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Sample records for acrf millimeter wave

  1. The Status of the ACRF Millimeter Wave Cloud Radars (MMCRs), the Path Forward for Future MMCR Upgrades, the Concept of 3D Volume Imaging Radar and the UAV Radar

    P Kollias; MA Miller; KB Widener; RT Marchand; TP Ackerman

    2005-12-30

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates millimeter wavelength cloud radars (MMCRs) in several climatological regimes. The MMCRs, are the primary observing tool for quantifying the properties of nearly all radiatively important clouds over the ACRF sites. The first MMCR was installed at the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) site nine years ago and its original design can be traced to the early 90s. Since then, several MMCRs have been deployed at the ACRF sites, while no significant hardware upgrades have been performed. Recently, a two-stage upgrade (first C-40 Digital Signal Processors [DSP]-based, and later the PC-Integrated Radar AcQuisition System [PIRAQ-III] digital receiver) of the MMCR signal-processing units was completed. Our future MMCR related goals are: 1) to have a cloud radar system that continues to have high reliability and uptime and 2) to suggest potential improvements that will address increased sensitivity needs, superior sampling and low cost maintenance of the MMCRs. The Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) technology, the frequency (35-GHz), the radio frequency (RF) layout, antenna, the calibration and radar control procedure and the environmental enclosure of the MMCR remain assets for our ability to detect the profile of hydrometeors at all heights in the troposphere at the ACRF sites.

  2. Millimeter Wave Energy Harvesting

    Khan, Talha Ahmed; Alkhateeb, Ahmed; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The millimeter wave (mmWave) band, which is a prime candidate for 5G cellular networks, seems attractive for wireless energy harvesting. This is because it will feature large antenna arrays as well as extremely dense base station (BS) deployments. The viability of mmWave for energy harvesting though is unclear, due to the differences in propagation characteristics such as extreme sensitivity to building blockages. This paper considers a scenario where low-power devices extract energy and/or i...

  3. Millimeter wave nonreciprocal devices

    Morgenthaler, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group within the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Research Laboratory of Electronics proposed a three year research program aimed at developing coherent magnetic wave signal-processing techniques for microwave energy which may form either the primary signal or else the intermediate frequency (IF) modulation of millimeter wavelength signals-especially at frequencies in the 50-94 GHz. range. Emphasis has been placed upon developing advanced types of signal processors that make use of quasi-optical propagation of electromagnetic and magnetostatic waves propagating in high quality single crystal ferrite thin films. A strong theoretical effort is required in order to establish valid models useful for predicting device performance. We emphasized new filter and circulator designs that employ combinations of the Faraday effect, field displacement nonreciprocity and magnetostatic resonance and periodic structures.

  4. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  5. Millimeter wave transmissometer computer system

    Wiberg, J.D.; Widener, K.B.

    1990-04-01

    A millimeter wave transmissometer has been designed and built by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington for the US Army at the Dugway Proving Grounds in Dugway, Utah. This real-time data acquisition and control system is used to test and characterize battlefield obscurants according to the transmittance of electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelengths. It is an advanced five-frequency instrumentation radar system consisting of a transceiver van and a receiver van deployed at opposite sides of a test grid. The transceiver computer systems is the successful integration of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 8350, multiple VME bus systems with Motorola M68020 processors (one for each radar frequency), an IEEE-488 instrumentation bus, and an Aptec IOC-24 I/O computer. The software development platforms are the VAX 8350 and an IBM PC/AT. A variety of compilers, cross-assemblers, microcode assemblers, and linkers were employed to facilitate development of the system software. Transmittance measurements from each radar are taken forty times per second under control of a VME based M68020.

  6. Silicon Based Millimeter Wave and THz ICs

    Chen, Jixin; Hong, Wei; Tang, Hongjun; Yan, Pinpin; Zhang, Li; Yang, Guangqi; Hou, Debin; Wu, Ke

    In this paper, the research advances in silicon based millimeter wave and THz ICs in the State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves is reviewed, which consists of millimeter wave amplifiers, mixers, oscillators at Q, V and W and D band based on CMOS technology, and several research approaches of THz passive ICs including cavity and filter structures using SIW-like (Substrate Integrated Waveguide-like) guided wave structures based on CMOS and MEMs process. The design and performance of these components and devices are presented.

  7. Millimeter-wave antennas configurations and applications

    du Preez, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively reviews the state of the art in millimeter-wave antennas, traces important recent developments and provides information on a wide range of antenna configurations and applications. While fundamental theoretical aspects are discussed whenever necessary, the book primarily focuses on design principles and concepts, manufacture, measurement techniques, and practical results. Each of the various antenna types scalable to millimeter-wave dimensions is considered individually, with coverage of leaky-wave and surface-wave antennas, printed antennas, integrated antennas, and reflector and lens systems. The final two chapters address the subject from a systems perspective, providing an overview of supporting circuitry and examining in detail diverse millimeter-wave applications, including high-speed wireless communications, radio astronomy, and radar. The vast amount of information now available on millimeter-wave systems can be daunting for researchers and designers entering the field. This b...

  8. MILLIMETER-WAVE EMISSIVITY OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS

    A general analysis has been presented of the millimeter-wave and farinfrared spectroscopic properties of in vivo cellular systems, and of the boson radiative equilibrium with steady-state nonequilibrium molecular systems. The frequency threshhold of spectroscopic properties assoc...

  9. Infrared and millimeter waves v.14 millimeter components and techniques, pt.V

    Button, Kenneth J

    1985-01-01

    Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Volume 14: Millimeter Components and Techniques, Part V is concerned with millimeter-wave guided propagation and integrated circuits. In addition to millimeter-wave planar integrated circuits and subsystems, this book covers transducer configurations and integrated-circuit techniques, antenna arrays, optoelectronic devices, and tunable gyrotrons. Millimeter-wave gallium arsenide (GaAs) IMPATT diodes are also discussed. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with a description of millimeter-wave integrated-circuit transducers, focusing on vario

  10. Millimeter Wave Power Transfer and Information Transmission

    Wang, Lifeng; Elkashlan, Maged; Heath, Jr, Robert W.; Di Renzo, Marco; Wong, Kai-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the existing lower frequency wireless power transfer, millimeter wave (mmWave) power transfer takes advantage of the high-dimensional multi-antenna and narrow beam transmission. In this paper we introduce wireless power transfer for mmWave cellular networks. Here, we consider users with large energy storage that are recharged by the mmWave base stations prior to uplink information transmission, and analyze the average harvested energy and average achievable rate. Numerical results...

  11. Advanced microwave/millimeter-wave imaging technology

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources. (author)

  12. Millimeter Wave Technology for Armament Applications .

    A. S. Bains

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of millimeter wave (MMW technology in armament systems imposes many restrictions on the size, volume and compactness of these systems in addition to ruggedness and reliable functioning in battlefield environment. This paper discusses the related design and technological issues, particularly in, the context of the sensors developed for smart ammunition and active armour protection systems.

  13. Infrared and millimeter waves v.15 millimeter components and techniques, pt.VI

    Button, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Volume 15: Millimeter Components and Techniques, Part VI is concerned with millimeter-wave guided propagation and integrated circuits. This book covers low-noise receiver technology for near-millimeter wavelengths; dielectric image-line antennas; EHF satellite communications (SATCOM) terminal antennas; and semiconductor antennas for millimeter-wave integrated circuits. A scanning airborne radiometer for 30 and 90 GHz and a self-oscillating mixer are also described. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the design of low-n

  14. Superconducting submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors

    Nahum, M.

    1992-10-20

    The series of projects described in this dissertation was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Our goal was to develop useful applications which would be competitive with the current state of technology. The high-[Tc] microbolometer was developed into the most sensitive direct detector of millimeter waves, when operated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The thermal boundary resistance of thin YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]0[sub 7-[delta

  15. The University of Texas Millimeter Wave Observatory

    Bout, Paul A Vanden; Loren, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    This is an account of the Millimeter Wave Observatory, a 4.9 meter diameter antenna facility that pioneered continuum observations of planets and interstellar molecular spectroscopy from 1971 to 1988. The circumstances of its founding, development of its instrumentation, and major research contributions are discussed. The MWO role in training of personnel in this new field is illustrated by a listing of student and postdoctoral observers, with titles of PhD theses that included MWO data.

  16. An Overview of Millimeter Wave Communications for Military Applications

    A. S. Bains

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of millimeter wave for Defence communications can offer a number of benefits to the user. Apart from the benefit of wider capacity, millimeter wave also offers ability to provide secure and survivable communication in the presence of enemy threats. In this paper, some of the important benefits for Defence communication are reviewed. An overview of millimeter wave military communication applications, technology development, present status and trends are also given.

  17. Personnel and mail screening with millimeter waves

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Griffin, Jeffery W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    2005-05-01

    The detection and interdiction of biological and chemical warfare agents at point-of-entry military, government, and civilian facilities remains a high priority for security personnel. Commercial personnel and mail screening technologies for these harmful agents are still being developed and improved upon to meet all security client requirements. Millimeter-wave holographic imaging technology developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is an ideal sensor to interrogate objects concealed behind low dielectric barriers such as paper, cardboard, and clothing. It uses harmless millimeter waves to illuminate the object or person under surveillance. The waves penetrate through the low dielectric barrier and either reflects off or pass through the hidden object, depending on its material dielectric properties. The reflected signals are digitized and sent to high-speed computers to form high-resolution, three-dimensional (3-D) images. Feasibility imaging studies have been conducted to determine whether simulated biological or chemical agents concealed in mail packages or under clothing could be detected using holographic radar imaging techniques. The results of this study will be presented in this paper.

  18. Supplementary report: millimeter wave study program

    This report describes work done during the months of December 1975 and January 1976, following the writing of the final report on the millimeter wave study program for generation of 100 kW or more power at 120 GHz. The work has been directed to three areas for application to gyrotron devices, small signal analysis, electron beam simulation, and microwave measurements on cavity coupling. A small signal analysis is presented, which allows determination of beam loading in cavities. The results are similar to previous published work, but contain a higher order relativistic correction. The electron beam simulations include two magnetron type guns and one based on electrostatic lenses

  19. Universal Millimeter-Wave Radar Front End

    Perez, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-optical front end allows any arbitrary polarization to be transmitted by controlling the timing, amplitude, and phase of the two input ports. The front end consists of two independent channels horizontal and vertical. Each channel has two ports transmit and receive. The transmit signal is linearly polarized so as to pass through a periodic wire grid. It is then propagated through a ferrite Faraday rotator, which rotates the polarization state 45deg. The received signal is propagated through the Faraday rotator in the opposite direction, undergoing a further 45 of polarization rotation due to the non-reciprocal action of the ferrite under magnetic bias. The received signal is now polarized at 90deg relative to the transmit signal. This signal is now reflected from the wire grid and propagated to the receive port. The horizontal and vertical channels are propagated through, or reflected from, another wire grid. This design is an improvement on the state of the art in that any transmit signal polarization can be chosen in whatever sequence desired. Prior systems require switching of the transmit signal from the amplifier, either mechanically or by using high-power millimeter-wave switches. This design can have higher reliability, lower mass, and more flexibility than mechanical switching systems, as well as higher reliability and lower losses than systems using high-power millimeter-wave switches.

  20. Modeling and design of millimeter wave gyroklystrons

    Levush, B.; Blank, M.; Calame, J.; Danly, B.; Nguyen, K.; Pershing, D.; Cooke, S.; Latham, P.; Petillo, J.; Antonsen, T.

    1999-05-01

    A series of high power, high efficiency Ka-band and W-band gyroklystron experiments has been conducted recently at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Stagger tuning of the cavities for bandwidth enhancement is commonly used in the conventional multicavity klystrons. The desired stagger tuning is usually achieved via mechanical tuning of the individual cavities. However, in the millimeter wave regime, particularly, in the case of the high average power operation, it is desirable to be able to achieve the required stagger tuning by design. The NRL gyroklystron experiments explored the tradeoffs between power, bandwidth, efficiency, and gain to study the effects of large stagger tuning in millimeter wave without resorting to mechanical tuning of the cavities. Both, Ka-band and W-band, experiments demonstrated a record power-bandwidth product. The success of the experiments was due in large part to a battery of improved large-signal, stability, and cold test codes employed in the modeling and design stage. Theoretical models that provide the basis for these design simulation tools and the design methodology will be presented.

  1. Millimeter Wave Rheometry: Theory and Experiment

    Chun, Jaehun; McCloy, John S.; Crum, J. V.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2011-01-29

    A novel millimeter wave (MMW) rheometry is developed to determine the viscosity of fluid based on an unsteady film flow in an inclined plane. The method measures fringes due to MMW interference between the front and back surfaces of the fluid flowing across the field of view of a ceramic wave guide coupled to a MMW receiver. With knowledge of the dielectric constant, the interference fringe spacing is used to calculate the thickness of the fluid layer. This thickness is then transformed into the viscosity by means of a simple hydrodynamic theory. Our results show that the MMW rheometry can easily distinguish between the 30, 100, and 200 Pa•s silicone oils. The geometry of the method allows for potential industrial applications such as measuring viscosity of the flowing slag in slagging coal gasifiers. The MMW rheometry with simple modifications can be easily extended to measure important non-Newtonian fluid characteristics such as yield stress.

  2. Measurement techniques for millimeter wave substrate mounted MMW antennas

    Gouker, M. A.; Campbell, D. P.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of measurement techniques for millimeter wave substrate mounted antennas is presented. Scattering and pickup of the millimeter wave radiation on the low frequency leads is a significant problem in these measurements. Methods to reduce these effects are discussed, and preliminary work on dipole antennas at 230 GHz is presented.

  3. The Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI)

    Gault, Amanda C.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bierman, E.; Bunn, E. F.; Hyland, P. O.; Keating, B. G.; Korotkov, A. L.; Malu, S. S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Piccirillo, L.; Timbie, P. T.; Tucker, G. S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the design and tests of a prototype of the Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI). MBI is designed to make sensitive measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It combines the differencing capabilities of an interferometer with the high sensitivity of bolometers at millimeter wavelengths. The prototype, which we call MBI-4, views the sky directly through four corrugated horn antennas. MBI ultimately will have 1000 antennas. These antennas have low sidelobes and nearly symmetric beam patterns, so spurious instrumental polarization from reflective optics is avoided. The MBI-4 optical band is defined by filters with a central frequency of 90 GHz. The set of baselines, determined by placement of the four antennas, results in sensitivity to CMB polarization fluctuations over the multipole range l = 150 - 270. The signals are combined with a Fizeau beam combiner and interference fringes are detected by an array of spiderweb bolometers. In order to separate the visibility signals from the total power detected by each bolometer, the phase of the signal from each antenna is modulated by a ferrite-based waveguide phase shifter. Initial tests and observations have been made at Pine Bluff Observatory (PBO) outside Madison, WI. This work was supported by NASA grants NAG5-12758, NNX07AG82G, the Rhode Island Space Grant and the Wisconsin Space Grant.

  4. Amplifier based broadband pixel for sub-millimeter wave imaging

    Sarkozy, Stephen; Drewes, Jonathan; Leong, Kevin M. K. H.; Lai, Richard; Mei, X. B. (Gerry); Yoshida, Wayne; Lange, Michael D.; Lee, Jane; Deal, William R.

    2012-09-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter wave systems, sub-millimeter wave systems have been hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report a broadband pixel operating from 300 to 340 GHz, biased off a single 2 V power supply. Over this frequency range, the amplifiers provide > 40 dB gain and 1.0 THz. The first sub-millimeter wave-based images using active amplification are demonstrated as part of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization Longe Range Personnel Imager Program. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brownout problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  5. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10−3 K−1 versus 10−5 K−1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications

  6. Millimeter wave band ultra wideband transmitter MMIC

    Ling, Jin; Rolland, Nathalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new millimeter-wave (MMW) ultra wideband (UWB) transmitter MMIC which has been developed in an OMMIC 0.1 μm GaAs PHEMT foundry process (ft = 100 GHz) for 22-29 GHz vehicular radar systems. The transmitter is composed of an MMW negative resistance oscillator (NRO), a power amplifier (PA), and two UWB pulse generators (PGs). In order to convert the UWB pulse signal to MMW frequency and reduce the total power consumption, the MMW NRO is driven by one of the UWB pulse generators and the power amplifier is triggered by another UWB pulse generator. The main advantages of this transmitter are: new design, simple architecture, high-precision distance measurements, infinite ON/OFF switch ratio, and low power consumption. The total power consumption of the transmitter MMIC is 218 mW with a peak output power of 5.5 dBm at 27 GHz.

  7. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    Pradere, C., E-mail: christophe.pradere@ensam.eu; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C. [I2M (Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie de Bordeaux) UMR CNRS 5295, TREFLE Department, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S. [LOMA UMR 5798: CNRS-UB1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2014-06-15

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10{sup −3} K{sup −1} versus 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  8. The millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer

    Gault, Amanda Charlotte

    The Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI) is a technology demonstrator for future searches for the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). If observed, B-modes would be a direct probe of the energy scale of inflation, an energy scale that is impossible to reach with even the most sophisticated particle accelerators. In this thesis, I outline the technology differences between MBI and conventional interferometers, including the Faraday effect phase modulators (FPM) used both to control systematic effects and to allow for phase sensitive detection of signals. MBI is a four element adding interferometer with a Fizeau optical beam combiner. This allows simple scaling of the instrument to a large numbers of baselines without requiring complicated pair-wise correlations of signals. Interferometers have an advantage over imaging telescopes when measuring the CMB power spectrum as each baseline is sensitive to a single Fourier mode (angular scale) on the sky. Recovering individual baseline information with this combination scheme requires phase modulating the signal from each antenna. MBI performs this modulation with Faraday effect phase modulators. In these novel cryogenic devices a modulated magnetic field switches the phase of a millimeter-wave RF signal by +/- 90 degrees at frequencies up to a few Hertz. MBI's second season of observations occurred in the winter of 2009 at Pine Bluff Observatory a few miles west of Madsion, WI. We successfully observed interference fringes of a microwave test source located in the far field of the instrument that agree well with those expected from simulations. MBI has inspired a second generation bolometric interferometer, QUBIC, which will have hundreds of antennas and thousands of detectors. When it deploys in 2015, it will be sensitive enough to search for B-mode signals from the CMB.

  9. An Alternative Millimeter Wave Oscillator using a Dielectric Puck in the Whispering Gallery Mode Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A majority of millimeter wave based systems used for space exploration, communications and research, require a millimeter wave oscillator. These oscillators have...

  10. Research of active panel technology for large aperture millimeter-wave/sub-millimeter-wave telescope

    Wu, Xuhao; Cui, Xiangqun

    2010-05-01

    As Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) project was completed successfully, indicating the key technology of active optics has been mastered by the Chinese astronomical community, experts of Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT), builders of this project, started to consider how to use the technology developed in large optical telescope such as LAMOST to improve the performance of millimeterwave / sub-millimeter-wave telescope. In order to do more research work about active optics of millimeter submillimeter band and improve the performance of Delingha 13.7m millimeter-wave telescope, researchers of NIAOT intend to upgrade the reflect panel accuracy of this telescope. This paper will introduce the preliminary work of the accuracy-upgrading task, numerical simulation of the 13.7m telescope. In this presentation, the primary reflector finite element model (FEM) construction, gravity and thermal deformation, and modal analyze are described. The result shows that the gravity and thermal distortion of the reflector are contributed mostly by the back-structure and the active support for the panels is very necessary to restrain this kind of distortion.

  11. Millimeter wave detection of nuclear radiation: An alternative detection mechanism

    We present a nuclear radiation detection mechanism using millimeter waves as an alternative to conventional detection. It is based on the concept that nuclear radiation causes ionization of air and that if we place a dielectric material near the radiation source, it acts as a charge accumulator of the air ions. We have found that millimeter waves can interrogate the charge cloud on the dielectric material remotely. This concept was tested with a standoff millimeter wave system by monitoring the charge levels on a cardboard tube placed in an x-ray beam.

  12. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims: The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods: The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152-308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results: The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of

  13. Superconducting submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors

    Nahum, M.

    1992-10-20

    The series of projects described in this dissertation was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Our goal was to develop useful applications which would be competitive with the current state of technology. The high-{Tc} microbolometer was developed into the most sensitive direct detector of millimeter waves, when operated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The thermal boundary resistance of thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}0{sub 7-{delta}} films was subsequently measured and provided direct evidence for the bolometric response of high-{Tc} films to fast (ns) laser pulses. The low-{Tc} microbolometer was developed and used to make the first direct measurements of the frequency dependent optical efficiency of planar lithographed antennas. The hot-electron microbolometer was invented less than a year prior to the writing of this dissertation. Our analysis, presented here, indicates that it should be possible to attain up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than that of the best available direct detectors when operated at the same temperature. The temperature readout scheme for this device could also be used to measure the intrinsic interaction between electrons and phonons in a metal with a sensitivity that is five orders of magnitude better than in previous measurements. Preliminary measurements of quasiparticle trapping effects at the interface between a metal and a superconductor are also presented.

  14. Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of Ethylmercury Hydride

    Goubet, M.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2012-06-01

    The first millimeter-wave rotational spectrum of an organomercury compound, ethylmercury hydride (CH_3CH_2HgH), has been recorded using the Lille fast-scan spectrometer in the frequency range 120 -- 180 GHz. The spectroscopic study is complemented by quantum chemical calculations taking into account relativistic effects on the mercury atom. The very good agreement between theoretical and experimental molecular parameters validates the chosen ab initio method, in particular its capability to predict the accurate values of the quartic centrifugal distortion constants related to this type of compound. Estimations of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants are not as predictive as the structural parameters but good enough to satisfy the spectroscopic needs. In addition, the orientation of the H--Hg--C bonds axis deduced from the experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants compares well with the corresponding ab initio value. From the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results, together with the observation of the six most abundant isotopes of mercury, ethylmercury hydride is unambiguously identified and its calculated equilibrium geometry is confirmed. Alekseev, E.A. et al. Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy 3 (2012) 78.

  15. Passive millimeter wave simulation in blender

    Murakowski, Maciej

    Imaging in the millimeter wave (mmW) frequency range is being explored for applications where visible or infrared (IR) imaging fails, such as through atmospheric obscurants. However, mmW imaging is still in its infancy and imager systems are still bulky, expensive, and fragile, so experiments on imaging in real-world scenarios are difficult or impossible to perform. Therefore, a simulation system capable of predicting mmW phenomenology would be valuable in determining the requirements (e.g. resolution or noise floor) of an imaging system for a particular scenario and aid in the design of such an imager. Producing simulation software for this purpose is the objective of the work described in this thesis. The 3D software package Blender was modified to simulate the images produced by a passive mmW imager, based on a Geometrical Optics approach. Simulated imagery was validated against experimental data and the software was applied to novel imaging scenarios. Additionally, a database of material properties for use in the simulation was collected.

  16. Millimeter-wave detection of landmines

    Öztürk, Hilmi; Nazli, Hakki; Yeǧin, Korkut; Biçak, Emrullah; Sezgin, Mehmet; Daǧ, Mahmut; Turetken, Bahattin

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter wave absorption relative to background soil can be used for detection landmines with little or no metal content. At these frequencies, soil and landmine absorb electromagnetic energy differently. Stepped frequency measurements from 20 GHz to 60 GHz were used to detect buried surrogate landmines in the soil. The targets were 3 cm and 5 cm beneath the soil surface and coherent transmission and reflection was used in the experimental setup. The measurement set-up was mounted on a handheld portable device, and this device was on a rail for accurate displacement such that the rail could move freely along the scan axis. Measurements were performed with network analyzer and scattering data in frequency domain were recorded for processing, namely for inverse Fourier Transform and background subtraction. Background subtraction was performed through a numerical filter to achieve higher contrast ratio. Although the numerical filter used was a simple routine with minimal computational burden, a specific detection method was applied to the background subtracted GPR data, which was based on correlation summation of consecutive A-scan signals in a predefined window length.

  17. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    Talley, W.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Luhmann, N.C. [Univ. of California at Davis, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-03-12

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band ({approximately}8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies.

  18. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band (∼8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies

  19. An Ultra-Wideband Millimeter-Wave Phased Array

    Novak, Markus H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Volakis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Wideband millimeter-wave arrays are of increasing importance due to their growing use in high data rate systems, including 5G communication networks. In this paper, we present a new class of ultra-wideband millimeter wave arrays that operate from nearly 20 GHz to 90 GHz. The array is based on tightly coupled dipoles. Feeding designs and fabrication challenges are presented, and a method for suppressing feed resonances is provided.

  20. Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    1998-03-01

    A novel cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of metallic and non-metallic concealed weapons. This technique uses a vertical array of millimeter- wave antennas which is mechanically swept around a person in a cylindrical fashion. The wideband millimeter-wave data is mathematically reconstructed into a series of high- resolution images of the person being screened. Clothing is relatively transparent to millimeter-wave illumination,whereas the human body and concealed items are reflective at millimeter wavelengths. Differences in shape and reflectivity are revealed in the images and allow a human operator to detect and identify concealed weapons. A full 360 degree scan is necessary to fully inspect a person for concealed items. The millimeter-wave images can be formed into a video animation sequence in which the person appears to rotate in front of a fixed illumination source.This is s convenient method for presenting the 3D image data for analysis. This work has been fully sponsored by the FAA. An engineering prototype based on the cylindrical imaging technique is presently under development. The FAA is currently opposed to presenting the image data directly to the operator due to personal privacy concerns. A computer automated system is desired to address this problem by eliminating operator viewing of the imagery.

  1. Development and application of millimeter-wave imaging radar

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics in this frequency region. Millimeter wave imaging radar is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. It consists of a frequency-modulated continuous wave or pulsed wave as a probe beam and quasi-optical focusing optics followed by a planar-type detector array. We have started to develop a diagnostic system for the achievement of imaging radar. Representative experimental results obtained with related diagnostic systems are presented. (author)

  2. Development and application of millimeter-wave imaging radar

    Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Akihide; Ohashi, Masamichi; Osako, Shuhei [Kyushu Univ., Advanced Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Bruskin, Leonid G. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hojo, Hitoshi [Tsukuba Univ., Plasma Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics in this frequency region. Millimeter wave imaging radar is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. It consists of a frequency-modulated continuous wave or pulsed wave as a probe beam and quasi-optical focusing optics followed by a planar-type detector array. We have started to develop a diagnostic system for the achievement of imaging radar. Representative experimental results obtained with related diagnostic systems are presented. (author)

  3. Fundamentals of Medium Access Control Design for Millimeter Wave Networks

    Shokri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In current wireless communication systems, demands for extremely high data rates, along with spectrum scarcity at the microwave bands, make the millimeter wave (mmWave) band very appealing to provide these extremely high data rates even for a massive number of wireless devices. MmWave communications exhibit severe attenuation, vulnerability to obstacles (called blockage), and sparse-scattering environments. Moreover, mmWave signals have small wavelengths that allow the incorporation of many a...

  4. Detecting Extrasolar Planets With Millimeter-Wave Observatories

    1996-01-01

    Do nearby stars have planetary systems like our own? How do such systems evolve? How common are such systems? Proposed radio observatories operating at millimeter wavelengths could start answering these questions within the next 6-10 years, according to scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Bryan Butler, Robert Brown, Richard Simon, Al Wootten and Darrel Emerson, all of NRAO, presented their findings today to the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Antonio, TX. Detecting planets circling other stars is a particularly difficult task, and only a few such planets have been discovered so far. In order to answer fundamental questions about planetary systems and their origin, scientists need to find and study many more extrasolar planets. According to the NRAO scientists, millimeter-wavelength observatories could provide valuable information about extrasolar planetary systems at all stages of their evolution. "With instruments planned by 2005, we could detect planets the size of Jupiter around a solar-type star out to a distance of 100 light-years," said Robert Brown, Associate Director of NRAO. "That means," he added, "that we could survey approximately 2,000 stars of different types to learn if they have planets this size." Millimeter waves occupy the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between radio microwaves and infrared waves. Telescopes for observing at millimeter wavelengths utilize advanced electronic equipment similar to that used in radio telescopes observing at longer wavelengths. Millimeter-wave observatories offer a number of advantages in the search for extrasolar planets. Planned multi-antenna millimeter-wave telescopes can provide much higher resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, than current optical or infrared telescopes. Millimeter-wave observations would not be degraded by interference from the "zodiacal light" reflected by interplanetary dust, either in the extrasolar system or our own solar system

  5. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  6. Millimeter Wave Absorber for Secure Identification

    Skirlo, Scott A; Nasr, Magued; Heimbeck, Martin S; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin; Everitt, Henry O; Domash, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate thin, flexible, metamaterial films with a strong, narrowband, polarization- and angle-insensitive absorption designed for wavelengths near one millimeter. These structures, fabricated by photolithography on a commercially available, copper-backed polyimide substrate, are nearly indistinguishable to the unaided human eye but can be easily observed by imaging at the resonance frequency of the film. We demonstrate that these patterns can be used to mark or barcode objects for secure identification with a terahertz imaging system.

  7. Analysis of Millimeter Wave Networked Wearables in Crowded Environments

    Venugopal, Kiran; Valenti, Matthew C.; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The millimeter wave (mmWave) band has the potential to provide high throughput among wearable devices. When mmWave wearable networks are used in crowded environments, such as on a bus or train, antenna directivity and orientation hold the key to achieving Gbps rates. Previous work using stochastic geometry often assumes an infinite number of interfering nodes drawn from a Poisson Point Process (PPP). Since indoor wearable networks will be isolated due to walls, a network with a finite number ...

  8. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    Nanzer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  9. Microsystem integration from RF to millimeter wave applications

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency systems have been applied successfully to consumer products. Typically these radios operate up to 6 GHz. During recent years, interest towards microwave (up to 30 GHz) and millimeter wave frequencies (30 ... 300 GHz) has increased significantly. Technologies have been developed to have high performance microwave and millimeter wave components. On the other hand, integration and packaging technologies have not developed as fast while their importance is crucial especially in consumer applications. This presentation focuses to latest trends in wireless microsystem component integration and packaging trends backed up with demonstrators and measured results based on VTT's demonstrations.

  10. Millimeter-wave detection using resonant tunnelling diodes

    Mehdi, I.; Kidner, C.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.

    1990-01-01

    A lattice-matched InGaAs/InAlAs resonant tunnelling diode is studied as a video detector in the millimeter-wave range. Tangential signal sensitivity and video resistance measurements are made as a function of bias and frequency. A tangential signal sensitivity of -37 dBm (1 MHz amplifier bandwidth) with a corresponding video resistance of 350 ohms at 40 GHz has been measured. These results appear to be the first millimeter-wave tangential signal sensitivity and video resistance results for a resonant tunnelling diode.

  11. CMOS front ends for millimeter wave wireless communication systems

    Deferm, Noël

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the development of circuit and system design techniques for millimeter wave wireless communication systems above 90GHz and fabricated in nanometer scale CMOS technologies. The authors demonstrate a hands-on methodology that was applied to design six different chips, in order to overcome a variety of design challenges. Behavior of both actives and passives, and how to design them to achieve high performance is discussed in detail. This book serves as a valuable reference for millimeter wave designers, working at both the transistor level and system level.   Discusses advantages and disadvantages of designing wireless mm-wave communication circuits and systems in CMOS; Analyzes the limitations and pitfalls of building mm-wave circuits in CMOS; Includes mm-wave building block and system design techniques and applies these to 6 different CMOS chips; Provides guidelines for building measurement setups to evaluate high-frequency chips.  

  12. Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna. Abstract

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    This document outlines the background, objectives and the main results of the project “Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna” completed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with Danish company TICRA for the European Space Agency (ESA) under ESA contract no...

  13. Planar Millimeter-Wave Antennas: A Comparative Study

    Pitra, K.; Z. Raida

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the design and the experimental verification of three types of wideband antennas. Attention is turned to the bow-tie antenna, the Vivaldi antenna and the spiral antenna designed for the operation at millimeter waves. Bandwidth, input impedance, gain, and directivity pattern are the investigated parameters. Antennas are compared considering computer simulations in CST Microwave Studio and measured data.

  14. Global design of an active integrated antenna for millimeter wave

    Marzolf, Eric; Drissi, M’hamed

    2001-01-01

    An active integrated antenna working in the millimeter wave has been realized in a monolithic process. The concept of active integrated antenna is first introduced, then the design of the integrated circuit based on a global approach, following electromagnetic and circuit simulations, is presented. The obtained performances of the active antenna are discussed and compared to a passive one.

  15. Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    This document summarizes the main results of the project “Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna” completed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with Danish company TICRA for the European Space Agency (ESA) under ESA contract no. 4000109866/13/NL/MH....

  16. Digitally assisted analog beamforming for millimeter-wave communication

    Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the research question on how digital beamsteering algorithms can be combined with analog beamforming in the context of millimeter-wave communication for next generation (5G) cellular systems. Key is the use of coarse quantisation of the individual antenna signals next to the anal

  17. Irregular quasi-optical systems of millimeter waves electronics

    G.S. Vorobjov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available he basic types and research results of irregular quasi-optical systems, applied in electronics and millimeter-wave technology, are presented in the review. The general property of such systems is the presence of inhomogeneities, on which the transfor-mation of surface waves of electron beams (or dielectric waveguides into bulk waves, exciting the specified type of quasi-optical device (open resonator or waveguide, periodic or dielectric structure and others, occurs. We compared the levels of development for relativistic and non-relativistic electro-vacuum devices. The applicability of construction of low-voltage amplifiers and oscillators of millimeter range, including the planar technology uses for their microminiaturization, is shown. Based on the review we have built the scheme of irregular quasi-optical systems classification and evaluated the most advanced directions for further researches.

  18. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-02-01

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  19. Electronically steerable millimeter-wave antennas

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Jose, K. A.; Kelly, James F.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, electronically steerable microstrip and leaky wave antennas using tunable ferroelectric material are proposed. These antennas are lightweight, low volume, low profile, and conformal. They have low fabrication costs and are easily mass produced. They are thin and do not perturb the aerodynamics of a host automobile or aircraft. Linear, circular, and dual polarization are achieved with simple changes in feed position. Beam steering is accomplished by varying the relative phase between radiating elements. In planar array, both horizontal and vertical beam can be combined to provide full scanning capabilities. Tunable ceramic phase shifters are used in these antennas. In microstrip antennas, they are deposited as thin films on the feed lines whereas in the leaky wave antennas they have been used as a traveling waveguide with a ground plane on one side and metallic periodic grating on the opposite side. The dielectric properties of the ferroelectric material are changed by a bias voltage applied to the waveguide which in turn controls the leaky wave direction of the antenna. A simple experiment is presented which shows a good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  20. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of the SiCl+ ion

    Takeda, Kazuki; Masuda, Satoshi; Harada, Kensuke; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2016-05-01

    The millimeter-wave spectrum of the SiCl+ ion in the ground and first excited vibrational states was observed for the two isotopic (35Cl and 37Cl) species. The ion was generated in a free-space absorption cell by a hollow cathode discharge of SiCl4 diluted with He and discriminated from neutral species by the magnetic field effect on the absorption lines. The observed millimeter-wave spectrum was combined with a previously reported diode laser spectrum in an analysis to determine mass-independent Dunham coefficients as well as the mass scaling parameters. The equilibrium bond length of SiCl+ determined is re = 1.943 978(2) Å.

  1. RF to millimeter wave integration and module technologies

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.

    2015-04-01

    Radio Frequency (RF) consumer applications have boosted silicon integrated circuits (IC) and corresponding technologies. More and more functions are integrated to ICs and their performance is also increasing. However, RF front-end modules with filters and switches as well as antennas still need other way of integration. This paper focuses to RF front-end module and antenna developments as well as to the integration of millimeter wave radios. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed both Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) and Integrated Passive Devices (IPD) integration platforms for RF and millimeter wave integrated modules. In addition to in-house technologies, VTT is using module and component technologies from other commercial sources.

  2. Three-dimensional stereolithography for millimeter wave and terahertz applications

    Macor, Alessandro; Rijk, De; Jacques, Emile; Alberti, Stefano; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Metal-coated polymers shaped by 3D stereolithography are introduced as a new manufacturing method for passive components for millimeter to terahertz electromagnetic waves. This concept offers increased design capabilities and flexibilities while shortening the manufacturing process of complex shapes, e. g., corrugated horns, mirrors, etc. Tests at 92.5, 140, and 170 GHz are reported. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3701738

  3. Millimeter-wave structures and drivers for future linear colliders

    Nassiri, A.; Kang, Y.W.; Song, J.J.

    2000-07-24

    There is a growing interest in the development of very high gradient ({ge} GeV/meter) accelerating structures and millimeter-wave power sources. The need for very high gradient structures to be operated in W-band or at higher frequencies poses great technical challenges and demands innovations in rf science and technology to reach this goal. Requirements for microstructure fabrication and power sources based on deep x-ray lithography techniques are examined.

  4. Millimeter-wave structures and drivers for future linear colliders

    There is a growing interest in the development of very high gradient (ge GeV/meter) accelerating structures and millimeter-wave power sources. The need for very high gradient structures to be operated in W-band or at higher frequencies poses great technical challenges and demands innovations in rf science and technology to reach this goal. Requirements for microstructure fabrication and power sources based on deep x-ray lithography techniques are examined

  5. Detection of Ammonia in Liquids Using Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy

    Hilmi Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of ammonia plays a vital role for counter-bioterrorism applications. Using millimeter wave absorption measurements, ammonia dissolved in water solution is analyzed and compared to water-only solution. The inversion of ammonia molecule results in split rotational spectral lines and transitions of these lines can be detected. Two-port measurements were carried out with vector network analyzer and measurements revealed that ammonia presence can be identified, especially between 30–35 GHz.

  6. Millimeter Wave Scattering from Neutral and Charged Water Droplets

    Heifetz, Alexander; Chien, Hual-Te; Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, N. Sami; Raptis, A. C. Paul

    2010-01-01

    We investigated 94GHz millimeter wave (MMW) scattering from neutral and charged water mist produced in the laboratory with an ultrasonic atomizer. Diffusion charging of the mist was accomplished with a negative ion generator (NIG). We observed increased forward and backscattering of MMW from charged mist, as compared to MMW scattering from an uncharged mist. In order to interpret the experimental results, we developed a model based on classical electrodynamics theory of scattering from a diel...

  7. Vibration and rotation in millimeter-wave SAR

    Rüegg, M; Meier, E; D. Nüesch

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides high-resolution images of static ground scenes, whereas processing of data containing ground object motion results in varying focusing effects. Special cases of such motion are vibration and rotation, which are closely related to each other. Their patterns may be distinctly recognizable in focused SAR intensity images as well as in a time–frequency analysis. Millimeter-wave (mmW) SAR is well suited to image vibration because its wavelength is close to t...

  8. Millimeter Wave Picocellular System Evaluation for Urban Deployments

    Akdeniz, Mustafa Riza; Liu, Yuanpeng; Rangan, Sundeep; Erkip, Elza

    2013-01-01

    With the severe spectrum shortage in conventional cellular bands, millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation micro- and picocellular wireless networks. The mmW bands offer orders of magnitude greater spectrum than current cellular allocations and enable very high-dimensional antenna arrays for further gains via spatial multiplexing. However, the propagation of mmW signals in outdoor non line-of-si...

  9. Advances in Silicon Based Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits

    Han-Chih Yeh; Ching-Chau Chiong; Ming-Tang Chen; Huei Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the advances of the silicon-based millimeter-wave (MMW) monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are reported. The silicon-based technologies for MMW MMICs are briefly introduced. In addition, the current status of the MMW MMICs is surveyed and novel circuit topologies are summarized. Some representative MMW MMICs are illustrated as design examples in the categories of their functions in a MMW system. Finally, there is a conclusion and description of the future trend of the devel...

  10. Beam-searching and Transmission Scheduling in Millimeter Wave Communications

    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Gkatzikis, Lazaros; Fischione, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) wireless networks are capable to support multi-gigabit data rates, by using directional communications with narrow beams. However, existing mmW communications standards are hindered by two problems: deafness and single link scheduling. The deafness problem, that is, a misalignment between transmitter and receiver beams, demands a time consuming beam-searching operation, which leads to an alignment-throughput tradeoff. Moreover, the existing mmW standards schedule a singl...

  11. Millimeter Wave Cellular Wireless Networks: Potentials and Challenges

    Rangan, Sundeep; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Erkip, Elza

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz are a new frontier for cellular communication that offers the promise of orders of magnitude greater bandwidths combined with further gains via beamforming and spatial multiplexing from multi-element antenna arrays. This paper surveys measurements and capacity studies to assess this technology with a focus on small cell deployments in urban environments. The conclusions are extremely encouraging; measurements in New York City at 28 and ...

  12. Thermal Mechanisms of Millimeter Wave Stimulation of Excitable Cells

    Shapiro, Mikhail G.; Priest, Michael F.; Siegel, Peter H.; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between millimeter waves (MMWs) and biological systems have received increasing attention due to the growing use of MMW radiation in technologies ranging from experimental medical devices to telecommunications and airport security. Studies have shown that MMW exposure alters cellular function, especially in neurons and muscles. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying such effects are still poorly understood. Due to the high aqueous absorbance of MMW, thermal mechanisms are...

  13. Millimeter Wave Channel Modeling and Cellular Capacity Evaluation

    Akdeniz, Mustafa Riza; Liu, Yuanpeng; Samimi, Mathew K.; Sun, Shu; Rangan, Sundeep; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Erkip, Elza

    2013-01-01

    With the severe spectrum shortage in conventional cellular bands, millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation micro- and picocellular wireless networks. The mmW bands offer orders of magnitude greater spectrum than current cellular allocations and enable very high-dimensional antenna arrays for further gains via beamforming and spatial multiplexing. This paper uses recent real-world measurements at...

  14. WDM Phase-Modulated Millimeter-Wave Fiber Systems

    Yu, Xianbin; Prince, Kamau; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood;

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a computer simulation case study of two typical WDM phase-modulated millimeter-wave systems. The phase-modulated 60 GHz fiber multi-channel transmission systems employ single sideband (SSB) and double sideband subcarrier modulation (DSB-SC) schemes and present one of the lat...... latest research efforts in the rapidly emerging Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) application space for in-house access networks....

  15. Millimeter-wave brightness temperatures of military vehicles

    Nemarich, Joseph; Cassidy, Thomas W.; Shiner, R.; Agravante, Hiroshi H.; Dixon, David; Moffa, Philip; Quon, Bill H.; Yujiri, Larry; Dahlstrom, R.

    1999-07-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometers operating at 97 and 140 GHz were used to obtain passive MMW images and brightness temperatures of military vehicles at various altitudes and depression angles. The line-scanning radiometer system used for the measurements is described, and several passive MMW images are presented. The upper-bound MMW brightness temperatures of a number of different types of vehicles in an open area were determined and shown to have similar values at various depression angles.

  16. Planar Millimeter-Wave Antennas: A Comparative Study

    K. Pitra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design and the experimental verification of three types of wideband antennas. Attention is turned to the bow-tie antenna, the Vivaldi antenna and the spiral antenna designed for the operation at millimeter waves. Bandwidth, input impedance, gain, and directivity pattern are the investigated parameters. Antennas are compared considering computer simulations in CST Microwave Studio and measured data.

  17. Two-wavelength millimeter wave “unambiguous” heterodyne interferometer

    Ermak, G.P.; Varavin, A.V.; Vasilev, A.S.; Stumbra, M.; Fateev, A.S.; Žáček, František; Zajac, Jaromír; Varavin, Mykyta; Shevchenko, V.

    Kharkov : IEEE, 2013, s. 529-531. ISBN 978-1-4799-1066-3. [International Kharkov Symposium on Physics and Engineering of Microwaves, Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves, MSMW 2013. Kharkov (UA), 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Detectors * Frequency measurement * Phase measurement * Plasma density * Plasma measurements * Tokamaks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSMW.2013.6622129

  18. Characterization of on-body communications at millimeter waves

    Valerio, Guido; Sauleau, Ronan; Chahat, Nacer; Guraliuc, Anda; Zhadobov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a the study of on-body communications at millimeter waves. An analytical formulation is proposed by assuming a dipole source radiating on a flat skin, whose permittivity is suitably chosen to model human tissues at those frequencies, according to previous investigation. An experimental setup, consisting of two open-ended waveguides placed on the top of a skin-equivalent phantom, is then discussed in order to validate the theoretical analysis.

  19. A Three-Frequency Feed for Millimeter-Wave Radiometry

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Sosnowski, John B.; Johnson, Alan K.; Bruneau, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A three-frequency millimeter-wave feed horn was developed as part of an advanced component technology task that provides components necessary for higher-frequency radiometers to meet the needs of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans, and to measure the global water storage in inland surface water bodies, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. In this innovation, the feed provides three separate output ports in the 87-to- 97-GHz, 125-to-135-GHz, and 161-to-183- GHz bands; WR10 for the 90-GHz channel, WR8 for the 130-GHz channel, and WR5 for the 170-GHz channel. These ports are in turn connected to individual radiometer channels that will also demonstrate component technology including new PIN-diode switches and noise diodes for internal calibration integrated into each radiometer front end. For this application, a prime focus feed is required with an edge taper of approximately 20 dB at an illumination angle of 40 deg. A single polarization is provided in each band. Preliminary requirements called for a return loss of better than 15 dB, which is achieved across all three bands. Good pattern symmetry is also obtained throughout all three-frequency bands. This three-frequency broadband millimeter-wave feed also minimizes mass and provides a common focal point for all three millimeter-wave bands.

  20. Compressive and Adaptive Millimeter-wave SAR

    Mrozack, Alex; Marks, Daniel L; Richard, Jonathan; Everitt, Henry O; Brady, David J

    2014-01-01

    We apply adaptive sensing techniques to the problem of locating sparse metallic scatterers using high-resolution, frequency modulated continuous wave W-band RADAR. Using a single detector, a frequency stepped source, and a lateral translation stage, inverse synthetic aperture RADAR reconstruction techniques are used to search for one or two wire scatterers within a specified range, while an adaptive algorithm determined successive sampling locations. The two-dimensional location of each scatterer is thereby identified with sub-wavelength accuracy in as few as 1/4 the number of lateral steps required for a simple raster scan. The implications of applying this approach to more complex scattering geometries are explored in light of the various assumptions made.

  1. Millimeter wave planar integrated circuit developments for communication applications

    Chang, K.; Sun, C.

    Millimeter wave communication systems offer certain advantages over lower frequency systems. These advantages are related to wider bandwidth, larger data handling capacity, covert operation, and better immunity to jamming. Newer developments in the area of component technology for systems operating at millimeter wavelengths have utilized planar integrated circuits. Such circuits provide benefits of light weight, small size, and inherent low cost due to ease of high volume manufacturing. The present paper is concerned with a number of key IC components which have been developed. These components are ideally suited for direct application in advanced tactical, radar, and satellite communication systems. Attention is given to a rat-race microstrip balanced mixer, a crossbar stripline balanced mixer, and various subsystems developments.

  2. Investigation of the Millimeter-Wave Plasma Assisted CVD Reactor

    A polycrystalline diamond grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is recognized as a unique material for high power electronic devices owing to unrivaled combination of properties such as ultra-low microwave absorption, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength and chemical stability. Microwave vacuum windows for modern high power sources and transmission lines operating at the megawatt power level require high quality diamond disks with a diameter of several centimeters and a thickness of a few millimeters. The microwave plasma-assisted CVD technique exploited today to produce such disks has low deposition rate, which limits the availability of large size diamond disk windows. High-electron-density plasma generated by the millimeter-wave power was suggested for enhanced-growth-rate CVD. In this paper a general description of the 30 GHz gyrotron-based facility is presented. The output radiation of the gyrotron is converted into four wave-beams. Free localized plasma in the shape of a disk with diameter much larger than the wavelength of the radiation is formed in the intersection area of the wave-beams. The results of investigation of the plasma parameters, as well as the first results of diamond film deposition are presented. The prospects for commercially producing vacuum window diamond disks for high power microwave devices at much lower costs and processing times than currently available are outlined

  3. Handbook of RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components

    Smolskiy, Sergey M; Kochemasov, Victor N

    2012-01-01

    This unique and comprehensive resource offers you a detailed treatment of the operations principles, key parameters, and specific characteristics of active and passive RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components. The book covers both linear and nonlinear components that are used in a wide range of application areas, from communications and information sciences, to avionics, space, and military engineering. This practical book presents descriptions and clear examples and of the best materials and products used in the field, including laminates, prepregs, substrates; microstrip, coaxial and wa

  4. Millimeter-wave imaging on GAMMA 10 and LHD

    Millimeter-wave imaging system in the frequency range of 70-140 GHz was developed for diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas. It successfully measures time evolutions of three-dimensional (radial and axial) profiles of line density and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the plug cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. It is also being installed in Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to cover the frequency range of the second harmonic ECE on LHD, a novel detector using monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is designed and fabricated. The optical system consisting of an ellipsoidal and a flat mirrors is constructed and evaluated experimentally at 140 GHz. (author)

  5. Directional Beamforming for Millimeter-Wave MIMO Systems

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Subramanian, Sundar; Cezanne, Juergen; Sampath, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on beamforming in a millimeter-wave (mmW) multi-input multi-output (MIMO) setup that has gained increasing traction in meeting the high data-rate requirements of next-generation wireless systems. For a given MIMO channel matrix, the optimality of beamforming with the dominant right-singular vector (RSV) at the transmit end and with the matched filter to the RSV at the receive end has been well-understood. When the channel matrix can be accurately captured by a physi...

  6. Advances in Silicon Based Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits

    Han-Chih Yeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the advances of the silicon-based millimeter-wave (MMW monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs are reported. The silicon-based technologies for MMW MMICs are briefly introduced. In addition, the current status of the MMW MMICs is surveyed and novel circuit topologies are summarized. Some representative MMW MMICs are illustrated as design examples in the categories of their functions in a MMW system. Finally, there is a conclusion and description of the future trend of the development of the MMW ICs.

  7. Space-based millimeter-wave debris tracking radar

    Chang, Kai; Pollock, Michael A.; Skrehot, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    NORAD system currently tracks and predicts orbits of space objects of 80 mm or larger in diameter. The small debris of less than 80 mm, traveling at high speed, could cause damage to Space Station or space vehicles. To overcome this problem, a 35 GHz space-based millimeter-wave radar system is proposed to track the particles ranging in size from 4 mm to 80 mm up to a range of 25 Km. The system requires a large phased array which should be developed in monolithic circuits for cost reduction.

  8. Design of Millimeter-Wave Power Ampliers in Silicon /

    Kalantari, Nader

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this dissertation focuses on the millimeter-wave power amplifier in silicon where both switching and linear power amplifiers were investigated. In Chapter 2, a Q-band, Class-E power amplifier has been designed and fabricated in a 120 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The amplifier was designed for high output power using on-chip power combining networks. It operates respectively from a 1.2 V supply for peak efficiency and a 2.4 V supply for maximum power and occupies an area of 0.8...

  9. Broadband notch filter design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank;

    2010-01-01

    Notch filters are integrated in plasma diagnostic systems to protect millimeter-wave receivers from intensive stray radiation. Here we present a design of a notch filter with a center frequency of 140 GHz, a rejection bandwidth of ∼ 900 MHz, and a typical insertion loss below 2 dB in the passband...... in the cylindrical cavities is the fundamental TE11. The performance of the constructed filter is measured using a vector network analyzer monitoring a total bandwidth of 30 GHz. We compare the measurements with numerical simulations. © 2010 EURATOM...

  10. Theory for beam-plasma millimeter-wave radiation source experiments

    This paper reports on theoretical studies for millimeter-wave plasma source experiments. In the device, millimeter-wave radiation is generated in a plasma-filled waveguide driven by counter-streaming electron beams. The beams excite electron plasma waves which couple to produce radiation at twice the plasma frequency. Physics topics relevant to the high electron beam current regime are discussed

  11. On the mechanisms of interaction of low-intensity millimeter waves with biological objects

    Betskii, O.V.

    1994-07-01

    The interaction of low-intensity millimeter-band electromagnetic waves with biological objects is examined. These waves are widely used in medical practice as a means of physiotherapy for the treatment of various human disorders. Principal attention is given to the mechanisms through which millimeter waves act on the human organism.

  12. Sniper bullet detection by millimeter-wave radar

    Bernstein, Uri; Lefevre, Russell J.; Mann, John; Avent, Randy K.; Deo, Naresh

    1999-01-01

    Law enforcement and military operations would clearly benefit from a capability to locate snipers by backtracking the sniper's bullet trajectory. Achieving sufficient backtracking accuracy for bullets is a demanding radar design, requiring good measurement accuracy, high update rate, and detection of very low cross-section objects. In addition, reasonable cost is a driving requirement for law enforcement use. These divergent design requirements are addressed in an experimental millimeter-wave focal plane array radar that uses integrated millimeter-wave receiver technology. The radar is being built for DARPA by Technology Service Corporation, with assistance from M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory and QuinStar Technology. The key element in the radar is a 35-GHz focal plane array receiver. The receiving antenna lens focuses radar signals from a wide field of view onto an array of receivers, each receiver processing a separate element of the field of view. Receiver detections are then combined in a tracking processor. An FM-CW waveform is used to provide high average power, good range resolution, and stationary clutter rejection. TSC will be testing the sniper detection radar, using radar environment simulator technology developed at Lincoln Laboratory. The simulator will retransmit the received signal with the range delay, Doppler shift, and ERP for various simulated bullet trajectories.

  13. Beam lead quartz chips for superconducting millimeter-wave circuits

    Bass, Robert B.; Zhang, Jian Z.; Bishop, William L.; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Pan, Shing-Kuo

    2003-02-01

    The assembly of superconducting millimeter and submillimeter-wave circuits often requires RF ground connections. These are usually made by soldering, wire bonding, conductive adhesive or conductive wire gaskets. The difficulty of assembly increases with frequency as chip dimensions and tolerances shrink. The assembly issues, and also the throughput requirements of large radio astronomy projects such as ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array), suggest the need of a beam lead technology for these circuits. Beam lead processes are already established for silicon and gallium arsenide wafers. However, niobium circuits on quartz substrates present unique difficulties. SIS junctions introduce additional thermal and chemical constraints to process development. For quartz, wet etches are isotropic and dry etches with high etch rates require large ion energies. Therefore, it is difficult to develop a conventional process in which gold pads on the substrate surface are formed into beam leads by a backside etch. Instead we have developed a topside process in which, after the mixer circuits are completed, dicing cuts are made at the finished chip dimensions but only partly through the wafer. The dicing cuts are then filled with a sacrificial material in a non-CMP process, and planarized. Gold plated pads are then defined, overhanging the planarized cuts. The sacrificial material is then removed from these cuts, leaving the gold beam leads. The wafer is then backside lapped into the cuts to the desired thickness, separating the individual chips. We discuss the new planarization scheme developed for this beam lead process and compare a variety of sacrificial materials.

  14. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for concealed article detection

    Lovberg, John A.; Galliano, Joseph A., Jr.; Clark, Stuart E.

    1997-02-01

    Passive-millimeter-wave imaging (PMI) provides a powerful sensing tool for law enforcement, allowing an unobtrusive means for detecting concealed weapons, explosives, or contraband on persons or in baggage. Natural thermal emissions at millimeter wavelengths from bodies, guns, explosives, and other articles pass easily through clothing or other concealment materials, where they can be detected and converted into conventional 2-dimensional images. A new implementation of PMI has demonstrated a large-area, near- real-time staring capability for personnel inspection at standoff ranges of greater than 10 meters. In this form, PMI does not require operator cuing based on subjective 'profiles' of suspicious appearance or behaviors, which may otherwise be construed as violations of civil rights. To the contrary, PMI detects and images heat generated by any object with no predisposition as to its nature or function (e.g. race or gender of humans). As a totally passive imaging tool, it generates no radio-frequency or other radiation which might raise public health concerns. Specifics of the new PMI architecture are presented along with a host of imaging data representing the current state- of-the-art.

  15. Millimeter-wave imaging of thermal and chemical signatures

    Development of a passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) system is described for remotely mapping thermal and chemical signatures of process effluents with application to arms control and nonproliferation. Because a large amount of heat is usually dissipated in the air or waterway as a by-product of most weapons of mass destruction facilities, remote thermal mapping may be used to detect concealed or open facilities of weapons of mass destruction. We have developed a focal-plane mm-wave imaging system to investigate the potential of thermal mapping. Results of mm-wave images obtained with a 160-GHz radiometer system are presented for different target scenes simulated in the laboratory. Chemical and nuclear facilities may be identified by remotely measuring molecular signatures of airborne molecules emitted from these facilities. We have developed a filterbank radiometer to investigate the potential of passive spectral measurements. Proof of principle is presented by measuring the HDO spectral line at 80.6 GHz with a 4-channel 77-83 GHz radiometer

  16. Modeling Human Blockers in Millimeter Wave Radio Links

    Jonathan S. Lu; Daniel Steinbach; Patrick Cabrol; Philip Pietraski

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the loss caused by multiple humans blocking millimeter wave frequencies. We model human blockers as absorbing screens of infinite height with two knife-edges, We take a physical optics approach to computing the diffraction around the absorbing screens, This approach differs to the geometric optics approach described in much of the literature. The blocking model is validated by measuring the gain from multiple-human blocking configurations on an indoor link. The blocking gains predicted using Piazzi ' s numerical integration method (a physical optics method) agree well with measurements taken from approximately 2.7 dB to -50 dB. Thereofre, this model is suitable for real human blockers, The mean prediction error for the method is approximately -1.2 dB, and the standard deviation is approximately 5 dB.

  17. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Sawaya, Kunio; Mizuno, Koji; Uemura, Jun; Takeda, Masamune; Takahashi, Junichi; Yamada, Kota; Morichika, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Haruyuki; Niikura, Hirotaka; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Kato, Shigeto; Nakada, Jun

    2010-04-01

    77 GHz passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging camera for the purpose of security is developed. In order to detect concealed objects in clothes without hindrance to flow of people at airport security checks, video rate imaging is realized using one-dimensional imaging sensor array of 25 elements and a flapping reflector. As receiving antennas, novel antipodal Fermi antenna (APFA) having required characteristics for passive imaging such as broad bandwidth to obtain enough power, axially symmetric directivity with 10dB beam width of 35 degrees to obtain optimum coupling with dielectric lens, narrow width geometry for high spatial resolution of imaging is used. Real-time calibration (RTC) technique is introduced to eliminate the drift of receiving circuits. Interpolation technique to improve the quality of image and marking software for screening of suspicious objects are also developed. High spatial resolution of 20 mm is obtained by using developed imaging camera.

  18. Millimeter Wave Scattering from Neutral and Charged Water Droplets

    Heifetz, Alexander; Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, N Sami; Raptis, A C Paul

    2010-01-01

    We investigated 94GHz millimeter wave (MMW) scattering from neutral and charged water mist produced in the laboratory with an ultrasonic atomizer. Diffusion charging of the mist was accomplished with a negative ion generator (NIG). We observed increased forward and backscattering of MMW from charged mist, as compared to MMW scattering from an uncharged mist. In order to interpret the experimental results, we developed a model based on classical electrodynamics theory of scattering from a dielectric sphere with diffusion-deposited mobile surface charge. In this approach, scattering and extinction cross-sections are calculated for a charged Rayleigh particle with effective dielectric constant consisting of the volume dielectric function of the neutral sphere and surface dielectric function due to the oscillation of the surface charge in the presence of applied electric field. For small droplets with (radius smaller than 100nm), this model predicts increased MMW scattering from charged mist, which is qualitative...

  19. Design of a Broadband Millimeter-Wave Monolithic IQ Mixer

    Xu, Leijun; Wang, Zhigong; Li, Qin

    2010-05-01

    A 26˜40 GHz millimeter-wave monolithic passive IQ mixer was designed by using Win’s 0.15-µm GaAs pHEMT process. It utilizes a ring diode structure, and the performance can be improved effectively by a modified Marchand balun and U-type coupled lines. Through on-wafer measurement, the mixer shows a conversion loss of 6.6˜9 dB over a bandwidth of 26˜40 GHz, an IF bandwidth from DC to 6 GHz, an image rejection ratio of 21˜30 dB, an LO-RF isolation of above 24 dB, an LO-IF isolation of above 35 dB, and an RF-IF isolation of above 25 dB.

  20. Spatial Stationarity of Ultrawideband and Millimeter Wave Radio Channels

    Yi, Tan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    For radio channels with broad bandwidth resource, such as those often used for ultrawideband (UWB) and millimeter wave (mmwave) systems, the Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering (WSSUS) and spatial stationary assumptions are more critical than typical cellular channels with very limited...... bandwidth resource. This paper studies spatial stationarity and bandwidth dependency of the Multipath Component (MPC) parameters, and the concept of local region of stationarity (LRS) is used as the measure of the physical stationarity region. LRS calculation results based on channel measurements show that...... the size of LRS is bandwidth dependent in all measured bands, 2–4 GHz, 14–16 GHz, and 28–30 GHz. The results in this paper point out that an inappropriate choice of bandwidth in channel parameter estimation could violate spatial stationary assumptions. The paper indicates LRS sizes for different...

  1. Experimental demonstration of high power millimeter wave gyro-amplifiers

    Blank, M.; Garven, M.; Calame, J. P.; Choi, J. J.; Danly, B. G.; Levush, B.; Nguyen, K.; Pershing, D. E.

    1999-05-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is currently investigating gyro-amplifiers as high power, broadband sources for millimeter wave radars. A three-cavity Ka-band gyroklystron achieved 225 kW peak output power with 0.82% bandwidth. At W-band, several multi-cavity gyro-amplifiers have been experimentally demonstrated. A four-cavity gyroklystron amplifier has achieved 84 kW peak output power at 34% efficiency with 370 MHz bandwidth. A five-cavity gyroklystron demonstrated 72 kW peak output power with 410 MHz bandwidth and 50 dB saturated gain. For applications requiring greater bandwidth, gyrotwystron amplifiers are also under study. A four section W-band gyrotwystron demonstrated 50 kW peak output power at 925 MHz bandwidth. The results of recent Ka-band and W-band gyro-amplifier experiments and comparisons of measured data with predictions of theory are presented.

  2. Design of Receiver Used for Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging System

    Cheng Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As millimeter wave (MMW electronic technologies have matured, the MMW imaging using for human security inspection is emerging as an effective approach to imaging through obscuring materials, such as clothing for concealed weapons detection or plastic mines. This paper introduces temperature sensitivity firstly and then the fringe-washing functions are derived which decide the structure the antenna array and the receivers of the system BHU-2D. Finally, the fringe-washing functions and their phases are calculated from the frequency responses of 24-receiver, they all show good consistency of the receivers which also can be proved from the test results of receivers. From the final imaging of our system, the 1-2K temperature sensitivity is realized successfully.

  3. Display of polarization information for passive millimeter-wave imagery

    Wilson, John P.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Dillon, Thomas E.; Eng, David L. K.; Kozacik, Stephen; Prather, Dennis W.

    2012-09-01

    A technique is described for displaying polarization information from passive millimeter-wave (mmW) sensors. This technique uses the hue of an image to display the polarization information and the lightness of an image to provide the unpolarized information. The fusion of both images is done in such a way that minimal information is lost from the unpolarized image while adding polarization information within a single image. The technique is applied to experimental imagery collected in a desert environment with two orthogonal linear polarization states of light and the results are discussed. Several objects such as footprints, ground textures, tire tracks, and shrubs display strong polarization features that are clearly visible with this technique, while materials with low polarization signatures such as metal are also clearly visible in the same image.

  4. A MILLIMETER WAVE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA WITH CPW FEED

    GARIMA SANYAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a coplanar waveguide fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna with U slot at 40 Ghz is designed and simulated. Simulated results are presented by using Ansoft HFSS 13 software, a full wave electromagnetic field simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device modeling that takes advantage of the familiar Microsoft Windows graphical user interface.The patch element is been placed on FR4 Epoxy substrate with relative permittivity 4.4 at a height of 1.8 mm. The gain of the proposed antenna is 5dB.This antenna is smallsize,cheap,compact,easy to fabricate ,achieve return loss of -17.8dB at 40GHz which ranges to -25 dB at 10 0GHz and good VSWR.The approach presented in this paper offers major advantages in millimeter waveapplications as in radar communication.

  5. Passive fully polarimetric W-band millimeter-wave imaging

    Bernacki, B. E.; Kelly, J. F.; Sheen, D. M.; McMakin, D. L.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Harris, R. V.; Mendoza, A.; Hall, T. E.; Hatchell, B. K.; Valdez, P. L. J.

    2012-03-01

    We present the theory, design, and experimental results obtained from a scanning passive W-band fully polarimetric imager. Passive millimeter-wave imaging offers persistent day/nighttime imaging and the ability to penetrate dust, clouds and other obscurants, including clothing and dry soil. The single-pixel scanning imager includes both far-field and near-field fore-optics for investigation of polarization phenomena. Using both fore-optics, a variety of scenes including natural and man-made objects was imaged and these results are presented showing the utility of polarimetric imaging for anomaly detection. Analysis includes conventional Stokes-parameter based approaches as well as multivariate image analysis methods.

  6. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  7. Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication.

    Liu, Xiao; Xiao, Zhenyu; Bai, Lin; Choi, Jinho; Xia, Pengfei; Xia, Xiang-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD) systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx) beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI). Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE), zero-forcing (ZF), and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average) and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors. PMID:27455256

  8. Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication

    Liu, Xiao; Xiao, Zhenyu; Bai, Lin; Choi, Jinho; Xia, Pengfei; Xia, Xiang-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD) systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx) beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI). Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE), zero-forcing (ZF), and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average) and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors. PMID:27455256

  9. Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication

    Xiao Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI. Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE, zero-forcing (ZF, and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors.

  10. Polarization difference imaging for millimeter-wave in a desert environment

    Wilson, John P.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Stein, Edwin L., Jr.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2010-10-01

    The low attenuation of millimeter-wave radiation propagating through sandstorms has created an interest in using millimeter-wave imagers in desert environments. The ground in desert environments can have significant differences in polarization properties depending on the angle of observation. Perturbations to the natural desert surface will change these polarization properties and by using a polarization difference technique these changes are highlighted. This technique has been applied to millimeter-wave images from a desert environment for several different objects including holes in the ground, footsteps, and changes to the surface created by digging.

  11. Millimeter-Wave Dielectric Properties of Single Crystal Ferroelectric and Dielectric Materials

    McCloy, John S.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Li, Zijing; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2011-01-03

    Transmittance measurements on various single crystal ferroelectric materials over a broad millimeter-wave frequency range have been performed. Frequency dependence of the complex dielectric permittivity has been determined in the millimeter wave region for the first time. The measurements have been employed using a free-space quasi-optical millimeter-wave spectrometer equipped with a set of high power backward wave oscillators (BWOs) as sources of coherent radiation, tunable in the range from 30 - 120 GHz. The uncertainties and possible sources of instrumentation and measurement errors related to the free-space millimeter-wave technique are discussed. This work has demonstrated that precise MMW permittivities can be obtained even on small thin crystals using the BWO quasi-optical approach.

  12. Millimeter and submillimeter wave spectra of 13C-glycolaldehydes

    Haykal, I.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. Astronomical surveys of interstellar molecules, such as those available with the very sensitive ALMA telescope, require preliminary laboratory investigations of the microwave and submillimeter-wave spectra of molecular species including new isotopologs - to identify these in the interstellar media. Aims: To achieve the detection of the 13C isotopologs of glycolaldehyde in the interstellar medium, their rotational spectra in the millimeter and submillimeter-wave regions were studied. Methods: The spectra of 13CH2OHCHO and CH2OH13CHO were recorded in the 150-945 GHz spectral range in the laboratory using a solid-state submillimeter-wave spectrometer in Lille. The observed line frequencies were measured with an accuracy of 30 kHz up to 700 GHz and of 50 kHz above 700 GHz. We analyzed the spectra with a standard Watson Hamiltonian. Results: About 10 000 new lines were identified for each isotopolog. The spectroscopic parameters were determined for the ground- and the three lowest vibrational states up to 945 and 630 GHz. Previous microwave assignments of 13CH2OHCHO were not confirmed. Conclusions: The provided line-lists and sets of molecular parameters meet the needs for a first astrophysical search of 13C-glycolaldehydes. Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A96

  13. Microwave and millimeter-wave resonant tunneling diodes

    Sollner, T. C. L. Gerhard; Brown, Elliott R.; Goodhue, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Several demonstrated resonant tunneling devices including oscillators, mixers, multiplexers, and a variable negative resistance are discussed. Techniques of the millimeter/submillimeter regime are also discussed.

  14. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Ciovati, G.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  15. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  16. Millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado nebula

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, VLSR = –14 km s–1 and +5 km s–1. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado 'head' in the –14 km s–1 cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s–1 cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the –14 km s–1 cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s–1 cloud collided into the –14 km s–1 cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  17. Millimeter-wave Molecular Line Observations of the Tornado Nebula

    Sakai, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Miura, Kodai; Takekawa, Shunya

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7--0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic Center region. A 15'x15' area was mapped in the J=1--0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope. The VLA archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V_LSR=-14 km/s and +5 km/s. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado "head" in the -14 km/s cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km/s cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the -14 km/s cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km/s cloud collided into the -14...

  18. Millimeter-wave Molecular Line Observations of the Tornado Nebula

    Sakai, D.; Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumura, S.; Miura, K.; Takekawa, S.

    2014-08-01

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V LSR = -14 km s-1 and +5 km s-1. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado "head" in the -14 km s-1 cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s-1 cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the -14 km s-1 cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s-1 cloud collided into the -14 km s-1 cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  19. Millimeter-wave scattering from neutral and charged water droplets

    We investigated 94 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) scattering from neutral and charged water mist produced in the laboratory with an ultrasonic atomizer. Diffusion charging of the mist was accomplished with a negative ion generator (NIG). We observed increased forward- and backscattering of MMW from charged mist, as compared to MMW scattering from an uncharged mist. In order to interpret the experimental results, we developed a model based on classical electrodynamics theory of scattering from a dielectric sphere with diffusion-deposited mobile surface charge. In this approach, scattering and extinction cross-sections are calculated for a charged Rayleigh particle with effective dielectric constant consisting of the volume dielectric function of the neutral sphere and surface dielectric function due to the oscillation of the surface charge in the presence of applied electric field. For small droplets with radius smaller than 100 nm, this model predicts increased MMW scattering from charged mist, which is qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations. The objective of this work is to develop indirect remote sensing of radioactive gases via their charging action on atmospheric humid air.

  20. Conformal Antenna Array for Millimeter-Wave Communications: Performance Evaluation

    Semkin, V; Kyro, M; Kolmonen, V-M; Luxey, C; Ferrero, F; Devillers, F; Raisanen, A V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the radius of a cylindrical supporting structure on radiation properties of a conformal millimeter-wave antenna array. Bent antenna array structures on cylindrical surfaces may have important applications in future mobile devices. Small radii may be needed if the antenna is printed on the edges of mobile devices and in items which human beings are wearing, such as wrist watches, bracelets and rings. The antenna under study consists of four linear series-fed arrays of four patch elements and is operating at 58.8 GHz with linear polarization. The antenna array is fabricated on polytetrafluoroethylene substrate with thickness of 0.127 mm due to its good plasticity properties and low losses. Results for both planar and conformal antenna arrays show rather good agreement between simulation and measurements. The results show that conformal antenna structures allow achieving large angular coverage and may allow beam-steering implementations if switches are used to select betw...

  1. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  2. Millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation in a compact storage ring

    Installation of a 2,856 MHz RF system into the XLS compact electron storage ring would allow the generation of millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation. Operating at 150 MeV, one could produce bunches containing on the order of 2 x 107 electrons with a bunch length σL0 = 0.3 mm, resulting in coherent emission at wavelengths above 0.8 mm. The characteristics of the source and the emitted radiation are discussed. In the case of 100 mrad horizontal collection angle, the average power radiated in the wavelength band 1 mm ≤ λ ≤ 2 mm is 0.3 mW for single bunch operation and 24 mW for 80 bunch operation. The peak power in a single pulse of a few picosecond duration is on the order of one watt. By reducing the momentum compaction, the bunch length could be reduced to σL0 = 0.15 mm, resulting in coherent synchrotron radiation down to 500 microm

  3. A Temporal Millimeter Wave Propagation Model for Tunnels Using Ray Frustum Techniques and FFT

    Choonghyen Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A temporal millimeter wave propagation model for tunnels is presented using ray frustum techniques and fast Fourier transform (FFT. To directly estimate or simulate effects of millimeter wave channel properties on the performance of communication services, time domain impulse responses of demodulated signals should be obtained, which needs rather large computation time. To mitigate the computational burden, ray frustum techniques are used to obtain frequency domain transfer function of millimeter wave propagation environment and FFT of equivalent low pass signals are used to retrieve demodulated waveforms. This approach is numerically efficient and helps to directly estimate impact of tunnel structures and surfaces roughness on the performance of millimeter wave communication services.

  4. Miniaturized MMIC-Based Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizers for Space Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMIC technology provides the technology base to reduce the size and weight of microwave and millimeter wave (MMW) equipment on board airborne and space-based...

  5. Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System

    Ghasr, M. T.; Case, J. T.; McClanahan, A. D.; Abou-Khousa, M.; Guinn, K.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Afaki-Beni, A.; DePaulis, F.; Pommerenke, D.

    2008-01-01

    This is the video that accompanies the "Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System" presentation. It shows the operation of the scanning system, and reviews the results of the scanning of a sample.

  6. A Temporal Millimeter Wave Propagation Model for Tunnels Using Ray Frustum Techniques and FFT

    Choonghyen Kwon; Hayeon Kim; Haengseon Lee; Hyo Hyun Choi; Woo-jin Byun; Kwangseon Kim

    2014-01-01

    A temporal millimeter wave propagation model for tunnels is presented using ray frustum techniques and fast Fourier transform (FFT). To directly estimate or simulate effects of millimeter wave channel properties on the performance of communication services, time domain impulse responses of demodulated signals should be obtained, which needs rather large computation time. To mitigate the computational burden, ray frustum techniques are used to obtain frequency domain transfer function of milli...

  7. Analytical model and optical design of distributed aperture optical system for millimeter-wave imaging

    Chen, Caihua; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse; Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; MacKrides, Daniel G.; Mirotznik, Mark; Prather, Dennis W.

    2008-10-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging is very interesting due to its unique transmission properties through a broad range of atmospheric obscurants such as cloud, dust, fog, sandstorms, and smoke, which thereby enables all-weather passive imaging. Unfortunately, the usefulness of millimeter-wave imagers is often limited by the large aperture sizes required to obtain images of sufficient resolution, as governed by the diffraction limit. To this end, we previously proposed a distributed aperture system for direct non-scan millimeter-wave imaging using an optical upconversion technique. In this proposed approach, an antenna array is employed to sample image signals in the millimeter-wave domain. The sampled millimeter-wave signals are then upconverted to the optical domain using electro-optic modulation techniques. These optical signals are mapped into a similar array on the entrance pupil of the following optical system for direct imaging. Although distributed aperture imaging is not new in both radio astronomy and conventional optical inteferometric imaging, the proposed approach is different in that it physically samples image in the millimeter-wave domain and directly forms the image in the optical domain. Therefore, specific analysis and evaluation techniques are required for the design and optimization of the proposed system. In this paper, we will address these issues, develop techniques to evaluate and enhance the system imaging performance and present methods to optimize the geometric configuration.

  8. The Detectability of Millimeter-wave Molecular Rotational Transitions

    Liszt, Harvey S.; Pety, Jerome

    2016-06-01

    Elaborating on a formalism that was first expressed some 40 years ago, we consider the brightness of low-lying millimeter-wave rotational lines of strongly polar molecules at the threshold of detectability. We derive a simple expression relating the brightness to the line-of-sight integral of the product of the total gas and molecular number densities and a suitably defined temperature-dependent excitation rate into the upper level of the transition. Detectability of a line is contingent only on the ability of a molecule to channel enough of the ambient thermal energy into the line, and the excitation can be computed in bulk by summing over rates without solving the multi-level rate equations, or computing optical depths and excitation temperatures. Results for {{HCO}}+, HNC, and CS are compared with escape-probability solutions of the rate equations using closed-form expressions for the expected range of validity of our ansatz, with the result that gas number densities as high as {10}4 {{{cm}}}-3 or optical depths as high as 100 can be accommodated in some cases. For densities below a well-defined upper bound, the range of validity of the discussion can be cast as an upper bound on the line brightness which is 0.3 K for the J = 1–0 lines and 0.8–1.7 K for the J = 2–1 lines of these species. The discussion casts new light on the interpretation of line brightnesses under conditions of weak excitation, simplifies derivation of physical parameters, and eliminates the need to construct grids of numerical solutions of the rate equations.

  9. REMOTE DETECTION OF RADIOACTIVE PLUMES USING MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY

    Barnowski, R.; Chien; H.; Gopalsami, N.

    2009-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, a common method for manufacturing weapons-grade special nuclear materials, is accompanied by the release of fi ssion products trapped within the fuel. One of these fi ssion products is a radioactive isotope of Krypton (Kr-85); a pure β- emitter with a half-life of 10.72 years. Due to its chemical neutrality and relatively long half life, nearly all of the Kr-85 is released into the surrounding air during reprocessing, resulting in a concentration of Kr-85 near the source that is several orders of magnitude higher than the typical background (atmospheric) concentrations. This high concentration of Kr-85 is accompanied by a proportionately high increase in air ionization due to the release of beta radiation from Kr-85 decay. Millimeter wave (MMW) sensing technology can be used to detect the presence of Kr-85 induced plumes since a high concentration of ions in the air increases the radar cross section due to a combination of atmospheric phenomena. Possible applications for this technology include the remote sensing of reprocessing activities across national borders bolstering global anti-proliferation initiatives. The feasibility of using MMW radar technology to uniquely detect the presence of Kr-85 can be tested using commercial ion generators or sealed radioactive sources in the laboratory. In this paper we describe our work to derive an ion dispersion model that will describe the spatial distribution of ions from Kr-85 and other common lab sources. The types and energies of radiation emitted by isotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 were researched, and these parameters were incorporated into these dispersion models. Our results can be compared with the results of MMW detection experiments in order to quantify the relationship between radar cross section and air ionization as well as to further calibrate the MMW detection equipment.

  10. An Overview of Signal Processing Techniques for Millimeter Wave MIMO Systems

    Heath Jr, Robert W.; Gonzalez-Prelcic, Nuria; Rangan, Sundeep; Roh, Wonil; Sayeed, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Communication at millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies is defining a new era of wireless communication. The mmWave band offers higher bandwidth communication channels versus those presently used in commercial wireless systems. The applications of mmWave are immense: wireless local and personal area networks in the unlicensed band, 5G cellular systems, not to mention vehicular area networks, ad hoc networks, and wearables. Signal processing is critical for enabling the next generation of mmWave...

  11. Techniques of Millimeter-wave Signal Generation in ROF Systems: A Review

    Preeti Singh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter-wave ROF (Radio Over Fiber technology has emerged as a competitive candidate that can meet the increasing demands of broadband multimedia services for wireless users. Optical generation of mm-wave signal is one of the most important technologies of millimetre-wave ROF system. Present paper discusses the various techniques of mm-wave generation and their relative pros and cons.

  12. Impact of the Collisional Plasma on the Propagation of Millimeter Waves

    袁忠才; 时家明; 汪家春; 许波

    2004-01-01

    The plasma generated in the low-altitude atmosphere is of high collision frequencies.In this paper, the transmission coefficients of millimeter(MM) waves normally incident upon the plasma with high collision frequencies are calculated and analyzed. The experimental results of reflection and attenuation are presented for the eight-millimeter waves propagating through the plasma. Both the calculated experimental results indicate that the MM-waves concerned are attenuated significantly and reflected weakly, when propagating through the plasma of high collision frequencies.

  13. Power and polarization monitor development for high power millimeter-wave

    Makino, R., E-mail: makino.ryohhei@ms.nifs.ac.jp; Kobayashi, K. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kubo, S. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A new type monitor of power and polarization states of millimeter-waves has been developed to be installed at a miter-bend, which is a part of transmission lines of millimeter-waves, for electron cyclotron resonance heating on the Large Helical Device. The monitor measures amplitudes and phase difference of the electric field of the two orthogonal polarizations which are needed for calculation of the power and polarization states of waves. The power and phase differences of two orthogonal polarizations were successfully detected simultaneously.

  14. Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuit Design for Wireless and Radar Applications

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens; Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Djurhuus, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO), frequency doubler, and sub-harmonic mixer (SHM) for a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) front-end implemented in a high-speed InP DHBT technology. The QVCO exhibits large tuning range from 38 to 47.8 GHz with an output power around -...

  15. Millimeter wave case study of operational deployments: retail, airport, military, courthouse, and customs

    Tryon, Gary V.

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on America, our security and defense industry was instantly tasked with delivering technologies that could be used to help prevent future terrorist activities. The general public world wide is asking for solutions that will foster a safe society and travel environment. Our best defenses rest in our talents within a free open society to prevent dangerous individuals from boarding planes, entering buildings, courthouses, transportations hubs and military bases with weapons capable of causing damage and bodily harm in the first place. Passive millimeter wave (PMMW) whole body imaging systems are based upon the principle that every physical entity emits, reflects, and/or absorbs electromagnetic energy. The term "passive" means that this approach does not bombard the test subject with energy radiation to further induce the discovery of hidden objects. PMMW whole body imaging systems focus on the human body's natural emission and reflection of millimeter wavelength energy. In physics, "millimeter waves" (MMW) are defined as extremely high-frequency (30-300 GHz) electromagnetic oscillations. On the electromagnetic spectrum these waves are just larger than infrared waves, but smaller than radio waves. The wavelength of a MMW is between 1 millimeter and 10 millimeters. That is approximately the thickness of a large paperclip up to the diameter of an "AAA" battery.

  16. Measuring Water Vapor and Ash in Volcanic Eruptions with a Millimeter-Wave Radar/Imager

    Bryan, Sean; Vanderkluysen, Loÿc; Groppi, Christopher; Paine, Scott; Bliss, Daniel W; Aberle, James; Mauskopf, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter-wave remote sensing technology can significantly improve measurements of volcanic eruptions, yielding new insights into eruption processes and improving forecasts of drifting volcanic ash for aviation safety. Radiometers can measure water vapor density and temperature inside eruption clouds, improving on existing measurements with infrared cameras that are limited to measuring the outer cloud surface. Millimeter-wave radar can measure the 3D mass flow of volcanic ash inside eruption plumes and drifting fine ash clouds, offering better sensitivity than existing weather radar measurements and the unique ability to measure ash particle size in-situ. Here we present sensitivity calculations in the context of developing the WAMS (Water and Ash Millimeter-wave Spectrometer) instrument. WAMS, a radar/radiometer system constructed with off-the-shelf components, would be able to measure water vapor and ash throughout an entire eruption cloud, a unique capability.

  17. Millimeter-wave interferometric radiometry for the detection and geolocation of low-power signals

    Dowgiallo, David J.; Twarog, Elizabeth M.; Rauen, Steve; Peters, Wendy M.; Lazio, T. Joseph; McGlothlin, Norman R.; Helmboldt, Joseph F.; Gaiser, Peter W.

    2011-05-01

    Millimeter wave detection and imaging is becoming increasingly important with the proliferation of hostile, mobile millimeter wave threats from both weapons systems and communication links. Improved force protection, surveillance, and targeting will rely increasingly on the interception, detection, geo-sorting, and the identification of sources, such as point-to point communication systems, missile seekers, precision guided munitions, and fire control radar systems. This paper describes the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) demonstration broadband passive millimeter wave (mmW) interferometric imaging system. This Ka-band system will provide a capability for meter-precision geolocation for imaged objects. The interferometer uses a distributed array of 12 antenna elements to synthesize a large aperture. Each antenna is packaged into an individual receiver, from which a baseband signal is recorded. The correlator is software-based, utilizing signal processing techniques for visibilities, and image formation via beamforming methods. This paper presents first results from an interferometer flight campaign.

  18. Millimeter wave-induced changes in membrane properties of leech Retzius neurons

    Pikov, Victor; Siegel, Peter H.

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated a novel method for modulation of neuronal excitability using non-invasive delivery of millimeter waves. Millimeter waves at 60 GHz and incident power density of 100-600 μW/cm2 were applied to three intact segmental ganglia of the adult leach, and intracellular neuronal activity was recorded from the Retzius neurons using intracellular glass electrode. Transient dosedependent increase in the plasma membrane permeability was observed. In addition, in one of the examined neurons, a decrease in the neuronal firing rate was also evident. The results provide strong evidence for the feasibility of modulating neuronal excitability using non-invasive delivery of millimeter waves, and will be explored further for applications in basic neuroscience and treatment of neurological disorders.

  19. Millimeter And Submillimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits On Quartz

    Mehdi, Imran; Mazed, Mohammad; Siegel, Peter; Smith, R. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Proposed Quartz substrate Upside-down Integrated Device (QUID) relies on UV-curable adhesive to bond semiconductor with quartz. Integrated circuits including planar GaAs Schottky diodes and passive circuit elements (such as bandpass filters) fabricated on quartz substrates. Circuits designed to operate as mixers in waveguide circuit at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Integrated circuits mechanically more robust, larger, and easier to handle than planar Schottky diode chips. Quartz substrate more suitable for waveguide circuits than GaAs substrate.

  20. Millimeter-wave offset fresnel zone plate lenses characterization

    León Fernández, Germán; Herrán Ontañón, Luis Fernando; Munoz, Max; Las Heras Andrés, Fernando Luis; Hao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fresnel Zone Plate Lenses (FZPLs) are transparent-opaque lenses that filter the desirable phase. The centred Fresnel lenses have a strong back radiation towards the feed. In order to solve this drawback, offset feeding or offset pointing lenses are used. In this work, both offset FZPLs are studied using an optical physics method and experimentally characterized in the millimeter band. Two prototypes have been manufactured and measured, presenting a narrow beamwidth. The characteristics of poi...

  1. Particle simulation and experimental study of the high-power narrow-pulse millimeter wave BWO

    The BWO (Backward-Wave Oscillator) slow-wave structure was optimized by the KARAT code, and the experiment was performed at the RADAD303 accelerator flat under the condition of the electron beam with the voltage of 177 kV, the current of 785A, and magnetic field of 1.7T. TE11 mode millimeter wave was generated, whose peak powe is 18 MW, frequency 39.8 GHz and pulse duration 3 ns. (authors)

  2. Context Information Based Initial Cell Search for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks

    Abbas, Waqas Bin; Zorzi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is envisioned as a cornerstone to fulfill the data rate requirements for fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. In mmWave communication, beamforming is considered as a key technology to combat the high path-loss, and unlike in conventional microwave communication, beamforming may be necessary even during initial access/cell search. Among the proposed beamforming schemes for initial cell search, analog beamforming is a power efficient approach but suffe...

  3. Double-side fabrication process and millimeter wave response of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    WU JingBo; YI DongChao; GU ZhengHao; KANG Lin; XU WeiWei; CHEN Jian; WU PeiHeng

    2009-01-01

    We adopted double-side fabrication process to prepare intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) based on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x(BSCCO) single crystals. Using crystal cleavage and double-side argon ion milling, we have successfully fabricated very uniform IJJs with the thickness of single crystal slice less than 200 nm. Using quasi-optical system, the response of the IJJs to millimeter wave radiation was studied. With applied magnetic field perpendicular to a-b plane, we have observed Shapiro steps under millimeter wave radiation, and the Josephson oscillation of each junction was phase-locking.

  4. Planar Millimeter Wave Notch Filters Based on Magnetostatic Wave Resonance in Barium Hexagonal Ferrite Thin Films

    Lu, Lei; Song, Young-Yeal; Bevivino, Joshua; Wu, Mingzhong

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need for planar millimeter (mm) wave devices. To meet this need, one important strategy is in the use of high-anisotropy hexagonal ferrite films. The high internal anisotropy field for the hexagonal ferrites can be used to realize low-loss devices in the 30-100 GHz regime without the need for high external magnetic fields. Previous work has demonstrated the use of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite (BaM) films and ferromagnetic resonance therein to make mm-wave notch filters. This presentation reports on a new mm-wave notch filter that uses magnetostatic wave (MSW) resonance in BaM films. The device consists of a BaM film strip positioned on the top of a coplanar waveguide (CPW), with the strip's length along the CPW signal line. The BaM strip was grown by pulsed laser deposition and had uniaxial anisotropy along the strip's length. The device showed a band-stop filtering response centered at 53 GHz in absence of external fields. One can increase this frequency with nonzero external fields. A reduction in the strip's width resulted in an enhancement in peak absorption. This filtering response resulted from MSW resonance across the BaM strip's width. The MSW modes were excited by CPW-produced non-uniform alternating magnetic fields.

  5. Active millimeter-wave imaging system for material analysis and object detection

    Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kallfass, Ingmar; Tessmann, Axel; Zink, Martin; Schlechtweg, Michael; Leuther, Arnulf; Ambacher, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    The use of millimeter-waves for imaging purposes is becoming increasingly important, as millimeter-waves can penetrate most clothing and packaging materials, so that the detector does not require physical contact with the object. This will offer a view to the hidden content of e.g. packets or bags without the need to open them, whereby packaging and content will not be damaged. Nowadays X-ray is used, but as the millimeter-wave quantum energy is far below the ionization energy, it is less harmful for the human health. In this paper we report an active millimeter-wave imaging tomograph for material analysis and concealed object detection purposes. The system is build using in-house W-band components. The object is illuminated with low-power millimeter-waves in the frequency range between 89 and 96GHz; mirrors are used to guide and focus the beam. The object is moved through the focus point to scan the object pixel by pixel. Depending on the actual material some parts of the waves are reflected, the other parts penetrate the object. A single-antenna transmit and receive module is used for illumination and measurement of the material-specific reflected power. A second receiver module is used to measure the transmitted wave. All information is processed for amplitude and phase images by a computer algorithm. The system can be used for security, such as detecting concealed weapons, explosives or contrabands at airports and other safety areas, but also quality assurance applications, e.g. during production to detect defects. Some imaging results will be presented in this paper.

  6. Modeling and Performance of Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Layered Waveguide Filters

    Ardavan Rahimian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the novel designs, analysis, and performance of 4-pole and 8-pole microwave and millimeter-wave (MMW waveguide filters for operation at X and Y frequency bands. The waveguide filters have been designed and analyzed based on the mode matching and coupled resonators design techniques employing layered technology. Thorough waveguide filters working at X-band and Y-band have been designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested along with the analysis of the output characteristics. Accurate designs of RF waveguides along with their filters based on the E-plane filter concept have been carried out with the ability of fitting into layered technology in high frequency production techniques. The filters demonstrate the appropriateness in order to develop high-performance well-established designs for systems that are intended for the multi-layer microwave, millimeter- and sub-millimeter-waves devices and systems; with the potential employment in radar, satellite, and radio astronomy applications.

  7. Engineering Rules for Optical Generation and Detection of High Speed Wireless Millimeter-wave Band Signals

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh;

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the design requirements for 40 Gbit/s wireless generation and detection in the millimeter-wave band, combining baseband optical I/Q modulation and coherent detection with wireless optical heterodyning generation and single-side band electro-optical modulation....

  8. Fast ion millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics on TEXTOR and ASDEX upgrades

    Michelsen, S.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, H.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, Poul; Tsakadze, E.L.; Egedal, J.; Woskov, P.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Leuterer, F.; Westerhof, E.

    2004-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic systems for measuring fast ions in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade are described in this article. Both systems use millimeter waves generated by gyrotrons as probing radiation and the scattered radiation is detected with heterodyne receivers having 40...

  9. Millimeter-Wave Thermal Analysis Development and Application to GEN IV Reactor Materials

    Wosko, Paul; Sundram, S. K.

    2012-10-16

    New millimeter-wave thermal analysis instrumentation has been developed and studied for characterization of materials required for diverse fuel and structural needs in high temperature reactor environments such as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). A two-receiver 137 GHz system with orthogonal polarizations for anisotropic resolution of material properties has been implemented at MIT. The system was tested with graphite and silicon carbide specimens at temperatures up to 1300 ºC inside an electric furnace. The analytic and hardware basis for active millimeter-wave radiometry of reactor materials at high temperature has been established. Real-time, non contact measurement sensitivity to anisotropic surface emissivity and submillimeter surface displacement was demonstrated. The 137 GHz emissivity of reactor grade graphite (NBG17) from SGL Group was found to be low, ~ 5 %, in the 500 – 1200 °C range and increases by a factor of 2 to 4 with small linear grooves simulating fracturing. The low graphite emissivity would make millimeter-wave active radiometry a sensitive diagnostic of graphite changes due to environmentally induced stress fracturing, swelling, or corrosion. The silicon carbide tested from Ortek, Inc. was found to have a much higher emissivity at 137 GHz of ~90% Thin coatings of silicon carbide on reactor grade graphite supplied by SGL Group were found to be mostly transparent to millimeter-waves, increasing the 137 GHz emissivity of the coated reactor grade graphite to about ~14% at 1250 ºC.

  10. In-waveguide measurements of MMW [millimeter-wave] dielectric properties of candidate fusion ceramics

    To measure dielectric constants ''k'' and loss tangents ''tanδ'' at room temperature and millimeter-wave (MMW) frequencies of ceramics within waveguide for their screening as rf-window materials, and to increase the corresponding precision and accuracy for this difficult measurement technique. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. The Einstein polarization interferometer for cosmology (EPIC) and the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI)

    Timbie, P. T.; Tucker, G. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ali, S.; Bierman, E.; Bunn, E. F.; Calderon, C.; Gault, A. C.; Hyland, P. O.; Keating, B. G.; Kim, J.; Korotkov, A.; Malu, S. S.; Mauskopf, P.; Murphy, J. A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Piccirillo, L.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We provide an overview of a mission concept study underway for the Einstein Inflation Probe (EIP). Our study investigates the advantages and tradeoffs of using an interferometer (EPIC) for the mission. We also report on the status of the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI), a ground-based pathfinder optimized for degree-scale CMB polarization measurements at 90 GHz.

  12. Millimeter and submillimeter wave technology developments for the next generation of fusion devices

    There is increasing demand for compact watt-level coherent sources in the millimeter and submillimeter wave region. The approach that we have taken to satisfy this need is to fabricate two-dimensional grids loaded with oscillators, electronic beam steerers, and frequency multipliers for quasioptical coherent spatial combining of the outputs of a large number of low-power devices

  13. Semi and super-conducting technologies for the millimeter and submillimetre wave applications

    Beaudin, G.

    2000-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter-wave observations provide important informations for the studies of atmospheric chemistry and of astrochemistry (molecular clouds, stars formation, galactic study, comets and cosmology). But, these observations depend strongly on instrumentation techniques and on the site quality. New techniques or higher detector performances result in unprecedented observations and sometimes, the observational needs drive developments of new detector technologies, for example, s...

  14. A Novel Reconfigurable Ultra-broadband Millimeter-wave Photonic Harmonic Down-converter

    Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    We propose a novel ultra-broadband reconfigurable photonic harmonic mixer functioning as a millimeter-wave downconverter for multigigabit wireless applications. Based on frequency conversion implemented by an optical frequency comb generator, the photonic mixer is able to operate up to 100GHz...

  15. Photonic Implementation of 4-QAM/QPSK Electrical Modulation at Millimeter-Wave Frequency

    Yu, Xianbin; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2008-01-01

    We propose a photonic method for generating millimeter-wave 4-QAM/QPSK modulated signals. The method is based on optical phase modulation by multilevel electrical signals and optical carrier-suppression. Simulation results are presented for 2.5 Gsymbol/s 4-QAM and QPSK signals at a 36 GHz carrier...

  16. Fusion applications of high power millimeter wave sources

    Heating by means of high power electron cyclotron (EC) waves in the mm wavelength range is considered to be one of the most attractive approaches for heating fusion plasmas to the temperatures required to achieve ignition. EC waves have also been used to drive plasma current by using directional launch and to stabilize MHD instabilities in tokamak plasmas through localized heating or current drive. Experiments are planned on both JET and TFTR to measure the alpha particle distribution by scattering EC waves

  17. Characteristics of a Teflon rod antenna for millimeter and submillimeter wave irradiation on living bodies

    TATSUKAWA, Toshiaki; Doi, Akitaka; TERANAKA, Masato; Takashima, Hitoshi; Goda, Fuminori; Idehara, Toshitaka; Ogawa, Isamu; KANEMAKI, Tomohiro; NISHIZAWA, Seiji; NAMBA, Tunetoyo

    2003-01-01

    The development of a millimeter and submillimeter wave catheter for irradiation on living bodies using a Teflon rod dielectric antenna is described. The power sources of electromagnetic wave are an Impatt oscillator (90 GHz, 0.3 W) and gyrotron (302 GHz, 30 W). Irradiation tests using various Teflon rod dielectric antennas were performed on beef livers. Irradiation results were considered by microwave theory and ray optics.

  18. Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    The design and test results of a multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator is presented. The intended applications of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at Q-band (37 to 43 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust high data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  19. Indoor Operations by FMCW Millimeter Wave SAR Onboard Small UAS: A Simulation Approach

    Antonio Fulvio Scannapieco; Alfredo Renga; Antonio Moccia

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated system simulator is presented in this paper for indoor operations onboard small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) by a novel millimeter wave radar sensor. The sensor relies on the principle of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applied to a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar system. Input to the simulator are both design parameters for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which should be able to cope with the stringent requirements set by indoor operations, and information about ...

  20. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    Mears, C.A.

    1991-09-01

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 {plus_minus} 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker`s theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.

  1. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    Mears, C.A.

    1991-09-01

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 {plus minus} 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker's theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.

  2. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 ± 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker's theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs

  3. An adjustable RF tuning element for microwave, millimeter wave, and submillimeter wave integrated circuits

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Mcgrath, William R.; Rutledge, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Planar RF circuits are used in a wide range of applications from 1 GHz to 300 GHz, including radar, communications, commercial RF test instruments, and remote sensing radiometers. These circuits, however, provide only fixed tuning elements. This lack of adjustability puts severe demands on circuit design procedures and materials parameters. We have developed a novel tuning element which can be incorporated into the design of a planar circuit in order to allow active, post-fabrication tuning by varying the electrical length of a coplanar strip transmission line. It consists of a series of thin plates which can slide in unison along the transmission line, and the size and spacing of the plates are designed to provide a large reflection of RF power over a useful frequency bandwidth. Tests of this structure at 1 GHz to 3 Ghz showed that it produced a reflection coefficient greater than 0.90 over a 20 percent bandwidth. A 2 GHz circuit incorporating this tuning element was also tested to demonstrate practical tuning ranges. This structure can be fabricated for frequencies as high as 1000 GHz using existing micromachining techniques. Many commercial applications can benefit from this micromechanical RF tuning element, as it will aid in extending microwave integrated circuit technology into the high millimeter wave and submillimeter wave bands by easing constraints on circuit technology.

  4. Millimeter-Wave Evolution for 5G Cellular Networks

    Sakaguchi, Kei; Tran, Gia Khanh; Shimodaira, Hidekazu; Nanba, Shinobu; Sakurai, Toshiaki; Takinami, Koji; Siaud, Isabelle; Strinati, Emilio Calvanese; Capone, Antonio; Karls, Ingolf; Arefi, Reza; Haustein, Thomas

    Triggered by the explosion of mobile traffic, 5G (5th Generation) cellular network requires evolution to increase the system rate 1000 times higher than the current systems in 10 years. Motivated by this common problem, there are several studies to integrate mm-wave access into current cellular networks as multi-band heterogeneous networks to exploit the ultra-wideband aspect of the mm-wave band. The authors of this paper have proposed comprehensive architecture of cellular networks with mm-wave access, where mm-wave small cell basestations and a conventional macro basestation are connected to Centralized-RAN (C-RAN) to effectively operate the system by enabling power efficient seamless handover as well as centralized resource control including dynamic cell structuring to match the limited coverage of mm-wave access with high traffic user locations via user-plane/control-plane splitting. In this paper, to prove the effectiveness of the proposed 5G cellular networks with mm-wave access, system level simulation is conducted by introducing an expected future traffic model, a measurement based mm-wave propagation model, and a centralized cell association algorithm by exploiting the C-RAN architecture. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed network to realize 1000 times higher system rate than the current network in 10 years which is not achieved by the small cells using commonly considered 3.5 GHz band. Furthermore, the paper also gives latest status of mm-wave devices and regulations to show the feasibility of using mm-wave in the 5G systems.

  5. Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Second Harmonic as Millimeter-Wave Beacon Source for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a CW millimeter-wave satellite beacon source, based on the second harmonic from a traveling-wave tube amplifier and utilizes a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler. A potential application of the beacon source is for investigating the atmospheric effects on Q-band (37-42 GHz) and V/W-band (71- 76 GHz) satellite-to-ground signals.

  6. Ultra-wide Bandwidth Inter-Chip Interconnects for Heterogeneous Millimeter-Wave and THz Circuits

    Fay, Patrick; Bernstein, Gary H.; Lu, Tian; Kulick, Jason M.

    2016-09-01

    Heterogeneous chip-to-chip interconnects with low loss and ultra-wide bandwidths have been demonstrated. Coplanar waveguide-based interconnects between GaAs and Si die have been fabricated and characterized and the results compared to expectations from full-wave electromagnetic simulation. Broadband transmission characteristics were obtained, with insertion losses below 0.3 dB at 100 GHz and below 0.8 dB at frequencies up to 220 GHz demonstrated experimentally. The measured return loss exceeded 11.5 dB at all frequencies up to 220 GHz. The interconnects offer low latency, with a measured group delay of 0.69 ps. The measured results are in good agreement with full-wave simulations, indicating that the measured results do not suffer from significant impairments compared to theoretical predictions. The demonstrated interconnects offer an alternative to conventional approaches to millimeter-wave circuit and system integration, by enabling the compact realization of circuits in the microwave, millimeter-wave, sub-millimeter-wave, and THz frequency regimes in heterogeneous device technologies with very low chip-to-chip insertion loss.

  7. Towards 5G: A Photonic Based Millimeter Wave Signal Generation for Applying in 5G Access Fronthaul

    S. E. Alavi; Soltanian, M. R. K.; I. S. Amiri; M Khalily; A. S. M. Supa’at; H Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    5G communications require a multi Gb/s data transmission in its small cells. For this purpose millimeter wave (mm-wave) RF signals are the best solutions to be utilized for high speed data transmission. Generation of these high frequency RF signals is challenging in electrical domain therefore photonic generation of these signals is more studied. In this work, a photonic based simple and robust method for generating millimeter waves applicable in 5G access fronthaul is presented. Besides gene...

  8. A tunable microplasma gradient-index lens for millimeter waves

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [School of Engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, California 95343 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This work presents proof of concept of a novel application of field emission assisted (FEA) microplasmas that exploits the relatively high plasma number densities encountered in these devices. We hypothesize that the number density gradients and the resulting gradient in the microplasma relative permittivity/refractive index can be utilized as a tunable diverging lens with on/off ability to defocus waves in the Terahertz regime. Electron number density profiles obtained from one-dimensional particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulations for a typical FEA microplasma are used to determine the relative permittivity and conductivity profiles. Frequency domain wave propagation simulations using these profiles show that sub-mm waves can be controlled using the microplasma lens with the degree of defocusing depending on the wavelength. In spite of the non-zero conductivity, the medium is not significantly lossy at the frequencies considered.

  9. A tunable microplasma gradient-index lens for millimeter waves

    This work presents proof of concept of a novel application of field emission assisted (FEA) microplasmas that exploits the relatively high plasma number densities encountered in these devices. We hypothesize that the number density gradients and the resulting gradient in the microplasma relative permittivity/refractive index can be utilized as a tunable diverging lens with on/off ability to defocus waves in the Terahertz regime. Electron number density profiles obtained from one-dimensional particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulations for a typical FEA microplasma are used to determine the relative permittivity and conductivity profiles. Frequency domain wave propagation simulations using these profiles show that sub-mm waves can be controlled using the microplasma lens with the degree of defocusing depending on the wavelength. In spite of the non-zero conductivity, the medium is not significantly lossy at the frequencies considered

  10. Generation of microwave and millimeter-wave based on po-larization scrambler and polarization maintaining fiber

    SHI Yuan-yuan; NING Ti-gang; LI Jing; PEI Li; QI Chun-hui

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed to generate microwave and millimeter-wave by using polarization scrambler and polarization maintaining fiber (PMF), which is based on the coupling and the interaction between the two polarizations of the initial non-chirp Gaussian optical pulse in PMF. The expressions of the microwave and millimeter-wave are derived by couple-mode theory. Moreover, the feasibility is analyzed simulatedly. At last, 0-120 GHz microwave and millimeter-wave can be produced by adjusting system parameter or input pulse duration. The project is of great simplicity, stability and high export efficiency.

  11. A continuous wave millimeter free electron laser experiment with a Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and electron beam recovery

    Problems relevant to a continuous wave free electron laser (FEL) in the centimeter-millimeter region are investigated. The ideas are applied to the FEL experiment in progress at the Legnaro (Padova) INFN laboratory. The accelerator characteristics and laser parameters are discussed. The laser could sweep the centimeter-millimeter region until 2.5 mm with a power around 15 kW

  12. Millimeter-wave radar for brown-out landings using passive imager components

    Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir; Lovberg, John A.

    2010-04-01

    A millimeter-wave radar designed for landing helicopters in brown-out conditions is described and data is presented from an initial flight test. The radar operates in a frequency modulated continuous wave architecture, determining range to target by calculating the difference between transmitted and returned frequencies. The millimeter-wave frequency band provides sand and dust penetration and allows for small apertures appropriate for helicopter mounting. This radar also uses a flat panel phased-array receive antenna and phase processor to sample multiple antenna beams simultaneously, an architecture that has previously been successfully used in passive millimeter-wave imaging systems. The radar presents a wide field-of-view image to the operator at a 3 Hz frame rate where range to the ground and obstacles is depicted in grayscale. The flight test showed the radar to be capable of depicting terrain height variations and obstacles such as buildings, vehicles, building materials, and even power lines. Reductions in noise and symbology improvements are necessary developments for a viable landing system.

  13. Development of power measuring device of transmission type with dielectric for high power millimeter wave

    A power measuring device using a dielectric disk for a high power millimeter waves is investigated. In the device, a high power wave is transmitted in a waveguide and then heats the dielectric disk installed in the waveguide. The transmitted power is estimated from the temperature rise of the dielectric disk. It is a new type of power measurement device, which is not sensitive to higher modes and change of their polarization in time. It also can measure the wide power range of kW to MW levels flexibly by choosing dielectric material proper to the power level as a detector. In the report, materials that have small dielectric loss for millimeter waves are chosen, and their properties of temperature rise and millimeter wave power capacity are estimated. On the basis of these results, design of the power measurement device and fabrication of its prototype are described for practical use in the electron cyclotron heating systems for the JT-60U and JT-60SA. (author)

  14. Rapid fabrication of aluminum nitride with high thermal conductivity by millimeter-wave heating method

    Full text: Aluminum nitride has been interested for the usage of heat-sink substrate in the semiconductor device on account of its high thermal conductivity. But aluminum nitride is not so easily sintered similarly as other nitrides. Polycrystalline bulk aluminum nitride is generally sintered by adding some sintering aids. However, high sintering temperature around 2000 deg C is still required for attaining full densification with the conventional sintering method. In the present study, we show millimeter-wave heating method is the rapid and low temperature process for producing aluminum nitride with high thermal conductivity. Importance in the selection of sintering aid is indicated in the millimeter-wave sintering of aluminum nitride. The relation between thermal conductivity and microstructure is also discussed. AlN powder with the average size of 1μm (Mitsui Kagaku, MAN-2) was used as the starting raw material and Y2O3 or Yb2O3 (Shin-etsu Kagaku, average size; 0.25μm and 1.2μm, UU- and RU-grades, respectively) were used as sintering aids, respectively. After mixing AlN powder and sintering aid at a desired content, the mixed powder with 1-propanol and dispersant was milled for 20 hr with alumina balls in an alumina pot. The milled powder was shaped to the circular disk with 40 mm in diameter and 4-5 mm in thickness by slip-casting method. After drying enough, the slip-casted body was calcined at 600 deg C for 1 h in nitrogen atmosphere. The calcined body was sintered in nitrogen without hydrogen or with several % hydrogen by using millimeter-wave heating method. Millimeter-wave heating was performed in a multi-mode applicator (Fuji Denpa Kogyo, FGS-10-28) combined with a high power 28 GHz gyrotron generator. Density of sintered body was calculated from measured size and weight, and when the relative density was over 90%, the precise density was measured by Archimedean method using oleic acid as immersion liquid. Thermal conductivity of sintered body was

  15. Design Challenges of Millimeter Wave Communications: A MAC Layer Perspective

    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fischione, Carlo; Fodor, Gabor; Athanasiou, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    As the spectrum is becoming more scarce due to exponential demand of formidable data quantities, the new millimiterwave (mmW) band is considered as an enabling player of 5G communications to provide multi-gigabits wireless acccess. MmW communications exhibit high attenuation and blockage, directionality due to massive beamforming, deafness, low-interference, and may need micro waves networks for coordination and fallback support. The current mmW standardizations are challenged by the overwhel...

  16. A tunable microplasma gradient-index lens for millimeter waves

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2015-09-01

    Field-induced electron emission from the cathode and its interaction with microdischarges has gained significant attention in the last few years particularly in the context of microscale gas breakdown. Recent advances in nanofabrication have led to the development of novel cathodes that demonstrate impressive field emission properties with turn-on fields as low as 1 V/ μm and field enhancement factors as high as 1000 implying that field emission could play an important role in microplasmas as large as 500 μm. This work presents proof of concept of a novel application of field emission assisted (FEA) microplasmas that exploits the relatively high plasma number densities encountered in these devices. We hypothesize that the number density gradients and the resulting gradient in the microplasma relative permittivity/refractive index can be utilized as a tunable diverging lens with on/off ability to defocus waves in the Terahertz regime. Electron number density profiles obtained from one-dimensional particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC) simulations for a typical FEA microplasma are used to determine the relative permittivity and conductivity profiles. Frequency domain wave propagation simulations using these profiles show that sub-mm waves can be controlled using the microplasma lens with the degree of defocusing depending on the wavelength. In spite of the non-zero conductivity, it is shown that the medium is not significantly lossy at the frequencies considered.

  17. Risks of exposure to ionizing and millimeter-wave radiation from airport whole-body scanners.

    Moulder, John E

    2012-06-01

    Considerable public concern has been expressed around the world about the radiation risks posed by the backscatter (ionizing radiation) and millimeter-wave (nonionizing radiation) whole-body scanners that have been deployed at many airports. The backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners currently deployed in the U.S. almost certainly pose negligible radiation risks if used as intended, but their safety is difficult-to-impossible to prove using publicly accessible data. The scanners are widely disliked and often feared, which is a problem made worse by what appears to be a veil of secrecy that covers their specifications and dosimetry. Therefore, for these and future similar technologies to gain wide acceptance, more openness is needed, as is independent review and regulation. Publicly accessible, and preferably peer-reviewed evidence is needed that the deployed units (not just the prototypes) meet widely-accepted safety standards. It is also critical that risk-perception issues be handled more competently. PMID:22494369

  18. Photonic generation of frequency-quadrupling millimeter-wave signals using polarization property

    Zhu, Min; Tang, Xianfeng; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2016-03-01

    We propose and analyze a photonic method of generating frequency-quadrupling millimeter-wave signal. This scheme is realized by using a single LiNbO3 intensity modulator (IM) and a Faraday mirror based transverse-electrical and transverse-magnetic mode converter in a Sagnac loop without using an optical filter or an electrical microwave phase shifter. Making use of the intrinsic polarization dependence and the velocity phenomenon of the IM, a special double sideband modulation is implemented, which ensures that the optical carrier can be effectively cancelled employing polarization manipulation. A linear polarizer is used as the polarization selection element to choose the second-order sidebands from the modulated light. After beating at the photodiode, a frequency-quadrupled millimeter-wave signal with >30 dB radio frequency spurious suppression ratio is generated. The imperfection of the devices is considered when estimating the system performance.

  19. Development of Millimeter-Wave Planar Antennas Using Low-Loss Materials

    Ito, Naoki; Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Shimazu, Hiroshi; Sakata, Eiji

    2010-10-01

    As the importance of advanced millimeter-wave diagnostics increases, the fabrication of high-performance devices and components becomes essential. In this paper, we describe the development of millimeter-wave planar antennas using low-loss fluorine substrates. The problems to be solved in this study are the low degree of adhesion between copper foil and the fluorine substrate and the accuracy of device pattern using conventional fabrication techniques. In order to solve these problems, a new surface treatment of fluorine films and a fabrication method using electro-fine-forming (EF2) are proposed. In order to confirm the performance of the treated films, microstrip lines (MSLs) and planar patch antennas with a low sidelobe level in the E-plane are designed and fabricated on conventional fluorine substrates and grafted poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films.

  20. Video rate passive millimeter-wave imager utilizing optical upconversion with improved size, weight, and power

    Martin, Richard D.; Shi, Shouyuan; Zhang, Yifei; Wright, Andrew; Yao, Peng; Shreve, Kevin P.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Dillon, Thomas E.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Harrity, Charles E.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2015-05-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the performance and limitations of our 220 channel video rate passive millimeter wave imaging system based on a distributed aperture with optical upconversion architecture. We will cover our efforts to reduce the cost, size, weight, and power (CSWaP) requirements of our next generation imager. To this end, we have developed custom integrated circuit silicon-germanium (SiGe) low noise amplifiers that have been designed to efficiently couple with our high performance lithium niobate upconversion modules. We have also developed millimeter wave packaging and components in multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates which greatly improve the manufacturability of the upconversion modules. These structures include antennas, substrate integrated waveguides, filters, and substrates for InP and SiGe mmW amplifiers.

  1. Soft Computing Methods for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Design Problems

    Chauhan, Narendra; Mittal, Ankush

    2012-01-01

    The growing commercial market of Microwave/ Millimeter wave industry over the past decade has led to the explosion of interests and opportunities for the design and development of microwave components.The design of most microwave components requires the use of commercially available electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools for their analysis. In the design process, the simulations are carried out by varying the design parameters until the desired response is obtained. The optimization of design parameters by manual searching is a cumbersome and time consuming process. Soft computing methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) have been widely used by EM researchers for microwave design since last decade. The aim of these methods is to tolerate imprecision, uncertainty, and approximation to achieve robust and low cost solution in a small time frame.  Modeling and optimization are essential parts and powerful tools for the microwave/millimeter wave design. This boo...

  2. Optical Synthesis of Terahertz and Millimeter-Wave Frequencies with Discrete Mode Diode Lasers

    O'Brien, Stephen; Bitauld, David; Brandonisio, Nicola; Amann, Andreas; Phelan, Richard; Kelly, Brian; O'Gorman, James

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that optical synthesis of terahertz and millimeter-wave frequencies can be achieved using two-mode and mode-locked discrete mode diode lasers. These edge-emitting devices incorporate a spatially varying refractive index profile which is designed according to the spectral output desired of the laser. We first demonstrate a device which supports two primary modes simultaneously with high spectral purity. In this case sinusoidal modulation of the optical intensity at terahertz frequencies can be obtained. Cross saturation of the material gain in quantum well lasers prevents simultaneous lasing of two modes with spacings in the millimeter-wave region. We show finally that by mode-locking of devices that are designed to support a minimal set of four primary modes, we obtain a sinusoidal modulation of the optical intensity in this frequency region.

  3. Glass Melt Emissivity, Viscosity, and Foaming Monitoring with Millimeter-Waves

    Nuclear waste glass processing efficiencies, improved melter control to anomalies such as foaming, and environmental compliance would be facilitated by the availability of on-line monitoring technologies. It has been shown that the millimeter-wave (MMW) range of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.3-10 mm) is ideally suited to hot melter environments by having wavelengths long enough to penetrate optically obscure views yet short enough to provide spatial resolution with reliable refractory quasi-optical components. A thermal return reflection (TRR) method has been developed that allows a millimeter-wave pyrometer to determine emissivity by returning a portion of the thermal emission as a probe. Melt glass viscosities in the range 20 -2000 Poise and specific gravities have been measured by rates of flow and displacements inside hollow MMW ceramic waveguides immersed into the melts. Glass foaming has been observed by detecting the melt surface swelling followed by the increase in surface emissivity after gases break the surface

  4. Microwave properties of HTS films:measurements in millimeter wave range

    A theoretical and experimental justification of an approach proposed and developed by us for surface impedance standard measurements of HTS films is presented. An analysis of the electromagnetic properties of quasi-optical dielectric resonators with conducting endplates, which provides a theoretical background for studies of HTS films in the millimeter wave range, is performed. With this technique, the highest quality modes, namely whispering gallery modes, are excited in a dielectric cylindrical disc sandwiched between HTS films. Considerable enhancement of the sensitivity of surface resistance measurements in the millimeter wave range is demonstrated, which is important for the fundamental investigation of superconductor physics. It is also shown that the measured frequency shift in the resonator with the HTS endplates as a function of the temperature reveals a possibility for accurate evaluation of the field penetration depth in HTS films

  5. Modeling of InP HBTs in Transferred-Substrate Technology for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Rudolph, Matthias; Jensen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling of InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) in transferred substrate (TS) technology is investigated. At first, a direct parameter extraction methodology dedicated to III-V based HBTs is employed to determine the small-signal equivalent circuit parameters from...... measured S-parameters. It is shown that the model prediction of measured S-parameters can be improved in the millimeter-wave frequency range by augmenting the small-signal model with a description of AC current crowding. The extracted elements of the small-signal model structure are employed as a starting...... point for the extraction of a large-signal model. The developed largesignal model for the TS-HBTs accurately predicts the DC over temperature and small-signal performance over bias as well as the large-signal performance at millimeter-wave frequencies (77 GHz)....

  6. The involvement of cutaneous receptors in the biological effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves

    Anton Emil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of peripheral nerve terminations in the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic millimeter waves (mmW was assessed. It is currently thought that mmW could be used in noninvasive complementary therapy because of their analgesic effect. However, the mechanisms of their antinociceptive effect and non-ionizing radiation are the subjects of controversy. The mechanisms of interaction of mmW and the cutaneous tissue have not been elucidated. We observed mast cell degranulation at the place of mmW action, a decrease of chronaxie and Turck reflex time, an increase in the number of afferent impulses after sciatic nerve at stimulation, as well as an increase electrocardiogram R-R interval of isolated frog heart after application of mmW. Based on these investigations, we propose that electromagnetic waves of millimeter length modify, through indirect mechanisms, the excitability and reactivity of peripheral nerve terminations.

  7. Ground station hardware for the ATS-F millimeter wave experiment

    Duffield, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a program to design, fabricate, test, and install a primary ATS-F millimeter wave ground receiving station. Propagation parameters at millimeter waves are discussed along with the objective of the overall experiment. A general description is given of the receiving system and its function in the experiment. Typical receiver characteristics are presented which show that the experiment is entirely feasible from a link SNR standpoint. The receiving system hardware designs are discussed with separate treatment given to the propagation and the radiometer receiver designs. The modification and relocation are described of an existing 15-ft antenna to meet the ATS-F requirements. The design of a dual frequency feed subsystem and self calibration equipment is included.

  8. Application of Implicit Space Mapping in the Design of Hammerhead Filter in Millimeter-Wave Band

    Fuqun Zhong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present advances in microwave and millimeter-wave device modeling exploiting the Space Mapping (SM technology. New SM-based modeling techniques are used that are easy to implement entirely in the Agilent ADS framework. The implicit space mapping algorithm is applied to the design of hammerhead filter in millimeter-wave band. The validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with fullwave EM simulation result and measured data. Based on the proposed method, a filter was designed and fabricated on a substrate with thickness of 0.254 mm and dielectric constant of 2.2. The experimental results show good agreement with simulated results. It is proved that the accuracy can be achieved using the implicit space mapping algorithm, and the design efficiency can be greatly improved.

  9. 36th Annual International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves

    Mittleman, Daniel M. [Rice University

    2011-12-31

    The Major Topic List of the 2011 conference featured a category entitled “IR, millimeter-wave, and THz spectroscopy,” another entitled “Gyro-Oscillators and Amplifiers, Plasma Diagnostics,” and a third called “Free Electron Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation.” Topical areas of interest to meeting participants include millimeter-wave electronics, high-power sources, high-frequency communications systems, and terahertz sensing and imaging, all of which are prominent in the research portfolios of the DOE. The development and study of new materials, components, and systems for use in the IR, THz, and MMW regions of the spectrum are of significant interest as well. a series of technical sessions were organized on the following topics: terahertz metamaterials and plasmonics; imaging techniques and applications; graphene spectroscopy; waveguide concepts; gyrotron science and technology; ultrafast terahertz measurements; and quantum cascade lasers.

  10. Millimeter Wave Studies of Analogs to Optical Phenomena in Ferroelectric Crystals and Artificial Kerr Media.

    Bobbs, Bradley Lance

    Refractive, absorptive, electrooptical, and nonlinear optical phenomena have traditionally been associated with visible light, but can readily be extended to include analogs for millimeter wave radiation. Studies of such analog phenomena can reveal material properties with remarkable enhancements over corresponding properties in the visible spectrum. This is particularly true for materials grown or developed specifically for millimeter wave applications. One class of materials investigated was tungsten bronze ferroelectric crystals. Indices of absorption and refraction of Sr_{rm x} Ba_{rm 1-x}Nb _2O_6 and Ba_{rm 2-x}Sr _{rm x}K_ {rm1-y}Na_{ rm y}Nb_5O _{15} at millimeter wave frequencies between 55 and 110 GHz and temperatures between 20 and 300K were derived from measurements of transmittance spectra containing Fabry-Perot fringes produced by crystal surface reflections. The anisotropies observed in both indices at these frequencies are huge compared with those at optical frequencies. Absorption in both materials decreases markedly upon cooling, but only for incident waves polarized along the crystal polar axis. Measurements of linear electrooptic modulation show this effect to be quite large at 300 K, but indicate a significant reduction upon cooling. An artificial Kerr medium consisting of a suspension of short graphite fibers was shown to provide an effective means for observing nonlinear millimeter wave interactions. Using a 18 GHz pump beam with up to 20 W continuous power, changes in the 94 GHz refractive index were measured by interferometry. The induced birefringence and anisotropic absorption indicate an alignment of the fibers with the electric field of the pump beam. The resulting nonlinear refractive index is predicted to be of sufficient magnitude to demonstrate millimeter wave bistability and phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing. Although theoretical model fits to the experimental results show a reasonable degree of success, they also

  11. Second generation of AVTIS FMCW millimeter wave radars for mapping volcanic terrain

    Macfarlane, David Graham; Robertson, Duncan Alexander; Cassidy, Scott Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    The second generation AVTIS ground-based millimeter wave instruments designed for monitoring topography of volcanic lava domes are solid state 94 GHz FMCW rastered, real beam radars operating at ranges of up to ~7 km with a range resolution of ~2.5 m. Operating ten times faster than the prototype with reduced power consumption suitable for battery powered portable use as well as installation at a telemetered site under solar power, we examine their performance as tools for monitoring topograp...

  12. Millimeter wave radiometer installation in Río Gallegos, southern Argentina

    Orte, P. F.; Salvador, J.; Wolfram, E.; D'Elia, R.; Nagahama, T.; Kojima, Y.; Tanada, R.; Kuwahara, T.; Morihira, A.; Quel, E.; Mizuno, A.

    2011-05-01

    With the aim of contribution to the study of atmospheric ozone layer, a new sensitive radiometer for atmospheric minor constituents has been installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, División LIDAR, CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET), in October 2010. This observatory is established in the city of Rio Gallegos (51° 36' S, 69° 19' W), Argentina, close to the spring ozone hole. The millimeter wave radiometer was developed in STEL (Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory), Nagoya University, Japan. This passive remote sensing instrument is able to measure the ozone (O3) amount in the high stratosphere and mesosphere continuously and automatically with a high time resolution. The millimeter wave radiometer ozone profiles will be supplemented with the ozone profiles obtained from the DIAL system existent in the observatory. The millimeter wave radiometer is based on the spectral signal detection from the atmosphere due to the molecular rotational transition of molecules under study. The operation is based on a superheterodyne system which uses a Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer receiver operating at 203.6GHz. The SIS mixer junction consists of a sandwich structure of Nb/AlOx/Nb, and is cooled to 4.2K with a closed cycle He-gas refrigerator. Two additional heterodyne-mixed stages are realized with the aim to shift the measured spectral line until a frequency around of 500 MHz. A FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) spectrometer system is used as a back end. The aims of this work are to show the potential of the millimeter wave radiometer installed in the subpolar latitudes close to the polar ozone hole and to present the preliminary result of the first measurements.

  13. Experimental study of millimeter wave-induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes.

    Wu, Guang-Wen; Liu, Xian-Xiang; Wu, Ming-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Yan; Chen, Wen-Lie; Lin, Ru-Hui; Lin, Jiu-Mao

    2009-04-01

    Low power millimeter wave irradiation is widely used in clinical medicine. We describe the effects of this treatment on cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and attempted to identify the underlying mechanism. Cells cultured using the whole marrow attachment culture method proliferated dispersedly or in clones. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the MSCs were CD90 positive, but negative for CD45. The negative control group (A) did not express detectable levels of Cbfa1 or Sox9 mRNA at any time point, while cells in the millimeter wave-induced groups (B and C) increasingly expressed both genes after the fourth day post-induction. Statistical analysis showed that starting on the fourth day post-induction, there were very significant differences in the expression of Cbfa1 and Sox9 mRNA between groups A and B as well as A and C at any given time point, between treated groups B and C after identical periods of induction, and within each treated group at different induction times. Transition electron microscopy analysis showed that the rough endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the induced groups was richer and more developed than in cells of the negative control group, and that the shape of cells shifted from long-spindle to near ellipse. Toluidine blue staining revealed heterochromia in the cytoplasm and extracellular matrix of cells in the induced groups, whereas no obvious heterochromia was observed in negative control cells. Induced cells also exhibited positive immunohistochemical staining of collagen II, in contrast to the negative controls. These results show that millimeter wave treatment successfully induced MSCs to differentiate as chondrocytes and the extent of differentiation increased with treatment duration. Our findings suggest that millimeter wave irradiation can be employed as a novel non-drug inducing method for the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes. PMID:19288021

  14. ANALYSIS OF GROUND TARGET STEALTH BASED ON PASSIVE MILLIMETER-WAVE DETECTION

    Shi Xiang; Lou Guowei; Li Xingguo

    2008-01-01

    Passive Millimeter-Wave (MMW) detection has become a threat to ground targets. To nhance the survivability of the ground target in the future battlefield, passive MMW stealth tech- nology is analyzed in this paper. Based on the passive MMW detection principle, computation and analysis are made for the MMW apparent temperature of tank in different actual combat conditions. The necessity of the passive MMW stealth is analyzed and the passive MMW stealth methods are also studied.

  15. Measurements of millimeter wave test structures for high speed chip testing

    De Keulenaer, Timothy; Ban, Yu; Torfs, Guy; Sercu, Stefaan; Geest, Jan van de; Bauwelinck, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the frequency domain characterization of very high bandwidth connectorized traces and a millimeter wave rat race coupler. These connectorized differential grounded coplanar waveguide traces, essential for the testability of high speed integrated circuits, have a measured flat frequency response up to 67GHz which indicates correct connector footprint and transmission line design. The differential traces narrow down to a chip scale pitch of 150 μm allowing direct flip chip c...

  16. The involvement of cutaneous receptors in the biological effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves

    Anton Emil; Aurel Saulea; Gabriela Saulea; Ciobica Alin; Bruma SI.; Anton C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of peripheral nerve terminations in the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic millimeter waves (mmW) was assessed. It is currently thought that mmW could be used in noninvasive complementary therapy because of their analgesic effect. However, the mechanisms of their antinociceptive effect and non-ionizing radiation are the subjects of controversy. The mechanisms of interaction of mmW and the cutaneous tissue have not been elucidated. We ob...

  17. Millimeter-wave Wireless LAN and its Extension toward 5G Heterogeneous Networks

    Sakaguchi, Kei; Mohamed, Ehab Mahmoud; Kusano, Hideyuki; Mizukami, Makoto; Miyamoto, Shinichi; Rezagah, Roya; Takinami, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Shirakata, Naganori; Peng, Hailan; Yamamoto, Toshiaki; Namba, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmw) frequency bands, especially 60 GHz unlicensed band, are considered as a promising solution for gigabit short range wireless communication systems. IEEE standard 802.11ad, also known as WiGig, is standardized for the usage of the 60 GHz unlicensed band for wireless local area networks (WLANs). By using this mmw WLAN, multi-Gbps rate can be achieved to support bandwidth-intensive multimedia applications. Exhaustive search along with beamforming (BF) is usually used to over...

  18. Analysis of multiple antenna ultra-wideband and millimeter wave communication systems

    Nagvanshi, Preeti

    2007-01-01

    The home and office environments are experiencing an ever increasing penetration of consumer electronic devices, often requiring data rates well in excess of tens of megabits per second. Communication to and from such devices has mostly relied on wireline technologies such as USB, DVI and IEEE1394. Ultra-wideband (UWB) and millimeter -wave (mmW) systems have been proposed to replace these wireline communication systems with short range high speed wireless networks. The significantly higher oc...

  19. Aligning and tracking a beam steerable millimeter-wave radio link

    Leinonen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide high-throughput mobile broadband in a dense urban information society, upcoming cellular networks will finally employ the under-utilized millimeter-wave (mmW) frequencies. The challenging mmW radio environment, however, necessitates massive cell densification with wireless backhauling using very directional links. This thesis investigates how these links between access points may be aligned efficiently, and how alignment reflects the network organization. The work prov...

  20. Analytical Model for Outdoor Millimeter Wave Channels using Geometry-Based Stochastic Approach

    Muhammad, Nor Aishah; Wang, Peng; Li, Yonghui; Vucetic, Branka

    2016-01-01

    The severe bandwidth shortage in conventional microwave bands has spurred the exploration of the millimeter wave (MMW) spectrum for the next revolution in wireless communications. However, there is still lack of proper channel modeling for the MMW wireless propagation, especially in the case of outdoor environments. In this paper, we develop a geometry-based stochastic channel model to statistically characterize the effect of all the first-order reflection paths between the transmitter and re...

  1. Tractable Model for Rate in Self-Backhauled Millimeter Wave Cellular Networks

    Singh, Sarabjot; Kulkarni, Mandar N.; Ghosh, Amitava; Andrews, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) cellular systems will require high gain directional antennas and dense base station (BS) deployments to overcome high near field path loss and poor diffraction. As a desirable side effect, high gain antennas provide interference isolation, providing an opportunity to incorporate self-backhauling--BSs backhauling among themselves in a mesh architecture without significant loss in throughput--to enable the requisite large BS densities. The use of directional antennas and r...

  2. ENHANCED ABSORPTION OF MILLIMETER WAVE ENERGY IN MURINE SUBCUTANEOUS BLOOD VESSELS

    Alekseev, Stanislav I.; Ziskin, Marvin C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine millimeter wave (MMW) absorption by blood vessels traversing the subcutaneous fat layer of murine skin. Most calculations were performed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. We used two types of models: (1) a rectangular block of multilayer tissue with blood vessels traversing the fat layer and (2) cylindrical models with circular and elliptical cross sections simulating the real geometry of murine limbs. We found that the spe...

  3. Uniplanar Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antenna Fed by Coplanar Waveguide

    Jianjun Gao; Shouzheng Zhu; Qiuyan Yin; Yong Cheng; Guohua Zhai

    2013-01-01

    A uniplanar millimeter-wave broadband printed log-periodic dipole array (PLPDA) antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) is introduced. This proposed structure consists of several active dipole elements, feeding lines, parallel coupled line, and the CPW, which are etched on a single metallic layer of the substrate. The parallel coupled line can be optimized to act as a transformer between the CPW and the PLPDA antenna. Meanwhile, this transform performs the task of a balun to achieve a wideban...

  4. BCB-Si Based Wide Band Millimeter Wave Antenna Fed by Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Hamsakutty Vettikalladi; Majeed A. S. Alkanhal

    2013-01-01

    A benzocyclobutene (BCB) silicon (Si) based wideband antenna for millimeter wave applications is presented. The antenna consists of multilayer with one layer of BCB and the remaining three layers of Si. A patch is etched on the Si substrate above the air gap, which is excited through a slot. This architecture of slot, air gap, and patch will produce wide bandwidth by merging each one of resonances. The simulated results show that the antenna provides an S11

  5. Electro-thermal Modelling of Monolithic and Hybrid Microwave and Millimeter Wave IC's

    Batty, W.; Panks, A. J.; Johnson, R G; C. M. Snowden

    2000-01-01

    The first completely physical electro-thermal model is presented that is capable of describing the large signal performance of MESFET- and HEMT-based, high power microwave and millimeter wave monolithic and hybrid ICs, on timescales suitable for CAD. The model includes the effects of self-heating and mutual thermal interaction on active device performance with full treatment of all thermal non linearities. The electrical description is provided by the rapid quasi-2D Leeds Physi...

  6. Plasma density measurements using FM--CW millimeter wave radar techniques

    Modified FM--CW radar techniques using swept millimeter--wave oscillators are useful for determining when a particular density has been reached in a plasma. Narrowband measurements on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) demonstrate the suitability of these techniques for controlling high-power auxiliary plasma heating systems. Broadband measurements using these same techniques are proposed, by which the density profile could be determined

  7. Plasma density measurements using FM-CW millimeter wave radar techniques

    Modified FM-CW radar techniques using swept millimeter-wave oscillators are useful for determining when a particular density has been reached in a plasma. Narrowband measurements on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) demonstrate the suitability of these techniques for controlling high-power auxiliary plasma heating systems. Broadband measurements using these same techniques are proposed, by which the density profile could be determined

  8. RF Performance of Layer-Structured Broadband Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging System

    Kunio Sakakibara; Kunihiko Ohkawa; Yutaka Aoki; Nobuyoshi Kikuma

    2016-01-01

    Low profile and simple configuration are advantageous for RF module in passive millimeter-wave imaging system. High sensitivity over broad operation bandwidth is also necessary to detect right information from weak signal. We propose a broadband layer-structured module with low profile, simple structure, and ease of manufacture. This module is composed of a lens antenna and a detector module that consists of a detector circuit and a broadband microstrip-to-waveguide transition. The module for...

  9. A 94-GHz Millimeter-Wave Sensor for Speech Signal Acquisition

    Jianqi Wang; Hua Zhang; Huijun Xue; Hao Lv; Xiao Yu; Yang Zhang; Guohua Lu; Ying Tian; Sheng Li; Xijing Jing

    2013-01-01

    High frequency millimeter-wave (MMW) radar-like sensors enable the detection of speech signals. This novel non-acoustic speech detection method has some special advantages not offered by traditional microphones, such as preventing strong-acoustic interference, high directional sensitivity with penetration, and long detection distance. A 94-GHz MMW radar sensor was employed in this study to test its speech acquisition ability. A 34-GHz zero intermediate frequency radar, a 34-GHz superheterodyn...

  10. Millimeter-Wave Wireless Power Transfer Technology for Space Applications

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Mojarradi, Hadi; Bae, Sam Y.; Marzwell, Neville

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new compact, scalable, and low cost technology for efficient receiving of power using RF waves at 94 GHz. This technology employs a highly innovative array of slot antennas that is integrated on substrate composed of gold (Au), silicon (Si), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) layers. The length of the slots and spacing between them are optimized for a highly efficient beam through a 3-D electromagnetic simulation process. Antenna simulation results shows a good beam profile with very low side lobe levels and better than 93% antenna efficiency.

  11. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network

    Lin, Kai; Wang, Di; Hu, Long

    2016-01-01

    With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC). The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods. PMID:27376302

  12. Millimeter-Wave Heterodyne Six-Port Receiver: New Implementation and Demodulation Results

    D Hammou; E. Moldovan; S.O. Tatu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new implementation of a millimeter-wave heterodyne receiver based on six-port technology. The six-port model is implemented in Advanced Design System (ADS) using S-parameter measurements for realistic advanced simulation of a short-range 60 GHz wireless link. Millimeter-wave frequency conversion is performed using a six-port down-converter. The second frequency conversion is performed using conventional means because of low IF. A comparison between the proposed receiver and a conventional balanced millimeter-wave mixer shows that the proposed receiver improves conversion loss and I/Q phase stability over the local oscillator (LO) and RF power ranges. The results of demodulating a V-band quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal at a high data rate of 100 Mb/s-1 Gb/s are discussed. The results of a bit error rate (BER) and error vector magnitude (EVM) analysis prove that the proposed architecture can be successfully used for wireless link transmission up to 10 m.

  13. Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ε-iron oxide

    Chao, Liu; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2014-05-01

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) and strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ɛ-iron oxides (ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz-150 GHz. The ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  14. Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ε-iron oxide

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) and strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ε-iron oxides (ε-GaxFe2−xO3) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz–150 GHz. The ε-GaxFe2−xO3 is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ε-GaxFe2−xO3 particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ε-GaxFe2−xO3 are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found

  15. System-in-package LTCC platform for 3D RF to millimeter wave

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation shows recent trends and results in 3D Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics (LTCC) modules in applications from RF to millimeter waves. The system-in-package LTCC platform is a true three dimensional module technology. LTCC is a lightweight multi-layer technology having typically 6-20 ceramic layers and metallizations between. The metallization levels i.e different metal layers can be patterned and connected together with metal vias. Passive devices can also be fabricated on LTCC while active devices and other chips are connected with flip-chip, wire bonding or soldering. In addition to passives directly fabricated to LTCC, several different technologies/ chips can be hybrid integrated to the same module. LTCC platform is also well suited for the realization of antenna arrays for microwave and millimeter wave applications. Potential applications are ranging from short range communications to space and radars. VTT has designed, fabricated and characterized microwave and millimeter wave packages for Radio Frequency (RF) Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as active devices. Also, several types of system-in-package modules have been realized containing hybrid integrated CMOS and GaAs MMICs and antenna arrays.

  16. RF Performance of Layer-Structured Broadband Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging System

    Kunio Sakakibara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low profile and simple configuration are advantageous for RF module in passive millimeter-wave imaging system. High sensitivity over broad operation bandwidth is also necessary to detect right information from weak signal. We propose a broadband layer-structured module with low profile, simple structure, and ease of manufacture. This module is composed of a lens antenna and a detector module that consists of a detector circuit and a broadband microstrip-to-waveguide transition. The module forms a layer structure as a printed substrate with detector circuit is fixed between two metal plates with horn antennas and back-short waveguides. We developed a broadband passive millimeter-wave imaging module composed of a lens antenna and a detector module in this work. The gain and the antenna efficiency were measured, and the broadband operation was observed for the lens antenna. For the detector module, peak sensitivity was 8100 V/W. Furthermore, the detector module recognized a difference in the absorber’s temperature. The designs of the lens antenna and the detector module are presented and the RF performances of these components are reported. Finally, passive millimeter-wave imaging of a car, a human, and a metal plate in clothes is demonstrated in this paper.

  17. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network

    Kai Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC. The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods.

  18. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network.

    Lin, Kai; Wang, Di; Hu, Long

    2016-01-01

    With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC). The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods. PMID:27376302

  19. Development and Testing of a Refractory Millimeter-Wave Absorbent Heat Exchanger

    Lambot, Thomas; Myrabo, Leik; Murakami, David; Parkin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Central to the Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) is the millimeter-wave absorbent heat exchanger. We have developed metallic and ceramic variants, with the key challenge being the millimeter-wave absorbent coatings for each. The ceramic heat exchanger came to fruition first, demonstrating for the first time 1800 K peak surface temperatures under illumination by a 110 GHz Gaussian beam. Absorption efficiencies of up to 80 are calculated for mullite heat exchanger tubes and up to 50 are calculated for alumina tubes. These are compared with estimates based on stratified layer and finite element analyses. The problem of how to connect the 1800 K end of the ceramic tubes to a graphite outlet manifold and nozzle is solved by press fitting, or by threading the ends of the ceramic tubes and screwing them into place. The problem of how to connect the ceramic tubes to a metallic or nylon inlet pipe is solved by using soft compliant PTFE and PVC tubes that accommodate thermal deformations of the ceramic tubes during startup and operation. We show the resulting heat exchangers in static tests using argon and helium as propellants.

  20. Application of Temperature-Dependent Fluorescent Dyes to the Measurement of Millimeter Wave Absorption in Water Applied to Biomedical Experiments

    Nataliia Kuzkova; Oleksandr Popenko; Andrey Yakunov

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensitivity of the fluorescence intensity of the organic dyes solutions was used for noncontact measurement of the electromagnetic millimeter wave absorption in water. By using two different dyes with opposite temperature effects, local temperature increase in the capillary that is placed inside a rectangular waveguide in which millimeter waves propagate was defined. The application of this noncontact temperature sensing is a simple and novel method to detect temperature change in...

  1. Coherent Fiber-Optic Links for Transmission and Signal Processing in Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Systems

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1998-01-01

    The principles of coherent fiber-optic links are presented and the transmission and signal processing capabilities offered to microwave and millimeter-wave systems are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of implemented transmitter types and link experiments is given......The principles of coherent fiber-optic links are presented and the transmission and signal processing capabilities offered to microwave and millimeter-wave systems are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of implemented transmitter types and link experiments is given...

  2. Wide-open, high-resolution microwave/millimeter-wave Doppler frequency shift estimation using photonics technology

    Zou, Xihua; Li, Wangzhe; Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan; Shao, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    Today, wide-open, high-resolution Doppler frequency shift (DFS) estimation is essential for radar, microwave/millimeter-wave, and communication systems. Using photonics technology, an effective approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, providing a high-resolution and frequency-independent solution. In the approach consisting of two cascaded opto-electronic modulators, DFS between the transmitted microwave/ millimeter-wave signal and the received echo signal is mapped into a double...

  3. Waveguide Bandpass Filters for Millimeter-Wave Radiometers

    Furtula, V.; Zirath, H.; Salewski, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for most mm-wave heterodyne receivers is the rejection of the input image signal which is located close to the local oscillator frequency. For this purpose we use a bandpass filter, which for heterodyne receivers is also called an image rejection filter. In this paper we...... present a systematic approach to the design of a waveguide bandpass filter with a passband from 100 to 110 GHz and upper rejection bandwidth in the range from 113 to 145 GHz. We consider two non-tunable filter configurations: the first one is relatively selective with 11 sections (poles) whereas the...... second one is simpler with 5 sections. We used established design equations to propose an initial guess for the geometries of the filters, optimized the geometries, constructed the filters using two different milling methods, measured their transmission and reflection characteristics, and compared the...

  4. Characteristics of Off-Chip Millimeter-Wave Radiation from Serial Josephson Junction Arrays

    WANG Zheng; FAN Bin; ZHAO Xin-Jie; YUE Hong-Wei; HE Ming; JI Lu; YAN Shao-Lin; FANG Lan; Klushin A. M.

    2011-01-01

    @@ We investigate the self-emissions from serial high-temperature superconductor bicrystal Josephson junction ar- rays embedded in a quasi-optical resonator.A bicrystal substrate is used as a dielectric resonator antenna, which increases the coupling strength between the junction array and the electromagnetic (EM) wave.Both three-dimension (3D) electromagnetic simulations and experiments are performed.Strong ofT-chip radiations axe measured from the junction array at 78 GHz and 78 K.The proposed method and the experimental results are important for millimeter wave applications in junction arrays.

  5. Tractable Resource Management with Uplink Decoupled Millimeter-Wave Overlay in Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    Park, Jihong; Kim, Seong-Lyun; Zander, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The forthcoming 5G cellular network is expected to overlay millimeter-wave (mmW) transmissions with the incumbent micro-wave ({\\mu}W) architecture. The overall mm-{\\mu}W resource management should therefore harmonize with each other. This paper aims at maximizing the overall downlink (DL) rate with a minimum uplink (UL) rate constraint, and concludes: mmW tends to focus more on DL transmissions while {\\mu}W has high priority for complementing UL, under time-division duplex (TDD) mmW operation...

  6. Tractable Resource Management in Millimeter-Wave Overlaid Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    Park, Jihong; Kim, Seong-Lyun; Zander, Jens

    2015-01-01

    What does millimeter-wave (mmW) seek assistance for from micro-wave ({\\mu}W) in a mmW overlaid 5G cellular network? This paper raises the question of whether to complement downlink (DL) or uplink (UL) transmissions, and concludes that {\\mu}W should aid UL more. Such dedication to UL results from the low mmW UL rate due to high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) at mobile users. The DL/UL allocations are tractably provided based on a novel closed-form mm-{\\mu}W spectral efficiency (SE) derivat...

  7. Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes

    Westerhof, E.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Oosterbeek, J.W.;

    2009-01-01

    In tokamak plasmas with a tearing mode, strong scattering of high power millimeter waves, as used for heating and noninductive current drive, is shown to occur. This new wave scattering phenomenon is shown to be related to the passage of the O point of a magnetic island through the high power...... heating beam. The density determines the detailed phasing of the scattered radiation relative to the O-point passage. The scattering power depends strongly nonlinearly on the heating beam power. ©2009 The American Physical Society...

  8. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    Osman, Nurul [Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Malaysia); Free, Charles [Department of Engineering and Design, University of Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.

  9. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application

  10. Safety Aspect Analysis of Helmet Mounted Millimeter Wave Radio

    K. Nageswari

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of millimetric wave (MMW power density from two-helmet-mounted MMW radiating horn antennas were made at various distances on the three axes. These three axes are representing three planes: (i in the direction of propagation (Z-axis, (ii horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of propagation (Y-axis, i.e., 15 cm to the left or right of Z-axis, and (iii vertical axis (X-axis also perpendicular to the direction of propagation and extending up and down an imaginary central reference line passing through the centre of the horn and the centre of the microwave measuring probe. Measurements were also made inside the helmet close to the metallic plate at 17 locations and 10 cm away from it. The Narda-8723 broadband isotropic microwave probe [frequency of operation (0.3-40 GHz power density range 0.05-100 mW/cm1 was placed at various distance points marked at 15 nm intervals and also at distances of relevance on Z-axis. For each of the distance points on Z-axis, measurements were taken at 7 probe locations on X-axis. For Y-axis measurements, 4 probe locations were selected (on vertical or X-axis. The results revealed no leakage of microwave power inside the helmets. In the transmitting mode of operation, there was a great variability of microwave power emitted closest to the horn antennas (2.5-5.0 mW / 2 and 6.0-105 mW /cm2 for helmet Nos.11 and2, respectively. As the distance from the antenna increased in the direction of propagation, the power density dropped to 0.04 m W / cm2 or 0.075 m W / cm{ maximum value at 1 m. As the values recorded are within American National Standards Institute (ANSI safety guidelines (10mW/cm2 at 35 GHz.

  11. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR MILLIMETER-WAVE CAVITY ORIGINATES IN THE TEMPERATURE MINIMUM REGION

    De la Luz, Victor [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 (Mexico); Raulin, Jean-Pierre [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP 01302-907 (Brazil); Lara, Alejandro [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-01-10

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the local radio emission at the lower part of the solar atmosphere. To accomplish this, we have used a numerical code to simulate the emission and transport of high-frequency electromagnetic waves from 2 GHz up to 10 THz. As initial conditions, we used VALC, SEL05, and C7 solar chromospheric models. In this way, the generated synthetic spectra allow us to study the local emission and absorption processes with high resolution in both altitude and frequency. Associated with the temperature minimum predicted by these models, we found that the local optical depth at millimeter wavelengths remains constant, producing an optically thin layer that is surrounded by two layers of high local emission. We call this structure the Chromospheric Solar Millimeter-wave Cavity (CSMC). The temperature profile, which features temperature minimum layers and a subsequent temperature rise, produces the CSMC phenomenon. The CSMC shows the complexity of the relation between the theoretical temperature profile and the observed brightness temperature and may help us to understand the dispersion of the observed brightness temperature in the millimeter wavelength range.

  12. Proof-of-Concept of a Millimeter-Wave Integrated Heterogeneous Network for 5G Cellular.

    Okasaka, Shozo; Weiler, Richard J; Keusgen, Wilhelm; Pudeyev, Andrey; Maltsev, Alexander; Karls, Ingolf; Sakaguchi, Kei

    2016-01-01

    The fifth-generation mobile networks (5G) will not only enhance mobile broadband services, but also enable connectivity for a massive number of Internet-of-Things devices, such as wireless sensors, meters or actuators. Thus, 5G is expected to achieve a 1000-fold or more increase in capacity over 4G. The use of the millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum is a key enabler to allowing 5G to achieve such enhancement in capacity. To fully utilize the mmWave spectrum, 5G is expected to adopt a heterogeneous network (HetNet) architecture, wherein mmWave small cells are overlaid onto a conventional macro-cellular network. In the mmWave-integrated HetNet, splitting of the control plane (CP) and user plane (UP) will allow continuous connectivity and increase the capacity of the mmWave small cells. mmWave communication can be used not only for access linking, but also for wireless backhaul linking, which will facilitate the installation of mmWave small cells. In this study, a proof-of-concept (PoC) was conducted to demonstrate the practicality of a prototype mmWave-integrated HetNet, using mmWave technologies for both backhaul and access. PMID:27571074

  13. Planar Superconducting Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Channelizing Filter

    Ehsan, Negar; U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is a compact, superconducting, channelizing bandpass filter on a single-crystal (0.45 m thick) silicon substrate, which operates from 300 to 600 GHz. This device consists of four channels with center frequencies of 310, 380, 460, and 550 GHz, with approximately 50-GHz bandwidth per channel. The filter concept is inspired by the mammalian cochlea, which is a channelizing filter that covers three decades of bandwidth and 3,000 channels in a very small physical space. By using a simplified physical cochlear model, and its electrical analog of a channelizing filter covering multiple octaves bandwidth, a large number of output channels with high inter-channel isolation and high-order upper stopband response can be designed. A channelizing filter is a critical component used in spectrometer instruments that measure the intensity of light at various frequencies. This embodiment was designed for MicroSpec in order to increase the resolution of the instrument (with four channels, the resolution will be increased by a factor of four). MicroSpec is a revolutionary wafer-scale spectrometer that is intended for the SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Mission. In addition to being a vital component of MicroSpec, the channelizing filter itself is a low-resolution spectrometer when integrated with only an antenna at its input, and a detector at each channel s output. During the design process for this filter, the available characteristic impedances, possible lumped element ranges, and fabrication tolerances were identified for design on a very thin silicon substrate. Iterations between full-wave and lumped-element circuit simulations were performed. Each channel s circuit was designed based on the availability of characteristic impedances and lumped element ranges. This design was based on a tabular type bandpass filter with no spurious harmonic response. Extensive electromagnetic modeling for each channel was performed. Four channels

  14. Maps of millimeter wave emission from three galactic star-forming regions

    Barsony, Mary

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate the gas dynamics around young stellar objects, three sources were mapped which exhibit supersonic velocities in the 115 GHZ, J = 1-0 transition of CO. The maps, made with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Interferometer, are the highest spatial resolution images currently available of millimeter-wave continuum and line emission from the sources S106, S87, and LkHalpha101. Observations were made in the CS (J = 2-1) and C-13O (J = 1-0) transitions. In all the sources, the observations indicate that the ionized stellar wind is sweeping up ambient molecular gas. The molecular gas is found adjacent to the outer edges of the ionized winds, which originate in embedded infrared sources. From the observations presented, it may be inferred that the outflowing ionized winds are channeled by the surrounding dense, neutral gas.

  15. Millimeter-wave properties of neutron-irradiated ceramics for RF-window MFE applications

    In response to materials needs connected with electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactors, the facility at Los Alamos for dielectric properties measurements on irradiated materials was upgraded to include a capability in the millimeter-wave region. With it, dielectric constants (K) and loss tangents (tandelta) were measured at frequencies (f) of about 95 GHz for polycrystalline alumina and beryllia specimens inserted into WR-10 waveguide after irradiations in EBR-II at 3850C and an average fluence of 8 x 1025 n/cm2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Relative to annealed controls, the dielectric loss quantity Ktandelta doubled for both ceramic types. Furthermore, the BeO material underwent substantial enough changes in K and mass density rho to indicate the likelihood of millimeter-window thickness detuning

  16. Millimeter Wave Detection via Autler-Townes Splitting in Rubidium Rydberg Atoms

    Gordon, Joshua A; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in 85Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric- field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 waveguide band is measured for frequencies of 93 GHz, and 104 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measure the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  17. Characterization and Applications of Micro- and Nano- Ferrites at Microwave and Millimeter Waves

    Chao, Liu

    Ferrite materials are one of the most widely used magnetic materials in microwave and millimeter wave applications such as radar, wireless communication. They provide unique properties for microwave and millimeter wave devices especially non-reciprocal devices. Some ferrite materials with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy fields can extend these applications to tens of GHz range while reducing the size, weight and cost. This thesis focuses on characterization of such ferrite materials as micro- and nano-powder and the fabrication of the devices. The ferrite materials with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy field are metal/non-metal substituted iron oxides oriented in low crystal symmetry. The ferrite materials characterized in this thesis include M-type hexagonal ferrites such as barium ferrite (BaFe12O19), strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), epsilon phase iron oxide (epsilon-Fe 2O3), substituted epsilon phase iron oxide (epsilon-Ga xFe2-xO3, epsilon-AlxFe2-xO 3). These ferrites exhibit great anisotropic magnetic fields. A transmission-reflection based in-waveguide technique that employs a vector network analyzer was used to determine the scattering parameters for each sample in the microwave bands (8.2--40 GHz). From the S-parameters, complex dielectric permittivity and complex magnetic permeability are evaluated by an improved algorithm. The millimeter wave measurement is based on a free space quasi-optical spectrometer. Initially precise transmittance spectra over a broad millimeter wave frequency range from 40 GHz to 120 GHz are acquired. Later the transmittance spectra are converted into complex permittivity and permeability spectra. These ferrite powder materials are further characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) to understand the crystalline structure relating to the strength and the shift of the ferromagnetic resonance affected by the particle size. A Y-junction circulator working in the 60 GHz frequency band is designed based on characterized M

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurological Disorders by Millimeter-Wave Stimulation

    Siegel, Peter H.; Pikov, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, millimeter waves are being employed for telecomm, radar, and imaging applications. To date in the U.S, however, very few investigations on the impact of this radiation on biological systems at the cellular level have been undertaken. In the beginning, to examine the impact of millimeter waves on cellular processes, researchers discovered that cell membrane depolarization may be triggered by low levels of integrated power at these high frequencies. Such a situation could be used to advantage in the direct stimulation of neuronal cells for applications in neuroprosthetics and diagnosing or treating neurological disorders. An experimental system was set up to directly monitor cell response on exposure to continuous-wave, fixed-frequency, millimeter-wave radiation at low and modest power levels (0.1 to 100 safe exposure standards) between 50 and 100 GHz. Two immortalized cell lines derived from lung and neuronal tissue were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) that locates on the inside of the cell membrane lipid bi-layer. Oxonol dye was added to the cell medium. When membrane depolarization occurs, the oxonal bound to the outer wall of the lipid bi-layer can penetrate close to the inner wall where the GFP resides. Under fluorescent excitation (488 nm), the normally green GFP (520 nm) optical signal quenches and gives rise to a red output when the oxonol comes close enough to the GFP to excite a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with an output at 620 nm. The presence of a strong FRET signature upon exposures of 30 seconds to 2 minutes at 5-10 milliwatts per square centimeter RF power at 50 GHz, followed by a return to the normal 520-nm GFP signal after a few minutes indicating repolarization of the membrane, indicates that low levels of RF energy may be able to trigger non-destructive membrane depolarization without direct cell contact. Such a mechanism could be used to stimulate neuronal cells in the cortex without the need for

  19. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  20. Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ε-iron oxide

    Chao, Liu, E-mail: liu.chao@tufts.edu; Afsar, Mohammed N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ε-iron oxides (ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz–150 GHz. The ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  1. CCAM: A novel millimeter-wave instrument using a close-packed TES bolometer array

    Lau, Judy M.

    This thesis describes CCAM, an instrument designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), and also presents some of the initial measurements made with CCAM on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). CCAM uses a CCD-like camera of millimeter-wave TES bolometers. It employs new detector technology, read-out electronics, cold re-imaging optics, and cryogenics to obtain high sensitivity CMB anisotropy measurements. The free-standing 8×32 close-packed array of pop- up TES detectors is the first of its kind to observe the sky at 145 GHz. We present the design of the receiver including the antireflection coated silicon lens re-imaging system, construction and optimization of the pulse tube/ sorption refrigerator cryogenic system, as well as the technology developed to integrate eight 1×32 TES columns and accompanying read-out electronics in to an array of 256 millimeter-wave detectors into a focal plane area of 3.5 cm 2. The performance of the detectors and optics prior to deployment at the ACT site in Chile are reported as well as preliminary performance results of the instrument when optically paired with the ACT telescope in the summer of 2007. Here, we also report on the feasibility of the TES detector array to measure polarization when coupled to a rotating birefringent sapphire half wave plate and wire-grid polarizer.

  2. Optimization of millimeter wave system in ITER Equatorial EC H and CD Launcher

    Kajiwara, K., E-mail: kajiwara.ken@jaea.go.jp; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Sakamoto, K.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •We improved the millimeter wave design of the ITER Equatorial EC H and CD Launcher. •The transmission efficiency inside the launcher is increased to 99.1% while maintaining the narrow opening and beam concentration at plasma. •An effect of the high order mode inside the launcher is estimated by using the high power beam pattern. •The 1–2% additional loss inside the launcher is appeared, which is the first quantitative analysis of the high order mode effect in the launcher. -- Abstract: A high power (20 MW) and CW millimeter wave (mm-wave) injection is planned for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) in ITER. An optimization of the mm-wave system for the ITER EC H and CD Equatorial Launcher (EL) is performed. The optimization of the system is aimed to obtain the maximum transmission efficiency on the condition that 1.8 MW injection per waveguide, ∼20 cm in beam radius at the resonance layer and narrow opening of the Blanket Shielding Module (BSM). The transmission efficiency of 99.1% from the end of the waveguide inside the launcher to the output of the BSM is achieved. The mm-wave propagation with high order modes is also calculated by using an experimentally obtained high power mm-wave beam pattern that includes 95%HE{sub 11}, 0.6%LP{sub 11}, 0.2%LP{sub 02} and 4.2% other higher order modes. The analysis predicts the 1–2% additional loss will be induced by the high order modes.

  3. Telecommunication service markets through the year 2000 in relation to millimeter wave satellite systems

    Stevenson, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    NASA is currently conducting a series of millimeter wave satellite system market studies to develop 30/20 GHz satellite system concepts that have commercial potential. Four contractual efforts were undertaken: two parallel and independent system studies and two parallel and independent market studies. The marketing efforts are focused on forecasting the total domestic demand for long haul telecommunications services for the 1980-2000 period. Work completed to date and reported in this paper include projections of: geographical distribution of traffic; traffic volume as a function of urban area size; and user identification and forecasted demand.

  4. Liquid Crystal-Reconfigurable Antenna Concepts for Space Applications at Microwave and Millimeter Waves

    A. Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel approaches of tunable devices for millimeter wave applications based on liquid crystal (LC are presented. In the first part of the paper, a novel concept of a tunable LC phase shifter realized in Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics technology is shown while the second part of the paper deals with a tunable high-gain antenna based on an LC tunable reflectarray. The reflectarray features continuously beam scanning in between ±25∘. Also first investigations on radiation hardness of LCs are carried out, indicating that LCs might be suitable for space applications.

  5. Millimeter-wave imaging radiometer for cloud, precipitation and atmospheric water vapor studies

    Racette, P. E.; Dod, L. R.; Shiue, J. C.; Adler, R. F.; Jackson, D. M.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Zacharias, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A millimeter-wave imaging radiometer (MIR) developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is described. The MIR is a nine-channel total power radiometer developed for atmospheric research. Three dual-pass band channels are centered about the strongly opaque 183-GHz water vapor absorption line; the frequencies are 183 +/- 1, +/- 3, and +/- 7 GHz. Another channel is located on the wing of this band at 150 GHz. These four channels have varying degrees of opacity from which the water vapor profile can be inferred. The design and salient characteristics of this instrument are discussed, together with its expected benefits.

  6. HANET: Millimeter wave based intelligent radio architecture for serving place time capacity issue

    Lala, Purnima; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are advancing their scope beyond military applications. Most of the work has been concentrated in employing multi-UAV systems in providing cellular services to enhance network coverage. However, little or no attention has been considered in serving moving...... hotspot conditions aka Place Time Capacity (PTC). In this paper, we explore a disparate way of employing multi-UAV systems by proposing a concept of Hovering Ad-Hoc Network (HANET) distinctively to solve PTC congestion using millimeter wave communication. We present a suitable architecture based on...

  7. High-Efficiency and High-Power CMOS Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Applications /

    Agah, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the analysis and design of stacked-FET power amplifiers for millimeter-wave applications. We analyze the loss mechanisms in the stacked-FET PA circuit to develop the fundamental bounds on PAE and output power. Two-stack power amplifiers are designed and implemented at 45 and 90GHz achieving 19 and 15.8dbm output power with 34% and 11% PAE, respectively. The gate resistance of the stacked-FET PA is demonstrated to be a dominant source of loss at high frequency. To over...

  8. Gravitational Wave Signatures of Dark Matter Sub-Millimeter Primordial Black Holes

    Davoudiasl, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    We entertain the possibility that primordial black holes of mass $\\sim (10^{24} - 10^{26})$ g, with sub-millimeter Schwarzschild radii, constitute all or a significant fraction of cosmic dark matter, as allowed by various constraints. In case such primordial black holes get captured in orbits around neutron stars or astrophysical black holes in our galactic neighborhood, gravitational waves from the resulting "David & Goliath" binaries could be detectable at Advanced LIGO or Advanced Virgo from days to years, for a range of possible parameters. The proposed Einstein Telescope would further expand the reach for dark matter primordial black holes in this search mode.

  9. Design procedure for millimeter-wave InP DHBT stacked power amplifiers

    Squartecchia, Michele; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Midili, Virginio

    2015-01-01

    The stacked-transistor concept for power amplifiers (PA) has been investigated in this work. Specifically, this architecture has been applied in the design of millimeter-wave monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) using indium phosphide (InP) double heterojunction bipolar transistors...... gives 13.1 dBm of output power, 10.1 dB of gain and 13 % of PAE. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation of multi-level stacked PAs based on InP HBT technology....

  10. Human Skin as Arrays of Helical Antennas in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Range

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Agranat, Aharon J.

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography showed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. A computer simulation study of these structures in millimeter and submillimeter wave bands show that the human skin functions as an array of low-Q helical antennas. Experimental evidence is presented that the spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure.