretical vibration frequencies and the experimental ones indicate that there exist good linearity relationships since the correlation coefficients R 2 are larger than 0.999.The intramolecular interactions existed in the title molecule were confirmed by the Atoms in molecules (AIM) method,and their influences on the absorption frequency were also investigated.

  5. Preparation of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate -co-acrylamide) hydrogels by gamma radiation: sol-gel analysis, swelling kinetic and mechanical behaviour

    2 hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) / acrylamide (Am) hydrogels were prepared by simultaneous radiation induced cross linking copolymerization. The G values of cross linking and degradation, gelation dose and further radiation parameters were estimated by sol/gel analysis. The dynamic swelling behaviour at 37 grade centigrade of these kind of materials was studied. The influence of the absorbed dose on the swelling degree at different pH was studied. It was observed that the kinetics is in good agreement with the second order diffusion kinetics proposed by Schott. The degree of cross linking was found to increase with the adsorbed dose and influence the mechanical properties to some extend. The molar mass of chain between the network cross links was estimated

  6. A novel photo-grafting of acrylamide onto carboxymethyl starch. 1. Utilization of CMS-g-PAAm in easy care finishing of cotton fabrics.

    El-Sheikh, Manal A

    2016-11-01

    The photosensitized grafting of vinyl monomers onto a range of polymeric substrates has been the subject of particular interest in the recent past. Carboxymethyl starch (CMS)-poly acrylamide (PAAm) graft copolymer (CMS-g-PAAm) with high graft yield was successfully prepared by grafting of acrylamide onto CMS using UV irradiation in the presence of the water soluble 4-(trimethyl ammoniummethyl) benzophenone chloride photoinitiator. CMS-g-PAAm with nitrogen content of 8.3% and grafting efficiency up to 98.9% was obtained using 100% AAm, a material: liquor ratio of 1:14 and 1% photinitiator at 30°C for 1h of UV irradiation. The synthesis of CMS-g-PAAm was confirmed by FTIR and Nitrogen content (%). Surface morphology of CMS and surface morphological changes of CMS after grafting with AAm were studied using SEM. Thermal properties of both CMS and CMS-g-PAAm were studied using TGA and DSC. To impart easy care finishing to cotton fabrics, aqueous formulations of: CMS-g-PAAm, dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU), CMS-g-PAAm-DMDHEU mixture or methylolated CMS-g-PAAm were used. Cotton fabrics were padded in these formulations, squeezed to a wet pick up 100%, dried at 100°C for 5min, cured at 150°C for 5min, washed at 50°C for 10min and air-dried. CRA (crease recovery angle) of untreated fabrics and fabrics finished with a mixture of 2% CMS-g-PAAm and 10% DMDHEU or methylolated CMS-g-PAAm (10% formaldehyde) were: 136°, 190°, 288° respectively. Increasing the number of washing cycles up to five cycles results in an insignificant decrease in the CRA and a significant decrease in RF (releasable formaldehyde) of finished fabric samples. The morphologies of the finished and unfinished cotton fabrics were performed by SEM. PMID:27516255

  7. A novel polymer of Al2(SO43-poly(acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate ionic hybrid prepared by dispersion polymerization

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel polymer Al2(SO43-poly(acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate (Al2(SO43-P(AM/AMPS had been synthesized by dispersion polymerization in an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate, using poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate P(AMPS as stabilizer, acrylamide (AM and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate (AMPS as monomers, poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate (PAMPS as stabilizer and [2-(2-imidazdino-2-ylpropane]dihydrochloride (VA-044 as initiator. The average particle size of polymer dispersion ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 µm, the molecular weight was from 4.3•106 to 5.7•106 g•mol-1. The polymer was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TGA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The swelling property of the dispersion polymer was studied by particle size distribution. When the polymer dispersion was diluted with deionized water, particle sizes decreased several times. When the polymer dispersion was diluted with salt water, the particle size increased with increasing concentration of salt. The effects of Al2(SO43 and stabilizer on the particle size and the relative molecular weight of the polymer were investigated, respectively. The optimum conditions for the stable Al2(SO43-P(AM/AMPS dispersion were that the concentration of Al2(SO43 was 1.12 wt%, the concentration of PAMPS stabilizer was 3 wt% and the concentration of initiator was 0.2 mol•l-1 and the monomers concentration was 14 wt%.

  8. 咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺膳食暴露水平调查%Survey on the Level of Dietary Exposure to Acrylamide in Residents of Xianyang City

    孟娟娟; 宁鸿珍; 李茂静; 齐宝宁; 陈振飞; 刘英莉; 毛立超

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对咸阳市居民进行问卷调查,估计咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺膳食暴露水平.方法 根据预调查结果,选定28种咸阳市居民经常食用的油炸、烘烤食品作为被调查食品,用国标方法测定被调查食品中丙烯酰胺的含量,并依据检测结果计算咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺的膳食暴露水平.结果 咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺的平均摄入量为26.68μg/d,平均暴露水平为0.46μg/kg bw·d.不同性别及不同地区间差异无统计学意义;不同年龄差异有统计学意义;各年龄组人群丙烯酰胺暴露贡献较高的食品分别为<10和10~岁组为薯片、饼干、烤馍片和烤饼;20~、30~和40~岁组为薯片、饼干、烤饼和炸饼;50~和≥60岁组为饼干和烤饼.结论 被调查居民每天通过食品摄入一定量的丙烯酰胺,其主要食物来源是薯片、饼干、烤饼、炸饼和烤馍片.%Objective To assess the level of dietary exposure to acrylamide among the residents of Xianyang City through questionnaire survey. Methods According to the results of the pretest, 28 types of fried and baked foods were selected to serve as the surveyed samples. The exposure assessment was performed by combining the levels of acrylamide determined with the national standard method and individual food consumption data. Results The mean intake of acrylamide in the residents of Xianyang City was 26.68 μg/d, the average level of acrylamide exposure was 0.46μg/kg bw·d. No statistically significant difference was found in the level of acrylamide exposure in different gendere and regions, but there were statistically significant differences among the age groups. The foods that contributed most to acrylamide exposure were potato chips, biscuits, baked steamed bread slices and scones in the age groups of < 10 and 10~ years, potato chips, biscuits, scones and fried cakes in the age groups of 20~, 30~ and 40~ years, and biscuits and scones in the age groups of 50

  9. Inverse microemulsion system of Span 80-Tween 80/liquid paraffin/acrylamide-H2O%Span 80-Tween 80/液体石蜡/AM-H2O反相微乳液体系

    王风贺; 夏明珠; 雷武; 魏运洋; 王风云

    2005-01-01

    The reverse microemulsion system of Span 80-Tween 80/liquid paraffin/acrylamide-H2O was prepared, and the effects of n-butanol, NaC1, NaAc were studied with the conductivity method. The stability of reverse microemulsion was reflected, and the information of its dynamic process was obtained by measuring its state changes continuously through testing its electronic conductivity by using electrochemistry. The results showed that the Span 80-Tween 80/liquid paraffin/acrylamide-H2O system was most stable when the HLB value approached 7.5, and its stability was enhanced when 5.0% (mass) NaCl or 10% (mass) NaAc was added into this systerm.

  10. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定面粉类食品中丙烯酰胺%Determination of acrylamide in wheaten foods by solid-phase extraction and HPLC

    叶艳芬; 徐立恒

    2013-01-01

    建立了基于固相萃取-高效液相色谱法的面粉类食品中丙烯酰胺的检测方法,该方法的加标回收率在88.1%~93.8%之间,日内标准偏差小于2.7%,可以满足食品中丙烯酰胺测定的要求.采用该方法对市售饼干样品进行测定,结果表明,饼干中普遍存在丙烯酰胺,其含量约为WHO推荐饮用水中限值的200到800倍.%A method for determining acrylamide in wheaten foods was established by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The recoveries of acrylamide from spiked samples by this method were within 88.1% ~ 93.8%,and the relative standard deviations were lower than 2.7%.This method has the advantages of convenient operation,excellent accuracy and good reproducibility,and it is suitable for the determination of acrylamide in wheaten foods.The cracker samples obtained from markets were determined by this method,and it was shown that acrylamide contents in cracker were about 200 ~800 times as many as the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality.

  11. A Review of Low Molecular Additives to Lower Acrylamide Content in Bakeries%低分子添加剂法抑制焙烤食品中丙烯酰胺的研究现状

    李飞; 李想

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is classified as " probably carcinogenic to humans", and it mainly occurred during Mail- lard reaction. Most current research about acrylamide are focused on the fried food, and little has been done for bakery products, such as bread, cracker, or cake. Moreover, since the process and components of fried food and bakery food are different, methods used in fried food can not be applied to bakery food. However, using low molecule additives can effectively lower the acrylamide in both fried and baked products, with little impacts on taste. This review summarized the research on lowering the acrylamide in bakery products by low molecular additives in recent years.%丙烯酰胺属于对人可能致癌物质,其主要产生于食品加工过程中的Maillard反应。目前,关于丙烯酰胺的研究主要集中于油炸食品,但关于焙烤食品如面包、饼干、蛋糕等方面的研究较少,而且由于工艺的不同,油炸食品中可行的方法并不能直接应用于焙烤食品。使用低分子添加剂是目前较为新兴的抑制丙烯酰胺的方法,其在油炸食品及焙烤食品中均具有良好的效果,且对产品风味的影响较小。本文总结了近些年学者们通过使用低分子添加剂降低焙烤食品中丙烯酰胺含量的实践及研究。

  12. 外源添加剂对油炸薯条中丙烯酰胺抑制作用研究%Effect of inhibition of additives on the acrylamide in chips

    李金旺; 于帆; 唐清华; 徐志祥

    2015-01-01

    采用不同种类、不同浓度的添加剂对油炸薯条进行前处理,探索控制油炸薯条中丙烯酰胺的方法。用绿茶、大蒜浸提液等四种添加剂浸泡薯条后高温油炸,用气相色谱—电子捕获检测器(GC-ECD)方法进行定性定量分析。结果表明:四种添加剂均能有效抑制丙烯酰胺的产生;当绿茶浸提液添加量为5 g/100 mL,浸泡时间为60 min,对丙烯酰胺抑制率达到49.53%。%In order to find a way to inhibit formation of acrylamide during deep frying chips,four additives such as green tea and garlic with different levels were used to soak potato strips before frying.The acryl-amide in chips was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed by GC-ECD.The results showed that all of the four additives had inhibition on acrylamide formation.The inhibition rate of green tea reached 49.53% when the concentration was 5 g/100 mL and soaked for 60 min.

  13. Radiation Graft Copolymerization of Butyl methacrylate and Acrylamide onto Low density polyethylene and polypropylene films and its application in wastewater treatment

    Butyl methacrylate and Acrylamide (BMA/AAm) comonomer were grafted onto Low density polyethylene and polypropylene films using direct gamma radiation by grafting technique. The influences of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, monomer composition, and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were determined. It was found that, using DMF as a solvent enhanced the copolymerization process. The grafting yield increases with comonomer concentration up to 60 %. . Also it was found that, the degree of grafting of (BMA/AAm) onto LDPE and PP films increases as the AAm content increases till optimum value at (50:50) %. The grafting yield of the comonomer found to be increased with increasing radiation dose. It was observed that the degree of grafting of polyethylene films is higher than that for polypropylene films. Some selected properties of the graft copolymers, such as water uptake and thermal properties determined by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been carried out. The morphology and structure of grafted films was investigated by using SEM, IR and X-ray diffraction. The improvement in such properties of the prepared copolymers was observed which makes possible uses in some practical applications such as in the removal of some heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the copolymer is ordered in the sequence of Cu2+ > CO2+ > Ni2+ ions.

  14. Binding of bisphenol A and acrylamide to BSA and DNA: insights into the comparative interactions of harmful chemicals with functional biomacromolecules.

    Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhang, Xian; Fei, Xun-Chang; Wang, Shi-Long; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2010-10-15

    The interactions between bisphenol A (BPA)/acrylamide (AA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)/deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was investigated by the equilibrium dialysis, fluorophotometry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and circular dichroism (CD). The bindings of BPA and AA to BSA and DNA responded to the partition law and Langmuir isothermal model, respectively. The saturation mole number of AA was calculated to be 24 per mol BSA and 0.26 per mol DNA-P. All the reactions were spontaneous driven by entropy change. BPA stacked into the aromatic hydrocarbon groups of BSA and between adjacent basepairs of DNA via the hydrophobic effect. The interactions of AA with BSA and DNA induced the formation of hydrogen bond and caused changes of their secondary structures. At normal physiological condition, 0.100 mmol/l BPA reduced the binding of vitamin B(2) to BSA by more than 70%, and 2.8 mmol/l AA by almost one half. This work provides an insight into non-covalent intermolecular interaction between organic contaminant and biomolecule, helping to elucidate the toxic mechanism of harmful chemicals. PMID:20673609

  15. Stimuli-responsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-co-tyrosine@gadolinium: Iron oxide nanoparticle-based nanotheranostic for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    Roy, Ekta; Patra, Santanu; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have prepared a stimuli-responsive polymer modified gadolinium doped iron oxide nanoparticle (poly@Gd-MNPs) as cancer theranostic agent. The responsive polymer is composed of the poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-co-tyrosine unit, which shows excellent loading for the anti-cancer drug (methotrexate) and stimuli dependent release (change in pH and temperature). The in vitro experiment revealed that the poly@Gd-MNPs exhibited T1-weighted MRI capability (r1=11.314mM(-1)s(-1)) with good in-vitro hyperthermia response. The prepared poly@Gd-MNPs has generated quick heating (45°C in 2min) upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field and able to travel a distance of 35cm in 1min in the presence of an external magnet. The poly@Gd-MNPs shows 86% of drug loading capacity with 70% drug release in first 2h. The cytotoxic assay (MTT) demonstrated that the nanoparticle did not affect the viability of normal human fibroblast and efficiently kill the MCF7 cancer cells in the presence of an external magnetic field. To explore the uptake of poly@Gd-MNPs in the cells, bright field cell imaging study was also performed. This study provides a valuable approach for the design of highly sensitive polymer modified gadolinium doped iron oxide-based T1 contrast agents for cancer theranostics. PMID:26962761

  16. Radiation graft copolymerization of butyl methacrylate and acrylamide onto low density polyethylene and polypropylene films, and its application in wastewater treatment

    Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.; El-Arnaouty, M. B.; Aboulfotouh, Maysara E.; Taher, N. H.; Taha, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Butyl methacrylate and acrylamide (BMA/AAm) comonomers were grafted onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) films using the mutual gamma radiation grafting technique. The influences of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, monomer composition, and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were determined. It was found that using dimethyl formamide as a solvent enhanced the copolymerization process. The grafting yield increases as the comonomer concentration increases up to 60%. Also it was found that the degree of grafting of BMA/AAm onto both LDPE and PP films increases as the AAm content increases till an optimum value at 50:50 wt%. The grafting yield of the comonomers was found to increase with increase in the radiation dose. It was observed that the degree of grafting of polyethylene films is higher than that of polypropylene (PP) films at the same conditions. Some selected properties of the graft copolymers, such as water uptake and thermal properties, were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology and structure of the grafted films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, infra-red, and X-ray diffraction. Improvement in such properties of the prepared copolymers was observed which offers possible uses in some practical applications such as the removal of some heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the copolymer followed the order Cu2+>Co2+>Ni2+ ions.

  17. Mechanism of smectic arrangement of montmorillonite and bentonite clay platelets incorporated in gels of poly(acrylamide) induced by the interaction with cationic surfactants.

    Starodoubtsev, S G; Lavrentyeva, E K; Khokhlov, A R; Allegra, G; Famulari, A; Meille, S V

    2006-01-01

    Structure transitions, induced by the interaction with the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride in nanocomposite gels of poly(acrylamide) with incorporated suspensions of the two closely related layered clays bentonite and montmorillonite, were studied. Unexpectedly, different behaviors were revealed. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that, due to the interaction with the surfactant, initially disordered bentonite platelets arrange into highly ordered structures incorporating alternating clay platelets and surfactant bilayers. The formation of these smectic structures also in the cross-linked polymer gels, upon addition of the surfactant, is explained by the existence of preformed, poorly ordered aggregates of the clay platelets in the suspensions before the gel formation. In the case of montmorillonite, smectic ordering of the disordered platelets in the presence of the surfactant is observed only after drying the suspensions and the clay-gel composites. Rheology studies of aqueous suspensions of the two clays, in the absence of both surfactant and gel, evidence a much higher viscosity for bentonite than for montmorillonite, suggesting smaller clay-aggregate size in the latter case. Qualitatively consistent results are obtained from optical micrographs. PMID:16378447

  18. A Green Approach to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles in Starch-co-Poly(acrylamide Hydrogels by Tridax procumbens Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

    Siraj Shaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of starch-co-poly(acrylamide (starch-co-PAAm hydrogels were synthesized by employing free radical redox polymerization. A novel green approach, Tridax procumbens (TD leaf extract, was used for reduction of silver ions (Ag+ into silver nanoparticles in the starch-co-PAAm hydrogel network. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (X-RD studies. 22% of weight loss difference between hydrogel and silver nanocomposite hydrogel (SNCH clearly indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles by TGA. TEM images indicate the successful incorporation of silver nanoparticles ranging from 5 to 10 nm in size and spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution. These developed SNCHs were used to study the antibacterial activity by inhibition zone method against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria such as Bacillus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated that these SNCHs can be used potentially for biomedical applications.

  19. Structural and morphology comparison between m-LaVO4 and LaVO3 compounds prepared by sol-gel acrylamide polymerization and solid state reaction

    We contrast the production of LaVO3 polycrystalline samples obtained by reduction of m-LaVO4 prepared by sol-gel acrylamide polymerization (SGAP) and solid state reaction (SSR). For SGAP the formation of m-LaVO4 occurs at 400 deg. C, for SSR at 1400 deg. C. For m-LaVO4-SGAP we observe a homogeneous morphology with needle-shaped grains of 50 nm average size. The SSR presents a broader size distribution in the micrometer range. Both m-LaVO4 samples were reduced into LaVO3 using a Zr rod at 850 deg. C in vacuum. LaVO3-SGAP presents a homogeneous grain distribution with an average size of 745 nm. LaVO3-SSR has an average size of 3.45 μm. The stoichiometry of all compounds was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy give crystal structures in agreement with those reported in the literature.

  20. The use of new modified poly(acrylamide chelating resin with pendent benzothiazole groups containing donor atoms in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Semmedu Selvaraj Kalaivani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption studies of poly(6-(ethoxybenzothiazole acrylamide (PEBTA, for Cu(II and Zn(II metal ions removal from an aqueous solution have been investigated, as a function of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature. The chemical and structural characteristics of the adsorbent were determined by the FT-IR, 1H-NMR, TGA, SEM, and EDAX analysis. The maximum adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for Cu(II and Zn(II ions, as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model, were 273.5 and 216.4 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetic studies show that the adsorption of Cu(II and Zn(II ions onto PEBTA follows the pseudo second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were also evaluated, and it has been found that the adsorption process is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Desorption studies were carried out using 0.3 N HCl, and it revealed that the adsorbed Cu(II and Zn(II ions can be easily removed. The adsorption–desorption process is reversible, and this indicates that PEBTA is an effective adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from an aqueous medium.

  1. New polymer for removal of wine phenolics: Poly(N-(3-(N-isobutyrylisobutyramido)-3-oxopropyl)acrylamide) (P-NIOA).

    Castro, Ricardo I; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Guzmán, Luis; Laurie, V Felipe; Valdés, Oscar; Ávila-Salas, Fabián; López-Cortés, Xaviera; Santos, Leonardo S

    2016-12-15

    The phenolic compounds of wine contribute to color and astringency, also are responsible for the oxidation state and bitterness. Due the importance of these molecules, different techniques have been used to modulate their concentration such as natural or synthetic polymeric agents. Among the polymeric agents, PVPP is one of the most used, but lacks of selectivity and has a limited pH range. Therefore, the aim of this study was the synthesis of a new polymer, poly(N-(3-(N-isobutyrylisobutyramido)-3-oxopropyl)acrylamide) (P-NIOA), for removal of phenolic compounds, as a potential agent for the fining of wine. The new polymer affinity was studied using HPLC-DAD for different polyphenols using PVPP as a control. The results showed that the new polymer has a similar removal as PVPP, but with lower affinity to resveratrol. The interactions established between polymers and polyphenols were studied using computational chemistry methods demonstrating a direct correlation with the experimental affinity data. PMID:27451217

  2. Influence of the ionic character of a drug on its release rate from hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and acrylamide synthesized by photopolymerization

    M. L. Gomez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the ionic character of a specific drug on its release rate from a hydrogel based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA and acrylamide (AAm is analyzed. The hydrogel was synthesized by photopolymerization employing visible light, safranine O (Saf, as sensitizer, and a silsesquioxane functionalized with amine and methacrylate groups (SFMA, as co-initiator and crosslinker. Safranine O (Saf was employed as a model of a cationic drug and the anionic form of resorufin (Rf as a model of an anionic drug. Saf exhibited a larger affinity with functional groups of the hydrogel than that of Rf. This produced a lower loading and a faster release rate of Rf with respect to Saf. Besides, the release rate of Rf followed a Fickian behavior, while that of Saf exhibited a non-Fickian behavior. By hydrolyzing the hydrogel at pH = 13, amide groups supplied by AAm were irreversibly converted into carboxylic acid groups. Higher loadings and slower release rates of Saf from the hydrolyzed hydrogels were observed, making them particularly suitable for the slow drug-delivery of cationic drugs.

  3. 聚(N-异丙基丙烯酰胺)及聚(N-异丙基丙烯酰胺-共-丙烯酰胺)水凝胶的制备及性能%Synthesis and Properties of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) Hydrogels

    裴勇; 陈捷; 杨黎明; 施丽莉; 罗浩杰

    2005-01-01

    The thermosensitive poly ( N-isopropylacrylamide ) (PNIPAAm) and poly ( N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide ) [ poly (NIPAAm-co-AAm) ] hydrogels with different acrylamide molar percentage are prepared by radiation polymerization using Co60 γ-ray.Their swelling equilibrium data in the media of deionized water, NaCl aqueous solutions and different pH buffer solutions are determined. It appears that lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the hydrogels will drop with the increase of ionic strength and increase with the rising of acrylamide content. A semi-empirical formula is set up with the experimental results. Moreover, it also indicates that this copolymer is pH-sensitive, which is similar to the homopolymer of PNIPAAm.

  4. 甲基丙烯酸羟乙酯与丙稀酰胺共聚特水凝胶的合成及氯霉素缓释性能研究%Study on Synthesis and chloramphenicol Release of poly (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide) hydrogels

    黎新明; 崔英德

    2008-01-01

    In this article,poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide)hydrogels were synthesized by bulk free-radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate(HEMA)and acrylamide(AAm)for soft contact lens(SCL)-based ophthalmic drug delivery system.The copolymer was characterized with FT-IR and SEM,the swelling property of the hydrogels were studied by gravimetrical method.and chloramphenicol was used as a model drug to investigate drug release profile of the hydrogels.The results showed that poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylateco-acrylamide)hydrogels were transparent and useful SCL biomaterial.the water content increased as AAm content increase and pH decrease,and in the sanqe way,hydrogel composition affected chloramphenicol release process too.Migration rate of chloramphenicol increased as the AAm content in the hydrogels increased in the first stage of diffusion process,whereas there Was no significant difference thereafter.

  5. Preparation and reactivity of metal-containing monomers. communication 4. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) on Polyethylene

    This paper investigates the graft polymerization of MCM with donor-acceptor metal bonds, namely, acrylamide (AA) complexes of Co(II), Ni (II), and Cu(II), on preliminary gamma-irradiated polyethylene (PE) and compares the main parameters of the process with grafting of AA and other acrylic monomers. The initial rate of graft polymerization of the Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes depended linearly on the concentration of the metal-containing monomer in the solution and the concentration of hydroperoxy groups in irradiated polyethylene

  6. N-脱氢枞基丙烯酰胺的合成、表征及其聚合性能分析%Synthesis, Characterization and Polymerization Property of N-dehydroabietic Acrylamide

    杨艳平; 沈明贵; 刘鹤; 商士斌; 宋湛谦

    2016-01-01

    以歧化松香为原料,先制得脱氢枞胺,再与丙烯酰氯经酰胺化反应合成了N-脱氢枞基丙烯酰胺单体,经提纯为液相色谱纯度97.95%的白色固体。通过FT-IR、MS、1H NMR、13C NMR、TG、GPC及DSC表征了其结构和性能。结构表征结果显示成功合成了N-脱氢枞基丙烯酰胺。 DSC分析显示,单一单体在151~196℃时发生热聚合,且自由基引发剂偶氮二异丁腈(AIBN)的存在可以降低其聚合温度,聚合物的玻璃化转变温度在100.34℃。 TG分析显示,聚合物在209~483℃发生热分解。对N-脱氢枞基丙烯酰胺聚合物进行GPC分析,结果为Mn=4301,Mw/Mn=1.56。%N-dehydroabietic acrylamide, a polymerization monomer, was synthesized via amidation reaction of acryloyl chloride and dehydroabietylamine which was synthesized using disproportionated rosin as raw materials. And the product was white solid with liquid chromatographic purity of 97. 95% after purification. The structure and performance of N-dehydroabietic acrylamide monomer were characterized by FT-IR, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, TG, DSC and GPC. The characterization results showed that N-dehydroabietic acrylamide was synthesized successfully. The DSC analysis showed that the thermal polymerization of the single monomer was occurred during 151-196℃, the glass transition temperature of the polymer was 100.34℃and the polymerization temperature could be reduced with the presence of free radical initiator azodiisobutyronitrile ( AIBN) . The TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the polymer occurred at 209-483℃. The Mn of homopolymer of N-dehydroabietic acrylamide polymerization was 4301 and Mw/Mn was 1.56 from the GPC analysis.

  7. Electric field responsive chitosan–poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide) semi-IPN gel films and their dielectric, thermal and swelling characterization

    The electroresponsive, dielectric and swelling behavior of semi-interpenetrated polymer network (semi-IPN) gel films prepared from chitosan (CS) and N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DA) were investigated and compared with those CS film. CS–DA semi-IPN films were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The electrosensitivity of CS–DA films to an electric field was investigated by determining their bending at 8 V in (0.05 M/0.1 M/0.15 M) NaCl solution. Equilibrium swelling values of CS–DA films both in distilled water and buffer solution with pH = 2.2 decreased with poly-DA (PDA) content of the films. While the maximum decomposition of CS film took place at about 296 °C, the presence of PDA in CS–DA semi-IPN films reduced the thermal stability, and their maximum decomposition temperature shifted from 261 to 240 °C with the increase in PDA content. In addition, the PDA network led to a decrease in the dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε″) and conductance (σ) of CS–DA semi-IPN films in the frequency range between 12 Hz and 100 kHz. The values of electric modulus and impedance, and Cole–Cole plots confirmed that the conductance values of CS–DA films are lower than that of CS film. The PDA network also led CS–DA films to respond more slowly to electric field. The increase in NaCl concentration in the bending medium increased the response rate of CS–DA films to an electric field. The final bending angle of all CS–DA films was 90°, and it was not dependent on either NaCl concentration or PDA content of the films. (paper)

  8. Urinary levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA), an acrylamide metabolite, in Korean children and their association with food consumption

    Ji, Kyunghee [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Veterinary Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yongin University, Yongin, 449-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sungeun; Lee, Gowoon; Lee, Saeram; Jo, Areum; Kwak, Kyunghee; Kim, Dohyung; Kho, Dohyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Sungkyoon [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hiuang, Yuh-Fang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh [Public Health and Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Choi, Kyungho, E-mail: kyungho@snu.ac.kr [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a probable human carcinogen, is present in high-temperature-processed foods, and has frequently been detected in humans worldwide. In the present study, the levels of a major AA metabolite, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) were measured in urine samples collected in two separate events with 3 d interval from Korean children (n = 31, 10–13 years old), and their diets were surveyed for 4 d period prior to the second urine sampling. Daily AA intake was estimated from AAMA urinary levels and the influence of food consumption on urinary AAMA levels was investigated. The concentrations of metabolite AAMA in urine ranged between 15.4 and 196.3 ng/mL, with a median level of 68.1 ng/mL, and the levels varied by day considerably even in a given child. Children who were exposed to environmental smoke at home exhibited significantly higher levels of AAMA in urine, suggesting the importance of passive smoking as a source of AA exposure among children. Median (95th percentile) values of daily AA intake in Korean children were 1.04 (2.47) μg/kg body weight/day, which is higher than those reported elsewhere. After adjustment for gender, body mass index, and smoking status of family members, the consumptions of cracker and chocolate were identified to be significantly associated with the concentrations of AAMA in urine. The result of this study will provide information useful for developing public health and safety management for AA. - Highlights: • Urinary AAMA concentrations varied over time by the changes in diet. • Consumption of cracker and chocolate were correlated with urinary AAMA levels. • Urinary AAMA levels were significantly correlated with passive smoking. • AA intake estimates among Korean children are higher than those reported elsewhere.

  9. Modifying glass fiber surface with grafting acrylamide by UV-grafting copolymerization for preparation of glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane.

    Luo, Nan; Zhong, Hui; Yang, Min; Yuan, Xing; Fan, Yaobo

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the modification of conditions for glass surface grafting with acrylamide (AM) monomer for preparation of a glass fiber reinforced poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite membrane (GFRP-CM). The factors considered for experimental design were the UV (ultraviolet)-irradiation time, the concentrations of the initiator and solvent, and the kinds and concentrations of the silane coupling agent. The optimum operating conditions determined were UV-irradiation time of 25 min, an initiator concentration of 0-0.25 wt.%, solvent of N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC), and silane coupling agent KH570 with a concentration of 7 wt.%. The obtained optimal parameters were located in the valid region and the experimental confirmation tests conducted showed good accordance between predicted and experimental values. Under these optimal conditions, the water absorption of the grafted modified glass fiber was improved from 13.6% to 23%; the tensile strength was enhanced and the peeling strength of the glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane was improved by 23.7% and 32.6% with an AM concentration at 1 wt.% and 2 wt.%. The surface composition and microstructure of AM grafted glass fiber were studied via several techniques including Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The analysis of the EDX and FTIR-ATR results confirmed that the AM was grafted to the glass fiber successfully by detecting and proving the existence of nitrogen atoms in the GFRP-CM. PMID:26899659

  10. Urinary levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA), an acrylamide metabolite, in Korean children and their association with food consumption

    Acrylamide (AA), a probable human carcinogen, is present in high-temperature-processed foods, and has frequently been detected in humans worldwide. In the present study, the levels of a major AA metabolite, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) were measured in urine samples collected in two separate events with 3 d interval from Korean children (n = 31, 10–13 years old), and their diets were surveyed for 4 d period prior to the second urine sampling. Daily AA intake was estimated from AAMA urinary levels and the influence of food consumption on urinary AAMA levels was investigated. The concentrations of metabolite AAMA in urine ranged between 15.4 and 196.3 ng/mL, with a median level of 68.1 ng/mL, and the levels varied by day considerably even in a given child. Children who were exposed to environmental smoke at home exhibited significantly higher levels of AAMA in urine, suggesting the importance of passive smoking as a source of AA exposure among children. Median (95th percentile) values of daily AA intake in Korean children were 1.04 (2.47) μg/kg body weight/day, which is higher than those reported elsewhere. After adjustment for gender, body mass index, and smoking status of family members, the consumptions of cracker and chocolate were identified to be significantly associated with the concentrations of AAMA in urine. The result of this study will provide information useful for developing public health and safety management for AA. - Highlights: • Urinary AAMA concentrations varied over time by the changes in diet. • Consumption of cracker and chocolate were correlated with urinary AAMA levels. • Urinary AAMA levels were significantly correlated with passive smoking. • AA intake estimates among Korean children are higher than those reported elsewhere

  11. Psyllium and copolymers of 2-hydroxylethylmethacrylate and acrylamide-based novel devices for the use in colon specific antibiotic drug delivery.

    Singh, Baljit; Chauhan, Nirmala; Kumar, S; Bala, Ritu

    2008-03-20

    In order to utilize the psyllium husk, a medicinally important natural polysaccharide, to develop the hydrogels meant for the drug delivery, we have prepared psyllium 2-hydroxylethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm)-based polymeric networks by using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (N,N'-MBAAm) as crosslinker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The polymeric networks thus formed [psy-cl-poly(HEMA-co-AAm)] were characterized with FTIR and swelling studies which were carried out as a function of crosslinker concentration, time, pH and [NaCl] of the swelling medium. The swelling kinetics of the hydrogels and in vitro release dynamics of model drug (tetracycline hydrochloride) from these hydrogels has been studied for the evaluation of swelling mechanism and drug release mechanism from the hydrogels. The values of the diffusion exponent 'n' have been obtained 0.5 for both swelling kinetics and drug release dynamics. This value shows that the Fickian type diffusion mechanism has occurred for the swelling of the polymers and for the release of drug from the polymers in different release mediums. The values of the initial diffusion coefficients (10.6 x 10(-4), 13.1 x 10(-4), 14.0 x 10(-4))cm(2)/min, average diffusion coefficients (22.2 x 10(-4), 25.7 x 10(-4), 27.0 x 10(-4))cm(2)/min and late diffusion coefficients (1.68 x 10(-4), 2.15 x 10(-4), 2.28 x 10(-4))cm(2)/min for the release of tetracycline HCl respectively in distilled water, pH 2.2 buffer and pH 7.4 buffer from the drug loaded samples shows that in the initial stages, the rate of release of drug from the hydrogels is slow and rate of diffusion of drug increases with time. PMID:18055144

  12. The antidepressant-like activity of nicotine, but not of 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide, is regulated by the nicotinic receptor β4 subunit.

    Arias, Hugo R; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Jozwiak, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    The current study compares the antidepressant-like effect elicited by nicotine between wild-type (β4+/+) and knockout (β4-/-) mice, and subsequently, the effect of 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), a positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic receptors, on the previously determined activity of nicotine. Mice from each sex were injected daily with nicotine base (0.2 mg/kg; s.c.) or co-administered with PAM-2 (1.0 mg/kg; i.p.) for 3 weeks. Forced swim tests were performed to determine the acute (day 1), subchronic (day 7), and chronic (days 14 and 21) effects of the drugs, as well as their residual effects after treatment cessation (days 28 and 35). Our results indicate that nicotine mediates antidepressant-like activity after acute, subchronic, and chronic treatments in β4+/+, but not β4-/-, mice, and that these effects are not mediated by unspecific locomotor stimulation. Nicotine co-administered with PAM-2 produces antidepressant-like activity in both β4+/+ and β4-/- mice, except after the acute treatment of β4-/- mice, and decreases locomotor activity. This suggests that although the β4 subunit regulates the antidepressant-like activity of nicotine it does not affect the activity elicited by PAM-2 when is co-administered with nicotine. The residual antidepressant-like activity of PAM-2 + nicotine was observed only in female mice, suggesting gender-specific differences. Our findings clearly indicate that β4-containing nAChRs play an important role in the antidepressant-like activity elicited by nicotine but they are not essential for the modulatory activity of PAM-2. In fact, PAM-2 inhibits α4β4 and α3β4 AChRs at higher concentration ranges compared to that for the PAM activity previously found at the α7 AChR. PMID:26116439

  13. Antidepressant activity in mice elicited by 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide, a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Biala, Grazyna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Arias, Hugo R

    2014-05-21

    The objective of the current study is to determine whether 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), a positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic receptors (AChRs), produces antidepressant-like behavior in mice, and reactivates desensitized α7 AChRs expressed in CH3-α7 cells. Mice from both sexes were injected (i.p.) with PAM-2 (1.0mg/kg) on a daily basis for three weeks. Forced swim tests (FSTs) were performed on Day 1 and Day 7 to determine the acute and subchronic effects of PAM-2, respectively, and on Days 14 and 21 to determine its chronic activity. To examine the residual effects after drug treatment, a withdrawal period of two more weeks was continued with FSTs performed on Day 28 and 35. Our results indicate that: (1) PAM-2 does not induce acute antidepressant effects in male or female mice, (2) PAM-2 induces antidepressant effects in mice from both sexes after one (subchronic) and two (chronic) weeks, whereas at the third week (chronic), the antidepressant effect is decreased in male and increased in female mice. Since PAM-2 does not influence the locomotor activity of mice, the observed antidepressant activity is not driven by nonspecific motor-stimulant actions, (3) the residual antidepressant effect mediated by PAM-2 after one week of treatment cessation is observed only in female mice, and finally the Ca(2+) influx results indicate that (4) PAM-2 can reactivate desensitized α7 AChRs. Our results clearly indicate that PAM-2 elicits antidepressant activity, probably by enhancing the activity of the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine on α7 AChRs, without inducing receptor desensitization, and that this activity is gender-dependent. This is the first time that an antidepressant activity is described for an α7 PAM, supporting further studies as potential therapeutic medications for depressive states. PMID:24708923

  14. A Combination Supplement of Fructo- and Xylo-Oligosaccharides Significantly Abrogates Oxidative Impairments and Neurotoxicity in Maternal/Fetal Milieu Following Gestational Exposure to Acrylamide in Rat.

    Krishna, Gokul; Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, S G; Muralidhara

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are demonstrated to confer a wide spectrum of physiological benefits during pregnancy. In view of this, focused attempts are being directed towards understanding their role as modulators of brain chemistry and behavior. Epidemiological studies have identified that exposure to neurotoxins during prenatal/early life can profoundly impact neurodevelopment/function. In this context, we have tested the hypothesis that a combination of prebiotic supplements during gestation has the propensity to attenuate acrylamide (ACR) induced oxidative impairments, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. To achieve this, pregnant dams given oral supplements of a combination of fructo- and xylooligosaccharides (FOS + XOS, 3 g/kg/day) during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm in drinking water, GD 6-19). The behavioral analysis revealed that ACR dams fed prebiotics displayed higher exploratory behavior in the open field test. The prenatal evaluation showed that ACR-induced decrements of placental/fetal weights were markedly restored with prebiotic feeding. Prebiotics significantly offset markers of oxidative stress, restored enzymic antioxidants, cholinergic and mitochondrial function in the maternal and fetal brain. Concomitantly, prebiotics restored ACR-induced depletion in the levels of dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid in the maternal cortex that positively correlated with cecal bacterial numbers. Collectively, these data suggest that prenatal prebiotic oligosaccharide supplements protect developing brain against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity. While the underlying mechanism/s by which prebiotics abrogate the impact of neurotoxicants in the developing brain merits further studies, we speculate that it may be mediated predominantly through attenuation of oxidative stress and proliferation of enteric microbiota. PMID:26248513

  15. The effects of subchronic acrylamide exposure on gene expression, neurochemistry, hormones, and histopathology in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis of male Fischer 344 rats

    Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical that is neurotoxic in rodents and humans and carcinogenic in rodents. The observation of cancer in endocrine-responsive tissues in Fischer 344 rats has prompted hypotheses of hormonal dysregulation, as opposed to DNA damage, as the mechanism for tumor induction by AA. The current investigation examines possible evidence for disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis from 14 days of repeated exposure of male Fischer 344 rats to doses of AA that range from one that is carcinogenic after lifetime exposure (2.5 mg/kg/d), an intermediate dose (10 mg/kg/d), and a high dose (50 mg/kg/d) that is neurotoxic for this exposure time. The endpoints selected include: serum levels of thyroid and pituitary hormones; target tissue expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis, release, and receptors; neurotransmitters in the CNS that affect hormone homeostasis; and histopathological evaluation of target tissues. These studies showed virtually no evidence for systematic alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and do not support hormone dysregulation as a plausible mechanism for AA-induced thyroid cancer in the Fischer 344 rat. Specifically, there were no significant changes in: 1) mRNA levels in hypothalamus or pituitary for TRH, TSH, thyroid hormone receptor α and β, as well 10 other hormones or releasing factors; 2) mRNA levels in thyroid for thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodide symporter, or type I deiodinases; 3) serum TSH or T3 levels (T4 was decreased at high dose only); 4) dopaminergic tone in the hypothalamus and pituitary or importantly 5) increased cell proliferation (Mki67 mRNA and Ki-67 protein levels were not increased) in thyroid or pituitary. These negative findings are consistent with a genotoxic mechanism of AA carcinogenicity based on metabolism to glycidamide and DNA adduct formation. Clarification of this mechanistic dichotomy may be useful in human cancer risk

  16. Process Optimization and Acrylamide Control of Deep-Fried Dough Sticks%油条加工中丙烯酰胺的控制与工艺优化

    张伍金; 郑美珍

    2015-01-01

    Taking into consideration acrylamide content and sensory evaluation, the article explores new tech-nology on healthy deep-fried dough sticks by Response Surface Methodology ( RSM) . The results show that the optimum parameters for deep-fried dough sticks are:total raising agent 15g, fry temperature 180℃, acrylam-ide content 4. 836mg/kg (the minimum level in sticks fried in 2min). The results also indicate that deep-fried dough sticks thus made are with golden color, regular shape, uniform pores, thin walls, great resilience and crispy salty palatable taste.%从油条中丙烯酰胺含量监测、感官品质评价两方面入手,采取响应曲面法设计,探讨健康的油炸新工艺。结果表明:膨松剂总量为3%(以面粉质量计)、油条油炸温度180℃、油炸时间2min的条件下,制得的油条丙烯酰胺含量为最低值4.836mg/kg,感官评价具有色泽金黄、外观形状整齐、气孔均匀、孔壁薄、复原性好、口感咸香适口等良好的品质特点。

  17. 黄原胶辐射接枝丙烯酰胺及其应用性能的研究%Studies on the grafting of acrylamide onto xanthan gum by co-irradiation and its application performance

    苏秀霞; 诸晓锋; 李仲谨; 王磊; 顿雪明; 路宽

    2009-01-01

    利用60Co γ为辐射源,在氮气保护下对黄原胶(Xanthan gum,XG)和丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide,AM)进行共辐射接枝,制备出了黄原胶,丙烯酰胺接枝共聚物(Xanthan gum-graft-Acrylamide,XG-g-AM).研究了反应条件对样品接枝率和单体转换效率的影响规律,利用元素分析(Element analysis,EA)、傅立叶红外光谱(Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,FT-IR)、X射线衍射(X-ray diffraction,XRD)、热重分析(Thermal gravimetric analysis,TGA)对接枝产物进行表征.实验结果表明,当XG浓度为10 g/L,AM与XG质量比为3:1,吸收剂量为6.0 kGy,其最佳产品接枝率为128.5%,单体接枝效率为80.4%.同时对接枝共聚物的絮凝效果进行了试验.

  18. Pyrolysis of carbonaceous particles and properties of Carbonaceous-g-Poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide superabsorbent polymer for agricultural applications

    Ghazali S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of fertilizer and water are very important in determining the production of agriculture nowadays. The excessive use of fertilizer in plantation somehow could leads to environmental pollution. The present study reported a synthesis of controlled release water retention (CRWR fertilizer coating with superabsorbent polymer (SAPs. Superabsorbent polymer (SAPs are polymers that have ability to absorb and retain large amounts of water relative to their own mass. The presence of coating layer of SAPs on fertilizer granules was believed could reduce excessive used of fertilizer by controlling their dissolution rates and also reduce the environmental pollution. In this study, the effect on the addition of carbonaceous filler in SAPs on the water absorbency was also be compared with control SAPs (without carbonaceous particles. In this study, the carbonaceous filler were obtained from pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB biomass. The synthesized of SAPs and carbonaceous-SAPs were carried out via solution polymerization technique by using monomer of poly(acrylic acid (AA, acrylamide (AM, cross linker, methylene bisacrylamide (MBA and initiator, ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS that partially neutralized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH. The CRWR fertilizer was later be prepared by coated the fertilizer granule with SAPs and carbonaceous-SAPs. The water absorbency, morphology and the bonding formation of both CRWR fertilizer were investigated by using tea-beg method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR, respectively. Moreover, the water retention studies was conducted in order to investigate the efficiency of CRWR coated with SAP and carbonaceous-SAP in retaining the water content in different soil (organic and top soil. Based on the results, the CRWR fertilizer that was coated with carbonaceous-SAP had higher water absorbency value than the CRWR fertilizer without carbonaceous-SAP. Meanwhile

  19. LC-MS/MS法测定11种鲜切油炸马铃薯片中丙烯酰胺的含量%LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Acrylamide in 11 Varieties of Fresh-cut Fried potato chips

    程江华; 王薇; 廖华俊; 周蓓蓓; 杨松; 付广俊; 闫晓明

    2011-01-01

    目的:在相同的设定条件下,进行11种鲜切油炸马铃薯片中丙烯酰胺含量的测试.方法:将马铃薯热烫60s,表面干燥,180℃油炸100s,脱油,前处理,采用液相-质谱联用检测不同品种的马铃薯油炸薯片中丙烯酰胺含量.结果:在相同的油炸试验条件下,丙烯酰胺含量较低的是D-519、陇薯-3号、中薯-7号、LK99等,丙烯酰胺含量较高的是中薯-8号、夏波蒂、中薯-3号等.结论:马铃薯品种对鲜切油炸薯片中丙烯酰胺含量有较大的影响.%Objective: In this paper, determination test of acrylamide contents in 11 potato varieties fresh-cut fried potato chips was carried out the same conditions. Methods: The sample blanching 60s, dry surface, 180℃ fried 100s, off the oil, pre-treatment, acrylamide contents, in different cultivars were detected by LC-MS/MS. Results: In the same frying experimental basis, low levels of acrylamide is the D-519, Longshu-3, zhongshu-7, LK99 and so on,the high content of acrylamide is zhongshu-8, shepody and Zhongshu-3. The results provide some basis for the determination of potato processing varieties. Conclusion: The variety of potato have an major effect on the acrylamide content of fresh-cut fried potato chips.

  20. 油炸涂膜薯片的吸油率和丙烯酰胺含量研究%Research on Oil Absorption Ratio and Acrylamide Content of Fried Potato Chips with Coatings

    盛美香; 尤婷婷; 柳佳齐; 姜燕

    2015-01-01

    将不同浓度的羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)膜液、大豆分离蛋白(SPI)膜液和壳聚糖膜液分别涂覆于薯片表面,高温油炸后,以薯片的吸油率和含水量为评价指标,确定3种膜液的最宜浓度,并对比了3种膜液最佳浓度下油炸薯片的丙烯酰胺含量、色泽值及感官品质.在CMC、SPI和壳聚糖膜液浓度分别为1.5%、8%和1.5%时,与未涂膜薯片对比,油炸涂膜薯片的吸油率分别下降17.73%、22.94%和7.58%,丙烯酰胺含量分别下降21.5%、42.9%和53.3%.结果表明,SPI涂膜可更大程度降低油炸薯片的吸油率,而壳聚糖涂膜可显著减少其丙烯酰胺含量,并具有较好的感官品质.%Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (CMC) coating,soy protein isolate (SPI) coating and chitosan coating of different concentrations were coated on the surface of potato chips respectively.According to oil absorption rate and water content of fried potato chips,the appropriate coating solution were determined.The acrylamide content,color and sensory evaluation of fried potato chips coated with three coatings were compared in this situation simultaneously.Comparing with non-coating fried potato chips,the oil absorption ratio of fried chips coated with 1.5%CMC,8%SPI and 1.5%chitosan decreases 17.73%,22.94%and 7.58%and the acrylamide content decreases 21.5%,42.9%and 53.3%,respectively.Results indicate that SPI coating could reduce the oil absorption significantly,and chitosan coating could reduce the acrylamide content of fried potato chips.The product appears good sensory quality.

  1. Drug delivery system prepared by ionizing radiation of the N,N-dimethyl acrylamide with acryloyloxy-acetanilide copolymerization; Sistema de liberacao de droga obtido via radiacao ionizante pela copolimerizacao do N,N-dimetilacrilamida com 4-acriloiloxiacetanilida

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Rodighiero, Paolo [Universidade de Padova (Italy). Inst. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    1995-12-31

    Radiation induced polymerization has been used in biomaterials used in systems which such as drug delivery (DDS). This work describes the copolymerization of the monomers by gamma rays N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and acryloyloxy-acetanilide (AOA) for the immobilization of paracetamol, an analgesic and anti thermic drug. Dimethylformamide solutions were used in two concentrations of DMAA and AOA (F{sub DMAA/AOA} = 0,85/015 and 0,70/0,30, where F = molar fraction in the monomer feed). The samples were irradiated in the dose range of 30-800 Gy. The copolymer poly(DMAA-co-AOA) characterization was carried out by FTIR and {sup 1}HRMN. The hydrolysis was studied considering the formation of sodium salts of 4-hydroxy acetanilide at different times of treatment using colorimetric assay. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  2. 基于计算机视觉的油炸薯片中丙烯酰胺含量测定系统%Determination of Acrylamide Contents in Fried Potato Chips Based on Computer Vision

    何鹏; 王成琳; 万晓青

    2013-01-01

    设计了一套基于计算机视觉技术的油炸薯片中丙烯酰胺含量的测定系统,图像获取装置采集每隔60 s从电炸锅内取出的薯片的双面图像,采用气相色谱-质谱法测定相应薯片的丙烯酰胺含量;采用图像滤波算法、彩色图像分割算法和颜色测量算法从双面图像中提取目标薯片,测量整体薯片的L*、a*、b*平均值.数据分析表明,薯片双面a*平均值的平均值与薯片中丙烯酰胺含量之间有很强的相关性(R2=0.971),建立了两者之间的线性回归方程.采集了10个不同品牌薯片的双面图像,将获取的双面a*平均值的平均值代入方程,计算得到的丙烯酰胺含量与标准化学方法测定值之间的最大相对误差为4.94%,表明该方法可行、准确.%A system of determining acrylamide contents in fried potato chips based on computer vision technology was developed. For each 60 s, the image acquisition device collected double-sided images of potato chips removed from the fryer. The acrylamide contents of the corresponding potato chips were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, meanwhile, the target potato chips of the double-sided images were extracted and L*, a* , b * average of the overall target was measured by proposed image filtering algorithm, the color image segmentation algorithm and the color measurement algorithm, respectively. The obtained data was analyzed and a strong correlation between the average of double-sided a* average and acrylamide contents of potato chips was found (R2 =0. 971 ) and a linear regression equation was established. Potato chips double-sided images of 10 different brands sold on the market was collected and the average of double-sided a* average was put into the equation. The maximum relative error between the acrylamide contents calculated and standard chemical method was 4. 94% , which indicated that the method was feasible and accurate.

  3. Novel strategy for synthesis of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted nanoparticles based on functionalized silica as an efficient sorbent for the determination of acrylamide in potato chips: Optimization by experimental design methodology.

    Arabi, Maryam; Ostovan, Abbas; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Purkait, Mihir K

    2016-07-01

    This study discusses a novel and simple method for the preparation of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MDMINPs). Firstly, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized as a magnetic component. Subsequently, MDMINPs were constructed via the sol-gel strategy using APTMS as the functional monomer. Urethane was considered as dummy template to avoid residual template and TEOS as the cross linker. The prepared MDMINPs were used for the pre-concentration of acrylamide from potato chips. Quantification was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The impact of influential variables such as pH, amount of sorbent, sonication time and eluent volume were well investigated and optimized using a central composite design. The particles had excellent magnetic property and high selectivity to the targeted molecule. In optimized conditions, the recovery ranged from 94.0% to 98.0% with the detection limit of 0.35µgkg(-1). PMID:27154710

  4. Enzymatic grafting of eugenol-bridged jute fiber with acrylamide%黄麻纤维生物法桥接丁子香酚接枝丙烯酰胺研究

    杜淼; 董爱学; 王强; 吴慧敏; 范雪荣

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic processes provide new perspectives for the hydrophilization modification of jute lignocellu-losic fiber.First,eugenol as an intermediate monomer was grafted to the lignin-rich jute fabric catalyzed by lac-case.Then,further grafting polymerization of acrylamide to the eugenol-bridged jute mediated by laccase/tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)was investigated in this study.The results showed that eugenol could be grafted to the surface of jute via the catalysis of laccase and the C1s peak of C=C was observed at 283.49 eV in XPS spectra.The best grafting conditions measured by a bromine method were 50 ℃,pH was 4,4 h,eugenol con-centration of 5 mmol/L,laccase dosage of 1.68 U/mL for grafting rate of 1.06%.FT-IR spectrum of acrylam-ide-grafted eugenol-bridged jute showed obvious characteristic peaks of amide groups,which revealed the exist-ence of grafted acrylamides on the jute fibers.The grafting rate of acrylamide onto the jute fiber was 3.66% de-termined by the micro kjeldahl method.%研究了漆酶催化黄麻木质纤维接枝过渡单体丁子香酚,然后在漆酶/t-BHP 催化下,在丁子香酚上进一步接枝丙烯酰胺的亲水化改性反应.结果表明,黄麻纤维接枝丁子香酚的 XPS 分峰图上观察到283.49 eV 处存在 C=C 的能谱峰,证明丁子香酚接枝到了黄麻纤维表面;溴量法测得在50℃、pH 值=4、丁子香酚浓度5 mmol/L、漆酶用量1.68 U/mL 条件下反应4 h 接枝过渡单体效果最好,接枝率为1.06%.在黄麻纤维桥接丁子香酚接枝丙烯酰胺的红外光谱图上呈现酰胺基团的红外特征吸收峰,说明黄麻纤维表面成功接枝丙烯酰胺;微量凯氏定氮法测得黄麻纤维桥接丁子香酚接枝丙烯酰胺的接枝率为3.66%.

  5. Research on the microspheres of acrylamide copolymers madevia inverse microemulsion polymerization%反相微乳液聚合制备丙烯酰胺类聚合物微球的研究进展

    杜荣荣; 刘祥

    2015-01-01

    Inverse microemulsion polymerization method with good stability,high solid content,and high polymerization rate has become research highlights. Research on the microspheres of acrylamide copolymers madevia inverse microemulsion polymerization both at home and abroad was reviewed. Basic concepts and characteristics of microemulsion were introduced; and the preparation of a stable microemulsion was discussed. Inverse microemulsion polymerization of acrylamides was mainly summarized,the selection of each component of polymerization system was described in detail,and the influencing factors of polymerization were discussed,which can be concluded that new surfactants should be studied in order to realize high concentration in monomer polymerization. The applications of polymer microspheres for improving recovery efficiency in oilfield were introduced. Application problems in deep profile control/water shutoff were stated. To prepare polymer microspheres with the comprehensive performance of intelligence,compound,versatility by replacing the traditional polymerization system components with ionic liquids should be one of focuses in the future.%反相微乳液聚合技术具有稳定性好、固含量高、聚合速率快等优点而成为研究热点。本文系统地综述了近年来国内外应用反相微乳液聚合制备丙烯酰胺类聚合物微球的研究进展,概述了微乳液的基本理论及其特征,对稳定微乳液的制备进行了讨论;着重归纳了丙烯酰胺类的反相微乳液聚合,详述了聚合体系各组分的选择,同时探讨了影响聚合反应的因素,认为应研究新型表面活性剂以实现高单体浓度的聚合;介绍了聚合物微球在油田应用中提高采收率方面的应用现状。最后指出了其在深部调剖堵水领域存在的问题,以离子液体代替传统聚合体系组分制备集智能性、复合性、多功能性等综合性能于一体的聚合物微球是其未来发展方向之一。

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylamide and/or Acrylic Acid Grafted onto Corn Starch bv Irradiation%淀粉-丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺三元接枝物的制备及性质研究

    郭军; 黄劲松; 杜先锋

    2011-01-01

    在60Co间歇式共辐射条件下探讨了淀粉与丙烯酸和丙烯酰胺流变相态的接枝共聚反应;采用FTIR和SEM对接枝产物共聚物进行了结构表征;考察了丙烯酰胺和丙烯酸盐单体的配比、原料配比、辐射剂量等因素对聚合物吸水率、耐盐性等的影响.结果表明,在没有添加任何化学引发剂的情况下可以得到较高耐盐性和高吸水速率的淀粉-丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺共聚物,克服了传统生产方法中耐盐性低、吸水速度慢、高污染、高耗能等问题.%The grafting of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto starch by 60Co radiation as an initiator was studied in conditions of intermittent This copolymerization allowed for measurement of important parameters, including the glucose monomer-to-starch ratio and the water absorption of the graft copolymer in salt solutions. The acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, were measured at the radiation dose used in kGy. The graft-copolymerization reaction mechanism and morphology of the copolymer were investigated using FTIR scanning electron microscopy. The effects of the stuff-proportion, radiation does, starch pasting, neutralization degree of acrylic acid, radiation does-rate on the graft copolymerization reaction and absorption capacity of high water were investigated. The results showed that the grafting of acrylic acid on starch could be carried out successfully by 60Co radiation without any chemic initiator. Overcome the traditional production methods with low salt tolerance, slowly water absorption, pollution, high-energy consumption and other problems.

  7. Protective effects of genistein against apoptosis induced by acrylamide in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons%三羟异黄酮对丙烯酰胺诱导大鼠小脑颗粒神经元凋亡的保护作用

    周礼华; 徐淑秀; 江城梅

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of genistein on apoptosis of rat cerebellar granule neurons induced by acrylamide. METHODS: Rat cerebellar granule neurons were prepared from the cerebellar cortex cells of 5-7day-old SD rats pups. The neurons were identified by Nissl staining method.The 8-day cultured cells passage were divided randomly into control group, acrylamide model group, genistein pretreatment group Ⅰ ,Ⅱ , Ⅲ (cerebellar granule neurons were pretreated with 10,25,50 μ mol/L genistein for 12 hours,the culture medium discarded and fresh DMEM/F12 solution added with the above mentioned concentration of genistein with 10 mmol/L acrylamide tocultured neurons for 24 hours). The neuronal viability was measured by MTT. Morphology of neurons and their nuclei were examined by phase-contrast and Hochest33342 staining,respectively. The ratio of apoptotic cells was detected by TUNEL.RESULTS: The cell survival rates of genistein pretreatment group Ⅱ and Ⅲ were not significantly higher than acrylamide model group. Genistein pretreatment group Ⅰ significantly prolonged the cell survival rate. The effects of diminished neuronal body, chromatin concentration and the ratio of apoptotic cells induced by acrylamide were markedly weakened.CONCLUSION: Genistein did not show a dose-dependent effect on protection. The appropriate concentration of 10 μ mol/L was found to protect against apoptosis induced by acrylamide in primary culture of cerebellar granule neurons.%目的:探讨三羟异黄酮(genistein,GEN)对丙烯酰胺(acrylamide,ACR)诱导的大鼠小脑颗粒神经元凋亡的保护作用.方法:取新生5~7 d的SD大鼠小脑皮质细胞进行培养,采用尼氏染色法鉴定神经元,将培养8 d的神经元随机分成5组:正常对照组、ACR染毒组(浓度为10mmol/L)以及CEN不同浓度保护组(染毒前分别用浓度为10、25、50μmol/L的GEN预先处理细胞12h,再给予ACR染毒24 h).MTT法检测细胞

  8. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part II. Characterization of the synthesized monoliths by inverse size exclusion chromatography and scanning electron microscopy.

    Ayat Allah Al-Massaedh; Pyell, Ute

    2014-01-17

    In our previous article we have described the synthesis of a new amphiphilic monolithic stationary phase by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, piperazinediacrylamide, methacrylamide and vinylsulfonic acid in aqueous medium in pre-treated fused silica capillaries of 100μm I.D. In the present work, we study the morphology of different monolithic stationary phases synthesized under variation of the concentration of ammonium sulfate in the polymerization mixture. The pore size distribution is determined with inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) using the retention data of a series of polystyrene standards with narrow molecular size distribution and known average molar mass ranging from 1560 to 2010000gmol(-1). The impact of the concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate in the polymerization mixture on the formed morphology, the pore size distribution, and the fractional volume of mesopores and macropores is determined. The homogeneity and uniformity of the formed monolith over the length of the capillary and the covalent attachment to the confining walls are confirmed. Repetition of the synthesis procedure shows that these morphology parameters are well controlled as there is an excellent capillary-to-capillary, day-to-day, and run-to-run reproducibility reached for the electroosmotic mobility and the retention factor determined with alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode. PMID:24380653

  9. Improvement in the Water Retention Characteristics of Sandy Loam Soil Using a Newly Synthesized Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic Acid/AlZnFe2O4 Superabsorbent Hydrogel Nanocomposite Material

    Shaukat Ali Shahid

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of some novel and efficient crop nutrient-based superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites (SHNCs, is currently becoming increasingly important to improve the crop yield and productivity, due to their water retention properties. In the present study a poly(Acrylamide-co-acrylic acid/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite was synthesized and its physical properties characterized using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX, FE-SEM and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The effects of different levels of SHNC were studied to evaluate the moisture retention properties of sandy loam soil (sand 59%, silt 21%, clay 19%, pH 7.4, EC 1.92 dS/m. The soil amendment with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 w/w% of SHNC enhanced the moisture retention significantly at field capacity compared to the untreated soil. Besides, in a separate experiment, seed germination and seedling growth of wheat was found to be notably improved with the application of SHNC. A delay in wilting of seedlings by 5–8 days was observed for SHNC-amended soil, thereby improving wheat plant growth and establishment.

  10. 迷迭香精油对油炸牛干巴中丙烯酰胺的影响及热处理条件优化%The effect of rosemary essential oil on acrylamide content and response surface optimization on heating treatment for fried dried beef

    曾源; 贾兴; 韦良东; 王乃富

    2015-01-01

    筛选出一种能抑制油炸牛干巴中丙烯酰胺生成的香辛料精油抗氧化剂,并对其抑制机理以及体外抗氧化活性与丙烯酰胺生成量的动态关系进行了分析,采用响应面法优化了牛干巴加工方案.结果表明:迷迭香精油可以作为抑制牛干巴丙烯酰胺生成的抗氧化剂,其体外抗氧化活性与牛干巴丙烯酰胺含量有着显著的相关性,且对超氧阴离子自由基清除率与丙烯酰胺抑制率的相关性最高(相关系数为0.909).迷迭香精油可以通过竞争天冬酰胺,捕捉羰基类化合物及其氧化产物与丙烯酰胺直接反应等3种方式来减少牛干巴中丙烯酰胺的含量.通过响应面优化得出牛干巴的最适加工条件为浸泡溶液pH 6.90,油炸温度198℃,油炸时间1.6 min,牛干巴丙烯酰胺含量为48.5 μg/kg.在此条件下,牛干巴的色泽、风味、感官都不会受到太大影响.%The purpose of this article is to select spice oils that can reduce content of acrylamide generated in fried beef.In addition,the relationship between antioxidant activity and the content of acrylamide as well as oxidation inhibition mechanism were discussed.Finally,response surface methodology was applied to optimize fried beef processing.The results showed that:rosemary essential oil was chosen as the antioxidant and it reduced acrylamide content.The correlation between antioxidant activity and content of acrylamide was very significant,especially the scavenging rate of superoxide anion radicals,the correlation coefficient was 0.909.The mechanism of rosemary oil in reducing antioxidation activity is by 3 ways:competing with asparagine,capturing carbonyl compounds and its oxidation products,and reacting with acrylamide directly.The optimum conditions were as follows:soaking solution pH 6.90,the frying temperature 198 ℃,the frying time 1.6 min,acrylamide levels was 48.5 μg/kg.The color,flavor and the sense evaluation of dried beef were not affected

  11. FT-IR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENT CONTENT OF ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMERS%红外光谱法分析丙烯酰胺系共聚物组分含量

    于志省; 夏燕敏

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM), poly(2-acrylamino-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS) and poly(acrylamide/2-acrylamino-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (P(AM/AMPS)) were synthesized u-sing acrylamide (AM) and 2-acrylamino-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) as monomers and potassium persulphate/sodium bisulfite/azobisisobutryamide chloride as complex initiator by means of a-queous solution polymerization method. A series of binary PAMPS/PAM blends with different mass fractions were prepared and analyzed by FT-IR. Two independent infrared absorption peaks at wave-numbers of 1 045 cm-1 and 1 650 cm-1 respectively were selected for the measurement of AM and AMPS content in polymer blends. Depending on the Lambert-Beer law and regression analysis, a first-order linear relationship between the ratios of absorbance with the reciprocal molar fraction of AMPS in the blends was obtained. The corresponding standard curve was y =-0. 051 36 + 0. 056 01x with a correlation coefficient of 0. 997 4. The FT-IR method was established and proved to be simple and fast for the determination of the component content of P(AM/AMPS) copolymers. The measurements for copolymer component under different reaction time showed the conversion of comonomer is higher than 90% when the reaction time is 5. 5 h. Moreover, the homopolymerization of AM monomer occurs at lower reaction temperature, while the random copolymerization of AM and AMPS is predominant under higher temperature.%以丙烯酰胺(AM)和2-丙烯酰胺基-2-甲基丙磺酸(AMPS)单体为原料,在过硫酸钾/亚硫酸氢钠/偶氮二异丁脒盐酸盐(PPS/SHS/AIBA)复合引发剂引发下,采用水溶液聚合方法分别制备出聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)、聚2-丙烯酰胺基-2-甲基丙磺酸(PAMPS)和聚(丙烯酰胺/2-丙烯酰胺基-2-甲基丙磺酸)共聚物(P(AM/AMPS)).通过改变两均聚物的质量配比得到系列不同比例的共混物,分别进行红外光谱分析.选取1045cm-1和1650cm-1两红外特征吸收峰,以朗

  12. 二元阴离子型丙烯酰胺共聚物在二价金属离子存在下相分离行为的研究%STUDY OF PHASE SEPARATION BEHAVIOR OF BINARY ANIONIC ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMERS IN THE PRESENCE OF DIVALENT METAL IONS

    朱麟勇; 常志英; 李妙贞; 王尔鉴

    2001-01-01

    Phase separation behavior of the water-soluble binary anionic acrylamide copolymer series (P3A) composed of non-ionic monomer acrylamide (AM), weak acidic monomer acrylic acid (AA) and strong acidic monomer 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS) was studied in the Ca2+ ion aqueous solution. The P3A was found to exhibit an unusual phase separation behavior, which relates with structure and composition of the polymer, as well as the concentration and temperature in the dilute P3A solution. A non-linear relationship appeared between the critical temperature Tc of phase separation and the metal salt concentration with a minimum at the mid-position, whereas the Tc remains constant as varying polymer concentration. From comparison of the effects of AA and AMPS units on the phase separation behavior of P3A polymers the results obtained indicate that except for the difference in acidity of two anionic units, the phase separation is mostly affected by the structure of anion unites in the polymer chain. The AMPS units exhibit a good stability under the action of Ca2+ ions due to their great steric influence of side chains compared to AA units. Therefore, containing more AMPS, the polymer (P3A) becomes the more resistant to phase separation in the divalent metal salt solution.

  13. Nanocellulose whiskers’dual grafting with acrylic acid and acrylamide for Cu2+ adsorption%纳米纤维素晶须双重接枝共聚物对Cu2+的吸附

    叶代勇; 杨洁

    2014-01-01

    Acrylic acid (AA)and acrylamide (AM)were simultaneously grafted onto the surface of nanocellu-lose whiskers (NCW).The AA,AM-g-NCW was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)and polarizing op-tical microscopy (POM).The effects of the adsorption time,adsorption temperature,pH values and initial concentration on its Cu2+ adsorption properties were studied.The results showed that AA and AM were suc-cessfully grafted onto the NCW.The added Cu2+ ions influenced the liquid crystalline texture of AA,AM-g-NCW.AA,AM-g-NCW had best adsorption effect for Cu2+ when the adsorption time was 8 h,the adsorption temperature was 35 ℃ and the pH value was 6-8.The maximum adsorption capacity was 38.96 mmol/g for the Cu2+ ions.The adsorption isotherm could be well fitted in with Langmuir equation.%将丙烯酸和丙烯酰胺接枝到纳米纤维素晶须表面,制备出双重接枝共聚物。通过红外光谱和偏光显微镜分析表征双重接枝共聚物的官能团和液晶性能,研究了其对Cu2+的吸附性能,考察了吸附时间、吸附温度、pH 值和初始浓度对吸附性能的影响。实验结果表明,丙烯酸和丙烯酰胺成功接枝到纳米纤维素晶须的表面;Cu2+的加入影响了双重接枝共聚物的液晶织构;在吸附时间为8 h,吸附温度为35℃,pH 值为6~8时,双重接枝共聚物对 Cu2+具有最佳的吸附效果,最大的吸附容量为38.96 mmol/g,吸附过程符合Langmuir方程。

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobic associating acrylamide-based copolymer with double-tailed hydrophobic monomer%双尾型丙烯酰胺类疏水缔合共聚物的合成与表征

    姜峰; 蒲万芬; 杜代军; 任强; 荆雪琪

    2015-01-01

    通过光引发自由基聚合的方式,将双尾型丙烯酰胺类疏水单体(N-苯乙基-N-十四烷基甲基丙烯酰胺, PETMAM),与丙烯酰胺(AM)、丙烯酸(AA)等水溶性单体进行共聚,制备出双尾型疏水缔合水溶性共聚物(DTHAP),来解决丙烯酰胺类聚合物耐温抗盐性以及稳定性差的难题。通过测定聚合物溶液的表观黏度作为评价其性能的主要手段,考察了丙烯酸加量、盐、表面活性剂(SDS)含量、疏水单体含量等因素对聚合物性能的影响,从而确定了比较理想的反应条件。实验中发现:丙烯酸加量和表面活性剂含量的变化会影响聚合物的临界缔合行为;盐的引入能够显著降低表面活性剂的用量,提高聚合物的增黏效果;疏水单体含量较低时[0.35%~0.45%(mol)],聚合物可以表现出明显的增黏效果。当聚合物浓度为1 g·L−1时,聚合物的黏度可以达到141.5 mPa·s,其临界缔合浓度(CAC)为0.75 g·L−1左右。聚合物在120 g·L−1的NaCl溶液和120 g·L−1 NaCl、0.4 g·L−1 CaCl2溶液中,80℃下老化90 d,黏度分别为47.6 mPa·s和45.9 mPa·s。采用红外光谱、扫描电镜两种手段,表征了聚合物的结构。%In order to improve salt resistance, temperature tolerance and stability of the acrylamide-based copolymer, the hydrophobic associating copolymer (DTHAP) of acrylamide (AM) with acrylic acid (AA) and a double-tailed hydrophobic monomer (N-phenethyl-N-tetradecylmethacrylamide, PETMAM) was synthesized by photo-initiated radical polymerization. By measuring apparent viscosity of the hydrophobic associating polymer, the effects of amounts of acrylic acid, salt, surfactant (SDS) and content of the double-tailed hydrophobic monomer on the properties of the copolymer were investigated. The critical associating behavior of the copolymer could be affected by changing the amounts of surfactant and acrylic acid. Then, the

  15. Study on the Protein Diffusion Behavior in the Poly(Acrylamide-co-Acrylic Acid) Copolymer by FRAP Technique%应用FRAP技术评价蛋白在聚丙烯酰胺-丙烯酸凝胶中的扩散行为

    崔金磊; 周稳稳; 邱玉琴; 高云华

    2011-01-01

    The drug release behavior from the carrier is bound up with the carrier s structure. In this paper, a series of poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels with different acrylamide/ acrylic acid ratios have been successfully synthesized by aqueous polymerization. These co-polymers were characterized with FTIR technique to confirm the co-polymer formation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique was used to investigate the diffusion behavior of fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) in these co-polymer hydrogels? And a confocal laser scanning microscopy was applied to obtain high resolution images in real time. The results showed that the diffusion coefficient of FITC-BSA was influenced by the ratio between the acrylamide and acrylic acid in co-polymer and the co-polymer hydrogels synthesized may have potential application in controlled protein delivery system.%药物分子从药物载体中的释放行为与载体的结构有密切关系.本实验中采用丙烯酰胺和丙烯酸等材料,运用水相沉淀的方法,制备了4种不同单体配比的聚丙烯酰胺-丙烯酸(P(Am-co-Ac)共聚物水凝胶.运用红外分析方法对P (Am-co-Ac)组成进行表征.使用荧光漂白恢复法(FRAP,fluorescence recovery after photobleaching)观察荧光素FITC标记的牛血清白蛋白(BSA)在聚丙烯酰胺-丙烯酸中的扩散行为,并以激光共聚焦显微镜进行实时成像.实验表明,FITC-BSA在不同单体配比的共聚物中的扩散系数是不同的.通过调节聚合物中单体的配比能够达到控制蛋白释放速率的作用,从而为调控蛋白和多肽类药物的缓控释放提供了可能性.

  16. Study on Sulfomethylation of Cellulose Copolymer Copolymerized with Acrylonitrile and Acrylamide%纤维素-丙烯腈-丙烯酰胺共聚物磺甲基化改性研究

    黄统琳; 刘明华; 刘剑锋; 詹怀宇

    2011-01-01

    The nitrile spherical cellulose adsorbent (SCAN) was prepared by sulfomethylating the prepared copolymer of grafting acrylonitrile and acrylamide onto the spherical cellulose beads, doing so is in order to provide reference data for getting higher application value of cellulose. The spherical cellulose beads were prepared by NMMO (N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide) process and sequential cooling technique. The sulfomethylation process was optimized through the orthogonal experiments and single-factor experiments. The results indicate that the adsorbent prepared has a specific surface area of 207.9 m2g-1, and sulfonation degree of 56.32% can be obtained under following optimal operating conditions: the solution pH=12, the mass ratio of HCHO, NaHSO3 and copolymer is 4:6:10, the reaction temperature is 50℃ and the reaction time is 5 h. In addition, the effect of sulfonation degree on the adsorption capacity of SCAN was also studied by using berberine hydrochloride as adsorbate. The results indicate that the increase of sulfonation degree is beneficial to the adsorption capacity, the maximum adsorption capacity of SCAN could reach 16.64 mg-g-1.%研制和开发新型改性纤维素类吸附剂,将是吸附剂研究的一个焦点.研究在球形纤维素珠体接枝丙烯腈和丙烯酰胺的基础上对其进行磺甲基化改性,制备出一种含腈基球形纤维素吸附剂(SCAN),以期为纤维素高值化利用提供参考数据.球形纤维素珠体由NMMO法和程序降温法制备.并通过正交试验和单因素实验进行工艺优化.实验结果表明,SCAN具有较大比表面积—207.9 m2·g-1,且在溶液pH=12,m(HCHO)∶m(NaHSO3)∶m(copolymer)=4∶6∶10,反应温度50℃下反应5h时的磺化度最高,为56.32%,以盐酸小檗碱为吸附质,研究磺化度对吸附剂吸附效果的影响,结果表明,在实验研究的磺化度范围内,磺化度越高,吸附效果越好,最大吸附量达16.64 mg·g-1.

  17. Kinetics Model of Graft Co-Polymerization of Acrylamide onto Mechanically-Activated Starch in Inverse Emulsion%反相乳液法mSt-g-AM接枝共聚反应的动力学模型

    谢新玲; 童张法; 黄祖强; 张友全

    2014-01-01

    The graft co-polymerization reaction mechanism of acrylamide and mechanically-activated starch in an inverse emulsion system was investigated. The effects of concentrations of initiator (with ammonium persulfate as the initiator), monomer, starch, and emulsifier on the reaction rate of graft co-polymerization (Rg) were determined. The kinetic model was studied and modified to fit the experimental results. The results show that the relationship between R g and the concentration of components in the polymerization system can be expressed for all of the four components by the following equation:Rg∞[mSt]1.24 [I]0.76 [M]1.54 [E]0.33 , which is consistent with the kinetic equation from theoretical studies:Rp∞[mSt]0.5~1 [I]0.5~1 [M]1~1.5 [E]0.6 . It can be concluded that the graft co-polymerization reaction of hydrophilic monomer onto starch in inverse emulsion follows the mechanism of free radical polymerization. Unimolecular and bimolecular termination of free radicals are both presented in the reaction process. The relation between the grafted monomer and the reacted monomer is:1/X=1+K1[M]0.5/[Mst]0.5+K2[Mst]0.5[I]0.5/[M]+K3[I]0.5/[Mst]0.5 .%采用反相乳液法进行淀粉与丙烯酰胺接枝共聚反应的机理研究,考察以过硫酸铵引发机械活化淀粉(mSt)与丙烯酰胺(AM)接枝共聚反应速率Rg与引发剂浓度[I]、乳化剂浓度[E]、单体浓度[M]和淀粉浓度[mSt]的关系,推导并验证该反应体系的动力学模型及反应机理。结果表明,本实验得出的动力学关系式为:Rg∞[mSt]1.24[I]0.76[M]1.54[E]0.33,与理论推导出的动力学关系式:Rp∞[mSt]0.5~1[I]0.5~1[M]1~1.5[E]0.6基本一致,机械活化淀粉与丙烯酰胺在反相乳液中进行接枝共聚反应符合自由基聚合机理;在聚合过程中,引发剂分解副反应、诱导分解及“笼壁效应”导致引发效率降低,单基终止和双基终止反应同时存在;推导出共聚物消耗单体量与参加反

  18. Light-colored, Low Acrylamide Potato Chips

    Potato tubers are stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses and increase the marketing window. Cold storage also causes an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening. Unacceptable, dark colored chips and fries are formed durin...

  19. Holographic Recording in Acrylamide Photopolymers: Thickness Limitations

    Mahmud, Mohammad; Naydenova, Izabela; Pandey, Nitesh; Babeva, Tzvetanka; Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Holographic recording in thick photopolymer layers is important for application in holographic data storage, volume holographic filters and correlators. Here, the characteristics of acrylamidebased photopolymer layers having thickness from 250 μm to 1-mm were studied. For each layer thickness samples with three different values of absorbance were studied. By measuring both the first order diffraction efficiency growth of holographically recorded gratings and studying the diffraction patterns ...

  20. Acrylamid i fødevarer

    Granby, Kit; Frandsen, H.; Kaack, K.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Foreløbige resultater af et forskningssamarbejde mellem blandt andre DFVF, Fødevareindustrien og Levnedsmiddelcentret viser muligheder for at reducere acrylamidindholdet i fremstillingsprocesser og under forbrugertilberedning....

  1. 羧甲基纤维素接枝丙烯酸/丙烯酰胺缓释肥包膜材料的制备、性能及应用%Preparation of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Graft Acrylic Acid/Acrylamide and Its Application to Coated Urea Slow Release Fertilizer

    徐浩龙

    2012-01-01

    以过硫酸钾为引发剂、N,N'-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,采用水溶液聚合法制备了羧甲基纤维素接枝丙烯酸/丙烯酰胺缓释肥包膜材料,对其吸水性及耐盐性进行了检测,并将其应用于包膜尿素缓释肥的制备.结果表明,在羧甲基纤维素与丙烯酸质量比为3:17、丙烯酰胺用量为12%时,所制备包膜材料在去离子水、自来水和0.4%盐水中的吸水率分别达到743 g.g-1、497 g·g-1和329 g·g-1;包膜尿素缓释肥的氮素释放率满足GB/T 23348- 2009要求,缓释周期达63 d.%Carboxymethyl cellulose graft acrylic acid/acrylamide was prepared by the method of graft copolymerization using potassium persulfate as initiator and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as crosslinking agent. The water absorption and salt tolerance of the coating material were determined,and it was applied to preparation of coated urea slow release fertilizer. When the mass ratio of carboxymethyl cellulose to acrylic acid was 3 : 17 and the amount of acrylamide was 12%,the water absorption rate of the coating material was 743 g · g-1,497 g · g-l ,329 g · g-1 in deionized water,tap water,and 0. 4% brine,respectively. The slow-release period of coated urea was 63 d with the nitrogen release rate meeting the standard GB/T-23348-2009.

  2. Comparison of estimated dietary intake of acrylamide with hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide

    Bjellaas, Thomas; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    2007-01-01

    /g globin, respectively, and the between-assay precision was below 25%. The estimated dietary intake of AA was (median and range) 13.5 mu g/day (4.1-72.6) in nonsmokers and 18.3 mu g/day (7.8-32.0) in smokers. In nonsmokers, males had a higher intake than females, 16.6 mu g/ day (18.6-72.6) and 12.8 mu g...

  3. Manufacture and research of acrylamide-methyl acryloyl oxygen ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride copolymer%丙烯酰胺-甲基丙烯酰氧乙基三甲基氯化铵共聚物的制备研究

    钱涛; 李梦耀; 马岚; 王莹; 张晓松

    2014-01-01

    Using ammonium persulfate( KPS )trigger with methacryloyl ethyl trimethyl ammonium chlo-ride( DMC)and acrylamide( AM)in a single aqueous phase to prepare a cationic polyacrylamide lactic flocculent(CPAM)and used in the wastewater. Discussing about total monomer,initiator dosage,pH,reaction time and other factors affect the intrinsic viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of polymer. The results show that P( DMC-AM)viscosity-average molecular weight can be up to 1. 72 × 107 g/mol, the effluent turbidity removal rate reached more than 80%,the product is a kind of flocculant of excel-lent performance.%用过硫酸铵( KPS)引发甲基丙烯酰氧乙基三甲基氯化铵( DMC)与丙烯酰胺( AM)单水相共聚,制备了阳离子聚丙烯酰胺类絮凝剂P( DMC-AM),并应用于废水。探讨了单体总量、引发剂用量、pH值、反应时间等因素对聚合物的特性粘数和粘均分子量的影响。结果表明,P(DMC-AM)粘均分子量可达1.72×107 g/mol,对废水浊度的去除率达到80%以上,是一种性能优良的絮凝剂。

  4. Avaliação da interação macromolécula/íon Zn+2 em meio aquoso: poli(acrilamida-co-ácido acrílico e taninos Estimation of the macromolecules/zinc ion interaction in the aqueous solution: poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid and tannins

    Márcia D. Clarisse

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa o estudo da interação entre polímeros sintéticos e produtos naturais à base de taninos com o íon zinco (Zn+2 em meio aquoso para sua utilização na remoção de metais em efluentes. Uma série de copolímeros poli(acrilamida-co-ácido acrílico de diferentes composições e homopolímeros de acrilamida e de ácido acrílico foram preparados, assim como, taninos comerciais foram utilizados como recebidos e purificados por extração. Uma metodologia de avaliação da eficiência de interação da macromolécula com o íon Zn+2 foi desenvolvida baseada em curva padrão de intensidade de absorção na região do ultravioleta-visível (UV-VIS em função da concentração do complexo formado, utilizando colorimetria. A capacidade de interação com o íon zinco foi ligeiramente maior para os polímeros sintéticos porém o produto natural tem a vantagem de apresentar um custo mais baixo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the interaction between natural and synthetic macromolecules with the zinc ion (Zn+2 in aqueous solution. Polyacrylamide, poly(acrylic acid and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid were prepared and natural products (tannins were extracted and purified from commercial products. The methodology to evaluate the macromolecule/zinc ion interaction was based on colorimetry by using a standard curve. The interaction efficiency was slightly larger for the synthetic macromolecules when compared to the natural one. Nevertheless, the tanning has lower cost and its use could be recommended.

  5. Comparison of USA and the European Union in the Field of Food Safety Scientific Supervision and Its Enlightenment-Taking Acrylamide as an Example%美国与欧盟食品安全科学监管的比较及启示--以丙烯酰胺为例

    王殿华; 莎娜

    2016-01-01

    Frequent outbreaks of food safety incidents,not only abstract the extensive concern to the international commu-nity,but also present a huge challenge for food safety management and protection.As a government agency responsible for food safety,“the new governance”measures must be taken,relying on scientific research to determine how to build a re-sponse to emerging risks,especially the ability to cope with all kinds of food borne disease.This paper compares the scien-tific research institution of supervision between the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Advisory Committee and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA),and mainly introduces different structures and systems leading to differ-ent results about acrylamide events,which can in some ways provide the enlightenment and reference to our country.%频频爆发的食品安全事件在受到国际社会广泛关注的同时,也为食品安全的管理和保障带来巨大挑战。作为负责食品安全的政府机构,必须采取“新治理”措施,依靠科学研究来决定如何构建应对新兴风险,尤其是具备应对各类食源性疾病能力的问题。通过比较美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)食品咨询委员会及欧洲食品安全局(EFSA)对科研机构的监管,重点介绍由于结构和体制的不同对丙烯酰胺事件处理结果的差异,并在一些方面得出对我国的启示和借鉴。

  6. 明胶接枝丙烯酸/丙烯酰胺缓释肥新型包膜材料的制备与应用%Preparation of Coated Material for Slow Release Fertilizer by Grafting Gelatin with Acrylic Acid/Acrylamide and Its Application

    徐浩龙

    2012-01-01

    以过硫酸钾为引发剂,N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,采用自由基聚合法使明胶与丙烯酸/丙烯酰胺进行接枝共聚,制备了一种明胶接枝丙烯酸/丙烯酰胺保水性缓释肥新型包膜材料,进行了吸水、保水、耐盐性检验并应用于包衣尿素的制备.结果表明:明胶用量为2.5%时,材料具有最大吸水率,在去离子水中达775g/g,在自来水中为395g/g.包衣尿素的氮素24h和28d释放率分别为12.11%、73.49%,缓释周期长达56d,达到“缓释肥国家标准”.%A water retention coated material for slow release fertilizer were prepared by graft copolymerization of gelatin with acrylic acid/acrylamide, during wliiuh the potassium persulfate was used as the initiator and the N,N' -methylenebisacrylamide was used as the cross-linking agent. Then, the water absorption, the water retention and the salt tolerance of the coated material were verified in order to apply in coated urea. When gelatin amount was 2.5%, the coated material had the best water absorption that was 775 g/g in deionized water and 395 g/g in tap water. The results showed that release rate of nitrogen from coated urea at 24 h and 28 d was 12.11% and 73.49, and the releasing period of coated urea reached 56 d, which meet the requirments of National Standards fur Slow Release Fertilizers.

  7. The Effect of Clay Kind on Properties of Corresponding Poly(Acrylic Acid/Acrylamide/Clay) Superabsorbents%粘土种类对聚丙烯酸俩烯酰胺高吸水树脂性能的影响

    吴紫平; 索红莉; 张腾; 袁慧萍; 王毅; 刘敏; 马磷

    2012-01-01

    选用含量相同的六种不同粘土(煅烧高岭土、蒙脱土、凹凸棒土、膨润土、海泡石和硅藻土),采用反相悬浮法制备了一系列聚(丙烯酸/丙烯酰胺/粘土)高吸水树脂,并比较了不同粘土对高吸水树脂结构、吸水倍率、吸盐水倍率以及保水性能、热稳定性的影响。通过比较发现,添加膨润土的高吸水树脂具有最高的吸水倍率(450 g/g)和吸盐水倍率(92 g/g);添加膨润土和煅烧高岭土均可提高高吸水树脂的保水性能。此外,煅烧高岭土可以更为有效地提高高吸水树脂的热稳定性。%A series of poly(acrylic acid/acrylamide/clay) superabsorbents with 10% different kinds clay,which including calcined kaolin,montmorillonite,attapulgite,bentonite,sepiolite and diatomite,were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization method.The effects of clay kinds on structure,equilibrium water absorbency,equilibrium 0.9% NaCl absorbency,the water-retention capability and thermal stability of the superabsorbent composites were also systematically investigated in the same condition.It is found that the superabsorbent incorporated with bentonite has the best equilibrium water absorbency(450 g/g) and equilibrium 0.9% NaCl absorbency(92 g/g).Moreover,bentonite and calcined kaolin ones show the best capability of maintenancewater.Besides,the calcined kaolin can enhance the thermal stability of corresponding superabsorbent to the highest degree.

  8. Electrochemical Behaviour of Acrylamide Polymers Functionalized with Some Schiff Bases

    HASDEMIR, Erdogan; DELETIOGLU, Didem; Solak, Ali Osman; SARI, Nurşen

    2011-01-01

    CV, SWV and CA have been used to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of 2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzaldehyde polyacrylamide (PABSB), 2-hydroxy-5-chlorobenzaldehyde polyacrylamide (PACSB) and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde polyacrylamide (PAMSB) at the mercury electrode in aqueous media. The bromo- and chloro- derivatives were electroative while the halide-free compound, the methyl- derivative, was not. The analysis of the experimental data supports the formation of anion radicals as a result o...

  9. ATTEMPT TO REDUCE ACRYLAMIDE CONTENT IN ROASTED CHICORY

    Gabriela Zięć

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The region of Upper Nitra has been influenced for several decades by the intensive activity of the industry. The Nitra is a river with the most polluted water ecosystems. It was caused by anthropogenic activities in the past decades. In the upper reaches of the river in the cadastral territory of the village Zemianske Kostoľany is located the thermal power plant. There is the sedimentation reservoir, which caused the ecological disaster in 1965. During this accident there was a bursting of the dam and the downstream sedimentation of sludge spill, which contaminated the entire water catchment area of the Nitra river. As a result of an ecological accident occurred to a long-term contamination of the stream but also the adjacent alluvial areas by heavy metals (Hg, As, Pb and others. In the present work, we have focused on ascertaining the level of contamination the adjacent plot of land and seeds of corn in the cadastral territory of Malé Kršteňany. We ascertained the excess of the limit values in the case of Hg on the south side of the agricultural land in Malé Kršteňany, which borders with the stream of the river. The Cd content has exceeded the limit value at the five sampling places, in the case of lead, content does not exceed the limit value. The average mercury concentration in the grain of maize was 0.095 mg.kg-1, which exceeds the limit value by 90.5%. The average cadmium content in maize grain reached the value of 0.06 mg.kg-1. This value does not exceed the limit value. Average lead accumulation in the grain of maize was 0.54 mg.kg-1, which exceeds 2.7 times the limit value. The results of analyzes indicate an increased level of land contamination by mercury and cadmium, which was reflected in an increased level of contamination by monitored metals of crops.

  10. Effect of acrylamide quaternary salts with various alkyll ength on the collapse of poly(acrylamide) gels

    Ilavský, Michal; Bouchal, Karel; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Pleštil, Josef

    Budapest : European Physical Society, Polymer Networks Groups Hungarian Chemical Society, 1995 - (Pick, R.; Thomas, G.). s. P66 [Europhysics conference on gels. 25.09.1995-29.09.1995, Balatonszéplak] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/95/1318

  11. Bisphenol A (BPA)

    ... Environmental Agents Acrylamide Environmental Agents Acrylamide Air Pollution Environmental Agents Air Pollution Allergens & Irritants Environmental Agents Allergens & Irritants Cigarette Smoke ...

  12. Allergens and Irritants

    ... Environmental Agents Acrylamide Environmental Agents Acrylamide Air Pollution Environmental Agents Air Pollution Allergens & Irritants Environmental Agents Allergens & Irritants Cigarette Smoke ...

  13. Ozone

    ... Environmental Agents Acrylamide Environmental Agents Acrylamide Air Pollution Environmental Agents Air Pollution Allergens & Irritants Environmental Agents Allergens & Irritants Cigarette Smoke ...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of pH-sensitive acrylamide/acrylic acid hydrogels

    Pinto, Virgínia; Gonçalves, Miguel; Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário Rui

    2011-01-01

    Different samples of pH-sensitive hydrogel particles were produced using inverse-suspension, leading to the identification of the influence on their end-use properties of the degree of neutralization of AA monomer and the initial composition of the terpolymerization system which are therefore the key parameters of the synthesis. These studies were also used to develop a kinetic model improving the design of production processes of tailored smart polymers.

  15. Phosphate sensing by fluorecent reporter proteins embedded in poly-acrylamide nanoparticles

    Sun, Honghao; Scharff-Poulsen, Anne Marie; Gu, Hong; Jakobsen, Iver; Kossmann, Jens Matthias; Frommer, W.B.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Phosphate sensors were developed by embedding fluorescent reporter proteins (FLIPPi) in polyacrylamide nanoparticles; with diameters from 40 to 120 nm. The sensor activity and protein loading efficiency varied according to nanoparticle composition, that is, the total monomer content (% T) and the...... cross-linker content (% C). Nanoparticles with 28% T and 20% C were considered optimal as a result of relatively high loading efficiency (50.6%) as well as high protein activity (50%). The experimental results prove that the cross-linked polyacrylamide matrix could protect FLIPPi from degradation by...

  16. RAFT vs. ATRP polymerization of N-(Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl)-acrylamide for new nonfouling polymer brushes

    Surman, František; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Šubr, Vladimír; Houska, Milan; Kaňková, Dana; Sedláková, Zdeňka

    Pisa : European Polymer Federation, 2013. O3-84. [European Polymer Congress - EPF 2013. 16.06.2013-21.06.2013, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : non-fouling polymer brushe * RAFT polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  17. Acrylamide administration alters protein phosphorylation and phospholipid metabolism in rat sciatic nerve

    The effects of ACR on protein phosphorylation and phospholipid metabolism were assessed in rat sciatic nerve. After 5 days of ACR administration (50 mg/kg/day) an increase in the incorporation of 32P into phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, and phosphatidylcholine was detected in proximal sciatic nerve segments. In contrast, no changes in phospholipid metabolism were observed in distal segments. After 9 days of ACR treatment when neurotoxicological symptoms were clearly apparent, a generalized increase in radiolabel uptake into phospholipids was noted exclusively in proximal nerve regions. ACR-induced increases in phospholipid metabolism were toxicologically specific since comparable administration of MBA (108 mg/kg/day X 5 or 9 days) produced only minor changes. ACR intoxication was also associated with a rise in sciatic nerve protein phosphorylation. After 9 days of ACR treatment, phosphorylation of beta-tubulin, P0, and several unidentified proteins (38 and 180 kDa) was increased in distal segments. In contrast, chronic administration of MBA caused increases in phosphorylation of beta-tubulin and the major myelin proteins of proximal nerve segments. In cell free homogenates prepared from sciatic nerves of treated and control rats, MBA caused an increase in phosphorylation of major myelin proteins similar to its effect in intact proximal nerve segments. The most striking effect observed in nerve homogenates of ACR-treated rats was a marked decrease in phosphorylation of an 80-kDa protein. Addition of ACR (1 mM) to homogenates of normal nerve had no effect on protein phosphorylation. Our results indicate that changes in the phosphorylation of phospholipids and proteins in sciatic nerve might be a component of the neurotoxic mechanism of ACR

  18. Acrylamide concentration determines the direction and magnitude of helical membrane protein gel shifts

    Rath, Arianna; Cunningham, Fiona; Deber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    SDS/PAGE is a protein analysis technique universally used in biochemistry, cell biology, immunology, and virology, where proteins are separated by size on a gel matrix of polyacrylamide. However, most helical membrane proteins, which are biomolecules that comprise 20–30% of genomes and the majority of drug targets, migrate to positions on SDS/PAGE that have for decades been unpredictably larger or smaller than their actual size. We have found that the magnitude and direction of migration amon...

  19. Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, acid phosphatases and RN-ases from three potato varieties

    A. Kubicz; E. Wieczorek; B. Morawiecka

    2015-01-01

    Studies on variety differences in the protein and acid phosphatase patterns as well as ribunuclease activity distribution were carried out by disc electrophoresis on saline extracts of three varieties of the potato Solanum tuberosum (L.). The protein bands varied in number, position and relative abundance. One main zone of the acid phosphatase activity was detected consisting of 2-3 electrophoretically different bands. Variety differences were concerned with the number and relative abundance ...

  20. Hydrophilic modification of microporous polysulfone membrane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylamide

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) brushes were grafted from chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSF) membrane surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to improve the membrane's hydrophilic property. In order to anchor the initiator onto polysulfone (PSF) membrane surface, CMPSF was used to prepare the microporous membrane by phase-inversion process. Attachment of the PAM chains on membrane surface was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The grafted density of PAM was calculated to be 0.08 chains nm-2. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to characterize the surface morphology of the CMPSF membrane and modified membrane. The number-average molecular weight (Mn) of PAM linearly increased with the polymerization time, while the static water contact angle (θ) of the membrane grafted with PAM linearly decreased. This indicated the hydrophilic property of the membrane was linearly correlated with the chain length of graft polymer. Therefore linear control of PSF membrane's hydrophilic property was realized through adjusting polymerization time.

  1. Preparation of Poly Acrylic Acid-Poly Acrylamide Composite Nanogels by Radiation Technique

    Parisa Ghorbaniazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nanogel, a nanoparticle prepared from a cross-linked hydrophilic polymer network, has many biomedical applications. A radiation technique has recently been introduced as one of the appropriate methods for the preparation of polymeric nanogels due to its additive-free initiation and easy control procedure. Methods: We have investigated the formation of nano-sized polymeric gels, based on the radiation-induced inter- and intra-molecular cross-linking of the inter-polymer complex (IPC of polyacrylamide (PAAm and polyacrylic acide (PAAc. Results: The results indicated that the prepared polymeric complex composed of PAAm and PAAc was converted into nanogel by irradiation under different doses (1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy. This was due to inter- and intra-molecular cross-linking at the range of 446-930 nm as characterized by the photon correlation spectroscopy method. Increasing the irradiation dose reduced the size of nanoparticles to 3 kGy; however, the higher doses increased the size and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated the nanogel formation in the reported size by particle size and showed the microcapsule structure of the prepared nanogels. Biocompatibility of nanogels were assessed and proved by MTT assay. Conclusion: It was concluded that low dose irradiation can be successfully applied for nanometre-ranged hydrogel.

  2. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    investigation of AA precursors, mechanisms of AA formation and AA mitigation technologies in potato, cereal and coffee products. Additionally, most relevant issues of AA risk assessment are discussed. New technologies tested from laboratory to industrial scale face, as a major challenge, the reduction of AA...... content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine....... For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content...

  3. IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TOXICITY: A COMPARISON OF ACRYLAMIDE, CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE, CHLORDECONE, AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL

    Four chemicals that had been tested in an in vivo toxicological screen were tested in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cytotoxicity assay. Cell density, viability, ATP concentration, rate of protein synthesis, and cellular protein concentration were decreased by exposure to acrylami...

  4. Trace analysis of acrylamide by high-performance thin-layer chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Alpmann, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Planar-chromatography (High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography, HPTLC) is a rapid and cost-effective offline separation method. Through advances in the automatization of each step the system reproducibility, from application and development to detection, has been improved. This makes planar-chromatography a highly reliable technique. HPTLC shows a couple of features that make it unique. There is great flexibility concerning application, development and detection that distinguishes HPTLC fr...

  5. NMR and thermodynamic study of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co-acrylamide) copolymers

    Hanyková, L.; Šťastná, J.; Spěváček, Jiří

    Chiang Mai: IUPAC, 2014. 18 /CHAR-3/. [MACRO 2014 - 2014 IUPAC World Polymer Congress. 06.07.2014-11.07.2014, Chiang Mai] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23392S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : phase separation * thermosensitive copolymer * 1H NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Vinylsulfonamide and Acrylamide Modification of DNA for Cross-linking with Proteins

    Daďová, Jitka; Orság, Petr; Pohl, Radek; Brázdová, Marie; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 40 (2013), s. 10515-10518. ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0317; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2076 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : bioorthogonal chemistry * DNA * DNA polymerase * Michael additions * proteins Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 11.336, year: 2013

  7. Thermal reversible gelation during phase separation of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)/water solution

    曾钫[1; 刘新星[2; 童真[3; 杨燕银[4; 吴水珠[5

    2000-01-01

    By dynamic viscoelastic measurement for PNIPAM/water solution it has been found that below the phase separation temperature (about 32 ℃), the system is homogeneous fluid; while upon being heated to about 32 ℃, the solution undergoes phase separation and the storage modulus G’ increases sharply and exceeds the loss modulus G", indicating the physical network formation during the phase separation. Based on the percolation model, the gel points Tgel, were obtained by applying the dynamic scaling theory (DST) and winter’s criterion. The critical exponent n was also obtained to be 0.79 through DST, which is different from 0.67, the critical point of chemically crosslinked network predicted through DST. The obtained n value reflects the special property of physical network being different from chemical network.

  8. Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

    Soghra Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral and histopathological damages in Wistar rats exposed to ACR. Reduction of oxidative stress can be considered as an important mechanism of neuroprotective effects of crocin against ACR-induced toxicity.

  9. Self-diffraction oscillations of two-wave mixing in a acrylamide photopolymer film

    Kwak, C H; Sung, G Y; Choe, O S; Lee, Y W; Lee, I W

    1999-01-01

    Degenerate two-wave energy-coupling experiments were performed on a thick photopolymer film. It was found that the observed periodic oscillations of the energy couplings between the two pump beams were closely related to mixed gratings of the phase and the absorption gratings and to nonzero spatial phase shifts of the gratings with respect to the intensity interference patterns. A simple theory based on coupled wave theory was developed in conjunction with nonlocal responses of the mixed gratings and was compared with the experimental data.

  10. PVA/acrylamide photopolymers as holographic recording material at short wavelengths

    Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada; García Llopis, Celia; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Fimia Gil, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Photopolymers can be considered holographic recording materials beacuse of their many attractive features. Among these, we could mention their ability to self-develop, the fact dry processing can be used with them, their good stability and thick emulsion layers, and their high sensitivity, diffraction efficiency and resolution. Photopolymers have been developed for conventional imaging systems, real time interferometry and holographic optical elements. These materials have applications in oth...

  11. Optimization of a PVA/acrylamide material for the recording of multiple diffraction gratings

    Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Neipp López, Cristian; Márquez Ruiz, Andrés; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada

    2004-01-01

    Photopolymers are considered one of the most interesting materials for holographic storage applications. The search for optimum chemical formulations to improve the quality of the final polymer materials has yielded a great deal of experimental work. different theoretical models have also been developed by different authors to clarify the mechanism of hologram formation inside photopolymer materials. These advances in both experimental and theoretical fields permit obtaining suitable composit...

  12. Static and dynamic behaviour of responsive graphene oxide-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) composite gels.

    Berke, B; Czakkel, O; Porcar, L; Geissler, E; László, K

    2016-09-14

    Thermoresponsive hydrogels have enormous potential e.g., as sensors, actuators, and pollution control remedies or in drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, their application is often restricted by physical limitations (poor mechanical strength and uncontrolled thermal response). Composite systems may offer a means of overcoming these limitations. This paper presents a systematic study of the structure and dynamics of graphene oxide-poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) composite systems, and investigates the effect of the nanoparticle filler content on the mechanical and swelling properties of the systems. A combination of macroscopic (swelling and elastic modulus) and microscopic (differential scanning microcalorimetry, small angle neutron scattering and neutron spin-echo spectroscopy) investigations reveals that the architecture of the polymer network is modified by chain nucleation at the surface of the GO platelets, and these form a percolating network inside the gel. Our results show that the elastic modulus of the gels is reinforced by the filler, but the mobility of the polymer chains in the swollen state is practically unaffected. The macroscopic deswelling of the composites, however, is slowed by the kinetics of ordering in the GO network. PMID:27494097

  13. Radiation grafting polymerization of N,N-dimethyl acrylamide on polypropylene

    The radiation grafting of N,N-dimethlacrylamide (DMAA) on polypropylene (PP) films was investigated by the following three methods. In the mutual grafting, the effect of solvents on the grafting was notable. The grafting did not occur in the aqueous solution of DMAA due to the formation of insoluble homopolymers. The suitable solvent for the grafting was benzene. The maximum grafting occurred in 45 - 65% monomer concentration. In the grafting on peroxidized PP, the effect of solvents on the grafting was notable. The grafting did not occur in the aqueous solution of DMAA due to the formation of insoluble homopolymers. The suitable solvent for the grafting was benzene. The extent of grafting increased with increasing DMAA content. The graft polymerization was induced above 50 deg C, and increased with the rist of reaction temperature. In the grafting by trapped radicals, the graft polymerization was induced even at 0 deg C. The conversion of DMAA homopolymer was very small, and the extent of grafting was larger than that obtained by two methods mentioned above. The PP films on which more than 500 % of DMAA was grafted were easily obtained. It is important for the grafting to suppress the formation of DMAA homopolymer outside PP films, and to diffuse monomer into PP films. The graft polymerization was induced only in the amorphous region of PP films. (Kako, I.)

  14. Thermoresponsive polymer micelles as radionuclide carriers: poly(meth)acrylamide versus polyoxazoline-type polymers

    Hrubý, Martin; Filippov, Sergey K.; Pánek, Jiří; Nováková, Michaela; Macková, Hana; Kučka, Jan

    Prague : Charles University, 2010. O6.2. [Conference of the European Colloid and Interface Society /24./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/2078; GA MŠk 1M0505; GA ČR GPP207/10/P054 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : thermoresponsive polymer * micelle * polyoxazoline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  15. Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, acid phosphatases and RN-ases from three potato varieties

    A. Kubicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on variety differences in the protein and acid phosphatase patterns as well as ribunuclease activity distribution were carried out by disc electrophoresis on saline extracts of three varieties of the potato Solanum tuberosum (L.. The protein bands varied in number, position and relative abundance. One main zone of the acid phosphatase activity was detected consisting of 2-3 electrophoretically different bands. Variety differences were concerned with the number and relative abundance of these bands. RNase activity was detected in 4 main zones, in some of them additional subbands were visible. Differences between the three examined varieties were reflected in the occurence of the particular activity zones or their subbands.

  16. Highly cross-linked acrylamide monoliths for hydrophilic-interaction capillary electrochromatography of neutral oligosaccharides

    Guryča, Vilém; Palm, A. K.; Mechref, Y.; Novotný, M. V.

    Bratislava : Slovak University of Technology Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, 2004. s. I105. ISSN 1335-8413. [International Symposium on Advances and Applications of Chromatography in Industry /12./. 29.06.2004-01.07.2004, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : monoliths * capillary electrochromatography * oligosaccharides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  17. Non-fouling hydrogels of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and zwitterionic carboxybetaine (meth)acrylamides

    Kostina, Nina Yu.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Houska, Milan; Brynda, Eduard; Michálek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 12 (2012), s. 4164-4170. ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : zwitterionic hydrogels * non-fouling properties * carboxybetaine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.371, year: 2012

  18. Novel architecture design of block copolymers of ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate and carboxybetaine acrylamide

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Hasan, E.; Brynda, Eduard; Houska, Milan; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Bologna Alles, A.; Huck, W.

    Praha : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 2009. s. 111. ISBN 978-80-85009-59-0. [Prague Meetings on Macromolecules /73./ New Frontiers in Macromolecular Science: From Macromolecular Concepts of Living Matter to Polymers for Better Quality of Life. 05.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : block copolymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  19. Novel low fouling hydrogels of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and zwitterionic carboxybetaine (meth)acrylamide

    Kostina, Nina Yu.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar Adolfo; Houska, Milan; Michálek, Jiří; Brynda, Eduard

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2011. L7. ISBN 978-80-85009-68-2. [Workshop "Career in Polymers" /3./. 15.07.2011-16.07.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : hydrogels * tissue engineering Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  20. Thermosensitive membranes by radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide/acrylic acid on polypropylene nonwoven fabric

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) mixture was investigated on polypropylene nonwoven fabric to develop a thermosensitive material. The grafting was carried out using methanol, acetone and butanone as homopolymerization inhibitor in the reaction medium. Butanone was observed to give the maximum grafting. It was observed that the grafting is significantly influenced by the reaction conditions, such as radiation dose, monomer concentration, monomer ratio, solvent composition and reaction temperature. The degree of grafting increased as the AA and NIPAAm concentration in the reaction medium increased. The degree of grafting increased as the AA fraction in the NIPAAm/AA mixture increased. The temperature dependence of the grafting process is very much governed by the thermosensitive nature of the grafted chains right from the stage when initial grafting has taken place.

  1. Sol/gel analysis of poly (acrylamide-co-metacrylic acid) Hydrogels obtained by gamma radiation for biomedical use

    Sol-Gel analysis of irradiated polymer was carried out and allowed to estimate important radiation parameters as gelation dose, virtual dose , degradation and crosslinking densities and yield of crosslinking and degradation of copolymer according with a modified Charesby-Pinner equation. The degree of copolymer conversion as a function of the absorbed dose of irradiation is presented. These parameters can be correlated with some physical and chemical properties of polymeric network formation and this way be able to design and prepare gels with the desired structure suitable as a drug delivery system

  2. An approach in exploring the fundamental dosimetric characteristics for a long shelf life irradiated acrylamide-based gel

    In this study, a long shelf life irradiated gel made from a low-toxicity N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer was used to study the dosimetric characteristics associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Specifically, the Taguchi method was utilized to investigate the influence of MRI scanning parameters on the performance objectives of NIPAM gels, and the priorities of the parameters that influence the process were determined using Delta statistics. The influence of different echo spacing on the relaxation rate–dose response of the gel and the relationship among the dose resolution (DΔP), dose accuracy, and reproducibility were also examined. The results indicated that the repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE), having Delta values of 3.81042 and 4.52752, respectively, were the most influential factors. Analysis of variance further confirmed that TE was the major factor, with a percentage contribution of 58.36 %, and TR was the second factor with a percentage contribution of 41.34 %. The maximum sensitivity was 0.1506 s-1 Gy-1 from 0 to 15 Gy, and the best DΔP of the NIPAM gel was 0.017 Gy. Two months after the irradiation, no obvious changes in linearity and sensitivity were observed, indicating that the NIPAM gels are highly stable. The gel dosimeters were also applied in comparing the planar dose distributions of the gel dosimeters and treatment planning system. The comparison showed good agreement of isodose lines on selected planes in the transverse plane. This result indicates the great potential of the NIPAM dosimeter has a clinical dose verification tool. (author)

  3. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food

    Petersen, Annette

    day and 0.6 to 3.4 µg/kg b.w. per day, respectively. The main contributor to total dietary exposure was generally the category ‘Potato fried products (except potato crisps and snacks)’. Preferences in home-cooking can have a substantial impact on human dietary AA exposure. Upon oral intake, AA is...

  4. Asymmetric swelling and self-assembly of poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) in water

    This investigation focused on the self-assembly of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PNIPA-b-PEG) in water. We distinguish four regions in the phase diagram: a transparent sol, opaque sol, opaque gel, and syneresis. Small-angle neutron scattering measurements revealed that microphase separation occurs above 17-bar C to form disordered micelles, which includes a range of states from (i) asymmetric swelling to (ii) micelle formation with only short-range liquid-like order. This result may be attributed to the action of water, which starts to behave as a selective solvent for PEG blocks; the PEG chains are more swollen with water than are the PNIPA chains

  5. Thermo-responsive, UV-active poly(phenyl acrylate)-b-poly(diethyl acrylamide) block copolymers

    Maric, M.; Wang, Z. J.; B. H. Lessard

    2013-01-01

    The homopolymerization of phenyl acrylate (PA) was investigated for the first time by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP) with the succinimidyl form of the SG1-based unimolecular initiator 2-[N-tert-butyl-2,2-(dimethylpropyl)-aminooxy]propionic acid (BlocBuilder MA). The control of PPA homopolymerization was improved by the use of 15 mol% additional free nitroxide SG1 ([tert-butyl[1-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-2,2-dimethylpropyl]amino]oxidanyl) and dispersities, Mw/Mn, of around 1.2 were achieve...

  6. NMR and thermodynamic study of phase transition in solutions of poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co-acrylamide) copolymers

    Hanyková, L.; Šťastná, J.; Spěváček, Jiří

    Sendai : International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists, 2012. S1F23. [International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists Conference - IACIS 2012. 13.05.2012-18.05.2012, Sendai] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : aqueous polymer solutions * phase transition * stimuli -sensitive polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  7. Effects of Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilization on Free Amino Acids, Sugars, and Acrylamide-Forming Potential in Potato

    Muttucumaru, N.; Powers, S. J.; Elmore, J. S.; Mottram, D. S.; Halford, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is used routinely in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivation to maximize yield. However, it also affects sugar and free amino acid concentrations in potato tubers, and this has potential implications for food quality and safety because free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results in the formation of color, aroma, and flavor compounds, but also some undesirable contaminants, includi...

  8. The acrylamide (S)-2 as a positive and negative modulator of Kv7 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Blom, Sigrid Marie; Schmitt, Nicole; Jensen, Henrik Sindal

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of voltage-gated potassium channels of the Kv7 (KCNQ) family reduces cellular excitability. These channels are therefore attractive targets for treatment of diseases characterized by hyperexcitability, such as epilepsy, migraine and neuropathic pain. Retigabine, which opens...... human Kv7.1-5 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We found that the compound was a weak inhibitor of Kv7.1. In contrast, (S)-2 efficiently opened Kv7.2-5 by producing hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage-dependence of activation and enhancing the maximal current amplitude. Further, it reduced...... Kv7.2-5, is now in clinical trial phase III for the treatment of partial onset seizures. One of the main obstacles in developing Kv7 channel active drugs has been to identify compounds that can discriminate between the neuronal subtypes, a feature that could help diminish side effects and increase...

  9. Controlled 5-fluorouracil release from hydrogels of Poly (acrylamide-co-metacrylic acid) crosslinked by means Of gamma irradiation techniques

    This report present the results on entrapped a cytostatic 5-Fluorouracil (5-F) in polymeric matrixes named hydrogels of polyacrylamide co -metacrylic acid crosslinked by means of gamma radiation with doses of 10,30, and 30 kGy at 25 o C. The drug delivery was followed by HPLC. The behavior of 5 -Fu migration from polymeric network was analyze by Iguchi equation for plain structure systems. The diffusion coefficients were obtained and drug release was in accordance with Fickian behavior

  10. Salt-Responsive Polysulfabetaines from Acrylate and Acrylamide Precursors: Robust Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles in Hyposalinity and Hypersalinity.

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Junhui, Chen; Ying, Tay Boon; Parthiban, Anbanandam

    2015-10-13

    Metal nanoparticles (MNps) tend to be influenced by environmental factors such as pH, ionic strength, and temperature, thereby leading to aggregation. Forming stable aqueous dispersions could be one way of addressing the environmental toxicity of MNps. In contrast to the electrolyte-induced aggregation of MNps, novel zwitterionic sulfabetaine polymers reported here act as stabilizers of MNps even under high salinity. Polysulfabetaines exhibited unique solubility and swelling tendencies in brine and deionized water, respectively. The polysulfabetaines derived from methacrylate (PSBMA) and methacrylamide (PSBMAm) also showed reversible salt-responsive and thermoresponsive behaviors as confirmed by cloud-point titration, transmittance, and dynamic light scattering studies. The brine soluble nature was explored for its ability to be used as a capping agents to form metal nanoparticles using formic acid as a reducing agent. Thus, silver and noble metal (gold and palladium) nanoparticles were synthesized. The nanoparticles formed were characterized by UV-vis, XRD, TEM, EDX, and DLS studies. The size of the nanoparticles remained more or less the same even after 2 months of storage in 2 M sodium chloride solution under ambient conditions and also at elevated temperatures as confirmed by light-scattering measurements. The tunable, stimuli-responsive polysulfabetaine-capped stable MNp formed under low (hyposalinity) and hypersalinity could find potential applications in a variety of areas. PMID:26394088

  11. Controlled RAFT polymerization of N-(tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl)acrylamide: towards new non-fouling polymer brushes

    Surman, František; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Šubr, Vladimír; Kaňková, Dana; Sedláková, Zdeňka

    Ghent : Ghent University, 2012. s. 107. [Belgian-German [Macro]Molecular Meeting - Macro BeGe2012. 03.12.2012-04.12.2012, Houffalize] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : non-fouling polymer brush * RAFT polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  12. Fabrication of Amino Acid Based Silver Nanocomposite Hydrogels from PVA-Poly(Acrylamide-co-Acryloyl phenylalanine) and Their Antimicrobial Studies

    Cha, Hyeongrae; Babu, V. Ramesh; Rao, K. S. V. Krishna; Kim, Yonghyun; Mei, Surong; Lee, Yongill; Joo, Woo Hong [Changwon National Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    New silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-loaded amino acid based hydrogels were synthesized successfully from poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acryl amide-co-acryloyl phenyl alanine) (PAA) by redox polymerization. The formation of AgNP in hydrogels was confirmed by using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and XRD. The structure and morphology of silver nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which demonstrated scattered nanoparticles, ca. 10-20 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed large differences of weight loss (i. e., 48%) between the prestine hydrogel and silver nanocomposite. The antibacterial studies of AgNP-loaded PAA (Ag-PAA) hydrogels was evaluated against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. These Ag-PAA hydrogels showed significant activities against all the test bacteria. Newly developed hydrogels could be used for medical applications, such as artificial burn dressings.

  13. Novel architecture design of ultra low-fouling block copolymers of oligo ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate and carboxybetaine acrylamide

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Hasan, B.; Brynda, Eduard; Houska, Milan; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Bologna Alles, A.; Gautrot, J.; Huck, W.

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AV ČR, 2009. L5. ISBN 978-80-85009-60-6. [Workshop: Career in Polymers. 10.07.2009-11.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  14. CaCO3粉末表面光聚合处理的研究%Photo Polymerization of Acrylamide onto CaCO3 Particle Surfaces

    雷景新; 何光健; 高峻

    2004-01-01

    采用表面光聚合技术处理CaCO3粉末,研究了反应温度、时间、单体浓度等对丙烯酰胺(AAM)在CaCO3粉末表面光聚合的影响,并采用X光电子能谱(ESCA)、粒度分析、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和模型模拟分析等研究了表面光聚合处理碳酸钙(CaCO3)的结构.结果表明:紫外光能有效地引发AAM在CaCO3粒子表面聚合.经光聚合处理后,CaCO3粒子表面形成了聚丙烯酰胺(PAAM)包覆层,该包覆层与CaCO3粒子结合紧密,不能被溶剂洗涤清除.光聚合处理后CaCO3粒子表面较光滑,分散性可得到提高,CaCO3粒子粒径增大.

  15. Small angle X-ray scattering study of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) based cryogels near the volume-phase transition temperature

    The structural modifications induced by changes in temperature are investigated by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) over a broad range of q-values (3.5x10-2 - 12 nm-1) in cryogels based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) and/or 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate-L-Lactide-Dextran (HEMA-LLA-D) macromer. Various copolymeric cryogels of these two monomers are prepared by cryopolymerization yielding macroporous gels (cryogels). For the plain pNIPA cryogel, the SAXS curves obtained at each temperature are well fitted by a sum of four equations describing respectively the scattering resulting from the gel surface (power law), from the solid-like (Guinier equation) and liquid-like (Ornstein-Zernike equation) heterogeneities and from the chain-chain correlation yielding a broad peak (pseudo-Voigt equation) in the high-q domain. The temperature dependence of the parameters obtained from the fit is analyzed and discussed. It is shown that the existence of an isoscattering (or isosbestic) point observed in pNIPA gels and in some copolymers is related to features observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and swelling ratio measurements.

  16. Radiation syntheses of Pectin/acrylamide (PEC/PAM) and Pectin/Diethylaminoethylmethacrylate (PEC/DEAMA) hydrogels as drug delivery systems

    Different pH responsive copolymer hydrogels based on pectin were prepared by the effect of radiation. The physical and chemical properties of prepared hydrogels were studied by FTIR, and TGA. Also, the prepared hydrogels were evaluated for the possible use as drug delivery system for chlortetracycline HCL as model drug. The results revealed that the swelling ratios and the release behavior of hydrogels depend mainly on the pH of the medium and the hydrogel composition. (author)

  17. One-step Preparation and Antibacterial Property of Poly(N-iso- propyl-acrylamide) Grafted Poly(acrylonitrile/styrene) Micro- spheres Immobilized with Silver Nanoparticles

    FENG,Jiao; FAN,Liheng; CHU,Hong; XIONG,Wanbin; JIANG,Jinqiang; CHEN,Mingqing

    2009-01-01

    Monodispersed silver nanoparticles were immobilized onto the surface of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted poly(acrylonitrile/styrene) (PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt) microspheres by a one-step method using AgNO3 as a silver source. This process was performed via the coordination interaction between Ag ions and amide groups on PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt microsphere surfaces with the reduction of the corresponding ions by ethanol taking place simultaneously. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra illustrated that the silver nanoparticles were successfully immobilized onto the PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt microspheres. The size and morphology of silvered microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The weight percent of silver nanoparticles immobilized onto the microspheres was 12% based on the determination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The antibacterial tests demonstrated that the as-prepared silvered microspheres showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Swelling and mechanical behavior of ionized poly(acrylamide-co-N,N’-diethylacrylamide) gels in water/acetone mixtures and in water at various temperatures

    Alenichev, I.; Hanyková, L.; Ilavský, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2007), s. 575-586. ISSN 0170-0839 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : swelling * mechanical behavior * phase transition Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.022, year: 2007

  19. Temperature-induced phase separation and hydration in aqueous polymer solutions studied by NMR and IR spectroscopy: comparison of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) and acrylamide-based polymers

    Spěváček, Jiří; Dybal, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 336, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-46. ISSN 1022-1360. [International IUPAC Conference on Polymer-Solvent Complexes and Intercalates /9./ - POLYSOLVAT-9. Kiev, 11.09.2012-14.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aqueous polymer solutions * FT-IR * NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  20. Cooperative interactions of unlike macromolecules: 3. NMR and theoretical study of the electrostatic coupling of sodium polyphosphates with diallyl(dimethyl)ammonium chloride - acrylamide copolymers

    Kříž, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Dautzenberg, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 31 (2001), s. 7486-7493. ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2050602; GA MŠk LB98202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : cooperative interactions * macromolecules * electrostatic coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2001