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Sample records for acrydiorum diptera sarcophagidae

  1. Desarrollo post-embrionario de Microcerella acrydiorum (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) bajo condiciones de laboratorio Post-embrionary development of Microcerella acrydiorum (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) under laboratory conditions

    Andrea V. De Arriba; Sixto R. Costamagna

    2006-01-01

    Se estudió el desarrollo post-embrionario de Microcerella acrydiorum (Weyenbergh) bajo condiciones controladas (temperatura media: 27,50 ± 2,60 ° C, humedad relativa media: 36,47 ± 8,10% y fotoperíodo artificial: 14 horas luz) y se determinaron los siguientes parámetros biológicos: tiempo de desarrollo larval y pupal, período de prelarviposición, supervivencia y razón sexual. El tiempo de desarrollo larval fue de 3,78 ± 0,81 días, el tiempo de desarrollo pupal de 8,63 ± 1,45 días, el período ...

  2. Redescription of the female of Microcerella acrydiorum (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and new records from Argentina Redescripción de la hembra de Microcerella acrydiorum (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) y nuevos registros para la Argentina

    Mariluis, Juan C.

    2005-01-01

    A redescription and an illustration of female Microcerella acrydiorum (Weyenbergh) is given, and new records from Santa Fe province, Argentina are provided. Microcerella chaetosa (Townsend) is recorded for the first time in Argentina. New records of Microcerella erythropyga (Lopes) from Buenos Aires and Córdoba provinces, Argentina are provided.Se redescribe e ilustra la hembra de Microcerella acrydiorum (Weyenbergh) y se aporta un nuevo registro para la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. Micr...

  3. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) colonising large carcasses in Central Europe

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Mądra, Anna; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Sarcophagidae are an important element of carrion insect community. Unfortunately, results on larval and adult Sarcophagidae from forensic carrion studies are virtually absent mostly due to the taxonomic problems with species identification of females and larvae. The impact of this taxon on decomposition of large carrion has not been reliably evaluated. During several pig carcass studies in Poland, large body of data on adult and larval Sarcophagidae was collected. We determined (1) assemblag...

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the flesh fly, Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Shi, Jian; Guo, Yadong; Zhang, Chaoyue; Zhou, Yong; Yan, Jie; Liao, Huidan; Lagabaiyila, Zha

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a forensically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 14,929 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. It also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. All the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for cox1 that begins with TCG. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.94%, G: 9.69%, C: 14.13%, T: 37.24% and the A + T content 76.18%. The mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi presented will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Sarcophagidae and order Diptera, and could be used to identify favorable genetic markers for species identifications for forensic purposes. PMID:25319282

  5. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J.B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Ch...

  6. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  7. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  8. Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) como responsable de miasis nosocomiales en Costa Rica

    Ólger Calderón-Arguedas; Sileny Luna; Guiselle Miranda; Adriana Troyo

    2014-01-01

    Se presentan dos casos de miasis nosocomiales, ocurridos en hospitales costarricenses, cuyo agente etiológico identificado fue Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). El primero tuvo lugar como infestación de una herida quirúrgica secundaria a una cirugía de abdomen, en la cual se observaron larvas de mosca asociadas con una secreción purulenta. Dicho cuadro conllevó la ejecución de una laparotomía exploratoria para descartar la presencia de más larvas, y el lavado de la cavidad per...

  9. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  10. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Chave pictórica para a identificação das espécies de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de potencial importância forense do sul do Brasil. Espécies da subfamília Sarcophaginae são importantes para a entomologia forense devido ao seu hábito necrófago. Este trabalho apresenta uma chave pictórica para a identificação de 22 espécies de Sarcophaginae de 10 gêneros encontradas na região sul do Brasil. São fornecidas fotografias dos principais estruturas das espécies, principalmente da terminália masculina.

  11. The complete mitochondria genome of Sarcophaga africa (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Fu, Xiaoliang; Che, Kexin; Zhu, Zhenyu; Liu, Jing; Guo, Yadong

    2016-05-01

    Sarcophaga africa (S. africa) is a significant medical and forensic insect which belongs to the Sarcophagidae. The species identification of the forensically important genus Sarcophaga is difficult and requires strong morphology and taxonomic expertise. With the sequencing technique improved, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the S. africa for the first time to assist species identification. The 37 genes presented in the 15,144 bp circular genome has been found which include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The array of the genes has much resemblance with other discovered insects. The overall base compositions of A, G, C and T are 39.43%, 9.64%, 14.61% and 36.31% respectively. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. africa could be valuable to enriching the Dipteran mitochondrial genomes and be helpful for entomologists to screen reliable molecular markers in the species identifications with forensic entomology purposes or phylogenetic analysis. PMID:25418627

  12. Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney

    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.

  13. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) como inimigo natural de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), no Brasil

    C.H. Marchiori; L. A. Pereira; O. M. S. Filho

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which wascollected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individual...

  14. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil

    Marchiori C.H.; Pereira L.A.; Filho O.M.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which wascollected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individual...

  15. Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae como responsable de miasis nosocomiales en Costa Rica

    Ólger Calderón-Arguedas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan dos casos de miasis nosocomiales, ocurridos en hospitales costarricenses, cuyo agente etiológico identificado fue Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. El primero tuvo lugar como infestación de una herida quirúrgica secundaria a una cirugía de abdomen, en la cual se observaron larvas de mosca asociadas con una secreción purulenta. Dicho cuadro conllevó la ejecución de una laparotomía exploratoria para descartar la presencia de más larvas, y el lavado de la cavidad peritoneal. El segundo caso se asoció con una paciente que estuvo en una unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, sospechosa de una intoxicación con salicilatos, quien fue sometida a intubación para brindarle respiración mecánica asistida. La paciente expulsó varias larvas de mosca por su cavidad oral, lo que ameritó una aspiración orotraqueal, de la cual se obtuvo más larvas. En ambos casos se trató de larvas maduras de tercer estadio, que se evidenciaron en un periodo mayor o igual a cinco días a partir del internamiento en el nosocomio, lo que tipifica ambos casos como miasis nosocomiales.

  16. Description of a Neotropical New Species of OxysarcodexiaTownsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

    Carina Souza

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Uma nova espécie de Oxysarcodexia Townsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae é descrita com base em espécimes machos. As espécies deste gênero de sarcofagídeos apresentam distribuição majoritariamente Neotropical, com algumas espécies ocorrendo também nas regiões Neártica, Australásia e Oceânica. As espécies deste gênero podem ser encontradas associadas à matéria orgânica em decomposição (fezes de mamíferos ou aves – espécies coprófilas e podem apresentar importância forense quando associadas a carcaças (fauna atraída e, em alguns casos, espécies que se criam. Fotografias digitais do hábito em vista lateral e da terminália em vistas lateral, posterior e ventral são apresentadas. Oxysarcodexia mineirensis sp. n. pertence ao “grupo Xarcophaga” (i.e. possui o falo alargado postero-distalmente e contém similaridades com Oxysarcodexia favorabilis (Lopes, 1935 devido à conformação da terminália, especialmente o formato do falo, semelhante a uma flor.

  17. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene Atividades antibacterianas de Myroides odoratimimus isolada de moscas varejeiras adultas (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) são independentes do gene metalo beta lactamase

    M.S. Dharne; A. K. Gupta; Rangrez, A.Y.; H.V. Ghate; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y S

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusio...

  18. Mitochondrial DNA sequence-based phylogenetic relationship among flesh flies of the genus Sarcophaga (Sarcophagidae: Diptera)

    Neelam Bajpai; Raghav Ram Tewari

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among flesh flies of the family Sarcophagidae has been based mainly on the morphology of male genitalia. However, the male genitalic character-based relationships are far from satisfactory. Therefore, in the present study mitochondrial DNA has been used as marker to unravel genetic relatedness and to construct phylogeny among five sympatric species of the genus Sarcophaga. Two mitochondrial genes viz., cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and NAD dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) were sequenced and genetic distance values were calculated on the basis of sequence differences in both the mitochondrial genes. The data revealed very few genetic difference among the five species for the COI and ND5 gene sequences.

  19. Primer registro de miasis por Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea) en Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae) de Panamá First record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea) in Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae) from Panama

    Daniel Medina; Manuel Rivera; Ricardo Cossio; Eduardo Medina; Sergio Bermúdez

    2009-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez un caso de miasis por larva de Sarcophagidae sobre Halinobatrachium fleishmanni colectada en el Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panamá), siendo éste el primer registro de miasis en anuros de la familia Centrolenidae.We report the first record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae, on the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium fleishmanni collected in the Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panama), representing the first record of myiasis for Centrolenidae anurans.

  20. Primer registro de miasis por Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea en Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae de Panamá First record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae (Diptera: Oestroidea in Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae from Panama

    Daniel Medina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez un caso de miasis por larva de Sarcophagidae sobre Halinobatrachium fleishmanni colectada en el Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panamá, siendo éste el primer registro de miasis en anuros de la familia Centrolenidae.We report the first record of myiasis by Sarcophagidae, on the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium fleishmanni collected in the Parque Nacional Soberanía (Panama, representing the first record of myiasis for Centrolenidae anurans.

  1. The use of DNA barcode for identifying species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): A preliminary survey.

    Madeira, Tais; Souza, Carina M; Cordeiro, Juliana; Thyssen, Patricia J

    2016-09-01

    Oxysarcodexia is one of the Neotropical richest genera within the Sarcophagidae family. Medical, veterinary and forensic importance of these flies are due to their association with corpses, cases of myiasis in humans and domestic animals, and being pathogen carriers. Regarding morphological identification, molecular techniques, especially the DNA-based ones, arise as useful alternatives or complementary methodologies for species identification. Thus, in this study we aimed to investigate the potential of the COI marker (barcode region) to delimit Oxysarcodexia species in comparison with the morphological identification criteria. A COI fragment was amplified and the length of the sequences after alignment were of 648bp (149 parsimoniously informative variable sites). According to the Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic tree, specimens of the same morphological species were clustered in monophyletic clades (82-100% bootstrap branch support). Species-level resolution thus achieved was successful, despite low interspecific divergence (1.8-2.3%) and since interspecific variation was higher than intraspecific divergence (0.1-1.2%). Therefore, the use of COI barcode sequences supports differentiation and identification of the Oxysarcodexia species studied. PMID:27260665

  2. Atratividade de diferentes iscas e sua relação com as fases de desenvolvimento ovariano em calliphoridae e sarcophagidae (insecta, diptera Attractiveness of differents baits and its relation with ovarian development fases in Calliphoridae ano Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Attrativeness of differents baits (fish, faeces and banana upon ovarian development fases of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae was evaluated. The insects were captured in Distrito Federal (urban area and Rio de Janeiro city (beach, zoological garden, urban area and Tijuca forest. The most frequent species captured were: Calliphoridae - Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 78,9% and Chtysomya puloria (Wiedemann, 1818 5,4% - and Sarcophagidae - Sarcophagula Wulp, 1887 2,3% and Peckya chrysostoma (Wiedemann. 1830 2,2%. Fish was more attractive to females of Calliphoridae flies in intense ovarian vitelogenesis, although banana atracted more flies with mature eggs. Faeces and fish were more atractive for Sarcophagidae in the beggining of vitelogenesis.

  3. Primer Reporte de Huevos de Mosca de la Carne (Diptera: Sarcophagidae en Pristimantis achatinus (Anura: Craugastoridae de Colombia -resumen-

    Sebastian Escobar-Vargas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de un proyecto para el estudio de la microflora bacteriana gramnegativa asociada a la cloaca de ranas de la especie Pristimantis achatinus‚ se hizo el hallazgo de huevos de individuos de la familia Sarcophagidae (Díptera depositados en la cloaca de una de las ranas. El material cloacal fue extraído con micropipetas de punta amarilla (10-100µL y fue disuelto en caldo peptonado e incubado a 37°C durante 24 horas. Posteriormente‚ 0‚1mL de la muestra fueron sembrados por extensión en cajas de Petri con agar cristal violeta.‚ y transcurridas 72 horas de incubación a la misma temperatura‚ se encontraron 12 larvas de Dípteros correspondientes a la familia Sarcophagidae en una de las cajas petri‚ cuyo tamaño se encontraba alrededor de 0‚8mm de longitud. Se plantean varias hipótesis de la causa por la cual estos huevos se encontrasen en la cloaca. Una es que un adulto de Sarcophagidae haya sido ingerido‚ y sus huevos hayan sobrevivido al viaje a través del tracto digestivo del P. achatinus‚ sin embargo nunca ha sido reportado individuos de Sarcophagidae en la dieta de P. achatinus en ninguno de sus estados. Además‚ Se propone también la hipótesis de que puede tratarse de un caso de parasitismo‚ ya que algunas especies de la familia Sarcophagidae han sido categorizadas como parásitos asociados a varias familias de anuros‚ incluso en anuros del mismo género (P. thectopternus. A pesar de la información colectada es imposible concluir con certeza que esto es un caso de depredación o parasitismo‚ incluso cuando la evidencia externa permite suponer que esto es un caso de parasitismo.

  4. DNA-based identification of forensically important species of Sarcophagidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Napoleão, K S; Mello-Patiu, C A; Oliveira-Costa, J; Takiya, D M; Silva, R; Moura-Neto, R S

    2016-01-01

    Sarcophagidae, or flesh flies, are of great importance in forensic entomology, but their effective application requires precise taxonomic identification, which relies almost exclusively on characteristics of the male genitalia. Given that female flies and larvae are most abundant in animal carcasses or on corpses, precise morphological identification can be difficult; therefore, DNA sequencing can be an additional tool for use in taxonomic identification. This paper analyzes part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from three Sarcophagidae species of forensic importance in the City of Rio de Janeiro: Oxysarcodexia fluminensis, Peckia chrysostoma, and Peckia intermutans. COI fragments of 400 bp from 36 specimens of these three species were sequenced. No intraspecific differences were found among specimens of O. fluminensis, but P. chrysostoma and P. intermutans each had two haplotypes, ranging from 0 to 0.7%. The interspecific divergence was 8.5-11.6%, corroborating previously reported findings. PMID:27173314

  5. Primer Reporte de Huevos de Mosca de la Carne (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) en Pristimantis achatinus (Anura: Craugastoridae) de Colombia -resumen-

    Sebastian Escobar-Vargas; Mateo Marín-Martínez; Juan C Zuluaga-Izasa

    2014-01-01

    En el marco de un proyecto para el estudio de la microflora bacteriana gramnegativa asociada a la cloaca de ranas de la especie Pristimantis achatinus‚ se hizo el hallazgo de huevos de individuos de la familia Sarcophagidae (Díptera) depositados en la cloaca de una de las ranas. El material cloacal fue extraído con micropipetas de punta amarilla (10-100µL) y fue disuelto en caldo peptonado e incubado a 37°C durante 24 horas. Posteriormente‚ 0‚1mL de la muestra fueron sembrados por extensión e...

  6. The Sarcophagidae (Insecta: Diptera) described by Chien-ming Chao and Xue-zhong Zhang.

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ming; Li, Zijuan; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-nine species-group names of Sarcophagidae proposed by Chien-ming Chao and Xue-zhong Zhang are reviewed. Of these names, twenty-four are available, while five are unavailable nomina nuda. Of the twenty-four available names, nine are considered valid, fifteen as invalid: thirteen junior synonyms, one unnecessary replacement name and one junior primary homonym. Holotypes of all species, and allotypes when available, are photographed and the species redescribed based on the type material. Eight new synonyms are proposed: Miltogramma tibita Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Miltogramma taeniata Meigen, 1824; Sphenometopa luridimacula Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Sphenometopa stackelbergiana Rohdendorf, 1967; Sphenometopa mesomelaenae Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Sphenometopa stelviana (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891); Sphenometopa altajica Rohdendorf, 1971, syn. n. of Sphenometopa stelviana (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891); Sarcophila mongolica Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Sarcophila latifrons (Fallén, 1817); Wohlfahrtia brevicornis Chao & Zhang, 1996, syn. n. of Wohlfahrtia grunini Rohdendorf, 1969; Wohlfahrtia hirtiparafacialis Chao & Zhang, 1996, syn. n. of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner, 1862); and Wohlfahrtiodes mongolicus Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Asiosarcophila kaszabi Rohdendorf & Verves, 1978. The genus Asiosarcophila Rohdendorf & Verves, 1978 is herewith reported from China for the first time, along with the five species A. kaszabi, M. taeniata, S. stackelbergiana, S. stelviana and W. grunini. PMID:25947705

  7. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene Atividades antibacterianas de Myroides odoratimimus isolada de moscas varejeiras adultas (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são independentes do gene metalo beta lactamase

    M.S. Dharne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp. and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS. The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery.Moscas varejeiras (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são causa conhecida de miíase e as bactérias de seus intestinos nunca foram estudadas quanto à atividade antibacteriana. Estudos antimicrobianos de Myroides spp restringem-se à cepas hospitalares. Uma bactéria Gram negativa, Myroides sp, foi isolada do intestino de moscas varejeiras adultas (Sarcophaga sp e submetida

  8. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): micromorphology of preimaginal stages of a fly of medical and veterinary interest.

    Paños-Nicolás, Ángela; Arnaldos, M Isabel; García, Ma Dolores; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2015-11-01

    Sarcophagids are a large family of Diptera, with a worldwide distribution. They are related to decomposing organic matter and are very interesting for health science and in forensic cases since many species produce myiasis and occur in human corpses. This family is considered difficult to study, particularly with regard to their immature stages, to which little attention has been paid. Genus Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826 is composed of species of very similar morphology, making very difficult to distinguish. Knowledge of the immature stages of this genus is important because such stages occupy the greater part of the life cycle, so that establishing a basis for their identification will increase their usefulness in systematic and applied sciences. This contribution presents a detailed study of the morphological features, both external and internal, of the preimaginal stages of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart, 1851, providing a taxonomical context for the correct identification of Liosarcophaga species of forensic interest in the Iberian Peninsula. Both light and scanning electron microscopy were applied. Complete descriptions of every stage are provided and illustrated, and their usefulness for species comparison, taking into account our uneven knowledge of morphologically immature stages of this subgenus, is indicated. Features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, such as the shape of the mouth hook and the intermediate and basal sclerites, and external morphology, such as the pattern of spinose band and anterior and posterior spiracles, proved useful for separating species. Finally, tentative identification keys based on light microscopy observation to distinguish S. (L.) tibialis from other species of forensic interest belonging to Liosarcophaga subgenus are proposed for every immature stage. PMID:26227140

  9. Ultrastructure analysis of the immature stages of Ravinia belforti (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a species of medical-veterinary and forensic importance, by scanning electron microscopy.

    da-Silva-Xavier, Alexandre; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2016-07-01

    The postmortem interval is related to the age of immature species of flies found on corpses and can be estimated using data available in the literature on the biology of the species. The flesh fly Ravinia belforti is a carrier of enteric pathogens that can affect human and animal health as well as being of forensic importance. As the morphology of many immature Sarcophagidae is unknown, these immature forms must be collected and characterized after the emergence of the adult male. Here we describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the larvae stages L1, L2, L3 and the puparium of R. belforti by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ten specimens of each stage were analyzed. Larvae of R. belforti follow the typical muscoid vermiform pattern with 12 segments. The anterior region is pointed, while the posterior region is thicker. The spines of the cephalic collar are flattened and with double, triple or quadruple points, different from the spines along the body that only have a single point. In L2, the anterior spiracle is present with a varying number of papillae (16-22), differing from other species. The posterior spiracles are located within the peritreme. The spiracular cavity is internalized in the posterior region, following the pattern that differs Sarcophagidae from other families. L3 features more visible and developed spines around the cephalic collar, getting thicker and denser near to the first thoracic segment. Puparium is similar to other species of Sarcophagidae. This paper presents important data on this family which has both health and forensic importance. Furthermore, R. belforti shows significant differences from other species of Sarcophagidae. PMID:27072901

  10. Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae e Mesembrinellidae (Diptera da Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Leandro Silva Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro registro de dípteros das famílias Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae e Mesembrinellidae da Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL é apresentado e discutido, baseado em coletas realizadas no ano de 2007. Os exemplares foram capturados com o auxílio de armadilha adaptada de modelo proposto para lepidópteros, utilizando sardinha como isca e Malaise, além de coleta ativa com rede entomológica. Como resultado foram obtidos 1.253 espécimes, com destaque para as famílias Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae e Mesembrinellidae. É discutida a dualidade gerada pela presença de espécies com baixo grau de sinantropia e outras altamente sinantrópicas, caracterizando a área de coleta como uma região de transição entre áreas rural e florestal. A observação de espécies sinantrópicas está provavelmente correlacionada ao efeito de borda. Os resultados evidenciam a importância da criação de uma zona de amortecimento no entorno da EBSL com intuito de minimizar os impactos gerados às espécies nativas.

  11. Estudos sobre a fauna de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais. I- Levantamento taxonômico e Sinantrópico

    Edelberto Santos Dias

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se conhecer a fauna de Sarcophagidae da região de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, e se obter dados sobre seu comportamento, foram realizadas capturas sistemáticas em três áreas ecologicamente distintas, pelo período de um ano (maio de 1980 a abril de 1981. Para as capturas, foram utilizadas dois tipos de armadilhas apropriadas e cinco tipos de iscas; peixe cru, carcaça de camundongo, v´sceras de galinha, banana amassada com rapadura e fezes humanas. Foi capturado um total de 10.097 espécimens, dos quais foram estudados 9.582 exemplares, representados por 25 espécies. O índice de sinantropia foi determinado segundo a metodologia de Nuorteva (1963. Foram obtidos índices variáveis de sinantropia para as 25 espécies analisadas, sendo as mais sinantrópicas Parasarcophaga ruficornis (IS = + 94,7 e Bercaea haemorrhoidalis (IS = + 84,3, e as mais assinantrópicas Euboettcheria florencioi (IS = - 98,8 e Oxysarcodexia augusta (IS = - 96,9.Over a period of one year (May, 1980 to April, 1981, systematic collections of Sarcophagidae were made in three ecologically distinct areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Two types of traps and five types of bait were used: raw fish, carcasses of mice, viscera of chickens, banana mashed with sugar, and human faeces. Of the total of 10,097 specimens captured, the 9,582 studied included 25 species. Indices of synanthropy (I.S. for the 25 species varied considerably. The most synanthropic were Parasarcophaga ruficornis (I.S. = + 94.7 and Bercaea haemorrhoidalis (I.S. = + 84.3, and the least were Euboettcheria florencioi (I.S. = - 98.8 and Oxysarcodexia augusta (I.S. = - 96.9.

  12. Contribuição ao conhecimento das larvas dos Sarcophagidae com especial referência ao esqueleto cefálico (Diptera

    H. de Souza Lopes

    1943-01-01

    Full Text Available The author publishes a comparative study of eleven species of Sarcophagid flies and gives a redescription of the larval stages of Musca domestica L. as a model. The work was made upon material obtained from Sarcophagidae reared in the Laboratory. Some of them were parasitic flies from Insects and other invertebrates. Protodexia was reared using the domestic cockroach (Periplaneta americana instead of the Orthroptera or Mantodea its true hosts. The larvae obtained by dissection of female abdomen was reared in flesh or agarhorse serum. The last proceeding is very good since the skins of all larval stages can be conserved for study and it is possible to observe the ecdyses. Some of the larvae prefer dead snails (Bulimulus and Fruticicola and is able to destroy larvae of other species found in the same molluscs. The first stage maggot can be obtained by dissections of dried female specimens and furnishes very good characters to determine the species and establish the philogenetical relationship of the genera in the family. Th pseudocephalon presents very curious ornaments or grooves in some species (Oxysarcodexia. Sometimes there is a pigmented capsule covering a great part of the pseudocephalon (Titanogrypa. The cephaloskeletal sclerietes have a peculiar shape and constitution for every species, mainly in the first stage maggot.

  13. Cytogenetics of the neotropical flesh fly Pattonela intermutans (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

    Patricia Pasquali Parise-Maltempi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Pattonella intermutans has 2n = 12 chromosomes including three metacentric and two submetacentric pairs of autosomes and an XX/XY sex chromosome pair. The autosomes are characterized by the presence of a C band in the pericentromeric region while sex chromosomes are totally heterochromatic. The FISH technique showed a nucleolar organizer region (NOR in autosome IV.Neste trabalho está descrito o cariótipo detalhado de Pattonella intermutans. Esta espécie apresenta 2n = 12 cromossomos: três pares de autossômos metacêntricos e dois submetacêntricos e um par de cromossomos sexuais XX/XY. Os autossomos são caracterizados pela presença de bandas C nas regiões pericentroméricas e os cromossomos sexuais são totalmente heterocromáticos. A técnica de FISH detectou a NOR no autossomo IV.

  14. Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Flesh Fly (Dip¬tera: Sarcophagidae in a Patient with Eye Malignancy in Iran

    H Razmjou

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of ophthalmomyiasis in a male patient with basal cell carcinoma. During the operation several live and motile maggots were removed from the lesion. Preliminary examination on the larvae confirmed their affiliation to the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae.This genus is widely distributed throughout the world and species are very difficult to identify. The authors made at¬tempt to approach species identification by rearing larvae to the adult flesh flies, but due to shortage of adult male specimen, reliable diagnosis in the level of species was not obtained. Possible interaction between ocular myiasis and malignancy concerning the case has not been addressed in this paper.

  15. Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Flesh Fly (Dip¬tera: Sarcophagidae in a Patient with Eye Malignancy in Iran

    H Razmjou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of ophthalmomyiasis in a male patient with basal cell carcinoma. During the operation several live and motile maggots were removed from the lesion. Preliminary examination on the larvae confirmed their affiliation to the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae.This genus is widely distributed throughout the world and species are very difficult to identify. The authors made at¬tempt to approach species identification by rearing larvae to the adult flesh flies, but due to shortage of adult male specimen, reliable diagnosis in the level of species was not obtained. Possible interaction between ocular myiasis and malignancy concerning the case has not been addressed in this paper.

  16. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu; Maria Lígia Paseto; Lucas S. de Faria; Júlio Mendes; Arício X Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) carcas...

  17. Morphological and Molecular Evolution of Flesh Flies of Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana

    studied, we reconstructed the evolutionaryrelationships within the largest radiation of flesh flies using mostly male genitalic characters. 43 outof 49 of the genera of the current classification were recognized, and consequently, 6 genericsynonyms were proposed. We discussed morphological synapomorphies...

  18. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae)

    Mattias Hagman; Thomas Pape; Rainer Schulte

    2005-01-01

    In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates) are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  19. Review of the genus Agria (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) from China

    Zhang, Ming; Chen, Yi-ou; Pape, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Agria mihalyii (Rohdendorf and Verves, 1978) is recorded from China for the first time, and both sexes are thoroughly documented using a combination of illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscopy images. The generic affiliation is corroborated from an expanded definition of genus...... Agria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, and a key to males of the two known species from China is provided. The distribution of coeloconic sensilla on the male pre- and postgonite are shown to possess significant diagnostic and phylogenetic information in this genus....

  20. Interespecific competition between Peckia chrysostoma and Adiscochaeta ingens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) larvae reared in laboratory

    Marisa Vianna Ferraz

    1993-01-01

    Groups of 10 and 20 first instar larvae of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830) were combined in a proteic source media with groups of the same number of first instar larvae of Adiscochaeta ingens (Walker, 1849) under the environmental conditions of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. P. chrysostoma and A. ingens obtained average competitive potentials of 94.0 ± 2.0% and 31.0 ± 5.0% respectively. In the second experiment, larvae of P. chrysostoma were introduced approximately 15 hr after the introduc...

  1. Interespecific competition between Peckia chrysostoma and Adiscochaeta ingens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae larvae reared in laboratory

    Marisa Vianna Ferraz

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Groups of 10 and 20 first instar larvae of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 were combined in a proteic source media with groups of the same number of first instar larvae of Adiscochaeta ingens (Walker, 1849 under the environmental conditions of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. P. chrysostoma and A. ingens obtained average competitive potentials of 94.0 ± 2.0% and 31.0 ± 5.0% respectively. In the second experiment, larvae of P. chrysostoma were introduced approximately 15 hr after the introduction of A. ingens larvae (whose majority had already passed to the second instar in the media. The corresponding average competitive potential of P. chrysostoma (82.0 ± 2.0% was decreased when compared to the first experiment, but still greater than that of A. ingens (64.5 ± 9.5%. The competitive potential of A. ingens, however, increased significatively, demonstrating the influence of its previous colonization in the media for achieving a higher viability. In both experiments the competitive potential of P. chrysostoma was greater and similar to observations cited in the literature. Control-groups of each species were observed, individually, for the comparison. The mean value obtained for P. chrysostoma was 94.0 ± 3.7% (0.0% [experiment 1] and only 12.8% [experiment 2] greater than the average competitive factor. For A. ingens the average was 86.0 ± 7.3% (64.0% [experiment 1] and 25.0% [experiment 2] greater than average competitive factor.

  2. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae

    Mattias Hagman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  3. New records of Sarcophagidae species (Diptera) with forensic potential in Rio de Janeiro

    Guaraci dos Santos Dias; Janyra Oliveira-Costa; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTSarcophagidae species are frequent and abundant in the decomposition process of corpses and, consequently, play an important role as a tool for the application of Forensic Entomology. Helicobia pilifera Lopes, 1939, Microcerella erythropyga (Lopes, 1936), Oxysarcodexia fringidea Curran & Walley, 1934 and Peckia (Peckia) pexata(Wulp, 1895) were recorded for the first time in a Forensic Entomology experiment in Rio de Janeiro, using domestic pig carcasses as substrate.

  4. Aspectos bionômicos de Squamatoides trivittatus (Diptera, Sarcophagidae sob condições de laboratório Bionomical aspects of de Squamatoides trivittatus (Diptera, Sarcophagidae under laboratory conditions

    Ricardo JB Salviano

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiments with Squamatoides trivitattus were carried out in two different controlled temperatures (16±1°C/50-60% RH and 27±1°C/70-80% RH. The viability of larvae and pupae at 27°C was 89.82% and 92.75% respectively. Larvae did not develop at 16°C. Larval development lasted for 20±4 hr, 16±8 hr and 60±7 hr for the first, second and third instars, respectively, completing a total of 96±6 hr. The mean pupal period lasted for 15.7±1.6 days. In longevity tables for the adults, life-expectancy for 50% of the colony submitted to 16°C was of 1.78 weeks for males and 2.42 for females. At 27°C a life-expectancy of 1.15 weeks for males and 0.78 week for females was recorded. The average life-spans for males and females at 16°C were 3.5±2.0 and 3.8±2.6 weeks, respectively, and 1.9±1.2 weeks for both sexes. At 27°C, the longevity recorded was of 2.1±1.3 weeks for males and 1.7±1.1 week for females.

  5. A mathematical model applied for assisting the estimation of PMI in a case of forensic importance. First record of Conicera similis (Diptera: Phoridae) in a corpse.

    García-Rojo, A M; Martínez-Sánchez, A; López, R; García de la Vega, J M; Rica, M; González, M; Disney, R H L

    2013-09-10

    We present a forensic case associated with skeletonized human remains found inside a cistern in a coastal town located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Valencian Regional Government, Spain). In order to analyse the particular environmental conditions that occurred during oviposition and development of the collected insects, estimated temperatures at the crime scene were calculated by a predictive mathematical model. This model analyses the correlation between the variability of the internal temperature depending on the variability of the external ones. The amplitude of the temperature oscillations inside the tank and the containment of the enclosure is reduced by the presence of water. Such variation occurred within about 2h due to the time required for heat exchange. The differential equations employed to model differences between outdoor and indoor temperatures were an essential tool which let us estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) that was carried out by the study of the insect succession and the development time of the collected Diptera specimens under the adjusted temperatures. The presence of live larvae and pupae of Sarcophagidae and empty pupae of Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Piophilidae and the decomposition stage suggested the possibility that the remains were in the tank at least a year. We highlight the absence of Calliphora and Lucilia spp., and the first occurrence of the phorid Conicera similis in a human cadaver among the entomological evidence. PMID:23845917

  6. The role of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the CNS metamorphosis in flesh fly (Neobellieria bullata) larvae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Myška, Petr; Žďárek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2005), s. 21-26. ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/01/0501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : ecdysteroids * metamorphosis behaviour * pupariation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2005

  7. Conversion of Solid Organic Wastes into Oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Larvae and Optimization of Parameters for Biodiesel Production

    Yang, Sen; Li, Qing; Zeng, Qinglan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-01-01

    The feedstocks for biodiesel production are predominantly from edible oils and the high cost of the feedstocks prevents its large scale application. In this study, we evaluated the oil extracted from Boettcherisca peregrine larvae (BPL) grown on solid organic wastes for biodiesel production. The oil contents detected in the BPL converted from swine manure, fermentation residue and the degreased food waste, were 21.7%, 19.5% and 31.1%, respectively. The acid value of the oil is 19.02 mg KOH/g ...

  8. Conversion of solid organic wastes into oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) larvae and optimization of parameters for biodiesel production.

    Yang, Sen; Li, Qing; Zeng, Qinglan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-01-01

    The feedstocks for biodiesel production are predominantly from edible oils and the high cost of the feedstocks prevents its large scale application. In this study, we evaluated the oil extracted from Boettcherisca peregrine larvae (BPL) grown on solid organic wastes for biodiesel production. The oil contents detected in the BPL converted from swine manure, fermentation residue and the degreased food waste, were 21.7%, 19.5% and 31.1%, respectively. The acid value of the oil is 19.02 mg KOH/g requiring a two-step transesterification process. The optimized process of 12∶1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1.5% H(2)SO(4) reacted at 70°C for 120 min resulted in a 90.8% conversion rate of free fatty acid (FFA) by esterification, and a 92.3% conversion rate of triglycerides into esters by alkaline transesterification. Properties of the BPL oil-based biodiesel are within the specifications of ASTM D6751, suggesting that the solid organic waste-grown BPL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23029331

  9. Eavesdropping to Find Mates: The Function of Male Hearing for a Cicada-Hunting Parasitoid Fly, Emblemasoma erro (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Stucky, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Females of several species of dipteran parasitoids use long-range hearing to locate hosts for their offspring by eavesdropping on the acoustic mating calls of other insects. Males of these acoustic eavesdropping parasitoids also have physiologically functional ears, but so far, no adaptive function for male hearing has been discovered. I investigated the function of male hearing for the sarcophagid fly Emblemasoma erro Aldrich, an acoustic parasitoid of cicadas, by testing the hypothesis that both male and female E. erro use hearing to locate potential mates. I found that both male and nongravid female E. erro perform phonotaxis to the sounds of calling cicadas, that male flies engage in short-range, mate-finding behavior once they arrive at a sound source, and that encounters between females and males at a sound source can lead to copulation. Thus, cicada calling songs appear to serve as a mate-finding cue for both sexes of E. erro Emblemasoma erro's mate-finding behavior is compared to that of other sarcophagid flies, other acoustic parasitoids, and nonacoustic eavesdropping parasitoids. PMID:27382133

  10. Comparative morphology and identification key for females of nine Sarcophagidae species (Diptera with forensic importance in Southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe identification of female flesh flies was always considered a difficult task since morphological descriptions and keys for females are rare. Even in a forensic entomology framework, where females play a major role, female flesh flies are usually not identified. In order to fill this gap in Southern Brazil fauna we provide detailed descriptions and key for the female of nine species included in four genera: Microcerella halli (Engel, Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis (Mattos, Oxysarcodexia riograndensis (Lopes, Peckia (Euboettcheria australis (Townsend, Peckia(Euboettcheria florencioi (Prado and Fonseca, Peckia (Pattonella intermutans (Walker, Peckia(Pattonella resona (Lopes, Peckia (Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, and Sarcophaga(Bercaea africa (Wiedemann. These species are distinguished mainly by genital characters as tergite 6 divided or undivided, presence of tergite 8, spermatheca morphology and vaginal plate shape.

  11. ULTRA STRUCTURE OF THE MID-GUT OF THE THIRD INSTAR LARVAE OF SARCOPHAGA AEGYPTIACA (DIPTERA: SARCOPHAGIDAE

    Mohamed Salah Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mid-gut of third instar larvae of Sarcophag aegyptiaca was divided into anterior, middle and posterior mid-gut regions. A well-developed peritrophic membrane appeared in the apical part of the anterior and middle portions of mid-gut while it is absent from the posterior portion. The microvilli differs in 3 portions, appeared as apical membrane in the anterior portion, sparse in middle portion to long slender compact microvilli in posterior portion. Numerous organelles were observed throughout the cytoplasm of the 3 portions; lipid spheres, rough endoplasmic reticulum, seceretory vesicles and mitochondria. A large apically nucleus appeared in the 3 portion of mid-gut. A basal labyrinth was observed in both anterior and posterior regions of mid-gut while it was absent in middle portion of mid-gut. Thin basement membrane was observed in the 3 portions of mid-gut of third instar larvae of Sarcophag aegyptiaca.

  12. Distribution and Abundance of Necrophagous Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) in Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil

    Pereira de Sousa, José Roberto; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at surveying the local calliphorid and sarcophagid species in Maranhão State (Brazil) to determine their distribution and abundance, as well as the distribution of exotic Chrysomya species. In total, 18,128 calliphorid specimens were collected, distributed in 7 genera and 14 species. The species Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 1969) were new state records. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) and Cochliomyia macellaria (F., 1775) wer...

  13. The Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of Southern South America. I. The species of Microcerella Macquart from the Patagonian Region.

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Olea, María Sofía

    2015-01-01

    A revision is given of the species placed in the genus Microcerella Macquart, known from the southern extreme of South America, the so-called Patagonian Region. A new diagnosis of the genus is given on the basis of the revision of a large number of Neotropical species. A total of 25 valid species are recognized in the region. Most of these (21 species) are divided into four species-groups on the basis of general groundplan of genitalia and external characters. Four new species are described, M. deliae sp. nov., M. holmbergi sp. nov., M. nataliae sp. nov. and M. paetoi sp. nov. One new synonymy is established: Austrohartigia shannoni Lopes as a new junior synonym of Microcerella spinosa (Hall), syn. nov. A lectotype is designated for Doringia subandina Blanchard [a junior synonym of Microcerella spinigena (Rondani)]. Two species are recorded from Argentina for the first time: M. chicoensis (Lopes) and M. engeli (Hall). Three nominal species were not examined and are treated as nomina dubia within Microcerella: M. apicalis (Townsend), M. rufomaculata Macquart and M. sarcophagina Thomson. An illustrated key is provided to the males of Patagonian species of Microcerella allowing for separation of 25 species. Additionally, a series of images of male genitalia based on color photography and illustrations is provided to aid in the identification of these species of Microcerella. Biological information is given for the species, where known. PMID:25781852

  14. Comparative morphology and identification key for females of nine Sarcophagidae species (Diptera) with forensic importance in Southern Brazil

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Mauricio Osvaldo Moura; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe identification of female flesh flies was always considered a difficult task since morphological descriptions and keys for females are rare. Even in a forensic entomology framework, where females play a major role, female flesh flies are usually not identified. In order to fill this gap in Southern Brazil fauna we provide detailed descriptions and key for the female of nine species included in four genera: Microcerella halli (Engel), Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis (Mattos), Oxysarcod...

  15. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy

    M. Pezzi; Whitmore, D; Chicca, M; Lanfredi, M.; Leis, M

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The attached file is the published version of the article. We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in Au...

  16. Cuticular hydrocarbons as a tool for the identification of insect species: Puparial cases from Sarcophagidae

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria; Matsumoto, Nana; Blomquist, Gary James

    2013-01-01

    The external surface of all insects is covered by a species-specific complex mixture of highly stable, very long chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify CHCs from four species of Sarcophagidae, Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma, Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans, Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis and Sarcodexia lambens. The identified CHCs were mostly a mixture of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with linear chain lengths varying from 23 to 33 carbons. Only two alkenes were found in all four species. S. lambens had a composition of CHCs with linear chain lengths varying from C23 to C33, while the other three species linear chain lengths from 24 to 31 carbons. n-Heptacosane, n-nonacosane and 3-methylnonacosane, n-triacontane and n-hentriacontane occurred in all four species. The results show that these hydrocarbon profiles may be used for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and are a useful additional tool for taxonomic classification, especially when only parts of the insect specimen are available. PMID:23932943

  17. Key to the adults of the most common forensic species of Diptera in South America Chave de identificação para as espécies comuns de Diptera da América do Sul de interesse forense

    Claudio José Barros de Carvalho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Flies (Diptera, blow flies, house flies, flesh flies, horse flies, cattle flies, deer flies, midges and mosquitoes are among the four megadiverse insect orders. Several species quickly colonize human cadavers and are potentially useful in forensic studies. One of the major problems with carrion fly identification is the lack of taxonomists or available keys that can identify even the most common species sometimes resulting in erroneous identification. Here we present a key to the adults of 12 families of Diptera whose species are found on carrion, including human corpses. Also, a summary for the most common families of forensic importance in South America, along with a key to the most common species of Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Fanniidae and to the genera of Sarcophagidae are provided. Drawings of the most important characters for identification are also included.Diptera (califorídeos, sarcofagídeos, motucas, moscas comuns e mosquitos é a uma das quatro ordens megadiversas de insetos. Diversas espécies desta ordem podem rapidamente colonizar cadáveres humanos e são de utilidade potencial para estudos de entomologia forense. Um dos maiores problemas com moscas que visitam matéria orgânica animal em decomposição é a falta de taxonomistas ou chaves de identificação disponíveis que possam identificar as espécies mais comuns ou mesmo, algumas vezes podendo resultar em identificações errôneas. Neste artigo é apresentada uma chave para adultos de 12 famílias de Diptera com espécies encontradas em matéria orgânica animal em decomposição, incluindo cadáveres humanos. Também é incluído um sumário das mais importantes famílias com espécies de interesse forense na América do Sul e chave de identificação das espécies mais comuns de Calliphoridae, Muscidae e Fanniidae e dos gêneros de Sarcophagidae. Esquemas dos mais importantes caracteres utilizados para identificação dessas espécies são também incluídos.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae and the evolutionary timescale of Tachinid flies.

    Zhe Zhao

    Full Text Available Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae, which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene.

  19. Diptera. Chapter 10

    Marcela Skuhravá

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5% in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Europe. These invasives native to other European countries are composed of 14 species of Cecidomyiidae, seven Syrphidae, five Culicidae and three species each of Anthomyiidae and Tephritidae. The date of the first record in Europe is known for 84 alien species. Arrivals of alien species of Diptera have accelerated rapidly since the second half of the 20th century. North America appears to be the dominant contributor of the alien flies. The majority of alien Diptera were introduced into or within Europe unintentionally, with only three predators released intentionally for biological control. Alien Diptera are predominantly phytophagous (35.6%, while a lesser portion are zoophagous (28.6% or detrivorous/mycetophagous (29.6%. Ecological impacts on native fauna and flora have not been documented for any of the alien species established in Europe. However, 14 alien species have economic impacts on crops.

  20. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  1. New records of calyptrate dipterans (Fanniidae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae associated with the decomposition of domestic pigs in Brazil

    Rodrigo Rocha Barbosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The calyptrate dipterans are the most important decomposers of human cadavers. Knowledge of their species and distribution are of great importance to forensic entomology, especially because of the enormous diversity in Brazil. Carcasses of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa, L were the experimental models used to attract calyptrates of forensic interest during the winters of 2006 and 2007 and the summers of 2006 and 2008. A total of 24,423 specimens from 44 species were collected (19 Muscidae, 2 Fanniidae and 23 Sarcophagidae, three of which were new records of occurrence and 20 of which were new forensic records for the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fourteen of these species were newly identified as forensically important in Brazil.

  2. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  3. Useless hearing in male Emblemasoma auditrix (Diptera, Sarcophagidae--a case of intralocus sexual conflict during evolution of a complex sense organ?

    Reinhard Lakes-Harlan

    Full Text Available Sensory modalities typically are important for both sexes, although sex-specific functional adaptations may occur frequently. This is true for hearing as well. Consequently, distinct behavioural functions were identified for the different insect hearing systems. Here we describe a first case, where a trait of an evolutionary novelty and a highly specialized hearing organ is adaptive in only one sex. The main function of hearing of the parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix is to locate the host, males of the cicada species Okanagana rimosa, by their calling song. This task is performed by female flies, which deposit larvae into the host. We show that male E. auditrix possess a hearing sense as well. The morphology of the tympanal organ of male E. auditrix is rather similar to the female ear, which is 8% broader than the male ear. In both sexes the physiological hearing threshold is tuned to 5 kHz. Behavioural tests show that males are able to orient towards the host calling song, although phonotaxis often is incomplete. However, despite extensive observations in the field and substantial knowledge of the biology of E. auditrix, no potentially adaptive function of the male auditory sense has been identified. This unique hearing system might represent an intralocus sexual conflict, as the complex sense organ and the behavioural relevant neuronal network is adaptive for only one sex. The correlated evolution of the sense organ in both sexes might impose substantial constraints on the sensory properties of the ear. Similar constraints, although hidden, might also apply to other sensory systems in which behavioural functions differ between sexes.

  4. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    David B. Rivers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis targets brain tissue and fat body from its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata. By 1 h postenvenomation, some brain neurons began to show irregularities in nuclear shape, and though they were predominately euchromatic, there was evidence of heterochromatin formation. Irregularity in the nuclear envelope became more prominent by 3 h after envenomation, as did the condensation of heterochromatin. The severity of ultrastructural changes continued to increase until at least 24 h after parasitoid attack. At this point, cellular swelling and extensive heterochromatic inclusions were evident, multivesicular bodies occurred in the cytoplasm of some cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated in many of the cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant apoptosis in neurons located in brain tissues. By contrast, there was no evidence of any morphological or ultrastructural disturbances in fat body tissues up to 24 h after envenomation, nor did any of the cells display signs of cell death.

  5. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus carcasses, and the experiments were conducted in areas of pasture and semideciduous forest. A total of 85,694 adult flesh flies belonging to 57 species were collected from all carcasses. New records for nine species of Sarcophaginae are provided, including the first record of Blaesoxipha (Acridiophaga caridei (Brèthes, 1906 to Brazil, and new occurrences of the following species for the Cerrado and/or for the state of Minas Gerais: Blaesoxipha (Acanthodotheca acridiophagoides (Lopes & Downs, 1951, Malacophagomyia filamenta (Dodge, 1964, Nephochaetopteryx orbitalis (Curran & Walley, 1934, Nephochaetopteryx cyaneiventris Lopes, 1936, Nephochaetopteryx pallidiventris Townsend, 1934, Oxysarcodexia occulta Lopes, 1946, Ravinia effrenata (Walker, 1861 and Sarcophaga (Neobellieria polistensis (Hall, 1933.

  6. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  7. Registro de Peckia (Squamatodes trivittata (Curran (Diptera, Sarcophagidae parasitada por Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae no cerrado de Brasília, DF Record of Peckia (Squamatodes trivittata (Curran (Diptera, Sarcophagidae parasited by Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae in the cerrado of Brasília, DF

    Rodrigo Meneses de Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Julho de 2004, foram observados adultos de G. semirufa atacando larvas de Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 enquanto estas se alimentavam de carcaça de porco Sus scrofa em área de cerrado. Em Dezembro do mesmo ano, no mesmo local, larvas de terceiro instar de P. trivittata foram coletadas em outra carcaça de porco e levadas ao laboratório. As larvas foram criadas em condições naturais. Das 31 pupas obtidas, emergiram 19 adultos de G. semirufa e seis adultos de P. trivittata, correspondendo a uma prevalência de 61% de parasitismo.In July 2004, adults of G. semirufa were observed attacking maggots of Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 while feeding on a Sus scrofa carcass in a cerrado area. In December of the same year, in the same location, third instar maggots of P. trivittata were collected from another pig carcass and taken to laboratory. They were reared in natural conditions. 19 adults of G. semirufa and six adults of P. trivittata emerged from the 31 pupae we had obtained previously, corresponding to 61% of parasitic prevalence.

  8. FREQUÊNCIA DE MOSCAS (DIPTERA,CYCLORRAPHA DE IMPORTÂNCIA MÉDICO VETERINÁRIA NO ZOOLÓGICO DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO MATO GROSSO, BRASIL, 1.

    LUCIANO ANTUNES BARROS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available FREQUENCE OF FLIES WITH VETERINARY IMPORTANCE AT THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF MATO GROSSO (UFMT/BRAZIL. From january until december 1996 were used three Wind Oriented Traps (WOT with different baits: banana, feces and fish. The traps have been installed in different places in the zoological garden. The inspection of the WOT was made at every 72 hours. The flies collected were classified, using the key proposed by James (1964. During the experiment period 3563 diptera have been captured, that is 90,18% (3213 classified as Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae, and 9,82% (350 don´t classified. The WOT, who captured the major number of flies, was the one baited with fish. The genera Chrysomyia was prevalent over any other genera during all the year, with major number (852 specimens captured in september. The genera Sarcophaga presented greater number captured in july (201 specimens . From january until march Chrysomyia prefered the banana baited trap.

  9. Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    Jere Kahanpää; Kaj Winqvist; Theo Zeegers

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera ’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae , Asilidae , Athericidae , Bombyliidae , Mythicomyiidae , Rhagionidae , Scenopinidae , Stratiomyidae , Tabanidae , Therevidae , Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae .

  10. GNATHOPLEURA SEMIRUFA (BRULLÉ, 1846 PARASITOID OF DIPTEROUS SYNANTHROPIC IN SOUTHERN OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Carlos H MARCHIORI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé, 1846 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitizing Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in Brazil. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. The percentage of parasitism of O. thornax, P. chrysostoma and S. lambens was 24.6%, 35.7% and 17.0%, respectively.

  11. Droogboeketten als vector voor exoten (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    Smit, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Everlasting flowers as a vector for exotic insects (Diptera: Tephritidae)? In this paper two rearing occasions of exotic fruit fly species of the genus Terellia are documented. Terellia fuscicornis (Loew, 1844) was reared from a ‘tropical’ plant (probably a thistle species) of unknown origin. Terellia longicauda (Meigen, 1830) was reared from Cirsium rivulare from southern France. On both occasions the plants were left to dry to serve as everlasting flowers. The differences between these exot...

  12. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Beatriz Vicoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot, but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes. Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  13. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Pattonella intermutans (Thomson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae em diferentes dietas Post-embryonary development of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869 in different diets

    Marcio S. Loureiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste estudo foi de avaliar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869 em dietas artificiais preparadas com agar-agar. Dieta D1: leite em pó integral + fermento biológico; Dieta D2: leite em pó integral + fermento biológico + caseína; Dieta D3: leite em pó integral + ovo cru; Dieta D4: carne bovina moída (dieta controle. A carne bovina moída foi a dieta mais eficiente (peso larval de 195,63 mg e viabilidade de neolarva a adulto de 86,5%, quando comparada com as dietas artificiais. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos para o grupo experimental: Dieta D3: 180,15 mg e 63,5%; Dieta D2: 141,07 mg e 61% e na Dieta D1: 147,98 mg e 51,5%.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post-embryonary development of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1969 in artificial diets composed of agar-agar. Diet D1: whole dried milk + dried brewer's yeast; Diet D2: whole dried milk + dried brewer's yeast+ casein; Diet D3: whole dried milk + whole egg; Diet D4: bovine meal (control diet. The bovine meat was the best diet (larval weight 195.63mg and viability from larvae to adult 86,5%, when compared to all other artificial diets. The following performances were obtained for experimental groups: diet D3: 180.15 mg and 63.5%; diet D2: 141.07 mg and 61% and diet D1: 147.98 mg e 51.5%.

  14. The familes Lonchopteridae, Opetiidae and Pipunculidae of Malta (Diptera, Aschiza)

    Ebejer, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    An account is given of the three Aschiza families of Diptera: one species of Lonchopteridae, one species of Opetiidae and four species of Pipunculidae that occur in Malta and which are all new records for this country

  15. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  16. Revision of the subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    José Henrique Guimarães

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae is revised. Two genera are recognized: Rogenhofera Brauer (Type-species, trigonophora Brauer and Andinocutereba Guimarães (Type-species, fassleri Guimarães. Five species are recorded in Rogenhofera, one R. lopesi is described as new. Key to species, illustrations and distribution are presented.

  17. De wapenvlieg Clitellaria ephippium terug van weggeweest (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Korf, W.; Leij, van der, A.

    2000-01-01

    Clitellaria ephippium, rediscovered in the Netherlands after 100 years (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Clitellaria ephippium has been found in the Netherlands only between 1870 and 1880 near Venlo. In 1999 a female of this beautifully coloured fly was caught near Tegelen. This locality is very close to the first site, in the northern part of the province of Limburg.

  18. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  19. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  20. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  1. Vegetable leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their plant hosts in Bangladesh

    Mazumdar, S.; B.A. Bhuiya

    2014-01-01

    Most leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are serious polyphytophagous insect pests of vegetables. In the present communication an account of four species of agromyzid flies, viz., Liriomyza chinensis (Kato), L. sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Malloch and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) is provided. Of these, L. chinensis is new to Bangladesh fauna. All these agromyzids were reared from 17 economic vegetable host plants in Bangladesh.

  2. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  3. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque; Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Sheyla Regina Marques Couceiro; Neusa Hamada; Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro; Maria Conceição Messias

    2004-01-01

    Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  4. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author)

  5. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different reactions during flooding. Some larvae will move to drier parts, others remain on the spot. All species can survive for some time submerged in water, but the uptake of water can be a problem, especially in...

  6. De boorvlieg Tephritis acanthiophilopsis nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Smit, J.T.; Aartsen, van, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The fruitfly Tephritis acanthiophilopsis new for the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) The first record of Tephritis acanthiophilopsis Hering, 1938 for the Netherlands is presented. A single male was collected with a malaisetrap on the ‘Stampersplaat’, a shoal in the ‘Grevelingen’, just north of the town of Brouwershaven, province of Zeeland. The genus Tephritis Latreille, 1804 is characterized and the difference between the two Dutch species of the cometa-group is illustrated.

  7. De boorvlieg Trupanea amoena nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Smit, J.T.; Hamers, B

    2006-01-01

    The fruitfly Trupanea amoena new for the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) The first record of Trupanea amoena (Von Frauenfeld, 1857) is given. A female was photographed at the Kunderberg near the town of Voerendaal, province of Limburg. The genus is characterized and a key to the two Northwest European species is given, as well as the differences with the similar Tephritis cometa (Loew, 1840). All three species are illustrated and the distribution of both Trupanea species in the Netherlands...

  8. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881), E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830), E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), syn.: E. bicinc...

  9. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    Dana Malschi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and forecastof losses, protection and use of the natural reservoir of entomophagous in regional diptera populationslimitation, in cereal agroecosystems. The research proved the crucial role of entomophagous as naturalpredators, and their efficiency in decreasing wheat pests abundance, in normal conditions.

  10. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  11. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  12. Ocorrências da família Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Díptera) em carcaças de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Suidae) em Belém-PA, colonização da carcaça e sua relação com o tempo de morte do animal

    Paula Daniela Raiol Bitar de Araujo; Thaissa Fernandes da Silva Rodrigues; Gustavo Caminoto Geiser

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho visa verificar a ocorrência de Dípteros de interesse forense em uma carcaça de suíno, sua colonização e relação com o tempo de morte do animal, dando maior ênfase na família Sarcophagidae, por constituírem fauna constante e obrigatória de carcaça e por utilizarem esse substrato como sítio de procriação. O experimento foi realizado em uma área de mata, localizada nas dependências do Instituto de Pesquisa Museu Emílio Goeldi, em Belém-Pa. Foi utilizado como isca um suíno (Su...

  13. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    Valéria C Maia; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  14. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  15. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  16. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    Dana Malschi

    2009-01-01

    During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and f...

  17. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months ...

  18. A New Species of Chyliza (Diptera, Psilidae from Iran

    Khaghaninia S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A New Species of Chyliza (Diptera, Psilidae from Iran. Khaghaninia, S., Gharajedaghi, Ya. — Chyliza (Dasyna qaradaghi from Iran (type locality: Qaradagh Forests (Qala Deresi, East Azerbaijan Province is described. C. qaradaghi Khaghaninia et Gharajedaghi, sp. n. is similar to Chyliza (Dasyna extenuata (Rossi, 1790 in having arista thickened in basal third with dense black hairs and lacking anteroventral comb of black spinules on male fore tibia. New species differs from C. extenuata by head yellow, only occiput partly black and hind tibia largely black; C. extenuata has head completely black and hind tibia yellow. Both species differ also by the shape of male genitalia.

  19. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  20. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  1. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980. The number of true flies (Diptera known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase, Pipunculidae (98%, and Chironomidae (90%.

  2. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  3. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae. PMID:26003979

  4. Winter flight of flies (Diptera in Hongneung Arboretum, Seoul, Korea

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter phenology (diapause and activity of insects is expected to change more significantly than that of other seasons, because temperature will increase more in winter than in other seasons in temperate regions. However, studies on winter phenology of insects are rare. It is expected that winter flights of flies (Diptera will increase as climate warms. This study aims to find the relationship between flight of flies and temperature. The survey on flies and weather (temperature and rainfall was carried out in the Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, Korea. Flies were collected weekly from December 2012 to February 2013 using sweeping and Malaise trap. In the survey, 106 flies belonging to 28 morphospecies and 17 families were collected. Richness and abundance of flies were positively correlated with temperature.

  5. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Marcelo A Maldonado

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively; Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p < 0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p < 0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively.

  6. Polytene Chromosome Analysis of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Farzana Yesmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation constitutes a first effort to study the polytene chromosomes of Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae. It is a serious pest of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex group, infesting various types of fruits and vegetables in Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse each arm of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of this species individually. The tips, distinguishing characteristics as well as significant landmarks are recognized in each chromosome arm. Photographic illustrations of the chromosomes is presented and discussed. The information can be used for comparative studies among species of the tephritid genera which facilitate the development of novel control methods.

  7. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979

  8. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  9. Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae

    Márcia S. Couri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.

  10. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881, E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830, E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, syn.: E. bicincta Hull, 1971; and E. nuda Hull, 1971, syn.: E. shannoni Hull, 1971 - are proposed. A key to species are presented except to E. goyaz (Macquart, 1840 and E. aperta (Macquart, 1847, which were not included in this study, as no material was examined.

  11. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    L. Boumans; J.-Y. Zimmer; F. Verheggen

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central

  12. Checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera).

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  13. A New Species of Megarhyphus,an Interesting Discovery from the Lower Jurassic of England(Diptera,Anisopodidae)

    Ewa KRZEMI(N)SKA; Robert A. CORAM; Wies(l)aw KRZEMI(N)SKI

    2010-01-01

    The oldest representative of the genus Megarhyphus Kovalev(Diptera:Anisopodidae)is described from the Lower Jurassic(Sinemurian)of England.A summary of our knowledge of Jurassic Anisopodidae is given.

  14. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  15. Identification of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    Dvořák, V.; Halada, Petr; Hlaváčková, K.; Dokianakis, E.; Volf, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 21 (2014), s. 1-7. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : diptera * phlebotomine sand flies * MALDI * human pathogens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  16. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about...

  17. A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) from Chiapas, Mexico

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae), P. imitator, n. sp., is described from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species is compared to previously described species and diagnostic notes are presented for separation of Paraberismyia from Berismyia Giglio-Tos.

  18. Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae

    Márcia S. Couri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.Neodexiopsis Malloch da Bolivia com descrição de uma espécie nova (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae é um gênero muito bem representado na região Neotropical, conhecido por quase 100 espécies. Na Bolívia, ele é conhecido por apenas quatro espécies: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata e N. recedens, todas descritas por Stein. O estudo do material da América do Sul depositado no Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, permitiu a descrição de uma nova espécie para a ciência. Uma chave para o reconhecimento das cinco espécies presentes na Bolívia é fornecida.

  19. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  20. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas; Courtney, Greg W.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.; Meier, Rudolf; Yeates, David K.; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Wiegmann, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...

  1. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  2. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.

  3. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  4. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  5. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae Extratos de Melia azedarach L. e sua atividade sobre Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.Os extratos brutos e as frações obtidas das sementes de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae foram testados em Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Os bioensaios mostraram inibição no desenvolvimento pós-embrionário das moscas e um significativo aumento do período larva recém eclodida- adulto. Além disso, o peso pupal foi reduzido e a proporção sexual alterada. Foi observada toxicidade para os ovos das moscas.

  6. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae), a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci =...

  7. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  8. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  9. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  10. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  11. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  12. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics. PMID:24498743

  13. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation.

  14. Bioenergetic and kinematic consequences of limblessness in larval Diptera.

    Berrigan, D; Lighton, J R

    1993-06-01

    We report the cost of transport and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion by larval blowflies (Protophormia terraenovae, Diptera: Calliphoridae). We contrast inter- and intra-individual methods for estimating minimum cost of transport (MCOT) and the relationship between speed, contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction. The minimum cost of transport calculated from intra-individual data is 2297 +/- 317 J kg-1 m-1 (S.E.M.) and the MCOT calculated from inter-individual comparisons is statistically indistinguishable at 1910 +/- 327 J kg-1 m-1. These values are almost ten times higher than the predicted value for a similar-sized limbed arthropod. Fly larvae travel by repeated peristaltic contractions and individual contractions cost about the same amount as individual strides in limbed insects. Both contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction increase linearly with speed. Doubling the contraction frequency or the distance traveled per contraction approximately doubles speed. The cost of transport in fly larvae is among the highest recorded for terrestrial locomotion, confirming the suggestion that biomechanical and kinematic properties of limbless organisms with hydraulic skeletons lead to very high costs of transport. PMID:8340729

  15. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  16. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  17. Incidence of myiasis in Panama during the eradication of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel 1858, Diptera: Calliphoridae (2002-2005

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a study on myiasis in Panama during the first years of a Cochliomyia hominivorax eradication program (1998-2005, with the aim of investigating the behavior of the flies that produce myiasis in animals and human beings. The hosts that registered positive for myiasis were cattle (46.4%, dogs (15.3%, humans (14.7%, birds (12%, pigs (6%, horses (4%, and sheep (1%. Six fly species caused myiasis: Dermatobia hominis (58%, Phaenicia spp. (20%, Cochliomyia macellaria (19%, Chrysomya rufifacies (0.4%, and maggots of unidentified species belonging to the Sarcophagidae (3% and Muscidae (0.3%. With the Dubois index, was no evidence that the absence of C. hominivorax allowed an increase in the cases of facultative myiasis.

  18. Fauna and abundance of medically important flies of Muscidae and Fanniidae (Diptera) in Tehran, Iran

    MehdiKhoobdel; BehrozDavari

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the faunal diversity of Muscidae and Fanniidae flies in Tehran, Iran. Methods:A net-capturing by direct observing method and fly trap were used to capture adult flies. To determine the fauna of flies in different habitats, 4 biotopes including corpse (human, birds, livestock), garbage and decaying organic matters, animal carcasses and human indoor habitat were selected. Big hashing nets (95 cm in diameter) have been used for adult flies capture in these biotopes. Results: In this study, totally 2 418 adult flies from 8 families including Muscidae, Fanniidae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Tachinidae, Syrphidae, Anthomyiidae and Conopidae were captured. Among these, 1 279 belong to Muscidae and Fanniidae families. Four genera and 5 medically important species captured from two above mentioned families. Conclusions:Based on scientific documentation, 2 species of Muscina stabulans (M. stabulans) and Fannia scalaris (F. scalaris) are reported for the first time in Iran. However M. stabulans is a cosmopolitan species and its presence in Iran was probable.

  19. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  20. [Mode of formation of the flight muscles in a nematocerous Diptera].

    Lebart-Pedebas, M C; Auber, J

    1982-01-01

    An electron microscope study was conducted on the origin of the dorsal longitudinal muscles of a Nematocerous Diptera (Chironomus). These imaginal muscles arise from three pairs of slender larval muscles that are characterized by the presence of myoblasts located beneath the basal lamina and adhering to the sarcoplasmic membrane. During the last larval instar the myoblasts increase in number, each of the associated muscle fibers loses its contractile material and splits longitudinally into two to form six columns of sarcoplasm. Differentiation of the fibrillar material begins in each of the six muscle rudiments after the adhering myoblasts have become incorporated. There are several possible origins for these myoblasts: they may be embryonic cells that persist in association with the larval muscle fibers; or --as in the case of Cyclorrhaphous Diptera-- they may migrate from elsewhere to invest these fibers. PMID:7138012

  1. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  2. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  3. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in China.

    Zhang, Hengduan; Xing, Dan; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunxiao; Zhao, Tongyan

    2016-07-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is presented using traditional Sanger sequencing. Its mitogenome are 16,660 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a non-coding A + T rich region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition on heavy strand was as follows - A: 40.1%, G: 8.2%, C: 11.9%, T: 39.8% and the A + T content 79.9%. The results of phylogenetic analyzes showed that the Ae. albopictus has closed relationship with the family Culicidae and order Diptera. PMID:26114325

  4. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder; Renata Morelli; Karen Zamboni Costa; Kenya Martins Faggioni; Patrícia Alessandra Sanches; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos; José Maurício Simões Bento; Maria de Lourdes Zamboni Costa

    2014-01-01

    Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) kept under fully artificial conditions. E...

  5. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Franz Gerald; Zacharopoulou Antigone; Caceres Carlos; Schetelig Marc F; Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dep...

  6. A new species of Anabarhynchus ( Diptera : Therevidae ) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    David Ferguson; David Yeates

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae  ( Diptera ) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Meg...

  7. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    Magdi El-Hawagry; Hathal Al Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species ( Bombyliidae , Diptera ) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of...

  8. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; Macedo, Paula A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; Savage, Harry M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar un...

  9. The evolution of water balance in Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae): correlations with climate

    Kleynhans, Elsje; Terblanche, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The water balance of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) has significant implications for understanding biogeography and climate change responses in these African disease vectors. Although moisture is important for tsetse population dynamics, evolutionary responses of Glossina water balance to climate have been relatively poorly explored and earlier studies may have been confounded by several factors. Here, using a physiological and GIS climate database, we investigate potential interspecific...

  10. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E. dissidens (Walker) and E. pagana (Meigen). A key is presented to identify these species. Corrections are given to update a previously given key (Moller Pillot, 1984).

  11. [Genetic Differentiation of Populations of Baikal Endemic Sergentia baicalensis Tshern. (Diptera, Chironomidae)].

    Kravtsova, L S; Bukin, Yu S; Peretolchina, T E; Shcherbakov, D Yu

    2015-07-01

    The population structure of endemic species Sergentia baicalensis (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Lake Baikal was studied using the first subunit of the cytochrome C oxidase mitochondrial gene (Col). Two populations inhabiting different basins of this lake, the southern-central and northern, were detected. It was confirmed that the divergence time of this species was dated to Late Miocene (9.53 ± 3.9 Mya), during the period when geographically separated basins existed in the Baikal rift zone. PMID:26410937

  12. Introduction to the Asilidae Fauna (Insecta: Diptera) of Fars Province, Iran

    SAGHAEI, Nazila; Ostovan,Hadi; SHOJAEI, Mahmoud; HAYAT, Rüstem

    2009-01-01

    Fars province in the south of Iran was surveyed for Asilidae (Insecta: Diptera) during 2006-2007. Twenty six species, belonging to 19 genera and 7 subfamilies: Apocleinae (5 species), Asilinae (7 species), Dasypogoninae (2 species), Laphriinae (2 species), Laphystiinae (1 species), Leptogastrinae (1 species) and Stenopogoninae (8 species), were recorded. Of these, 5 species are new to the fauna of Iran. Additionally 2 subfamilies, 10 genera, and 22 species were recorded for the first time fro...

  13. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white backgr...

  14. Review and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Associations between Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) and Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Menno Reemer

    2013-01-01

    The immature stages of hoverflies of the subfamily Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) develop in ant nests, as predators of the ant brood. The present paper reviews published and unpublished records of associations of Microdontinae with ants, in order to discuss the following questions. (1) Are all Microdontinae associated with ants? (2) Are Microdontinae associated with all ants? (3) Are particular clades of Microdontinae associated with particular clades of ants? (4) Are Microdontinae assoc...

  15. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  16. Some Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) from Maracá Island, Roraima, Brazil

    Graciolli Gustavo; Linardi Pedro Marcos

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen species in five genera of Streblidae and two species in two genera of Nycteribiidae, collected in Maracá Island, State of Roraima, Brazil are presented with comments on bat hosts and geographical distribution. A total of 42 specimens of Diptera and 17 bats were captured from 1987 to 1988, integrating the "Maracá Project". All species of ectoparasites represent new geographic records for Roraima.

  17. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    Analía Gladys Autino; Guillermo Luis Claps; Rubén Marcos Barquez; María Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni) are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the departme...

  18. Some Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea from Maracá Island, Roraima, Brazil

    Graciolli Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen species in five genera of Streblidae and two species in two genera of Nycteribiidae, collected in Maracá Island, State of Roraima, Brazil are presented with comments on bat hosts and geographical distribution. A total of 42 specimens of Diptera and 17 bats were captured from 1987 to 1988, integrating the "Maracá Project". All species of ectoparasites represent new geographic records for Roraima.

  19. Synanthropic trends in urban andextraurban taxocenoses of Sarcophaginae (Diptera in three central european cities

    Dalibor Povolny

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to characterize the synanthropic trends in Sarcophaginae of three Central European cities, viz. Brno, Bratislava and Budapest. The polar ordination of both sarcophagine taxa and of their taxocenoses revealed clear-cut trends towards culturophily and synanthropy in the male preconnubial aggregations of Sarchophaginae evidencing that this group of high Diptera represent an excellent model for the study of this phenomenon.

  20. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Iran

    S. Khaghaninia; Kazerani, F.

    2014-01-01

    Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae) [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767) and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical dist...

  1. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae from Iran

    S. Khaghaninia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767 and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical distributions are discussed.

  2. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2011-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified l...

  3. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C. A.; Roberto A. Zucchi

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha spe...

  4. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu;

    2006-01-01

    that catalyze the terminal hydroxylation steps in the conversion of cholesterol to the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. These P450s are conserved in other insects and each is thought to function throughout development as the sole mediator of a particular biosynthetic step since, where analyzed, each...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  5. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Labud Valeria Alejandra; Semenas Liliana Graciela; Laos Francisca

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia) attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collec...

  6. A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Hüseyin Özdikmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae. A junior homonym was detected among neotropical sciarid flies genera and the following replacement name is proposed: Novaniarella nom. nov. for Aniarella Enderlein, 1911 (nec Bolivar, 1906. Accordingly, new combinations are herein proposed for the species currently included in this genus: Novaniarella azteca (Lane, 1959 comb. nov., Novaniarella brevis (Rubsaamen, 1894 comb. nov. and Novaniarella pelluscens (Enderlein, 1911 comb. nov.

  7. The crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Petersen, Matthew J.; Parker, Charles R.; Bernard, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The list of crane flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae, Tipuloidea, Trichoceridae) known from Great Smoky Mountains National Park is updated. Sampling in association with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the addition of 107 new Park records, bringing the current list to 250 species. This species assemblage is much richer than those of surrounding areas, although similar in composition. Total richness is estimated to be between 450 and 500 species for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  8. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) under Future Climate Scenarios

    Zuliani, Anna; Massolo, Alessandro; Lysyk, Timothy; Johnson, Gregory; Marshall, Shawn; Berger, Kathryn; Cork, Susan Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT) and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA) and south-central Alberta (Ca...

  9. Morphology and Developmental Rate of the Blow Fly, Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Forensic Entomology Applications

    Nophawan Bunchu; Chinnapat Thaipakdee; Apichat Vitta; Sangob Sanit; Kom Sukontason; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2012-01-01

    Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in e...

  10. Parasitoids of Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Southeast Turkey with 3 New Records

    ÇIKMAN, Emine; BEYARSLAN, Ahmet; CİVELEK, Hasan Sungur

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine parasitoid species of the family Agromyzidae (Diptera) in Diyarbakır and Mardin provinces during 2002-2004. Infested leaves with leafminer larvae were collected from both cultivated and non-cultivated plants twice a month. The adult parasitoids were obtained by rearing from infested leaves in the laboratory. Five parasitoid species belonging to the Braconidae (Hymenoptera) were found. These species, Bracon kirgisorum Telenga, 1936, Opius basali...

  11. Wing shape is influenced by environmental variability in Polietina orbitalis (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Victor Michelon Alves; Maurício Osvaldo Moura; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We measured variation and covariation in wing morphology in six populations of the fly Polietina orbitalis (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae) to test for geographic morphological structure. Additionally, we examined the role of environmental variables in determining geographic variation in wing shape. We sampled five populations in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (Colombo, Fênix, Guarapuava, Jundiaí do Sul and Ponta Grossa), and one in Paraguay (Mbaracayú). We choose 15 landmarks to de...

  12. Revision of the Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera described by J. Macquart

    José A. Rafael

    Full Text Available Four Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera are revised: Aplomera pachymera (Macquart, 1838, A. gayi Macquart, 1838, Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 and E. polita Macquart, 1838. Aplomera chilensis (Bezzi, 1909 was also studied and it is being considered junior synonym of A. pachymera. Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of A. gayi Macquart, 1838. Lectotype is being designated for A. pachymera, A. chilensis and E. polita. Illustration of terminalia and photomicrographs of wings are also included.

  13. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Montenegro

    Snježana Hrnčić; Sanja Radonjić

    2015-01-01

    The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy) and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly sp...

  14. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  15. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Labud Valeria Alejandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  16. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae, a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.

  17. Lista faunística de los Quironómidos (Diptera, Chironomidae) de Madrid (España)

    Soriano, O.; Cobo, F.

    2006-01-01

    A check list of the Chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) recorded from Madrid is provided for the first time. New unpublished records are included, of which six are new for the Iberian Peninsula. 218 species were found, coming from both lotic and lenitic environments.

    En el presente trabajo se aporta por primera vez una lista faunística de los quironómidos (Diptera, Chironomidae) citados en Madrid. También se añaden citas inéditas, siendo seis de ellas nuevas citas para la p...

  18. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  19. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae.

  20. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  1. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  2. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  3. Captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera:Tephritidae) and non-target insects on red spheres versus yellow spheres and panels

    Sticky red spheres can be used to capture western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), but whether they capture more flies than yellow spheres and panels is poorly known. The objective of this study was to compare fly captures on red spheres versus yellow traps so...

  4. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  5. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  6. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  7. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil

    Gustavo Graciolli; Alexsander Araújo Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae). Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934), Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographic...

  8. Diptera, Ceratopogonidae Newman, 1834: new records of biting and predaceous midges from Iberá wetlands, Argentina

    Spinelli, Gustavo Ricardo; Pablo I. Marino; Mauad, Melina

    2012-01-01

    The first Argentina records of four species of biting and predaceous midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are provided from the Iberá wetlands in Corrientes Province: Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) unica Bystrak and Wirth, Echinohelea blantoni Wirth, Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth and Ratanaworabhan and Paryphoconusgrandis Macfie. This is the first record of the predaceous midge genus, Echinohelea Macfie, from Argentina. © 2012 Check List and Authors.

  9. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  10. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  11. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, Anapeza Gagné and Pellacara Gagné, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Fara...

  12. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  13. Morfologia comparada das terminálias masculina e feminina dos rhagionidae (Diptera, Tabanomorpha) neotropicais

    Daniel D.D. Carmo; Charles Morphy D. Santos

    2011-01-01

    Apresentamos uma investigação comparativa da morfologia das terminálias masculina e feminina de gêneros da família Rhagionidae (Diptera, Brachycera, Tabanomorpha) com distribuição neotropical. Partindo do plano básico de Brachycera, hipóteses de homologias entre as peças reprodutivas foram analisadas em um contexto comparativo. Os resultados sugerem que as condições presentes em Rhagionidae são no geral muito modificadas quando comparadas com o ancestral comum mais recente de Brachycera. Este...

  14. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  15. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria.

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchusoceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchuskampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  16. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  17. On the biology of Symbiocladius rhithrogenae (ZAVREL, 1924) (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Chornohora Mts., Ukraine

    Gilka, W.; Klonowska-Olejnik, M.; Godunko, Roman J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 285-291. ISSN 0032-3780 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant ostatní: Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) BW/V/INOS/4/06; Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) DS/WBiNoZ/INoS/756/06; INTAS Fellowship Grant for Young Scientists(BE) 05-109-4162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Symbiocladius rhithrogenae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  18. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  20. First record of fruit fly, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Bangladesh

    The presence of Dacus (Callantra) longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) was detected for the first time in Bangladesh. An adult male fly was collected on 27th July, 2008 from small kitchen garden of Ganakbari, Savar area, containing various cucurbit crops viz., Cucurbita maxima (D.), Trichosanthus cucumerina (L.), Luffa acutungula (L.) etc. using a Mcphail trap baited with cue-lure. The fruit fly specimen were distinguished by the presence of a red-brown scutum, anatergite fuscous, face with a pair of black spots, abdomen petiolate with elongated abdominal tergite-1, cells bc and c fuscous, costal band overlapping R4+5, and absence of fore femoral spines. (author)

  1. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  2. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  3. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  4. Biología de Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en enclaves representativos de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Chordá Olmos, Francisco Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Los mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) es uno de los grupos de insectos de mayor notoriedad en Salud Pública no sólo por su molesta picadura sino, sobre todo, por la gran variedad y cantidad de enfermedades que transmiten al ser humano y a los animales. Entre ellas hay que destacar la Malaria, el Dengue, la Fiebre amarilla, el Virus del Oeste del Nilo, el Chikungunya, las Filariasis y diversas Encefalitis que anualmente afectan a millones de personas en todo el mundo. Para el control de las po...

  5. Two torymid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae developing on Artemisia gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.

  6. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  7. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs. PMID:12489400

  8. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author)

  9. Aural Myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica: Case Report

    Yazgi, Halil; Uyanik, M. Hamidullah; Yoruk, Ozgur; Aslan, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    A 5-year-old child living in Erzurum, Turkey, complaining of otalgia, otorrhea and pruritus in the right ear for three days, was examined. Otoscopic examination at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology revealed live maggots in the external auditory canal. Ten maggots were recovered and were identified as third stage larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Local and systemic antibiotic therapies were applied. No pathological findings were present at the follow-up examination ...

  10. Identification of dipteran species of forensic entomology importance in summer season in Edirne

    ÇOBAN, Erhan; BEYARSLAN, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    This study, performed in order to determine the dipteran species of forensic entomology importance at high temperatures, was carried out from 20 May to 12 September, 2008. The most important insect species are included particularly in Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae families of Diptera. Pig carrions and bovine viscera were put in iron cages inside Balkan Campus of Trakya University to monitor and identify the dipteran species attracted. Observations and sampling were performed twice...

  11. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  12. Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea in Argentina, with information on the biology of the genus Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea en Argentina, con información sobre la biología del género

    Raúl E. Campos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae from South America (Neotropical Region. New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Sudamérica (Región Neotropical el género Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae. Se aporta información sobre su ciclo biológico en condiciones naturales y se mencionan cuatro especies del género Eryngium L. (Apiaceae, como plantas hospedadoras de los estados inmaduros. Los ejemplares de Stenomicra sp. fueron colectados en Sierra de la Ventana, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  13. Historical biogeography of the Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera): A commentary on the age of the family Biogeografia histórica de Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera): Un comentario sobre la edad de la familia

    PETER LOWENBERG-NETO; Kirstern L. F. Haseyama; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    In a study on Fanniidae biogeography, Dominguez & Roig-Juñent (2011) argued that the family had a Pangeic origin, Late Jurassic/early Cretaceous (~146 Ma). However, recent literature on Diptera supports that Schizophora radiation occurred during Cenozoic. Fanniidae is a widespread taxon and it was interpreted under the maximum vicariance paradigm; the consequence was an analysis with no alternative hypothesis, but Pangeic origin. We verified that Fanniidae historical narrative was incongruent...

  14. Calliphoridae (Diptera) from wild, suburban, and urban sites at three Southeast Patagonian localities: Calliphoridae (Diptera) de ambientes no habitados, suburbanos y urbanos en tres localidades del sudeste patagónico

    Juan C. Mariluis; Juan A. Schnack; Pablo P. Mulieri; Luciano D. Patitucci

    2008-01-01

    Species composition, relative abundance, sex ratio and habitat preference of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Caleta Olivia, Puerto Deseado, and Puerto San Julián (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina) were studied during late spring and summer in 2004-2005. Results showed a higher prevalence of the exotic species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen) at urban sites over the natives, Compsomyops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wied...

  15. Diversity, distribution and floral specificity of tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae) in north west Patagonia, Argentina Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera) en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    MARIANO DEVOTO; DIEGO MEDAN

    2006-01-01

    Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae) constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate f...

  16. Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea) in Argentina, with information on the biology of the genus Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea) en Argentina, con información sobre la biología del género

    Campos, Raúl E.; María C Gramajo; Mercedes Lizarralde de Grosso

    2010-01-01

    This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae) from South America (Neotropical Region). New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae) are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Su...

  17. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids Inimigos naturais do galhador Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): formigas predadoras e parasitóides

    M. de S., Jr. MENDONÇA; H. P. Romanowski

    2002-01-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary e...

  18. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  19. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Boumans, L.; Zimmer, J.-Y.; Verheggen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central Europe during the past decades. The first documented findings in Belgium are discussed, together with general information on the biology and recognition of the species.

  20. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  1. Orientisargidae fam. n., a new Jurassic family of Archisargoidea (Diptera, Brachycera), with review of Archisargidae from China

    Zhang Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A pair of fly impressions is described as a new species of a new genus, Orientisargus illecebrosus gen. et sp. n., referred to a new family Orientisargidae fam. n. within Archisargoidea of Brachycera, Diptera. The systematic position of Orientisargidae is discussed. Daohugosargus gen. n. is proposed for Sharasargus eximius KY Zhang et al., 2008. Uranorhagionidae is a junior synonym for Archisargidae. Meanwhile, Mostovskisarginae is a junior synonym for Uranorhagionidae. Mostovskisarg...

  2. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini)

    Christine Lambkin; Justin Bartlett

    2011-01-01

    Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia’s National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery – identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini a...

  3. High altitude Chironomidae (Diptera) of Serra da Estrela (Portugal): Additions to the Portuguese and Iberian Peninsula fauna

    Rieradevall, M.; M.L. Chaves; Prat, N.

    2007-01-01

    A Chironomidae (Diptera) fauna list for headwater streams of high altitude areas in Serra da Estrela (Portugal) is presented, doubling the previously established species richness for the region. The findings include 17 new records for Portugal, which represent an increase to 219 species for the Continental Portugal Chironomidae fauna. Two new records were detected for the Iberian Peninsula: one species (Tvetenia duodenaria), and one subgenus -Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius)-; and the pres...

  4. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

    Nadja Gomes Machado; Danielle Christine Stenner Nassarden; Francyele dos Santos; Isabelle Christina Gonçalves Boaventura; Gregory Perrier; Fernanda Silveira Carvalho de Souza; Eucarlos de Lima Martins; Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During ...

  5. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil)

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela; Lyria Mori

    2014-01-01

    The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil). Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931), the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008) and, more recently (2013), the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early...

  6. Natural Enemies of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Collected in States Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    C.H. Marchiori

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is of great medical importance because it produces myiasis. It has a significant role as a predator of other dipterous larvae. Moreover, this dipterous insect is of great importance with regard to public health because it mechanically carries pathogens to humans. This study had the objective of ascertaining the species of parasitoids of C. albiceps in human feces, cattle liver, cattle kidney, chicken viscera, fish and pig carcasses in Go...

  7. Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) populations on cranberry and blueberry in British Columbia: same species, host races or sibling species?

    Cook, Melissa Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The gall-inducing midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and highbush blueberry, V. corymbosum, in British Columbia. Dasineura oxycoccana was initially found on highbush blueberry and more recently on cranberry. Given the close proximity of many cranberry and blueberry farms in British Columbia, it was hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. I investigated whether D. oxycoccana popu...

  8. Morphology, molecules and mating behavior : an integrative study of population divergence and speciation in widespread sepsid flies (Sepsidae: Diptera)

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation explores processes of selection and speciation acting on diverging populations in two widespread sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera). The main focus was on investigating sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and incipient speciation in the nearctic and palaearctic species Sepsis punctum (Fabricius 1794) (Chapters 1-4). In addition, divergence in reproductive behavior and morphology was also addressed in the neotropical species Archisepsis divers...

  9. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was dete...

  10. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    2011-01-01

    Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae). Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the fol...

  11. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  12. Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae) in Mauritania : first report on the presence of the arbovirus mosquito vector in Nouakchott

    Lekweiry, K.M.; Ould Ahmedou Salem, M. S.; Ould Brahim, K.; Lemrabott, M. A. O.; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, O.; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital c...

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi as a new strategy to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Daniel, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest of sweet cherries in Europe. Up to 100% of the fruit can be infested. Methods for controlling this pest are limited in organic agriculture as well as in integrated production, as the insecticide currently used (Dimethoate) is being challenged due to problems of ecotoxicity and residues. Alternative methods for cherry fruit fly management are therefore needed. The aim of this thesis was t...

  14. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger; Lisiane Dilli Wendt; Paulo Bretanha Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae). Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict ...

  15. How to inventory tropical flies (Diptera)--One of the megadiverse orders of insects.

    Borkent, Art; Brown, Brian V

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting on-site, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to

  16. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  17. Parasitoids (Insecta: Hymenoptera of diptera (Insecta collected at different altitudes and substrates in Parque da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goias, Brazil

    Juliana F. Laurindo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrence of parasitoids of diptera collected from five different substrates – human feces, bovine liver, fruits, chicken and fish – at 740 and 1000 meters above sea level in the Serra de Caldas Novas Park, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, Brazil. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult of diptera or their parasitoids. From August 2003 to July 2004, 1407 parasitoids emerged from 2946 puparia of diptera: 211 parasitoids at 740 meters and 1196 specimens at 1000 meters above sea level. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae was the most frequent species at 1000 meters, with a frequency of 79.6% of all collected specimens. The total percentages of parasitism at 740 and 1000 meters were 13.4% and 9.1%, respectively.

  18. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794, Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909, Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804, while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone.

  19. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  20. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  1. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration.

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  2. Molecular diagnostics of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Using PCR-RFLP.

    Kim, Sh S; Tripodi, A D; Johnson, D T; Szalanski, A L

    2014-06-01

    The invasive spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest in the United States. Identification of immature and poorly preserved specimens can be difficult. A molecular diagnostic method for distinguishing D. suzukii from other Drosophila spp. associated with fruit in the United States was developed. A 709-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene was amplified from D. suzukii collections in the United States and compared with sequences of other Drosophila taxa from GenBank. Based on DNA sequence polymorphisms, a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using the restriction enzyme Msp-I was found to differentiate D. suzukii from other Drosophila spp. in the United States. This technique can identify field-collected specimens from various sources and specimens regardless of life stage. This molecular diagnostic method will be useful for monitoring the spread of this economically important invasive insect. PMID:25026695

  3. Haemagogus equinus Theobald 1903 (Diptera: Culicidae en el Campus de la Universidad de Carabobo. Valencia. Venezuela.

    Cesar Parra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Haemagogus equinus Theobald 1903 (Diptera: Culicidae in the campus of the Universidad de Carabobo. Valencia. Venezuela.Species of Haemagogus are the main vector of sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF. The immature phases breed in water-filled tree holes and bambu internodes; however, some species are found in artificialcontainers. We assessed the presence of medically important mosquitoes in an urban area. Traps were used in a riberine forest near the Sports Area of the University of Carabobo. A month later they were removed, and mosquito composition was determined. We reported the presence of Haemagogus (Haemagogus equinus Theobald and other three species. This finding represents a potenciality forenzootic YF transmission, and the adaptation of such species to artificial breeding sites, which, in addition to the increment of aedine indexes, constitute a risk for the emergence of such arbovirus.

  4. Phylogeny of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to ITS2 sequences

    陈小爱; 李嵩; 李昌本; 赵寿元; Aksoy; Serap

    1999-01-01

    The flies of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) are an important vector of African trypanosomiases which cause diseases in humans and animals. The ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region sequences from different Glossina species were PCR-amplified and analyzed in order to construct a molecular phylogeny for genus Glossina. Trees generated by parsimony confirmed the monophyletic taxonomic placement of genus Glossina where fusca group species formed the deepest branch followed by morsitans and palpalis groups, respectively. The placement of Glossina austeni by both the traditional morphological and biochemical criteria has been controversial. Results presented here, based on ITS-2 locus sequence analysis, suggest that Glossina austeni can be placed into a separate subgenerus which forms a sister-group relationship with the morsitans group species.

  5. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru

    Analía Gladys Autino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae. Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the department of Loreto. Also, we found 17 new host-ectoparasite relationships. Of note, we found remarkable new association between Neotrichobius delicatus and bat species from the families Molossidae and Noctilionidae and a novel association between Paradyschiria parvula and a species of Vespertilionidae. Host-ectoparasite specificity was recorded with 14 species as monoxenous, three oligoxenous, seven pleioxenous and two polyxenous.

  6. A preliminary survey of the non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae of the Dominican Republic

    Fabio Laurindo da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chironomidae (Diptera are among the most diverse and widespread aquatic insects, with roughly 5,500 described species. However, prior to the present work, no species of Chironomidae had been documented from the island of Hispaniola. Collections of non-biting midges, with emphasis on the lotic fauna, were made in the Dominican Republic during July of 2015. In total, 578 specimens belonging to 27 genera and at least 44 species within the subfamilies Chironominae (20 taxa, Orthocladiinae (16 taxa and Tanypodinae (8 taxa were found. The subfamilies Chironominae and Orthocladiinae predominated. Polypedilum was the most widespread and diverse genus of Chironominae. Metriocnemus were collected in bromeliad tanks. The chironomid fauna in Dominican Republic includes multiple genera with worldwide distributions, including Holarctic and Neotropical components.

  7. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  8. The relationship between morphological and behavioral mimicry in hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-02-01

    Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics. PMID:24464201

  9. The complete mitochondrial DNA genomes for two lineages of Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J; Webb, C E

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes for two deeply divergent lineages of the urban adapted mosquito Aedes notoscriptus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia were sequenced using a combination of next generation Illumina and traditional Sanger sequencing. The 15,846 and 15,851 bp circular genomes share 95.0% nucleotide identity. They both have the full complement of 37 metazoan genes and identical gene arrangements to previously published Culicidae species with the one non-coding A + T rich control region present between rns and tRNA-Ile. All protein initiation codons are ATN apart from COX1 (TCG). Eight protein coding genes encode full TAA stop codons, one uses an incomplete TA and four use T. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:25350735

  10. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  11. Primer registro de Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el Estado Carabobo, Venezuela.

    Maira Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available First record of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 ( Diptera: Culicidae in Carabobo State, Venezuela. Aedes albopictus or “Asian tiger mosquito” is an invasive species consider the second most important dengue vector. Due to public health relevance and the recent findings in several areas from Venezuela, we sampled in seven localities in the Carabobo State from june to august, 2013. This is the first report of Aedes albopictus in four localities of Carabobo State associated to larvitraps and flower vases. This increases to 15 the number of occurrences in the country. This finding in urban areas of Carabobo represents a potentiality risk for arboviruses emergence and transmission, because that we recommended vector monitoring, entomological and epidemiological surveillance and the vectorial control in the country. This finding shows the importance of further studies of mosquito’s geographical distribution, arboviruses detection, vector ecological aspects, and their possible medical and epidemiological link with emerging and reemerging diseases.

  12. Optimizing Trap Design and Trapping Protocols for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity. PMID:26470076

  13. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Montenegro

    Snježana Hrnčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly species was unexpectedly detected in Tephri traps baited with the three-component female-biased attractant BioLure that is regularly used for monitoring the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Montenegro. Brief visual inspection identified the new species as the spotted wing drosophila D. suzukii. The pest was first recorded in several localities on the Montenegrin seacoast around Boka Kotor Bay. After the finding, all Drosophila specimens were collected from traps for further laboratory observation. A quick follow-up monitoring of other Tephri traps was carried out within the next few days on the rest of the seacoast (localities from Tivat to Ulcinj. Additionally, Tephri traps were set up around Lake Skadar and in the city of Podgorica, as well as on fresh fruit markets in Podgorica. The results of this preliminary study showed that D. suzukii was present in all surveyed locations and adults were captured until late December. Both sexes were found in traps with BioLure. Our data show that D. suzukii is present in southern parts of Montenegro and there is a serious threat of its further spreading, particularly towards northern parts of the country where the main raspberry and blueberry production is placed. The results also show that Tephri traps baited with BioLure can be used for detection and monitoring of spotted wing drosophila.

  14. New species and new records of Mydidae from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions (Insecta, Diptera, Asiloidea

    Torsten Dikow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India, Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal, Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand; Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya; Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates astrictus sp. n. (Kenya, Syllegomydas (Notobates heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda, Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe. Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates dispar (Loew, 1852, which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species.

  15. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  16. Parasitoids (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of diptera (Insecta) collected at different altitudes and substrates in Parque da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goias, Brazil

    Juliana F. Laurindo; Relia R. Brunes; Patrícia L. G. P. Gonçalves; Francilene C. O. A. Fortes; Otacílio M. Silva Filho; Carlos H. Marchiori; Rauer B. Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of parasitoids of diptera collected from five different substrates – human feces, bovine liver, fruits, chicken and fish – at 740 and 1000 meters above sea level in the Serra de Caldas Novas Park, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, Brazil. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult of diptera or their parasitoids. From August 2003 to July 2004, 1407 parasitoids emerged from 2946 p...

  17. Actividad nictemeral y anual de los Diptera (Insecta) en un bosque mediterráneo mixto de Cataluña

    Mederos-López, Jorge L.; Pujade, Juli,

    2011-01-01

    El presente estudio se centra en las familias de Diptera muestreadas en un bosque mixto mediterráneo Pinus-Quercus, la formación boscosa más extendida dentro del Parc Natural de la Serra de Collserola. Desde abril de 2009 hasta junio de 2010 se muestreó en el dosel y sotobosque del sitio de estudio, resultando ser los Diptera el grupo más abundante y la familia Cecidomyiidae la dominante. La artropofauna mostró una actividad diurna bimodal durante los meses más cálidos, que evolucionó progres...

  18. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  19. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.;

    2013-01-01

    The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the...

  20. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  1. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  2. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  3. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  4. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  5. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  6. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  7. Composición y abundancia de Chironomidae (Diptera) en un río serrano de zona semiárida (San Luis, Argentina) Composition and abundance of Chironomidae (Diptera) in a semiarid stream (San Luis, Argentina)

    ANA I MEDINA; Analía C. Paggi

    2004-01-01

    En numerosas investigaciones acerca de las comunidades bentónicas de ambientes lóticos ha quedado excluído el estudio de la diversidad y abundancia de la familia Chironomidae (Diptera), debido a las dificultades que presenta la taxonomía de los estados inmaduros. En este trabajo se estudió la composición y abundancia larval de la familia Chironomidae en el tramo no-regulado del río Grande. Se identificaron 24 géneros correspondientes a tres subfamilias; Chironominae, Tanypodinae y Orthocladii...

  8. Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Otacílio Moreira Silva Filho; Francilene Cardoso Alves Fortes; Rélia Rodrigues Brunes; Rauer Ferreira Borges; Patricia Luzia Pereira Gonçalves; Juliana Fischer Laurindo

    2005-01-01

    Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae)em Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoi...

  9. Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) in Southeastern Brazil O predador beneficia sua presa? Comensalismo entre Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae) e Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) no Sudeste do Brasil

    Marcos Callisto; Michael D.C. Goulart; Pablo Moreno; Martins, Rogério P.

    2006-01-01

    Commensalism between Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) and Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) larvae was recorded in Indaiá stream, at 1,380 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, 19º-20ºS, 43º-44ºW) and in the headwaters of São Francisco river, at 1,300-1,700 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, 20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W), in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Seventy eight Corydalus larvae (range 22-88 mm) were sampled: 61 in ...

  10. Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidade) em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli; Nelymar M. Mendes; José P. Pereira; Bernadete S. Santos; Marlúcia A. Lamounier

    1988-01-01

    As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05), quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni). O ácido anacár...

  11. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological effectiveness

  12. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author)

  13. Bombyliidae (Insecta: Diptera) de Quilamula en el área de reserva Sierra de Huautla, Morelos, México

    Omar Ávalos Hernández

    2007-01-01

    México es un centro de diversidad para Bombyliidae, la séptima familia más diversa dentro del orden Diptera. Los bombílidos son importantes porque algunas especies son polinizadoras y otras controlan las poblaciones de otros insectos al ser parasitoides, por lo que tienen potencial para utilizarse en el control de plagas. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la diversidad de esta familia en Quilamula, Morelos, localidad ubicada en la reserva Sierra de Huautla. Se recolectó durante 12 me...

  14. Efeito do Envelhecimento de Isca na Captura de Moscas (Diptera: Brachycera em Área de Caatinga

    Eduardo Nascimento

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Diptera species, especially flies, has shown potential as bioindicators for environmental changes. There are different methods to capture these animals, including traps with food baits. In this study, we assess the efficiency of traps for catching flies using bait of cane sugar molasses, analyzing the ecological parameters: abundance, species richness and species composition of flies during different periods of exposure of the traps in the field: 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Species richness and abundance showed significant change with respect to exposure time in the field, with stabilization after 48h, and species composition differed between the first and the other days.

  15. Efeito do Envelhecimento de Isca na Captura de Moscas (Diptera: Brachycera) em Área de Caatinga

    Eduardo Nascimento; Bianca Ambrogi; Leandro Souto; Marcelo Vilas-Bôas; Manoel Uchôa

    2014-01-01

    Espécies de Diptera, principalmente as moscas, tem se mostrado como potenciais bioindicadores para mudanças ambientais. Para captura destes animais, há diferentes métodos, incluindo as armadilhas com atrativos alimentares. Neste estudo, para avaliar a eficiência de armadilhas na captura de moscas usando isca de melaço de cana-de-açúcar, foram avaliados os parâmetros ecológicos: abundância, riqueza e composição de espécies de moscas, comparando diferentes períodos de exposição das armadilhas e...

  16. Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. et spec. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae) from a backyard site in Öland, Sweden.

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin

    2015-01-01

    A new genus containing a single new species of Porricondylinae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described and named Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. nov., spec. nov. The sole known specimen of L. hortensis, a male, was Malaise trapped in a backyard site on the Baltic island of Öland, southeast Sweden, in summer 2014. Morphological evidence supports our hypothesis that Linnaeomyia is most closely related to Neurepidosis Spungis, 1987. Several male genital characters, notably the spine-bearing gonostyli and the vestigial ejaculatory apodeme, substantiate the generic distinctiveness of L. hortensis. Although a backyard discovery, L. hortensis is unlikely to be a synanthropic species. PMID:26624042

  17. New records of Muscidae (Diptera in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil Novos registros de dípteros muscóides em Campo Grande, MS, Brasil

    Hera Luana Luiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic flies outstanding beside other flies due their relative abundance close to domestic animals and human population, to which they are able to cause myiasis or transmit pathogenic agents. As they're necrophagous they act as corpse decomposers and are useful in the forensic entomology in the post mortem interval determination. This study aimed to know flies diversity and abundance in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Captures were made weekly, utilizing three traps baited with decaying fish meat, from June of 2008 to May of 2009 in a remainder ciliary forest of the Embrapa's Cattle Beef Experimental Farm. The dipterans families that were considered and respectively number of collected specimens were: Calliphoridae (105,334; Muscidae (27,999; Sarcophagidae (21,083; Fanniidae (17,759 and Mesembrinellidae (305, totalizing 172,480 dipterous. To the local known species some Muscidae were increased as follows: Neomuscina atincticosta, Pseudoptilolepis elbida, Polietina orbitalis, Polietina flavithorax, Scutellomusca scutellaris, Graphomya analis and Morellia couriae.As moscas sinantrópicas se destacam pelo fato de serem relativamente abundantes junto à população humana e animais domésticos, podendo causar a estes miíases ou transmitir agentes patogênicos. Por serem necrófagas, atuam na decomposição de cadáveres e são úteis para a entomologia forense como indicadores na determinação do intervalo post mortem - IPM. Este trabalho visou conhecer a diversidade e a abundância das espécies em Campo Grande, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. As capturas foram realizadas semanalmente, com três armadilhas, utilizando isca de peixe deteriorado, durante o período de junho de 2008 a maio de 2009 em mata ciliar remanescente na fazenda experimental da Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foram consideradas as seguintes famílias de dípteros, seguidas pelo número de exemplares obtidos: Calliphoridae (105.334; Muscidae (27.999; Sarcophagidae (21

  18. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  19. Improving the biological control of leaf-miners (Diptera: Agromyzidae) using the sterile insect technique

    The leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a worldwide pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. The most promising nonchemical approach for controlling Liriomiza leafminers in greenhouses is regular releases of the parasitoid Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). In the current study, we examine the hypothesis that the use of D. isaea for biological control of leafminers in greenhouse crops may be more practical and efficient when supplemented with additional control strategies, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). In small cages, our SIT experiments suggest that releases of sterile L. trifolii males in three sterile-to-fertile male ratios (3:1, 5:1, and 10:1) can significantly reduce the number of the pest offspring. In large cage experiments, when both parasitoids and sterile males were released weekly, the combined methods significantly reduced mine production and the adult leafminer population size. Moreover, a synergistic interaction between these two methods was found, and a model based on our observed data predicts that because of this effect, only the use of both methods can eradicate the pest population. Our study indicates that an integrated pest management approach that combines the augmentative release of the parasitoid D. isaea together with sterile leafminer males is more efficient than the use of either method alone. In addition, our results validate previous theoretical models and demonstrate synergistic control with releases of parasitoids and sterile insects. (author)

  20. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae

    Mingshan Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively.

  2. Impact of soil type, moisture, and depth on swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) pupation and emergence.

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M

    2007-12-01

    Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a common insect pest in Europe and a new invasive pest in North America, causes severe damage to cruciferous crops. Currently, many counties in Canada and the United States in which C. nasturtii has not been previously reported are at risk of being infested by C. nasturtii. Effectiveness of chemical control is limited, especially under high population pressure in fields, because the cryptic habits of C. nasturtii protect them from insecticidal sprays. Alternative management strategies against C. nasturtii that are needed to protect crucifers and soil management for the pupal stage were studied as one option. Six different types of soils (loam fine sand, fine sand, clay loam, muck, Chenango shale loam, and silt loam soil) were collected from commercial cabbage fields in New York and studied in the laboratory for their impact on C. nasturtii pupation and emergence. The results indicated that extremely wet or dry soils significantly hindered C. nasturtii emergence, regardless of soil type, suggesting that soil type alone may not be a major factor regulating C. nasturtii abundance. Optimal moisture content for C. nasturtii emergence varied for different soils. Most C. nasturtii pupated within the top 1 cm of soil. Furthermore, we found that >5 cm of soil cover effectively reduced the emergence number and delayed the time of emergence. Based on these results, we suggest that soil manipulation (moisture content and cultivation practices) should be considered as an important component in an overall integrated pest management program for C. nasturtii. PMID:18284762

  3. Swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), ten years of invasion of crucifer crops in North America.

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M; Hallett, Rebecca H; Hoepting, Christine A; Kikkert, Julie R; Wang, Ping

    2011-06-01

    The Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a common insect pest in Europe, is a newly invasive pest in North America that constitutes a major threat to cruciferous vegetable and field crops. Since its first identification in Ontario, Canada, in 2000, it has rapidly spread to 65 counties in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and has recently been found in canola (one of two cultivars of rapeseed, Brassica napus L. and Brassica campestris L.) in the central Prairie region where the majority of Canada's 6.5 million ha (16 million acres) of canola is grown. The first detection of Swede midge in the United States was in 2004 in New York cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), but it has now been found in four additional states. Here, we review the biology of Swede midge, its host plant range, distribution, economic impact, pest status, and management strategies. We provide insight into this insect's future potential to become an endemic pest of brassica crops in North America. We also proposed research needed to develop tactics for handling this invasive pest in brassica crops. PMID:21735885

  4. Morfologia comparada das terminálias masculina e feminina dos rhagionidae (Diptera, Tabanomorpha neotropicais

    Daniel D.D. Carmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma investigação comparativa da morfologia das terminálias masculina e feminina de gêneros da família Rhagionidae (Diptera, Brachycera, Tabanomorpha com distribuição neotropical. Partindo do plano básico de Brachycera, hipóteses de homologias entre as peças reprodutivas foram analisadas em um contexto comparativo. Os resultados sugerem que as condições presentes em Rhagionidae são no geral muito modificadas quando comparadas com o ancestral comum mais recente de Brachycera. Este trabalho apresenta uma hipótese filogenética heurística cujos resultados podem servir como base para o entendimento da grande diversificação morfológica das terminálias masculina e feminina dos ragionídeos, apontando para a solução de algumas controvérsias a respeito da morfologia das estruturas reprodutivas do grupo.

  5. The monitoring of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the area affected by the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures

    Monitoring of the impact of the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures on mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in 8 areas and 16 stationary stands during 1990-1994 is presented. The following 9 species of mosquitoes were ascertained: Anopheles maculipennis, s.1, Culiseta annulata, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Aedes dorsalis, Aedes cinereus, Culex pipiens, Culex territans a Culex modestus. Important changes in the quantity as well as the quality of mosquitoes, were observed in connection with the changes in the ground water level. In 1994 we recorded only 4 species of mosquitoes: Anopheles maculipennis s.1, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Culex territans. The quantity of mosquitoes decreased significantly at all monitored stands near the river Danube upstream of the confluence with the tail race canal. Cunovo reservoir acted positively on the adjacent monitoring localities Kopac Island and Cunovo-Ostrovne lucky. The recorded communities of mosquitoes Anopheles maculipennis s.1 a Culex territans, are, according to our observations, typical for stabilised water levels. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs

  6. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  7. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  8. Spatial distributions of the leafminer Ophiomyia maura (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in host plant Aster ageratoides

    Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.

  9. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  10. Cytogenetic characteristics of Chironomus balatonicus Devai, Wulker, Scholl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Chernobyl region

    A cytogenetic analysis was carried out on a population of Chironomus balatonicus (Chironomidae, Diptera) from Chernobyl, a highly radioactive area of the Kiev region. Several chromosomal aberrations were established unique to a population of Chironomus balatonicus living in an area contaminated by radioactive waste. Five new heterozygous inversions, deficiencies in arms C, D, E, F and chromatid breaks were found in the irradiated population but not in nonirradiated populations. A pericentric inversion in chromosome AB occurred at a relatively high frequency. Genome aberrations expressed by a heterochromatized 'B' chromosome were evident. In the irradiated and nonirradiated populations common inversions occurred showing variation in their frequency depending on specific environmental conditions. The somatic and also the germ cells were characterized by a number of heteropycnotic nuclei and vacuolized chromosomes. Both the somatic and germ cells showed changes in the structural and functional organization of heterochromatin and this was particularly marked in the telomeric sectors of the chromosomes. The heterochromatin which is extremely sensitive to radioactivity appears to protect euchromatin from adverse environmental conditions

  11. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  12. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  13. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation. PMID:14765657

  14. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  15. Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support

    Amanda Ciprandi Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.

  16. Complex interactions envolving a gall midge Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, phytophagous modifiers and parasitoids

    Ferraz Fernando Fortunato Faria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia, 1995 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae induces a gall in lateral and apical shoots in the plant Myrcia lundiana Kiaersk (Myrtaceae which is used and modified by two eulophid wasps species. In both cases the gall former species suffer high rate of attack exceeding the importance of parasitoid species as mortality factors. In this study these interactions are described and their effects as mortality of gall former. The intensity of occurrence of the two eulophid species as modifiers and of microhymenopteran parasitoids, and the relative importance of these species as mortality agents of the M. maricaensis larvae is compared. This comparison reveals that two modifiers species found in the gall tissue modification causing the death of the M. maricaensis larva and it is a more important factor of mortality than the cecidomyiid larva parasitism. The fluctuation of the number of each type of gall along the year was monitored in the research field and confirmed in numerical and in synchronic terms of occurrence of the galls; the importance of the species of the gall modifier eulophids, particularly one of these species, as factors of mortality of the M. maricaensis larvae and justified our comparing the relationship between these species and M. maricaensis as similar to the parasitoid-host relationship. The gall shape modification by one of the eulophids allows the occurrence of other inquiline insect species, what means that this gall modification becomes it more heterogeneous and allows the increase of the species richness to the system.

  17. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  18. Ventral polarization vision in tabanids: horseflies and deerflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to horizontally polarized light

    Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György

    2008-11-01

    Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.

  19. Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.

    Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

  20. Comparison of a synthetic chemical lure and standard fermented baits for trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits. PMID:24331615

  1. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color.

    Kirkpatrick, D M; McGhee, P S; Hermann, S L; Gut, L J; Miller, J R

    2016-02-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds. PMID:26475826

  2. Microsatellite Variation of two Pacific Coast Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Populations.

    Bahder, Brian W; Bahder, Luz D; Hamby, Kelly A; Walsh, Douglas B; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-10-01

    The vinegar fly, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is a recent invader in North America that has become a serious threat to small fruit production. It was first detected in California in 2008 and in Washington state in 2009. In this study, D. suzukii populations from the area of the original detection on California's central coast and from eastern Washington, the United States, were sampled over a 3-year period to determine genetic variation in both using microsatellite markers. Six different loci were successfully amplified and included in the analysis. These loci included nanos, elf1, antennapedia, mastermind, z600, and tenA. The population from eastern Washington was highly monomorphic with one locus, mastermind, having multiple alleles. There was greater genetic variation in the coastal California population with all loci having multiple alleles, with the exception of tenA. Owing to the relatively low levels of genetic variation in the eastern Washington population compared with the coastal California population, it appears that the D. suzukii population in the eastern Washington region has undergone a significant bottleneck. PMID:26314019

  3. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in fresh commodities.

    Follett, Peter A; Swedman, Allison; Prices, Donald K

    2014-06-01

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on larval and pupal development and adult reproduction in D. suzukii were examined. Larvae (first, second, and third instars) and pupae (1-2-d-old, 3-5-d-old, and 7-8-d-old) on diet were irradiated at target doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. Males and females were equally susceptible. A radiation dose of 40 Gy applied to first- and second-instar larvae prevented adult emergence. The late-stage pupa was the most radiation-tolerant stage that occurs in fruit, and individuals irradiated at this stage readily emerged as adults; therefore, prevention of F1 adults was the desired treatment response for large-scale validation tests with naturally infested fruit. In large-scale tests, a radiation dose of 80 Gy applied to late-stage pupae in sweet cherries or grapes resulted in no production of F1 adults in > 33,000 treated individuals, which meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. A minimum absorbed dose of 80 Gy is recommended for quarantine control of D. suzukii. PMID:25026654

  4. Description of Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Peruvian Equadorean interandean areas

    Eunice A. Bianchi Galati

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez and L. serrana was corroborated.Descreve-se Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta, sp.n., provável vetora de bartonelose e leishmaniose tegumentar, de ocorrência em vales interandinos no Peru e Equador e que apresenta estreita afinidade com L. serrana (Damasceno e Arouck. A separação de ambas foi possível, por meio de análise de variância de alguns caracteres do macho e apenas um da fêmea. Na análise de variância, foram estudadas populações de L. serrana da região amazônica do Brasil, Peru e Bolívia; costa do Equador; região atlântica e outras áreas do Brasil. Corrobora-se a sinonímia de Phlebotomus guayasi Rodríguez com L. serrana.

  5. Predation of Fruit Fly Larvae Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae by Ants in Grove

    W. D. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence that ants are population regulatory agents, we examined their efficiency in predation of fruit fly larvae Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae. Hence, we considered the differences among species of fruit trees, the degree of soil compaction, and the content of soil moisture as variables that would explain predation by ants because these variables affect burying time of larvae. We carried out the experiment in an orchard containing various fruit bearing trees, of which the guava (Psidium guajava Linn., jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell. Berg., and mango trees (Mangifera indica Linn. were chosen for observations of Anastrepha. We offered live Anastrepha larvae on soil beneath the tree crowns. We observed for 10 min whether ants removed the larvae or the larvae buried themselves. Eight ant species were responsible for removing 1/4 of the larvae offered. The Pheidole Westwood, 1839 ants were the most efficient genus, removing 93% of the larvae. In compacted and dry soils, the rate of predation by ants was greater. Therefore, this study showed that ants, along with specific soil characteristics, may be important regulators of fruit fly populations and contribute to natural pest control in orchards.

  6. Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review.

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2014-02-01

    This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes. PMID:24265058

  7. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author)

  8. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  9. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  10. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  11. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  12. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  13. Occurrence of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Mauricio Batistella Pasini

    2012-03-01

    Resumo. Este trabalho faz menção ao primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae encontrado na zona rural do município de Agudo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os adultos da mosca foram encontrados primeiramente em frutos de ameixa (Prunus salicina Lindl posteriormente em figos maduros (Ficus carica L. em dois pomares. No primeiro pomar cerca de 80% dos figos coletados apresentaram ataque de Z. indianus e, no segundo pomar 50% dos figos da cv. “Pingo de mel” e 80% da variedade “Roxo de Valinhos” foram infestados. No período correspondente a emergência dos adultos, coletou-se um total de 1364 indivíduos. Os figos da cv “Roxo de Valinhos” apresentaram maior emergência de adultos. Além de estar presente em restos culturais de figo, Z. indianus foi visualizada sobrevoando restos culturais de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., Cucumis melo L., Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. e Vitis vinifera L., associada a outros drosofilídeos. Ressalta-se que medidas de monitoramento e controle da praga deverão ser adotadas no município para garantir figos de alta qualidade e sadios.

  14. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  15. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  16. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development

    Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  17. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  18. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  19. Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing juvenile American white pelicans.

    Johnson, Gregory; Panella, Nicholas; Hale, Kristina; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in a pelican breeding colony in northeastern Montana where die-offs attributed to West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) have occurred since 2002. Engorged and unengorged flies were collected off nine moribund chicks. Of 29 blood-engorged flies testing positive for vertebrate DNA, all 29 contained pelican DNA. Virus isolation was performed on 60 pools (1,176 flies) of unengorged flies using Vero cell plaque assay. Eighteen pools were positive for WNV for an estimated infection rate of 18.0 per 1,000 flies. Fifty-four percent (36/67) of abdomens from blood-engorged flies tested positive for WNV. Pelican viremia levels from the blood-engorged fly abdomens revealed that at least one of the ill pelicans circulated a viremia capable of infecting Culex mosquito vectors. Stable flies may be involved in WNV transmission within the pelican breeding colony by serving as either a mechanical vector or as a source for oral infection if ingested by predators. PMID:21175073

  20. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae

    Jukka Salmela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.

  1. Review of the Genus Geloemyia (Diptera, Pyrgotidae, with Discussion of its Taxonomic Position

    Korneyev V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of the Genus Geloemyia (Diptera, Pyrgotidae, with Discussion of its Taxonomic Position. Korneyev, V. A. - Species assigned to Geloemyia Hendel, 1908, Trichempodia Malloch, 1930 syn. n., Parageloemyia Hendel, 1933 syn. n., and Dicranostira Enderlein, 1942 syn. n. are shown to be congeneric. Geloemyia is refined to include eight species: Geloemyia cheni Kim, Han & Korneyev, sp. n., Geloemyia cockerelli (Malloch, 1930 comb. n. (= Trichempodia cockerelli Malloch, 1930, Geloemyia dorsocentralis (Hering, 1940 comb. n. (= Adapsilia dorsocentralis Hering, 1940, Geloemyia quadriseta Hendel, 1933, Geloemyia stylata Hendel, 1908, Geloemyia wonjuensis (Kim & Han, 2001 comb. n. (= Parageloemyia wonjuensis Kim & Han, 2001 from Eastern Asia, Geloemyia namibica sp. n., from mainland Africa (Namibia and Geloemyia trifasciata (Enderlein, 1942 comb. n. (= Trichempodia trifasciata Enderlein, 1942 from Madagascar. Geloemyia nigrofasiata Hendel, 1933 based on a single male is supposed to be a junior synonym of G. quadriseta Hendel, 1933, based on females, but the synonymy is tentative. A key to species is provided. The genus Geloemyia belongs in the tribe Pyrgotini forming (or belonging to a basal lineage in the subtribe Adapsiliina together with Pyrgotomyia Hendel, 1914 and Porpomastix Enderlein, 1942.

  2. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Maria E Macêdo

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  3. [Current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain].

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses. PMID:20661525

  4. Revision of the New World genus Glyphidops Enderlein (Diptera: Neriidae) .

    Sepúlveda, Tatiana A; Wolff, Marta I; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2014-01-01

    The genus Glyphidops Enderlein, 1922, the most widespread and speciose of the New World genera of Neriidae (Diptera), is revised herein. Glyphidops (Glyphidops) ruselatus, new species, G. (G.) steyskali, new species and G. (G.) coracinus, new species are described. Of the 16 previously described species, which were last treated by Aczél (1961), the following synonyms are proposed: Chaetomeristes peruanus Enderlein is treated as a junior synonym of G. (G.) bullatus (Enderlein); Nerius dispar Cresson, Oncopsia neutra Hennig and Oncopsia dubia Hennig are treated as junior synonyms of G.(O.) durus (Cresson) and Oncopsia seductrix Hennig, is treated as a junior synonym of G. (O.) flavifrons (Bigot). The species Telostylus vittatus Cresson, is removed from synonymy with G. (G.) filosus (Fabricius) and revalidated as senior synonym of G. ochreus Hennig. A new diagnosis for the genus and all species are provided, as is an identification key to species. New locality records are provided for Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Ecuador and Brazil. PMID:24872176

  5. Wing shape is influenced by environmental variability in Polietina orbitalis (Stein (Diptera: Muscidae

    Victor Michelon Alves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We measured variation and covariation in wing morphology in six populations of the fly Polietina orbitalis (Stein (Diptera: Muscidae to test for geographic morphological structure. Additionally, we examined the role of environmental variables in determining geographic variation in wing shape. We sampled five populations in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (Colombo, Fênix, Guarapuava, Jundiaí do Sul and Ponta Grossa, and one in Paraguay (Mbaracayú. We choose 15 landmarks to describe the wing shape and size and 19 environmental variables to describe the local environmental conditions. Our results showed that P. orbitalis wing shape, but not size, varies geographically. A canonical variate analysis showed the existence of two clusters of populations based on wing shape. These groups compare populations in which the wing is slender with groups in which the wings are broad. These shape differences were correlated with variation in elevation, precipitation and temperature but were not allometric. Taken together, these results suggest that wing shape differences in P. orbitalis populations are due to a plastic response to local environmental conditions.

  6. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  7. Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.Morfologia comparada das espermatecas de espécies de Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy e Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Pouco se conhece sobre a morfologia das estruturas quitinizadas das espermatecas de Calliphoridae. Nesse trabalho as espermatecas de Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 e C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 são descritas e ilustradas. Foi registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência em uma espécie com quatro espermatecas, uma forma atípica em califorídeos. A análise dessas estruturas possibilitará uma melhor compreensão do grupo e fornecerá caracteres taxonômicos para futuros estudos filogenéticos.

  8. Vetufebrus ovatus n. gen., n. sp. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae vectored by a streblid bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae in Dominican amber

    Poinar George O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera.

  9. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  10. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements. PMID:27392643

  11. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  12. Morphological Markers for Cryopreservation in the Embryonic Development of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Landi, Silvia; Gargani, Elisabetta; Paoli, Francesco; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2015-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest recently reported in Europe whose spread into new areas has caused severe economic damage to many agricultural crops. There are serious concerns about the currently available chemical insecticides because of their low efficacy in controlling the species and their environmental impact; so, several studies have focused on environmentally safe strategies. The sterile insect technique (SIT), which requires colony maintenance in laboratory and production of large numbers of live animals, can be utilized in pest management programs and could be integrated with other control strategies if the potential risks associated with the rearing and maintenance of the insect line under laboratory conditions are given sufficient attention. In this regard, the ability to cryobiologically preserve such stocks would be of substantial value. Important prerequisites for long-term cryopreservation are determination of the embryonic stages, identification of specific embryonic stages, and knowledge of development time. This paper describes the main visible markers for the different stages of embryonic development and determines the timing of development at 25°C. D. suzukii embryogenesis lasts 23-25 h at 25°C and can be divided into 17 stages defined by specific morphological markers. The point at which 50% of embryos are at Stage 14 and 50% are at Stage 15, the most tolerant stages for cryopreservation treatment, as ascertained for Drosophila melanogaster Meigen in prior studies, is reached in 14-15 h. The efficiency of this procedure might be impaired by the retention of eggs in the oviducts, making it impossible to determine the stage of embryonic development for ∼25% of laid eggs. PMID:26470330

  13. Insecticide management strategies for control of swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cole crops.

    Hallett, Rebecca H; Chen, Mao; Sears, Mark K; Shelton, Anthony M

    2009-12-01

    Insecticide field trials were conducted in Ontario, Canada, and New York state to identify insecticides effective against the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new invasive pest in North America. Field trials indicated that foliar applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos, and dimethoate could provide control of C. nasturtii. Foliar insecticide applications were effective in keeping damage within marketable limits in all cabbage and some broccoli trials during the early phase of regional colonization by C. nasturtii (2001-2002). However by 2005-2006, treatments were rarely able to maintain damage levels within marketable limits. Low efficacy suggested the possibility of insecticide resistance in Canadian C. nasturtii populations, but laboratory assays revealed no evidence for resistance. Thus, eventual control failures on a season-long basis were apparently due to very high populations during later phases of colonization in Ontario. Early season applications (e.g., seed treatments, greenhouse plug tray drenches and/or band sprays) of neonicotinoid insecticides proved effective for 3-5 wk after transplanting in New York. These early season treatments would require supplemental control with foliar insecticides, but would reduce the number of foliar applications required and thus reduce insecticide usage. Our results suggest that acceptable control with foliar insecticides will be difficult where C. nasturtii populations are high, because of multiple and overlapping generations, and difficulty in achieving adequate spray coverage. An integrated pest management program that uses cultural control methods and host plant resistance, with judicious use of insecticides, is needed for sustainable management of this newly invasive pest. PMID:20069854

  14. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable. PMID:22812118

  15. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9th fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is

  16. An annotated catalogue of the New World Therevidae (Insecta: Diptera: Asiloidea).

    Webb, Donald W; Gaimari, Stephen D; Hauser, Martin; Holston, Kevin C; Metz, Mark A; Irwin, Michael E; Kampmeier, Gail E; Algmin, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The genera and species of New World stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae) are listed, with annotated references to nomenclature, synonymies and generic combinations, type localities, the primary type depositories, distribution, and citations for the most recent revisions. The genus Cyclotelus Walker, 1850 (along with its synonyms Furcifera Kröber, 1911, and Epomyia Cole, 1923a) is synonymized under Cerocatus Rondani, 1848. Ectinorhynchus fascipennis Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus rondanii Gaimari, and Phycus rufiventris Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus raspii Hauser. Phycus analis Kröber, 1911 and Phycus bicolor Kröber, 1911, are placed as new combinations in Cerocatus Rondani, as are the following species that were previously in combination with Cyclotelus: Furcifera achaeta Malloch, 1932, Cyclotelus badicrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Phycus beckeri Kröber, 1911, Epomyia bella Cole, 1923a, Furcifera braziliana Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus colei Irwin and Lyneborg, 1981a, Thereva diversipes Kröber, 1911, Thereva fascipennis Macquart, 1846a, Psilocephala femorata Kröber, 1911, Furcifera flavipes Kröber, 1928b, Furcifera hardyi Cole, 1960a, Furcifera kroeberi Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus laetus Walker, 1850, Furcifera longicornis Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus nigroflammus Walker, 1850, Psilocephala nigrifrons Kröber, 1914a, Thereva pictipennis Wiedemann, 1821, Furcifera polita Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus pruinosus Walker, 1850, Thereva ruficornis Macquart, 1841a, Psilocephala rufiventris Loew, 1869, Thereva scutellaris Walker, 1857, Cyclotelus silacrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Cyclotelus socius Walker, 1850 and Psilocephala sumichrasti Bellardi, 1861. Dialineura pallidiventris Malloch, 1932, Melanothereva blackmani Oldroyd, 1968, Thereva maculicornis Jaennicke, 1867 and Thereva notabilis Macquart, 1841a are placed as new combinations in Entesia Oldroyd. Henicomyia amazonica Irwin and Webb, 1992 is a new synonym of Henicomyia flava Lyneborg, 1972

  17. Kinetic properties of the two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.1) catalyses the reversible interconversion of a variety of alcohols and their corresponding aldehydes and ketones. Among insects, the ADH gene-enzyme system has been extensively studied in several species of Drosophila (Chambers 1988, Heinstra 1993, Ashburner 1998). The best characterised ADH from a non-drosophilid insect is that of the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), based on data from molecular genetics (Malacrida et al. 1992, Gasperi et al. 1992, Brogna et al. 1999), biochemistry (Gasperi et al. 1994) and population genetics (Gasperi et al. 1992, Gomulski et al. 1998). The primary interest in studying this enzymatic function in the Medfly was that the ADH system has been proposed, on the model of Drosophila, as a useful tool for genetic sexing strategies addressed to the biological control of this pest (Robinson et al. 1988). Moreover, molecular characterisation of Adh in a species like C. capitata, that diverged from the Drosophilidae more than 100 million years ago (Beverley and Wilson 1984), is of interest for studying the evolution of this protein in higher diptera. The principal function of ADH in insect metabolism is to catabolise alcohols generated by microbial fermentation in larval and adult feeding sites; in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, the presence of an active ADH is responsible for two different phenotypic traits, namely alcohol tolerance and alcohol utilisation (Van Delden 1982, David 1988). The ecological niche of C. capitata is different from that of Drosophila species, the first breeding on ripening fruits, the latter breeding on rotten plant material. Consequently, the physiological role of ADH may have diversified in these dipteran species

  18. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest.

    Lapointe, D A

    2008-07-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies. PMID:18714858

  19. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae to Synthetic and Natural Attractants and Repellents.

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and -1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns. PMID:26352935

  20. Response of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to weathered SPLAT-Spinosad-Cue-Lure.

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Jang, Eric B; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Gomez, Luis; Stoltman, Lyndsie; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to measure attraction of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-Cue-Lure (C-L) and SPLAT-Melo-Lure (M-L) (raspberry ketone formate). Direct field comparisons of SPLAT-C-L and SPLAT-M-L at low (5%) and high (20%) concentrations indicated few differences in attraction over a 15-wk period. Subsequently, only SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L (5%) was compared with Min-U-Gel C-L with naled (standard used in California) in weathering studies. Treatments were weathered for 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk in Riverside, CA, and shipped to Hawaii for attraction/toxicity tests under field and semifield conditions by using released males of controlled ages, and for feeding tests in the laboratory. In terms of attraction, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L compared favorably to, or outperformed the current standard of Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled. In terms of toxicity, the cumulative 24-h mortality did not differ between the two insecticide-containing C-L treatments in field cage studies after 8 wk. However, in feeding studies in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different C-L treatments after 4 wk of weathering, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L demonstrated reduced mortality compared with the Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled, suggesting reduced persistence of the spinosad material. Spinosad has low contact toxicity and when mixed with SPLAT and C-L offers a reduced risk alternative for control of B. cucurbitae and related C-L-responding species, without many of the negative effects to humans and nontargets of broad-spectrum contact poisons such as naled. PMID:21061958

  1. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DROSOPHILA SUZUKII (DIPTERA: DROSOPHILIDAE) IN BELGIUM IN 2013.

    Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D

    2014-01-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed. PMID:26084094

  2. Behavioral and Antennal Responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Volatiles From Fruit Extracts.

    Abraham, John; Zhang, Aijun; Angeli, Sergio; Abubeker, Sitra; Michel, Caryn; Feng, Yan; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest of soft-skinned fruit crops since its introduction into North America and Europe in 2008. Current monitoring strategies use baits based on fermentation products; however, to date, no fruit-based volatile blends attractive to this fly have been identified. This is particularly important because females are able to cut into the epicarp of ripening fruit for oviposition. Thus, we conducted studies to: 1) investigate the behavioral responses of adult D. suzukii to volatiles from blueberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry fruit extracts; 2) identify the antennally active compounds from the most attractive among the tested extracts (raspberry) using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and coupled gas chromatography -electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD); and 3) test a synthetic blend containing the EAD-active compounds identified from raspberry extract on adult attraction. In olfactometer studies, both female and male D. suzukii were attracted to all four fruit extracts. The attractiveness of the fruit extracts ranks as: raspberry ≥ strawberry > blueberry ≥ cherry. GC analyses showed that the fruit extracts emit distinct volatile compounds. In GC-EAD experiments, 11 raspberry extract volatiles consistently elicited antennal responses in D. suzukii. In choice test bioassays, a synthetic EAD-active blend attracted more D. suzukii than a blank control, but was not as attractive as the raspberry extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a behaviorally and antennally active blend of host fruit volatiles attractive to D. suzukii, offering promising opportunities for the development of improved monitoring and behaviourally based management tools. PMID:26313190

  3. Attractiveness of fermentation and related products to spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: drosophilidae).

    Kleiber, Joseph R; Unelius, C Rikard; Lee, Jana C; Suckling, David Maxwell; Qian, Michael C; Bruck, Denny J

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory screening bioassays and field trapping experiments of spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), were conducted to determine the attractiveness of 17 compounds as well as to compare attractant efficiency during peak fruit ripeness and postharvest captures late in the season. Compounds structurally related to each of the fermentation products acetic acid, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and 2-phenethyl alcohol were screened for attractiveness compared with a soap water control in greenhouse cage bioassays. The compounds determined to be attractive in the greenhouse bioassay (methanol, ethanol, propanol, formic acid, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, phenethyl propionate, and phenethyl butyrate) were individually tested in the field added to apple cider vinegar (ACV). The acids were also tested individually in neutralized ACV (NACV; pH ≍7). Combinations of the compounds were tested in NACV. The capture numbers in ACV traps were not significantly increased by the addition of any of the compounds tested, although significant deterrent effects of some of the compounds allowed differences between treatments to be observed. Compounds that are most prevalent in wine and vinegar (methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate) as well as phenethyl propionate and phenethyl butyrate were less deterrent than the other compounds tested in the field. Captures during peak fruit ripeness were compared with the postharvest period when fruit hosts were not available or were overripe. Although the total number of flies captured late in the season was lower, the trends in treatment performance were similar, indicating a consistent performance of these baits from peak fruit ripeness through postharvest. PMID:24763098

  4. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed. PMID:24605456

  5. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  6. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

  7. Egg Developmental Time and Survival of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Under Different Temperatures.

    Alonso, M A; Souza, C M; Linhares, A X; Thyssen, P J

    2015-07-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered of forensic, medical, and veterinary importance in Brazil because of their necrophagous and synanthropic behaviour. The development of flies can be influenced by temperature, and species from the same genus usually have different responses to external variables. The egg development of blow fly can be a useful complementary technique to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. Thus, this study aimed to compare the egg developmental time and survival of C. megacephala and C. putoria at different temperatures to determine the optimal temperature for egg development and the linear regression for developmental time and temperature, thereby determining the minimum threshold (t) and thermal summation constant (K) for each species. Adults of both species were collected in the region of Campinas city, São Paulo state, Brazil. Eggs were incubated at eight constant temperatures between 05 ± 1°C and 35 ± 1°C and the egg developmental time and survival were evaluated. There was no egg survival at 5 and 10°C. The K for C. megacephala and C. putoria were 179.41 HD and 189.94 HD, respectively. The regression slopes and t (10°C) were similar for both species. The optimal temperature for egg survival was between 25 and 35°C, for C. megacephala and 20 and 30°C, for C. putoria. The present data were similar to most data available in the literature, but differences in the same species are a possibility. PMID:26335461

  8. Evaluation of monitoring traps for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in North America.

    Lee, Jana C; Burrack, Hannah J; Barrantes, Luz D; Beers, Elizabeth H; Dreves, Amy J; Hamby, Kelly A; Haviland, David R; Isaacs, Rufus; Richardson, Tamara A; Shearer, Peter W; Stanley, Cory A; Walsh, Doug B; Walton, Vaughn M; Zalom, Frank G; Bruck, Denny J

    2012-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a recent invasive pest of small and stone fruits, has been detected in more than half of the U.S. states, and in Canada, Mexico, and Europe. Upon discovery, several different trap designs were recommended for monitoring. This study compared the trap designs across seven states/provinces in North America and nine crop types. Between May and November 2011, we compared a clear cup with 10 side holes (clear); a commercial trap with two side holes (commercial); a Rubbermaid container with mesh lid and rain tent (Haviland), and with 10 side holes and no tent (modified Haviland); a red cup with 10 side holes (red); and a white container with mesh lid and rain tent (Van Steenwyk). Although fly catches among traps varied per site, overall, the Haviland trap caught the most D. suzukii, followed by the red, Van Steenwyk, and clear trap. The modified Haviland and commercial trap had low captures. Among five crop types in Oregon, a clear cup with mesh sides (Dreves) also was tested and caught the most flies. Traps with greater entry areas, found in mesh traps, caught more flies than traps with smaller entry areas. In terms of sensitivity and selectivity, traps that caught more flies likewise caught flies earlier, and all traps caught 26-31% D. suzukii out of the total Drosophila captured. Future trap improvements should incorporate more entry points and focus on selective baits to improve efficiency and selectivity with regard to the seasonal behavior of D. suzukii. PMID:22928316

  9. Half of the European fruit fly species barcoded (Diptera, Tephritidae; a feasibility test for molecular identification

    John Smit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility test of molecular identification of European fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae based on COI barcode sequences has been executed. A dataset containing 555 sequences of 135 ingroup species from three subfamilies and 42 genera and one single outgroup species has been analysed. 73.3% of all included species could be identified based on their COI barcode gene, based on similarity and distances. The low success rate is caused by singletons as well as some problematic groups: several species groups within the genus Terellia and especially the genus Urophora. With slightly more than 100 sequences - almost 20% of the total - this genus alone constitutes the larger part of the failure for molecular identification for this dataset. Deleting the singletons and Urophora results in a success-rate of 87.1% of all queries and 93.23% of the not discarded queries as correctly identified. Urophora is of special interest due to its economic importance as beneficial species for weed control, therefore it is desirable to have alternative markers for molecular identification.We demonstrate that the success of DNA barcoding for identification purposes strongly depends on the contents of the database used to blast against. Especially the necessity of including multiple specimens per species of geographically distinct populations and different ecologies for the understanding of the intra- versus interspecific variation is demonstrated. Furthermore thresholds and the distinction between true and false positives and negatives should not only be used to increase the reliability of the success of molecular identification but also to point out problematic groups, which should then be flagged in the reference database suggesting alternative methods for identification.

  10. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  11. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.

    Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons. PMID:24612968

  12. Field evaluation of potential fruit-derived lures for Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a nine-component blend (ethyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, hexan-1-ol, propyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, isopentyl butyrate, ethyl benzoate, and ethyl octanoate) isolated from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit are attractive to both sexes of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in laboratory and field cage tests. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of traps baited with the nine-component blend in capturing wild A. obliqua in a mango, Mangifera indica L. variety Ataulfo) orchard. In addition, we tested other S. mombin-derived lures to determine whether any of these effectively mimic the nine-component blend in attracting A. obliqua. In all trials, we compared the attractiveness of the S. mombin-derived lures against hydrolyzed protein, the standard bait for monitoring A. obliqua. We found that, in some trials, there was no difference in the number of females caught by traps baited with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. In other trials, traps baited with hydrolyzed protein captured more females than traps baited with the nine-component blend. For males, in general there were no differences in the number of flies caught by traps baited either with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with other S. mombin-derived lures captured fewer A. obliqua than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with S. mombin-derived lures caught fewer species of nontarget tephritid flies and nontarget insects than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. PMID:20069833

  13. Monitoring hymenoptera and diptera pollinators in a sub-tropical forest of southern punjab, pakistan

    Bees (Hymenoptera) and flies (Diptera) play an essential role in natural and agricultural ecosystems as pollinators of flowering plants while pollinators are declining around the world. Colored pan traps and Malaise traps have widely been used for monitoring pollinators. However, their efficiencies may vary with landscapes and type of fauna in a particular habitat. A yearlong study was carried out during 2009 to investigate the relative efficacy of colored pan traps and Malaise traps towards sampling flies and bees for the first time in a sub-tropical wildlife sanctuary Pirowal of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Fifteen pan traps (5 each of 3 colors i.e. white, red and blue) were deployed against one Malaise trap for 7 hours (9:00-16:00 hrs) on fortnightly basis. For the comparison and confirmation of an insect as a floral visitor, collection with the hand net was also performed. It was concluded that hand net collection is essential to have a comprehensive list of floral visitors of an area as the maximum number (63) of species and their abundance (5428 individuals) were recorded with it. Malaise trap collected only 671 individuals of 48 species. Although blue, yellow and white pan traps caught 46, 51 and 35 species but the numbers of individuals (1383) were fairly higher than that of Malaise traps. Keeping in view the cost effectiveness and better performance of colored pan traps, we recommend species specific pan trap colors when targeting certain groups or species, nevertheless variety of pan colors should be used when sampling overall biodiversity. We generalize these findings for both bees and flies due to similar collection pattern i.e. the maximum abundance and diversity in hand net method followed by pan traps and Malaise traps. (author)

  14. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  15. Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Fábio C Abdalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae. In the summer of 2012, a high incidence of conopid larvae was observed in a sample of female B. morio collected in remaining fragments of semidecidual forest and Cerrado, in the municipality of Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The larval development of conopid flies was studied, beginning at the larval instars (LO to L3 and PUP, until the emergence of the imago under laboratory conditions and inside the host. At the first instar, or LO, the microtype larvae measured less than 1 mm in length. During the transition from L1 to L3, the larvae grew in length. At L3, the larvae doubled their length (4 mm and then started to develop both in length and width, reaching the PUP stage with 10 mm in length and 7 mm in width. The main characteristic that differentiates L3 from the early instars is the larger body size and the beginning of posterior spiracle development. The development from PUP to puparium took less than 24h. The bees died ten days after the fly oviposition, or just before full PUP development. The early development stages (egg-LO to L1 were critical for larva survival. The pupa was visible between the intersegmental sternites and, 32 days after pupation, a female imago of Physocephala sp. emerged from one bee. The puparium and the fly measured approximately 10 mm in length. In a single day of collection, up to 45% of the bumble bees collected were parasitized by conopid flies.

  16. Inheritance of Resistance to Deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) From Cuba.

    Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Hurtado, Daymi; Severson, David W; Bisset, Juan A

    2014-11-01

    The development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a serious concern because major A. aegypti control programs are predominantly based on pyrethroid use during epidemic disease outbreaks. Research about the genetic basis for pyrethroid resistance and how it is transmitted among mosquito populations is needed. The objective of this study was to determine how deltamethrin resistance is inherited in the Cuban A. aegypti-resistant reference strain. Here, a field population of A. aegypti from Santiago de Cuba (SAN-F14), subjected to 14 generations of selection for high deltamethrin resistance level (91.25×), was used to prepare reciprocal F1 and backcross progeny with the insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. The activities of metabolic enzymes were assayed through synergist and biochemical tests. The null hypothesis of the parallelism test between the two probit regression lines of the reciprocal F1 (susceptible females × resistant males and vice versa) was not rejected at the 5% significance level (P = 0.42), indicating autosomal inheritance. The LC50 response of both F1 progenies to deltamethrin was elevated but less than the highly resistant SAN-F14 strain. DLC values for the F1 progenies were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance in the SAN-F14 strain is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait, involving at least two factors, which implies a faster development of deltamethrin resistance in larvae and lost product effectiveness. Metabolic enzymes including esterases and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases but not glutathione-S-transferases were involved in deltamethrin resistance in larvae. PMID:26309309

  17. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  18. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  19. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal. PMID:22576856

  20. [A case of urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera)].

    Yenice, Mustafa Gürkan; Demir, Tülin; Babür, Cahit; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2011-07-01

    Myiasis which is a parasitic disease of humans and vertebrates, is caused by dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. Although infestation by fly larvae is much more prevalent in animals, it occurs relatively frequently in humans in rural, tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and America. Myiasis is usually associated with poor general health and hygiene, restricted mobility and ulcerating lesions. The pathophysiology of the human infection differs depending on the fly species and where the larvae are located. It could be external or internal, and the invasion by the maggot could be obligatory, facultative and sometimes acci-dental. Myiasis is a self-limiting infestation with minimal morbidity in the vast majority of cases. Urogenital myiasis, associated with urinary obstruction, poor hygiene of the local site and ulcerating lesions has been infrequently reported. In this report, a case of 29 year-old male patient who presented with genitourinary myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera), was presented. The patient was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of urinary incontinence of one week duration and presence of small, thin, motile, grayishwhite objects in his urine. Physical examination, blood and urine examination and stool microscopy revealed no pathology. No growth was detected in his urine culture. The examination of discharged larva in urine sample at Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Parasitology Laboratory led to the diagnosis of urogenital myiasis. No risk factor was identified in the patient who had proper hygienic conditions, was living in urban area and was of high socioeconomic status. This case was presented to withdraw attention to myiasis which is frequent in Turkey, however, is usually overlooked. PMID:21935791

  1. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days. PMID:25613586

  2. Brumptomyia angelae, a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) of the Atlantic forest of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Eunice A Bianchi Galati; Demilson Rodrigues dos Santos; Allan Martins da Silva

    2007-01-01

    The male of Brumptomyia angelae, sp. nov., a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) of the Atlantic forest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This new taxon is closely related to Brumptomyia ortizi Martins, Silva & Falcão 1971, Brumptomyia nitzulescui (Costa Lima, 1932), and Brumptomyia troglodytes (Lutz, 1922). The male genitalia of these three latter species have also been drawn.

  3. Seven new species of Spathidexia Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    AJ Fleming; D. Monty Wood; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs; M. Alex Smith

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Spathidexia ( Diptera : Tachinidae ) reared from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. All were reared from ­various species of ACG caterpillars during an ongoing inventory of caterpillars, their food plants and their parasitoids. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of each species. All are known to be previously undescribed as a resul...

  4. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    Shaun Winterton

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Ac...

  5. Spatiotemporal variation of mosquito diversity (Diptera: Culicidae) at places with different land-use types within a neotropical montane cloud forest matrix

    Abella-Medrano, Carlos Antonio; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background Land-use change has led to a dramatic decrease in total forest cover, contributing to biodiversity loss and changes of ecosystems’ functions. Insect communities of medical importance can be favored by anthropogenic alterations, increasing the risk of novel zoonotic diseases. The response of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and richness to five land-use types (shade coffee plantation, cattle field, urban forest, peri-urban forest, well-preserved montane cloud forest) and thre...

  6. Studies in South-Occidental Amazon: contribution to the knowledge of Brazilian Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.9195

    Daniel Silva de Sousa; Maria Rosélia Marques Lopes; Gisele Cristina Rosin; Alice Michyio Takeda; Lisandro Juno Soares Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Chironomidae (Diptera) are a diverse and large group of small flies, whose larvae inhabit nearly every possible niche in most freshwater aquatic ecosystems. The Acre river is an important affluent of the Purus river. Our objective was to contribute to the knowledge of Chironomidae in this region by making the first survey of Chironomidae composition in the Acre river (Amazon Basin), and relate its distribution to physical and chemical variables. Samples were collected at three sites using a m...

  7. A Laboratory-Based Study for First Documented Case of Urinary Myiasis Caused by Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in Saudi Arabia

    Wakid, Majed H.

    2008-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the medically important insects. Maggots from a urine sample of a 5-year-old Saudi girl were examined microscopically for identification. These maggots were cultured to become adult flies. Larvae and adults were identified using standard keys. Protozoan flagellates were obtained from the gut of the larvae. This is the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of urinary human myiasis in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Miíase humana por Alouattamyia baeri (Shannon & Greene) (Diptera, Cuterebridae): comunicação de dois casos na região norte do Brasil

    J.H. Guimarães; Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to record two peculiar cases of human myiases occurring in Northern Brasil which apparently have not been reported. In both cases maggots of Alouattamyia baeri (Shannon & Greene) (Diptera, Cuterebridae) were localized in the pharyngeal cavity. The first case involved a female Suruí indian, 30 years old, living in the Parque Aripuanã, Rondônia, presenting symptoms of cough, nausea, dyspnea and painful throat. After treatment with Tiabendazol six large maggots were ...

  9. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina Dípteros de importancia sanitaria asociados al compostaje de biosólidos en Argentina

    Valeria Alejandra Labud; Liliana Graciela Semenas; Francisca Laos

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia) attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collec...

  10. Analyses of essential and edible oils, and constituents therein, as candidate repellents for the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Campbell, Cory James

    2009-01-01

    Some plant essential and edible oils repel mosquitoes but often quantitatively minor repellent constituents therein remain unknown. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of catnip, cinnamon, citronella, cumin, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, melissa, peppermint, rosemary, and thyme essential oils, 43 constituents elicited responses from antennae of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). GC-EAD analyses of soybean oil (active ing...

  11. The ability of insecticidal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers

    Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    Jespersen, J.B. and K.-M. Vagn Jensen, 1987. The ability of insectici¬dal ear-tags, collar, and pour-ons to control flies (Diptera; Musci¬dae) and to prevent Summer Mastitis in heifers. In Thomas, G., H. J. Over, U. Vecht and P. Nansen (Editor): Summer Masitits (ISBN O-89838-982-8) pp. 166-172....

  12. Herniosina Roháček: revised concept, two new species, new key and atlas of male and female terminalia (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae)

    Roháček, Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic concept of Herniosina Roháček, 1983 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is revised on the basis of five W. Palaearctic species, thus excluding the E. Nearctic Herniosina voluminosa Marshall, 1987 whose inclusion caused the paraphyly of the genus. Two new species, H. erymantha sp. n. (male only, Greece: Peloponnese) and H. hamata sp. n. (both sexes, Cyprus), are described and illustrated, and the other three species, H. bequaerti (Villeneuve, 1917), H. horrida (Roháček, 1978) and H. pollex...

  13. A catalogue of types of Conopoidea, Diopsoidea, Nerioidea and Tephritoidea (Diptera, Schizophora in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo

    Ramon Luciano Mello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue is provided with the type material of four superfamilies of "Acalyptrate" (Conopoidea, Diopsoidea, Nerioidea and Tephritoidea held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP, São Paulo, Brazil. Concerning the taxa dealt with herein, the Diptera collection of MZUSP held 77 holotypes, 4 "allotypes" and 194 paratypes. In this paper, information about data labels, preservation and missing structures of the type specimens is given.

  14. Les porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae), vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?

    Zimmer, JY.; Saegerman, C; Martinelle, L.; Losson, B.; Leroy, P.; Haubruge, E.; Francis, F.

    2014-01-01

    Pig farms: reservoirs of vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses?. Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent outbreak in northern Europe, this viral disease has caused considerable economic losses. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Several light trapping campaigns targeting these adult midges have been previously conducted in Belgium w...

  15. Physiological mechanisms of dehydration tolerance contribute to the invasion potential of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) relative to its less widely distributed congeners

    Weldon, Christopher W; Boardman, Leigh; Marlin, Danica; Terblanche, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly invasive species now with an almost cosmopolitan distribution. Two other damaging, polyphagous and closely-related species, the marula fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and the Natal fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch, are not established outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, adult water balance traits and nutritional body composition were measured in all three species at different te...

  16. Phoretic association between larvae of Rheotanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae) and genera of Odonata in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

    Beatriz F. J. Vescovi Rosa; Renato T. Martins; Vívian C. de Oliveira; Roberto da G. Alves

    2009-01-01

    In this note, the occurrence of phoresy between larvae of Rheotanitarsus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) and larvae of Heteragrion sp. (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae) and of unidentified genera of Calopterygidae (Odonata) collected in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is reported. During the dry season of 2007 and the rainy season of 2008, with the aid of a Surber sampler, 15 samples of each of the following mesohabitats were collected: litter from riffle area...

  17. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera Current knowledge of the family Ceratopogonidae in Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National

  18. Lista das espécies de Culicidae (Diptera depositadas na Coleção de Entomologia Pe. J. S. Moure Species list of the Culicidae (Diptera deposited at the Entomological Collection "Pe. J. S. Moure"

    Ana Cristina Tissot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Entomologia do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP abriga cerca de 5.000.000 de exemplares de insetos. A coleção de Diptera está representada por aproximadamente 2.000.000 de exemplares, sendo Muscidae; Culicidae e Syrphidae as famílias mais representativas. A ordem Diptera possui cerca de 150.000 espécies descritas e a coleção conta com cerca de 103.000 exemplares representantes de 78 famílias. A lista das espécies pertencentes à família Culicidae conta com 9.579 exemplares, distribuídos em 2 subfamílias, 7 tribos, 17 gêneros, 26 subgêneros e 85 espécies. A maioria dos exemplares foi coletado em remanescentes de mata localizados em áreas urbanas e rurais, ambientes silvestres e urbanos de regiões litorâneas ou áreas urbanas pertencentes a diferentes cidades do Estado do Paraná, e algumas espécies incluídas foram capturadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina e no Distrito Federal. As informações específicas de cada exemplar, como local de coleta, latitude, longitude, coletor, data de coleta, método de coleta e nome do pesquisador que identificou, e também informações taxonômicas como ordem, tribo, gênero, subgênero e espécie, foram informatizados em um banco de dados.The Entomological Collection of Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP accommodates about 5,000,000 insect specimens. The collection of Diptera is represented by approximately 2,000,000 specimens, being Muscidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae the most representative families. The Diptera order consists of approximately 150,000 described species and in the Collection about 103,000 specimens within 78 families are registered. The list of species of the family Culicidae presents 9,579 specimens within 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 17 genera, 26 subgenera and 85 species. Most specimens were captured in forest remnants in urban and rural areas, wild and urban environments in

  19. Historical biogeography of the Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera: A commentary on the age of the family Biogeografia histórica de Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera: Un comentario sobre la edad de la familia

    PETER LOWENBERG-NETO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a study on Fanniidae biogeography, Dominguez & Roig-Juñent (2011 argued that the family had a Pangeic origin, Late Jurassic/early Cretaceous (~146 Ma. However, recent literature on Diptera supports that Schizophora radiation occurred during Cenozoic. Fanniidae is a widespread taxon and it was interpreted under the maximum vicariance paradigm; the consequence was an analysis with no alternative hypothesis, but Pangeic origin. We verified that Fanniidae historical narrative was incongruent with the Gondwana sequential break-up. A second analysis, assuming the Fanniidae origin during early Paleocene (65 Ma, showed congruence with recent geological events and with the Muscidae diversification, a closely related Muscoidea family. Our hypothesis suggests that the Fanniidae originated in Paleogene and they were affected by few events of vicariance and several expansions during Cenozoic.En un estudio sobre biogeografía de Fanniidae, Domínguez & Roig-Juñent (2011 argumentaron que la familia era de origen Pangeico, Jurásico superior/Cretáceo inferior (~146 Ma. Sin embargo, literatura reciente sobre Diptera, confirma que la radiación de Schizophora ocurrió durante el Cenozoico. Fanniidae es un taxón ampliamente distribuido y fue interpretado bajo el paradigma de máxima vicarianza; la consecuencia, fue un análisis sin hipótesis alternativas, pero de origen pangeico. Nosotros verificamos que la narrativa histórica de Fanniidae es incongruente con la quiebra secuencial de Gondwana. Un segundo análisis, asumiendo el origen de Fanniidae durante el Paleoceno inferior (65 Ma, mostró congruencia con eventos geológicos recientes y con la diversificación de Muscidae, una familia de Muscoidea próximamente relacionada. Nuestra hipótesis sugiere que Fanniidae se originó en el Paleógeno y fueron afectados por pocos eventos de vicarianza y muchas expansiones durante el Cenozoico.

  20. Calliphoridae (Diptera from wild, suburban, and urban sites at three Southeast Patagonian localities: Calliphoridae (Diptera de ambientes no habitados, suburbanos y urbanos en tres localidades del sudeste patagónico

    Juan C. Mariluis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, relative abundance, sex ratio and habitat preference of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae from Caleta Olivia, Puerto Deseado, and Puerto San Julián (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina were studied during late spring and summer in 2004-2005. Results showed a higher prevalence of the exotic species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen at urban sites over the natives, Compsomyops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy and Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann, which shows a strong preference for those sampling sites either not inhabited or less influenced by human activities. Sex ratio was female biased for all species, except for Sarconesia chlorogaster, which exhibited a male prevalence over females.Durante fines de la primavera-verano de 2004-2005, se analizó la composición, abundancia relativa y proporción de sexos de especies de Calliphoridae (Diptera en las localidades de Caleta Olivia, Puerto Deseado y Puerto San Julián (Provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. Tres sitios de muestreo afectados diferencialmente por la intervención humana fueron seleccionados en cada localidad. En las áreas urbanas, las especies exóticas Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy y Phaenicia sericata (Meigen fueron dominantes. Por el contrario, las nativas Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy y Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann predominaron tanto en áreas inhabitadas como en aquellas con bajo impacto humano. En los cebos utilizados para las capturas, se observó mayor proporción de hembras en todas las especies, excepto Sarconesia chlorogaster que mostró mayor proporción de machos.

  1. Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature?

    Sofija Pavković-Lučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.

  2. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as a potential measure of human postmortem interval: observations and case histories.

    Lord, W D; Goff, M L; Adkins, T R; Haskell, N H

    1994-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), has been shown to be a ubiquitous inhabitant of both surface and buried human remains throughout the southern, central and western United States and Hawaii. Unlike most other species of forensically important Diptera, this species frequently dominates bodies in the dry/post decay stage of decomposition. Adults of the black soldier fly appear to initiate oviposition (egg laying) 20 to 30 days postmortem. Even at warm temperatures (27.8 degrees C), subsequent completion of the life cycle can require an additional 55 days. Life history data for H. illucens, when used in combination with data for other cohabiting arthropod species and viewed in the context of local environmental conditions, can provide medicolegal investigators with valuable parameters for estimating the postmortem intervals for badly decomposed remains. PMID:8113702

  3. Germ line transformation and in vivo labeling of nuclei in Diptera: report on Megaselia abdita (Phoridae) and Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae).

    Caroti, Francesca; Urbansky, Silvia; Wosch, Maike; Lemke, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    To understand how and when developmental traits of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster originated during the course of insect evolution, similar traits are functionally studied in variably related satellite species. The experimental toolkit available for relevant fly models typically comprises gene expression and loss as well as gain-of-function analyses. Here, we extend the set of available molecular tools to piggyBac-based germ line transformation in two satellite fly models, Megaselia abdita and Chironomus riparius. As proof-of-concept application, we used a Gateway variant of the piggyBac transposon vector pBac{3xP3-eGFPafm} to generate a transgenic line that expresses His2Av-mCherry as fluorescent nuclear reporter ubiquitously in the gastrulating embryo of M. abdita. Our results open two phylogenetically important nodes of the insect order Diptera for advanced developmental evolutionary genetics. PMID:26044750

  4. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

    Nadja Gomes Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During the study period, we found 40.3 and 94.4 individuals/m2 at points 3 and 4 (low course, respectively. There is eutrophication in these sites due to domestic sewage discharges, indicating low quality water. The Barbado Stream needs restoration projects that include an awareness of the residents of their neighborhood’s environmental importance, and investments in the sanitation sector to prioritize the collection and treatment of wastewater and solid waste collection.

  5. A new species of Dasineura Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in flower galls of Camassia (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae) in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Gagné, Raymond J; Barosh, Theresa; Kephart, Susan

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Dasineura camassiae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described, illustrated and compared to some of its congeners from related hosts and western North America. The new species causes flower galls on Camassia (Agavoideae; Asparagaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Its current known distribution is Oregon and Washington, USA. Larvae develop in spring in flowers of Camassia spp., causing the young ovaries to enlarge prematurely and eventually abort, without forming seeds or mature fruit. Full-grown larvae crawl out of the gall in rapid succession and drop to the soil where they pupate; they remain there until spring of the following year when the adults emerge and lay eggs. The galls they induce in camas lily buds represent the first known association of the cosmopolitan genus Dasineura with the group of plants that includes Agave and its relatives. PMID:25543738

  6. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.

  7. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  8. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoretic Band Pattern of Esterase in the Pupae of Bactrocera papavae and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    M. Hasanuzzaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to compare the electrophoretic banding patterns of esterase isozyme between the pupae of Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae by using polyacrylamide gel. These two Bactrocera species are the major agricultural pests, especially fruits and vegetables. One esterase band, EST-1 was detected and the relative mobility value was 0.15 which was close to the cathode. The EST-1 band was present in the pupae of both Bactrocera species. There was no difference in the esterase patterns of both species. The thickness and activation of the band varied slightly. So, the results prove that the pupae of the two Bactrocera species have almost similar esterase band pattern in the same polyacrylamide gel.

  9. The influence of prior experience with artificial fruits on the ovipositioning behavior of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Patrícia L. F. Gregório

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae, is a leading pest of Brazilian fruit crops. This study evaluated how prior experience with artificial fruits containing peach and/or guabiroba pulp influenced the ovipositing behavior of A. fraterculus. Insects 15-21 days old were exposed to four treatments: 1 experience with guabiroba, Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg (Myrtaceae; 2 experience with peach, Prunus persica (L. Batsch (Chimarrita cultivar; Rosaceae; 3 experience with both fruits; and 4 no experience (naive. Naive females and females experienced with guabiroba pulp and with both fruits (peach and guabiroba oviposited and showed dragging and puncturing behavior on substrates containing guabiroba, but females that were only exposed to peach pulp did not show a preference for any substrate. The study shows that prior experience with substrate influences ovipositing behavior in A. fraterculus.

  10. Biology of Aphaereta sp. n (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae), a new larval parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Teixeira, Tânia Isabel Peres

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado - Biotecnologia em Controlo Biológico. As espécies que pertencem ao género Aphaereta estão distribuídas praticamente por todo o mundo, e vivem associadas a dípteros sinantrópicos e outros dípteros. Foi encontrado um total de 12 indivíduos, da população em estudo, em duas pupas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), estes indivíduos são endo-parasitóides gregários larva-pupa. Foram estimados pela primeira vez os parâmetros biológicos de Aphaereta s...

  11. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae). The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC). PMID:12489401

  12. High altitude Chironomidae (Diptera of Serra da Estrela (Portugal: Additions to the Portuguese and Iberian Peninsula fauna

    Rieradevall, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chironomidae (Diptera fauna list for headwater streams of high altitude areas in Serra da Estrela (Portugal is presented, doubling the previously established species richness for the region. The findings include 17 new records for Portugal, which represent an increase to 219 species for the Continental Portugal Chironomidae fauna. Two new records were detected for the Iberian Peninsula: one species (Tvetenia duodenaria, and one subgenus –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–; and the presence of the genus Natarsia is confirmed. The last two occurrences correspond to monoespecific taxa of the Palearctic region. However, as taxonomic identification has been based on larval material, instead of pupae, pupal exuviae or imagoes, species level assignment is still uncertain.

    Se presenta una lista de especies de Chironomidae (Diptera recolectadas en los ríos de cabecera de zonas de alta montaña en la Serra da Estrela (Portugal. Con esta aportación se duplica la riqueza de especies regional conocida hasta el momento y se eleva la fauna de quironómidos del Portugal continental a 219 especies. Se incluyen dos nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica, una especie (Tvetenia duodenaria y un subgénero –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–, y se confirma la presencia del género Natarsia. En los dos últimos casos se trata de larvas de taxones hasta el momento monoespecíficos en la región paleárctica, pero al no haberse recolectado pupas o adultos no se puede asegurar la identificación específica.

  13. Distributional patterns of the neotropical fly genus Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki (Diptera, Muscidae: a phylogeny-supported analysis using panbiogeographic tools

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, Neotropical region has been subdivided into smaller units (areas of endemism, yet these subdivisions were not necessarily based on an evolutionary perspective. Consequently, these areas of endemism may be biogeographic units that do not actually represent natural historical units. Here, the distributional patterns of the genus Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 (Diptera, Muscidae; including 15 species are analysed by applying panbiogeographic tools to recognise and propose primary homologous areas within the Neotropical region. The analysis and discussion of the results obtained here will be reconciled to the information provided by the phylogenetic hypothesis available for the genus.Durante as últimas décadas, a Região Neotropical tem sido classificada em unidades históricas menores (áreas de endemismo, entretanto, muitos desses estudos não têm se preocupado em propor uma classificação sob uma perspectiva evolutiva. Conseqüentemente, uma determinada classificação pode considerar unidades biogeográficas que não representem realmente unidades naturais. No presente estudo, o padrão de distribuição do gênero Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 (Diptera, Muscidae, com 15 espécies, é analisado pela aplicação de ferramentas da Pan-biogeografia para reconhecer e propor áreas de homologia primária na região Neotropical. A análise e discussão dos resultados aqui obtidos serão conciliados às informações fornecidas pela hipótese filogenética disponível para o gênero.

  14. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.Ectoparasitos de morcegos (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, com a descrição de uma nova espécie de Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae do Brasil. Os poucos dados sobre ectoparasitismo em morcegos furipterídeos são restritos a moscas (Streblidae. Somente três espécies de estreblídeos eram conhecidas antes desse trabalho: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. Outra espécie de Synthesiostrebla é descrita aqui aumentando a distribuição geográfica do gênero para o lado leste dos Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. foi encontrada sobre Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 no sudeste do Brasil. Região anterior do corpo, asa, tergito 7, epiprocto e genitália masculina são ilustrados e uma chave de identificação para fêmeas também é apresentada.

  15. Actualización del catálogo de Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae de España

    Lucientes, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on arthropods of genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae has increased considerably in Spain in recent decades. This is due to the role these insects play as vectors of arboviruses that cause disease in animals, but also in humans. This work undertakes an updated catalogue of the species of this genus in our country, through a critical review of the literature, clarifying chronological aspects of these publications carried out for over a century of research. This update shows a total of 81 species of Culicoides in Spain, among which are some to be considered as directly related to the transmission of diseases such as bluetongue and African horse sickness.El número de estudios acerca de los artrópodos del género Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae en España ha experimentado un elevado incremento en las últimas décadas. Principalmente ello es debido al papel que estos dípteros juegan como vectores de arbovirus causantes de enfermedades en los animales, aunque también en humanos. Este trabajo acomete una actualización del catálogo de las especies que conforman este género en nuestro país, mediante una revisión crítica de la literatura existente, clarificando aspectos cronológicos sobre estas publicaciones llevadas a cabo durante más de un siglo de investigación. Esta actualización muestra un total de 81 especies de Culicoides para España, entre las que se encuentran algunas a tener en cuenta por estar directamente relacionadas con la trasmisión de enfermedades como la Lengua Azul o la Peste Equina Africana.

  16. Overwintering biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California.

    Nelms, Brittany M; Macedo, Paula A; Kothera, Linda; Savage, Harry M; Reisen, William K

    2013-07-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010-2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios or=stage I-II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 +/- 30.7 and 162.85 +/- 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting collections occurred concurrently with diapause termination in field populations based on ovarian morphometrics. WNV RNA was detected in one pool of 18 males and in a

  17. Arthropods associated with pig carrion in two vegetation profiles of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Thiago Augusto Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic Entomology research has been concentrated in only a few localities of the "Cerrado" vegetation, the Brazilian Savannah. The present study had, as its objective, an examination of the diversity of arthropod fauna associated with the carcasses of Sus scrofa (Linnaeus in this biome. The study was conducted during the dry and humid periods in two Cerrado vegetation profiles of the State of Minas Gerais. The decaying process was slower and greater quantities of arthropods were collected during the dry period. Insects represented 99% of 161,116 arthropods collected. The majority of these were Diptera (80.2% and Coleoptera (8.8%. The entomofauna belong to 85 families and at least 212 species. Diptera were represented by 31 families and at least 132 species. Sarcophagidae (Diptera and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera were the richest groups. Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae presented the largest number of attracted species, however none of these species bred in the carcasses. The Coleoptera collected belong to at least 50 species of 21 families. Among these species, Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes were observed breeding in the carcasses. This study showed species with potential importance for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI, indicative of seasonal and environmental type located.

  18. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009 Correções e adições ao Catálogo de Diptera Neotropical (Tabanidae de Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.São apresentadas correções e informações taxonômicas omitidas no "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae". Quinze espécies recentemente descritas para a região Neotropical são adicionadas. Atualmente a Região Neotropical possui 1.205 espécies de Tabanidae, além de 35 espécies não reconhecidas e 29 nomina nuda.

  19. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  20. Sobrevivência de pupas de Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório Survival of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae pupae after submersion in laboratory

    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre Maio e Junho de 2008 foi observado a sobrevivência das pupas de Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório. Para este experimento foram utilizadas 480 pupas de mesma idade, sendo estas divididas em oito grupos: o controle não foi submerso e os demais grupos foram submersos de um a sete dias. O aumento do período de submersão diminui a sobrevivência, com um dia de submersão a sobrevivência é de 80%, com dois dias 40%, é de 30% a partir do terceiro dia, no quarto dia cai para 23,34% e no quinto dia fica em 10%. Após este período a mortalidade sobe para 100%. Este padrão pode ser explicado pela curva "U-shaped" que ocorre no consumo de O2 durante o período pupal, onde o consumo é maior no início e no final do período pupal. O tempo de submersão também afeta o tempo de desenvolvimento, aumentando o período pupal. Estes dados têm o potencial para serem utilizados em investigações envolvendo Entomologia Forense, para a estimativa do tempo de submersão de um cadáver.Between May and June of 2008, the survival of the pupae of Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae was observed after submersion in laboratory. For this experiment 480 pupae of same age were used, these were divided in eight groups: the group control was not submerged and the other groups were submerged from one to seven days. The increase of the submersion period reduces the survival, with one day of submersion the survival is of 80%, with two days 40%, of 30% with three days, in the fourth day it falls to 23,34% and in the fifth day it is 10%. After this period the mortality rises to 100%. This pattern can be explained by the curve "U-shaped" that happens in the consumption of O2 during the pupal period, where the consumption is larger at the beginning and at the end of the pupal period. The time of submersion also affects the development time, increasing the pupal period. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of

  1. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  2. Parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors from Southern of Goias State / Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no Sul do estado de Goiás

    Gefferson José Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors in the south of Goias state. Twelve traps two as of each color were used, painted yellow, black, red, white, green and blue were used two as of each color. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. Between March and December 2006, 17 parasitoid specimens were collected from the yellow trap, 15 from the blue trap, 12 from the white trap, 37 from the black trap, one from the green trap and three from the red trap. The parasitoids did not present any preference for any of the trap colors (F=0.772; P=0.58. The most frequently collected parasitoid species was Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, with 80.0%.O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no sul do estado de Goiás. Foram utilizadas 12 armadilhas duas de cada tipo pintadas de amarelo preto, vermelho, branco, verde e azul. As pupas dos dípteros foram isoladas pelo método de flutuação, individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência dos parasitóides. Foram coletados no período de março a dezembro de 2006, 17 exemplares de parasitóides na armadilha amarela, 15 na armadilha azul, 12 na armadilha branca, 37 na armadilha preta, um exemplar na armadilha verde e três na armadilha vermelha. Os parasitóides não apresentaram atração por nenhuma das cores das armadilhas (F= 0,772; P=0,58. A espécie de parasitóide mais freqüente foi Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae com 80,0%.

  3. Experiments of different compounds to attract Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Information regarding eight experiments carried out between 2001 and 2004 to determine the responses of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) to several attractants in fruit orchards in Costa Rica is presented. In a mixed coffee and citrus orchard where population levels where low in Corralar (2002 and 2004). In a guava orchard where population levels where low in 2002 and higher in 2004 in Pocora,. In a mango farm where population levels were high in Esparza (2001 and 2003). The Flies per trap per day index (FTD) obtained in mango in 2001 was 0.12 for Torula Yeast, for Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) + Putrescine (PT) the FTD was 0.054 and for NuLure it was 0.053. In 2003 the highest attraction was obtained using NuLure (FTD = 0.025), AA+PT (FTD 0.019), 1/2AA+PT (FTD = 0.013) and Torula Yeast (FTD = 0.0077). In guava (February to April of 2004) the highest FTD was obtained with NuLure(FTD 0.11), with 1/2AA+PT (FTD = 0.07) and with Torula Yeast (FTD = 0.05). In the September - October, 2004, experiments the attraction was better using NuLure (FTD = 0.04), followed by 1/4AA+AB+1/4PT (FTD = 0.02) and by 1/2AA+PT and 1/2AA+1/4PT both with a 0.01 FTD. In the mixed coffee and citrus orchard (November - December of 2002) the highest FTD was for the NuLure, Torula Yeast and 1/2AA+PT. The differences in the concentration of AA in the formulations of 1/2, 1 and 2AA+PT, did not yield sufficient data to be able to make a conclusion. With a single 1/2AA+PT, the FTD was 0.0008, with 1AA+PT it was zero, and with 2AA+PT it was 0.004. The formulation of 1AA+PT+TMA yielded an FTD of 0.004, and the same was obtained with 2AA+PT. In 2004, the largest number of A. obliqua was captured with NuLure (FTD = 0.0053). The Easy traps with the same attractant had a FTD of 0.001. In the formulations with AA, those with 1/2AA+PT captured the largest number of flies. The data obtained in all these experiments indicate that NuLure and Torula Yeast were better attractants to capture A. obliqua in

  4. Spring and early summer phenology and detection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Greece

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most serious fruit pests world-wide, infesting more than 300 plant species (Liquido et al. 1991). Many studies on population dynamics of C. capitata have been conducted in the tropics (Vargas et al. 1983, Nishida et al. 1985, Eskafi and Kolbe 1990, Harris et al. 1993) and in the Mediterranean area (Rivnay 1951, Benfatto et al. 1989, Campos et al. 1989, Fimiani 1989, Cayol and Causse 1992, Michelakis 1992, Israely et al. 1997, Katsoyannos et al. 1998a). However, there are no detailed studies on the seasonal occurrence and population dynamics of the fly in the most temperate parts of its distribution. The population build up of the fly is mostly determined by host fruit abundance and availability, and by environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. In northern Greece, which is within the northern limits of the fly's distribution, winter temperatures are unfavourable for C. capitata survival (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). In addition, there is a gap in host fruit availability from near December until the following May. However, C. capitata has developed a remarkable ability to survive in such climates (though suffering high mortality), predominantly as larvae within certain host fruits that become infested at the end of autumn and remain in the orchards until the following spring (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). The prolonged larval period, especially that of the 1st and the 2nd instars, due to low temperatures, enables the fly to survive long periods of unfavourable conditions (Papadopoulos et al. 1998). The few adults emerging in spring, may live as long as 3 months and can oviposit a high number of eggs in artificial oviposition substrates (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). The importance of some key factors - late spring and early summer maturing host fruits - for the re-establishment of the C. capitata population has been suggested (Cayol 1996, Israely et al

  5. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de pupas de Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Espécies de Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 são encontradas em corpos em decomposição, usualmente nas fases fresca, inchamento e murcha. Entre estas espécies, Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 pode ser encontrada em carcaças de ratos e coelhos. A influência de fatores ambientais sobre pupas de O. albuquerquei não tinha sido avaliada até o momento. Desta maneira, o foco deste trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade por modelos de previsão do desenvolvimento de insetos necrófagos em função de fatores abióticos. Colônias de O. albuquerquei foram mantidas em laboratório para a obtenção de pupas. Até o décimo dia de cada mês, 200

  6. Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil

    Otacílio M. Silva Filho

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae found in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Feces samples were collected in the field at two-week intervals and later were taken to the laboratory to extract pupae by the water flotation method. Each pupa was placed in a capsule of colorless gelatin until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. The parasitism prevalence was 1.2%.

  7. Evaluación de modernos plaguicidas en el complejo Ceratis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) y Psyttalia concolor Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Ould-Abdallahi, Elhadj Abdalldhi

    2004-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Mosca mediterránea de la Fruta) es una de las principales plagas de los cultivos frutales. Está presente en la mayor parte de las regiones subtropicales del mundo. Su rango de huéspedes abarca a más de 250 especies. Los daños son producidos en primer lugar por la oviposición de la hembra en los frutos, y posteriormente, por el desarrollo larvario en su interior. Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide de moscas de ...

  8. Efeito da escopolamina sobre o desenvolvimento de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) e sua importância para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte

    Patricia Jacqueline Thyssen; Maicon Diego Grella

    2011-01-01

    A presença de drogas nos tecidos de um corpo pode afetar o desenvolvimento de larvas de moscas necrófagas que são encontradas alimentando-se neste substrato. Essa observação já foi constatada para várias drogas tais como heroína, cocaína, certos analgésicos, e compostos anfetamínicos e benzodiazepínicos, entre outras. Assim, neste estudo investigamos o efeito da escopolamina – uma droga amplamente usada como analgésico – sobre a taxa de desenvolvimento de larvas de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera:...

  9. Bioecología, diversidad e interés epidemiológico de los culícidos mediterráneos (Diptera: culicidae)

    Bueno Marí, Rubén

    2010-01-01

    Desde la erradicación del paludismo en España, los estudios acerca de los mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae) han disminuido drásticamente en nuestro país. Con el objetivo de actualizar los datos faunísticos de la familia en la Comunidad Valenciana, se llevaron a cabo intensivos muestreos larvarios en los años comprendidos entre 2005 y 2008. Durante estos cuatro años se consiguió recolectar 11.279 ejemplares pertenecientes a 29 especies de Culicidae, repartidos en 548 puntos de captura d...

  10. Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Marcoandre Savaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart, Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering, Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering, Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering, Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston, Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom & Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson.

  11. Desenvolvimento Pós-embrionário de Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae em Diferentes Dietas, sob Condições de Laboratório

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-embryonic Development of Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae, in Different Diets, under Laboratory Conditions - The performance of various diets (bovine meat, fish- sardine, shrimp, dog faeces, and banana in Ophyra aenescens development was evaluated. The biology was studied in an incubator (BOD at 27±1oC and 80±10% of RH. The developmental time from larvae to adult, the developmental time and viability of larvae and pupae, the weight of pupae as well as the sex ratio of the emerging adults were also determined. Beef and shrimp were the more efficient diets for rearing O. aenescens.

  12. Some Factors Behind Density Dynamics Of Bat Flies (Diptera, Nycteribiidae) — Ectoparasites Of The Boreal Chiropterans: Omitted Predictors And Hurdle Model Identification

    Orlova M. V.; Kshnyasev I. A.; Orlov O. L.; Zhigalin A. V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated density dynamics of three bat flies species (Diptera, Nycteribiidae): Penicillidia monoceros Speiser, 1900, Nycteribia quasiocellata (Theodor, 1966), Basilia rybini (Hurka, 1969) parasitized on two host species: pond bat, Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825), and eastern water bat, Myotis petax Hollister, 1912. Females of M. dasycneme have 3.4 (95 % CI 1.4–8.3) times higher odds of being infested, and in 2.4 (1.5–3.7) times higher average number of P. monoceros than males. Similarly,...

  13. Hongos patógenos asociados a “moscas de la fruta” (Diptera: Tephritidae) en el sector austral de Las Yungas del noroeste argentino

    Albornoz Medina, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    La presencia en Argentina de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (especie nativa) y Ceratitis capitata (especie exótica) limitan la exportación de frutas y hortalizas al estado fresco, ya que estas plagas son de importancia cuarentenaria. A nivel mundial existe una tendencia a disminuir el empleo de plaguicidas de sintesis contra “moscas de la fruta”, debido fundamentalmente a los efectos nocivos de estos sobre el ambiente y la salud humana, sumado a la necesidad de la conservación ...

  14. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  15. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  16. Larvicidal and repellent activity of tetradecanoic acid againstAedes aegypti (Linn.) andCulex quinquefasciatus (Say.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Sivakumar R; Jebanesan A; Govindarajan M; Rajasekar P

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and repellent efficacy of tetradecanoic acid against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say (Diptera: Culicidae).Methods: Larvicidal efficacy of tetradecanoic acid was tested at various concentrations against the early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The repellent activity was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and5.0 ppm under the laboratory conditions.Results: The tetradecanoic acid was found to be more effective againstCx. quinquefasciatus thanAe. aegypti larvae. TheLC50values were14.08 ppm and25.10 ppm, respectively. Tetradecanoic acid showed lesser repellency againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The highest repellency was observed in higher concentration of5.0 mg/cm2provided100% protection up to60 and 90 min againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatusrespectively.Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the tetradecanoic acid is a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegypti mosquitoes.

  17. Orientisargidae fam. n., a new Jurassic family of Archisargoidea (Diptera, Brachycera, with review of Archisargidae from China

    Zhang Junfeng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A pair of fly impressions is described as a new species of a new genus, Orientisargus illecebrosus gen. et sp. n., referred to a new family Orientisargidae fam. n. within Archisargoidea of Brachycera, Diptera. The systematic position of Orientisargidae is discussed. Daohugosargus gen. n. is proposed for Sharasargus eximius KY Zhang et al., 2008. Uranorhagionidae is a junior synonym for Archisargidae. Meanwhile, Mostovskisarginae is a junior synonym for Uranorhagionidae. Mostovskisargus JF Zhang, 2010 and Strenorhagio KY Zhang et al., 2010 are synonymized with Uranorhagio KY Zhang et al., 2010. Uranorhagio includes three species: Uranorhagio asymmetricus (KY Zhang et al., 2010, comb. n., U. daohugouensis KY Zhang et al., 2010 and U. deviatus (KY Zhang et al., 2010, comb. n. Strenorhagio grimaldi KY Zhang et al., 2010 is synonymous with U. deviatus. Mostovskisargus portentosus JF Zhang, 2010, M. signatus JF Zhang, 2010 and Strenorhagio conjugovenius KY Zhang et al., 2010 are synonymous with U. asymmetricus. Brevisolva KY Zhang et al., 2010 is a junior synonym for Mesosolva Hong, 1983. A new specific name, Mesosolva zhangae nom. n., is proposed for Brevisolva daohugouensis KY Zhang et al., 2010. Mesosolva jurassica KY Zhang et al., 2010 should be synonymized under M. sinensis KY Zhang et al., 2010. Sinallomyia nom. n. is proposed for Allomyia Ren, 1998. The systematic positions for Helempis eucalla Ren, 1998, H. yixianensis Ren, 1998, Pauromyia oresbia Ren, 1998 and Sinallomyia ruderalis (Ren, 1998 are reassessed. These taxa belong to Archisargidae rather than to Tabanidae, Rhagionidae and Protempididae, respectively.

  18. Orientisargidae fam. n., a new Jurassic family of Archisargoidea (Diptera, Brachycera), with review of Archisargidae from China.

    Zhang, Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    A pair of fly impressions is described as a new species of a new genus, Orientisargus illecebrosusgen. et sp. n., referred to a new family Orientisargidaefam. n. within Archisargoidea of Brachycera, Diptera. The systematic position of Orientisargidae is discussed. Daohugosargusgen. n. is proposed for Sharasargus eximius KY Zhang et al., 2008. Uranorhagionidae is a junior synonym for Archisargidae. Meanwhile, Mostovskisarginae is a junior synonym for Uranorhagionidae. Mostovskisargus JF Zhang, 2010 and Strenorhagio KY Zhang et al., 2010 are synonymized with Uranorhagio KY Zhang et al., 2010. Uranorhagio includes three species: Uranorhagio asymmetricus (KY Zhang et al., 2010), comb. n., Uranorhagio daohugouensis KY Zhang et al., 2010 and Uranorhagio deviatus (KY Zhang et al., 2010), comb. n.Strenorhagio grimaldi KY Zhang et al., 2010 is synonymous with Uranorhagio deviatus. Mostovskisargus portentosus JF Zhang, 2010, Mostovskisargus signatus JF Zhang, 2010 and Strenorhagio conjugovenius KY Zhang et al., 2010 are synonymous with Uranorhagio asymmetricus. Brevisolva KY Zhang et al., 2010 is a junior synonym for Mesosolva Hong, 1983. A new specific name, Mesosolva zhangaenom. n., is proposed for Brevisolva daohugouensis KY Zhang et al., 2010. Mesosolva jurassica KY Zhang et al., 2010 should be synonymized under Mostovskisargus sinensis KY Zhang et al., 2010. Sinallomyia nom. n. is proposed for Allomyia Ren, 1998. The systematic positions for Helempis eucalla Ren, 1998, Helempis yixianensis Ren, 1998, Pauromyia oresbia Ren, 1998 and Sinallomyia ruderalis (Ren, 1998) are reassessed. These taxa belong to Archisargidae rather than to Tabanidae, Rhagionidae and Protempididae, respectively. PMID:23226708

  19. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini

    Christine Lambkin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia’s National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery – identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini are described; Palirika mackenziei Lambkin, sp. n., Palirika culgoafloodplainensis Lambkin, sp. n., and Larrpana bushblitz Lambkin, sp. n. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 Australian exoprosopine species belonging to the Balaana generic-group Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 supports the placement of the three new species into existing genera, and the erection and description of the new genus Ngalki Lambkin, gen. n. for Ngalki trigonium (Lambkin & Yeates, 2003, comb. n. Revised keys are provided for the genera of the Australian Balaana genus-group and the species of Palirika Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 and Larrpana Lambkin & Yeates, 2003. With the description of the three new species and the transferral of Munjua trigona Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 into the new genus Ngalki Lambkin, gen. n., three genera are rediagnosed; Munjua Lambkin & Yeates, 2003, Palirika and Larrpana.

  20. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini).

    Lambkin, Christine L; Bartlett, Justin S

    2011-01-01

    Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia's National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery - identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini are described; Palirika mackenziei Lambkin sp. n., Palirika culgoafloodplainensis Lambkin sp. n., and Larrpana bushblitz Lambkin sp. n. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 Australian exoprosopine species belonging to the Balaana generic-group Lambkin & Yeates 2003 supports the placement of the three new species into existing genera, and the erection and description of the new genus Ngalki Lambkin gen. n. for Ngalki trigonium (Lambkin & Yeates 2003) comb. n. Revised keys are provided for the genera of the Australian Balaana genus-group and the species of Palirika Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 and Larrpana Lambkin & Yeates 2003. With the description of the three new species and the transferral of Munjua trigona Lambkin & Yeates 2003 into the new genus Ngalki Lambkin gen. n., three genera are rediagnosed; Munjua Lambkin & Yeates 2003, Palirika and Larrpana. PMID:22207816

  1. Isozyme variation in four species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic studies of isozymes were done with four closely related species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidade in the Brazilian Amazon, using last-instar larvae collected in the field. Ten enzymes were studied, which yielded 11 loci. Diagnostic loci were not found between Simulium maroniense cytotype D and Simulium rorotaense. Simulium maroniense and S. rorotaense differed from Simulium trombetense by two diagnostic loci (Me and Xdh, and Simulium perflavum differed from the other three species by four diagnostic loci (Me, Xdh, Mdh, and Got. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.30 to 2.30, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 18.2 to 63.6% and the mean heterozygosity values observed ranged from 0.062 to 0.108. Genetic distances among the species ranged from 0.010 to 0.581. The lowest value was obtained between S. maroniense and S. rorotaense, and the highest between S. perflavum and S. trombetense. The genetic relationships among the four S. perflavum group species indicate that they are closely related. The high similarity at the isozyme level, allied to previous studies of morphology and polytene chromosomes, may suggest that the divergence time since the separation of S. maroniense and S. rorotaense is still too recent for diagnostic loci to have evolved.

  2. Use of Chironomidae (Diptera) Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae as a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol for Water Bodies.

    Kranzfelder, Petra; Anderson, Alyssa M; Egan, Alexander T; Mazack, Jane E; Bouchard, R William; Rufer, Moriya M; Ferrington, Leonard C

    2015-01-01

    Rapid bioassessment protocols using benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been successfully used to assess human impacts on water quality. Unfortunately, traditional benthic larval sampling methods, such as the dip-net, can be time-consuming and expensive. An alternative protocol involves collection of Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE). Chironomidae is a species-rich family of flies (Diptera) whose immature stages typically occur in aquatic habitats. Adult chironomids emerge from the water, leaving their pupal skins, or exuviae, floating on the water's surface. Exuviae often accumulate along banks or behind obstructions by action of the wind or water current, where they can be collected to assess chironomid diversity and richness. Chironomids can be used as important biological indicators, since some species are more tolerant to pollution than others. Therefore, the relative abundance and species composition of collected SFPE reflect changes in water quality. Here, methods associated with field collection, laboratory processing, slide mounting, and identification of chironomid SFPE are described in detail. Advantages of the SFPE method include minimal disturbance at a sampling area, efficient and economical sample collection and laboratory processing, ease of identification, applicability in nearly all aquatic environments, and a potentially more sensitive measure of ecosystem stress. Limitations include the inability to determine larval microhabitat use and inability to identify pupal exuviae to species if they have not been associated with adult males. PMID:26274889

  3. Additions to the aquatic diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    Chordas, Stephen W., III; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01

    The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.

  4. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866 (Diptera: Phoridae on Different Substrates

    Abesh Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M. scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n=3. One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111=15.79873, p=0.000000917, width (F(2,111=14.60528, p=0.00000234, and biomass (F(2,111=37.01727, p=0.000000000000482 of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M. scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects.

  5. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates.

    Chakraborty, Abesh; Naskar, Atanu; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2016-01-01

    The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n = 3). One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111) = 15.79873, p = 0.000000917), width (F(2,111) = 14.60528, p = 0.00000234), and biomass (F(2,111) = 37.01727, p = 0.000000000000482) of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M.) scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects. PMID:27471604

  6. First survey of seasonal abundance and daily activity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakornpathom province, Thailand.

    Masmeatathip, R; Gilles, J; Ketavan, C; Duvallet, G

    2006-09-01

    The seasonal changes and the daily activity of Stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae) were examined, using Vavoua traps, in a dairy and a beef cattle farm in Nakhonpathom province, Thailand during July 2004 to June 2005. Over this period, Stomoxys calcitrans was the most commonly trapped species, followed by S. sitiens and S. indica. For the later species, this is the first report of its presence in Thailand. A total of 80 % of flies were captured during the rainy season from May to October and 20 % during the dry season from November to April. No major difference of fly density was observed between the dairy and the beef cattle farm. The activity pattern of S. calcitrans was diurnal with a peak between 08:00 am to 10:00 am and another less marked one in the afternoon. The activity pattern of S. sitiens and S. indica was mainly crepuscular with 2 peaks, early in the morning (06:00 a.m.) and late in the afternoon (6:00 p.m.). Those species are important pests of livestock in Thailand, where they are known as a mechanical vector of trypanosomes. A better knowledge of their ecology is a prerequisite for more efficient control measures. PMID:17007217

  7. Development of resistance to spinosad in oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory selection and cross-resistance.

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the potential for the development of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in a laboratory colony of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Resistance was selected by using topical applications of spinosad. After eight generations of selection, the LD50 of the selected line was 408 times greater compared with that of the untreated parental colony. This spinosad-resistant line did not exhibit cross-resistance to 10 other insecticides tested, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion. fenthion, formothion, and malathion) one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate). However, using lines previously selected for resistance to these same insecticides, two of the 10 lines tested (naled- and malathion-resistant) did show some cross-resistance to spinosad. Also, oriental fruit flies from different field collections where naled and malathion have been used for control purposes displayed some resistance to spinosad. In addition, the effects of direct ingestion of spinosad through dietary supplementation also were tested. Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed in this study provide new information that will be useful for managing the development of resistance when spinosad is used to control B. dorsalis in the field. PMID:16813333

  8. First report of 13 species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in mainland Portugal and Azores by morphological and molecular characterization.

    David W Ramilo

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae contains important vectors of animal and human diseases, including bluetongue, African horse sickness and filariosis. A major outbreak of bluetongue occurred in mainland Portugal in 2004, forty eight years after the last recorded case. A national Entomological Surveillance Plan was initiated in mainland Portugal, Azores and the Madeira archipelagos in 2005 in order to better understand the disease and facilitate policy decisions. During the survey, the most prevalent Culicoides species in mainland Portugal was C. imicola (75.3% and species belonging to the Obsoletus group (6.5%. The latter were the most prevalent in Azores archipelago, accounting for 96.7% of the total species identified. The Obsoletus group was further characterized by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction to species level showing that only two species of this group were present: C. obsoletus sensu strictu (69.6% and C. scoticus (30.4%. Nine species of Culicoides were detected for the first time in mainland Portugal: C. alazanicus, C. bahrainensis, C. deltus, C. lupicaris, C. picturatus, C. santonicus, C. semimaculatus, C. simulator and C. subfagineus. In the Azores, C. newsteadi and C. circumscriptus were identified for the first time from some islands, and bluetongue vectors belonging to the Obsoletus group (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus were found to be widespread.

  9. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    Worachote Boonsriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly.

  10. Histopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control. PMID:27020151

  11. Microsatellite markers reveal population structure and low gene flow among collections of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Asia.

    Wu, Yi; Li, Yunlong; Ruiz-Arce, Raul; McPheron, Bruce A; Wu, Jiajiao; Li, Zhihong

    2011-06-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is widespread agricultural pest, and it is known to have the potential to establish invasive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the population genetics of this pest have remained relatively unexplored in Asia, the main area for distribution of this pest. The goals for this study were to employ nuclear markers to examine geographic collections for population genetic structure and quantify the extent of gene flow within these Southeast Asian and Chinese populations. To achieve these goals, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. A low level of genetic diversity was found among collections from China and higher levels were seen in Southeast Asia collections. Three genetically distinct groups, Southeast Asia, southwest China, and southeast China, were recovered by Bayesian model-based clustering methods, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the principal coordinate analysis. The Mantel test clearly shows geographical distance contributed in the genetic structuring of B. cucurbitae's populations. No recent bottlenecks for any of the populations examined. The results of clustering, migration analyses, and Mantel test, strongly suggest that the regional structure observed may be due to geographical factors such as mountains, rivers, and islands. We found a high rate of migration in some sites from the southwest China region (cluster 1) and the southeast China region (cluster 2), suggesting that China-Guangdong-Guangzhou (GZ) may be the center of melon fruit fly in the southeast China region. PMID:21735930

  12. Development, reproductive output and population growth of the fruit fly pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on artificial diet.

    Emiljanowicz, Lisa M; Ryan, Geraldine D; Langille, Aaron; Newman, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a fruit pest of Asian origin that invaded North America in 2008. Despite the widespread economic impact of this species, much of the biology and general life history of this pest remains largely unknown. Under optimal laboratory conditions (22 degrees C, approximately 25% relative humidity), we measured development, survival, fecundity, hatch rate, and sex ratio of a North American ecotype of D. suzukii. Life history traits were used to construct a life table and reproductive schedule, and to calculate the intrinsic rate of population increase. The mean (+/- SE) total lifespan (egg to adult mortality) was 86.1 +/- 4.25 d, with a maximum value of 153.7 d. On average, females produced 5.7 +/- 0.24 eggs per day, with a mean total lifetime production of 635.6 eggs. The gross reproductive rate was 317.8 daughter eggs per female and the net reproductive rate was 240.4 daughter eggs per female. The intrinsic rate of natural increase was 0.179. The stable age distribution (c(x)) was comprised of 51% larvae, 25% eggs, 16% pupae, and 8% adults. The sex ratio over time was approximately 1:1. We conclude with a comparison of our data with previous work on D. suzukii and other Drosophila, and discuss the implications for control and monitoring of this pest. PMID:25195427

  13. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively. PMID:22179264

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Atylotus miser (Diptera: Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae), with mitochondrial genome phylogeny of lower Brachycera (Orthorrhapha).

    Wang, Kai; Li, Xuankun; Ding, Shuangmei; Wang, Ning; Mao, Meng; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding

    2016-07-15

    Brachycera is a clade with over 80,000 described species and originated from the Mesozoic, and its larvae employ comprehensive feeding strategies. The phylogeny of the lower Brachycera has been studied intensively over the past decades. In order to supplement the lack of genetic data in this important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Atylotus miser as well as the nearly complete mt genomes of another 11 orthorrhaphous flies. The mt genome of A. miser is 15,858bp, which is typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a 993bp control region. The rest of the orthorrhaphous mt genomes in our study have the similar structure with A. miser. Additionally, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 20 mt genomes using Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods in order to reconstruct the evolutionary relationship of Orthorrhapha. The results show that all infraorders of Brachycera are monophyletic, and a relationship of Tabanomorpha+((Xylophagomorpha+Stratiomyomorpha)+Muscomorpha) has been proposed. Within Xylophagomorpha, Nemestrinoidae forms the sister group of Xylophagidae. PMID:27063560

  15. Development and validation of a GC-MS method for nicotine detection in Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Magni, Paola A; Pazzi, Marco; Vincenti, Marco; Alladio, Eugenio; Brandimarte, Marco; Dadour, Ian R

    2016-04-01

    Entomotoxicology is the application of toxicological methods and analytical procedures on necrophagous insects feeding on decomposing tissues to detect drugs and other chemical components, and their mechanisms affecting insect development and morphology and modifying the methodology for estimation of minimum time since death. Nicotine is a readily available potent poison. Because of its criminal use, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the detection of nicotine in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was developed and validated. Furthermore, the effect of nicotine on the development, growth rate, and survival of this blowfly was studied. Larvae were reared on liver substrates homogeneously spiked with measured amounts of nicotine (2, 4, and 6ng/mg) based on concentrations that are lethal to humans. The results demonstrated that (a) the GC-MS method can detect both nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in immature C. vomitoria; (b) the presence of nicotine in the aforementioned three concentrations in food substrates did not modify the developmental time of C. vomitoria; (c) during the pupation period, larvae exposed to nicotine died depending on the concentration of nicotine in the substrate; and (d) the resultant lengths of larvae and pupae exposed to 4 and 6ng/mg concentrations of nicotine were significantly shorter than those of the control. PMID:26874739

  16. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  17. OCORRÊNCIA DO BERNE, Dermatobia hominis (DIPTERA: CUTEREBRIDAE EM VARIOS HOSPEDEIROS, NO RIO DE JANEIRO, BRASIL

    VIRGINIO PEREIRA DA SILVA JUNIOR

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Relata-se casos de hospedeiros apresentando infestação com larvas de D. hominis no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foram observadas larvas do berne em suíno, caprino, felino, canino e homem. Esse relato tem importância pelo fato inédito de localização da larva na orelha de um suíno e no prepúcio de um cão, e esses não serem hospedeiros comuns das larvas do berne. As observações foram feitas em áreas com grandes incidência do berne em bovinos. No trabalho faz-se uma revisão da ocorrência da dermatobiose nessas espécies.OCCURRENCE OF BERNE, Dermatobia hominis (DIPTERA: CUTEREBRIDAE IN SEVERAL HOST, IN THE RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL The authors describe cases of hosts with infestation Dermatobia hominis larvae in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Larvae were observed in swine, caprine, canine, feline and man. The study have importance because larvae location in swine ear and in dog prepuce, and this animals dont common host. The observation were develop in region with great incidence of berne in bovines. A review from occurrence the D. hominis in this species were describe

  18. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  19. Biological trait analysis and stability of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Iqbal, Naeem; Razaq, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae), are pests of poultry and have the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. To design a strategy for resistance management, life history traits based on laboratory observations were established for lambda-cyhalothrin-resistant, susceptible and reciprocal crosses of M. domestica strains. Bioassay results showed that the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 98.34 compared to its susceptible strain. The lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain had a relative fitness of 0.26 and lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, and net reproductive rate compared with its susceptible strain. Mean population growth rates, such as intrinsic rate of population increase, and biotic potential were lower for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain compared to its susceptible strain. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, indoxacarb, and abamectin was unstable while resistance to bifenthrin and methomyl was stable in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain of M. domestica. Development of resistance can cost considerable fitness for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain. The present study provided useful information for making potential management strategies to delay resistance development in M. domestica. PMID:26874957

  20. Simultaneous detection of pyrethroid, organophosphate, and cyclodiene target site resistance in Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Domingues, Luísa N; Guerrero, Felix D; Foil, Lane D

    2014-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae), is an important pest that causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry, but insecticide resistance in horn fly populations has made horn fly control increasingly difficult to achieve. In this study, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to simultaneously detect target site resistance to pyrethroids (kdr mutation), organophosphates (G262A acetylcholinesterase mutation), and cyclodienes (Rdl mutation) and used the new procedure to follow the progression of these three mutations after exposure to different insecticide pressure. We assayed flies collected at the Macon Ridge research station, Winnsboro, LA, from 2008 to 2012. The multiplex PCR showed robust results in all our assays. The kdr mutation remained at high frequencies during all years, even after 4 yr with no use of pyrethroids. The G262A acetylcholinesterase mutation fluctuated from 7.5 to 23.8% during the studied years, while the Rdl mutation was rare in 2008, 2009, and June 2010, and then significantly increased after the first use of endosulfan. The possibility of screening for all the known target site resistance mutations in a single PCR reaction makes the multiplex PCR a useful and affordable tool that can be used to help diagnose insecticide resistance. PMID:25276924

  1. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates

    Chakraborty, Abesh; Naskar, Atanu; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2016-01-01

    The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n = 3). One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111) = 15.79873, p = 0.000000917), width (F(2,111) = 14.60528, p = 0.00000234), and biomass (F(2,111) = 37.01727, p = 0.000000000000482) of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M.) scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects. PMID:27471604

  2. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  3. Assessing the importance of four sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of Leishmania mexicana in Campeche, Mexico.

    Pech-May, A; Peraza-Herrera, G; Moo-Llanes, D A; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Berzunza-Cruz, M; Becker-Fauser, I; Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A

    2016-09-01

    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem in many areas of Mexico, especially in the Yucatan Peninsula. An understanding of vector ecology and bionomics is of great importance in evaluations of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania parasites. A field study was conducted in the county of Calakmul, state of Campeche, during the period from November 2006 to March 2007. Phlebotomine sandfly vectors were sampled using Centers for Disease Control light traps, baited Disney traps and Shannon traps. A total of 3374 specimens were captured in the two villages of Once de Mayo (93.8%) and Arroyo Negro (6.1%). In Once de Mayo, the most abundant species were Psathyromyia shannoni, Lutzomyia cruciata, Bichromomyia olmeca olmeca and Psychodopygus panamensis (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). The Shannon trap was by far the most efficient method of collection. The infection rate, as determined by Leishmania mexicana-specific polymerase chain reaction, was 0.3% in Once de Mayo and infected sandflies included Psy. panamensis, B. o. olmeca and Psa. shannoni. There were significant differences in human biting rates across sandfly species and month of sampling. Ecological niche modelling analyses showed an overall overlap of 39.1% for the four species in the whole state of Campeche. In addition, the finding of nine vector-reservoir pairs indicates a potential interaction. The roles of the various sandfly vectors in Calakmul are discussed. PMID:27040367

  4. Pupal deposition and ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae): Trichobius sp. (caecus group) in a Mexican cave habitat.

    Dittmar, Katharina; Dick, Carl W; Patterson, Bruce D; Whiting, Michael F; Gruwell, Matthew E

    2009-04-01

    We studied the deposition of pupae of the winged bat fly Trichobius sp. (caecus group; Diptera), an ectoparasite of Natalus stramineus (Chiroptera, Natalidae), in a natural cave in Tamaulipas, Mexico. For the first time, we show a strong spatial segregation of populations of a streblid bat fly at different stages of development. Using molecular techniques we were able to match developmental stages to adults. Only 5 pupae were present in the main bat roosts. The overwhelming majority occurred exclusively in the bat flyway passages at a considerable distance from roosting bats. Pupal density corresponded positively with the average flight height of bats in the cave passage. Taken together, observations suggest that these ectoparasites must actively seek out their hosts by moving onto passing or roosting bats. The scarceness of pupae in the main roost may be dictated by environmental constraints for their development. The estimated population of viable pupae far exceeds the population of imagoes on the bats, and predation on adults by spiders is common. PMID:18684039

  5. Assessment of resistance risk to fipronil and cross resistance to other insecticides in the Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Abbas, Naeem; Ijaz, Mamuna; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-06-15

    Fipronil, a phenyl-pyrazole insecticide has been used frequently for the control of disease vector house flies, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) worldwide including Pakistan. This experiment was performed to determine the selection and assessment of fipronil resistance evolution along with cross resistance to other three insecticides. After 26 generations of selection, the house fly strain developed 430-fold resistance to fipronil compared to a susceptible strain. Realized heritability (h(2)) of resistance to fipronil was 0.05. The projected rate of resistance development revealed that if 30-90% house flies were selected then a tenfold increase in lethal concentration 50 happened after 95.51-26.59 generations for fipronil (h(2)=0.05, Slope=2.34). At similar slope, if h(2)=0.15, then 31.84-8.86 generations are required for tenfold increase in LC50 at 30-90% selection intensity, respectively. Likewise, if h(2)=0.25, then similar would occur in 19.10-5.32 generations. Differences in any of the variable would affect the rate of resistance development. Selection with fipronil did not increase the level of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos and indoxacarb, suggesting no cross resistance to these insecticides. The results of our study concluded that house flies have the potential to develop resistances following continued selection pressure with fipronil. PMID:27198780

  6. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  7. Purification and partial characterization of thermal hysteresis proteins from overwintering larvae of pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomiidae).

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge of Thecodiplosis japonensis is a serious forest pest and overwinters as a 3rd instar larva at soil surface in Korea. The time necessary for killing 50% of larvae at -15 degree C is 160 min. During overwintering period, T. japonensis larvae accumulate relatively high content of trehalose as the main cryoprotectant. In this paper, the proteinaceous cryoprotectants were identified. Two thermal hysteresis proteins (THP-1S and 2S) were purified from overwintering larvae by ethanol fractionation, trichloroacetic acid precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-25) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex G-100). Their molecular weights are 34.9 and 37.8 kD respectively. T. japonensis THPs cannot be stained by periodic acid-Schiffs' reagent, suggesting no carbohydrate in them. The thermal hysteresis activity of THP-2 at the concentration of 50 mg/ml is 11.02 +/- 0.08 degree C (mean +/- SD, n=10), perhaps the highest active insect THP. It is the first report of purified T. japonensis THPs in Diptera. PMID:12148056

  8. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Waseem Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the den­gue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was eval­uated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter.Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01. However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05. Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56 followed by A. parthenope (n=47 and B. geminate (n=46. The number of larvae consumed was decreased with in­creasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume.Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. 

  9. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner. PMID:25313948

  10. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  11. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  12. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Clarice Noleto Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  13. Survey of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae annoyance levels and abundance along the Vaal and Orange Rivers, South Africa

    Chantel J. de Beer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae are pests in the livestock and labour-intensive farming systems along the major rivers in South Africa. Since 1995, blackflies have been controlled in the Orange River with the larvicide Bacillus thuringienses var. israelensis (Bti. During 2006–2007, the views of livestock farmers concerning blackfly annoyance were determined by means of questionnaires. The results of the questionnaires were substantiated by seasonal abundance surveys of the sub-adult stages of blackflies, conducted in 2007 at 13 sites in the Orange River and 11 sites in the Vaal River. More than half (52% of the 39 participating farmers along the Orange River and 79% of the 52 participating farmers along the Vaal River stated that they experienced severe blackfly problems. The majority of farmers were unaware of the availability of products that could be used to protect their animals against blackfly attacks and were willing to be involved in blackfly research. High numbers of blackfly sub-adult stages found in both rivers supported the high annoyance levels reported by the respondents. Simulium chutteri, Simulium damnosum s.l., Simulium hargreavesi, Simulium adersi and Simulium alcocki were identified at Christiana and Delportshoop on the Vaal River, whilst S. chutteri, S. damnosum s.l., S. adersi, S. alcocki and Simulium gariepense were identified at Marksdrift and Ses Bridge on the Orange River. Despite the extensive control of blackflies, farmers still experience problems and this contention is supported by surveys conducted along the rivers.

  14. Aportaciones al conocimiento de los mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae de alta montaña presentes en la Península Ibérica

    Jiménez Peydró, R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several larval samplings of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in different mountainous regions of the peninsular Spain were carried out. A total of 2796 specimens belonging to 18 species were collected, nevertheless the 72.5 % of these finds includes only three of them (Cx. hortensis hortensis, Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. The adaptation capacity to a varied typology of water bodies together with the marked multivoltinism that characterizes their biotic cycles are postulated as two of the principal reasons that explain their abundances. The altitudinal distribution as well as some information about the bioecology of all the species captured are also exposed.Se realizaron diversos muestreos larvarios de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae en varias regiones montañosas de la España peninsular. Pese a que se recolectaron un total de 2796 ejemplares pertenecientes a 18 especies, el 72.5 % de estos hallazgos engloba únicamente a tres de ellas (Cx. hortensis hortensis, Cx. pipiens y Cs. longiareolata. La capacidad de adaptación a un variado elenco de cuerpos de agua de diferente tipología, unida al marcado multivoltinismo que caracteriza sus ciclos bióticos, se postulan como dos de las principales razones que explican sus abundancias. La distribución altitudinal así como diversa información acerca de la bioecología de todas las especies capturadas también se exponen en el presente trabajo.

  15. Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskal in Brazil

    Ivan Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae, known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and associated odors cause complete loss of the grain because it is no longer fit for human or livestock consumption. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of Euxesta spp. in Brazilian maize fields and to determine the most prevalent species using two different hydrolyzed protein foods attractants, BioAnastrepha® (hydrolyzed maize protein and Torula, placed inside McPhail traps. The two species identified were E. eluta Loew and E. mazorca Steyskal, the latter being a new record from Brazil. Between the two species, E. eluta was the more abundant in maize fields. Both attractants were efficient in capturing the two species. However, BioAnastrepha® captured significantly more insects than Torula.

  16. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina Dípteros de importancia sanitaria asociados al compostaje de biosólidos en Argentina

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.OBJETIVO: Los compuestos odoríferos producidos en la Planta de Compostaje de Biosólidos de Bariloche (NO Patagonia atraen diferentes insectos, principalmente moscas (Orden Diptera. Con el objeto de caracterizarlas, se colectaron especímenes que fueron identificados taxonómicamente. Se describieron sus características comunitarias y se determinó su importancia

  17. Responses of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae to pesticides used in organic fruit production Respuestas de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae a plaguicidas utilizados en la producción orgánica de frutas

    Ricardo Bisotto-de-Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, is an economically important pest of fruit production in Southern Brazil. In organically managed orchards the species has traditionally been controlled with oils, plant extracts, and solutions such as pyroligneous extract and lime sulfur. The objectives of this study were to examine the possible deterrent effect of pesticides with the highest electroantennographic bioactivity on fruit flies and to assess their effects on the viability of pupae in treated fruits. Antennae were exposed to pyroligneous extract (BioPirol7M®, 0.4%, lime sulfur solution (SulFertilizantes, 1%, neem (Organic Neem®, 0.5%, and rotenone (Rotenat®, 0.6%, taking into account fly sex, age and reproductive status. Pupal viability was assessed for larvae reared in papaya (Carica papaya var. Calyman and guava (Psidium guajava var. Paluma fruits treated with the pesticides that generated the strongest electrophysiological responses. The bioactivity of A. fraterculus antennae was highest when stimulated with pyroligneous extract and lime sulfur solution, for young and mated flies. Neither substance inhibited oviposition and larval development in treated fruits, a result that has important implications for A. fraterculus management in organic systems.La mosca sudamericana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, es una plaga de importancia económica en la producción de frutas en el sur de Brasil. En huertos bajo manejo orgánico la especie se controla tradicionalmente con aceites, extractos vegetales y soluciones como el extracto piroleñoso y sulfuro de cal. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar el posible efecto disuasivo de los plaguicidas que presentan la más alta bioactividad electroantenográficas en moscas de la fruta y evaluar sus efectos sobre la viabilidad de las pupas en frutas tratadas. Las antenas fueron expuestas al extracto piroleñoso (BioPirol 7M®, 0,4%, solución de

  18. Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae in Southeastern Brazil O predador beneficia sua presa? Comensalismo entre Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae e Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae no Sudeste do Brasil

    Marcos Callisto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Commensalism between Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Megaloptera, Corydalidae and Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae larvae was recorded in Indaiá stream, at 1,380 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, 19º-20ºS, 43º-44ºW and in the headwaters of São Francisco river, at 1,300-1,700 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, 20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Seventy eight Corydalus larvae (range 22-88 mm were sampled: 61 in the Indaiá stream and 17 in other two streams. Twelve Corydalus larvae (22-79 mm in the Indaiá stream and three out of 15 larvae in the headwaters of São Francisco river (38-50 mm had Corynoneura, larvae and pupae on their gills (3rd to 6th and a few larvae attached to the abdominal segments of larger Corydalus larvae (> 25 mm. Sixty-nine larvae of Corynoneura were found in the regurgitated material from Corydalus. It is remarkable that by attaching to larger body size predators, prey could become free from predator bouts and could also be transported by them.Comensalismo entre Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Insecta, Megaloptera, Corydalidae e Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae foi registrado no córrego Indaiá situado a 1.380 m de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19-20ºS, 43-44ºW e nas nascentes do rio São Francisco a 1.300-1.700 m de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Setenta e oito larvas de Corydalus (tamanhos: 22-88 mm foram coletadas: 61 no córrego Indaiá e 17 em outros córregos. Doze larvas de Corydalus (tamanhos: 22-79 mm no córrego Indaiá e três encontradas nas nascentes do rio São Francisco (tamanhos: 38-50 mm apresentaram larvas e pupas de Corynoneura em suas brânquias (3ª a 6ª e algumas larvas fixadas nos segmentos abdominais de grandes Corydalus (> 25 mm. Sessenta e nove larvas de Corynoneura foram

  19. Estado del conocimiento taxonómico de la fauna de Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera de la Patagonia Current state of the taxonomic knowledge of the Chironomidae fauna (Diptera: Nematocera from Patagonia

    Mariano Donato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera es uno de los grupos de insectos más ampliamente distribuidos y abundantes en cuerpos de agua dulce. Los representantes de esta familia pueden explotar áreas con amplios gradientes ambientales. La información que se presenta está basada en la recopilación de datos distribucionales bibliográficos, del estudio del material tipo de las especies de Chironomidae depositadas en el Natural History Museum (UK y del material de colección del Museo de La Plata (Argentina. En la Patagonia, se registran 9 subfamilias, la subfamilia monotípica Chilenomyiinae es endémica de esta área. Dentro de estas subfamilias, 53 de los 111 géneros conocidos para América del Sur están presentes en la Patagonia. Del total de géneros de la Patagonia, el 20 % es endémico y 7 de ellos muestran relaciones transantárticas. En la Patagonia, se registran 177 especies de Chironomidae, el 98% de éstas son endémicas, el 3 % son consideradas nomina dubia y el 17% requiere revisión ya que su ubicación sistemática es dudosa. Las descripciones originales de las especies patagónicas de Chironomidae están basadas principalmente sobre machos (n=58 y machos y hembras (n=43, ambas representan el 57% del total; el resto de las especies han sido descriptas con diferentes combinaciones de estadios del ciclo de desarrollo.The Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera family is one of the most widely distributed group of insects and often the most abundant in freshwater environments. Representatives of this family can exploit a wide range of environmental gradients. The information here presented is based on the compilation of distributional data obtained from bibliography, the study of the type material deposited in the Natural History Museum (UK and the collection material from Museo de La Plata (Argentina. Nine subfamilies are recorded from Patagonia, being the monotypic subfamily Chilenomyiinae endemic for the area. From the 111 known

  20. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period. PMID:26322495

  1. Evaluating the quality of the Mexican fruit-fly, Anastrepha ludens, as host for the parasitoid Melittobia digitata

    J.M. González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Melittobia digitata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and its associations with its natural hosts in Veracruz, Mexico. The parasitoid was confirmed to be present and found to attack prepupae of Trypoxylon and Sceliphron (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae and Sphecidae, respectively mud daubers as well as pupae of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae. Since A. ludens is a very important pest of citrus and mango in Mexico and Central America, we evaluated, in laboratory experiments, the quality of A. ludens as host of M. digitata comparing the development of the parasitoid in another unrelated fly species (Sarcophaga [Neobellieria] bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and in mud dauber wasps (Trypoxylon sp. and Sceliphron sp.. The Mexican fruit fly appears to be a good-quality host for M. digitata, and the results are discussed in the context of their possible interest as a natural enemy of A. ludens.

  2. New record of Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Ulidiidae) in Brazil, a probably mechanical vector of enteric bacteria Novo registro de Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Ulidiidae) no Brasil, um provável vetor mecânico de enterobactérias

    Anderson Sena Barnabe; Gabriel Zorello Laporta; Marcia Zorello Laporta; Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    2007-01-01

    Pterotaenia fasciata is commonly recorded in rural areas in Argentina, but during a Diptera survey study developed in a reservoir which retains storm water from polluted canals in an urban area of Taboão da Serra municipality, SP, Brazil, we could capture P. fasciata adults. Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 and Proteus sp. were isolated from P. fasciata collected in traps inside the reservoir and around it. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were found in the water of the reservo...

  3. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  4. Quaternary paleoecology of aquatic Diptera in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, with special reference to the Chironomidae

    Verschuren, Dirk; Eggermont, Hilde

    2006-08-01

    Chironomid paleoecology in north-temperate regions has made tremendous progress over the past decade, but studies in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions remain relatively scarce. Reasons for this imbalance are (1) incomplete taxonomic knowledge of chironomid faunas outside Europe and North America, (2) a scarcity of ecological data on local species and genera that might confer bio-indicator value to them, and (3) logistic difficulties hampering the lake surveying necessary to develop paleoenvironmental calibration data sets. Thus far, most chironomid paleoecology in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions has relied on an indicator-species approach, combining autecological information on local species of which larval morphology is known with the traditional ecological typology of chironomid genera transferred from the Holarctic region. This paper reviews work accomplished to date in tropical and temperate South America, Australia, Africa, and New Zealand, including studies on various families of non-chironomid Diptera with diagnostic fossils. Research has focused mostly on late-Glacial and Holocene climate reconstruction, less on tracing past human disturbance of aquatic ecosystems and their drainage basins. Quantitative chironomid-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction has so far been done only in Australia and Africa. These studies compensated for the lack of traditional surface-sediment calibration data sets, nowadays often the main source of quantitative information on species ecological optima and tolerances, by maximally exploiting archival species-distribution data based on live collections of adult and/or larval midges. This stimulated efforts to achieve trustworthy species-level identification of fossil chironomid remains, and, as a result, the taxonomic resolution of paleoecological studies in Australia and Africa is higher on average than that achieved in European and North American studies.

  5. Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-07-01

    The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans. PMID:20695272

  6. Effect of Simulated Dasiops inedulis (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) Injury on Yield and Fruit Quality Parameters in Yellow Passionfruit.

    Salamanca, Leidy; Manzano, Maria R; Baena, Diosdado; Tovar, Diego; Wyckhuys, Kris A G

    2015-02-01

    Yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is a tropical fruit crop that is meeting increasing demand both in local and international markets in South America. The lance fly, Dasiops inedulis (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), affects P. edulis floral buds and flowers, and is thought to cause important yield losses in this crop. In Colombia, D. inedulis are commonly controlled through calendar-based applications of chemically synthesized insecticides, and no scientific criteria exist to guide pest management. In the present study, we simulated D. inedulis injury to passionfruit plants, over the course of three production cycles. We assessed the effect of seven different categories of flower bud removal (from 0% to 79.9%) on passionfruit yield and fruit quality parameters. Removal rates above 20% caused a significant reduction in the number of flowers, while yield levels were lowest at 50-79.9% bud removal. With increasing rates of flower bud removal, we observed higher initial production of buds and lower levels of natural abortion of floral and fruiting structures. For the three consecutive harvests, maximum yield levels were 7.57±5.51 kg (mean±SD; with 0-9.9% damage), and minimum yield was 2.37±2.15 kg (60-69.9% damage) per plant. For fruit quality parameters, D. inedulis injury did not affect fruit pulp weight or the content of soluble solids (Brix). Our work provides insights into the impact of D. inedulis on yellow passionfruit production, and constitutes a basis for future integrated pest management programs for this pest. PMID:26470121

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 106 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT50) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 106 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x106 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  8. Lack of genetic differentiation between contrasted overwintering strategies of a major pest predator Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae: implications for biocontrol.

    Lucie Raymond

    Full Text Available Winter ecology of natural enemies has a great influence on the level and efficiency of biological control at spring. The hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae is one of the most important natural predators of crop aphids in Europe. Three different overwintering strategies coexist in this species which makes it a good model in order to study ecologically-based speciation processes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether E. balteatus populations with alternative overwintering strategies are genetically differentiated. To that aim, we developed 12 specific microsatellite markers and evaluated the level of neutral genetic differentiation between E. balteatus field populations that overwinter in the three different ways described in this species (i.e. migration, local overwintering at a pre-imaginal stage, and local overwintering at adult stage. Results showed a lack of neutral genetic differentiation between individuals with different overwintering strategies although there are strong ecological differences between them. All pair-wise FST values are below 0.025 and non-significant, and Bayesian clustering showed K=1 was the most likely number of genetic clusters throughout our sample. The three overwintering strategies form one unique panmictic population. This suggests that all the individuals may have genetic material for the expression of different overwintering phenotypes, and that their commitment in one particular overwintering strategy may depend on environmental and individual factors. Consequently, the prevalence of the different overwintering strategies would be potentially modified by landscape engineering and habitat management which could have major implications for biological control.

  9. Structure and function of the spermathecal complex in the phlebotomine sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae): I. Ultrastructure and histology

    K Ilango

    2005-12-01

    Females of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) possess highly variable spermathecae that present several important taxonomic characters. The cause of this diversity remains a neglected field of sandfly biology, but may possibly be due to female post-mating sexual selection. To understand this diversity, a detailed study of the structure and function of the spermathecal complex in at least one of the species was a prerequisite. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, described here is ultrastructure of the spermathecal complex in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. The spermathecal complexes are paired; each consists of a long spermathecal duct, a cylindrical spermathecal body, and a spherical spermathecal gland. Muscle fibres, nerves, tracheoles, and vascular sinuses connect the spermathecal body and duct through the epithelial layers. Spermathecal gland is formed by a typical insect epidermis and consisting of an epithelial layer of class-1 epidermal cells and elaborate glandular cells of class-3 epidermal cells, each having both receiving and conducting ductules (i.e. “end apparatus”) and a “cytological apodeme”, which is a newly described cell structure. The spermathecal body and duct are lined by class-1 epidermal cells and a cuticle, and are enveloped by a super-contracting visceral muscular system. The cuticle consists of rubber-like resilin, and its fibrillar arrangement and chemical nature are described. A well-developed neuromuscular junction exists between the spermathecal gland and the spermathecal body, which are connected to each other by a nerve and a muscle. The spermathecal complexes of the sandfly are compared with those of other insect species. The physiological role and possible evolutionary significance of the different parts of spermathecal complex in the sandfly are inferred from the morphology and behaviour. Post-mating sexual selection may be responsible for the structural uniqueness of the spermathecal

  10. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures. PMID:26352751

  11. Sterile insect technique and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the utility of aromatherapy in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Rodd, Charles; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. One potential solution involves the prerelease exposure of males to particular attractants. In particular, exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root oil (GRO) has been shown to increase mating success in laboratory and field cage trials. Here, we describe a field experiment that compares the level of egg sterility observed in two Hawaiian coffee, Coffea arabica L., plots, with GRO-exposed, sterile males released in one (treated) plot and nonexposed, sterile males released in the other (control) plot. Once per week in both plots over a 13-wk period, sterile males were released, trap captures were scored to estimate relative abundance of sterile and wild males, and coffee berries were collected and dissected in the laboratory to estimate the incidence of unhatched (sterile) eggs. Data on wild fly abundance and the natural rate of egg hatch also were collected in a remote area that received no sterile males. Despite that sterile:wild male ratios were significantly lower in the treated plot than in the control plot, the incidence of sterile eggs was significantly higher in the treated plot than in the control plot. Correspondingly, significantly higher values of Fried's competitiveness index (C) were found, on average, for treated than control sterile males. This study is the first to identify an association between the GRO "status" of sterile males and the incidence of egg sterility in the field and suggests that prerelease, GRO exposure may represent a simple and inexpensive means to increase the effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs. PMID:17461047

  12. Evaluation of techniques for C and ASG banding of the mitotic chromosomes of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Denise Selivon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods previously described by Canovai et al. (Caryologia 47: 241-247, 1994 which produced C and ASG bands in mitotic chromosomes of Ceratitis capitata were applied to the chromosomes of several Anastrepha species. Metaphase plate yield was substantially increased by use of imaginal disks together with cerebral ganglia. The C-bands were quite prominent allowing the resolution of tiny blocks of heterochromatin. The ASG method produced G-like banded chromosomes, which permitted recognition of each individual chromosome. These simple techniques do not require special equipment and may be valuable for karyotype variability studies in fruit flies and other DipteraTécnicas descritas anteriormente por Canovai et al. (Caryologia 47: 241-247, 1994, que produzem bandas C e ASG nos cromossomos mitóticos de Ceratitis capitata, foram testadas com os cromossomos de várias espécies de Anastrepha. O número de metáfases analisáveis aumentou significativamente quando, além dos gânglios cerebrais, discos imaginais foram utilizados nas preparações. O bandamento tipo C produzido foi bastante conspícuo, permitindo inclusive a resolução de pequenos blocos de heterocromatina. O método ASG produziu uma fração significativa de metáfases cujos cromossomos apresentavam um nítido bandamento do tipo G, que permitiu diferenciar cada cromossomo do cariótipo. Essas técnicas simples, aplicadas sem a necessidade de equipamento especial, podem ser úteis para estudos de variabilidade cariotípica intra ou inter-específica

  13. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  14. Volatile Semiochemicals Increase Trap Catch of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Flower Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Corn and Soybean Plots.

    Hesler, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugenol, its structural analog isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol; trap catch of green lacewings was greater with these compounds than with structural analog, 4-alllylanisole. In a follow-up test in soybean, more green lacewings were caught on traps baited with isoeugenol than with 4-allylanisole. Catch did not differ among traps baited with eugenol, isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol or among those baited with eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, or the ethanol control. In a 6-wk experiment in soybean, green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in 5 of 6 wks but to traps baited with structural analog methyl eugenol in only 1 wk. Flower flies were attracted to 2-phenylethanol in initial tests in corn and soybean plots. Subsequent testing in soybeans with 2-phenylethanol and structural analogs confirmed attraction to 2-phenylethanol and also showed attractancy of 2-phenylacetaldehyde but not benzylamine. A 6-wk test in soybean found that flower flies were also attracted to traps baited with either eugenol or methyl eugenol. This is the first report of green lacewing attraction to eugenol and isoeugenol and first report of flower fly attraction to eugenol. Structure-activity relationships among attractants and practical aspects of their use are discussed. PMID:27531905

  15. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  16. Ocorrência de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica L. e Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera, Muscidae no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    R.K Brandão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was reported the occurrence of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae in the extreme Southern of Brazil. The collection of pupae was performed in January and February, 2008. The pupae of M. domestica and S. calcitrans were collected from bovine feces using the flotation method. The pupae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in acclimatized chamber at 27±2ºC with relative air humidity > 70% until the emergence of the flies or the parasitoids. The referred occurrence consists in the first report to Rio Grande do Sul.

  17. Five additions to the list of Sepsidae (Diptera) for Vietnam: Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n., Perochaeta lobo sp. n., Sepsis spura sp. n., Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003 and Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869

    Yuchen Ang; Rudolf Meier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A recent collecting trip to Vietnam yielded three new species and two new records of Sepsidae (Diptera) for the country. Here we describe two new species in the species-poor genus Perochaeta (Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n. andPerochaeta lobo sp. n.) and one to the largest sepsid genus Sepsis (Sepsis spura sp. n.) which is also found in Sumatra and Sulawesi. Two additional Sepsis species are new records for Vietnam (Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003; Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869). We conclude...

  18. Spatial distribution of the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) in five floodplain lakes from Ilha Grande National Park (Paraná - Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil) - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.10799

    Alice Michiyo Takeda; Patrícia Almeida Sacramento; Tércio Abel Pezenti; Fernanda de Almeida Gurski; Priscila Colombelli Alessio; Gisele Daiane Pinha

    2013-01-01

    Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) are one of the most important families among aquatic insects due to the higher abundance and species richness, considered an important tool for ecological studies. This study evaluated the richness of Chironomidae assemblage and related the distribution with physical and chemical variables in five lakes of the Paraná river, in the Ilha Grande National Park. There were two samplings, one in the central region and another in the marginal area of the floodplain lake...

  19. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    Roger I. Vargas; Piñero, Jaime C.; Luc Leblanc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of steri...

  20. Estudio de las visitas de las moscas de las flores (Diptera: Syrphidae) and Salvia bogotensis (Lamiaceae) en el Jardín Botánico José Celestino Mutis Bogotá (Colombia)

    Zamora Carrillo, Mónica; Amat García, Germán D.; Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    [EN]The objective of this research was to describe the biological interaction between Salvia bogotensis (Lamiaceae) and the flower flies (Diptera:Syrphidae) in an urban setting, the Jardín Botánico “José Celestino Mutis” (Bogotá DC). After verifying the existence of the entomofilia syndrome were studied namely: floral morphology, taxonomic composition, richness and abundance of syrphid species identified as flower visitors and the cephalic and oral morphometry. S. bogotensis presents entomoph...

  1. In vitro Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Marine Algae Against the Human Vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Akbar Idhayadhulla; Joseph Selvin; Nooruddin Thajuddin; Radhakrishnan Surendra Kumar; Aseer Manilal; Sugathan Sujith

    2011-01-01

    A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been t...

  2. Seven new species of Spathidexia Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    AJ Fleming

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe seven new species of Spathidexia (Diptera: Tachinidae reared from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica. All were reared from ­various species of ACG caterpillars during an ongoing inventory of caterpillars, their food plants and their parasitoids. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of each species. All are known to be previously undescribed as a result of a comprehensive study of the genus by DMW. Spathidexia atripalpus sp. n., Spathidexia juanvialesi sp. n., Spathidexia marioburgosi sp. n., Spathidexia luisrobertogallegosi sp. n., Spathidexia luteola sp. n., Spathidexia hernanrodriguezi sp. n. and Spathidexia aurantiaca sp. n. are all authored and described by Fleming and Wood. Minthodexiopsis Townsend is proposed by Wood as a new synonym of Spathidexia. A new combination proposed by Wood as a result of the new synonymy is S. flavicornis (Brauer & Bergenstamm comb. n.

  3. Higher-level phylogeny of the Therevidae (Diptera: insecta) based on 28S ribosomal and elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences.

    Yang, L; Wiegmann, B M; Yeates, D K; Irwin, M E

    2000-06-01

    Therevidae (stilleto flies) are a little-known family of asiloid brachyceran Diptera (Insecta). Separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of 1200 bases of the 28S ribosomal DNA and 1100 bases of elongation factor-1alpha were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within the family. The position of the enigmatic taxon Apsilocephala Kröber is evaluated in light of the molecular evidence. In all analyses, molecular data strongly support the monophyly of Therevidae, excluding Apsilocephala, and the division of Therevidae into two main clades corresponding to a previous classification of the family into the subfamilies Phycinae and Therevinae. Despite strong support for some relationships within these groups, relationships at the base of the two main clades are weakly supported. Short branch lengths for Australasian clades at the base of the Therevinae may represent a rapid radiation of therevids in Australia. PMID:10860652

  4. Larval biometry of Simulium rubrithorax (Diptera: Simuliidae and size comparison between populations in the states of Minas Gerais and Roraima, Brazil

    Alvan-Aguilar Miriam Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of larval instars of Simulium (Hemicnetha rubrithorax Lutz (Diptera: Nematocera was determined using the lateral length of the head capsule. In this study 1,035 larvae, of different sizes, were measured (639 from the state of Roraima and 396 from the state of Minas Gerais. A frequency distribution analysis was carried out on the measurements of the lateral length of the head capsule to determine the number of larval instars. The limits of each instar were defined by the lower frequency of the measurements falling in a range of values, by the presence of the "egg burster" that characterizes the first larval instar, and by the developmental stage of the gill histoblast. The determination of the instar number was tested using a Student's t-test (p 0.05 were observed between them.

  5. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    Doi, Hideyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-12-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. {delta}{sup 13}C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  7. Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

    VRCIBRADIC D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9% bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants tended to have a smaller percentage of their leaves with galls and a lower density of galls per leaf than smaller plants. Plants that were close to other individuals of the same species tended to have more galls per leaf than relatively isolated plants. The observed patterns may be linked to strategies of optimization in the use of resources (i.e. oviposition sites and predation avoidance by the gall midges.

  8. [Small-scale evaluation of the efficacy of growth-regulating insecticides on larvae of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae)].

    Doannio, J M; Dossou-Yovo, J; Duval, J; Hougard, J M

    1992-09-01

    The efficacy of insect growth regulators was assessed in small scale tests on larvae of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Ivory Coast. Three compounds [OMS 2015 (triflumuron), OMS 3009 (teflubenzuron), OMS 3013 (chlorfluazuron)] belong to the group of benzoylphenyl-urea substitutes; these IGR's are supposed to inhibit chitin synthesis. Two other compounds are Juvenile Hormone Analogs (JHA's) (OMS 3007 and OMS 3019). The last compound (OMS 3010) is a phenoxycarbamate. The first three compounds had a low efficacy on blackfly larvae, which is consistent with the literature data for another compound of this group: diflubenzuron. The other three compounds (OMS 3007, OMS 3010 and OMS 3019) were much more efficient, OMS 3010 and OMS 3019 showing high activity at low concentrations. These results would justify further studies on the effect of larval age and exposure parameters, and eventually full scale river tests. PMID:1476468

  9. Keys to the blow flies of Taiwan, with a checklist of recorded species and the description of a new species of Paradichosia Senior-White (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Shih-Tsai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae show a great diversity in behavior and ecology, play important roles in ecosystems, and have medical and forensic importance to humans. Despite this, the taxonomy and classification of Taiwan's Calliphoridae have rarely been studied. In this study, specimens of Taiwanese calliphorids were collected and carefully studied, and all 76 species recorded in Taiwan are listed following the identification keys. Dichotomous keys to all subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species of blow flies recorded in Taiwan are provided, including 16 species that are newly recorded from Taiwan. In addition, one new species of the genus Paradichosia Senior-White is described and illustrated. We also discuss the morphological differences between the specimens of Silbomyia hoeneana Enderlein collected from China and Taiwan, a species that has only been found previously in Southern China.

  10. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. δ13C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  11. The diurnal activity, movement and trypanosome infection rates of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)in Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda

    LONJINO M. OGWAL; ANDREW KALYEBI; JOHN B. KADDU

    2007-01-01

    The diurnal activity patterns, trypanosome infection rates and movement of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes(Diptera: Glossinidae) were investigated in Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda. Hourly trapping of tsetse flies was undertaken to determine their activity rhythm while a capture-mark-release-recapture method was conducted to assess the movement and dispersal of tsetse flies between lakeshore, hinterland and further inland sites along a transected area. Dissection of tsetse flies was also undertaken to determine the trypanosome infection rates in salivary glands, proboscis and mid-gut. Results indicated a bimodal diurnal activity profile for G. f. fuscipes on the Island, both on the lakeshore and in the hinterland.Movement and dispersal of G. f. fuscipes tsetse flies occurred between lakeshore, hinterland and further inland sites with a greater tendency of flies to move to the lakeshore. Trypanosome infection rates of 4.32% for Trypasoma vivax and 1.15% for T. congolense were found in G. f. fuscipes.

  12. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Fouad El-Akhal; Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami; Yassine Ez Zoubi; Hassane Greche; Raja Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification. Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds are 4-terpinene (28.96%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), α-terpinene (12.72%) and sabinene (8.02%). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana, were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.

  13. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana(Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Fouad; El-Akhal; Abdelhakim; El; Ouali; Lalami; Yassine; Ez; Zoubi; Hassane; Greche; Raja; Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum mtijoruna(Lamiaceae)cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens(Diptera:Culicidae).Methods:The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification.Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes.The majority compounds are 4-terpinene(28.96%),y-terpinene(18.57%),α-terpinene(12.72%) and sabinene(8.02%).The lethal concentrations(LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana,were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.Conclusions:The results could be useful in search for newer,safer,and more effective natural larvicidal agents.

  14. Diversity, distribution and floral specificity of tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae in north west Patagonia, Argentina Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    MARIANO DEVOTO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate forests of southern South America in ten sites along an east-west rainfall gradient (37-40°S on the eastern slope of the Andes. We recorded nine species of Trichophthalma, which showed an overlapped distribution along the gradient and different degrees of floral specificity. Three species are reported for Argentina for the first time and three are first recorded as flower visitors to the local flora. Our results show that while in southern Africa tangle-veined flies are engaged in highly specialized pollination interactions with long-tubed species, the Trichophthalma spp. of Patagonia share their flowers with a diverse and rather unspecialized visitor fauna among which several species of flies, bees and birds are presentLos nemestrínidos constituyen una familia de Dípteros primitiva y de amplia distribución. El género Trichophthalma se encuentra en Australia y Sudamérica y es el único en la familia con una distribución disjunta típicamente gondwánica. La ecología y distribución de la mayoría de las especies sudamericanas permanecen virtualmente desconocidas. Estudiamos la diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de las especies del género Trichophthalma de los bosques templados del sur de Sudamérica en diez sitios ubicados a lo largo de un gradiente de precipitación este-oeste (37-40°S sobre la vertiente occidental de los Andes. Registramos nueve especies de Trichophthalma, las cuales mostraron una distribución superpuesta a lo largo

  15. Physiological changes in major soldiers of Macrotermes gilvus (Isoptera: Termitidae) induced by the endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Foo, Foong-Kuan; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-11-01

    The majority of true parasitoids manipulate their host's physiology for their own benefit. In this study, we documented the physiological changes that occurred in major soldiers of the subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Isoptera: Termitidae) parasitized by the koinobiont larval endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni Disney and Neoh (Diptera: Phoridae). We compared the metabolic rate, body water content, body water loss rate, cuticular permeability, and desiccation tolerance between parasitized and unparasitized major soldiers. The metabolic rate of parasitized hosts was significantly higher than that of unparasitized termites. Mean total body water content of parasitized major soldiers (64.73±3.26%) was significantly lower than that of unparasitized termites (71.99±2.23%). Parasitized hosts also had significantly lower total body water loss rates (5.72±0.06%/h) and higher cuticular permeability (49.37±11.26 μg/cm/h/mmHg) than unparasitized major soldiers (6.75±0.16%/h and 60.76±24.98 μg/cm/h/mmHg, respectively). Parasitized major soldiers survived almost twice as long as unparasitized termites (LT(50)=6.66 h and LT(50)=3.40 h, respectively) and they had significantly higher tolerance to water loss compared to unparasitized termites (45.28±6.79% and 32.84±7.69%, respectively). Body lipid content in parasitized hosts (19.84±6.27%) was significantly higher than that of unparasitized termites (6.17±7.87%). Finally, parasitized hosts had a significantly lower percentage of cuticular water content than unparasitized major soldiers (10.97±1.84% and 13.17±2.21%, respectively). Based on these data, we conclude that the parasitism-induced physiological changes in the host are beneficial to the parasitoids as the alterations can clearly increase the parasite's chances of survival when exposed to extreme environmental conditions and ensure that the parasitoids are able to complete their larval development successfully before the host dies. PMID:21840313

  16. Effect of trap design, bait type, and age on captures of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in berry crops.

    Iglesias, Lindsy E; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2014-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in commercial southern highbush blueberries and wild blackberries to evaluate the attractiveness of different trap designs, bait types, and bait age on captures of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During the 2012 trap design study, the five treatments evaluated were four 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (with and without a yellow visual stimulus or odorless dish detergent) and the fifth treatment was a Pherocon AM yellow sticky card trap. Cup traps were baited with 150 ml of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and the Pherocon AM trap had a 7.4-ml glass vial containing ACV. In 2013, the Pherocon AM yellow sticky card was omitted because of low spotted wing drosophila captures in 2012. The four treatments evaluated were four 1-liter cup traps with and without a yellow visual stimulus. One cup trap (with a yellow stimulus) was baited with yeast + sugar in place of ACV and the other cup traps were baited with ACV. In both years, there were no differences in spotted wing drosophila captures among cup traps baited with ACV with and without yellow visual stimulus. However, the cup trap baited with yeast + sugar and yellow visual stimulus captured more spotted wing drosophila than the ACV-baited cup traps irrespective of visual stimulus or detergent. In another study, four baits including 1) ACV, 2) yeast + sugar mixture, 3) yeast + flour mixture (yeast, sugar, water, whole wheat flour, and ACV), and 4) wine + vinegar mixture (rice vinegar and merlot wine) were evaluated in a commercial blueberry planting using 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (as described above). The experiment was repeated in wild blackberries but the yeast + flour bait was replaced with ACV + merlot wine + sugar. Results indicated that the two yeast baits captured significantly more spotted wing drosophila and more nontarget organisms than the vinegar baits. In the final study, although we found that the attraction of ACV and

  17. Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered pub­lished information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid, vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant, habitat type (natural or artificial, and water temperature. Results: In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologi­cally identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. su­perpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6oC (n=14 (16–25oC, 22.6oC (n=53 (12–33oC, 23.8oC (n=52 (10–33oC, 11.5oC (n=12 (9–21oC, and 20.4oC (n=7 (12–26oC, respectively. There was a signifi­cant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5oC of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000. Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9% such as river bed pools (46.4% and rain pools (33.1% with transient (98.3%, stagnant (99.5% and clear (95.3% water, with vegetation (69.9%, mud (42.0% or gravel (39.7% substrate in full sunlight (69.6% or shaded (22.7% area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided.Conclusion: The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and An

  18. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii

    Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Vojtkova, Barbora; Votypka, Jan; Carpenter, Simon; Bates, Paul Andrew; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae) were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004) and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii). In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80%) feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some

  19. Diversity and distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae in pristine Alpine and pre-Alpine springs (Northern Italy

    Bruno ROSSARO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae were studied in relation to environmental factors in 81 springs under pristine conditions in the Italian Prealps and Alps (Trentino and Veneto, NE-Italy, 46°N, 10-11°E. Each spring was surveyed once, between May and November, in 2005 or in 2007-2008, within 50 m of the spring's source (eucrenal. A total of 173 macroinvertebrate samples were collected, in which 26,871 chironomids (including larvae, pupae, pupal exuviae and adults were counted. Five subfamilies (Tanypodinae, Diamesinae, Prodiamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Chironominae, 54 genera and 104 species/groups of species were identified. As expected, Orthocladiinae accounted for a large part of specimens (82%, followed by Diamesinae (10%, Chironominae Tanytarsini (6% and Tanypodinae (2%. Together the Chironominae Chironomini and Prodiamesinae contributed less than 0.05% of the fauna. Larvae represented 97.5% of specimens, mostly juveniles (62.6%. Maximum richness and diversity occurred at intermediate altitudes (ca 900-2100 m a.s.l.. Most taxa were found in a small proportion of sites, and frequencies declined gradually for more widely distributed species. A high number (67% of rare (= present in less than 10% of sites taxa were found. Three to 27 taxa were identified per spring. The rheocrene/rheo-helocrene springs were richest in taxa (generally >15 taxa, the mineral spring was poorest, with only three taxa. Most taxa were crenophilous, including lentic, rheobiontic and bryophilous taxa. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA was performed including 98 taxa. Axes were interpreted calculating the correlation coefficients between site scores and 24 environmental factors. The species with the highest scores were Pseudokiefferiella parva, Corynoneura sp. A, Metriocnemus eurynotus gr., Paratrichocladius skirwithensis and Tvetenia calvescens. Five clusters of sites were identified with K-means analysis on the basis of the first

  20. Мониторинговые исследования Волги и ее притоков у Саратова и индикационное значение личинок хирономид рода Procladius (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    АНИКИНА М.А.; СЕРГЕЕВА И.В.

    2008-01-01

    In the composite of the bioindication complex of Chironomidae of the Saratov Region basins the eurytopic larva of genus Procladius (Diptera, Chironomi-dae, Tanypodinae) dominate being the markers of toxic water.