WorldWideScience

Sample records for acridine orange staining

  1. Rapid diagnosis of bacteremia in adults using acridine orange stained buffy coat smears

    Miller, Mark; Mendelson, Jack

    1990-01-01

    The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total of 356 consecutive blood cultures were submitted with simultaneous anticoagulated blood samples, from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0). Forty-one of 356 blood samples (12%) yielded organisms in the blood culture system. Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smear...

  2. Microscopic observation of progressive immobilization of leishmania promastigotes in acridine orange stain.

    G.S. Barreca; Berlinghieri, M C; F. Foti; G. Matera; Foca, A

    1997-01-01

    To rapidly isolate Leishmania donovani promastigotes in samples from Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) cultures, a method of staining with acridine orange was developed. Such vital staining combines the advantages of direct microscopic examination (e.g., observation of motility) with more accurate cytological and structural imaging of the stained parasites (usually obtained by Giemsa staining). Progressive immobilization of Leishmania promastigotes associated with a change in fluorescence color was ...

  3. Comparative study of subculture, Gram staining and acridine orange staining for early detection of positive blood cultures.

    Mascart, G; Bertrand, F.; Mascart, P.

    1983-01-01

    In view of the importance of a rapid aetiological diagnosis in septicaemia, we compared the results of subculture, Gram staining and acridine orange staining in the detection of positive blood cultures. The study was based on 1013 blood cultures of which 138 were positive by culture. The three techniques were applied 12 h after the specimen was taken in 210 instances, at 24 h in 540 instances and after 48 h in 525. We were able to demonstrate the value of direct examination. Staining with acr...

  4. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  5. Acridine orange staining and radiometric detection of microorganisms in blood cultures

    To determine whether acridine orange (AO) staining of blood cultures could be used as a substitute for blind subculture when used in conjunction with the BACTEC system (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), the two methods were compared on all BACTEC-negative specimens. Since blind subcultures were routinely performed in our laboratory on days 2 and 6 of incubation, AO staining was also performed on these days. Cultures which were BACTEC positive on day 1 of incubation were not included in the study. Of the 2,395 bottles tested after 2 days of incubation, 106 were subculture positive. Of these, 96 (90.6%) were also AO positive and BACTEC positive, 3 (2.8%) were AO positive and BACTEC negative, and 7 (6.6%) were AO negative and BACTEC positive. Of the 3,487 bottles tested on day 6 of incubation, 14 were subculture positive; 7 (50%) of these were AO positive and BACTEC positive, and seven were AO positive and BACTEC negative. Of the total of 10 culture-positive bottles missed by BACTEC, all were positive, and all 10 companion aerobic bottles were BACTEC positive. In both phases of the experiment, there was a total of only four false-positive AO stains. As a result of this investigation, we have substituted AO staining for blind subculturing of BACTEC-negative bottles

  6. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed...

  7. Low-dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Polychromatic Mice Erythrocyte as Measures by Acridine Orange Stained Micronucleus Assay

    The effect of conditioning pretreatment with 0.01Gy of gamma rays on micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction by 2Gy of g-rays was determined in peripheral blood of C3H/He mice. The timing of their administration of challenge doses was 6 hr. The response was determined by scoring of Acridine orange due stained MN-PCEs. The results indicate that low dose gamma ray pretreatment does protect against MN-PCE induction by the challenge g-ray dose. Introduction: an adaptive response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in vivo reported. Some research team reports that a reduction on MN-PCE of mice caused by the pretreatment was observed (1-4). However, there was variability in the amount of the response depending on the time and adaptive dose (3). This is important because the variation of MN-PCE frequency with time could lead to differences in the interpretation. In this study, differences in the biological effects within the priming dose ranges are discussed. (Author)

  8. Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Polychromatic Mice Erythrocyte as Measured by Acridine Orange Stained Micronuleus Assay

    The effect of conditioning pretreatment with 0.01Gy of gamma rays on micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction by 2Gy of g-rays was determined in peripheral blood of C3H/He mice. The timing of their administration of challenge doses was 6hr. The response was determined by scoring of Acridine orange dye stained MN-PCEs. The results indicate that low dose gamma ray pretreatment does protect against MN-PCE induction by the challenge g-ray dose. Introduction: An adaptive response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in vivo reported. Some research team reports that a reduction on MN-PCE of mice caused by the pretreatment was observed [1- 4]. However, there was variability in the amount of the response depending on the time and adaptive dose [3]. This is important because the variation of MN-PCE frequency with time could lead to differences in the interpretation. In this study, differences in the biological effects within the priming dose ranges are discussed. Materials and Methods: Specific pathogen free 5-week-old C3H/He mice, purchased from Shizuoka Laboratory Center (Japan), were kept in clean and conventional environment. When 6 weeks old, the animal were whole body irradiated using irradiator of IBL-437 (137Cs, 0.8Gy/min). After various time intervals, the two groups were administrated to adaptation dose and challenge dose of 0.01Gy and 2Gy, respectively. For experiments, sham-irradiated, only adaptive and challenge dose irradiated groups were run concurrently. Smears were stained and scored using Acridine orange dye method [2]. Statistically significant differences in MN-PCE frequency were determined by comparing tie individual values at each group with the respective control values (challenge dose irradiated group) by using the paired ttest. Results and Discussions: Induced MN by the challenge dose (2Gy) after the pretreatment with 0.01Gy is low to the one induced by the challenge dose alone. In the present study, this estimation for the

  9. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed that changes in color of the nuclear chromatin were accompanied by DNA condensation, nuclei fragmentation, and chromatin degradation which were also shown after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. These results indicate that ACC induced programmed cell death. The increasing values of RFI together with the corresponding morphological changes of nuclear chromatin were the basis to prepare the standard curve; cells with green unchanged nuclear chromatin were alive while those with dark orange and bright red nuclei were dead. The cells with nuclei with green-yellow, yellow-orange, and bright orange chromatin with or without their condensation and fragmentation chromatin were dying. The prepared curve has became the basis to draw up the digital method for detection and determination of the number of living, dying, and dead cells in an in planta system and revealed that ACC induced death in about 20% of root cortex cells. This process was accompanied by increase in ion leakage, shortening of cells and whole roots, as well as by increase in weight and width of the apical part of roots and appearance of few aerenchymatic spaces while not by internucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22350735

  10. In-depth validation of acridine orange staining for flow cytometric parasite and reticulocyte enumeration in an experimental model using Plasmodium berghei

    Hein-Kristensen, L; Wiese, L; Kurtzhals, J A L;

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry is potentially an effective method for counting malaria parasites, but inconsistent results have hampered its routine use in rodent models. A published two-channel method using acridine orange offers clear discrimination between the infected and uninfected erythrocytes. However...

  11. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i injected with vehicle; (ii treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg via gavage; (iii injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally; (iv treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI. Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI.

  12. Systematic colocalization errors between acridine orange and EGFP in astrocyte vesicular organelles

    Nadrigny, F.; Li, D.; Kemnitz, K; Ropert, N.; Koulakoff, A; Rudolph, S.; Vitali, M.; Giaume, C.; Kirchhoff, F.; Oheim, M

    2007-01-01

    Dual-color imaging of acridine orange (AO) and EGFP fused to a vesicular glutamate transporter or the vesicle-associated membrane proteins 2 or 3 has been used to visualize a supposedly well-defined subpopulation of glutamatergic astrocytic secretory vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis. However, AO metachromasy results in the concomitant emission of green and red fluorescence from AO-stained tissue. Therefore, the question arises whether AO and EGFP fluorescence can be distinguished reli...

  13. Lyoluminescence induced by gamma-irradiated NaCl in aqueous acridine orange solution

    Kalkar, C.D.; Lala, Neeta (Poona Univ., Pune (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    The emission spectrum of lyoluminescence of acridine orange was recorded on a Fuess spectrograph. A continuous emission band was observed from 500 to 640 nm. On resolution, it showed two-banded emission with peaks at 565 and 603 nm respectively. The colour centers released during dissolution of irradiated NaCl crystals in aqueous acridine orange solution react to produce excited dimer and trimer species of acridine orange. It is suggested that these excited species are responsible for the observed lyoluminescence emission spectrum of acridine orange. (author).

  14. Lyoluminescence induced by gamma-irradiated NaCl in aqueous acridine orange solution

    The emission spectrum of lyoluminescence of acridine orange was recorded on a Fuess spectrograph. A continuous emission band was observed from 500 to 640 nm. On resolution, it showed two-banded emission with peaks at 565 and 603 nm respectively. The colour centers released during dissolution of irradiated NaCl crystals in aqueous acridine orange solution react to produce excited dimer and trimer species of acridine orange. It is suggested that these excited species are responsible for the observed lyoluminescence emission spectrum of acridine orange. (author)

  15. La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis

    SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la técnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la detección de T. vaginalis, validación efectuada frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, éste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como única prueba, debiéndose complementar siempre con una coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valorThe present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Bahía Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that

  16. Removal of acridine orange from water by graphene oxide

    Fiallos, D. Coello; Gómez, C. Vacacela; Usca, G. Tubón; Pérez, D. Cid; Tavolaro, P.; Martino, G.; Caputi, L. S.; Tavolaro, A.

    2015-02-01

    Dyes are usually used in textile manufacturing and are one of the major contaminations in water. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the removal of dyes is of great concern, and recent applications using carbon-based materials showed high adsorption ability. In this work we use graphene oxide (GO) produced by improved Hummer's method, for adsorption of acridine orange dye (AO) in water. GO is a material containing functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxy, ketone, and hydroxyl, that can adsorb cationic dyes. Factors such as initial concentration of dye, the amount of GO, temperature and contact time were evaluated. Results show that the adsorption equilibrium, with the removal of 40% of the dye, is reached in approximately 1 hour, and that the adsorption capacity increases at higher initial concentrations. The highest value of AO adsorbed was 229.8 mg/g equivalent to 92% removal percentage by using AO initial concentration 0.10 mg/mL. FT-IR analysis of GO with adsorbed AO shows changes in the stretching vibrational bands, which corroborate the AO/GO interaction due to the functional groups present in GO. Furthermore, AO adsorbed on GO does not desorb back into water. Our results show that GO is an effective adsorbent and could be used to treat effluents contaminated with dyes.

  17. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

    Irene Bosch

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  18. Preparation of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles for pH measurement

    Acridine orange was first encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are all in spherical shape and have a narrow size distribution, and its application as a optical pH sensor has been demonstrated. This novel sensor is based on the pH-dependent fluorescence intensities of acridine orange in different pH value. The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. Under optimum conditions, the changes of fluorescence intensity were proportional to the pH value in the range of 8.00–10.90. In addition, the sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. Furthermore, the effects of ionic strength and co-existing substances were proved to have little influence on the determination of pH. The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of two artificial samples. Hence, the core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles show potential for practical application. -- Highlights: • Acridine orange was encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. • The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. • Its can be used as an optical pH sensor. • The sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. • The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of artificial samples

  19. Preparation of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles for pH measurement

    Liu, Jinshui, E-mail: jsliu@sina.com; Zang, Lingjie; Wang, Yiru; Liu, Guoning

    2014-03-15

    Acridine orange was first encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are all in spherical shape and have a narrow size distribution, and its application as a optical pH sensor has been demonstrated. This novel sensor is based on the pH-dependent fluorescence intensities of acridine orange in different pH value. The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. Under optimum conditions, the changes of fluorescence intensity were proportional to the pH value in the range of 8.00–10.90. In addition, the sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. Furthermore, the effects of ionic strength and co-existing substances were proved to have little influence on the determination of pH. The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of two artificial samples. Hence, the core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles show potential for practical application. -- Highlights: • Acridine orange was encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. • The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. • Its can be used as an optical pH sensor. • The sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. • The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of artificial samples.

  20. Dissipation of pH gradients in tonoplast vesicles and liposomes by mixtures of acridine orange and anions

    Acridine orange altered the response to anions of both ATP and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent pH gradient formation in tonoplast vesicles isolated from oat (Avena sativa L.) roots and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue. When used as a fluorescent pH probe in the presence of I-, ClO3-, NO3-, Br-, or SCN-, acridine orange reported lower pH gradients than either quinacrine or [14C]methylamine. Acridine orange, but not quinacrine, reduced [14C]methylamine accumulation when NO3- was present indicating that the effect was due to a real decrease in the size of the pH gradient, not a misreporting of the gradient by acridine orange. Other experiments indicated that acridine orange and NO3- increased the rate of pH gradient collapse both in tonoplast vesicles and in liposomes of phosphatidylcholine and that the effect in tonoplast vesicles was greater at 24 degree C than at 12 degree C. It is suggested that acridine orange and certain anions increase the permeability of membranes to H+, possibly because protonated acridine orange and the anions form a lipophilic ion pair within the vesicle which diffuses across the membrane thus discharging the pH gradient

  1. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of α-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  2. Fluorescence enhancement of acridine orange in a water solution by Au nanoparticles

    2010-01-01

    The surface enhanced fluorescence effect of acridine orange fluorophore in the proximity of Au nanoparticles has been investigated experimentally in the system of aqueous solution.Significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity was observed when the system was excited with 532 nm or 442 nm CW lasers.The influence of the distances between neighboring Au particles as well as that between the fluorophore molecules and the Au surface were explored experimentally.The results demonstrated that a compact distribution of metallic particles was able to produce stronger fluorescence enhancement.Proper separation between the fluorophore molecules and the metal surface was favorable for a better enhancement.

  3. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    2N. Qamar; R. Azmat; Naz, R.; Malik, B.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye) from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8), shaking time (5min. - 1hour), adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm) and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml) were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal ...

  4. Binding of fluorescent acridine dyes acridine orange and 9-aminoacridine to hemoglobin: Elucidation of their molecular recognition by spectroscopy, calorimetry and molecular modeling techniques.

    Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2016-06-01

    The molecular interaction between hemoglobin (HHb), the major human heme protein, and the acridine dyes acridine orange (AO) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) was studied by various spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. The dyes formed stable ground state complex with HHb as revealed from spectroscopic data. Temperature dependent fluorescence data showed the strength of the dye-protein complexation to be inversely proportional to temperature and the fluorescence quenching was static in nature. The binding-induced conformational change in the protein was investigated using circular dichroism, synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy results. Circular dichroism data also quantified the α-helicity change in hemoglobin due to the binding of acridine dyes. Calorimetric studies revealed the binding to be endothermic in nature for both AO and 9AA, though the latter had higher affinity, and this was also observed from spectroscopic data. The binding of both dyes was entropy driven. pH dependent fluorescence studies revealed the existence of electrostatic interaction between the protein and dye molecules. Molecular modeling studies specified the binding site and the non-covalent interactions involved in the association. Overall, the results revealed that a small change in the acridine chromophore leads to remarkable alteration in the structural and thermodynamic aspects of binding to HHb. PMID:27077554

  5. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    *N. Qamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8, shaking time (5min. - 1hour, adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal efficiency (100%, optimum conditions were obtained at pH 8 (99.24%, adsorbent dose of 0.9g and dye concentration of 185 mg with charcoal. Kinetics of adsorption was investigated as well as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to describe equilibrium studies. The Langmuir adsorption isotherms models and pseudo second order kinetics fitted the experimental data best with high regression coefficient R2. The results of the present studies points to the potential of charcoal as an effective adsorbent for the removal of dye from contaminated water sources.

  6. Validation of a flow cytometric acridine orange micronuclei methodology in rats.

    Criswell, K A; Krishna, G; Zielinski, D; Urda, G A; Juneau, P; Bulera, S; Bleavins, M R

    2003-07-25

    Our laboratory has previously reported a flow cytometric acridine orange method for detection of micronucleus (MN) in the rat using cyclophosphamide as a test compound. To replace the manual method of scoring and satisfy Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) requirements, an extensive validation of the flow method was required. Therefore, manual scoring and flow cytometric determination of MN were compared using vincristine, chlorambucil, methotrexate, and doxorubicin compounds known to induce MN formation with various mechanisms of action. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (1,2-DH), a compound with negative or equivocal MN findings also was evaluated. The flow method consistently demonstrated dose- and time-dependent responses for MN production at all concentrations of vincristine, methotrexate, clorambucil, and doxorubicin. In contrast, manual scoring of slides failed to detect an increase in MN at the lowest doses of doxorubicin (1mg/kg) at 24 or 48 h, and methotrexate at 48 h, or any dose of methotrexate (50, 100, or 250 mg/kg) at 24h. Additionally, a dose-response for methotrexate at 48 h, and chlorambucil at 24 h were missed using manual scoring. For 1,2-DH, the flow method showed a low level (< 1.4-fold) increase in MN at all doses and times. In contrast, the manual method showed five-seven-fold increases at 24 h, but a < two-fold increase at 48 h in the highest dose only. These data may suggest that the flow method has a greater sensitivity and possibly accuracy than manual scoring. Significant decreases in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were seen using both methods at approximately the same dose for all compounds. However, absolute flow cytometric PCE values were consistently higher than manual. Additional cytotoxicity parameters obtained by the flow method allowed a more complete assessment of cytotoxicity than PCE alone. Furthermore, data reported here combined with improved throughput, shortened data turnaround and reporting times, and possibly better precision due to

  7. Frequencies of micronuclei detected on Mytilus galloprovincialis by different staining techniques after treatment with zinc chloride.

    Majone, F; Beltrame, C; Brunetti, R

    1988-01-01

    The frequencies of micronuclei induced by ZnCl2 and detected on the gill tissue of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with different staining techniques (acridine orange, gallocyanin chromallum, Feulgen, Giemsa) were compared. At least in the used system, the Feulgen and gallocyanin chromallum methods gave a frequency of micronuclei significantly lower than that obtained with the acridine orange and Giemsa techniques. No significant difference between the frequencies obtained with acridine orange and Giemsa was shown. So, though the acridine orange is surely the method which provides the more reliable data, in environmental screening works the Giemsa technique may be more suitable for its simplicity. PMID:2461512

  8. Short communication. Evaluation of a commercial kit based on acridine orange/propidium iodide to assess the plasma membrane integrity of ram sperm

    J. L. Yániz; I. Palacín; S. Vicente-Fiel; J. Gosalvez; C. López-Fernández; Santolaria, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a semiautomatic computer assisted methodology to evaluate the membrane integrity of ram spermatozoa using a commercial kit based on acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) labelling and ImageJ software. The study was divided into two experiments. In the first trial, the new computer-assisted method was validated by mixing fresh semen samples with different volumes of freeze killed spermatozoa to determine proportions of damaged spermatozoa in the final samp...

  9. [Determination of vitamin B12 concentration by fluorescence quenching with acridine orange-rhodamine 6G energy transfer system].

    Liu, Bao-sheng; Gao, Jing; Yang, Geng-liang

    2005-07-01

    An energy transfer technique between acridine orange (AO) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) was studied, and the optimum experimental conditions of energy transfer were defined. It was found that the effective energy transfer could occur between AO and R6G in the dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate solution with Na2 HPO4-citric acid buffer solution at pH 5.0. The fluorescence intensity of AO-R6G system was diminished by vitamin B12 in an alkalescence medium. Based on the AO-R6G energy transfer system anovel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of vitamin B12 has been developed. Under optimal conditious, the linear range of calibration curves for the determination of vitamin B12 was 0-3.0 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1). The detection limits were 4.8 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1) for Vitamin B12. Among six times of determination, the relative standard deviation was 0.51%-0.64%, and the recovery was 98.40% -103.62%. The method features good recurrence, rapidity of reaction, good stability, and few interfering substances. It can be satisfactorily used in the determination of the injection content of vitamin B12. PMID:16241060

  10. Short communication. Evaluation of a commercial kit based on acridine orange/propidium iodide to assess the plasma membrane integrity of ram sperm

    J. L. Yániz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop a semiautomatic computer assisted methodology to evaluate the membrane integrity of ram spermatozoa using a commercial kit based on acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI labelling and ImageJ software. The study was divided into two experiments. In the first trial, the new computer-assisted method was validated by mixing fresh semen samples with different volumes of freeze killed spermatozoa to determine proportions of damaged spermatozoa in the final samples. The proportion of damaged spermatozoa in each sample determined by the automated procedure where highly correlated (R2=0.97, p<0.001 with the predicted theoretical values. In the second trial, the new method was compared with a previously validated method of membrane integrity assessment based on phase-contrast/propidium iodide (PH/PI methodology. Measurements by AO/PI were, on average, 4.0% larger than measurements by PH/PI (SD=7.02% and 1.79% smaller than measurements of sperm motility determined by CASA (SD=4.83. The AO/PI method was also more repeatable than the PH/PI. The double staining methodology coupled with the routine for image analysis allowing automatic determination of sperm membrane integrity means a reduction in processing time of 75% compared to the previously developed method using a single fluorochrome (3 vs 12 min on average if the incubation period was included. This facilitates its use when a large number of samples are analysed. Our results validate the new computer assisted method for assessing sperm membrane integrity in sheep. The new method developed, in addition to being a free tool, allows quick automatic determination of sperm viability, which facilitates its use in routine semen analysis.

  11. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali, E-mail: a-niazi@iau-arak.ac.ir

    2015-12-15

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L{sup −1} of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L{sup −1} dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Synthesis of maghemite as magnetic nanoparticle by co-precipitation. • Simple and fast removal of Acridine Orange by MMNPs. • Effect of parameters are optimized by Box-Behnken design.

  12. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe2O3 NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L−1 of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L−1 dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g−1. - Highlights: • Synthesis of maghemite as magnetic nanoparticle by co-precipitation. • Simple and fast removal of Acridine Orange by MMNPs. • Effect of parameters are optimized by Box-Behnken design

  13. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe2O3 NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L-1 of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L-1 dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g-1.

  14. 吖啶橙指示荧光分析法测定双酚A%Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Bisphenol A with Acridine Orange as Indicator

    杜凌云; 包玉红; 王术皓

    2011-01-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of bisphenol A based on the inhibitory effect of bisphenol A on redox reaction between hydroxyl radical and acridine orange in acidic media. This method is simple, fast, and its linear range is 1. 0 to 100 ng/mL with the detection limit of 0. 21 ng/mL. The proposed method was applied to the determination of bisphenol A in plastic bag with satisfactory results.%基于在酸性介质中,双酚A对羟自由基与吖啶橙的氧化还原反应的阻抑作用,建立了测定双酚A的荧光分析新方法.该方法简单,快速,线性范围为1.0~100 ng/mL,检出限为0.21 ng/mL.将其用于塑料制品中双酚A的测定,结果满意.

  15. Application of poly(acridine orange) and graphene modified carbon/ionic liquid paste electrode for the sensitive electrochemical detection of rutin

    A carbon/ionic liquid paste electrode (CILPE) prepared by 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate as the binder was used as the substrate electrode. A layer of graphene oxide (GO) film was cast on CILPE surface (GO/CILPE) and the electropolymerization of acridine orange (AO) on electrode was further realized by cyclic voltammetry in the potential range from −1.40 V to 1.40 V, which could simultaneously reduce GO to graphene (GR) electrochemically. The fabricated PAO-GR/CILPE exhibited good electrochemical performances with higher conductivity and lower electron transfer resistance. Electrochemical behaviors of rutin were further investigated on the modified electrode in 0.1 mol/L pH 2.0 phosphate buffer solution by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared. The peak-to-peak separation (ΔEp) was calculated as 0.076 V, which proved a fast quasi-reversible electron transfer process and the electrochemical parameters of rutin on PAO-GR/CILPE were calculated. Under the optimal conditions, the linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of rutin and its concentration was obtained in the range from 0.03 to 800.0 μmol/L with the detection limit as 8.33 nmol/L (3σ). The PAO-GR/CILPE showed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility, which was further applied to detect rutin tablet samples with satisfactory results

  16. 中性红、吖啶橙及PE标记的LAMP-2抗体在B16F10细胞溶酶体检测中的应用与比较%Application and comparison of neutral red, acridine orange, or PE labeled LAMP-2 antibodies in the detection of lysosomes in B16F10 cells

    翟晓峰; 施文; 李国兴; 孙永强; 赵文静; 钱红燕; 李静; 陈橼; 何向锋

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the application and value of neutral red, acridine orange, or PE labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibodies in the detection of lysosomes in B16F10 cells. Firstly, we labeled the lysosomes of B16F10 cells with neutral red, acridine orange, and PE labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibodies respectively and detect the labeled lysosomes by optical and fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the distribution and numbers of lysosomes in B16F10 cells could be clearly observed in optical microscope through the staining of neutral red, and the cytoplasm and lysosome could be stained in green and red respectively by acridine orange, but the quenching of red fluorescence in lysosome was so fast that the detection window was too narrow. The location and numbers of lysosomes in B16F10 cells could be clearly revealed with red fluorescence after the application of PE-labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibody, and the relative location of lysosomes and nucleus could be presented directly along with DAPI staining. In conclusion, the neutral red, acridine orange and PE labeled LAMP-2 antibody staining have their own advantage and characteristics in the detection of lysosomes. The choice of the effective lysosomes detection method should be based on the aim of study.%目的 探讨中性红、吖啶橙及PE标记的LAMP-2抗体在小鼠黑色素瘤B16F10细胞溶酶体检测中的应用与价值.方法 分别用中性红、吖啶橙和PE标记的LAMP-2抗体标记B16F10细胞溶酶体,通过光学和荧光显微镜进行检测.结果 中性红染色法能够在光镜下清晰显示溶酶体在细胞中的分布与数量,并能够反应溶酶体的功能;吖啶橙能够同时将细胞质和溶酶体分别用绿色和红色荧光标示出来,但溶酶体的红色荧光淬灭很快,观测窗口较窄;PE标记的LAMP-2抗体能够将溶酶体在细胞内的位置和数量清晰以红色荧光呈现出来,配合DAPI染色,可以直观显示溶酶体同细胞核

  17. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange.

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe. PMID:26722674

  18. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe.

  19. A comparative study of quantitative stains for DNA in image cytometry.

    Mikel, U V; Becker, R L

    1991-08-01

    In this study we examined the reproducibility of several stains used to measure nuclear DNA by image cytometry. The specimens were touch preparations of liver and testis from mouse and liver, intestine and brain from rat, fixed in either neutral formalin or Carnoy's solution. The tested stains included four Feulgen methods (pararosaniline, azure-A, thionin and acriflavine), the gallocyanine-chromalum stain and two fluorescent stains (acridine orange and propidium iodide). Absorbance measurements employed a video image analysis system; fluorescence measurements were from a scanning microspectrophotometer. The acriflavine-Feulgen stain was analyzed for both absorbance and fluorescence. All seven stains were quantitative for DNA and gave reproducible results. The absorbance measurements had a lower coefficient of variation (CV) than the fluorescence values. In a nested analysis of variance of the pararosaniline Feulgen stains, cell-to-cell variability accounted for 67% of the total variance; slide-to-slide, 9%; and batch-to-batch, 24%. These values did not change significantly when the staining was performed in an automatic staining machine. For DNA analysis using image cytometry, we conclude that the Feulgen staining technique is the most useful. In particular, acriflavine-Feulgen-stained cells fixed in Carnoy's fluid give the least variation between measurement values and the most accurate ratios between the separate ploidy groups. For fluorescence cytometry we recommend Carnoy's fixation and the acriflavine-Feulgen stain because of its narrow CV as compared to acridine orange and propidium iodide. PMID:1718295

  20. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of Trichoderma harzianum based on a gold electrode modified with a composite membrane made from an ionic liquid, ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan, and by using acridine orange as a redox indicator

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed that is based on a gold electrode modified with a nanocomposite membrane made from an ionic liquid, ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan. A single-stranded DNA probe was immobilized on this electrode. Acridine orange was used as the hybridization probe for monitoring the hybridization of the target DNA. The biosensor was capable of detecting target DNA in the concentration range from 1.0 x 10-14 to 1.8 x 10-4 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10-15 mol L-1. The approach towards constructing a DNA biosensor allows studies on the hybridization even with crude DNA fragments and also to analyze sample obtained from real samples. The results show that the DNA biosensor has the potential for sensitive detection of a specific sequence of the Trichoderma harzianum gene and provides a quick, sensitive and convenient method for the study of microorganisms. (author)

  1. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  2. Histopathological evaluation of ocular microsporidiosis by different stains

    Sharma Savitri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on comparing stains in the detection of microsporidia in corneal biopsies. Hence we wanted to evaluate various stains for their ability to detect microsporidia in corneal tissue sections. Methods Four cases diagnosed with microsporidiosis on Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff's stained sections of the corneal button between January 2002 and December 2004, were included. Further sections were prospectively stained with calcofluor white, Gram, Giemsa, Masson's trichrome, acridine orange, Gomori's methenamine silver, Gram's chromotrope and modified acid fast stain. The stained sections were analyzed for the spore characteristics in terms of size, shape, color contrast, cell wall morphology, waist band in cytoplasm and ease of detection. Results All sections showed microsporidial spores as 3 – 5 μm, oval bodies. 1% acid fast, Gram's chromotrope and GMS stains provided a reliable diagnosis of microsporidia as diagnostic waist band could be identified and good contrast helped distinguish the spores from inflammatory debris. Conclusion Considering the ease of performance, cost effectiveness and rapidity of the technique, 1% acid fast stain and Gram's chromotrope stain are ideal for the detection of microsporidia.

  3. Dual AO/EB Staining to Detect Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma Cells Compared with Flow Cytometry

    Liu, Kuan; Liu, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining to detect tumor cell apoptosis. According to apoptosis-associated changes of cell membranes during the process of apoptosis, a clear distinction is made between normal cells, early and late apoptotic cells, and necrotic cells. Material/Method We cultured human osteosarcoma cells with 30, 60, and 120 μg/ml kappa-selenocarrageenan. To assess the rates of cell proliferation and ...

  4. New staining methods for yeast like fungi under special consideration of human pathogenic fungi

    Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid; Treiber, Fritz; Grasser, Erik; Buzina, Walter; Rosker, Christian

    2010-11-01

    A new method for in-cellular staining of yeast like fungi with Oregon Green and SYTOX Green is presented enabling their detection as well as the observation of cellular details via confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fluorochromes play an important role in many scientific disciplines including medicine, cell biology and botany. For the visualisation of fungal cell walls Calcofluor White is the flourochrome of choice. The necessity of an UV laser for its excitation makes it unpracticable for daily use. Safranin O, DAPI, 2NBDG, Ethidium Bromide and Acridin-orange are commonly used stains for nuclei in fugal microscopy. The attention was given to the possibility of using the differences in staining patterns to distinguish certain pathogenic yeast species e.g. Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Our results show that high quality microscopy of yeast like organisms can readily be achieved by the use of two suitable fluorochromes.

  5. 不同荧光染料对苜蓿原生质体染色效果的研究%Effects of Different Fluorescent Dyes on Staining Alfalfa Protoplast

    李玉珠; 师尚礼; 贺延玉

    2012-01-01

    The effects of five fluorescent dyes (FDA, Rhodamine B, Rhodamine 6G, Acridine Orange and DAPI) on staining protoplasts obtained from callus of Madicago sativa ' Gannong No. 4' were investigated in order to test the viability of protoplasts, count nuclei and survey processes of protoplast fusion. Result showed that FDA, Rhodamine B, Rhodamine 6G and Acridine Orange dye and mark protoplasts of alfalfa clearly, which could identify parental protoplasts from fusion clusters. FDA is an optimal dye for testing the viability of protoplasts. Acridine Orange and DAPI can dye specific nucleus of protoplasts, which are then used to count and survey nuclei in cell fusion. Acridine Orange can also test the viability of fusion cells. These studies suggest a basis for exploring cell fusion conditions and culturing fusion cells by identifying heterocaryon and testing their viability.%以紫花苜蓿品种甘农4号(Madicago sativa L.‘Gannong No.4’)愈伤组织酶解的原生质体为材料,采用FDA、罗丹明B、罗丹明6G、吖啶橙和DAPI共5种荧光染料对原生质体进行染色效果比较,以期为原生质体活力测定、细胞核计数及原生质体融合过程的观察提供参考.结果表明:FDA、罗丹明B、罗丹明6G和吖啶橙均可使紫花苜蓿原生质体清晰染色,可用于细胞融合时亲本原生质体的标识.FDA是检测原生质体活力的理想染料;吖啶橙和DAPI可对细胞核进行特异性染色,可用于融合时细胞核的观察和计数,前者还可用于检测融合细胞的活力.通过对异源融合体的鉴别及其活力的测定,为摸索融合条件和融合细胞的培养提供了理论依据.

  6. Photocatalytic water splitting with acridine dyes: Guidelines from computational chemistry

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N. V.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic splitting of water into Hrad and OHrad radicals in hydrogen-bonded chromophore-water complexes has been explored with computational methods for the chromophores acridine orange (AO) and benzacridine (BA). These dyes are strong absorbers within the range of the solar spectrum. It is shown that low-lying charge-transfer excited states exist in the hydrogen-bonded AOsbnd H2O and BAsbnd H2O complexes which drive the transfer of a proton from water to the chromophore, which results in AOHradsbnd OHrad or BAHradsbnd OHrad biradicals. The AOHrad and BAHrad radicals possess bright ππ∗ excited states with vertical excitation energies near 3.0 eV which are predissociated by a low-lying repulsive πσ∗ state. The conical intersections of the πσ∗ state with the ππ∗ excited states and the ground state provide a mechanism for the photodetachment of the H-atom by a second photon. Our results indicate that AO and BA are promising chromophores for water splitting with visible light.

  7. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones

    Bhupinder Kaur; Harish Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  8. Novel trisubstituted acridines as human telomeric quadruplex binding ligands

    Ungvarsky, J.; Plšíková, J.; Janovec, J.; Koval, J.; Mikeš, J.; Mikesová, L.; Harvanova, D.; Fedoročko, P.; Kristian, P.; Kašpárková, Jana; Brabec, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 57, DEC 2014 (2014), s. 13-29. ISSN 0045-2068 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Braco 19 derivatives * Trisubstituted acridines * DNA binding Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.152, year: 2014

  9. Study on the Interaction between CdTe Quantum Dot-Acridine Orange-Calf Thymus DNA by Fluorescence Reversible Control%荧光可逆调控研究CdTe量子点-吖啶橙-小牛胸腺DNA的相互作用及分析应用

    龚会平; 刘绍璞; 殷鹏飞; 闫曙光; 范小青; 何佑秋

    2011-01-01

    水相合成了谷胱甘肽(GSH)修饰的CdTe量子点(QDs).在PH=7.4的Tris-HCl缓冲溶液中,吖啶橙(AO)通过静电引力吸附到GSH-CdTe QDs的表面,与GSH-CdTe QDs形成了基态复合物,导致GSH-CdTe QDs的荧光猝灭.在GSH-CdTe QDs-AO体系中加入小牛胸腺DNA(ctDNA),ctDNA诱导AO从GSH-CdTe QDs表面脱落嵌入其双螺旋结构中,导致GSH-CdTe QDs的荧光恢复.根据GSH-CdTe QDs荧光的猝灭和恢复,实现了量子点荧光的可逆调控.ctDNA引起GSH-CdTe QDs-AO体系荧光恢复强度与ctDNA浓度成良好的线性关系,检出限为0.13 ng mL-1,据此提出了简便快捷、准确、高灵敏测定ctDNA的新方法.还结合共振瑞利散射(RRS)光谱、吸收光谱和原子力显微镜照片研究了GSH-CdTe QDs-AO-ctDNA三者之间的相互作用,对相互作用机理进行了讨论并提出了相应的作用模型.%Glutathione(GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dots(GSH-CdTe QDs) were synthesized in aqueous solution.In pH 7.4 Tris-HCl buffer medium,acridine orange(AO) was adsorbed to the surfaces of GSH-CdTe QDs via electrostatic attraction and formed ground state complex,which resulted in the quenching of the fluorescence of GSH-CdTe QDs.Adding ctDNA to GSH-CdTe QDs-AO system leaded to the fluorescence intensity of GSH-CdTe QDs recover,which can be explained by that the addition of ctDNA to the system induced AO to dissociate from the surface of GSH-CdTe QDs and embed into its double helix structure.According to the fluorescence quencher and restoration for GSH-CdTe QDs,fluorescence reversible control of QDs was realized.The fluorescence intensity change of GSH-CdTe QDs-AO system aroused by the addition of ctDNA was proportional to the ctDNA concentration in a certain range,and its detection limit was 0.13 ngomL-1.Based on it,the simple,rapid,accurate and sensitive methods had been proposed to determine ctDNA.The interaction of GSH-CdTe QDs-AO-ctDNA was studied by resonance Rayleigh scattering

  10. Orange Book

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  11. New staining technique for fungal-infected plant tissues

    Marques, João Paulo Rodrigues; SOARES, Marli Kasue Misaki; APPEZZATO-DA-GLORIA, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The use of histological techniques, combined with the use of dyes, facilitates the visualisation of fungi present in tissues, allowing the details of plant-pathogen interactions in many different pathosystems to be revealed. The purpose of this study is to present a new double-staining method that uses cotton blue and safranin to identify fungal structures in plant tissues. With this staining method, the fungal hyphae stain blue and plant cell walls stain orange. The new method was tested on ...

  12. Dependence of acridine adsorption on ligand hydration enthalpy

    Matzner, R.; Bales, R.C. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources)

    1994-11-01

    The environmental fate of acridine is of concern because of its toxic and teratogenic properties. It is found in tobacco smoke, air pollution source effluents, recent lake sediments, wood preservative wastewater, wastewater treatment plant biosludge, and contaminated groundwater. The effect of the aqueous solution pH and ligand type (H[sub 2]PO[sup [minus

  13. Port-Wine Stain

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Port-Wine Stain A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a three-month-old infant with a port-wine stain. Overview A port-wine stain is a ...

  14. Double staining immunohistochemistry

    Xiao Chen; Dan-Bi Cho; Ping-Chang Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article summarized immunohistochemistry methods generally used in research laboratories and clinic including direct immune staining, indirect immune staining, enzyme method, fluorescence method, APC method and PAP method.

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on cell viability of chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) irradiated with 60CO gamma-rays using differential staining technique

    The objective of present study was to assess the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08) on CHO-K1 cells irradiated with 60Co, through the differential staining technique, using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The cells were pre-incubated with different concentrations of propolis (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) for 24h and irradiated with 5 Gy, analyzed at 24 and 48h after exposure. This technique is based on the cell capacity to incorporate fluorescent DNA dyes, where the viable (green), apoptotic (orange/yellow) and necrotic (red) cells can be identified through fluorescence microscopy. Digital high-resolution images were acquired from at least 5 visualization fields, and cells were analyzed using ImageJ and Flowing software. This approach permitted to analyze a large number of cells/sample with the time reduction, much easier and faster, proportioning more statistical power of the technique. The treatment with propolis only was not cytotoxic at 24 and 48h, except for the higher concentration of 200 μg/mL associated or not with radiation, increasing apoptotic and mainly necrotic cells (p<0.001). The data showed a promising use of propolis as well as technique used, pointing out that 200 μg/mL of propolis was cytotoxic, but at lower one (50 μg/mL) presented a radioprotective effect in irradiated CHO-K1 cells. (author)

  16. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on cell viability of chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) irradiated with {sup 60}CO gamma-rays using differential staining technique

    Castro, Marcos P.M. de; Castro, Renato F. de; Okazaki, Kayo; Vieira, Daniel P., E-mail: dpvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of present study was to assess the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08) on CHO-K1 cells irradiated with {sup 60}Co, through the differential staining technique, using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The cells were pre-incubated with different concentrations of propolis (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) for 24h and irradiated with 5 Gy, analyzed at 24 and 48h after exposure. This technique is based on the cell capacity to incorporate fluorescent DNA dyes, where the viable (green), apoptotic (orange/yellow) and necrotic (red) cells can be identified through fluorescence microscopy. Digital high-resolution images were acquired from at least 5 visualization fields, and cells were analyzed using ImageJ and Flowing software. This approach permitted to analyze a large number of cells/sample with the time reduction, much easier and faster, proportioning more statistical power of the technique. The treatment with propolis only was not cytotoxic at 24 and 48h, except for the higher concentration of 200 μg/mL associated or not with radiation, increasing apoptotic and mainly necrotic cells (p<0.001). The data showed a promising use of propolis as well as technique used, pointing out that 200 μg/mL of propolis was cytotoxic, but at lower one (50 μg/mL) presented a radioprotective effect in irradiated CHO-K1 cells. (author)

  17. Kinetic interaction in hydrogenitrogenation of quinoline and acridine

    Liquid fossil fuels contain numerous nitrogen compounds. During hydrodenitrogenation processes, these compounds for the active catalytic sites, with each compound affecting the kinetics of the other compounds. An understanding of the kinetic interaction is essential in using the results of model compound kinetics to predict the behavior of complex mixtures. In this work, the authors study the hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline and acridine in n-hexadecane over a commercial nickel-molybdenum catalyst in a batch autoclave reactor at 8.3 MPa (1200 psig) and 357-3900C. The reaction networks and kinetics of individual compounds were developed. These results confirm the existing knowledge of reaction networks for quinoline and acridine. Furthermore, their experiments show that formation for o-ethylaniline, o-toluidine and aniline are also important steps in quinoline denitrogenation. For total nitrogen removal, a dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model considering separate sites for adsorption of hydrogen and nitrogen compounds give the best fit

  18. Ion flotatsion photometric determination of tellurium with acridine and papaverine

    The ion flotation of tellirium (4) bromide complex with papaverine and acridine has been studied. Papeverine and its sublate with tellurium are found to possess surface-active properties. Acridine is not a surfactart. An ion-flotation photometric method has been elaborated to determine tellurium with papaverine in blister copper and in anodic copper without separation of the sample matrix from interfering ions. The tellurium sublate is flotated for five minutes at the air flow rate >= 25 ml/min. The Te samples contained (%): Se 0.01-0.05; Ni 0,03-0.07; Cu 98-99.6; Au 30-130 g/t, Ag 700-2000 g/t, also As, Sb, Sn. The relative standard deviation does not exceed 0.06

  19. Staining Proteins in Gels

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-01-01

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive th...

  20. Photocatalytic Water Splitting with the Acridine Chromophore: A Computational Study.

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N V; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2015-08-20

    The hydrogen-bonded acridine-water complex is considered as a model system for the exploration of photochemical reactions which can lead to the splitting of water into H(•) and OH(•) radicals. The vertical excitation energies of the lowest singlet and triplet excited states of the complex were calculated with the CASSCF/CASPT2 and ADC(2) ab initio electronic-structure methods. In addition to the well-known excited states of the acridine chromophore, excited states of charge-transfer character were identified, in which an electron is transferred from the p orbital of the H2O molecule to the π* orbital of acridine. The low-energy barriers which separate these reactive charge-transfer states from the spectroscopic states of the acridine-water complex have been characterized by the calculation of two-dimensional relaxed potential-energy surfaces as functions of the H atom-transfer coordinate and the donor (O)-acceptor (N) distance. When populated, these charge-transfer states drive the transfer of a proton from the water molecule to acridine, which results in the acridinyl-hydroxyl biradical. The same computational methods were employed to explore the photochemistry of the (N-hydrogenated) acridinyl radical. The latter possesses low-lying (about 3.0 eV) ππ* excited states with appreciable oscillator strengths in addition to a low-lying dark ππ* excited state. The bound potential-energy functions of the ππ* excited states are predissociated by the potential-energy function of an excited state of πσ* character which is repulsive with respect to the NH stretching coordinate. The dissociation threshold of the πσ* state is about 2.7 eV and thus below the excitation energies of the bright ππ* states. The conical intersections of the πσ* state with the ππ* excited states and with the electronic ground state provide a mechanism for the direct and fast photodetachment of the H atom from the acridinyl radical. These computational results indicate that the H2

  1. Port-Wine Stains

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth > For Parents > Port-Wine Stains Print ... español Manchas de vino de oporto About Port-Wine Stains About 3 out of every 1,000 ...

  2. Black stain - a review.

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  3. Evolution of Pap Stain

    Kalyani Raju

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pap stain was first developed by Dr GN Papanicoloau in 1947 and since then it has been used successfully to screen cervical cancer. In fact it has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer by 70% especially in developed countries having well planned screening programmes. However the stain has undergone various modifications from regressive conventional method to progressive rapid Pap staining where the time taken for staining was reduced. Further the stain was modified as ultrafast Papanocoloau stain and modified ultrafast Pap stain where air dried cervical smears were used and staining time was reduced. Later the other modifications were Enviro-Pap stain which was environmentally friendly with results similar to conventional method; REAP stain which was rapid and economical and Cytocolor developed by Merck where isopropyl alcohol is replaced by Propanol. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Hence laboratories should develop their own protocol and standardize the staining technique. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(2.000: 490-500

  4. Orange Juice Dumping Ruling

    Brown, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Commerce and International Trade Administration found that Cutrale, Citrosuco, Montecitrus and other Brazilian firms dumped orange juice in the United States over the period from October 2003 through September 2004. This dumping contributed to a build up of Florida orange juice inventories and resulted in low orange juice prices.

  5. Multiparameter Intracellular Cytokine Staining

    Lovelace, Patricia; Maecker, Holden T.

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) is a popular method for visualizing cellular responses, most often T-cell responses to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. It can be coupled with staining for other functional markers, such as upregulation of CD107 or CD154, as well as phenotypic markers that define specific cellular subsets, e.g. effector and memory T-cell compartments. Recent advances in multicolor flow cytometry instrumentation and software have allowed the routine combination of 8–12 ...

  6. Interaction of acridine-calix[4]arene with DNA at the electrified liquid liquid interface

    Kivlehan, Francine [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Lefoix, Myriam; Moynihan, Humphrey A. [Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Thompson, Damien; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.; Herzog, Gregoire [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Arrigan, Damien W.M., E-mail: d.arrigan@curtin.edu.a [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-03-30

    The behaviour of an acridine-functionalised calix[4]arene at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) is reported. Molecular modelling showed that the acridine-calix[4]arene has regions of significant net positive charge spread throughout the protonated acridine moieties, consistent with it being able to function as an anion ionophore. The presence of this compound in the organic phase facilitated the transfer of aqueous phase electrolyte ions. Upon addition of double stranded DNA to the aqueous phase, the transfer of electrolyte anions was diminished, due to DNA binding to the acridine moiety at the ITIES. The behaviour provides a basis for DNA hybridization detection using electrochemistry at the ITIES.

  7. Covalent functionalization of graphene oxide by 9-(4-aminophenyl)acridine and its derivatives

    Yi Si Feng; Jing Jing Ma; Xin Yan Lin; Jia Song Zhang; Peng Lv; Hua Jian Xu; Lin Bao Luo

    2012-01-01

    Graphene/acridine (G-Acr) hybrid structures were synthesized through covalent functionalization of graphene oxide with 9-(4-aminophenyl)acridine (APA) and its derivatives.The G-Acr hybrids were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry,thermal gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the binding energies of APA and its derivatives shifted to higher values,revealing pronounced charge transfer at the interface of graphene and organic molecules.

  8. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida; Elizabeth Almeida Lafayette; Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes da Silva; Cézar Augusto da Cruz Amorim; Tiago Bento de Oliveira; Ana Lucia Tasca Gois Ruiz; João Ernesto de Carvalho; Ricardo Olímpio de Moura; Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro Beltrão; Maria do Carmo Alves de Lima; Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as re...

  9. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    ... ency/article/003453.htm Gram stain of tissue biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test ...

  10. Stained-Glass Pastels

    Laird, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The author has always liked the look of stained-glass windows. Usually the designs are simplified and the shapes are easier for younger students to draw. This technique seemed to be the perfect place for her fifth-graders to try their hand at color mixing. The smaller spaces and simple shapes were just what she needed for this group. Her students…

  11. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  12. Joint fluid Gram stain

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  13. Double-Staining Method for Differentiation of Morphological Changes and Membrane Integrity of Campylobacter coli Cells

    Alonso, Jose L.; Mascellaro, Salvatore; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, María A.; Hernández, Javier

    2002-01-01

    We developed a double-staining procedure involving NanoOrange dye (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.) and membrane integrity stains (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit; Molecular Probes) to show the morphological and membrane integrity changes of Campylobacter coli cells during growth. The conversion from a spiral to a coccoid morphology via intermediary forms and the membrane integrity changes of the C. coli cells can be detected with the double-staining procedure. Our data indicate that young or actively...

  14. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  15. Staining procedure for the detection of microcracks: application to ewe bone.

    Portero-Muzy, N R; Chavassieux, P M; Arlot, M E; Chapurlat, R D

    2011-10-01

    Microcracks are one of the determinants of the bone strength and their accumulation may contribute to increased fracture risk. They are detected after bulk staining with various dyes, including basic fuschin, calcein and xylenol orange. The duration of staining usually varies across types of bone and species. The ewe is a large animal with a bone remodeling similar to humans, used as an animal model in bone histomorphometry studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal conditions for bulk staining with xylenol orange of ewe bone. Xylenol orange 5mM in 70% ethanol was applied to iliac crest and vertebral biopsies for 2 or 15 days or 1, 2 or 3 months. After embedding, sections of 40, 50 and 80 μm thick were cut with either a precision diamond wire saw or a microtome. The staining was not visible after 2 or 15 days and was heterogeneous after 1 or 2 months. The quality of 40 and 50 μm thick sections was not preserved compared with those of 80 μm. Microcracks were suitably observed on ewe bone after bulk staining with xylenol orange for 3 months, in 80 μm thick sections. We conclude that the staining procedures should differ when examining ewe or human bone. This may be due to differences in bone matrix composition. PMID:21782048

  16. Safranine fluorescent staining of wood cell walls.

    Bond, J; Donaldson, L; Hill, S; Hitchcock, K

    2008-06-01

    Safranine is an azo dye commonly used for plant microscopy, especially as a stain for lignified tissues such as xylem. Safranine fluorescently labels the wood cell wall, producing green/yellow fluorescence in the secondary cell wall and red/orange fluorescence in the middle lamella (ML) region. We examined the fluorescence behavior of safranine under blue light excitation using a variety of wood- and fiber-based samples of known composition to interpret the observed color differentiation of different cell wall types. We also examined the basis for the differences in fluorescence emission using spectral confocal microscopy to examine lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls including reaction wood and decayed wood compared to normal wood. Our results indicate that lignin-rich cell walls, such as the ML of tracheids, the secondary wall of compression wood tracheids, and wood decayed by brown rot, tend to fluoresce red or orange, while cellulose-rich cell walls such as resin canals, wood decayed by white rot, cotton fibers and the G-layer of tension wood fibers, tend to fluoresce green/yellow. This variation in fluorescence emission seems to be due to factors including an emission shift toward red wavelengths combined with dye quenching at shorter wavelengths in regions with high lignin content. Safranine fluorescence provides a useful way to differentiate lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls without counterstaining as required for bright field microscopy. PMID:18802812

  17. Modification of surface properties of electrospun polyamide nanofibers by means of a perfluorinated acridine

    Bianco, Andrea; Iardino, Giacomo; Bertarelli, Chiara; Miozzo, Luciano; Papagni, Antonio; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    Polyamide 6 (PA6) nanofibers were prepared from formic acid solutions by using electrospinning technique. The fibers were smooth, defects free and with diameters smaller than 200 nm. Small amounts of a perfluorinated acridine were added as dopant to the feed solution to modify the wettability of the fibers. The effect of doping on the contact angle values is well apparent. The contact angle values go from 50° of pure PA6 to 120° when 6% of acridine is added. A comparison between fibers and films of pure and doped polyamide 6 was carried out in order to determine the effect of morphology on wettability. Thermal annealing near the Tg of the polymer promoted the segregation of the molecules to the surface, reaching contact angles of 131° with smaller amounts (4%) of acridine. The surface segregation was also promoted by time aging.

  18. Extraction-absorptiometric determination of chromium by acridine yellow in natural and waste waters

    In interaction of Cr(VI) anion with acridine basic dye - acridine yellow has been studied. The colored ionic associate could be extracted by dichlorethane: acetone (3:1) binary mixture in Ph 1 to 2 N hydrochloric acid solution. Optimal concentration of reagent is 1,83·10-3-2,94·10-3M. The celebration graph obeyed Beer's law over the range 0,625-10 mkg Cr/ml and the apparent molar absorptivity of the extract at 454 nm was 3,4·104±500 l mol-1cm1. The molar ratio between Cr(VI) anion and acridine yellow in ionic associate has been determined by method Asmuse which is (1:1). The influence of interfering elements on the determination of chromium has been studied. The elaborated methods has been applied for determination of Cr(VI) in natural and waste waters

  19. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis. PMID:21069481

  20. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of new acridine based fluorophore adsorbed on silver electrode.

    Solovyeva, Elena V; Myund, Liubov A; Denisova, Anna S

    2015-10-01

    4,5-Bis(N,N-di(2-hydroxyethyl)iminomethyl)acridine (BHIA) is a new acridine based fluoroionophore and a highly-selective sensor for cadmium ion. The direct interaction of the aromatic nitrogen atom with a surface is impossible since there are bulky substituents in the 4,5-positions of the acridine fragment. Nevertheless BHIA molecule shows a reliable SERS spectrum while adsorbed on a silver electrode. The analysis of SERS spectra pH dependence reveals that BHIA species adsorbed on a surface can exist in both non-protonated and protonated forms. The adsorption of BHIA from alkaline solution is accompanied by carbonaceous species formation at the surface. The intensity of such "carbon bands" turned out to be related with the supporting electrolyte (KCl) concentration. Upon lowering the electrode potential the SERS spectra of BHIA do not undergo changes but the intensity of bands decreases. This indicates that the adsorption mechanism on the silver surface is realized via aromatic system of acridine fragment. In case of such an adsorption mechanism the chelate fragment of the BHIA molecule is capable of interaction with the solution components. Addition of Cd(2+) ions to a system containing BHIA adsorbed on a silver electrode in equilibrium with the solution leads to the formation of BHIA/Cd(2+) complex which desorption causes the loss of SERS signal. PMID:25956332

  1. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of new acridine based fluorophore adsorbed on silver electrode

    Solovyeva, Elena V.; Myund, Liubov A.; Denisova, Anna S.

    2015-10-01

    4,5-Bis(N,N-di(2-hydroxyethyl)iminomethyl)acridine (BHIA) is a new acridine based fluoroionophore and a highly-selective sensor for cadmium ion. The direct interaction of the aromatic nitrogen atom with a surface is impossible since there are bulky substituents in the 4,5-positions of the acridine fragment. Nevertheless BHIA molecule shows a reliable SERS spectrum while adsorbed on a silver electrode. The analysis of SERS spectra pH dependence reveals that BHIA species adsorbed on a surface can exist in both non-protonated and protonated forms. The adsorption of BHIA from alkaline solution is accompanied by carbonaceous species formation at the surface. The intensity of such "carbon bands" turned out to be related with the supporting electrolyte (KCl) concentration. Upon lowering the electrode potential the SERS spectra of BHIA do not undergo changes but the intensity of bands decreases. This indicates that the adsorption mechanism on the silver surface is realized via aromatic system of acridine fragment. In case of such an adsorption mechanism the chelate fragment of the BHIA molecule is capable of interaction with the solution components. Addition of Cd2+ ions to a system containing BHIA adsorbed on a silver electrode in equilibrium with the solution leads to the formation of BHIA/Cd2+ complex which desorption causes the loss of SERS signal.

  2. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N- (4-chlorophenyl hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f, while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a. There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties.

  3. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives.

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a-h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) and quenching constants from -0.2 × 10(4) to 2.18 × 10(4) M(-1) indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N- (4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  4. Structural considerations on acridine/acridinium derivatives: Synthesis, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and computational studies

    Wera, Michał; Storoniak, Piotr; Serdiuk, Illia E.; Zadykowicz, Beata

    2016-02-01

    This article describes a detailed study of the molecular packing and intermolecular interactions in crystals of four derivatives of acridine, i.e. 9-methyl-, 9-ethyl, 9-bromomethyl- and 9-piperidineacridine (1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and three 10-methylacridinium salts containing the trifluoromethanesulphonate anion and 9-vinyl-, 9-bromomethyl, and 9-phenyl-10-methylacridinium cations (5, 6 and 7, respectively). The crystal structures of all of the compounds are stabilized by long-range electrostatic interactions, as well as by a network of short-range C-HṡṡṡO (in hydrates and salts 3 and 5-7, respectively), C-Hṡṡṡπ, π-π, C-Fṡṡṡπ and S-Oṡṡṡπ (in salts 5-7) interactions. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows that various intermolecular contacts play an important role in the crystal packing, graphically exhibiting the differences in spatial arrangements of the acridine/acridinium derivatives under scrutiny here. Additionally, computational methods have been used to compare the intermolecular interactions in the crystal structures of the investigated compounds. Computations have confirmed the great contribution of dispersive interactions for crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted acridine and electrostatic interactions for the crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted 10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonates. The value of crystal lattice energy and the electrostatic contribution in the crystal lattice energy of monohydrated acridine derivatives have confirmed that these compounds have behave as acridinium derivatives.

  5. LOKALIZACIJA PAKETA ORANGE HRM

    Berčič, Sergej

    2014-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obravnava izdelavo slovenskega jezikovnega paketa za odprtokodno programsko rešitev za upravljanje s človeškimi viri OrangeHRM. Kratko je opisano odprtokodno razvojno okolje, ki ga vključuje paket XAMPP: spletni strežnik Apache, sistem za upravljanje z bazo podatkov MySQL, PHP in Perl. Za prevajanje je bil uporabljen urejevalnik Notepad++. Prikazan je postopek namestitve paketa OrangeHRM, nato pa so opisane funkcije posameznih modulov: administrator, osebni podatki, odsotnosti,...

  6. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  7. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  8. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationships between ester and amide functionalities in novel acridine-based platinum(II) complexes.

    Bouyer, Florence; Moretto, Johnny; Pertuit, David; Szollosi, Anna; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth; Blache, Yves; Chauffert, Bruno; Desbois, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    In order to improve the pharmacological profile of the anticancer drug cisplatin, several new acridine-based tethered (ethane-1,2-diamine)platinum(II) complexes connected by a polymethylene chain were synthetized. Activity-structure relationship between amide or ester functionalities was explored by changing acridine-9-carboxamide into acridine-9-carboxylate chromophore. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these new complexes was assessed in human colic HCT 116, SW480 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. Series of complexes bearing the acridine-9-carboxylate chromophore displayed higher cytotoxic effect than acridine-9-carboxamide complexes, with gradual effect according to the size of the polymethylene linker. PMID:22459174

  9. Say goodbye to coffee stains

    Eral, H.B.; Ende, van den, H.; Mugele, F.

    2012-01-01

    Discussing ideas over a mug of coffee or tea is the lifeblood of science, but have you ever thought about the stains that can be inadvertently left behind? H Burak Eral, Dirk van den Ende and Frieder Mugele explain how these stains, which can be a major annoyance in some biology techniques, can be altered for the better using a technique called electrowetting

  10. When is meconium stained liquor actually bile stained vomit?

    Griffiths, D.M.; Burge, D M

    1988-01-01

    Three babies said to have had 'meconium stained liquor' were subsequently found never to have passed meconium. The green discoloured liquor was the result of bilious vomiting in utero secondary to intestinal obstruction.

  11. Peranan orang-orang Melayu dalam Islamisasi Sulawesi Selatan

    Sulistyo, Bambang

    2013-01-01

    Sesudah jatuhnya kerajaan Malaka (1511), migrasi secara besar-besaran terjadi di Nusantara. Di Sulawesi Selatan kehadiran orang-orang Malaka, yang lazim disebut orang Melayu merupakan awal perkembangan peradaban. Mereka berperan penting dalam pembangunan ekonomi, politik dan keagamaan. Pelayaran-pelayaran niaga tumbuh menghubungkan Sulawesi Selatan dengan berbagai wilayah Nusantara lainnya. Kerajaan Gowa dan Tallo yang dikenal dengan Kerajaan Makassar pada mulanya merupakan Negara agraris, s...

  12. Solvent-free preparation of co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin

    Co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin have been obtained by solvent-free reaction or thermal treatment of the solid reactants: their structures, thermal behaviour and eutectic formation have been investigated via single crystal X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction and hot-stage microscopy (HSM). Polymorph screening of the reagents has also been carried out.

  13. Solvent-free preparation of co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin

    Braga, Dario, E-mail: dario.braga@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G.Ciamician' , Universita degli studi di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Mazzeo, Paolo P.; Rubini, Katia [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G.Ciamician' , Universita degli studi di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-08-10

    Co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin have been obtained by solvent-free reaction or thermal treatment of the solid reactants: their structures, thermal behaviour and eutectic formation have been investigated via single crystal X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction and hot-stage microscopy (HSM). Polymorph screening of the reagents has also been carried out.

  14. DNA binding, anti-tumour activity and reactivity toward cell thiols of acridin-9-ylalkenoic derivatives

    O Salem; M Vilkova; J Plsikova; A Grolmusova; M Burikova; M Prokaiova; H Paulikova; J Imrich; M Kozurkova

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis, biochemical properties and biological activity of a series of new 9-substituted acridine derivatives with a reactive alkene moiety: 9-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl] acridine (1) and methyl (2E)-3-(acridin-9-yl)-prop-2-enoate (2). The interaction of derivatives 1 and 2 with calf thymus DNA was investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding constants K were estimated as being in the range of 1.9 to 7.1 × 105 M−1, and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 40–57% (from spectral titration). UV-Vis, fluorescence, and CD measurements indicate that the compounds were effective DNA-intercalating agents. Electrophoretic separation proved that ligands 1 and 2 relaxed topoisomerase I at a concentration of 5 M. Ester 2 was shown to have a stronger cytostatic effect on leukemia cell line L1210 than alkene 1. The incubation of ligands 1 and 2 with the ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 confirmed their extensive cytotoxic effects, an effect which was particularly pronounced in the case of ligand 2. Cytotoxicity tests against A2780 cells demonstrate that a conjugate of compound 2 with -cysteine (3) is less cytotoxic than compound 2, especially at concentrations greater than 10 M.

  15. Basicities of some 9-substituted acridine-4-carboxamides: A density functional theory (DFT) calculation

    Raghab Parajuli; C Medhi

    2004-06-01

    Acid-base properties of drugs are important in understanding the behaviour of these compounds under physiological condition. In order to understand such behaviour the proton affinities of acridine 4-carboxamides with substitution (R) at the 9-position are theoretically studied, and considered for the basic sites of both the heterocyclic ring as well as side chain nitrogens. In 9-amino acridine 4-carboxamide, the -NH2 group is observed to be an additional basic site. The heterocyclic nitrogen of substituted carboxamides (R = -NH2, -O-methyl, -O-ethyl, and -O-phenyl) is more basic than the side chain nitrogen, however, side chain nitrogen corresponds to more basic site for some carboxamides (R = -OH and -Cl) and the -NH2 group represents the least basic site of 9-amino acridine 4-carboxamide. In addition to presenting the basicities of these drugs an indication of another hydrogen-bond between heterocyclic ring N and carboxamide chain O is observed. The difference of basicities with substituents at 9-position are very narrow and carboxamides with substituents at 9-position are found to be suitable for studying intramolecular H-bonds between the heterocyclic N and carboxamide O. The resultant stabilization of a configuration due to such H-bonding is determined.

  16. Supra-molecular inter-actions in a 1:1 co-crystal of acridine and 3-chloro-thio-phene-2-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    Prajina, Olakkandiyil; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-05-01

    In the title co-crystal, C5H3ClO2S·C13H9N, the components inter-act with each other via an O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. Acridine-acridine stacking, thio-phene-thio-phene stacking and acridine-thio-phene C-H⋯π inter-actions also occur in the crystal. PMID:27308013

  17. Array tomography: imaging stained arrays.

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. In this protocol, tissue arrays are imaged using conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Images can be captured manually or, with the appropriate software and hardware, the process can be automated. PMID:21041399

  18. Automated single-slide staining system

    Mills, S. M.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus developed to Gram-stain single slides automatically is flexible enough to accommodate other types of staining procedures. Method frees operator and eliminates necessity for subjective evaluations as to length of staining or decolorizing time.

  19. Acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc): A New Photochemically Removable Protecting Group for Alcohols

    WANG Hong-Bo; TANG Wen-Jian; YU Jing-Yu; SONG Qin-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis and photochemistry of acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc) as a new photochemically removable protecting group for alcohols were described. Three carbonates of alcohols 1-3 were synthesized through condensation of 9-hydroxymethylacridine and chloroformates of alcohols, including benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol and one galactose derivative. The photolysis of protected alcohols can efficiently release the corresponding alcohol in the efficiencies (Qu1ε) of 100-200 (quantum yield Qu1=0.011-0.023, and molar absorptivity ε=9.1 × 103-9.8 × 103 mol-1·L·cm-1) under 360 nm light.

  20. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    N. Shahidzadeh; M.F.L. Schut; J. Desarnaud; M. Prat; D. Bonn

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls, but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, deicing of airplan

  1. Whole Blood Cell Staining Device

    Sams, Clarence F.; Clift, Vaughan L.; McDonald, Kelly E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for staining particular cell markers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a flexible tube that is reversibly pinched into compartments with one or more clamps. Each compartment of the tube contains a separate reagent and is in selective fluid communication with adjoining compartments.

  2. Histopathologic Findings in the Areas of Orange Pigment Overlying Choroidal Melanomas

    Garcia, Maria D.; Salomao, Diva R.; Marmorstein, Alan D.; Pulido, Jose S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Orange pigment is an important sign of malignancy in melanocytic tumors. There is a question as to whether the pigment accumulation is inside of macrophages or retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. We investigated which cells are involved with this color alteration. Methods We examined enucleated specimens from two patients with choroidal melanoma and dense orange pigment on fundus examination. Color fundus and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) photographs were reviewed followed by examination with fluorescent microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry of enucleated eyes for the specific areas corresponding to the orange pigment. Results Orange pigment was observed on color fundus photography and correlated with areas of hyperautofluorescence on FAF. Fluorescent microscopy of sections of the enucleated eyes showed autofluorescence in the RPE, which were most pronounced where there was a localized retinal detachment and reactive hyperplasia of the RPE. Immunohistochemical studies were done with keratin (OSCAR and AE1/AE3) and S-100 stained RPE cells, which still were attached to Bruch's membrane. Histiocytes present in the detached retina stained with anti-CD163 antibody and did not show autofluorescence. Electron microscopy studies of the same areas showed the presence of lipofuscin and melanolipofuscin within the clustered RPE cells. Conclusions Orange pigment in choroidal melanocytic lesions originates from the RPE cells, rather than macrophages, and is most abundant where there is proliferation of the RPE. Translational Relevance The orange pigment tumoral biomarker arises and is in the retinal pigment epithelium. PMID:27190699

  3. Highly selective and sensitive fluorescence detection of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions by using an acridine sensor.

    Visscher, A; Bachmann, S; Schnegelsberg, C; Teuteberg, T; Mata, R A; Stalke, D

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy investigations of the new acridine derivative bis(N,N-dimethylaminemethylene)acridine (3) show remarkable selectivity and sensitivity towards Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions in methanol and for the latter even in water. Through the chelation of the metal ions the present PET effect is quenched, significantly enhancing the emission intensity of the fluorophore. In solution, the bonding situation is studied by fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, as well as ESI-TOF mass-spectrometry measurements. The solid state environment is investigated by X-ray diffraction and computational calculations. Here, we can show the complexation of the zinc and cadmium ions by the methylene bridged amine receptors as well as by the nitrogen atom of the acridine system. PMID:26928871

  4. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  5. Pyrrolidine-Acridine hybrid in Artemisinin-based combination: a pharmacodynamic study.

    Pandey, Swaroop Kumar; Biswas, Subhasish; Gunjan, Sarika; Chauhan, Bhavana Singh; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Kumkum; Singh, Sarika; Batra, Sanjay; Tripathi, Renu

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to develop new artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria, antimalarial effect of a new series of pyrrolidine-acridine hybrid in combination with artemisinin derivatives was investigated. Synthesis, antimalarial and cytotoxic evaluation of a series of hybrid of 2-(3-(substitutedbenzyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)alkanamines and acridine were performed and mode of action of the lead compound was investigated. In vivo pharmacodynamic properties (parasite clearance time, parasite reduction ratio, dose and regimen determination) against multidrug resistant (MDR) rodent malaria parasite and toxicological parameters (median lethal dose, liver function test, kidney function test) were also investigated. 6-Chloro-N-(4-(3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)butyl)-2-methoxyacridin-9-amine (15c) has shown a dose dependent haem bio-mineralization inhibition and was found to be the most effective and safe compound against MDR malaria parasite in Swiss mice model. It displayed best antimalarial potential with artemether (AM) in vitro as well as in vivo. The combination also showed favourable pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic response in mice with established MDR malaria infection and all mice were cured at the determined doses. The combination did not show toxicity at the doses administered to the Swiss mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that compound 15c is a potential partner with AM for the ACT and could be explored for further development. PMID:27230403

  6. Interaction and sonodynamic damage activity of acridine red (AD-R) to bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    Chen, Dandan; Xie, Jinhui; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Ping; Wang, Jun, E-mail: wangjun888tg@126.com

    2015-04-15

    The sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has become an attractive antitumor treatment method in recent years, but the selection of sonosensitizer, mechanism of damage biomolecule and kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during sonodynamic process have not been investigated in detail. In this paper, the acridine red (AD-R), as a sonosensitizer, combining with ultrasonic irradiation to damage bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. At first, the interaction of AD-R to BSA molecules in aqueous solution was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. As judged from the experimental results, the quenching mechanism of BSA fluorescence belongs to a static process. Synchronous fluorescence spectra demonstrate that the binding and damage sites to BSA molecules are mainly on the tryptophan residues. The generation and kind of generated ROS were also estimated by the method of oxidation and extraction photometry. This paper may offer some valuable references for the study of the sonodynamic activity and application of AD-R in SDT for tumor treatment. - Highlights: ●Acridine red (AD-R) is used to study interaction with BSA. ●Spectroscopy is used to study sonodynamic damage activity of AD-R to BSA. ●Generation of ROS caused by AD-R under ultrasonic irradiation was determined.

  7. Evaluation of different methods for diagnosis of P. falciparum malaria

    Mendiratta D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis is a prerequisite for institution of effective treatment and reducing the mortality and morbidity of falciparum malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various rapid methods viz, acridine orange, Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein II antigen detection and Field′s stain with traditional microscopy i.e., Leishman stain for diagnosing falciparum malaria. Thick and thin blood films of 443 consecutive patients with history of fever with chills and rigors were examined by Leishman and Field′s method. Acridine orange stained wet mounts of blood were examined under fluorescence microscopy. All films were examined by two independent microbiologists. Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein II antigen was detected using commercially available kit, Paracheck Pf. Out of the 443 subjects examined for P.falciparum 18.28% were detected by Leishman stain, 6.32% by Field′s stain, 18.28% by acridine orange and 18.1% by antigen based technique. Field′s stain missed 53 (65.4%, while Paracheck Pf was negative in 6(7.4% of the Leishman positive samples. All Field′s stain and acridine orange positives were positive by Leishman, but five Paracheck Pf positives were negative. Leishman stain is cost effective but if facilities are available one should use acridine orange for screening. The antigen detection kits are rapid, simple and are useful but to rule out false negatives in clinically suspected cases, Leishman stain is reliable.

  8. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  9. Photoabsorption of Acridine Yellow and Proflavin Bound to Human Serum Albumin Studied by Means of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Dynamics

    Aidas, Kestutis; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Attempting to unravel mechanisms in optical probing of proteins, we have performed pilot calculations of two cationic chromophores—acridine yellow and proflavin—located at different binding sites within human serum albumin, including the two primary drug binding sites as well as a heme binding site...

  10. Redox reactions of copper(II) upon electrospray ionization in the presence of acridine ligands with an amide side chain

    Tintaru, A.; Charles, L.; Milko, Petr; Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2009), s. 229-233. ISSN 0894-3230 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550704; GA ČR GA203/08/1487 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acridine * copper * electrospray ionization * mass spectrometry * quinoline Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2009

  11. Golgi-Cox Staining Step by Step

    Zaqout, Sami; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi staining remains a key method to study neuronal morphology in vivo. Since most protocols delineating modifications of the original staining method lack details on critical steps, establishing this method in a laboratory can be time-consuming and frustrating. Here, we describe the Golgi-Cox staining in such detail that should turn the staining into an easily feasible method for all scientists working in the neuroscience field.

  12. Golgi-Cox staining step by step

    Sami eZaqout; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi staining remains a key method to study neuronal morphology in vivo. Since most protocols delineating modifications of the original staining method lack details on critical steps, establishing this method in a laboratory can be time-consuming and frustrating. Here, we describe the Golgi-Cox staining in such detail that should turn the staining into an easily feasible method for all scientists working in the neuroscience field.

  13. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    ... ZIP code here Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange VA presumes porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is related to Veterans' exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service when the ...

  14. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  15. Modeling consumer's perception of orange juice

    Gao, Xiaoming; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    1992-01-01

    A multiple indicator and multiple cause model with dichotomous indicators was used to study consumer's perception toward orange juice. Results indicate that recalls of orange juice advertising messages by the respondent had a positive impact on his/her perception toward orange juice. Results also suggest that selected socioeconomic variables were important determinants of consumer perception.

  16. Some physical properties of orange (var. Tompson

    A. Akram

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Orange is among the popular fruits and of a high economical value. Sizing and grading of orange is needed for the fruit to be presented to local and foreign markets. A study of orange physical properties is therefore indispensable. Some physical properties of grade one (large, two (medium and three (small oranges were investigated. These properties included: dimensions, mass, volume, surface area, porosity and coefficient of static friction. The major, intermediate and minor diameters of the grade two orange were 84.1, 77.4 and 75.5 mm, respectively. Volume and mass of the grade two orange were 217.8 cm3 and 215.4 g, respectively. As for grade two orange piles, the bulk density and fruit density were respectively calculated as 0.44 and 1.03 g cm-3. Porosity of grade one, two and three oranges was 44.64, 49.39 and 51.2%, with their sphericity being 0.948, 0.931 and 0.923, respectively. The static angle of friction of grade two orange on galvanized, glass and plywood surfaces were found to be 20.2, 23.4 and 23.5°, respectively. The three classes of oranges were signifi- cantly different from each other regarding their physical properties. Orange mass was determined through a polynomial function of third degree involving the average diameter of the orange. The function was evaluated with a determination coefficient of 0.991.

  17. Enhancement of seminal stains using background correction algorithm with colour filters.

    Lee, Wee Chuen; Khoo, Bee Ee; Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2016-06-01

    Evidence in crime scenes available in the form of biological stains which cannot be visualized during naked eye examination can be detected by imaging their fluorescence using a combination of excitation lights and suitable filters. These combinations selectively allow the passage of fluorescence light emitted from the targeted stains. However, interference from the fluorescence generated by many of the surface materials bearing the stains often renders it difficult to visualize the stains during forensic photography. This report describes the use of background correction algorithm (BCA) to enhance the visibility of seminal stain, a biological evidence that fluoresces. While earlier reports described the use of narrow band-pass filters for other fluorescing evidences, here, we utilize BCA to enhance images captured using commonly available colour filters, yellow, orange and red. Mean-based contrast adjustment was incorporated into BCA to adjust the background brightness for achieving similarity of images' background appearance, a crucial step for ensuring success while implementing BCA. Experiment results demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed colour filters' approach using the improved BCA in enhancing the visibility of seminal stains in varying dilutions on selected surfaces. PMID:27061146

  18. Negative staining and Cryo-negative Staining of Macromolecules and Viruses for TEM

    De Carlo, Sacha; Harris, J Robin

    2010-01-01

    In this review we cover the technical background to negative staining of biomolecules and viruses, and then expand upon the different possibilities and limitations. Topics range from conventional air-dry negative staining of samples adsorbed to carbon support films, the variant termed the “negative staining-carbon film” technique and negative staining of samples spread across the holes of holey carbon support films, to a consideration of dynamic/time-dependent negative staining. For each of t...

  19. Unexpected regiospecific formation and DNA binding of new 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones

    Ján Imrich; Danica Sabolová; Mária Vilková; Júlia Kudláčová

    2016-02-01

    New 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-substituted imino-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were regiospecifically synthesized from unstable (acridin-9-yl)methyl thioureas and methyl bromoacetate (MBA) or bromoacetyl bromide (BAB). Unexpected formation of only one thiazolidinone regioisomer with both the reagents was due to a new mechanism involving a transient spiro 9,10-dihydroacridine intermediate. These results are in contrast with the reactions of acridin-9-yl thioureas with MBA/BAB that afforded two different thiazolidinone regioisomers with these reagents. UV-vis titrations, CD spectra, and fluorescence quenching have shown that new products intercalated into calf thymus (CT) DNA, and displaced ethidium bromide (EB) from a CT DNA–EB complex. Intrinsic binding constants, , and Stern-Volmer constants, , were found in the range 0.79✕105 – 2.85✕105 M−1 and 17950 – 3360M−1, respectively. The strongest binding affinity was found for an electrondonated 2-(4-methoxyphenylimino) thiazolidinone. Additional evidence for DNA intercalation was obtained from thermal denaturation studies. Gel electrophoresis has proven that thiazolidinone products nicked the supercoiled plasmid DNA in 5.0 M concentration.

  20. Evaluation of new iodinated acridine derivatives for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma using 125I, an Auger electron emitter.

    Gardette, Maryline; Papon, Janine; Bonnet, Mathilde; Desbois, Nicolas; Labarre, Pierre; Wu, Ting-Dee; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Moins, Nicole

    2011-12-01

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form have led to an urgent need for new specific therapies. Several iodobenzamides or analogs are known to possess specific affinity for melanoma tissue. New heteroaromatic derivatives have been designed with a cytotoxic moiety and termed DNA intercalating agents. These compounds could be applied in targeted radionuclide therapy using (125)I, which emits Auger electrons and gives high-energy, localized irradiation. Two iodinated acridine derivatives have been reported to present an in vivo kinetic profile conducive to application in targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of the present study was to perform a preclinical evaluation of these compounds. The DNA intercalating property was confirmed for both compounds. After radiolabeling with (125)I, the two compounds induced in vitro a significant radiotoxicity to B16F0 melanoma cells. Nevertheless, the acridine compound appeared more radiotoxic than the acridone compound. While cellular uptake was similar for both compounds, SIMS analysis and in vitro protocol showed a stronger affinity for melanin with acridone derivative, which was able to induce a predominant scavenging process in the melanosome and restrict access to the nucleus. In conclusion, the acridine derivative with a higher nuclear localization appeared a better candidate for application in targeted radionuclide therapy using (125)I. PMID:20567996

  1. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    Bartholdi, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

  2. Surface properties of multilayered, acrylic resin artificial teeth after immersion in staining beverages

    Karin Hermana NEPPELENBROEK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective To evaluate the effect of staining beverages (coffee, orange juice, and red wine on the Vickers hardness and surface roughness of the base (BL and enamel (EL layers of improved artificial teeth (Vivodent and Trilux.Material and Methods Specimens (n=8 were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then submitted to the tests. Afterwards, specimens were immersed in one of the staining solutions or distilled water (control at 37°C, and the tests were also performed after 15 and 30 days of immersion. Data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05.Results Vivodent teeth exhibited a continuous decrease (p0.15, but red wine and orange juice continuously reduced hardness values (p0.06.Conclusions Hardness of the two brands of acrylic teeth was reduced by all staining beverages, mainly for red wine. Roughness of both layers of the teeth was not affected by long-term immersion in the beverages.

  3. Epidemiology of intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli school children in rural Malaysia.

    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Hany Sady; Atroosh, Wahib M; Mohammed Nashiry; Anuar, Tengku S.; Norhayati Moktar; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Rohela Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species) among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Methods/Principal findings Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls), and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Zi...

  4. DNA Stains as Surrogate Nucleobases in Fluorogenic Hybridization Probes.

    Hövelmann, Felix; Seitz, Oliver

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance assigned to RNA dynamics in cells and tissues calls for probe molecules that enable fluorescence microscopy imaging in live cells. To achieve this goal, fluorescence dyes are conjugated with oligonucleotides so as to provide strong emission upon hybridization with the target molecule. The impressive 10(3)-fold fluorescence intensification observed when DNA stains such as thiazole orange (TO) interact with double-stranded DNA is intriguing and prompted the exploration of oligonucleotide conjugates. However, nonspecific interactions of DNA stains with polynucleotides tend to increase background, which would affect the contrast achievable in live-cell imaging. This Account describes the development of DNA-stain-labeled hybridization probes that provide high signal-to-background. We focus on our contributions in context with related advances from other laboratories. The emphasis will be on the requirements of RNA imaging in live cells. To reduce background, intercalator dyes such as TO were appended to peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which is less avidly recognized by DNA stains than DNA/RNA. Constraining the TO dye as a nucleobase surrogate in "forced intercalation (FIT) probes" improved the target specificity, presumably by helping to prevent unspecific interactions. The enforcement of TO intercalation between predetermined base pairs upon formation of the probe-target duplex provided for high brightness and enabled match/mismatch selectivity beyond stringency of hybridization. We show examples that highlight the use of PNA FIT probes in the imaging of mRNA, miRNA, and lncRNA in living cells. The "FIT approach" was recently extended to DNA probes. Signal brightness can become limiting when low-abundance targets ought to be visualized over cellular autofluorescence. We discuss strategies that further the brightness of signaling by FIT probes. Multilabeling with identical dyes does not solve the brightness issue. To avoid self-quenching, we

  5. Standardization of the Papanicolaou stain. I. A comparison of five nuclear stains.

    Schulte, E; Wittekind, D

    1990-06-01

    The staining characteristics of five nuclear stains used in a Papanicolaou staining procedure were investigated. Alcohol-fixed cervical smears were stained with a modified Papanicolaou procedure using hematoxylin, alcoholic thionin bromide, alcoholic Victoria blue B, gallocyanin or the thionin Feulgen reagent (thionin-SO2) as the nuclear stain. The same anionic counterstain was used for all slides, and the optical densities of cell nuclei and cytoplasm were measured with the IBAS 2000 image analyzer. Alcoholic thionin gave the most intense nuclear stain, with a very high reproducibility of the staining pattern. Hematoxylin showed the highest coefficient of variation of the staining intensity. Both hematoxylin and gallocyanin gave some nonspecific cytoplasmic staining. Thionin-SO2 allowed a quantitative assessment of DNA, but gave a low staining intensity. Staining with the metal complex dyes interfered with subsequent staining with the pararosaniline Feulgen reagent. Alcoholic thioinin is thus recommended as a nuclear stain for cervical cytology in the Papanicolaou procedure, both for image analysis and for visual microscopy. PMID:1695100

  6. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  7. Immunofluorescent Staining of Mouse Intestinal Stem Cells

    O’Rourke, Kevin P.; Dow, Lukas E; Lowe, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Immunofluorescent staining of organoids can be performed to visualize molecular markers of cell behavior. For example, cell proliferation marked by incorporation of nucleotide (EdU), or to observe markers of intestinal differentiation including paneth cells, goblet cells, or enterocytes (see Figure 1). In this protocol we detail a method to fix, permeabilize, stain and mount intestinal organoids for analysis by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy.

  8. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Miha Humar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  9. Characterisation of medieval yellow silver stained glass from Convento de Cristo in Tomar, Portugal

    Delgado, J. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Vilarigues, M. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); VICARTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ruivo, A. [VICARTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); REQUIMTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Corregidor, V.; Silva, R.C. da [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto n 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C., E-mail: lcalves@itn.pt [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto n 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Yellow decoration effects in stained glasses using silver staining were first applied in the beginning of the 14th century. The glass piece being decorated was usually painted on its side intended to be facing the exterior environment, and then fired to temperatures between 500 and 650 {sup o}C, resulting in colours ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. Stained glass fragments painted by this process and belonging to the Convento de Cristo, in Tomar, Portugal, were characterised using micro-PIXE, and complemented with other analytical techniques, namely UV-Vis spectroscopy and XRF. Preliminary analysis showed that a mixture of Ag and Cu was used for the production of the yellow staining. In order to understand this staining process and the influence of the firing temperature on the resulting colours, several soda and potash glasses with compositions similar to those of medieval glasses were produced and characterised. The role played by the addition of Cu in the final colours was also investigated.

  10. Characterisation of medieval yellow silver stained glass from Convento de Cristo in Tomar, Portugal

    Yellow decoration effects in stained glasses using silver staining were first applied in the beginning of the 14th century. The glass piece being decorated was usually painted on its side intended to be facing the exterior environment, and then fired to temperatures between 500 and 650 oC, resulting in colours ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. Stained glass fragments painted by this process and belonging to the Convento de Cristo, in Tomar, Portugal, were characterised using micro-PIXE, and complemented with other analytical techniques, namely UV-Vis spectroscopy and XRF. Preliminary analysis showed that a mixture of Ag and Cu was used for the production of the yellow staining. In order to understand this staining process and the influence of the firing temperature on the resulting colours, several soda and potash glasses with compositions similar to those of medieval glasses were produced and characterised. The role played by the addition of Cu in the final colours was also investigated.

  11. HMF formation and colour change of bitter orange and sweet orange jams during storage

    Kopjar, Mirela; Đurkan, Ivana; Piližota, Vlasta

    2010-01-01

    In this work influence of preparation on 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and colour of bitter orange jams and sweet orange jams was investigated. Samples were prepared without and with treatment of oranges with ascorbic acid in order to investigate the influence on prevention of browning in jams. Samples were stored for 365 days at 4 °C and at room temperature and formation of HMF and colour change during storage were measured. After jam preparation bitter orange jams had higher HMF content tha...

  12. The dependence of orange-red IRSL decay curves of potassium feldspars on sample temperature

    This paper presents the effects of stimulation temperature on the infrared stimulated orange-red (600-650 nm) luminescence emission (orange-red infrared simulated luminescence (IRSL)) in potassium feldspar. Investigations explore the relationship between initial (0-2 s), integral (0-100 s), net initial (0-2 s less background over 2 s), net integral (0-100 s less background over 100 s) and last 2 s of the orange-red IRSL signals obtained for 100 s versus stimulation temperature (20-460 degree sign C) on both unpreheated and preheated samples. In the potassium feldspar sample examined, competition effects, including thermal enhancement, depletion and possibly quenching affect the orange-red IRSL signals measured. Observed effects (e.g., thermal enhancement, thermal activation energy and the decay rate) over the temperature range 20-120 degree sign C may be explained by tunnelling luminescence processes, IR transitions to the conduction band following excitations from ground state of electron trap by acquiring thermal energy from the lattice and or the random-walk band-tail model. Preheating prior to orange-red IRSL and Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements provides evidence that there are both shallow and deep traps responsible for low- and high-temperature orange-red IRSL and TL peaks. The effects of both preheating and IR bleaching on the orange-red thermally stimulated luminescence (red emission during thermoluminescence, RTL) provide evidence that bleached RTL traps have no significant contribution in the production of orange-red IRSL signals

  13. Compact, Automated Centrifugal Slide-Staining System

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Directional Acceleration Vector-Driven Displacement of Fluids (DAVD-DOF) system, under development at the time of reporting the information for this article, would be a relatively compact, automated, centrifugally actuated system for staining blood smears and other microbiological samples on glass microscope slides in either a microgravitational or a normal Earth gravitational environment. The DAVD-DOF concept is a successor to the centrifuge-operated slide stainer (COSS) concept, which was reported in Slide-Staining System for Microgravity or Gravity (MSC-22949), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 64. The COSS includes reservoirs and a staining chamber that contains a microscope slide to which a biological sample is affixed. The staining chamber is sequentially filled with and drained of staining and related liquids from the reservoirs by use of a weighted plunger to force liquid from one reservoir to another at a constant level of hypergravity maintained in a standard swing-bucket centrifuge. In the DAVD-DOF system, a staining chamber containing a sample would also be sequentially filled and emptied, but with important differences. Instead of a simple microscope slide, one would use a special microscope slide on which would be fabricated a network of very small reservoirs and narrow channels connected to a staining chamber (see figure). Unlike in the COSS, displacement of liquid would be effected by use of the weight of the liquid itself, rather than the weight of a plunger.

  14. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates.

    Samuel, Linoj P; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories. PMID:26888900

  15. Interactive Network Exploration with Orange

    Miha Štajdohar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis is one of the most widely used techniques in many areas of modern science. Most existing tools for that purpose are limited to drawing networks and computing their basic general characteristics. The user is not able to interactively and graphically manipulate the networks, select and explore subgraphs using other statistical and data mining techniques, add and plot various other data within the graph, and so on. In this paper we present a tool that addresses these challenges, an add-on for exploration of networks within the general component-based environment Orange.

  16. Surface staining of small intestinal biopsies

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1977-01-01

    Small intestinal biopsies are most often by routine examined under a stereo-microscope, prior to embedding for histological examination. This is done in order to get a view of the appearance of the mucosal pattern, especially villus configuration. The distinctness of the surface pattern however, is...... improved considerably if the biopsies are stained with Alcian Green and/or PAS before they are examined. In the present paper a detailed description is given of staining of small intestinal biopsies as whole mounts. The difference between the unstained and the stained biopsies is illustrated by a few...

  17. Extrinsic dental stain caused by stannous fluoride

    Experiments in a standardized rabbit model indicate that the yellow-golden stain formed on tooth surfaces during the use of SnF2 may consist of stannic sulfide. The nature of the stain, the presence of sulfur in the samples and the effect of an oxidizing agent on the stain support this view. It is suggested that the low pH of SnF2 causes denaturation of pellicle protein with exposure of sulfhydryl groups, which later form stannic sulfides through reactions with the stannous ions present in the preparations. (auth)

  18. Stain Free Total Protein Staining is a Superior Loading Control to β-Actin for Western Blots

    Gilda, Jennifer E.; Aldrin V. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Semi-Quantification of proteins using Western blots typically involves normalization against housekeeping genes such as β-actin. More recently, ponceau S and Coomassie blue staining have both been shown to be suitable alternatives to housekeeping genes as loading controls. Stain free total protein staining offers the advantage of no staining or destaining steps. Evaluation of the use of Stain free staining as an alternative to β-actin or the protein stain ponceau S showed that Stain free stai...

  19. VIABILIDADE DO PÓLEN EM VARIEDADES DE LARANJA DOCE POLLEN VIABILITY IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    sexual hybridization, but on the other hand, it has economic importance in leading to fewer seeds per fruit in some citrus varieties. In order to characterize 44 sweet orange varieties (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck for pollen viability, anthers were collected from the varieties grafted on Cleopatra mandarin. The varieties investigated represented the major sweet orange groups: acidic oranges (as 'Pera' orange, low acidic oranges (as 'Lima' orange, navel oranges (as 'Bahia' orange and bloody oranges (as 'Rubi Blood' orange. The percent of viable pollen was evaluated using acetic carmine stain under optic microscopy. The values ranged from 12.0% for 'Pera Sem Sementes' orange to 88.8% for 'Hamlin Reserva' orange. The 'Hamlin' clones showed the largest percent of viable pollen. Absence of pollen in navel oranges, originated from 'Bahia' variety was observed. The varieties 'Pera', 'Valência' and 'Natal', which are the main sweet orange cultivars in São Paulo State and Brazil, presented low percent of viable pollen.

  20. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  1. Research on pre-staining gel electrophoresis

    Background: Gel electrophoresis is a powerful biochemical separation technique. Most biological molecules are completely transparent in the visible region of light, so it is necessary to use staining to show the results after gel electrophoresis, and the general steps of conventional staining methods are time-consuming. Purpose: We try to develop a novel approach to simplify the gel electrophoresis: Pre-Staining Gel Electrophoresis (PSGE), which can make the gel electrophoresis results monitored in real time. Methods: Pre-stain the protein samples with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) for 30 min before loading the sample into the gel well. Results and Conclusion: PSGE can be successfully used to analyze the binding efficiency of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and amphiphilic polymer via chemical coupling and physical absorption, and the double PSGE also shows a great potential in bio-analytical chemistry. (authors)

  2. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution

    Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and leading. Ukraine’s presidential elections of 2004 and the competition between Viktor Yushchenko and Victor Yanukovich and the presence of international observers in the process of elections and the controversy of electoral fraud and the West’s support of Yushchenko were all directed toward the formation of a color revolution in Ukraine. Poor economic conditions and official corruption, religious, linguistic, class and racial gaps in Ukraine led the way for foreigners to use them in creating electoral situations and prepare the fall of the government. The main purpose question in this article is the Orange Revolution and its causes.

  3. Silver staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gels

    Chevallet, Mireille; Luche, Sylvie; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    International audience Silver staining is used to detect proteins after electrophoretic separation on polyacrylamide gels. It combines excellent sensitivity (in the low nanogram range) with the use of very simple and cheap equipment and chemicals. It is compatible with downstream processing, such as mass spectrometry analysis after protein digestion. The sequential phases of silver staining are protein fixation, then sensitization, then silver impregnation and finally image development. Se...

  4. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  5. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  6. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well

  7. New Grocott Stain without Using Chromic Acid

    We established a new “ecological” Grocott stain for demonstrating fungi, based upon a 4R principle of refusal, reduction, reuse, and recycle of waste management. Conventional Grocott stain employs environmentally harsh 5% chromic acid for oxidization. Initially, we succeeded in reducing the concentration of chromic acid from 5% to 1% by incubating the solution at 60°C and using five-fold diluted chromic acid solution at which point it was reusable. Eventually, we reached the refusal level where 1% periodic acid oxidization was efficient enough, when combined with preheating of sections in the electric jar, microwave oven, or pressure pan. For convenience sake, we recommend pressure pan heating in tap water for 10 min. Stainability of fungi in candidiasis and aspergillosis was comparable with conventional Grocott stain, while Mucor hyphae showed enhanced staining. The modified sequence was further applicable to detecting a variety of mycotic pathogens in paraffin sections. Our environmentally-friendly Grocott stain also has the advantage of avoiding risk of human exposure to hexavalent chromium solution in the histopathology laboratory. The simple stain sequence is can be easily applied worldwide

  8. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of 9-benzylamino-6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridine derivatives as potent DNA-binding ligands and topoisomerase II inhibitors.

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Ti; Wang, Ning; Gao, Chunmei; Tan, Chunyan; Liu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-06-30

    A series of 9-benzylamino acridine derivatives were synthesized as an extension of our discovery of acridine antitumor agents. Most of these acridine compounds displayed good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values in low micromole range and structure-activity relationships were studied. Topo I- and II- mediated relaxation studies suggested that all of our compounds displayed strong Topo II inhibitory activity at 100 μM, while only four exhibited moderate Topo I inhibitory activity. The typical compound 8p could penetrate A549 cancer cells efficiently. Compound 8p could intercalate within the double-stranded DNA structure and induce DNA damage. Moreover, compound 8p could induce A549 cells apoptosis through caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and arrest A549 cells at the G2/M phase. PMID:27060757

  9. A new acridine derivative as a highly selective fluoroionophore for Cu{sup 2+} in 100% aqueous solution

    Wang, Yu, E-mail: wangyu1168@sxu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Shi, LiLi; Sun, HuanHe Sun; Shang, ZhuoBin; Chao, JianBin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Jin, WeiJun, E-mail: wjjin@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-07-15

    A new acridine fluoroionophore containing two iminodiacetic acid ligands, Acridinyl Tetra Acid (ATA), was synthesized. The fluorescence sensing behavior of ATA toward metal ions was investigated in buffered aqueous media. The presence of Cu{sup 2+} resulted in significant quenching of the fluorescence emission from ATA, while other metal ions posed little interferences, if any. The fluorescence response was concentration-dependent and can be well described by the modified Stern–Volmer equation. A good linear relationship (R{sup 2}=0.9952) was observed up to 3.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} Cu{sup 2+} ions. The detection limit, calculated following the 3σ IUPAC criteria, was 1.24×10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}. The presence of Cu{sup 2+} induces the formation of a 1:1 ligand/metal complex at neutral pH. -- Highlights: ► A new acridine fluoroionophore was synthesized for detection of Cu{sup 2+} in water. ► Iminodiacetic acid moiety was chosen as the ionophore. ► The fluoroionophore exhibits great fluorescence quenching effect for Cu{sup 2+}.

  10. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  11. ANTI-ALZHEIMER POTENTIAL OF ORANGE JUICE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    Orange (Citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. This study was undertaken to test the effect of orange juice on the memory of mice. A total of 228 mice divided in 38 groups were employed in this study. Orange juice (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% v/v) was administered orally to mice with the help of an oral feeding needle. Morris water maze, elevated plus maze and object recognition task served as exteroceptive behavioral models, whereas scopolam...

  12. Mini-Orange Spectrometer at CIAE

    Zheng, Yun; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-01-01

    A Mini-Orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, which consists of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO$_5$ permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principle and configuration of the Mini-Orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the Mini-Orange spectrometer.

  13. Mini-orange spectrometer at CIAE

    Zheng, Yun; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-08-01

    A mini-orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, consisting of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO5 permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principles and configuration of the mini-orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the mini-orange spectrometer. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305269, 11375267, 11475072, 11405274, 11205068, 11175259)

  14. Laser treatment of port-wine stains

    Brightman LA; Geronemus RG; Reddy KK

    2015-01-01

    Lori A Brightman,1 Roy G Geronemus,1 Kavitha K Reddy2 1Laser and Skin Surgery Center of New York, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Port-wine stains are a type of capillary malformation affecting 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Port-wine stains present at birth as pink to erythematous patches on the skin and/or mucosa. Without treatment, the patches typically darken with age and may eventually develop nodular thicke...

  15. Detection Of Concrete Deterioration By Staining

    Guthrie, Jr., George D.; Carey, J. William

    1999-09-21

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and a rhodamine dye is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and to identify degraded concrete which results in a porous or semi-permeable paste due to carbonation or leaching. These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  16. Automated single-slide staining device

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A simple apparatus and method is disclosed for making individual single Gram stains on bacteria inoculated slides to assist in classifying bacteria in the laboratory as Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The apparatus involves positioning a single inoculated slide in a stationary position and thereafter automatically and sequentially flooding the slide with increments of a primary stain, a mordant, a decolorizer, a counterstain and a wash solution in a sequential manner without the individual lab technician touching the slide and with minimum danger of contamination thereof from other slides.

  17. Keberadaan Orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan Pada Peringkat Awal

    Hadrawi, Muhlis

    2008-01-01

    Keberadaan pelbagai kelompok orang Melayu di beberapa kepulauan Nusantara, tak terkecuali kehadiran orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan, dapat dijelaskan sebagai fenomena penghijraan. Manuskript attoriolong (kronik) Bugis mengungkapkan keberadaan orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan semenjak era pra-Islam sebagai gejala penghijraan disamping aktiviti perdagangan dan misi penyebaran agama Islam. Kajian ini mengungkapkan keberadaan orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan pada peringkat awal pada akhir abad ...

  18. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  19. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  20. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  1. Impacts of Flu/Cold Incidences and Retail Orange Juice Promotion on Orange Juice Demand

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Brown, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impacts of retail promotions and flu/cold incidences on the demand for orange juice using weekly Nielsen grocery orange juice sales statistics and the flu/cold incidences reported by Surveillance Data Inc. The cross-section time-series pooling technique proposed by Parks was used to estimate the demand parameters. Results show that flu/cold incidences increased the effectiveness of retail promotions on the demand for orange juice.

  2. Immunofluorescence staining of paraffin sections: creating DAB staining like virtual digital images using CMYK color conversion.

    Buchynska, L; Kashuba, E; Szekely, L

    2008-12-01

    Crystal violet treatment of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue slides greatly reduces the endogenous autofluorescence, and allows immunofluorescence (IF) staining with FITC or Alexa488 conjugated antibodies. Using cold CCD camera to capture the fluorescence images makes this staining method very sensitive. Here we show that combination of IF with the simultaneous recording of crystal violet induced red and Hoechst 33258 induced blue fluorescence permits the localization of the IF signal over a cytoplasmic: nuclear red:blue stain that visualizes the microscopic anatomy of the underlying tissue. To make the visual interpretation of the IF staining easier for microscopists, who are used to DAB staining over weak hematoxilin-eosin background, we created a simple color conversion procedure that turns the captured three-color fluorescence RGB (red, green, blue) images over a black background into four color CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key color (black)) images. PMID:19112433

  3. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  4. Arundo Distribution - Orange Co. [ds348

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Arundo (Arundo donax) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and were funded...

  5. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  6. The Language of Stained-Glass Windows

    Brew, Charl Anne

    2010-01-01

    The splendor and beauty of stained glass punctuates any room. In this article, the author describes a cross-curriculum project which incorporated the French classes' research and written study of France in the Middle Ages. For the project the author suggested Sainte-Chapelle which is considered a reliquary and was built by Louis IX to house the…

  7. News from the biological stain commission

    Kiernan, J.A.; Lyon, Hans Oluf

    2008-01-01

    In the three earlier editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of "Regulatory affairs," the BSC's International Affairs Committee reported on the work of Technical Committee 212, Clinical Laboratory Testing and in Vitro Diagnostic Test Systems of the...

  8. News from the Biological Stain Commission

    Lyon, H O; Kiernan, J A

    2008-01-01

    In the three earlier editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of "Regulatory affairs," the BSC's International Affairs Committee reported on the work of Technical Committee 212, Clinical Laboratory Testing and in Vitro Diagnostic Test Systems of the...

  9. Method for copper staining of germanium crystals

    Rivet, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    Proper conditions for copper staining of germanium crystals include a low solution temperature of 3 degrees C, illumination of the sample by infrared light, and careful positioning of the light source relative to the sample so as to minimize absorption of the infrared light.

  10. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  11. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  12. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  13. Evaluation of new iodinated acridine derivatives for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma using 125I, an Auger electron emitter

    The full text of the publication follows. The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form have led to an urgent need for new specific therapies. Several iodo-benzamides or analogs are known to possess specific affinity for melanoma tissue. New hetero-aromatic derivatives have been designed with a cytotoxic moiety and termed DNA intercalating agents. These compounds could be applied in targeted radionuclide therapy using 125I, Auger electrons emitter which gives high-energetic localized irradiation. Two iodinated acridine derivatives have been reported to present an in vivo kinetic profile conducive to application in targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of the present study was to perform a preclinical evaluation of these compounds. The DNA intercalating property was confirmed for both compounds. After radiolabeling with 125I, the two compounds induced in vitro a significant radiotoxicity on B16F0 melanoma cells. The acridine compound, ICF01040, appeared more radio toxic than the acridone compound, ICF01035. While cellular uptake was similar for both compounds, SIMS analysis and in vitro protocol showed a stronger affinity for melanin with ICF01035, which was able to induce a predominant scavenging process in the melanosome and restrict access to the nucleus. Nevertheless, an important radiotoxicity was measured for the two compounds while the nuclear accumulation was low. Indeed, even if nuclear localization remains the main target sensitive to Auger electrons, the cell membrane remains sensitive to 125I decays. So, these compounds may induce secondary toxic effects of irradiation, such as membrane lipid damage. Conducted to current experiments are evaluate such hypothesis. Taken together, these results suggest that ICF01040 is a better candidate for application in targeted radionuclide therapy using 125I. The next step will be in vivo evaluation, where high tumoral vectorization gives promising perspectives

  14. Improved Whole-Blood-Staining Device

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian; Paul, Bonnie; Melton, Shannon; Guess, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic improvements have been made in NASA s Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD) since it was last described in "Whole-Blood-Staining Device," NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 64. The new system has a longer shelf life, a simpler and more effective operational procedure, improved interface with instrumentation, and shorter processing time. More specifically, the improvements have targeted bag and locking clip materials, sampling ports, and air pocket prevention. The WBSD stains whole blood collected during spaceflight for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. In short, the main device stains white blood cells by use of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to various fluorochromes, followed by lysing and fixing of the cells by use of a commercial reagent that has been diluted according to NASA safety standards. This system is compact, robust, and does not require electric power, precise mixing, or precise incubation times. Figure 1 depicts the present improved version for staining applications, which is a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) bag with a Luer-lock port and plastic locking clips. An InterLink (or equivalent) intravenous- injection port screws into the Luer-lock port. The inflatable/collapsible nature of the bag facilitates loading and helps to minimize the amount of air trapped in the fully loaded bag. Some additional uses have been identified for the device beyond whole blood staining. The WBSD has been configured for functional assays that require culture of live cells by housing sterile culture media, mitogens, and fixatives prior to use [Figure 2(a)]. Simple injection of whole blood allows cell-stimulation culture to be performed in reduced gravity conditions, and product stabilization prior to storage, while protecting astronauts from liquid biohazardous materials. Also, the improved WBSD has reconstituted powdered injectable antibiotics by mixing them with diluent liquids [Figure 2(b)]. Although such mixing can readily be performed on

  15. Flavonoid-specific staining of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Sheahan, J J; Rechnitz, G A

    1992-12-01

    Crop yields may be threatened by increases in UV-B radiation resulting from depletion of the ozone layer. In higher plants, the presence of flavonols provides a protective mechanism, and we report a novel staining procedure for the visualization of such protectants in plant tissue. It is shown that the proposed technique provides sensitive and specific fluorescence of flavonoids in chlorophyll-bleached tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:1282347

  16. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy) of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Fennerty, M. Brian

    1999-01-01

    Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps) or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus) to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscop...

  17. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  18. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Yellow Stained Cotton § 28.442 Middling Yellow Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper...

  19. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Yellow Stained Cotton § 28.441 Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper...

  20. Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    2003-07-22

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  1. Newer applications of the histological stain prepared from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    Sen Gupta, P C; Mukherjee, A K

    1981-03-01

    A histological stain prepared from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. has been found to be an excellent nuclear stain for various cells of animal and plant origin. As an elastic tissue stain, the results are comparable to standard elastic tissue stains. The striations of voluntary muscle fibers are well shown. The Nissl granules and fibers of cranial nerves in the pons are visualized. When counterstained with light green, it differentially stains muscle and fibrous tissue. The stain can be used as counterstain with certain histochemical procedures with satisfactory results. The preparation and use of this versatile stain are described. PMID:6166099

  2. The Luna stain, an improved selective stain for detection of microsporidian spores in histologic sections

    Peterson, Tracy S.; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Feist, Stephen W.; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Microsporidia in histologic sections are most often diagnosed by observing spores in host tissues. Spores are easy to identify if they occur in large aggregates or xenomas when sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). However, individual spores are not frequently detected in host tissues with conventional H&E staining, particularly if spores are scattered within the tissues, areas of inflammation or small spores in nuclei (i.e., Nucleospora salmonis). Hence, a variety of selecti...

  3. Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl acetate.

    Hosogi, Naoki; Nishioka, Hideo; Nakakoshi, Masamichi

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl acetate (UAc) has been generally used not only as a superb staining reagent for ultrathin sections of plastic-embedded biological materials, but also as high-contrast negative stains for biological macromolecules such as particles of protein or virus. However, the use and purchase of radioactive UAc have been restricted. In this study, we determine the performance of ytterbium triacetate, lutetium triacetate, samarium triacetate and gadolinium triacetate as new staining reagents for biological electron microscopy. We observed chemically fixed spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves stained with these reagents. Ultrathin sections were stained with these reagents. Some of them were counterstained with lead citrate. The transmission electron microscopy contrast of spinach organelles was evaluated in sections exposed to the conventional stain and new stains. We show acetate salts of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium and lutetium could be excellent substitutes for UAc for thin section staining and for negative staining. In addition, each reagent showed appreciable negative-staining effects. PMID:26374081

  4. The application of special staining in neuropathological diagnosis

    Yong-juan FU; PIAO Yue-shan; LU De-hong

    2014-01-01

    Special staining plays an important role in the clinical neuropathological diagnosis. Some special staining is used to distinguish the specific structure of neuron, such as Nissl staining for Nissl body. It can distinguish neuron from other cells, and can be used to judge the degree of neuron injury. Some special staining is used as the assistance of pathological diagnosis of some nervous system diseases. For example, in the primary demyelinating disease, Luxol Fast Blue staining is used to m...

  5. STAINING SECTIONS OF WATER-MISCIBLE RESINS .2. EFFECTS OF STAINING-REAGENT LIPOPHILICITY ON THE STAINING OF GLYCOL-METHACRYLATE-EMBEDDED TISSUES

    HOROBIN, RW; GERRITS, PO; WRIGHT, DJ

    1992-01-01

    Glycol methacrylate (GMA) sections of animal tissues were stained with a group of twenty-seven reagents of very varied chemical characteristics. The artefactual background staining of the resin was found to be dependent on the hydrophilic/lipophilic character of the staining reagent, as estimated fr

  6. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Malaysian Orang Asli.

    Sumithran, E; Prathap, K

    1976-05-01

    Necropsies were performed on 285 consecutively unclaimed Orang Asli bodies from Gombak Orang Asli Hospital during an eight-year period from May 1967 to April 1975. Of the 25 malignant neoplasms, hepatocellular carcinoma was by far the commonest (36%). The nine patients with this neoplasm had coexistant macronodular cirrhosis. There were 20 cases of cirrhosis; 45% of these had coexistant hepatocellular carcinoma. The 53,000 Orang Aslis living in West Malaysia comprise three tribes, the Negrito, Senoi, and Melayu Asli (Proto Malays). The Sinoi appear to have a high predilection for liver cancer, all our nine cases occurring in this group. These aboriginal people live in the jungles where they practice shifting cultivation and maintain their own dietary and social customs. Detailed studies of their dietary habits may provide a clue to the etiology of liver cancer in these people. PMID:177187

  8. Quality of gamma irradiated California Valencia oranges

    The effects of gamma irradiation at 0.30-1.0 kGy (30-100 krad) on sensory qualities, certain biochemical components, and short-term storage life of Valencia oranges were examined. Irradiation at 0.75 kGy maintained food quality during 7°C storage for 7 weeks, while 0.50 kGy irradiation retained food quality at 21 °C. Irradiation at 0.26-0.30 kGy accomplished fruit fly disinfection while preserving market qualities of the oranges

  9. Ukraine: the orange revolution and its aftermath

    Sirutavičius, Vladas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the causes of the Orange Revolution in Ukraine and find out how changes in the political regime have influenced the course of Kiev's foreign policy. The first part of the article tries to clarify what internal and external factors determined the transformation of the political regime at the end of 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The answer to the question why the Orange Revolution in Ukraine took place is provided. It is based on the assumption that t...

  10. Detecting the apoptosis of dopamine neurons with immunohistochemical staining and double-staining technique

    Jiguo Zhang; Jing Zhang; Feng Zhang; Yunsheng Gao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is proved that the onset of Parkinson disease companies with neuronal apoptosis of dopamine in substantia nigra of midbrain. Previous researches on neuronal apoptosis of dopamine were analyzed on their consecutive tissue sections with immunohistochemical single-labeling method, immunofluorescence and electron microscope, and there are significant differences.OBJECTIVE: To observe the feasibility of neuronal apoptosis of dopamine with in situ end labeling and tyrosine-hydroxylase antibody immunohistochemical double-labeling staining technique.DESIGN: Controlled study.SETTING: College of Pharmacology of Taishan Medical College; College of Management of Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS: Wistar rats with 2 weeks old and of clean grade were provided by the Animal Center of Taishan Medical College. In situ end labeling kit (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, mixed reactive solution of nucleotide, transfusion-POD), monoclonal antibody of rat antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (Boehriuser).METHODS: The experiment was completed at the Pharmacological Laboratory of Taishan Medical College from February to December 2005. Tissue from midbrain of rats was taken out to make paraffin sections to observe the neuronal apoptosis of dopamine under microscope with in situ end labeling and tyrosine-hydroxylase antibody immunohistochemical double-labeling staining technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuronal apoptosis of dopamine with in situ end labeling and tyrosine-hydroxylase antibody immunohistochemical double-labeling staining technique.RESULTS:① After double-labeling staining,two kinks of positive products were observed in neurons of dopamine which were suffered from apoptosis. One stained with tyrosine hydroxylase was hyacinthine, and the other stained with in situ end labeling was buffy. Cells of positive products stained with in situ end labeling shaped as strap and bend and was distributed in clustering.Cytoplasm was hyacinthine, staining was symmetrical

  11. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products. PMID:26593549

  12. Financial Benefits of Florida Generic Orange Juice Marketing

    Thomas, Arthur M.; Canter, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The benefits to Florida orange growers of generic orange juice advertising are assessed using additive, nonlinear, regional econometric models, measuring the impact of category and brand marketing efforts on category demand while controlling for pricing and various other factors. The study shows that generic marketing efforts increased orange juice category demand by 8.3 percent, resulting in increased orange prices and a benefit-to-cost ratio to Florida growers of 3.5 to 1. Branded promotion...

  13. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  14. Binding of 1-nitro-9- (3-dimethylaminopropylamino-acridine to the DNA of the apical meristem cells of adventitious onion (Allium cepa L. roots

    Danuta Antosiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was established that one half of the ledakrin (I-nitro-9-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino-acridine bound to the DNA in the cells of the studied onion root tips (Allium cepa L., forms labile complexes with it, the remaining half is covalently attached to only one strand of the DNA. One molecule of covalently bound ledakrin falls on average to 104-2X104 pairs of bases.

  15. Orange rust: A new surgarcane disease in Florida

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed approximately 5 miles east of Belle Glade, Florida on CP 80-1743 (a complex hybrid of Sacharum L. species) during the lsat week of June 2007. Orange rust pustules are cinnamon-orange in color, oval and smaller than the darker brown elongate rust pustules of the ...

  16. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with...

  17. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  19. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  20. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  1. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  2. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    2011-08-23

    ...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section ``Participant Vessel''...

  3. Thermodynamic properties of three-ring aza-aromatics. 1. Experimental results for phenazine and acridine, and mutual validation of experiments and computational methods

    Measurements leading to the calculation of thermodynamic properties for phenazine (Chemical Abstracts registry number [92-82-0]) in the ideal-gas state are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, inclined-piston manometry, and combustion calorimetry. Thermodynamic properties for acridine (Chemical Abstracts registry number [260-94-6]) were reported previously and included those measured with adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston manometry, and combustion calorimetry. New measurement results for acridine reported here are densities determined with a vibrating-tube densimeter and heat capacities for the liquid phase at saturation pressure determined with a differential-scanning calorimeter (d.s.c.). All critical properties were estimated. Molar entropies for the ideal-gas state were derived for both compounds at selected temperatures. Independent calculations of entropies for the ideal-gas state were performed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d, p) model chemistry for phenazine and acridine. These are shown to be in excellent accord with the calorimetric results. All results are compared with experimental property values reported in the literature.

  4. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  5. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  6. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers. PMID:12648544

  7. Port wine stain on a child's face (image)

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  8. Design and synthesis of novel anti-Alzheimer's agents: Acridine-chromenone and quinoline-chromenone hybrids.

    Najafi, Zahra; Saeedi, Mina; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tehrani, Maliheh Barazandeh; Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Edraki, Najmeh; Karimpor-Razkenari, Elahe; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh

    2016-08-01

    A novel series of acridine-chromenone and quinoline-chromenone hybrids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as anti-Alzheimer's agents. All synthesized compounds were evaluated as cholinesterases (ChEs) inhibitors and among them, 7-(4-(6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinolin-9-ylamino)phenoxy)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (8e) exhibited the most potent anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (IC50=16.17μM) comparing with rivastigmine (IC50=11.07μM) as the reference drug. Also, compound 8e was assessed for its β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory and neuroprotective activities which demonstrated satisfactory results. It should be noted that both kinetic study on the inhibition of AChE and molecular modeling revealed that compound 8e interacted simultaneously with both the catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. PMID:27289559

  9. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining

    Jong-Hoon Chung; Sung-Chul Lim; Na-Ra Yun; Sung-Heui Shin; Choon-Mee Kim; Dong-Min Kim

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O.tsutsugamushi).We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens,serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction.Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O.tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes.This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis.Thus,scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses,which causes severe Iobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration,necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis,such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  10. Dye purity and dye standardization for biological staining

    Lyon, H O

    2002-01-01

    separating, identifying and assaying dye components. In the second part of the review, descriptions are given of the standardized staining method approach using standard staining methods for assessing stains, and practical responses to stain impurity including commercial quality control, third-party quality...... control and standardization of reagents, protocols and documentation. Finally, reference is made to the current state of affairs in the dye field....

  11. Improved method for combination of immunocytochemistry and Nissl staining

    Kádár, Andrea; Wittmann, Gábor; Liposits, Zsolt; Fekete, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    Nissl-staining is a widely used method to study morphology and pathology of neural tissue. After standard immunocytochemistry, the Nissl-staining labels only the nucleus of neurons and the characteristic staining of the neuronal perikarya is absent or very weak. We hypothesized that the RNA degradation during the immunocytochemical treatment results in the loss of cytoplasmic staining with Nissl-dyes. To test this hypothesis, we used RNAse-free conditions for all steps of immunostaining. To f...

  12. Investigation of a modified gallocyanin chrome alum staining technique in cytology compared to thionine and haematoxylin as nuclear stains.

    Schulte, E

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the staining characteristics of a modified Gallocyanin-chrome alum stain as compared to the original gallocyanin stain. Thionine, haematoxylin and the Feulgen reaction were used as controls. Tissue imprints of rabbit liver and spleen and smears of human venous blood were stained and controlled microscopically. Nuclear extinction was measured with the image analysis system IBAS 2000. Both GCA variants were examined by spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography. The most striking difference between the GCA variants is the short staining time required for the modified stain (4 min) as compared to the original method (24 h). Both stains are stoichiometric for nucleic acids; the staining pattern, hue and intensity of nuclear colour and spectrophotometric and chromatographic data were absolutely consistent for both GCA-stains. These results and preliminary data from the analysis of the structure of the dye molecules seem to indicate that the molecular structure of the modified GCA is not changed by treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid. Differences in the staining kinetics might be due to differences in solubility. As nuclear chromatin texture after GCA staining is well appropriate for computerized image analysis the modified GCA-stain can be recommended as a simple and reproducible nuclear stain for automated feature extraction in cytology. PMID:2471227

  13. [Technical recommendations and best practice guidelines for May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining: literature review and insights from the quality assurance].

    Piaton, Eric; Fabre, Monique; Goubin-Versini, Isabelle; Bretz-Grenier, Marie-Françoise; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique; Vincent, Serge; Belleannée, Geneviève; Thivolet, Françoise; Boutonnat, Jean; Debaque, Hervé; Fleury-Feith, Jocelyne; Vielh, Philippe; Cochand-Priollet, Béatrix; Egelé, Caroline; Bellocq, Jean-Pierre; Michiels, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain is a Romanowsky-type, polychromatic stain as those of Giemsa, Leishman and Wright. Apart being the reference method of haematology, it has become a routine stain of diagnostic cytopathology for the study of air-dried preparations (lymph node imprints, centrifuged body fluids and fine needle aspirations). In the context of their actions of promoting the principles of quality assurance in cytopathology, the French Association for Quality Assurance in Anatomic and Cytologic Pathology (AFAQAP) and the French Society of Clinical Cytology (SFCC) conducted a proficiency test on MGG stain in 2013. Results from the test, together with the review of literature data allow pre-analytical and analytical steps of MGG stain to be updated. Recommendations include rapid air-drying of cell preparations/imprints, fixation using either methanol or May-Grünwald alone for 3-10minutes, two-step staining: 50% May-Grünwald in buffer pH 6.8 v/v for 3-5minutes, followed by 10% buffered Giemsa solution for 10-30minutes, and running water for 1-3minutes. Quality evaluation must be performed on red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes, not on tumour cells. Under correct pH conditions, RBCs must appear pink-orange (acidophilic) or buff-coloured, neither green nor blue. Leukocyte cytoplasm must be almost transparent, with clearly delineated granules. However, staining may vary somewhat and testing is recommended for automated methods (slide stainers) which remain the standard for reproducibility. Though MGG stain remains the reference stain, Diff-Quik(®) stain can be used for the rapid evaluation of cell samples. PMID:26188673

  14. Critical Evaluation of Techniques to Detect and Measure Cell Death – Study in a Model of UV Radiation of the Leukaemic Cell Line HL60

    Leite, Marina; Quinta‐Costa, Margarida; Leite, Pedro Simas; Guimarães, José Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of eight distinct methods (Giemsa staining, trypan blue exclusion, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double staining for fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, propidium iodide (PI) staining, annexin V assay, TUNEL assay and DNA ladder) for detection and quantification of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) was evaluated and compared. Each of these methods detects different morphological or biochemical features of these two processes. The comparative analysis of th...

  15. Haemodialysis related osteomalacia: a staining method to demonstrate aluminium

    Buchanan, Malcolm RC; Ihle, Benno U; Dunn, Cheryl M

    1981-01-01

    A slight modification in tissue processing and staining technique enables a previously described method for staining aluminium to be used to demonstrate aluminium in osteomalacia associated with haemodialysis. The stain appears to be accurate in diagnosing this condition and may assist in establishing the diagnosis before severe osteomalacia develops.

  16. Comparison of four diagnostic techniques for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in females attending tertiary care hospital of North India

    Razia Khatoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis causes a common sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis, which may lead to increased risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection and other pelvic inflammatory diseases. Wet mount examination is the most common test for diagnosis, but it has low sensitivity. Acridine orange staining can be used for diagnosis, but it requires special microscopic facility. Culture is considered as the gold standard, but it takes a long time for diagnosis. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a recently introduced rapid method based on immunochromatographic assay of trichomonal protein antigens. Hence, the present study was done to compare these four diagnostic techniques for detection of trichomoniasis in females with vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swabs were taken from 835 female patients and wet mount examination, acridine orange staining, culture in Kupferberg medium, and OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test, were performed. Results: Out of 835 patients included in our study, 68 (8.1% positive cases of trichomoniasis were detected by culture. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test detected 63 (7.5% cases, acridine orange staining detected 53 (6.3% cases, whereas, wet mount examination detected only 45 (5.4% positive cases. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test performed well and showed high sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a point of care test and gave better results than both wet mount examination and acridine orange staining; it can be used as a routine test in peripheral areas lacking laboratory facilities.

  17. FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE ON RAT SPERMATOGENESIS

    Exposure of 100-d old rats to 1,3-dinitiobenzene (m-DNB) at dosages up to 48 mg/kg resulted in disruption of spermatogenesis as measured by flow cytometry (FCM) of acridine orange-stained sperm and testis cells. ne day (d 1) after a single exposure to 48 mg/kg m-DNB. CM measureme...

  18. Confusion over live/dead stainings for the detection of vital microorganisms in oral biofilms--which stain is suitable?

    Netuschil, Lutz; Auschill, Thorsten M.; Sculean, Anton; Arweiler, Nicole B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is confusion over the definition of the term "viability state(s)" of microorganisms. "Viability staining" or "vital staining techniques" are used to distinguish live from dead bacteria. These stainings, first established on planctonic bacteria, may have serious shortcomings when applied to multispecies biofilms. Results of staining techniques should be compared with appropriate microbiological data. DISCUSSION Many terms describe "vitality states" of microorganism...

  19. Development of pathological diagnostics of human kidney cancer by multiple staining using new fluorescent Fluolid dyes.

    Wuxiuer, Dilibaier; Zhu, Yun; Ogaeri, Takunori; Mizuki, Keiji; Kashiwa, Yuki; Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Aoyagi, Tei-ichiro; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2014-01-01

    New fluorescent Fluolid dyes have advantages over others such as stability against heat, dryness, and excess light. Here, we performed simultaneous immunostaining of renal tumors, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC (ACD-RCC), and renal angiomyolipoma (AML), with primary antibodies against Kank1, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and CD10, which were detected with secondary antibodies labeled with Fluolid-Orange, Fluolid-Green, and Alexa Fluor 647, respectively. Kank1 was stained in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC, and weakly or negatively in all other tumors. CK7 was positive in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC. In contrast, CD10 was expressed in renal tubules and clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, AML, and AC-RCC, and weakly in chromophobe RCC. These results may contribute to differentiating renal tumors and subtypes of RCCs. We also examined the stability of fluorescence and found that fluorescent images of Fluolid dyes were identical between a tissue section and the same section after it was stored for almost three years at room temperature. This indicates that tissue sections can be stored at room temperature for a relatively long time after they are stained with multiple fluorescent markers, which could open a door for pathological diagnostics. PMID:24995295

  20. Development of Pathological Diagnostics of Human Kidney Cancer by Multiple Staining Using New Fluorescent Fluolid Dyes

    Dilibaier Wuxiuer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New fluorescent Fluolid dyes have advantages over others such as stability against heat, dryness, and excess light. Here, we performed simultaneous immunostaining of renal tumors, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC (ACD-RCC, and renal angiomyolipoma (AML, with primary antibodies against Kank1, cytokeratin 7 (CK7, and CD10, which were detected with secondary antibodies labeled with Fluolid-Orange, Fluolid-Green, and Alexa Fluor 647, respectively. Kank1 was stained in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC, and weakly or negatively in all other tumors. CK7 was positive in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC. In contrast, CD10 was expressed in renal tubules and clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, AML, and AC-RCC, and weakly in chromophobe RCC. These results may contribute to differentiating renal tumors and subtypes of RCCs. We also examined the stability of fluorescence and found that fluorescent images of Fluolid dyes were identical between a tissue section and the same section after it was stored for almost three years at room temperature. This indicates that tissue sections can be stored at room temperature for a relatively long time after they are stained with multiple fluorescent markers, which could open a door for pathological diagnostics.

  1. Silver and Cyanine Staining of Oligonucleotides in Polyacrylamide Gel

    Tang, Weizhong; Zhou, Huafu; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To explore why some oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gel could not be silver-stained, 134 different oligonucleotides were analyzed using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with silver and asymmetric cyanine. As a result, we found that the sensitivity of oligos (dA), (dC), (dG) and (dT) to silver staining could be ranged as (dA) > (dG) > (dC) > (dT) from high to low. It was unexpected that oligo (dT) was hard to be silver-stained. Moreover, the silver staining o...

  2. CD3 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    eosin (HE) stainings were available. At the second assessment, a supplementary CD3 immunohistochemical staining was also available. The aim was to evaluate whether a supplementary CD3 would increase the diagnostic agreement among pathologists, and whether a CD3 stain would change the diagnosis based on...... HE staining only. After the complete assessment, the cases were divided into 3 groups, that is, full agreement, partial agreement, and disagreement. The CD3 staining increased the number of cases with full agreement from 60 to 78. One hundred thirty-one cases with agreement or partial diagnostic...

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  4. Liquefaction and saccharification of mandarin orange

    Nishio, N.; Oku, Y.; Kawamura, D.; Nagai, S.

    1979-01-01

    Liquefaction and saccharification of mandarin orange peel with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in an autoclave and with macerating enzymes from Aspergillus niger were studied. The acid hydrolysis with 0.8N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ under 1 kg/square cm for 15 minutes yielded 0.36 grams of reducing sugars from 1 gram of dried orange peel, approximately 36% of which was identified as glucose. Enzymic hydrolysis with 0.2% crude enzyme at 40 degrees for 24 hours yielded 0.59 grams of reducing sugars/g peal, consisting mainly of glucose, arabinose, and galacturonic acid. Comparison of the macerating enzyme with commercial available cellulase and pectinase indicated that the macerating enzyme of A. niger contained mainly pectinase with a little cellulase.

  5. Liquefaction and saccharification of mandarin orange

    Nishio, N.; Oku, Y.; Kawamura, D.; Nagai, S.

    1979-01-01

    Liquefaction and saccharification of mandarin orange peel with H2SO4 in an autoclave and with macerating enzymes from Aspergillus niger were studied. The acid hydrolysis with 0.8N H2SO4 under 1 kg/square cm for 15 minutes yielded 0.36 grams of reducing sugars from 1 gram of dried orange peel, approximately 36% of which was identified as glucose. Enzymic hydrolysis with 0.2% crude enzyme at 40 degrees for 24 hours yielded 0.59 grams of reducing sugars/g peal, consisting mainly of glucose, arabinose, and galacturonic acid. Comparison of the macerating enzyme with commercial available cellulase and pectinase indicated that the macerating enzyme of A. niger contained mainly pectinase with a little cellulase.

  6. The Orang Suku Laut of Riau, Indonesia

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua

    and resources that have resulted in great demand on sea and land spaces. In this momentum of change, several aspects of rural culture including indigenous populations, like the Orang Suku Laut (people of the sea) of Riau have been deemed by the state architects of development programmes to hinder...... progress. For generations, the sea and coastal places have been the life and living spaces of the Orang Suku Laut and they claim ownership to these territories based upon customary laws. The developmental pressure thus generated has led to intense struggles over territorial rights. It has also raised...... issues concerning the social assimilation of indigenous peoples as citizens, religious conversion and cultural identity. Cynthia Chou discusses how Indonesian nation-building development programmes have generated intense struggles over issues pertaining to territorial rights, social assimilation of...

  7. Orange roughy: their age unlocked by radioisotopes

    A radiometric method was developed and applied to try and solve the question of age for orange roughy, currently the primary target species in the south east trawl fishery. The method involved measuring the natural levels of the radioactive elements radium-226 and lead-210 present in the otolith of the fish. Radium-226 is chemically similar to calcium and, as such, is taken up by fish and laid-down in their otoliths as the fish grows. It was found that orange roughy is a very slow growing and long-lived species with fish 38-40 cm SL ranging between 77 and 149 years old. The results also indicated that maturity is around 32 years which occurs at about 32 cm SL. 4 refs., 1 tab., ills

  8. Differential staining of interspecific chromosomes in somatic cell hybrids by alkaline Giemsa stain.

    Friend, K K; Chen, S; Ruddle, F H

    1976-03-01

    Staining of chromosome preparations of Chinese hamster-human hybrid cells and mouse-chimpanzee hybrids with alkaline Giemsa has yielded color differentiation of the interspecific chromosomes. Bicolor chromosomes, indicating apparent translocations also are observed for each of these hybrids. The specific color differences observed provide a rapid means of recognizing and aiding in the identification of the interspecific chromosomes and apparent translocations in these somatic cell hybrids. PMID:1028166

  9. Preliminary biological evaluation of acridinic compounds for a targeted combined chemo and internal radionuclide therapy for melanoma

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and a lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form induces the development of selective tissue-targeted therapies. The aim of the present work was a targeting approach combining a bimodality therapy with the same compound exhibiting both chemo and internal radionuclide therapeutic properties. Benzamides are known to present a specific affinity for melanoma tissue. Former studies have shown that with aromatic and hetero-aromatic analogues of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)- 4-iodo benzamide (B.Z.A.), the affinity for melanoma was maintained. In this context, new compounds have been designed and synthesized conjugating a cytotoxic hetero-aromatic moiety, an amino-alkyl amidic side chain for melanoma targeting and a radioiodine for internal radionuclide therapy. Acridinic derivatives known as cytotoxic DNA-intercalating agents have been chosen for this study. The cytotoxic activity of fifteen new compounds has been tested in vitro on a panel of cell lines and the I.C.50 values were determined. The three first selected compounds have been further evaluated: in vivo, on B 16 F0 melanoma bearing C 57 B.L.6 mice to determine the pharmacological kinetic and namely the tumoral affinity. Two compounds exhibited a high, specific and long lasting concentration in melanoma tumor giving them a kinetic profile favourable for an application to radionuclide therapy; in vitro, using the 'colony forming' test on melanoma cells, for a first approach of association of chemo toxicity and radiotoxicity. Assessed on the ability of cells to form colonies, the inhibition observed with the association for a same molecule of chemo toxic and radio toxic doses was quite exactly the sum of the two separate effects, a result providing a first validation of the radio chemotherapy concept; in vitro, by a preliminary determination of molecular mechanisms. Compared to parent compounds, results confirmed a maintain of DNA-intercalating properties. These first results

  10. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  11. Unusual Orange-Colored Choroidal Metastases

    Hatem Krema

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical and paraclinical features of two patients with orangecolored choroidal metastases in whom the primary cancers have not previously been associated with such lesions. Case Report: Orange-colored choroidal lesions were detected on the fundus examination of one patient with metastatic small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the larynx and oropharynx, and in another subject with metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma of the leg. Although ultrasonographic characteristics of the choroidal masses were comparable to those of choroidal hemangiomas, fluorescein angiography revealed delayed initial fluorescence along with minimal fluorescence in subsequent phases of the angiogram which were in clear distinction from the earlier appearing and progressively intense fluorescence observed with circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. Conclusion: Small cell neuroendocrine tumors and alveolar soft part sarcomas should be considered among the differential diagnoses for orange-colored choroidal metastases. Identifying these choroidal lesions could facilitate localizing the occult primary tumor. Fluorescein angiography may differentiate a unifocal orange choroidal metastasis from a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.

  12. IgG Subclass Staining in Routine Renal Biopsy Material.

    Hemminger, Jessica; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Satoskar, Anjali; Brodsky, Sergey V; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2016-05-01

    Immunofluorescence staining plays a vital role in nephropathology, but the panel of antibodies used has not changed for decades. Further classification of immunoglobulin (Ig)G-containing immune-type deposits with IgG subclass staining (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) has been shown to be of diagnostic utility in glomerular diseases, but their value in the evaluation of renal biopsies has not been addressed systematically in large renal biopsy material. Between January 2007 and June 2014, using direct immunofluorescence, we stained every renal biopsy for the IgG subclasses if there was moderate to prominent glomerular IgG staining and/or IgG-predominant or IgG-codominant glomerular staining. The total number of biopsies stained was 1084, which included 367 cases of membranous glomerulonephritis, 307 cases of lupus nephritis, 74 cases of fibrillary glomerulonephritis, 53 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits, and 25 cases of antiglomerular basement membrane disease, among others. We found that monoclonality of IgG deposits cannot always be reliably determined on the basis of kappa and lambda light chain staining alone, particularly if concomitant (frequently nonspecific) IgM staining is present. In IgG heavy and heavy and light chain deposition disease (3 cases), subclass staining is very helpful, and in proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits subclass staining is necessary. IgG subclass staining is useful in differentiating primary from secondary membranous glomerulonephritis. In proliferative glomerulonephritis with polyclonal IgG deposition, IgG1 dominance/codominance with concomitant IgG3 and IgG2 but weak or absent IgG4 staining favors an underlying autoimmune disease. IgG subclass staining is a very useful diagnostic method in a selected cohort of renal biopsies, particularly in biopsies with glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits. PMID:26848798

  13. AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN PAP STAIN IN THE SPUTUM OF SUSPECTED PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND COMPARE WITH OTHER AFB STAINS

    Mani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affect lungs and can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and Joints, lymph node, skin and other tissues of the body. There are various methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, such as sputum examination of tubercular bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, demonstration of tubercular bacilli by Auramine–Rhodamine staining and culture in LJ medium. Papanicolaou stain is widely used in routine cytological evaluation of samples derived from the respiratory tract and eosin to be responsible for the autofluorescence. MATERIAL AND METHOD Present study was done clinically suspected tubercular patients from January to July 2015. On all received samples ZN stain, fluorescent stain and PAP stain was applied. RESULT Among the clinically suspected patients 650 (35.35% was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Male-to-female ratio was 2.76:1, Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 315 (16.75% cases with Ziehl-Neelsen staining with fluorescent staining in 611 (32.79% cases and Autofluorescence in 650 (35.35% cases. CONCLUSION In present study, fever was chief clinical complaint. Males are more diagnosed with tuberculosis than females. Autofluorescent staining is slightly more sensitive than the Auramine–Rhodamine and more ZN staining in demonstration of AFB in the samples.

  14. TREATMENTS TO MINIMIZE EXTRACTIVES STAIN IN WESTERN RED CEDAR

    Rod Stirling,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Under certain conditions involving uneven exposure to weather, stains related to the extractives can reduce the aesthetic appeal of western red cedar in exterior applications such as fence boards, siding, and sidewall shingles. Selected chemical treatments were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of extractives stain. DDACarbonate, alkyl amine oxide, and combinations thereof delayed extractives stain formation in an accelerated field test, with higher loadings having greater effect.

  15. Studies on the blue-staining fungi of pine wood

    Strzelczyk, A; Lamprecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this was were to examine associations of bule-staining fungi which occur on pine wood to determine the interactions between fungi and to check the suscebility of these fungi to commonly used fungieides. The stron antagonism of members of the Trichoderma genus against the blue-staining fungi was demonstrated, Members of genera Pullularia, Hormiscium and Hormodendrum were strongy inhibited by stains of Trichoderma Ophiostoma strains were less susceptible to inhibition by this antagon...

  16. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo;

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...... sources makes it difficult to decide which equipment is the best for treating port-wine stains....

  17. Critical evaluation of monoclonal antibody staining in breast carcinoma.

    Parham, D M; Coghill, G; Robertson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The immunoperoxidase staining of 84 primary invasive breast carcinomas with four monoclonal antibodies (BRST-1, HMFG1, EMA, B72.3) was evaluated by semiquantitative light microscopical examination and quantitative image analysis. Major differences in the staining of the tumours for each of the monoclonal antibodies was observed. Correlation between monoclonal antibody staining and patient age, survival, histological grade, tumour diameter and cellularity was also carried out. This showed a si...

  18. Pectin methyl esterase activity in apple and orange pulps

    The results of pectin methyl esterase activity from apple, orange pulp and orange peel depending of ph and temperature are discussed. It's shown that the methyl esterase activity form apple and orange pulps higher in range of temperatures from +37...+60digC. The analysis of dependence of its activity from ph has shown that in both case the enzyme activity increase with increase of ph

  19. Perbedaan Asertivitas Remaja Ditinjau Dari Pola Asuh Orang Tua

    Liza Marini; Elvi Andriani

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan asertivitas remaja ditinjau dari pola asuh orang tua. Perilaku asertif remaja diperlukan untuk menghadapi kuatnya pengaruh teman sebaya. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada teori Pola Asuh Orang Tua dari Baumrind yang mengasumsikan bahwa ada 4 tipe Pola Asuh Orang Tua yaitu Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive dan Uninvolved. Teori asertif yang digunakan didasarkan pada teori Asertivitas dari Eisler, Miller & Hersen, Johnson & Pinkto...

  20. The Effect Demographics Have On The Demand For Orange Juice

    Davis, Andrew; Gunderson, Michael A.; Brown, Mark G.; House, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how the demand for orange juice is affected by the demographics of consumers. There are many variables in the orange juice demand equation and demographics are only one. Demographic variables are important in determining the tastes and preferences of different regions. The data that has been collected is weekly data over a two year period of time. The seemingly unrelated regression method will be used to examine the data. This project will be beneficial to orange juice...

  1. ORANG BUGIS DI SEMENANGJUNG MELAYU: DARI INTEGRASI EKONOMI KE POLITIK

    Asba, A. Rasyid

    2011-01-01

    Menjelang dasawarsa pertama abad ke-17, Orang-Orang Bugis berhasil menempatkan ekonominya terintegrasi dengan Asia Tenggra. khususnya daerah Johor dan Riau.Mempawa serta Patani. Pada akhir abad tersebut Orang Bugis tidak hanya berhasil menguasai ekonomi tetapi juga masuk dalam panggung politik kekuasaan raja-raja Melayu. Makalah ini akan menjelaskan mengapa bagimana awal mula terintegrasnyai ekonomi Bugis wilayah Semenangjung Melayu begitu bersinergi dengan cepat bahkan mampu...

  2. 3D reconstruction of multiple stained histology images

    Yi Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Three dimensional (3D tissue reconstructions from the histology images with different stains allows the spatial alignment of structural and functional elements highlighted by different stains for quantitative study of many physiological and pathological phenomena. This has significant potential to improve the understanding of the growth patterns and the spatial arrangement of diseased cells, and enhance the study of biomechanical behavior of the tissue structures towards better treatments (e.g. tissue-engineering applications. Methods: This paper evaluates three strategies for 3D reconstruction from sets of two dimensional (2D histological sections with different stains, by combining methods of 2D multi-stain registration and 3D volumetric reconstruction from same stain sections. Setting and Design: The different strategies have been evaluated on two liver specimens (80 sections in total stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E, Sirius Red, and Cytokeratin (CK 7. Results and Conclusion: A strategy of using multi-stain registration to align images of a second stain to a volume reconstructed by same-stain registration results in the lowest overall error, although an interlaced image registration approach may be more robust to poor section quality.

  3. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

  4. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  5. Silver-staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gels: a general overview. : overview of silver staining methods for proteins

    Rabilloud, Thierry; Vuillard, Laurent; Gilly, Claudine; Lawrence, Jean-Jacques

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of the physico-chemical principles underlying silver-staining of proteins, which are recalled in this paper, several methods of silver-staining of proteins after SDS electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels or isoelectric focusing were tested. The most valuable protocols are presented in this report, including standard methods for unsupported gels and new methods devised for thin (0.5 mm) supported gels for SDS electrophoresis or isoelectric focusing and for staining of small pepti...

  6. Confusion over live/dead stainings for the detection of vital microorganisms in oral biofilms - which stain is suitable?

    Netuschil, Lutz; Auschill, Thorsten M.; Sculean, Anton; Arweiler, Nicole B

    2014-01-01

    Background There is confusion over the definition of the term “viability state(s)” of microorganisms. “Viability staining” or “vital staining techniques” are used to distinguish live from dead bacteria. These stainings, first established on planctonic bacteria, may have serious shortcomings when applied to multispecies biofilms. Results of staining techniques should be compared with appropriate microbiological data. Discussion Many terms describe “vitality states” of microorganisms, however, ...

  7. Preliminary biological evaluation of acridinic compounds for a targeted combined chemo and internal radionuclide therapy for melanoma

    Gardette, M.; Papon, J.; Desbois, N.; Labarre, P.; Maisonial, A.; Maublant, J.; Madelmont, J.C.; Moins, N.; Chezal, J.M. [Centre Jean Perrin, Inserm-Universite d' Auvergne, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France)

    2008-02-15

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and a lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form induces the development of selective tissue-targeted therapies. The aim of the present work was a targeting approach combining a bimodality therapy with the same compound exhibiting both chemo and internal radionuclide therapeutic properties. Benzamides are known to present a specific affinity for melanoma tissue. Former studies have shown that with aromatic and hetero-aromatic analogues of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)- 4-iodo benzamide (B.Z.A.), the affinity for melanoma was maintained. In this context, new compounds have been designed and synthesized conjugating a cytotoxic hetero-aromatic moiety, an amino-alkyl amidic side chain for melanoma targeting and a radioiodine for internal radionuclide therapy. Acridinic derivatives known as cytotoxic DNA-intercalating agents have been chosen for this study. The cytotoxic activity of fifteen new compounds has been tested in vitro on a panel of cell lines and the I.C.50 values were determined. The three first selected compounds have been further evaluated: in vivo, on B 16 F0 melanoma bearing C 57 B.L.6 mice to determine the pharmacological kinetic and namely the tumoral affinity. Two compounds exhibited a high, specific and long lasting concentration in melanoma tumor giving them a kinetic profile favourable for an application to radionuclide therapy; in vitro, using the 'colony forming' test on melanoma cells, for a first approach of association of chemo toxicity and radiotoxicity. Assessed on the ability of cells to form colonies, the inhibition observed with the association for a same molecule of chemo toxic and radio toxic doses was quite exactly the sum of the two separate effects, a result providing a first validation of the radio chemotherapy concept; in vitro, by a preliminary determination of molecular mechanisms. Compared to parent compounds, results confirmed a maintain of DNA-intercalating properties. These

  8. Variasjon mellom optikerstudenters vurdering og gradering av corneal staining og konjunktival staining ved bruk av Efron graderingsska

    Børretzen, Jeanne Marie; Gjervik, Sissel; Heim, Anette; Løwø, Kjetil; Reinfjord, Bertil

    2012-01-01

    Målsetting: Målsetting med denne undersøkelse med tverrsnittsdesign var å samle inn og analysere data om variasjoner mellom optikerstudenters vurdering og gradering av corneal staining og konjunktival staining ved bruk av Efron graderingsskalaer Metode: Fem operatører graderte til sammen førti øyne med èn gjennomsnittligverdi på både corneal staining og konjunktival staining etter Efron graderingsskala. Skalaen går fra null til fire med 0,1-trinn. Deretter ble data analysert i MS Excel. ...

  9. The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks

    Thavorat, S.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck orange were used as root stock for grafting with Neck orange scions. The diameter of upper and lower graft union, number of branches and leaves, height, root length, shoot and root dry weight and shoot: root dry weight ratio of grafted plants were measured at 24 weeks after grafting. The results showed that the structure of stem cross section of Troyer citrange and Neck orange i.e. the size of periderm, vascular bundle and pith, were similar to that of Neck orange. The vascular bundle of Swingle citrumelo was larger than that of the two rootstocks. Troyer citrange rootstock gave the best results in all growth parameters of Neck orange. The study of isozymes recorded an extra locus (Est 3 of Swingle citrumelo rootstock occurred in Neck orange at 24 and 48 weeks after grafting.

  10. THIONIN STAINING OF PARAFFIN AND PLASTIC EMBEDDED SECTIONS OF CARTILAGE

    BULSTRA, SK; DRUKKER, J; KUIJER, R; BUURMAN, WA; VANDERLINDEN, AJ

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of thionin for staining cartilage sections embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) and the effect of decalcification on cartilage sections embedded in paraffin and GMA were assessed. Short decalcification periods using 5% formic acid or 10% EDTA did not influence the staining properties

  11. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo;

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...

  12. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 12

    Lyon, H O

    2012-01-01

    In this 12(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meetings of ISO/TC 212/WG 1 Quality and competence in the medical laboratory and ISO...

  13. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 13

    Lyon, H O

    2013-01-01

    In the 13(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the first plenary meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical...

  14. News from the Biological Stain Commission, No. 17

    Lyon, H O

    2016-01-01

    In the 17(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the 20(th) meeting of ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test...

  15. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 10

    Lyon, H O

    2011-01-01

    In the 10th issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meeting of ISO/TC 212/WG 1 held in London, UK, on 16-17 November 2009. Furthermore, the...

  16. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  17. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 15

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W

    2014-01-01

    In the 15(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the plenary meetings of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical...

  18. Microwave assisted synthesis of novel acridine-acetazolamide conjugates and investigation of their inhibition effects on human carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I, II, IV and VII.

    Ulus, Ramazan; Aday, Burak; Tanç, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T; Kaya, Muharrem

    2016-08-15

    4-Amino-N-(5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)benzamide was condensed with cyclic-1,3-diketones (dimedone and cyclohexane-1,3-dione) and aromatic aldehydes under microwave irradiation, leading to a series of acridine-acetazolamide conjugates. The new compounds were investigated as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), and more precisely cytosolic isoforms hCA I, II, VII and membrane-bound one hCA IV. All investigated isoforms were inhibited in low micromolar and nanomolar range by the new compounds. hCA IV and VII were inhibited with KIs in the range of 29.7-708.8nM (hCA IV), and of 1.3-90.7nM (hCA VII). For hCA I and II the KIs were in the range of 6.7-335.2nM (hCA I) and of 0.5-55.4nM (hCA II). The structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the inhibition of these isoforms with the acridine-acetazolamide conjugates reported here were delineated. PMID:27298005

  19. Pd-Catalyzed Intramolecular Heck Reaction, C(sp(2))-H Activation, 1,4-Pd Migration, and Aminopalladation: Chemoselective Synthesis of Dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-Arylindoles.

    Gu, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Shun-Yi; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Heck reaction and aminopalladation of N-(2-(1-phenylvinyl)phenyl)aniline for the efficient synthesis of dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-arylindoles via tuning of the phosphine ligands and solvents under two optimized conditions are reported. The reaction follows a 1,4-Pd migration, aminopalladation, C(sp(2))-H activation, as well as five- and six-membered-ring fusion to form different products. The dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridine derivatives showed higher triplet energy (ET) levels than common blue phosphorescent dopant and may serve as good host candidates for blue triplet emitters. PMID:27137482

  20. Staining and histomorphometry of microcracks in the human femoral head.

    Villanueva, A R; Longo, J A; Weiner, G

    1994-03-01

    We developed staining techniques that permit identification and histomorphometric analysis of microcracks in the human femoral head 1) from thick, ground bone sections (100 microns) by prestaining with the Villanueva mineralized bone stain (MIBS), and 2) from plastic embedded, undecalcified thin bone sections (5-15 microns) by staining in gallocyanin chrome alum-Villanueva blood stain methods. Both methods represent a significant improvement in the stainability of the microcracks, cellular and tissue elements, and the simultaneous assessment of osteoid seams and tetracycline markers by histomorphometry. Shrinkage and other artifacts were minimized, which helped to clarify some of the uncertainties arising from artifacts resulting from some bone staining methods. Histomorphometric analyses of microcracks were conducted on thick, ground sections of subchondral and trabecular bone. Microcracks were more prevalent in the subchondral bone and osteochondral junction than in the more distant trabeculae. We have consistently localized microcrack areas in bone tissues prepared in these ways. PMID:7515700

  1. THE IMPACT OF THE REDUCTION IN THE AUSTRALIAN ORANGE-JUICE TARIFF

    Brown, Mark G.; Thomas H. Spreen

    2002-01-01

    After substantial reduction in the Australian orange juice tariff, citrus growers in that country shifted their efforts away from Valencia orange production towards Navel oranges intended for the fresh market. Australia has been successful in penetrating the world market for fresh oranges. Given the large size of the orange industry in Florida, however, it is unlikely that Florida growers could follow the same model if the U.S. orange juice were substantially reduced or eliminated.

  2. Mapping stain distribution in pathology slides using whole slide imaging

    Fang-Cheng Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI offers a novel approach to digitize and review pathology slides, but the voluminous data generated by this technology demand new computational methods for image analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report a method that recognizes stains in WSI data and uses kernel density estimator to calculate the stain density across the digitized pathology slides. The validation study was conducted using a rat model of acute cardiac allograft rejection and another rat model of heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was conducted to label ED1 + macrophages in the tissue sections and the stained slides were digitized by a whole slide scanner. The whole slide images were tessellated to enable parallel processing. Pixel-wise stain classification was conducted to classify the IHC stains from those of the background and the density distribution of the identified IHC stains was then calculated by the kernel density estimator. Results: The regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient of 0.8961 between the number of IHC stains counted by our stain recognition algorithm and that by the manual counting, suggesting that our stain recognition algorithm was in good agreement with the manual counting. The density distribution of the IHC stains showed a consistent pattern with those of the cellular magnetic resonance (MR images that detected macrophages labeled by ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide or micron-sized iron-oxide particles. Conclusions: Our method provides a new imaging modality to facilitate clinical diagnosis. It also provides a way to validate/correlate cellular MRI data used for tracking immune-cell infiltration in cardiac transplant rejection and cardiac ischemic injury.

  3. PROGRAM PENGHITUNG JUMLAH ORANG LEWAT MENGGUNAKAN WEBCAM

    Sudianto Lande

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of public places's visitor data is very important. Usually we get it manually. AT the moment, video camera has been used for security. Therefor, the people counter software has been made using Normalized Sum-squared difference (NSSD method that take differences the sum of frame fixel and background, squared it then normalized by detection window area. The NSSD values that have been count then thresholded to detect the people occurance in detection window. This project is made using Borland Delphi 5.0 with Tvideo component. Corect people counting percentation of more than 90% was obtained. The succesness of this program depends on the right thresholding values. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Data jumlah pengunjung suatu tempat umum sangat penting. Data jumlah pengunjung biasanya didapat secara manual. Saat ini kamera video telah diterapkan untuk kepentingan keamanan. Karena itu dibuatlah program penghitung jumlah pengunjung dengan metode Normalized Sum-Squared Differences (NSSD yang mengambil selisih jumlah pixel frame dan background dan dikuadratkan, dinormalisasi dengan luasan detection window. Nilai NSSD yang didapat diseleksi dengan proses thresholding untuk mendeteksi keberadaan orang pada detection window. Penelitian ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Borland Delphi 5.0, dengan tambahan komponen TVideo. Program ini secara keseluruhan menunjukkan keberhasilan lebih dari 90%. Keberhasilan dari program ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh penentuan nilai threshold yang tepat. Kata kunci: penghitungan orang, sensor kamera, NSSD, Image processing.

  4. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    2010-07-15

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  6. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    2011-05-27

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011. This Special Local Regulation is intended to...

  7. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    2010-09-15

    ... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119... published in 75 FR 41119. Regulatory Analyses We developed this rule after considering numerous statutes and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange,...

  8. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low m

  9. Koehler and Tool Use in Orang-Utans

    Rogers, L. J.; Kaplan, G

    1993-01-01

    Wewill comment on some specific behaviors observed by Koehler, on the basis of our studies of semi-wild orang-utans conducted in 1991 and 1992 at Sepilok/Sandakan and Semengoh/Kuching Orang-utan Rehabilitation Centers in East Malaysia. Most of our comments refer to tool use,although these may be connected with other observations  

  10. Homogeneous luminescent stain etched porous silicon elaborated by a new multi-step stain etching method

    This paper presents a new method to produce porous silicon which derived from the conventional stain etching (SE) method. But instead of one etching step that leads to formation of porous layer, the substrate is subjected to an initial etching step with a duration Δt0 followed by a number of supplementary short steps that differs from a layer to another. The duration of the initial step is just the necessary time to have a homogenous porous layer on the whole surface of the substrate. It was found that this duration is largely dependent of the doping type and level of the silicon substrate. The duration of supplementary steps was kept as short as possible to prevent the formation of bubbles on the silicon surface during silicon dissolution which leads generally to inhomogeneous porous layers. It is found from surface investigation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that multistep stain etching (MS-SE) method allows to produce homogeneous porous silicon nanostructures compared to the conventional SE method. The chemical composition of the obtained porous layers has been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows that porous layers produced by SE and MS-SE methods have comparable spectra indicating that those layers are composed of nanocrystallites with comparable sizes. But the intensity of photoluminescence of layer elaborated by MS-SE method is higher than that elaborated by the SE method. Total reflectance characteristics show that the presented method allows the production of porous silicon layers with controllable thicknesses and optical properties. Results for porous silicon layers elaborated on heavily doped n-type silicon show that the reflectance can be reduced to values less than 3% in the major part of the spectrum.

  11. Ovarian hemangiosarcoma in an orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica).

    Mickley, Kimberly; Buote, Melanie; Kiupel, Matti; Graham, Jennifer; Orcutt, Connie

    2009-03-01

    A 25-year-old intact female orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a 2-week history of straining to defecate, lethargy, open-beak breathing, decreased vocalization, and ruffled feathers. On physical examination, the parrot had a heart murmur, increased air sac and lung sounds, open-beak breathing, increased respiratory rate and effort, and coelomic distension. An ultrasound revealed intracoelomic fluid, and hemorrhagic fluid was aspirated from the coelom. Cytologic analysis indicated hemocoelom. Pericardial effusion was observed during the sonogram, and pericardiocentesis was performed. The bird was euthanatized upon the owner's request because of a poor prognosis. At necropsy, several masses that involved the ovary and oviduct were observed, as well as a thickened pericardium and a thickened, fibrinous epicardium. Results of a histopathologic examination of the masses that involved the reproductive tract revealed ovarian hemangiosarcoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. To our knowledge, ovarian hemangiosarcoma has not been reported in a psittacine species, nor has immunohistochemistry confirmed ovarian hemangiosarcoma in avian species, specifically in an orange-winged Amazon parrot. PMID:19530404

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING

    Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against modified Giemsa staining. For this study, 60 biopsy specimens were selected from different gastric lesions as chronic gastritis (30, gastric ulcers (10 and gastric carcinoma (20. These specimens were subjected to modified Giemsa staining showed purple to dark purple bacteria with bluish background. The results showed 56.66, 40 and 15 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. The stained sections of triple staining showed black to dark brown bacteria with pink colored background with 70, 50 and 10 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. From the present study it is clear that triple staining method is more sensitive than the modified Giemsa staining.

  13. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2012 Digital Orthophotos - Orange County

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This metadata describes the digital orthoimagery covering Orange County, FL. This orthoimagery was collected under contract to the Orange County Property Appraiser...

  14. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  15. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  16. Anionic Lipids Enriched at the ExPortal of Streptococcus pyogenes▿

    Rosch, Jason W.; Hsu, Fong Fu; Caparon, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    The ExPortal of Streptococcus pyogenes is a membrane microdomain dedicated to the secretion and folding of proteins. We investigated the lipid composition of the ExPortal by examining the distribution of anionic membrane phospholipids. Staining with 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange revealed a single microdomain enriched with an anionic phospholipid whose staining characteristics and behavior in a cardiolipin-deficient mutant were characteristic of phosphatidylglycerol. Furthermore, the location of ...

  17. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  18. DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy

    Andreyan Osipov; Ekaterina Arkhangelskaya; Alexei Vinokurov; Nadezhda Smetaninа; Alex Zhavoronkov; Dmitry Klokov

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977). The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2...

  19. Still leaving stains on teeth—the legacy of minocycline?

    Raymond, James; Cook, David

    2015-01-01

    Minocycline is widely used as a first-line agent for papulopustular acne, and has previously been reported as causing stains on teeth that are still forming. This article reports a case of staining to only the crowns of unerupted third molars in a girl prescribed minocycline at age 16 for papulopustular acne. We review the literature in the area of minocycline teeth staining, consider the role of minocycline as a first-line agent for papulopustular acne, and outline strategies on the preventi...

  20. Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    Tomasz Żyła; Beata Kawala; Joanna Antoszewska-Smith; Maciej Kawala

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the corr...

  1. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 11

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W

    2012-01-01

    The 11th issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) provides our first impressions of the REACH and ECHA programs. We intend to give a more thorough account of what these important programs actually mean in later editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission. Under the heading...... of Regulatory Affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the opening session of the meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on 2-4 June 2010 in Seoul...

  2. No Evidence for Interference of Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) Staining in DNA Testing: Utility of DNA Extraction from HE-Stained Archival Tissue Sections

    Morikawa, Teppei; Shima, Kaori; Kuchiba, Aya; Yamauchi, Mai; Tanaka, Noriko; Imamura, Yu; Liao, Xiaoyun; Qian, Zhi Rong; Brahmandam, Mohan; Longtine, Janina A.; Lindeman, Neal I.; FUCHS, CHARLES S.; Ogino, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Although histochemical staining has been believed to inhibit DNA amplification reaction, no previous study has systematically evaluated the influence of histochemical staining on downstream molecular assays. To evaluate an influence of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining on DNA testing, we isolated DNA from 10 unstained, 10 hematoxylin-stained, 10 eosin-stained or 10 HE-stained tissue sections (ie, 4 groups), from each of 5 colon cancers. Among those 4 groups, we did not observe any significa...

  3. Interaction between staining and degradation of a composite resin in contact with colored foods

    Debora Soares-Geraldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite resins might be susceptible to degradation and staining when in contact with some foods and drinks. This study evaluated color alteration and changes in microhardness of a microhybrid composite after immersion in different colored foods and determined whether there was a correlation between these two variables. Eighty composite disks were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups (n = 10: kept dry; deionized water; orange juice; passion fruit juice; grape juice; ketchup; mustard and soy sauce. The disks were individually immersed in their respective test substance at 37 ºC, for a period of 28 days. Superficial analysis of the disk specimens was performed by taking microhardness measurements (Vickers, 50 g load for 45 seconds and color alterations were determined with a spectrophotometer (CINTRA 10- using a CIEL*a*b* system, 400-700 nm wavelength, illuminant d65 and standard observer of 2º at the following times: baseline (before immersion, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. Both variables were also submitted to Pearson's correlation test (p < 0.05. The passion fruit group underwent the greatest microhardness change, while the mustard group suffered the greatest color alteration. Significant positive correlation was found between the two variables for the groups deionized water, grape juice, soy sauce and ketchup. Not all color alteration could be associated with surface degradation.

  4. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  5. Determination of lead ion by resonance energy transfer fluorescence quenching of acridine orange-rhodamine 6 G%吖啶橙-罗丹明6G共振能量转移荧光猝灭法测定铅

    杨胜园; 徐小娜; 程健琳; 于军晖; 孙倩倩

    2015-01-01

    目的 根据吖啶橙和罗丹明6G两分子间能够有效地发生荧光共振能量转移,建立一种检测铅离子的新方法.方法 在表面活性剂SDS的存在下,吖啶橙和罗丹明6G分子间发生荧光共振能量转移,使罗丹明6G的荧光强度增大;加入铅离子后能对AO-R6 G体系的荧光产生猝灭作用,其荧光猝灭程度随着铅离子浓度的增大而增强,据此建立了检测Pb2+的新方法.结果 当pb2+浓度为2.0 ×10-7mol/L ~ 3.0×10-6mol/L时,与荧光猝灭程度△F有良好的线性关系,线性回归方程为y=16.34x +42.79,相关系数(r) =0.998,检出限为6.06×10-8mol/L,相对标准偏差(RSD)为3.4% ~5.3%,加标回收率为95.1% ~96.5%.结论 本方法操作简便、灵敏,可用于实际水样中铅含量的测定.

  6. The Great Orange Hope Ukraine, NATO, and the dilemma of European integration after the Orange Revolution

    Cramer, Clarke S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines the dilemma of Ukrainian integration into Europe and analyzes the significance and prospect of Ukrainian membership in NATO following the 2004 â Orange Revolution.â The extraordinary election of Victor Yushchenko became a powerful catalyst for Ukrainian integration efforts into Europe and amplified Ukraineâ s geopolitical plight between Europe and Eurasia. Although Russia remains Ukraineâ s â eternal strategic partner,â President Yushchenko affirmed his intention ...

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to orange trees

    Marcassa, L. G.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Belasque, J., Jr.; Lins, E. C.; Dias Nunes, F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we have applied laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate biological processes in orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.). We have chosen to investigate water stress and Citrus Canker, which is a disease caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. The fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated by using as an excitation source a 442-nm 15-mW HeCd gas multimode discharge laser and a 532-nm 10-mW Nd3+:YAG laser. The stress manifestation was detected by the variation of fluorescence ratios of the leaves at different wavelengths. The fluorescence ratios present a significant variation, showing the possibility to observe water stress by fluorescence spectrum. The Citrus Canker’s contaminated leaves were discriminated from the healthy leaves using a more complex analysis of the fluorescence spectra. However, we were unable to discriminate it from another disease, and new fluorescence experiments are planned for the future.

  8. Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

    Garrido, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. This paper shows that Spanish farmers were in fact capable of growing high-quality oranges at prices that were more competitive than those in California, although interested they often preferred to satisfy the strong demand for middling fruit from Great Britain because it was a more profitable business. This, combined with a deficient use of brand names, gave the Spanish citrus industry serious reputation problems by the 1930s, from which, however, it recovered quickly. PMID:20509234

  9. Standardization in biological staining. The influence of dye manufacturing

    Lyon, H

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of biological staining is to obtain specimens of biological material that can be assessed in the microscope. These specimens are influenced by all processes from removal from the intact organism to mounting on the microscopic slide. To achieve comparable results with various techniques...... for biological staining, standardization of all procedures and reagents is mandatory. In this paper, I focus particularly on dyes and consider the possibilities for obtaining standardized dyes. In general practice, most biological staining takes place with available commercial dyes. These dyes may or may...... not have been subjected to quality assessment either internally by the producer or vendor or externally by independent investigators or organizations such as the Biological Stain Commission. Concerted attempts at standardization in Europe are discussed. The latest results of this work, the European...

  10. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a...... number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay...... spurious results. I provide methodological advice on sperm viability staining aimed at minimising artefacts and producing robust conclusions, and discuss possible avenues for future research....

  11. Genetic Variants Associated with Port-Wine Stains

    Frigerio, Alice; Wright, Karol; Wooderchak-Donahue, Whitney; Tan, Oon T.; Margraf, Rebecca; Stevenson, David A.; Grimmer, J. Fredrik; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Port-wine stains (PWS) are capillary malformations, typically located in the dermis of the head and neck, affecting 0.3% of the population. Current theories suggest that port-wine stains are caused by somatic mutations that disrupt vascular development. Objectives: Understanding PWS genetic determinants could provide insight into new treatments. Methods: Our study used a custom next generation sequencing (NGS) panel and digital polymerase chain reaction to investigate genetic vari...

  12. A ‘Magnetic’ Gram Stain for Bacterial Detection

    Budin, Ghyslain; Chung, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic stain. Bacteria are often classified into Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains by their visual staining properties using crystal violet (CV), a triarylmethane dye. Here we show, that bioorthogonal modification of crystal violet with transcyclooctene (TCO) can be used to render Gram-positive bacteria magnetic with magneto-nanoparticles-Tetrazine (MNP-Tz). This allows for class specific automated magnetic detection, magnetic separation or other magnetic manipulations.

  13. Evaluating the response of freshwater organisms to vital staining

    Adams, J.; Briski, Elizabeta; Ram, J. L.; Bailey, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The unintentional introduction of nonindigenous species by ballast water discharge is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity in freshwater systems. Proposed international regulations for ballast water management will require enumeration of viable plankton in ballast water. In this study we analyze the efficacy of vital stains in determining viability of freshwater taxa. The efficacy of vital stains fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and FDA+5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) was eva...

  14. Amalgam stained dentin: a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?

    Feilzer, A.J.; Özcan, M.; Kleverlaan, C. J.; Scholtanus, J.D. (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the use of dental amalgam is mostly abandoned and substituted by tooth colored resin composites that can be bonded to teeth tissues by adhesive techniques. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether dark stained dentin, as often observed after removal of amalgam restorations and attributed to penetration of corrosion products, is an adequate substrate for bonding resin composite restorations. Previous studies revealed tin and zinc as main metals from amalgam in stained dentin and...

  15. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  16. Chromatin and Cell Wall Staining of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Hagan, Iain M

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeasts grow by tip extension, maintaining a constant width until they reach a critical size threshold and divide. Division by medial fission-which gives these yeast their name-generates a new end that arises from the site of cytokinesis. The old end, which was produced during the previous cell cycle, initiates progression of the new cell cycle, and in G2, the new end is activated in a process termed new-end takeoff (NETO). In this protocol, the fluorescent stains calcofluor and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) are used to give a rapid and informative assessment of morphogenesis and cell-cycle progression in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Calcofluor reveals the timing of NETO because it stains the birth scars that are generated at new ends by cytokinesis less efficiently than the rest of the cell wall. Intense calcofluor staining of the septum and measurement of cell length are also widely used to identify dividing cells and to gauge the timing of mitotic commitment. Staining nuclei with DAPI identifies mono- and binucleated cells and complements the calcofluor staining procedure to evaluate the stages of the cell cycle and identify mitotic errors. Equally simple DAPI staining procedures reveal chromatin structure in higher resolution, facilitating more accurate staging of mitotic progression and characterization of mitotic errors. PMID:27250942

  17. Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature.

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  18. Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    Tomasz Żyła

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain.

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia Coli in Orange Juice Using Ozone

    Patil, Sonal; Bourke, Paula; Frias, Jesus Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh; Cullen, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the efficacy of gaseous ozone for the inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and NCTC 12900 strains in orange juice. Orange juice inoculated with E. coli (106 CFU mL-1) as a challenge microorganism was treated with ozone at 75-78µg mL-1 for different time periods (0-18 min). The efficacy of ozone for inactivation of both strains of E. coli was evaluated as a function of different juice types: model orange juice, fresh unfiltered juice, juice without pulp, and j...

  20. Nondestructive Quality Determination of Orange Using Gamma Ray Scattering Process

    Orange is one of the most consumable fruit of Thailand. It's price depends on the quality especially the percentage of dry juice sac that exists inside the fruit. This research employs the Compton scattering energy spectrum of the gamma ray from Cs-137 source to the sample at the scattering angle of 90 degrees. The result shows a good correlation between the Compton scattering count rate and the meat quality of the orange. The different of the Compton scattering count rate between the good quality orange meat and dry juice sac is over 90 cpm

  1. EAT AN ORANGE TO KEEP ANXIETY AT LONG RANGE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    Orange fruit (citrus sinensis) is a favorite fruit of all sections of the society, particularly among patients suffering from different ailments for its nutritional and medicinal properties. This study was undertaken to test the efficacy of orange juice in the management of anxiety. A total of 72 mice divided in 12 groups were employed in this study. Orange juice (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% v/v) was administered orally to mice with the help of an oral feeding needle. Elevated plus maze and light - d...

  2. Reduction of the waste from domestic production of the orange

    The research subject is (reduction of the waste from domestic production of orange) we find there is a lot of wastage after harvest, because the process of packaging, loading, transportation, and store is not adequate. The purpose of this research is to solve this problem of wastage by following a number of steps after harvesting and pre-harvest process. This process is called COLD CHAIN. Cold chain is: cold store in production place, cold vehicles for transportation, cold room in the market, cold car for distribution, cold and freezer refrigerator home. After adopting the cold chain we achieved the following results: orange wastage is reduced, the orange quality improved. (Author)

  3. Design, Synthesis, Fluorescence Properties and Antibacterial Activities of New 8-Chloro-3-Alkyl-3H-Pyrazolo[4,3-a]acridine-11-Carbonitriles

    Rahmani, Zeynab; Pordel, Mehdi; Davoodnia, Abolghasem [Islamic Azad Univ., Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    The treatment of alkylated nitro derivatives of indazole with 2-(4-chlorophenyl)acetonitrile under basic conditions gave the new 8-chloro-3-alkyl-3H-pyrazolo[4,3-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles via the nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen which proceeds at room temperature with concomitant cyclisation in fairly good yields. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectral data. Fluorescence experimental results of all newly synthesized compounds revealed remarkable photoluminescence properties and strong green fluorescence properties. Also, the new compounds exhibited potent antibacterial activity and their antibacterial activity (MIC) against Gram positive (Staphylococcuse aureus methicillin resistant S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and negative bacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) species were determined.

  4. Novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone analogs induce endoreduplication in the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS

    The cytotoxicity of novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) analogs was investigated on the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS. One analog induced G2/M phase arrest at 5.3-10.6 μM and induced polyploidy at a higher dose (21.2 μM). Importantly, treatment of SAS cells with a combination of the AHL analog and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, prevented mitosis and induced polyploidy. The AHL analog synergized with X-irradiation to inhibit clonogenic survival of SAS cells; however, its radiosensitizing effects were relative to not X-irradiation-induced apoptosis but mitotic failure following enhanced expression of Aurora A and B. These results suggest that the active AHL analog showed growth-suppressive and radiosensitizing effects, which involve polyploidy followed by G2/M accumulation and atypical cell death in the SAS cell line. (author)

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING

    Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against...

  6. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology

    Jéssica Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik. Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls. From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00, as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83. Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99, whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00. Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples.

  7. Isotopes as detectives in blood and orange juice

    The isotope content (Deuterium or Oxygen 18) allows one to distinguish between natural orange juice and rediluted concentrates. The isotope content of human blood or urine allows proves changes of location. (orig.)

  8. Final critical habitat for Orange-nacre Mucket (Lampsilis perovalis)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Orange-nacre Mucket (Lampsilis perovalis) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  9. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to...

  10. Regulation of orange carotenoid protein activity in cyanobacterial photoprotection

    Thurotte, A.; Lopez Igual, R.; Wilson, A.; Comolet, L.; Bourcier de Carbon, C.; Xiao, F.; Kirilovsky, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism.

  11. Binding Affinity of Novel Cyclodextrin Dimers to Ethyl Orange

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between ethyl orange (Eto, guest) and β-cyclodextrin dimers (1a~d, host) bridged with 2-t-butoxycarbonyl(Boc)-amino diacid was investigated. A remarkable synergic complexation of two cavities in host molecule was observed.

  12. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  13. VITRAIL: Acquisition, Modeling, and Rendering of Stained Glass.

    Thanikachalam, Niranjan; Baboulaz, Loic; Prandoni, Paolo; Trumpler, Stefan; Wolf, Sophie; Vetterli, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Stained glass windows are designed to reveal their powerful artistry under diverse and time-varying lighting conditions; virtual relighting of stained glass, therefore, represents an exceptional tool for the appreciation of this age old art form. However, as opposed to most other artifacts, stained glass windows are extremely difficult if not impossible to analyze using controlled illumination because of their size and position. In this paper, we present novel methods built upon image based priors to perform virtual relighting of stained glass artwork by acquiring the actual light transport properties of a given artifact. In a preprocessing step, we build a material-dependent dictionary for light transport by studying the scattering properties of glass samples in a laboratory setup. We can now use the dictionary to recover a light transport matrix in two ways: under controlled illuminations the dictionary constitutes a sparsifying basis for a compressive sensing acquisition, while in the case of uncontrolled illuminations the dictionary is used to perform sparse regularization. The proposed basis preserves volume impurities and we show that the retrieved light transport matrix is heterogeneous, as in the case of real world objects. We present the rendering results of several stained glass artifacts, including the Rose Window of the Cathedral of Lausanne, digitized using the presented methods. PMID:27416590

  14. Methods of biological dosimetry employing chromosome-specific staining

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  15. Factors Affecting Pure Orange Juice Purchasing Decisions of Consumers

    Wanvisa Sriratana; Visit Limsombunchai

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes factors affecting pure orange juice purchasing decisions of consumers in Bangkok Metropolitan area. The data used in this research were from interviewing 400 consumers in Bangkok Metropolitan area who used to buy pure orange juice. The data were collected during September to October 2008. The descriptive analysis techniques and Conjoint Analysis were applied. The results showed that certificate of standard and quality assurance was the most important factor which influence...

  16. Orange Juice: A Private Label Product for the Nineties?

    Zellner, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Orange juice began as a branded product in the 1950s, but private and packer labels son became dominant. Brands gained share during the 1980s with the introduction of a third national brand and the growth of chilled juice. The large number of packer labels makes brand and private label share measures misleading for structure-performance studies. Private label appeals to manufacturers who like the lower risk, the absence of slotting allowances, and fewer entry barriers. Pasteurized orange juic...

  17. Consolidated Markets, Brand Competition, and Orange Juice Prices

    Binkley, James K.; Canning, Patrick N.; Dooley, Ryan; Eales, James S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how consolidation in the marketing system affects prices for orange juice. We isolated the pricing behavior of brand marketers, wholesalers, and retailers by observing the retail prices for specific orange juice products, including leading national brands and private label brands, in 54 U.S. markets over a 1-year period. The data provided little compelling evidence that consolidated markets engaged in non-competitive pricing behavior. Increased brand competition, particula...

  18. Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Florida Orange Juice

    Thomas H. Spreen; Dwivedi, Puneet; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee

    2010-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive study which attempts to create a baseline of global warming impact (expressed in total greenhouse gas emission and measured in terms of carbon equivalent) associated with the production and consumption of a gallon of orange juice available in the form of NFC (Not from Concentrate) and FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) in Florida. A detailed life‐cycle approach is adopted and greenhouse gas emissions of all the steps in the supply chain starting fr...

  19. Thermomechanical process intensification for oil extraction from orange peels.

    Rezzoug, Sid-Ahmed; Louka, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the intensification and improvement of oil extraction from orange peel through a thermomechanical process: the Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop (briefly D.I.C process). This process involves subjecting orange peel for a short time to steam pressure, followed by an instantaneous decompression to vacuum at 50 mbar. Central composite design was used to study the combined effects of processing steam pressure (1–7 bar; which corresponds to a temperature ranging between...

  20. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms

    Ana RODRÍGUEZ; Andrés, Victoria San; CERVERA, MAGDALENA; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Peni...

  1. Orange emission in Pr3+-doped fluoroindate glasses

    Manzani, Danilo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Goldner, Philippe; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    We synthesize and study the properties of praseodymium doped fluoroindate glasses. Glass compositions with praseodymium molar concentrations up to 5% were obtained with good optical quality. Thermal, optical, and luminescence properties are investigated. Judd-Ofelt analysis is used to determine radiative lifetime and emission cross-section of the orange transition originating from the 3P0 level. We find that these glasses are good candidates for the realization of blue diode laser pumped orange lasers for quantum information processing applications.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Orange Oil on Selected Pathogens

    Obidi O. F.; Adelowotan A. O.; Ayoola G. A; Johnson O. O.; Hassan M. O.; Nwachukwu S. C. U.

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of orange oil extracted by steam distillation from peels of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis) was screened against some medically important microorganisms. Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus 001, S. aureus ATCC 25923, Enteroccocus feacalis 002, E. feacalis ATCC 295212); Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 003, Escherichia. Coli 004, E. coli ATCC 29522) and fungi (Candida albicans 010, C. albicans ATCC 90028) were used. The minimum inhibitory conc...

  3. Aktivity společenskej zodpovednosti firmy Orange Slovensko

    Bačovčinová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the bachelor thesis titled "Activities of corporate social responsibility of the company Orange Slovakia" is to analyze the social responsibility activities of the company Orange Slovakia. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focused on the basic terms necessary to understand the issues. The application part of the thesis is dedicated to autor's research of the company , the analysis of its CSR concept and comparison with GRI standard. Using...

  4. Detection of lipopolysaccharides by ethidium bromide staining after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Kido, N; Ohta, M; Kato, N

    1990-01-01

    A rapid and easy method for staining lipopolysaccharides with ethidium bromide is described. Lipopolysaccharides could be visualized by ethidium bromide with almost the same sensitivity as found with the silver-staining method in less than 30 min. The ethidium bromide-staining method was particularly suitable for staining lipopolysaccharides possessing acidic O-specific polysaccharides, which were poorly visualized by silver staining.

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars

    2008-01-01

    Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng,1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS),TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were kept within a proper range for juice processing except that Jincheng had lower TSS than the others. Sucrose was the most dominant sugar in the orange cultivars, followed by fructose and glucose, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Serine and proline were the principal amino acids.Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all of the juice samples, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium content of most varieties was under 10 mg kg-1. Though all of the samples had orange colour, Olinda Valencia and Delta Valencia had deeper red colour than the others. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the samples in most of the characteristics. The results provided important information on the physicochemical characteristics of the varieties and on how to make the best use of orange cultivars for different purposes, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.

  6. Analyzing Cell Death by Nuclear Staining with Hoechst 33342.

    Crowley, Lisa C; Marfell, Brooke J; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    The nuclei of healthy cells are generally spherical, and the DNA is evenly distributed. During apoptosis the DNA becomes condensed, but this process does not occur during necrosis. Nuclear condensation can therefore be used to distinguish apoptotic cells from healthy cells or necrotic cells. Dyes that bind to DNA, such as Hoechst 33342 or 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), can be used to observe nuclear condensation. These dyes fluoresce at 461 nm when excited by ultraviolet light and can therefore be visualized using conventional fluorescent microscopes equipped with light sources that emit light at ∼350 nm and filter sets that permit the transmission of light at ∼460 nm. This protocol describes staining and visualization of cells stained with Hoechst 33342, but it can be adapted for staining with DAPI or other dyes. PMID:27587774

  7. Staining of palatal torus secondary to long term minocycline therapy

    Buddula Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Minocycline and other tetracycline analogs are well known to cause discoloring of alveolar bone, teeth and other tissues. The present case reports palatine torus discoloring, in a 91-year-old patient, after long term minocycline therapy. The patient was presented with staining of the palatal torus resulting from prior minocycline use for three-and-a-half years. The diagnosis of minocycline staining of palatal torus was done during a routine hygiene examination. The patient was informed that the bluish appearance of the palatal torus was the result of long term minocycline use. The patient was not willing to discontinue the antibiotic and was not concerned about the appearance. The clinician should inform patients on long term minocycline therapy about the possible side effects of staining of the alveolar bone, teeth and other soft tissue.

  8. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-intensive. Here, we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic-crystal fibre source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate the collection of optical signatures of the tumour microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumour cell migration and (lymph-) angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  9. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas; Westbrook, Carol

    2013-04-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  10. Chemical aspects of santalin as a histological stain.

    Banerjee, A; Mukherjee, A K

    1981-03-01

    Recent research on the chemical nature of the red dyes isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus and certain West African plants, viz., Baphia nitida, Pterocarpus osun and Pterocarpus soyauxii, have been reviewed. P. santalinus contains santalins A, B and C, but no santarubin. Santalins and santarubins have been found in P. osun, P. soyauxii and B. nitida. The structural formulae of the santalins are presented and their differences from santarubins indicated. Santalins A and B have some similarities in structure with hematein. This is probably responsible for their staining properties; the possible mechanism of staining is discussed. PMID:6166100

  11. Determination of firing distance using the rhodizonate staining technique.

    Marty, W; Sigrist, T; Wyler, D

    2002-02-01

    The histological staining technique using rhodizonate is also effective for the determination of the firing distance by examining the distribution and intensity of the staining reaction. The differentiation between absolute close-range shots and long-range shots is generally possible without any doubt. The method is not recommended for routine examinations but it is very useful for cases lacking the possibility to investigate smoke and powder deposits in a criminalistic manner, i.e. surgical skin biopsies of hospitalised victims and skin highly altered by the effects of fire, water or by post-mortem decomposition. PMID:11924700

  12. Recurrent oral pyogenic granuloma in port-wine stain.

    da Silva, Alessandra Dutra; Silva, Carolina Amália Barcellos; de Camargo Moraes, Paulo; Thomaz, Luiz Alexandre; Furuse, Cristiane; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2011-11-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign inflammatory lesion, nonneoplastic in nature, which occurs in the oral cavity and skin. This lesion arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritations, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. Recently, in some cases, the occurrence of recurrent PGs in skin associated with vascular lesions, such as port-wine stains, has been described. It has been postulated that this association is promoted by arteriovenous anastomoses in the vascular lesions, leading to the development of PG. The authors discuss 2 cases of recurrent PG in patients with a port-wine stain, and the treatment options adopted. PMID:22134277

  13. Staining Fission Yeast Filamentous Actin with Fluorescent Phalloidin Conjugates.

    Hagan, Iain M

    2016-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe filamentous (F)-actin cytoskeleton drives cell growth, morphogenesis, endocytosis, and cytokinesis. The protocol described here reveals the distribution of F-actin in fixed cells through the use of fluorescently conjugated phalloidin. Simultaneous staining of cell wall landmarks (with calcofluor) and chromatin (with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, or DAPI) makes this rapid staining procedure highly effective for staging cell cycle progression, monitoring morphogenetic abnormalities, and assessing the impact of environmental and genetic changes on the integrity of the F-actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27250943

  14. URGENSITAS CULTURAL SPHERE DALAM PENDIDIKAN MULTIKULTURAL: Rekonstruksi Semangat Multikulturalisme Sunan Kudus bagi Pendidikan Multikultural di STAIN Kudus

    Nur Said

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunan Kudus adalah salah satu Walisongo yang hidup di Jawa pada abad ke-15. Ia telah meninggalkan warisan budaya yang memuat spirit multikulturalisme. Artikel ini fokus pada kajian warisan budaya Sunan Kudus yang memuat nilai-nilai multikultural dan mengonstruknya menjadi pendidikan multikultural dalam konteks pengembangan akademik STAIN Kudus melalui cultural sphere. Kajian budaya dapat membuka perintang-perintang budaya dalam dimensi yang bervariasi tanpa dibatasi oleh kotak yang sempit dan menerobos rahasia makna tersembunyi dalam setiap tanda-tanda budaya. Semakin banyak orang yang mampu menangkap rahasia di balik fakta-fakta, maka semakin terbuka wawasan untuk memahami satu sama lain sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai agen perubahan sosial. STAIN Kudus perlu mengambil peran ini dengan mempromosikan visi keterbukaan, meningkatkan perangkat jaringan yang didukung oleh ruang budaya, baik secara fisik maupun sosial, di bawah prinsip-prinsip belajar untuk tahu, belajar untuk melakukan, belajar untuk menjadi, dan belajar untuk hidup bersama dalam konteks pendidikan tinggi Islam. Kata Kunci: Lingkup Budaya, Pendidikan Multikultural, Rekonstruksi, Kajian Budaya. THE URGENCY OF CULTURAL SPHERE IN MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION (THE SPIRIT RECONSTRUCTION OF MULTICULTURALISM OF SUNAN KUDUS FOR MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION AT STAIN KUDUS. Sunan Kudus, one of the nine Islamic scientists (Walisanga in Java who lived five centuries ago has left a cultural space in line with the spirit of multiculturalism. This article focus on the identification of cultural heritages of Sunan Kudus which is loaded with the values of multiculturalism and how to reconstruct them to become multicultural education in the context of academic development in STAIN Kudus through cultural sphere expansion. Cultural studies will be able to open the cultural barriers in various dimensions without being limited by the narrow boxes and penetrate the secret of the hidden meaning in every culture

  15. Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    LIUJi-Hong; XUXiao-Yong; DENGXiu-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleavedamplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti) and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids. SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybnd plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both pnmer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents, indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations. The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.

  16. Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ orange-red phosphor

    Yang, Zaifa; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue; Sun, Yumei; Du, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Reddish-orange emitting phosphors, Sr3Gd): Sm3+, were successfully synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction. The crystal structure of the phosphors was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The excitation spectra and emission spectra were utilized to characterize the luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors. The results show that the phosphor consisted of some sharp emission peaks of Sm3+ ions centered at 564, 600, 647, and 707 nm, respectively. The critical distance of Sr3Gd0.93): 0.07Sm3+ was calculated to be 19.18 Å and the lifetime value of the sample was 1.63 ms. The band gap of Sr3Gd) was estimated to be about 2.74 eV from the diffuse reflection spectrum. The optimum doping concentration is 7 mol. % and the quenching occurs via dipole-dipole interaction according to Dexter's theory. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage value of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ phosphors presented that it has high color purity. These results indicated that the Sr3Gd): Sm3+ may be a promising reddish-orange emitting phosphor for cost-effective near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

  17. MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN

    The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fu...

  18. Risk factors for meconium stained amniotic fluid and its implications

    Ramya Sundaram

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Meconium stained amniotic fluid is associated with a higher incidence of operative deliveries resulting in an increased maternal morbidity. It is also associated with an increased neonatal morbidity due to birth asphyxia and respiratory depression at birth and a significant risk of neonatal mortality due to meconium aspiration syndrome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2503-2506

  19. A conservative approach to esthetically treat stained arrested caries lesions.

    Al-Angari, Sarah S; Hara, Anderson T

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic treatment of stained arrested caries lesions (ACLs) has mostly been done using invasive restorative techniques. The aim of this paper was to propose and report the efficacy of a conservative approach based on dental bleaching to esthetically treat these lesions, both experimentally (extracted teeth) and clinically. In a laboratory experiment, ten extracted human teeth with stained ACLs in either pit and fissure or smooth surface were selected and treated with 15% carbamide peroxide gel, 4 h per day, for a total of 6 days. The second part of the paper reports a clinical case of pit and fissure-stained ACLs in four posterior teeth, which were treated with 40% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching. Digital photographs were taken in both parts to document the efficacy of the treatment. The lesions showed noticeable increase in color lightness indicating the efficacy and suitability of the proposed approach. By using the conservative clinical technique presented, the esthetics of most stained ACLs could be improved, eliminating the need for invasive restorative treatments. PMID:27092359

  20. Analysis of Oxiclean: An Interesting Comparison of Percarbonate Stain Removers

    Bracken, Jeffrey D.; Tietz, David

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on percarbonate-based stain removers since the percarbonate can be heated to produce additional sodium carbonate. An experiment that provides general chemistry students an opportunity to apply their knowledge of basic stoichiometry to solve a relevant, real-world problem is described.

  1. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Monse, B.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Black stain is defined as dark pigmented exogenous substance in lines or dots parallel to the gingival margin and firmly adherent to the enamel at the cervical third of the tooth crowns in the primary and permanent dentition. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of black sta

  2. Color and dichroism of silver-stained glasses

    Yellow decorations in glasses have been produced since the beginning of the fourteenth century by incorporating metallic silver nanoparticles into the glass (from a few to some tens of nanometers). The optical response of the glass-particles composite is determined by the surface plasmon resonance absorption and scattering of the nanometric metallic particles. Generally, the same color is perceived in reflection and in transmission although dichroic effects are occasionally observed. As silver-stained glasses were designed to be observed in transmission, tuning the transmission color from yellow to red was of technological interest. The relationship between the color observed both in transmission and reflection and the composition and nanostructure of regular (yellow) and dichroic (yellow and red) silver stains from the Renaissance (late fifteenth and sixteenth century, respectively) is related to the presence of a layer (of about 10–20 μm thick) of metallic silver nanoparticles (from few to 100 nm in size). The correlation between the colors observed and the silver stain nanostructure is studied with particular emphasis on the origin of the dichroic behavior. The optical response is computed and compared to the experimental data. Differences in the synthesis parameters responsible for the colors and for the dichroic behavior of the silver stain glasses are proposed. This is essential for the replication of the glass pieces which are required as replacements in the restoration/conservation of the windows but is also of broader interest

  3. Color and dichroism of silver-stained glasses

    Molina, Gloria [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Center for Research in NanoEngineering (Spain); Murcia, Sonia [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales (Spain); Molera, Judit [Universitat de Vic, GRTD, Escola Politecnica Superior (Spain); Roldan, Clodoaldo [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales (Spain); Crespo, Daniel; Pradell, Trinitat, E-mail: Trinitat.Pradell@upc.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Center for Research in NanoEngineering (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Yellow decorations in glasses have been produced since the beginning of the fourteenth century by incorporating metallic silver nanoparticles into the glass (from a few to some tens of nanometers). The optical response of the glass-particles composite is determined by the surface plasmon resonance absorption and scattering of the nanometric metallic particles. Generally, the same color is perceived in reflection and in transmission although dichroic effects are occasionally observed. As silver-stained glasses were designed to be observed in transmission, tuning the transmission color from yellow to red was of technological interest. The relationship between the color observed both in transmission and reflection and the composition and nanostructure of regular (yellow) and dichroic (yellow and red) silver stains from the Renaissance (late fifteenth and sixteenth century, respectively) is related to the presence of a layer (of about 10-20 {mu}m thick) of metallic silver nanoparticles (from few to 100 nm in size). The correlation between the colors observed and the silver stain nanostructure is studied with particular emphasis on the origin of the dichroic behavior. The optical response is computed and compared to the experimental data. Differences in the synthesis parameters responsible for the colors and for the dichroic behavior of the silver stain glasses are proposed. This is essential for the replication of the glass pieces which are required as replacements in the restoration/conservation of the windows but is also of broader interest.

  4. Amalgam stained dentin: a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?

    J.D. Scholtanus

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the use of dental amalgam is mostly abandoned and substituted by tooth colored resin composites that can be bonded to teeth tissues by adhesive techniques. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether dark stained dentin, as often observed after removal of amalgam restorations and attribu

  5. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 14

    Lyon, Hans O

    2013-01-01

    In the 14(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) the BSC's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meetings of ISO/TC 212/WG 3, In vitro diagnostic products, and from the final plenary meeting of ISO/TC 212, Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro...

  6. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 5

    Lyon, H O; Dapson, R W

    2009-01-01

    In this fifth issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory Affairs, the BSC's International Affairs Committee provides more information from the meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Committee that took place on June 2-4, 2008 at...

  7. Color stability and staining of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia;

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on color stability and staining susceptibility of a silorane-based composite material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Cylindrical specimens (n=24) were fabricated from...... acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water (control) for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. A staining test was performed (n=12) after 21 days of chemical challenge by immersion in coffee during 3 weeks at 37°C. Color changes (¿E) were characterized using the CIEL*a*b* color...... methacrylate-based resins stored in ethanol were significantly (p<0.05) more stained by coffee (Filtek Z250 ¿E=24.1±1.1; Filtek Z350XT ¿E=24.0±2.9; Master Fill ¿E=12.8±0.6) than the ones stored in other media, while the silorane-based material demonstrated no staining (Filtek P90 ¿E=2.0±0.6), regardless of the...

  8. Kehidupan Wayang Orang Sriwedari dalam Perspektif Determinasi Penari Rol

    Hersapandi Hersapandi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Penari rol atau penari bintang dalam Wayang Orang memiliki kualifi kasi sangat baik dalam menjalankan perannya, penguasaan keterampilan dan pengetahuan yang tinggi, dan kemampuan mengembangkan karakter peran yang dilakukan. Keterampilan kompetitif unggul tentu menjadi ikon untuk menyerap perhatian audien. Ikon peran terletak pada penonton. Oleh karena itu, seorang penari bintang perlu memiliki semangat tersebut untuk memotivasi kehidupan kelompok Wayang Orang. Kemampuan aktingnya mencerminkan suatu totalitas kesenian aktor dalam kehidupan pribadinya, yaitu untuk menjaga kualitas seorang penari profesional kuat sebagai agen. Aktor ini sering tampak melindungi karismanya. Dia selalu mencoba untuk melakukan sebanyak mungkin, sehingga ia tidak perlu membuat penari baru lainnya untuk menggantikannya. Alasannya adalah penari baru dianggap sebagai pesaing yang dapat menggantikan posisi potensi ekonomi. Semangat kinerja Wayang Orang adalah kualitas artistik penari bintang yang menyatakan simbol dan nilai artistik yang diperlukan oleh para penonton.Kata kunci: Wayang Orang, bintang penari, manajemen seni.ABSTRACTSriwedari Wayang Orang Performance. The term “rol” dancer or star dancer refers to the main dancer who becomes the star in wayang orang. It has an excellent qualifi cation in performing his/her role, an excellent mastery of knowledge and skills, and capability of developing the characters of the role that s/he performs. His/her superior competitive skills certainly become an icon for absorbing the audiens’ attention. Since the icon role lies on the audience, a star dancer needs to have such skills to motivate the life of the wayang orang group. As an agent, his/her acting skills have refl ected a totality of the actor’s artistry in his/her private life, i.e. to keep professional dancer’s quality stronger as a whole.The agent has as individudal and inttelectual integrity as a professional actor. The actor often seems to protect his

  9. Gamma ray Induced Light-orange Flower Mutant in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. and its inheritance

    A. Mothilal* and M. Jayaramachandran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf mutant plant having small leaves and light-orange flower was identified in the M2 generation from gammaray treated groundnut cultivar VRI 2. The mutant bred true in successive generations. An investigation was made toknow the genetics of light-orange flower in groundnut mutant. The Spanish bunch cultivar VRI 2 having orangeflower was crossed with the light-orange flower mutant. The F1 plants exhibited orange flower indicating that theorange colour is governed by dominant gene. However, the F2 population segregated as 3 orange: 1 light-orangeflower indicating the light-orange flower trait is governed by a single recessive gene.

  10. A Study of Regional Brand Positioning Strategy for Linhai Orange Based on Soft Laddering

    Ying; TAO; Yueli; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,Means-End Chain Theory is used for the positioning strategy study on regional brand of Linhai Orange,and based on soft laddering method,33 Linhai Orange consumers are interviewed. By understanding the individual needs of Linhai Orange consumers,this paper establishes the " Attributes-Consequences-Value" matrix and hierarchical value map. This study aims to explore the regional brand positioning strategy of Linhai Orange,in order to promote the regional brand building and extension of Linhai Orange and enhance the sustained regional brand development of Linhai Orange.

  11. Colorful and transparent poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films filled with layered zinc hydroxide salts, intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes (methyl orange and orange II)

    Highlights: ► Zinc hydroxide salts were successfully intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes. ► The anionic dye was co-intercalated with hydrated chloride anions. ► The orange materials were used as fillers for poly(vinyl alcohol). ► Transparent, homogeneous, colorful PVA films were obtained by wet casting. ► Some composites stored at lower humidity exhibited improved mechanical properties. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide salts (zinc LHS) were intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes, namely methyl orange (MO) and orange II (OII), and co-intercalated with hydrated chloride anions. After characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the materials were used as fillers for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Colorful transparent films were obtained by wet casting, revealing good dispersion of the material into the polymer. In the case of zinc LHS/OII, PVA was intercalated between the zinc LHS layers. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the PVA composite films revealed that the layered colorful materials were able to increase the mechanical properties of the PVA films only when the films were stored under lower relative humidity. As expected, films with higher water content displayed reduced tensile strength and modulus because of the plasticizing effect of water. As for the films stored at 43% relative humidity, more pronounced improvement of modulus was observed for 1 and 4% zinc LHS/OII, and enhanced tensile strength was achieved for 0.5 and 1% zinc LHS/OII. This effect can be attributed to better dispersion of the layered filler and its better adhesion to the PVA matrix.

  12. Development of a preparation and staining method for fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood : Simultaneous immunocytochemical staining and FISH analysis

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; van den Burg, MJM; Beverstock, GC; Bernini, LF; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    In order to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood, a protocol was developed which aimed at producing a reliable staining method for combined immunocytochemical and FISH analysis. The technique had to be suitable for eventual automated screening of slides. Chorionic villi w

  13. PRof ILE of ORANGE CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES TO MINIMALLY PROCESSED ‘PERA’ ORANGE IN MUNICIPALITIES of THE STATE of SÃO PAULO

    Maria Cecília de Arruda PALHARINI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the prof ile of orange consumption and consumer attitude to minimally processed orange. Seven hundred and seventeen questionnaires were applied in commercial establishments in three municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Main results of this research are: orange is a highly appreciated fruit, being consumed in natura and also as its natural juice, moreover orange is purchased weekly at hypermarkets, the purchase intent for minimally processed orange was low and the likely consumers’ willingness of paying for that product would be near 200% over the ‘in natura’ fruit. Considering the high consume of ‘in natura’ orange and the increasing need for convenience and practicality, it is possible to affirm that there is a potential for commercializing minimally processed orange.

  14. Supra­molecular inter­actions in a 1:1 co-crystal of acridine and 3-chloro­thio­phene-2-carb­oxy­lic acid

    Prajina, Olakkandiyil; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-01-01

    In the title co-crystal, C5H3ClO2S·C13H9N, the components inter­act with each other via an O—H⋯N hydrogen bond. Acridine–acridine stacking, thio­phene–thio­phene stacking and acridine–thio­phene C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur in the crystal.

  15. Stability of unpasteurized and refrigerated orange juice

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of orange juice obtained from a small extractor and stored in a polyethylene bottle was assessed under isothermal and non-isothermal storage conditions at 4, 8 and 12ºC for 72 hours. pH, titratable acidity and Brix did not alter significantly during the 72 hours storage. Microbiological analysis showed high initial count for moulds and yeasts that increased in the juice stored for 72h under the non-isothermal conditions with temperature abuse (12��C/4h. Date of the sensory evaluation showed a small reduction in product acceptance in this condition. The juice, in the recommended validity period (48h, presented losses of less than 20% of the initial ascorbic acid content regardless of the treatment. However, after this time, the degradation became accentuated reaching, at 72h storage, retentions of 72 to 85%.Desenvolvimento microbiano, ação enzimática e reações químicas influenciam a qualidade de suco de laranja natural não-pasteurizado, podendo comprometer características sensoriais e provocar perdas nutricionais. A estabilidade do suco, obtido em extrator de pequeno porte e acondicionado em embalagem de polietileno, foi avaliada em condições isotérmicas e não-isotérmicas de armazenamento em temperaturas entre 4 e 12ºC por 72h. Valores de pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis totais não se alteraram significativamente ao longo do armazenamento em todas as condições. Resultados da análise microbiológica mostraram alta contagem inicial de bolores e leveduras, que aumentaram no suco armazenado por 72h na condição não isotérmica onde houve abuso de temperatura (12ºC por 4h. Os testes sensoriais mostraram uma pequena redução na aceitação do produto nessa mesma condição. Constatou-se que o suco, no período preconizado como prazo de validade (48h, apresentou perdas inferiores a 20% do teor inicial de ácido ascórbico, independentemente do tratamento. A partir deste momento, a degradação se

  16. Oranges and Sunshine: The Story of a Traumatic Encounter

    Dolores Herrero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will rely on some well-known theories on trauma, memory and ethics to study how Jim Loach’s debut film Oranges and Sunshine (2010 testifies to the traumatic deportation of up to 150,000 British children to distant parts of the Empire, mainly Australia, until 1970. Oranges and Sunshine was based on Margaret Humphreys’ moving memoir, originally entitled Empty Cradles (1994 but later re-titled Oranges and Sunshine after Loach’s film. What these two texts basically claim is the need to recover historic memory through heart-breaking acts of remembrance, which can alone denounce the atrocities that were concomitant with the colonial enterprise and pave the way for disclosing and working through individual and collective traumas.

  17. Semangat Islam Dalam Kebudayaan Orang Bugis-Makassar

    Abu Hamid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pembahasan masalah semangat dan etos sosial tidak terlepas dari jangkauan sistem budaya masyarakat. Sistem budaya adalah abstrak, tak dapat dilihat dan diraba, ia identik pada komunitas, berada di kepala dan sukma tiap orang dalam komunitas tersebut, terdiri atas konsep-konsep, gagasan ide-ide dan kepercayaan yang diterima setiap orang dari hasil perkembangan kebudayaannya. Sadar atau tidak sadar, manusia terpengaruh dan menerima berbagai warisan, ajaran, kepercayaan dan ideologi tertentu dan hasil kerja komunitasnya melalui internalisasi sejak ia lahir dari dalam rumah tangga serta pengeruh dari lingkungan hidupnya tempat manusia tersebut bertumbuh. Kalau tradisi budaya masyarakat telah diserapi oleh setiap orang, maka perilakunya hampir menjadi otomatis, tanpa disadari perilakunya itu sudah diterima secara sosial.

  18. Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent

    M. R. Mafra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. The time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated.

  19. A Novel Fluorescence Probe 9-(4-(1,2-diamine)benzene-N1-phenyl)acridine for Nitric Oxide Determination

    DING Liyun; YUAN Fang; HUANG Lanfen; HUANG Jun; LIU Xiaofang; LIANG Bing

    2014-01-01

    A novel fluorescent probe 9-(4-(1,2-diamine)benzene-N1-phenyl)acridine (DABPA) was synthesized for the detection of nitric oxide (NO) and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and EI-MS spectroscopy. Based on a photoelectron transfer mechanism, the fluorescence intensities of DABPA were investigated with the different concentrations of NO. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the fluorescence intensity of DABPA had a good linear relationship (R2=0.9977) with NO concentration in the range from 1×10-7 to 1.5×10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 1×10-8 mol/L. The cytotoxicity induced by DABPA was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay for biological application. Furthermore, the probe DABPA had also been successfully applied to real-time image NO produced in PC12 cells in the presence of L-arginine.

  20. Development of Cell Staining Technique for X-Ray Microscopy

    We report a technique for detection of sub-cellular organelles and proteins with hard x-ray microscopy. Several metals were used for enhancing contrast for x-ray microscopy. Osmium tetroxide provides an excellent stain for lipid and can delineate cell membrane. Uranyl acetate has high affinity for nucleotide and can stain nucleus. Immunolocalization of specific proteins and sub-cellular organelles was achieved by 3'3 diaminobenzidine (DAB) with nickel enhancement and nanogold-conjugated secondary antibody with silver enhancement. The x-rays emitted from synchrotron source was monochromatized by double crystal monochromator, the photon energy was fixed at 8 keV to optimize the focusing efficiency of the zone plates. The estimated resolution is about 60 nm. When compared with visible light and conventional confocal microscopy, the X-ray microscopy provides a superior resolution to both conventional optical microscopes

  1. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  2. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia developing within a port wine stain.

    Manton, Robert N; Itinteang, Tinte; de Jong, Sophie; Brasch, Helen D; Tan, Swee T

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male with a port wine stain on the base of his neck presented with a 5-month history of gradual thickening of the involved skin which interfered with clothing and caused repeated bleeding. The lesion was excised and histopathologic examination revealed angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) arising from the pre-existing port wine stain - a rare finding with only one previously reported case. Additionally the lesion was associated with elevated serum renin levels which virtually normalized following excision of the lesion. We further demonstrated the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptors 1 and 2 by the lesion and discuss the possible role of the renin-angiotensin system in this condition. PMID:26010041

  3. Heparin reduces nonspecific eosinophil staining artifacts in mass cytometry experiments.

    Rahman, Adeeb H; Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of heterogeneous cell samples by mass cytometry (CyTOF) relies on the assumption that metal labeled antibodies accurately bind to their target antigens. We report a previously unappreciated experimental artifact of non-specific antibody binding by eosinophils during intracellular CyTOF analysis of human whole blood samples. We hypothesized that this non-specific binding results from a charge-based interaction between the metal-labeled antibodies and highly cationic proteins found in eosinophillic granules and found that this non-specific staining artifact could be reduced to background levels with a simple blocking protocol using heparin as a competing anionic protein. This protocol eliminates a potential source of erroneous data interpretation in all experiments involving intracellular staining of human whole blood samples, and allows accurate assessment of dynamic changes in intracellular proteins in eosinophils by CyTOF. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27061608

  4. Cement line staining in undecalcified thin sections of cortical bone

    Bain, S. D.; Impeduglia, T. M.; Rubin, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for demonstrating cement lines in thin, undecalcified, transverse sections of cortical bone has been developed. Cortical bone samples are processed and embedded undecalcified in methyl methacrylate plastic. After sectioning at 3-5 microns, cross-sections are transferred to a glass slide and flattened for 10 min. Sections of cortical bone are stained for 20 sec free-floating in a fresh solution of 1% toluidine blue dissolved in 0.1% formic acid. The section is dehydrated in t-butyl alcohol, cleared in xylene, and mounted with Eukitt's medium. Reversal lines appear as thin, scalloped, dark blue lines against a light blue matrix, whereas bone formation arrest lines are thicker with a smooth contour. With this technique cellular detail, osteoid differentiation, and fluorochrome labels are retained. Results demonstrate the applicability of a one-step staining method for cement lines which will facilitate the assessment of bone remodeling activity in thin sections of undecalcified cortical bone.

  5. Standard test method for determination of resistance to staining

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method is intended to determine the resistance to staining of ceramic tile surfaces. 1.2 The resistance to staining is determined by maintaining test solutions in contact with ceramic tile surfaces for a specified period of time. After exposure, the surface is cleaned in a defined manner, and the test specimens are inspected visually for change. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Simulating the colour of port wine stain skin

    Lister, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Currently, laser treatments for Port Wine Stain (PWS) lesions are considered the choice therapy, but response is poor or treatments are ineffective for around half of patients. It is proposed in this thesis that improvements to the effectiveness of laser treatment can be achieved through the acquisition of estimated PWS vessel number density, depths and diameters for each individual lesion. Information regarding PWS vessel architecture is found to be contained within the colour of the lesion....

  7. Crystal violet staining to quantity Candida adhesion to epithelial cells

    Negri, M.; Gonçalves, Vera M.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies of adhesion capability are essential to characterise the virulence of Candida species. However, the assessment of adhesion by traditional methods is timeconsuming. The aim of the present study is the development of a simple methodology using crystal violet staining to quantify in vitro adhesion of different Candida species to epithelial cells. The experiments are performed using Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), C. glabrata (ATCC 2001), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) and C. tropic...

  8. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions

    Guignone, Bruna Coser; Silva, Ludimila Karsbergen; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Akaki, Emilio; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; PITHON, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions. METHODS: Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18) according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva). The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA), Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA), Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA) a...

  9. Stains and Stories: Latent narrative in worn clothing

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Stains and Stories is a series of textile-based installations and limited-edition prints, which form part of an ongoing project to examine perceived latent matter (memories and experiences) in worn clothing. The work seeks to present complex ideas about easily accessible objects (clothes), in order to provoke contemplation about human experience and enhance psychological knowledge. I consulted with Dr. Alison Fendley, Senior Biologist at the Forensic Science Service, in developing approa...

  10. Dye staining and excavation of a lateral preferential flow network

    Anderson, A.E.; Weiler, M.; Alila, Y.; Hudson, R. O.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Preferential flow features have been found to be important for runoff generation, solute transport, and slope stability in many areas around the world. Although many studies have identified the particular characteristics of individual features and measured the runoff generation and solute transport within hillslopes, no studies have determined how individual features are hydraulically connected at a hillslope scale. In this study, we used dye staining and excavation ...

  11. Perinatal and neonatal outcome in meconium stained amniotic fluid

    Shazia Qadir; Sami Jan; Javaid A Chachoo; Shameem parveen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meconium passage in new born is a developmentally programmed event normally occurring within the first 24 to 48 hours after birth. Intrauterine meconium passage in near-term or term fetuses has been associated with fetomaternal stress factor like hypoxia and infection independent of fetal maturity. The incidence of meconium stained amniotic fluid is 1-18%. The objective of this study was to correlate the presence of meconium in amniotic fluid with perinatal outcome. Methods: A...

  12. Hirschsprung's disease diagnosis: Comparison of immunohistochemical, hematoxilin and eosin staining

    Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Talebi, Ardeshir; Edalaty, Masod; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Vahidi, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is based on the absence of ganglion cells. In hemotoxilin and eosin (H and E) as well as acetylcholine esterase staining there are limitations in the diagnosis of immature ganglion cells in neonates. Methods: In this prospective study, 54 biopsies taken from suspected HD patients (five mucosal specimens and 49 full thickness specimens) were studied. In the laboratory, after preparing sections of paraffin embedded tissues, H and E staini...

  13. Cell Type Related Differences in Staining with Pentameric Thiophene Derivatives

    Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur; Bäck, Marcus; Magnusson, Karin; Vilas Jain, Mayur; Rafat, Mehrdad; Ghavami, Saeid; Nilsson, Peter R.; Los, Marek Jan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent compounds capable of staining cells selectively without affecting their viability are gaining importance in biology and medicine. Recently, a new family of optical dyes, denoted luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), has emerged as an interesting class of highly emissive molecules for studying various biological phenomena. Properly functionalized LCOs have been utilized for selective identification of disease-associated protein aggregates and for selective detection of dis...

  14. Study of stained glass window using PIXE-PIGE

    We had the opportunity to study a large panel (100x80cm) containing more than 40 stained glass pieces. Among them several come from restorations having taken place at different periods. The study of this rather complex arrangement has been processed by stages:- the elemental composition of 16 zones were determined: several differences were identified and among them the Na/K ratio which allowed to set three groups of glass type; - the measurement of the Na concentrations by the two techniques give information in bulk (PIGE) and at the near surface (PIXE); the values defined by the (CPIGE-CPIXE))/CPIGE plotted in function of the historical estimation of the age of the stained glass pieces (original and restored) indicate a real correlation between the two variables; - the red-colored pieces were specially investigated in order to determine which coloration technique was employed (bulk coloration, superficial staining, multilayered flashing, etc.); - the corrosion was investigated by scanning two different worsened zones with a 0.5mm diameter beam spot. This study shows the possibilities of the PIGE-PIXE association, but also points out some weaknesses, which have to be solved by other techniques; unfortunately, in that case, the non-destructive aspect could be lost

  15. Evaluation of surviving fraction using nonclonogenic staining densitometry method

    This study was performed to compare our nonclonogenic survival assay (densitometry assay, DM assay) with the widely used clonogenic assay. The established cell lines (HaLa, RMUG, IMR, GOTO) were grown in F 10 medium. The cells were spread in 24-well plates, irradiated with different doses, cultured for about one week and stained with crystal violet after the culture period. Taking the transparent images of the stained well on the light source with the CCD camera, the images were collected with the matrix size 64 x 64, and the integrated optical density of the entire surface of each well was determined by computer with our original program. As the number of cells in the well is reflected by its staining density, the surviving fraction was calculated as the fraction of growth in the irradiated wells relative to controls. The survival curves obtained by the densitometry method showed good correlations with those obtained by clonogenic assay. It is possible to predict intrinsic radiosensitivity with this assay, even if the cells do not form good colonies. However, this method is based on measurements in cultures which depend on the metabolism and growth kinetics of the irradiated cells. Cells should grow exponetially in the same manner in any well to obtain a result similar to that of clonogenic assay, although growth kinetics may be altered by irradiation. This, the endpoint must be strictly standardized. (author)

  16. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.;

    2011-01-01

    -specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (Ne) expanded exponentially....... Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (Ne) expanded exponentially...

  17. Text mining library for Orange data mining suite

    Novak, David

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a text mining system that can be used as an add-on for Orange, a data mining platform. Orange envelops a set of supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods that benefit a typical text mining platform and therefore offers an excellent foundation for development. We have studied the field of text mining and reviewed several open-source toolkits to define its base components. We have included widgets that enable retrieval of data from remote repositories, such as PubMe...

  18. Canadian Orange Juice Imports and Production Level Import Demand

    Liu, Yan; Kilmer, Richard L.; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2007-01-01

    Import demand equations are estimated in order to identify the own-, cross-price, and volume elasticities that can be used to determine the best marketing strategy to increase U.S. orange juice gallons in the Canadian import market. This study uses the firm’s version of production differential, AIDS, CBS, and NBR models. An expansion of total Canadian orange juice import gallons using advertising favors the U.S. much more than it does the other three origins investigated— Brazil, Mexico, ...

  19. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  20. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of...

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of... Office of Energy Projects has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove...

  1. 78 FR 55214 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    2013-09-10

    ...; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast....T.) boat races to be held on the Neches River in Orange, TX from 3 p.m. on September 20,...

  2. 77 FR 47519 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    2012-08-09

    ...; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce Special Local Regulations for the S.P.O.R.T. Power Boat Neches River in Orange,...

  3. 75 FR 1010 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange...

    2010-01-07

    ..., Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN On December 18, 2009, CSX Transportation, Inc... Albany, in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN.\\1\\ The line traverses...

  4. How prevalent are Plasmodium ovale and P. malariae in East Asia?

    Kawamoto, F; Liu, Q; Ferreira, M U; Tantular, I S

    1999-10-01

    Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae, two of the four human malaria parasites, are usually found at very low prevalence in East Asia, even in areas with intense malaria transmission. In this article, Fumihiko Kawamoto, Qing Liu, Marcelo Ferreira and Indah Tantular review data obtained in recent field surveys, using alternative diagnostic methods such as acridine orange staining and PCR-based methods, to evaluate the prevalence of these two malaria species in East Asia. They argue that these species might be much more prevalent in East Asia than reported previously. In addition, they discuss the implications of sequence variations found in the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of the two species targeted by diagnostic PCR and compare morphological criteria for speciation of malaria parasites stained with Giemsa and acridine orange. PMID:10481157

  5. Comparison of p63 staining intensity between re-cut sections andde-stained sections of patient specimens with lung cancer

    Mehran Ghahremani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 6 Mar, 2008; Accepted 18 Apr, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Several studies have been carried out on re-cut and de-stained sections regarding prostate biopsies and cytologic specimens of squamous cell carcinoma. However, few studies on lung biopsy are done. Due to small size of lung biopsies and for the prevention of lung rebiopsy, in this study P63 staining intensity between re-cut and de-stained slides of patients, specimens with lung cancer is researched.Materials and methods: This cross section study was performed on 100 patient specimens with lung cancer. We compared p63 staining intensity between re-cut and de-stained sections in lung cancer through 2 month intervals, until the 10th. Month after lung biopsy by immuno-histochemistry methods. Chi-square test was used for comparing the differences and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Technical tissue fall in the slide was not seen. 93.93 % of SCC was stained by p63. None of small cell carcinoma was stained by p63. In the first 2 months, 53.34% of de-stained section’s had similar staining intensity, compared with re-cut sections, and 46.66% were decreased in staining intensity and none of them were negative. During 2 to 10 months of storing, 38.98% of de-stained section’s had similar staining intensity, 45, (77% were decreased in staining intensity, while 15.25% were negative.Conclusion: With respect to results of this study and other studies, staining of p63 on re-cut and de-stained sections of lung cancer specimens in the first two months can be helpful. However, in the specimens which were stored for more than 2 months, we found no significant results.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(69: 1-6 (Persian

  6. Epidemiology of intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli school children in rural Malaysia.

    Ahmed K Al-Delaimy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia.Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls, and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, Kato-Katz, and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and personal hygiene information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 98.4% of the children were found to be infected by at least one parasite species. Of these, 71.4% had polyparasitism. The overall prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. infections were 95.6%, 47.8%, 28.3%, 28.3%, 14.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, presence of other family members infected with intestinal parasitic infections (IPI, not washing vegetables before consumption, absence of a toilet in the house, not wearing shoes when outside, not cutting nails periodically, and not washing hands before eating were significant risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism among these children.Intestinal polyparasitism is highly prevalent among children in the peninsular Malaysian Aboriginal communities. Hence, effective and sustainable control measures, including school-based periodic chemotherapy, providing adequate health education focused on good personal hygiene practices and proper sanitation, as well as safe drinking water supply should be implemented to reduce the prevalence and consequences of these infections in this population.

  7. A Study of Regional Brand Positioning Strategy for Linhai Orange Based on Soft Laddering

    Tao, Ying; Zhang, Yueli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Means-End Chain Theory is used for the positioning strategy study on regional brand of Linhai Orange, and based on soft laddering method, 33 Linhai Orange consumers are interviewed. By understanding the individual needs of Linhai Orange consumers, this paper establishes the "Attributes- Consequences-Value" matrix and hierarchical value map. This study aims to explore the regional brand positioning strategy of Linhai Orange, in order to promote the regional brand building and ex...

  8. Effect of water dilution and alcohol mixing on erosive potential of orange juice on bovine enamel

    P. Malara; A. Kloc-Ptaszna; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Górniak; Stefański, T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the changes of erosive potential of an orange juice before and after mixing with water and alcohol.Design/methodology/approach: Fifty enamel specimens obtained from bovine teeth were prepared and randomly assigned into the following groups (n=10) with different erosive solution: I. commercially available pure orange juice (Cappy, Coca Cola Co.), II. orange juice diluted with distilled water at a ratio 3:1 (v/v), III. orange juice mixed with vodka...

  9. Market Power and Supply Shocks: Evidence from the Orange Juice Market

    Wang, Honglin; Xiang, Qing; Reardon, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The orange juice market is a weather market because of its high geographical concentration and the natural characteristics of orange trees. A few hours of a freeze in Florida is enough to cause a supply shock to the orange juice market. How do oligopolistic firms react to supply shocks do they become more collusive or more competitive? This paper empirically examines the proposition and finds that the level of market power of orange juice firms decreases significantly, and the market becomes ...

  10. Willingness to Pay for PEF-processed Orange Juice: Evidence from an Auction Experiment

    Chern, Wen S.; Kaneko, Naoya; Tarakcioglu, Gulay Babadogan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental auctions of the orange juice processed with the pulsed electric field (PEF) technology. A series of experimental auctions are conducted to elicit consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for the PEF orange juice along with WTP for three other types of orange juice: unprocessed (fresh), thermally processed not-from-concentrate, and thermally processed from-concentrate orange juice. We adopt the second-price sealed-bid auction. With this auction method...

  11. HUBUNGAN RASIO LINGKAR PERUT PANGGUL DENGAN RESIKO PENYAKIT KARDIOVASKULER PADA ORANG DEWASA

    Astuti Lamid; Abas Basuni Jahari; Djoko Kartono; Dwi Prijatmoko; Y. Krisdinamurtirin; Sri Murni Prastowo

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian hubungan antara rasio lingkar perut dan panggul (RLPP) dengan resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler pada orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun telah dilaksanakan di kecamatan Bogor Barat, Kodya Bogor. Dari 1145 orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun yang telah diukur, diambil secara random 54 orang sebagai sampel yang mempunyai RLPP tinggi (>0.85) dan 54 orang pembanding dengan RLPP rendah (<0.05). Data yang dikumpulkan pada sampel dan pembanding meliputi antropometri, faktor resiko penyak...

  12. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: xiazhenyuan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  13. Technique and Feasibility of a Dual Staining Method for Estrogen Receptors and AgNORs

    Günther, Lukas; Hufnagl, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A new staining method for dual demonstration of Estrogen receptors (ER) and argyrophilc Nucleolus‐Organizer Regions (AgNORs) was developed. To rule out possible reciprocal effects, serial slides of 10 invasive ductale breast cancers were stained with either the single staining method or the simultaneous ER/AgNOR‐staining method and investigated comparatively. By measuring the slides with the image analysis system AMBA, reciprocal effects could be excluded. It was proven that dual staining of ...

  14. The effect of corrosion on stained glass windows

    Laissner, Johanna

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Stained glass windows belong to the most important cultural heritage of Europe. Within the last decades a disastrous deterioration took place. The wonderful stained glass windows and their glass paintings as pieces of art are acutely menaced by environmental corrosive influences. This corrosion process is a very complex reaction which is not only influenced by temperature and humidity changes but also by gaseous pollutants like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or ozone, by dust and air, microorganisms as well as synergetic interactions. Strongly affected by these environmental attacks are medieval stained glasses due to their chemical composition. They have a low content in silica and high contents of modifier ions (e.g. potassium and calcium. The corrosion phenomena can range from predominantly pitting on the surface to the formation of thick corrosion crusts which are turning the panel opaque and thus reducing strongly the transparency of the windows. In order to set up a conservation and restoration concept, it is necessary to know about the environmental conditions to which the stained glass windows are exposed. For this purpose very corrosion sensitive model glasses (so called glass sensors were developed which have a similar chemical composition as historic stained glasses. They exhibit the same corrosion reactions but react much faster, and are now widely used to estimate corrosive stresses on stained glass windows to give basic information about the corrosive impacts which work on the historic glasses. In this paper principle corrosion mechanisms of stained glass windows and their enhancing factors are discussed. For the evaluation of the environmental impact, the application of glass sensors is demonstrated.

    Las vidrieras coloreadas pertenecen al legado cultural más importante de Europa. En las últimas décadas se ha producido en ellas un desastroso deterioro. Las maravillosas vidrieras coloreadas y sus policromías est

  15. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  16. Production and Price Effects of New Diseases and Other Challenges Confronting the Processed Orange Industry

    Thomas H. Spreen; Brown, Mark G.; Jauregui, Carlos E.

    2008-01-01

    Sao Paulo and Florida are the primary producers of orange juice. Both regions face production challenges. In this paper, a model of the world orange juice market is used to analyze the effect of citrus greening and high sugarcane prices on the production and price of orange juice.

  17. Toward Efficient Orange Emissive Carbon Nanodots through Conjugated sp(2) -Domain Controlling and Surface Charges Engineering.

    Qu, Songnan; Zhou, Ding; Li, Di; Ji, Wenyu; Jing, Pengtao; Han, Dong; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Haibo; Shen, Dezhen

    2016-05-01

    A strategy of achieving efficient orange emissive carbon nanodots (CNDs) with large sized conjugated sp(2) -domain is achieved in a solvothermal synthetic route using dimethylformamide as solvent, which is the basis of orange bandgap emission; enhanced orange emission with photoluminescent quantum yield of 46% is realized through surface charges engineering by surface metal-cation-functionalization. PMID:26919550

  18. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  19. 77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    2012-10-16

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012). See also USITC Publication 4311 (April 2012), titled Certain Orange... Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20,...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  1. 76 FR 30754 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Riverside and Orange Counties...

    2011-05-26

    ...: Riverside and Orange Counties, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed highway project in Riverside and Orange... in Riverside and Orange Counties. The State Route 91 Corridor Improvement Project proposes to...

  2. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  3. 76 FR 19315 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    2011-04-07

    ... certain orange juice from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR... Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore... Administrative Review, 75 FR 9162 (Mar. 1, 2010). In accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b)(2), in March 2010,...

  4. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This...

  5. 75 FR 18794 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    2010-04-13

    ... Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006) (OJ Order). Subsequently, on March 2, 2009, the...; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore, the scope of this... Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  7. 76 FR 50176 - Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    2011-08-12

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Administrative Review, 74 FR 40167 (Aug. 11, 2009); and Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of... Orange Juice from Brazil, 72 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006). These deposit requirements shall remain in...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta is scheduled to take place from Tuesday, December 27, 2011 through Friday,...

  10. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  11. HLB effects on the flavor of orange juice

    The citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been reported to affect orange fruit and juice flavor, but until now was never well documented. Sensory and chemical flavor studies were conducted to compare juice from fruit harvested from healthy trees to juice from asymptomatic and sy...

  12. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  13. Gamma radiation and the conservation of natural orange juice

    The effect of gamma radiation was evaluated on the microbiological population, soluble solids content, acidity, p H and ascorbic acid content of natural orange juice. Microbial activity may cause deterioration of orange juice. Irradiation is a process of food conservation which eliminates microorganisms. nevertheless radiation may affect some characteristics of irradiated food. The experimental design was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, including control and 3 rates of irradiation (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kGy) and 5 storage periods (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), with 2 replicates. Samples of juice were extracted from variety Pera oranges and irradiated at a rate of 2.0 kGy/h (60 Cobalt) and thereafter stored at 5 +- 3 deg C. Results showed small changes in soluble solids content, acidity and p H, for all treatments. The ratio soluble solids/acidity was also determined and showed little variation for all treatments. There was a reduction on ascorbic acid content of the orange juice with increased radiation dosage and storage time. Gamma radiation was effective in reducing the microbiological population of the juice. (author)

  14. Interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by orange trees

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) transform the heat produced during the alpha decay of 238Pu into electrical energy for use by deep-space probes, such as the Voyager spacecraft, which have returned images and other data from Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Future missions involving RTGs may be launched aboard the space shuttle, and there is a remote possibility that an explosion of liquid-hydrogen and liquid-oxygen fuel could rupture the RTGs and disperse 238Pu into the atmosphere over central Florida. Research was performed to determine the potential transport to man of atmospherically dispersed Pu via contaminated orange fruits. The results indicate that the major contamination of oranges would result from the interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by fruits. The resulting surface contamination could enter human food chains through transfer to internal tissues during peeling or in the reconstituted juices and flavorings made from orange skins. The interception of 238Pu deposition by fruits is especially important because the results indicate no measurable loss of Pu from fruit surfaces through time or with washing. Approximately 1% of the 238Pu deposited onto an orange grove would be harvested in the year following deposition

  15. The pharmacokinetics and health benefits of orange peel compounds

    Orange peel is a resource rich in phenolic antioxidants, including several classes of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates. These compounds have been extensively studied for their biological actions particularly against chronic diseases in humans. Yet, full development of these materials as new, commerc...

  16. Tectonic subsidence history and thermal evolution of the Orange Basin

    Hirsch, K.K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Wees, J.-D. van; Kuhlmann, G.; Paton, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Orange Basin offshore southwest Africa appears to represent a classical example of continental rifting and break up associated with large-scale, transient volcanism. The presence of lower crustal bodies of high seismic velocities indicates that large volumes of igneous crust formed as a conseque

  17. Quality of jinchen orange juice treated with irradiation and pasteurization

    Jinchen orange juice was treated by pasteurization and irradiation (1.4, 2.8 and 5.6 kGy) to study the effects of sterilization methods on quality of orange juice. The volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction method combined with GC-MS. The juice color, pH and Vc content were determined, and sensory evaluation of the juice were evaluated. The results showed a total of 54, 47, 57, 55, 53 kinds of compounds were detected in fresh juice, pasteurized juice and 3 irradiated juices, respectively. The irradiated juices had bigger peak area of volatile compounds than pasteurized juice,and the biggest peak area was found in 2.8 kGy irradiation sample. β - myrcene, D - limonene and γ-terpinene, which were the characteristic aroma compounds in orange juice, were detected a higher level in irradiation sample than pasteurization. Vc content and aroma decreased after all treatments. The sample after 1.4 kGy treatment showed highest score in sensory evaluation. It was concluded that low dose irradiation could be used in sterilization processing of orange juice. (authors)

  18. Therapeutic study of proton beam in vascular disease animal models

    Proton beam radiation therapy is difficult to apply to animal model. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth, which is probably induced in vivo in zebrafish embryos, and vascular endothelial cell proliferation.

  19. Identification of Escherichia coli DNA helicase IV with the use of a DNA helicase activity gel.

    Trieu, V N; McCarthy, D

    1989-01-01

    A DNA helicase activity gel was developed based on the assumption that DNA helicases could unwind double-stranded DNA in a polyacrylamide matrix. The production of single-stranded DNA was detected by staining the activity gel with acridine orange and visualizing the gel under long-wave UV light. The products of DNA helicase activities appeared as red bands within a green fluorescent background. A novel DNA helicase, called helicase IV, was detected in crude extracts of Escherichia coli with t...

  20. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND APOPTOTIC EFFECTS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF ORIGANUM ONITES AND CARVACROL ON HEP-G2 CELLS

    TOMSUK, Özlem; SİVAS, Hülya

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil Origanum onites L. and its phenolic constituent carvacrol were examined for their cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in a human hepatocellular carcinoma cells Hep-G2. WST-1 and neutral red uptake assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effects of the oil and carvacrol on the growth of the cells. Possible induction of apoptosis by Origanum oil and carvacrol was further investigated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. Results showed that the Ori- ganum...

  1. Hepatitis in skunks caused by the virus of infectious canine hepatitis.

    Karstad, L; Ramsden, R; Berry, T J; Binn, L N

    1975-10-01

    Two cases of acute, fatal, hepatitis occurred in young, striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in southern Ontario. Histologically, lesions in the liver were similar to infectious canine hepatitis. A virus was isolated which produced large intranuclear inclusions in dog kidney cell cultures. These inclusions were Feulgen-positive and fluoresced green with acridine orange stain. The skunk hepatitis isolate was identified as the virus of infectious canine hepatitis by virus neutralization tests. PMID:172663

  2. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures—Botrytis cinerea interaction

    Pietrowska, E.; Różalska, S.; Kaźmierczak, A.; Nawrocka, J.; Małolepsza, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity were studied. In vivo staining methods with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium br...

  3. Controlled evaluation of supplemented peptone and Bactec blood culture broths for the detection of bacteremia and fungemia.

    Reimer, L G; McDaniel, J D; Mirrett, S.; Reller, L B; Wang, W L

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of conventional blood culture media with newer formulations of Bactec media for radiometric detection are lacking. Therefore, we compared the yield and speed of detection of clinically important microorganisms with supplemented peptone broth (SPB) and Bactec aerobic (6B) and anaerobic (7C or 7D) broths in 7,627 blood samples from adult patients. Acridine orange stains from SPB, radiometric readings from Bactec, and routine subcultures from all bottles were done at the same time int...

  4. Curcumin induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    Lv, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Jun; Dong, Qian; Li, Fu-Nian; Wang, Hai-Bo; Kong, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin has shown therapeutic and/or adjuvant therapeutic effects on the treatment of some patients with breast cancer. However, its mechanisms of action are largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability, and flow cytometry, acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect apoptosis for cultured cells. T...

  5. Interaction of erythromycin and clarithromycin with orange juice

    Arini Setiawati

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant administration of orange juice with fexofenadine has been found to decrease the bioavailability of fenofenadine to less than 30% via inhibition of organic-anion transporting polypeptide (OATP, a drug uptake transporter expressed in organs such as liver, kidney and intestine. Erythromycin and clarithromycin are substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, a drug metabolizing enzyme in the liver and enterocytes, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a drug efflux transporter expressed in the same organs as OATP. Since an extensive overlap exists between substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, P-gp and OATP transporters, we want to study the effect of coadministration of our local orange (Siam orange juice on the bioavailability of the above antibacterials. We conducted two 2-way cross-over randomized studies, one study for each antibacterial (500 mg, crossed between administration with orange juice (200 ml and with water, in 12-13 healthy subjects per study. The serum concentrations of the antibacterials were assayed by microbiological method. The mean (range ratio of AUC0-t with orange juice/with water were as follows : erythromycin : total (n=13 81.7 (9.7-193.8%, unchanged (n=4 96.4 (80.5-107.9%, decreased (n=6 31.9 (9.7-49.0%, increased (n=3 161.8 (134.6-193.8%; clarithromycin : total (n=12 91.4 (20.6-158.3%, unchanged (n=5 103.1 (80.9-123.0%, decreased (n=4 34.8 (20.6-64.3%, increased (n=3 147.2 (132.9-158.3%. It was concluded that coadministration of Siam orange juice with erythromycin or clarithromycin produced unpredictable effects on the bioavailability of these antibacterials in individual subjects, with marked decreases in almost half of the subjects, although in totals the effects were not statistically significant. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 78-86Keywords: interaction, erythromycin, clarithromycin, orange juice.

  6. IMPACT OF MECONIUM STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID ON EARLY NEONATAL OUTCOME

    Uday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To find out the incidence, neonatal outcome and associated maternal antepartum & intrapartum risk factors of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF. DESIGN: Prospective St udy. SETTINGS: Neonatal Unit of Hospital and PNC Ward. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Prospective Study was conducted including 100 babies born with meconium stained amniotic fluid who are admitted in NICU and with mother in PNC ward in a period of six months (April 2012 - October 2012 excluding those who born with congenital abnormalities. Detail history of babies and mother with MSAF noted with emphasis on antepartum and intrapartum risk factors and outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Incidence of M SAF in the study was 8. 98%. Out of 100, 24 babies were admitted to NICU with most common indications being birth asphyxia (16% and Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS (6%. Majority babies were delivered through thin Meconium Stained Liquor (MSL (44% fo llowed by thick (35% and moderate (21%. Total number of deaths were 9 and all these babies had thick meconium with severe birth asphyxia. Ninety one babies were born at >37 weeks of gestation and 57 had birth weight over 2. 5 Kg. Nineteen percent were no n vigorous requiring tracheal suctioning and positive pressure ventilation at birth. Common mode of delivery was emergency Cesarean in 83% patients. Common maternal and fetal risk factors were fetal distress (30% followed by Oligohydramnios (30%, Pregnan cy induced hypertension (PIH (24%, anemia (14%, severe anemia (5%, Antepartum hemorrhage (4% and Antepartum eclampsia (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Oligohydramnios, PIH, anemia and fetal distress were common antenatal and intranatal factors associated with MSAF. Major morbidity and indication for NICU admission was Birth asphyxia and non vigorous babies. Mortality rate was 9% which is commonly associated with thick meconium and severe birth asphyxia.

  7. Weathering effects on materials from historical stained glass windows

    García-Heras, M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A selection of materials (stained glasses, lead cames, support elements and putty from historical stained glass windows of different periods (13th-19th centuries have been studied. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction were used as characterization techniques. Degradation of historical stained glass windows is due to the particular chemical composition oftlie materials used for their production: stained glasses, lead network, metallic support elements and refilling putty. However, the presence of a given chemical composition is not the only factor involved in the degradation process. It is necessary the occurrence of other external factors that contribute to the development and progress of alteration problems in the materials mentioned above. The presence of gaseous pollution in the air produces a negative interaction with the surface of the stained glass windows materials. Firstly, the stained glasses and the grisailles begin a dealkalinisation process and a silica gel layer is formed during the early contact between the glasses and the wet environment. After that, insoluble salt deposits and corrosion crusts are formed as a consequence of a deeper chemical attack which results in a depolymerisation of the glass network. The lead cames and the metallic support elements are also altered by weathering. Such materials are oxidized and both pits and crusts appear on their surfaces. The transport of ions and other substances from the corrosion crusts of the metallic elements gives rise new deposits upon the stained glasses, which could intensify their own degradation processes. The putty experiments a noticeable shrinkage and cracking. Likewise, adverse environmental conditions favour the transport of putty substances towards the other materials of the stained glass window, thereby increasing the crusts thickness and adding elements that contribute to the total alteration of the

  8. Staining Method for Protein Analysis by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    Wu, Shuqing; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Shili; Peck, Kristy L.; Li, Guigen; Liu, Shaorong

    2007-01-01

    A novel staining method and the associated fluorescent dye were developed for protein analysis by capillary SDS-PAGE. The method strategy is to synthesize a pseudo-SDS dye and use it to replace some of the SDS in SDS–protein complexes so that the protein can be fluorescently detected. The pseudo-SDS dye consists of a long, straight alkyl chain connected to a negative charged fluorescent head and binds to proteins just as SDS. The number of dye molecules incorporated with a protein depends on ...

  9. Orange-red luminescence from Cu doped CdS nanophosphor prepared using mixed Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers.

    Mandal, P; Talwar, S S; Major, S S; Srinivasa, R S

    2008-03-21

    Cu doped CdS nanophosphors were fabricated through Langmuir-Blodgett route for the first time. Precursors mixed Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers of cadmium arachidate-copper arachidate were used to grow doped sulfide nanoparticles within the organic matrix through postdeposition treatment with H(2)S gas. Changes in composition and layered structure of precursor multilayers were studied using Fourier transform infrared and x-ray reflection. Uptake of Cu in the multilayers was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy measurements. Unannealed H(2)S exposed multilayers containing CdS nanoparticles show strong surface state emission centered at approximately 570 nm, whereas Cu doped CdS nanoparticles show orange-red luminescence. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of annealed-Cu doped CdS nanoparticles show distinct Cu-related emission compared to annealed-undoped CdS nanoparticles. Power dependent PL measurements of annealed samples show that an efficient carrier recombination takes place at T(2) level of Cu(++). The carrier relaxation from the excitonic states to T(2) level results in the strong orange-red luminescence. PMID:18361597

  10. Effect of blending Huanglongbing (HLB) disease affected orange juice with juice from healthy oranges on flavor quality

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, has been a concern for the citrus industry as it progressively damages and ultimately kills citrus trees. While this disease does not affect human health, it is associated with bitter off-flavor for orange juice. The objective of this study was to determine...

  11. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel; Rubilene Ramos de Araujo; Alessandro de Oliveira Rios; Rosane Rech; Simone Hickmann Flôres

    2014-01-01

    Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC); ice cream with fiber (F1) from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB); ice cream with fiber (F2) from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD); ice cream with fiber (F3) from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF); and ice cream with fiber (F4) from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillatio...

  12. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-01-01

    Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egypt...

  13. Computational study on the color change of 3‧-hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein

    Mori, Yukie

    2016-05-01

    The orange carotenoid protein, which contains 3‧-hydroxyechinenone (hECN), changes color from orange to red when irradiated with blue-green light. In this study, the origins of the color change have been investigated. The conformation of hECN in the red form is more planar than that in the orange form; consequently, the absorption band is red-shifted on conversion from the orange form to the red form. Another source of the red shift is that the electrostatic field generated by the protein in the red form stabilizes the excited state better than that generated by the protein in the orange form.

  14. Stain Resistance of Cotton Fabrics before and after Finishing with Admicellar Polymerization

    Srinivas Hanumansetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns related to perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA led to a re-examination of the methods for imparting stain resistance and stain repellency to textiles. Non-PFOA fluoropolymer finishes have been formed on cotton knits by admicellar polymerization, a surface analogue of emulsion polymerization. Fabric samples were characterized by a drop test, contact angle measurements, SEM, elemental analysis and durability studies. Stain resistance and stain release properties were assessed by reflectance and AATCC tests with results comparing favorably with swatches from commercially available garments. Admicellar polymerization enabled the formation of durable finishes that exhibited high performance in stain resistance and stain repellency.

  15. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions

    Bruna Coser Guignone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions.METHODS: Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18 according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva. The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA, Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA, Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA. Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0, 24 hours (T1, 72 hours (T2, as well as 7 days (T3 and 14 days (T4 of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%.RESULTS: The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations.CONCLUSIONS: Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions.

  16. Analysis of surface stains on modern gold coins

    It is a mandatory practice in the European Mint Houses to provide a certificate of guarantee of their products specially when issuing commemorative gold or silver coins. This practise should assure satisfaction and trust both for the mint house and for the demanding numismatic collector. For these reasons the Mint Houses follow a strict quality control in all the production steps in order to ensure a no-defect, fully supervised output. In spite of all the undertaken precautions, different surface stains with diverse origin on gold coins recently minted in Europe were observed. Those were compositionally studied by means of IBA techniques at the end-stage nuclear microprobe installed at IST/ITN. From this study it was possible to identify several possible sources for these stains. The presence of defects at the surface of these commemorative coins address the need of improving the quality control system and the results here presented point out where these improvements should occur, in order to reduce/eliminate them and give the customer a product that with time probably will be revalued

  17. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed. PMID:26011283

  18. Analysis of surface stains on modern gold coins

    Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Cruz, J.

    2013-07-01

    It is a mandatory practice in the European Mint Houses to provide a certificate of guarantee of their products specially when issuing commemorative gold or silver coins. This practise should assure satisfaction and trust both for the mint house and for the demanding numismatic collector. For these reasons the Mint Houses follow a strict quality control in all the production steps in order to ensure a no-defect, fully supervised output. In spite of all the undertaken precautions, different surface stains with diverse origin on gold coins recently minted in Europe were observed. Those were compositionally studied by means of IBA techniques at the end-stage nuclear microprobe installed at IST/ITN. From this study it was possible to identify several possible sources for these stains. The presence of defects at the surface of these commemorative coins address the need of improving the quality control system and the results here presented point out where these improvements should occur, in order to reduce/eliminate them and give the customer a product that with time probably will be revalued.

  19. Properties of purified Orange II azoreductase, the enzyme initiating azo dye degradation by Pseudomonas KF46.

    Zimmermann, T; Kulla, H G; Leisinger, T

    1982-12-01

    Orange II azoreductase [NAD(P)H: 1-(4'-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthol oxidoreductase], an enzyme catalyzing the reductive cleavage of the azo bridge of Orange II and related dyes, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from Pseudomonas species, strain KF46. This organism utilized carboxy-Orange II [1-(4'-carboxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol] but not Orange II as the sole source of carbon, energy, and nitrogen. Orange II azoreductase was induced 80-fold by both Orange II and carboxy-Orange II. With two successive runs of affinity chromatography using two chromatographic media with different triazinyl dyes as ligands, the enzyme was purified 120-fold with 43% yield. The purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 30,000. Its Km values were 1.5 microM for both Orange II and carboxy-Orange II, 5 microM for NADPH, and 180 microM for NADH. A survey of the efficiency of various Orange dyes as substrates for Orange II azoreductase showed that: (a) a hydroxy group in the 2-position of the naphthol ring is required; (b) charged groups in proximity to the azo group hinder the reaction; (c) a second polar substituent on the dye molecule impedes the reaction; (d) electron-withdrawing groups on the phenyl ring accelerate the reaction. PMID:7160382

  20. Orange and reddish-orange light emitting phosphors: Sm3+ and Sm3+/Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses

    A spectroscopy study of Sm3+ and Sm3+/Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time profile measurements. Under Sm3+ excitation at 344 nm, the Sm3+ singly doped glass shows an orange global emission with x=0.579 and y=0.414 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, whereas the Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped sample exhibits orange overall emissions (x=0.581 and y=0.398, and x=0.595 and y=0.387) and reddish-orange overall emission (x=0.634 and y=0.355) upon excitations at 344, 360 and 393 nm, respectively. Such luminescence from the co-doped sample is originated by the simultaneous emission of Sm3+ and Eu3+. Under Sm3+ excitation at 344 and 360 nm, the Eu3+ emission is sensitized and enhanced by Sm3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer process. The non-radiative nature was inferred from the shortening of the Sm3+ lifetime observed in the Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped sample. An analysis of the Sm3+ emission decay time profiles using the Inokuti–Hirayama model suggests that an electric quadrupole–quadrupole interaction into Sm–Eu clusters might dominate the energy transfer process, with an efficiency of 0.17. - Highlights: • Zinc phosphate glasses are optically activated with Sm3+/Eu3+ (ZPOSmEu). • Non-radiative energy transfer Sm3+→Eu3+ takes place in ZPOSmEu. • ZPOSmEu overall emission can be modulated with the excitation wavelength. • ZPOSmEu might be useful as orange/reddish-orange phosphor for UV-white LEDs

  1. STAINING SECTIONS OF WATER-MISCIBLE RESINS .1. EFFECTS OF THE MOLECULAR-SIZE OF THE STAIN, AND OF RESIN CROSS-LINKING, ON THE STAINING OF GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDED TISSUES

    GERRITS, PO; HOROBIN, RW; WRIGHT, DJ

    1990-01-01

    Penetration of hydrophilic acid and basic dyes into sections cut from glycol methacrylate (GMA)-embedded tissues was studied; as were the effects on such staining of superficial coatings of thin layers of GMA. Dye size was a major factor in controlling penetration of resin and staining of tissues. '

  2. No Evidence for Interference of Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) Staining in DNA Testing: Utility of DNA Extraction from HE-Stained Archival Tissue Sections

    Morikawa, Teppei; Shima, Kaori; Kuchiba, Aya; Yamauchi, Mai; Tanaka, Noriko; Imamura, Yu; Liao, Xiaoyun; Qian, Zhi Rong; Brahmandam, Mohan; Longtine, Janina A.; Lindeman, Neal I.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Although histochemical staining has been believed to inhibit DNA amplification reaction, no previous study has systematically evaluated the influence of histochemical staining on downstream molecular assays. To evaluate an influence of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining on DNA testing, we isolated DNA from 10 unstained, 10 hematoxylin-stained, 10 eosin-stained or 10 HE-stained tissue sections (ie, 4 groups), from each of 5 colon cancers. Among those 4 groups, we did not observe any significant or appreciable difference in DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis; in DNA amplification by real-time PCR; in microsatellite PCR fragment analyses; or in PCR-Pyrosequencing. As a proof-of-principle study, we successfully performed microsatellite instability analysis and sequencing of KRAS and BRAF on over 1300 colorectal cancers using DNA extracted from HE stained tissue sections. Our data provide no evidence for interfering effect of HE staining on DNA testing, suggesting that DNA from HE-stained sections can be effectively used for routine DNA testing. PMID:22706867

  3. Identification of dentin phosphophoryn localization by histochemical stainings.

    Takagi, Y; Fujisawa, R; Sasaki, S

    1986-01-01

    Phosphophoryn, the most abundant of the dentin non-collagenous proteins, has been considered to be related in function to the mineralization process. In the present study, identification of dentin phosphophoryn localization was attempted using newly developed, precautionary histological methods by which phosphophoryn was retained in the sections during the specimen preparation and stained selectively in situ. Phosphophoryn was found to be present widely in all of the calcified dentin except the mantle dentin, the external, first-formed portion of dentin, but was not found in the predentin, the inner, uncalcified layer of dentin. These results indicate that phosphophoryn is apparently related to the mineral phase of calcified dentin and that the mineralization process of mantle dentin, which is formed before the odontoblasts are fully differentiated, may be different from that of circumpulpal dentin. PMID:2421974

  4. Fat tissue staining and photodynamic/photothermal effects

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.

    2010-02-01

    Cellulite is considered as a disease of the subcutaneous fat layer that appears mostly in women and consists of changes in fat cell accumulation together with disturbed lymphatic drainage, affecting the external appearance of the skin. The photodynamic and selective photothermal treatments may provide reduction the volume of regional or sitespecific accumulations of subcutaneous adipose tissue on the cellular level. We hypothesize that light irradiation of stained fat tissue at selected temperature leads to fat cell lypolytic activity (the enhancement of lipolysis of cell triglycerides due to expression of lipase activity and cell release of free fat acids (FFAs) due to temporal cell membrane porosity), and cell killing due to apoptosis caused by the induced fat cell stress and/or limited cell necrosis.

  5. Identification of homogeneously staining regions in leukemia patients

    Mohammad Heydarian Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneously staining regions (HSR or double minute chromosomes (dmin are autonomously replicating extra-chromosomal elements that are frequently associated with gene amplification in a variety of cancers. The diagnosis of leukemia patients was based on characterization of the leukemic cells obtained from bone marrow cytogenetics. This study report two cases, one with Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia without maturation (AML-M1, aged 23-year-old female, and the other with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-blast crisis, a 28-year-old female associated with double minute chromosomes. Most cases of acute myeloid leukemia with dmin in the literature (including our cases have been diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia.

  6. Role of cytochemical staining in diagnosis of monocytic leukemia

    Objective: To explore the role of cytochemical staining in MIC(morphology ,immunology and cytogenetics) typing of acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5) and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4). Methods: The authors analyzed the characteristics of morphology, immunology and cytogenetics in 47 cases of diagnosed AML. Results: Eventually, they were diagnosed with MIC. There were 25 cases with AML-M5, 19 cases with AML-M4(consisted of 5 cases diagnosed AML-M4Eo), 2 cases with acute myeloid leukemia with t(8:21) and 1 case with T-ALL. Conclusions: During MIC typing of AML-M4 and AML-M5, the diagnostic value of morphology remains important, for immunophenotype, cytogenetics and morphology are interdependent. Immunophenotype and cytogenetics are necessary for improvement of the accuracy rate of diagnosis. (authors)

  7. Mouse Karyotype Obtained by Combining DAPI Staining with Image Analysis

    2006-01-01

    In this study, mitotic metaphase chromosomes in mouse were identified by a new chromosome fluorescence banding technique combining DAPI staining with image analysis. Clear 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) multiple bands like G-bands could be produced in mouse. The MetaMorph software was then used to generate linescans of pixel intensity for the banded chromosomes from short arm to long arm. These linescans were sufficient not only to identify each individual chromosome but also analyze the physical sites of bands in chromosome. Based on the results, the clear and accurate karyotype of mouse metaphase chromosomes was established. The technique is therefore considered to be a new method for cytological studies of mouse.

  8. Improved Coomassie Blue Dye-Based Fast Staining Protocol for Proteins Separated by SDS-PAGE

    Májek, Pavel; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Pecánková, Klára; Dyr, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    The time required to visualize proteins using Coomassie Blue dye has been significantly reduced with the introduction of fast staining protocols based on staining with a Coomassie Blue dye solution at boiling temperatures. However, fast stainings suffer from high gel backgrounds, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and limiting the number of detectable spots in the case of 2D SDS-PAGE. The aim of this work was to eliminate the high gel background, and thus improve fast staining protocols based...

  9. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

    Zapata, M.; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  10. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    Balchin, Imelda; Whittaker, John C; Lamont, Ronald F;

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF.......To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF....

  11. Surface discoloration of composite resins: Effects of staining and bleaching

    Claudio Poggio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate surface discoloration of three microhybrid composite resins (Esthet·X HD, Clearfil AP-X, Gradia Direct and five nanohybrid composite resins (Ceram·X, GC Kalore, G-aenial, Grandio, GrandioSO, after staining and bleaching procedures. Materials and Methods: The composite resins were polymerized with a curing light (Celalux II, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany into 160 silicon molds (6,4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness to obtain identical specimens. Twenty samples for each composite resin were prepared. The specimens were polished using an automated polishing machine with the sequence of 600-, 800-, 1000-grit abrasive paper under water irrigation. The specimens were immersed in tea and distilled water: the specimens were dipped for 20 min, once a day (every 24 h, for 14 days into the drinks. The specimens were then bleached with carbamide peroxide at 17% (Perfect Bleach-Voco. The color of specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer according to the CIE LFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 system after light-polymerization of composite resin specimens, after 7 days, after 14 days, and after bleaching. The color difference h index (DE abFNx01 between each measurement was calculated. Statistical analysis was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All specimens showed a significant increase in staining with a similar trend and no significant differences between microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. After whitening procedures, materials tested showed both significant and unsignificant differences of the h index. Conclusions: Microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins had similar in vitro surface discoloration in tea. After bleaching, discoloration was removed from some composite resins tested.

  12. Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel

    An adsorbent, the chemically modified orange peel, was prepared from hydrolysis of the grafted copolymer, which was synthesized by interaction of methyl acrylate with cross-linking orange peel. The presence of poly (acrylic acid) on the biomass surface was verified by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Total negative charge in the biomass surface and the zeta potentials were determined. The modified biomass was found to present high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for Cu (II). From Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity for Cu (II) was 289.0 mg g-1, which is about 6.5 times higher than that of the unmodified biomass. The kinetics for Cu (II) adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorbent was used to remove Cu (II) from electroplating wastewater and was suitable for repeated use for more than four cycles.

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium (II) With Semixylenol Orange

    Yuan Fuzhen

    1999-01-01

      A highly selective, reproducible and rapid spectrophotometry for the determination of palladium (Ⅱ) has been worked out. This method is based on the chelation of Pd (Ⅱ) with semixylenol orange (C24H23NaNO9S) in 1.00 mol.l-1 sulphuric acid medium (H2SO4), to chelate a stable orange complex of Pd (Ⅱ) . Beer′s law is obeyed over the range 0.2-1.6 μg ml-1 Palladium(Ⅱ),its maximum absorption wavelength λmax is at 540 nm,the apparent molar absorptivityε540 is 6.2*104 l mol-1 cm-1.The method has been successfully applied for the determaination of Palladium(Ⅱ)in Pd-C catalyst , Al-Si-Pd and Zr-Pd alloys.

  14. Orange County Transit Probe Evaluation: Phase I Institutional Findings

    Hall, Randolph W.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the institutional issues that have faced the Orange County probe project, a multi-agency project designed to equip a fleet of buses with Global Positioning System (GPS) based tracking equipment and to use tracking data for multiple purposes. The usefulness of the data involve: 1) bus schedule adherence and fleet management; 2) collection of information on roadway traffic congestion; and, 3) dissemination of transit data to patrons.

  15. Development of a small scale orange juice extractor

    Olaniyan, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the re...

  16. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Bergamot orange in rats

    Karaca, Mehmet; İLHAN, Fatma; Altan, Hasan; Him, Aydın; TÜTÜNCÜ, Mehmet; Özbek, Hanefi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Essential oil extract of Bergamot orange (BO) was investigated for its hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Six different groups were established. Silibinin was used as the reference agent. BO significantly reduced the serum ALT level when compared to CCl4 group while it did not affect the serum AST level. The histopathological findings did not show any significant difference between the BO and CCl4 groups. The results suggest that BO has a...

  17. Immunochemical Screening of Pesticides (Simazine and Cypermethrin) in Orange Oil

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Fu, Xun; Yang, Zheng; Zhong, Ping; Sanborn, James R.; Chang, Dan; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide residue analysis in citrus oils is very important for their quality and marketing. This study assessed the reliability and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for simazine and cypermethrin screening in orange oil. Simazine was analyzed after extraction of the oil with methanolic phosphate buffer with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 40 µg/L for 1-fold and ~100 µg/L for 10-fold oils. Due to matrix effects the immunoanalysis of cypermethrin required hexane–aceton...

  18. EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Tarek FOUDA; Shimaa SALAH

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characterization of orange fruits using applications of nutrition minerals and growth substance during at private farm in wadi el-netron , ELbehari governorate, Egypt during in December2011. The results showed during maturity time increasing the total soluble solid (TSS), pH, percentage of liquid, (TSS/acidity)and carotenoids while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and acidity were decreased.With one application of nutrition minerals and with gro...

  19. Nutritional balance and yield for green manure orange trees

    Carlos Renato Alves Ragozo; Sarita Leonel; Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping could efficiently prevent soil nutrient losses caused by extensive agriculture. The present study aimed to assess the effect of green manure on the nutritional status of orange trees cultivar 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). The plants were grafted on 'Cravo' lime trees and were then planted in a 7x4m space. Four different treatments corresponding to the evaluated green manures were employed: jack bean (JB) (Canavalia ensiformis DC), lablab (LL) (Dolichos lablab L.), pigeon...

  20. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Salvatore Barbagallo; Simona Consoli; Alfonso Russo

    2009-01-01

    Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy). The performance of Surface Renewal (SR) analysis for estimating...

  1. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  2. Juvenile Delinquency in Novel Clockwork Orange By Anthony Burgess

    Bena Yusuf Pelawi

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to reveal the role of literary work, especially a novel in reflecting the social fenomena, the juvenile delinquency in the twentieth century. The data source was an English novel Clockwork Orange written by Anthony Burgess. The research applied library research by using reflection theory introduced by Georg Lukacs. Analysis was presented in three parts, those were the identification of major character, social setting, and the reflection of juvenile delinquency.The findings wer...

  3. A Comparison of Heat versus Methanol Fixation for Gram Staining Bacteria

    Minnerath, Jeanne M.; Roland, Jenna M.; Rossi, Lucas C.; Weishalla, Steven R.; Wolf, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Gram staining bacteria is a fundamental technique introduced in general biology and microbiology laboratory courses. Two common problems students encounter when Gram staining bacteria are (1) having a difficult time locating bacterial cells on the microscope slide and (2) over-decolorizing bacterial cells during the staining procedure such that…

  4. 19 CFR 10.52 - Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painted, colored or stained glass windows for.... General Provisions Works of Art § 10.52 Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions. When painted, colored, or stained glass windows or parts thereof, are claimed free of duty...

  5. Complete staining of human spermatozoa and immature germ cells combined with phase contrast microscopy

    Michael, A Y; Drejer, J O; Bagger, P V;

    1987-01-01

    A method combining Janus green B and Thymol blue stains the anterior part of the head, the nuclear membrane, middle piece, and tail of spermatozoa light green and the nucleus deep purple. The method provides excellent stained preparations for the evaluation of sperm morphology by phase contrast...... microscopy. It produces significantly less abnormal spermatozoa compared with the Papanicolaou stain....

  6. Usefulness of Leifson Staining Method in Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Piccolomini, Raffaele; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Neri, Matteo; Di Girolamo, Arturo; Catamo, Giovanni; Pizzigallo, Eligio

    1999-01-01

    The Leifson staining method was used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection and was compared to histology, culture, and the rapid urease test (RUT). Histology gave the best sensitivity (98%), compared to Leifson staining (97%), culture (92%), and RUT (85%) (P < 0.005). Leifson staining is a sensitive, rapid, economical method for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients.

  7. Application and staining patterns of commercial anti-Pneumocystis carinii monoclonal antibodies.

    Elvin, K; Linder, E.

    1993-01-01

    Commercially available monoclonal antibodies to Pneumocystis carinii were compared with respect to immunofluorescence staining patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-inactivated smears. Only the indirect staining kits were suitable for application to ethanol-inactivated samples. When antibodies from Dakopatts and Northumbria were compared, the staining of cysts and trophozoites showed different patterns.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the effect of natural orange juices on dentin morphology

    Daniela Leal Zandim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The patient's diet has been considered an important etiological factor of dentin hypersensitivity. The frequent ingestion of acidic substances can promote the loss of dental structure or remove the smear layer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of smear layer removal and dentinal tubules exposure by different natural orange juices. Extracted human teeth were submitted to manual scaling in order to develop the smear layer. Seventy dentin samples were obtained and distributed into the following groups: Control, lime orange, lime, valência orange, navel orange, mandarin, and tangerine. Each group included 2 methods of application: Topical and topical + friction. After preparation for SEM analysis, photomicrographs were assessed by a blind calibrated examiner using an index system. The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant influence of the orange juices on smear layer removal. Significant difference was observed between navel orange, valência orange, mandarin and the control group (p < 0.05. These orange juices resulted in greater removal of the smear layer and greater opening of dentinal tubules. The comparison between the application methods for each group using the Mann-Whitney test showed that friction increased smear layer removal significantly only for lime orange and lime. The data suggest that certain natural orange juices are more effective in terms of smear layer removal and dentinal tubules exposure than others.

  9. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.

  10. REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATION OF ORANGE JUICE USING SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANES

    W. A. de ARAUJO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Flavor and odor components of foods are often lost during processing which leads to a poorer quality final product compared with the fresh ingredients. The orange juice industry concentrates juice (45-66ºBrix in TASTE (Thermally Accelerated Short Time Evaporator to remove excess water, and thus reduce storage and transportation costs, but also to improve product stability. Evaporation results in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. Methods using less heat for thermal damage reduction must be investigated to establish parameters for future commercial processes. The promising alternative is Reverse Osmosis (RO, but it cannot achieve concentrations greater than 30ºBrix. RO has advantages over traditional evaporation techniques in removing water. Because less heat is used, thermal damage to products is generally eliminated. In this project tests were performed using unpasteurised Single Strength Orange Juice (SSOJ, spiral wound membranes (Polyamide, and a DESAL pilot system model 4040. The aim was to evaluate spiral wound membranes on the basis of flux as a function of time. Retentate concentrations were 15-20ºBrix, and GC-FID analyses were used in order to understand aroma losses. KEYWORDS: Orange; juice; membrane; concentration; osmosis; reverse.

  11. Authentication of Concentrated Orange Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    López Muñoz, G. A.; Balderas López, J. A.; López González, R. F.

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) was used to study the thermal diffusivity and its relation with the composition in folded (concentrated) cold-pressed Mexican orange essential oils. A linear relation between the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample thickness, for PS was obtained through a theoretical model to fit the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in concentrated orange essential oils. Experimental results showed a linear increase in thermal-diffusivity values with the folding degree: 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, and 35-fold due to a decrease in terpenes (mainly D-limonene) related with the folding process that can be correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the orange essential oils. The obtained values in this study and those previously reported (see Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1066, 2011) showed the possibility of using this thermal property to make distinctions between citrus oils obtained by different extraction processes and also between concentrated citrus oils. This provides the viability of a new complementary method for this purpose, contrasting with the use of density and refraction index, physical properties commonly used in the authentication of citrus essential oils.

  12. Immunochemical screening of pesticides (simazine and cypermethrin) in orange oil.

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Fu, Xun; Yang, Zheng; Zhong, Ping; Sanborn, James R; Chang, Dan; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2009-07-01

    Pesticide residue analysis in citrus oils is very important for their quality and marketing. This study assessed the reliability and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for simazine and cypermethrin screening in orange oil. Simazine was analyzed after extraction of the oil with methanolic phosphate buffer with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 40 microg/L for 1-fold and approximately 100 microg/L for 10-fold oils. Due to matrix effects the immunoanalysis of cypermethrin required hexane-acetonitrile partitioning followed by silica solid phase extraction. The method detected levels higher than 0.5 ppm (mg/L). This LOQ is lower than the U.S. EPA tolerance level (0.9 ppm) for cypermethrin in citrus oils. A good correlation (r(2) 0.99) between ELISA and LC-MS/MS was observed for the analysis of both analytes in 1-fold orange oil. Immunochemical screening can be used to reduce instrumental analysis costs by its use in preliminary orange oil screening. PMID:19526986

  13. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power. PMID:16254888

  14. EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characterization of orange fruits using applications of nutrition minerals and growth substance during at private farm in wadi el-netron , ELbehari governorate, Egypt during in December2011. The results showed during maturity time increasing the total soluble solid (TSS, pH, percentage of liquid, (TSS/acidityand carotenoids while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and acidity were decreased.With one application of nutrition minerals and with growth substance were the lowest value of chlorophyll, a (chl,a and chlorophyll, b (chl,b as follow 0.42 and 0.45 (mg/100g while with control management were the highest value to total soluble solid (Tss and carotenoids (car. as follow 10.07(Brix,% and 15.77 (mg/100g. The pattern of changes was clearly observed from the absorption spectra of the green and orange When orange is fully ripe, chlorophyll would be greatly reduced or may disappear completely and carotenoids becomes the dominant pigment in the fruit surface.

  15. Trapping characteristic of halloysite lumen for methyl orange

    Chen, Hao; Yan, Hua; Pei, Zhenzhao; Wu, Junyong; Li, Rongrong; Jin, Yanxian; Zhao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of clay minerals and dyes is an area of great interest especially in the development of novel adsorbents. In this report, we demonstrated interaction of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), through a electrostatic attraction. Halloysite lumen has a trapping characteristic for methyl orange, which is mainly determined by the positively charged nature of the inner surface of HNTs. XRD results confirmed that intercalation of methyl orange into HNTs did not occur. SEM-EDS and photostability results showed that MO molecules were primarily in HNTs lumen. Adsorption isotherm studies revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., a sudden increase of adsorption capacity occurred in the initial dye concentration of about 75 mg/L, which was just the dye concentration corresponding to the onset of dye oligomer formation. This suggested dye aggregation state had a decisive influence to the adsorption behavior of MO on the halloysite. BET results demonstrated at low and high dye concentrations, single MO molecule and aggregation of several dimers through hydrophobic interaction, interacted with Al-OH2+ sites on the inner wall, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that MO in HNTs can be completely removed with deionized water, indicating halloysite is a low-cost and efficient adsorbent for anionic dye.

  16. Negative staining of mycobacteria - A clue to the diagnosis in cytological aspirates: Two case reports

    C.S.B.R Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of lipids present in the cell wall of mycobacteria render them impermeable to dyes used in routine stains. Special staining techniques like Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN, Auromine Rhodamine are needed to demonstrate them. However, they may appear as negatively stained ghosts in Leishman, Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin stain (H and E and Gram stained smears. Awareness of this feature prompts one to look for mycobacteria by special techniques, even in the absence of cytological features of tuberculous infection like epithelioid granulomas and caseous necrosis. In this paper, we aim to present two cases showing negatively stained images in the lymphnode aspirates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients. A study has been done of two cases of HIV positive patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC was carried out for them from the enlarged lymph nodes which revealed purulent material. Smears of FNAC material were prepared for histopathological examination. Fixed smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and air dried smears were stained with Giemsa and ZN-stain and studied. Smear study showed scant cellularity, cells composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Background was necrotic. Giemsa stained smears showed, in addition to cells mentioned, negatively stained ghostly rod shaped structures in the cytoplasm of macrophages and also in the background. ZN-stain showed numerous acid fast bacilli. Both the aspirates were signed out as tuberculous lymphadenitis. In both the cases, cultures grew Mycobacterium avium Intracellulare. Classical cytological features of tuberculosis may not be present in immunocompromised patients and on the contrary there may be suppuration rich in neutrophils or sheets of histiocytes in tuberculosis. One may miss these cases if mycobacteria are not looked for specifically by special stains. Negatively stained ghost images of Tuberculous bacilli on

  17. 脐橙和蜜桔农药残留调查及风险评估%Pesticide Residue Investigation and Risk Assessment of Navel Orange and Orange

    吕蓉

    2015-01-01

    调查江西省脐橙和蜜桔的农药残留情况并进行风险评估. 对江西省2013年脐橙和蜜桔的144个送检样品中的36种农药残留进行定量检测分析.2013年9月至12月江西省的脐橙和蜜桔质量安全较为稳定,农药残留超标率为0.毒死蜱、啶虫脒、杀扑磷、抑霉唑4种农药有检出,12月份抑霉唑的检出率最高.3个月的农药安全指数均小于1,说明检测的36种农药均在可接受的风险程度内,没有安全风险.本研究可为江西省脐橙和蜜桔质量安全监管提供参考.%The aim was to investigate and estimate risk of pesticide residue in navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province. 36 pesticides residues in 144 samples of navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province were determined by quantitative analysis. The results showed that the quality of navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province is stable and safety from september to october in 2013. Pesticide residues over standard in navel orange and orange were zero. Chlorpyrifos,acetamiprid,methidathion,imazalil were checked out,the detection rate of imazalil is highest in December. Safety indexes of all pesticides were lower than 1 in each sample during three month,showing that 36 pesticide residues were safe. The paper provides a theoretical basis for supervising navel orange and orange safety in Jiangxi province.

  18. Very bright orange fluorescent plants: endoplasmic reticulum targeting of orange fluorescent proteins as visual reporters in transgenic plants

    Mann David GJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of fluorescent protein (FP genes as real-time visual markers, both transiently and stably, has revolutionized plant biotechnology. A palette of colors of FPs is now available for use, but the diversity has generally been underutilized in plant biotechnology. Because of the green and far-red autofluorescent properties of many plant tissues and the FPs themselves, red and orange FPs (RFPs, and OFPs, respectfully appear to be the colors with maximum utility in plant biotechnology. Within the color palette OFPs have emerged as the brightest FP markers in the visible spectra. This study compares several native, near-native and modified OFPs for their “brightness” and fluorescence, therefore, their usability as marker genes in transgenic plant tissues. Results The OFPs DsRed2, tdTomato, mOrange and pporRFP were all expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in agroinfiltration-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each of these, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER-targeted versions, were stably expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Congruent results were observed between transient and stable assays. Our results demonstrated that there are several adequate OFP genes available for plant transformation, including the new pporRFP, an unaltered tetramer from the hard coral Porites porites. When the tandem dimer tdTomato and the monomeric mOrange were targeted to the ER, dramatic, ca. 3-fold, increase in plant fluorescence was observed. Conclusions From our empirical data, and a search of the literature, it appears that tdTomato-ER and mOrange-ER are the two highest fluorescing FPs available as reporters for transgenic plants. The pporRFP is a brightly fluorescing tetramer, but all tetramer FPs are far less bright than the ER-targeted monomers we report here.

  19. A new vital stain for visualizing vacuolar membrane dynamics and endocytosis in yeast

    1995-01-01

    We have used a lipophilic styryl dye, N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4- (p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl) pyridinium dibromide (FM 4-64), as a vital stain to follow bulk membrane-internalization and transport to the vacuole in yeast. After treatment for 60 min at 30 degrees C, FM 4- 64 stained the vacuole membrane (ring staining pattern). FM 4-64 did not appear to reach the vacuole by passive diffusion because at 0 degree C it exclusively stained the plasma membrane (PM). The PM staining decre...

  20. Argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region (AgNOR) staining in normal bone marrow cells.

    Nikicicz, E P; Norback, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    Fifteen normal bone marrow aspirates were stained with the agyrophilic nucleolar organiser region (AgNOR) method. The results of the specific staining AgNORs as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic staining were analysed. A system was devised to characterise precisely the AgNORs present in the nuclei of bone marrow cells. Particular types of bone marrow cells had a characteristic AgNOR and non-AgNOR staining pattern. The bone marrow cells were identified easily and reliably with AgNOR staining and...

  1. Van Gieson's picrofuchsin. The staining mechanisms for collagen and cytoplasm, and an examination of the dye diffusion rate model of differential staining

    Prentø, P

    1993-01-01

    The staining mechanism of van Gieson's picrofuchsin was studied by use of simple protein model systems and tissue sections, and by spectrophotometry and dialysis experiments. At the endpoint of the staining reaction (equilibrium) cytoplasm is yellow. Dye dilution experiments demonstrated that the...... highest affinity in the tissue section--picrofuchsin system is between binding sites in cytoplasmic protein and acid fuchsin. Nevertheless sections that were first stained in acid fuchsin (AcF) and then in picrofuchsin ended up with cytoplasm stained yellow. It was concluded that differences in the dye...... diffusion rates and differences in the permeability of tissue components cannot be invoked to explain the differential staining result. Model experiments with dissolved proteins demonstrated a positive relationship between protein concentration and uptake of picric acid (PA) from picrofuchsin. From this and...

  2. Methyl green-pyronin Y staining of nucleic acids: studies on the effects of staining time, dye composition and diffusion rates

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H O

    2003-01-01

    Since the introduction of the methyl green-pyronin Y procedure as a differential histological stain more than 100 years ago, the method has become a histochemical procedure for differential demonstration of DNA and RNA. Numerous variants of the procedure have been suggested, and a number of...... hypotheses have been put forward concerning kinetics and binding mechanisms. Using both filter paper models containing DNA, RNA or heparin and histological sections, we have attempted to evaluate the kinetics of staining and the role of staining time for methyl green and pyronin Y by applying the dyes...... individually, simultaneously and sequentially. The results are presented as color charts approximating the observed staining patterns using a computerized palette. Our results indicate unequivocally that the differential staining is not time-dependent, but that it is dictated by the relative concentrations of...

  3. Photoluminescence characteristics of Sm3+ doped Sr2P2O7 as new orange-red emitting phosphor

    A series of Sr2P2O7: Sm3+ phosphors and Sr2P2O7: Sm3+ doped with different charge compensator (co-doping Li+, Na+, K+) phosphors were prepared by the high temperature solid-state reaction process at 1100 °C in air. The phase structure, photoluminescence properties and thermal stability were of the as prepared powders were investigated. Sr2-xP2O7: xSm3+ phosphors can be efficiently emitted an orange-red luminescence under ultraviolet and blue light irradiation due to 4G5/2-6H7/2 transition of Sm3+. The emission spectrum with three emission peaks is located at 562, 600 and 641 nm. The emission intensity can be enhanced by introducing the charge compensator R+ (R = Li, Na, K) into Sr2P2O7: Sm3+ phosphors. The results indicate that Sr2-xP2O7: xSm3+ is a promising orange red-emitting phosphor that can be used in the LED's and other optical devices in the visible region. - Highlights: • Sr2-xP2O7: xSm3+ hosts were synthesized via high temperature solid-state reaction process. • The emission intensity can be enhanced by introducing the charge compensator R+ (R = Li, Na, K). • The luminescence properties and thermal stability suggest it is a good novel red emitting phosphor

  4. Hirschsprung′s disease diagnosis: Comparison of immunohistochemical, hematoxilin and eosin staining

    Memarzadeh Mehrdad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The diagnosis of Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is based on the absence of ganglion cells. In hemotoxilin and eosin (H and E as well as acetylcholine esterase staining there are limitations in the diagnosis of immature ganglion cells in neonates. Methods : In this prospective study, 54 biopsies taken from suspected HD patients (five mucosal specimens and 49 full thickness specimens were studied. In the laboratory, after preparing sections of paraffin embedded tissues, H and E staining slides were compared with immunohistochemical (IHC staining including: S100, NSE, CD117, CD56, Cathepsin D, Vimentin, BCL2, GFAP, Synaptophysin and chromogranin. Results : The study revealed 30 negative (absence of ganglion cells cases (55.5%, 17 positive cases (31.04% and seven suspected cases (12.9% of ganglion cells on the H and E staining. On IHC staining with CD56 and Cathepsin D, all of the 17 positive cases detected through H and E, were confirmed for having ganglion cells and out of 30 cases reported negative on H and E staining, 28(93.3% were reported negative and two (6.7% positive by IHC staining. Of the seven suspected cases H and E staining, IHC staining detectedganglion cells only in five slides; two remained negative. Conclusions : IHC staining using CD56 and Cathepsin D improved the accuracy of diagnosis in HD when used in addition to H and E staining technique, especially for negative or suspicious slides.

  5. A novel contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor: A comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B stain, potassium hydroxide mount and culture

    Nikita Lodha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1 KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2 culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen′s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%, 92 (92% and 56 (56% patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%. Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001. Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001 as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107. Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  6. Problem of a stain at inside of niobium cavity after electro-polishing (EP)

    Some brown stains were found at inside of niobium (Nb) cavity after Electro-Polishing (EP). Because the performance of the camera for the inspection in a cavity improved, they were found. The similar stains were found also from the inside of Nb cavity which was done EP at other research facilities of foreign country. In order to investigate the cause of this stain, we tried various experiments using the small Nb sample plates. We tried to make the similar stain at first. And we analyzed its chemical elements by XFR. As a result, it was found that the stain was a thin film consisting of fluorine and oxygen. And it was found that the causative agents of the stain were hydrogen fluoride gas and steam generated at coarse washing of EP process. We established the new coarse washing method which prevents a stain from these research findings. (author)

  7. A clinically motivated 2-fold framework for quantifying and classifying immunohistochemically stained specimens.

    Hall, Bonnie; Chen, Wenjin; Reiss, Michael; Foran, David J

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the current limitations of automated quantitative image analysis in discriminating among intracellular immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns, this paper presents a two-fold approach for IHC characterization that utilizes both the protein stain information and the surrounding tissue architecture. Through the use of a color unmixing algorithm, stained tissue sections are automatically decomposed into the IHC stain, which visualizes the target protein, and the counterstain which provides an objective indication of the underlying histologic architecture. Feature measures are subsequently extracted from both staining planes. In order to characterize the IHC expression pattern, this approach exploits the use of a non-traditional feature based on textons. Novel biologically motivated filter banks are introduced in order to derive texture signatures for different IHC staining patterns. Systematic experiments using this approach were used to classify breast cancer tissue microarrays which had been previously prepared using immuno-targeted nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane stains. PMID:18044580

  8. Morphological Analysis of Cell Death by Cytospinning Followed by Rapid Staining.

    Crowley, Lisa C; Marfell, Brooke J; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing different forms of cell death can be facilitated by staining internal cellular structures with dyes such as hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). These dyes stain the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively, and optimized reagents (e.g., Rapi-Diff, Rapid Stain, or Quick Dip) are commonly used in pathology laboratories. Fixing and staining adherent cells with these optimized reagents is a straightforward procedure, but apoptotic cells may detach from the culture plate and be washed away during the fixing and staining procedure. To prevent the loss of apoptotic cells, cells can be gently centrifuged onto glass slides by cytospinning before fixing and staining. In addition to apoptotic cells, this procedure can be used on cells in suspension, or adherent cells that have been trypsinized and removed from the culture dish. This protocol describes cytospinning followed by Rapi-Diff staining for morphological analysis of cell death. PMID:27587773

  9. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  10. The Distribution of Population in a Contemporary Metropolitan Area: The Case of Orange County [A Replication

    Song, Shunfeng

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the population distribution in a rapid development area - Orange County in 1980. The population density gradients are estimated with a polycentric model as well as with a monocentric model. The paper shows that the polycentric model of population distribution fits Orange County better than the monocentric model, and that the population in Orange County is more dispersed than in Los Angeles County. It is found that Downtown Los Angeles has a significant influence on the pop...

  11. Green, yellow, and orange defect emission from ZnO nanostructures: Influence of excitation wavelength

    Djurišić, AB; Tam, KH; Ding, L; Ge, WK; Chen, HY; Gwo, S.; Leung, YH

    2006-01-01

    ZnO commonly exhibits luminescence in the visible spectral range due to different intrinsic defects. In order to study defect emissions, photoluminescence from ZnO nanostructures prepared by different methods (needles, rods, shells) was measured as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Under excitation at 325 nm, needles exhibited orange-red defect emission, rods exhibited yellow defect emission, while shells exhibited green defect emission. Obvious color change from orange to ...

  12. Practices of Dengue Fever Prevention and the Associated Factors among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    Josephine Rebecca Chandren; Li Ping Wong; Sazaly AbuBakar

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until ...

  13. Optimization of ohmic heating applications for pectin methylesterase inactivation in orange juice

    Demirdöven, Aslıhan; Baysal, Taner

    2012-01-01

    Ohmic heating (OH) which is among to electro-thermal methods and helps to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes was used in this study as thermal treatment on orange juice production for pectin methylesterase (PME) inactivation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of OH conditions. The effects of voltage gradient and temperature (independent variables) were investigated on PME activity (response) of orange juice. After optimization orange juice was produced and compar...

  14. Effects of Orange Juice and Hesperetin on Serum Paraoxonase Activity and Lipid Profile in Hyperuricemic Rats

    Fatemeh Haidari; Mohammad-Reza Rashidi; Majid Mohammad-Shahi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Hypouricemic, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of orange juice and hesperetin have been already indicated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of orange juice and hesperetin on paraoxonase and arylesterase activity and lipid profile of hyperuricemic rats. Methods: Forty eight male Wistar rats were divided into 8 equal groups of healthy control, healthy+orange juice, healthy+hesperetin, healthy+allopurinol, hyperuricemic control, hyperuri...

  15. CHANGING PATTERNS OF ORANGE JUICE CONSUMPTION IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    Love, Leigh Ann; Sterns, James A.; Thomas H. Spreen; Wysocki, Allen F.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 through 2004, per capita orange juice purchases decreased by 12.3 percent while the popularity and media coverage of low-carbohydrate dieting exploded. Content analysis was used to count selected Southern region newspaper articles topically related to low-carbohydrate dieting, the Atkins diet, and the South Beach diet. This data was included in a Southern region orange juice demand model, where purchase data served as the independent variable and proxy for consumer demand of orange ...

  16. Modifikasi Tepung Ubi Jalar Orange Dalam Pembuatan Mi Basah Dan Daya Terimanya

    Siregar, Suci Hidayani

    2010-01-01

    To support food diversification program, it is required to introduce orange sweet potato-processed products with good image and relatively simple processing technology that can be adopted and developed either by the household scale industries / small, medium, or large. One of the processed products that can be made of orange sweet potato flour is wet noodle. The objective of this reseach is to find the modified orange sweet potato flavor in processing wet noodle and the acceptability. The ...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...