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Sample records for acrf millimeter wave

  1. The Status of the ACRF Millimeter Wave Cloud Radars (MMCRs), the Path Forward for Future MMCR Upgrades, the Concept of 3D Volume Imaging Radar and the UAV Radar

    P Kollias; MA Miller; KB Widener; RT Marchand; TP Ackerman

    2005-12-30

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates millimeter wavelength cloud radars (MMCRs) in several climatological regimes. The MMCRs, are the primary observing tool for quantifying the properties of nearly all radiatively important clouds over the ACRF sites. The first MMCR was installed at the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) site nine years ago and its original design can be traced to the early 90s. Since then, several MMCRs have been deployed at the ACRF sites, while no significant hardware upgrades have been performed. Recently, a two-stage upgrade (first C-40 Digital Signal Processors [DSP]-based, and later the PC-Integrated Radar AcQuisition System [PIRAQ-III] digital receiver) of the MMCR signal-processing units was completed. Our future MMCR related goals are: 1) to have a cloud radar system that continues to have high reliability and uptime and 2) to suggest potential improvements that will address increased sensitivity needs, superior sampling and low cost maintenance of the MMCRs. The Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) technology, the frequency (35-GHz), the radio frequency (RF) layout, antenna, the calibration and radar control procedure and the environmental enclosure of the MMCR remain assets for our ability to detect the profile of hydrometeors at all heights in the troposphere at the ACRF sites.

  2. Millimeter Wave Energy Harvesting

    Khan, Talha Ahmed; Alkhateeb, Ahmed; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The millimeter wave (mmWave) band, which is a prime candidate for 5G cellular networks, seems attractive for wireless energy harvesting. This is because it will feature large antenna arrays as well as extremely dense base station (BS) deployments. The viability of mmWave for energy harvesting though is unclear, due to the differences in propagation characteristics such as extreme sensitivity to building blockages. This paper considers a scenario where low-power devices extract energy and/or i...

  3. Millimeter wave nonreciprocal devices

    Morgenthaler, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group within the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Research Laboratory of Electronics proposed a three year research program aimed at developing coherent magnetic wave signal-processing techniques for microwave energy which may form either the primary signal or else the intermediate frequency (IF) modulation of millimeter wavelength signals-especially at frequencies in the 50-94 GHz. range. Emphasis has been placed upon developing advanced types of signal processors that make use of quasi-optical propagation of electromagnetic and magnetostatic waves propagating in high quality single crystal ferrite thin films. A strong theoretical effort is required in order to establish valid models useful for predicting device performance. We emphasized new filter and circulator designs that employ combinations of the Faraday effect, field displacement nonreciprocity and magnetostatic resonance and periodic structures.

  4. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  5. Millimeter wave transmissometer computer system

    Wiberg, J.D.; Widener, K.B.

    1990-04-01

    A millimeter wave transmissometer has been designed and built by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington for the US Army at the Dugway Proving Grounds in Dugway, Utah. This real-time data acquisition and control system is used to test and characterize battlefield obscurants according to the transmittance of electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelengths. It is an advanced five-frequency instrumentation radar system consisting of a transceiver van and a receiver van deployed at opposite sides of a test grid. The transceiver computer systems is the successful integration of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 8350, multiple VME bus systems with Motorola M68020 processors (one for each radar frequency), an IEEE-488 instrumentation bus, and an Aptec IOC-24 I/O computer. The software development platforms are the VAX 8350 and an IBM PC/AT. A variety of compilers, cross-assemblers, microcode assemblers, and linkers were employed to facilitate development of the system software. Transmittance measurements from each radar are taken forty times per second under control of a VME based M68020.

  6. Silicon Based Millimeter Wave and THz ICs

    Chen, Jixin; Hong, Wei; Tang, Hongjun; Yan, Pinpin; Zhang, Li; Yang, Guangqi; Hou, Debin; Wu, Ke

    In this paper, the research advances in silicon based millimeter wave and THz ICs in the State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves is reviewed, which consists of millimeter wave amplifiers, mixers, oscillators at Q, V and W and D band based on CMOS technology, and several research approaches of THz passive ICs including cavity and filter structures using SIW-like (Substrate Integrated Waveguide-like) guided wave structures based on CMOS and MEMs process. The design and performance of these components and devices are presented.

  7. Millimeter-wave antennas configurations and applications

    du Preez, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively reviews the state of the art in millimeter-wave antennas, traces important recent developments and provides information on a wide range of antenna configurations and applications. While fundamental theoretical aspects are discussed whenever necessary, the book primarily focuses on design principles and concepts, manufacture, measurement techniques, and practical results. Each of the various antenna types scalable to millimeter-wave dimensions is considered individually, with coverage of leaky-wave and surface-wave antennas, printed antennas, integrated antennas, and reflector and lens systems. The final two chapters address the subject from a systems perspective, providing an overview of supporting circuitry and examining in detail diverse millimeter-wave applications, including high-speed wireless communications, radio astronomy, and radar. The vast amount of information now available on millimeter-wave systems can be daunting for researchers and designers entering the field. This b...

  8. MILLIMETER-WAVE EMISSIVITY OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS

    A general analysis has been presented of the millimeter-wave and farinfrared spectroscopic properties of in vivo cellular systems, and of the boson radiative equilibrium with steady-state nonequilibrium molecular systems. The frequency threshhold of spectroscopic properties assoc...

  9. Infrared and millimeter waves v.14 millimeter components and techniques, pt.V

    Button, Kenneth J

    1985-01-01

    Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Volume 14: Millimeter Components and Techniques, Part V is concerned with millimeter-wave guided propagation and integrated circuits. In addition to millimeter-wave planar integrated circuits and subsystems, this book covers transducer configurations and integrated-circuit techniques, antenna arrays, optoelectronic devices, and tunable gyrotrons. Millimeter-wave gallium arsenide (GaAs) IMPATT diodes are also discussed. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with a description of millimeter-wave integrated-circuit transducers, focusing on vario

  10. Millimeter Wave Power Transfer and Information Transmission

    Wang, Lifeng; Elkashlan, Maged; Heath, Jr, Robert W.; Di Renzo, Marco; Wong, Kai-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the existing lower frequency wireless power transfer, millimeter wave (mmWave) power transfer takes advantage of the high-dimensional multi-antenna and narrow beam transmission. In this paper we introduce wireless power transfer for mmWave cellular networks. Here, we consider users with large energy storage that are recharged by the mmWave base stations prior to uplink information transmission, and analyze the average harvested energy and average achievable rate. Numerical results...

  11. Advanced microwave/millimeter-wave imaging technology

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources. (author)

  12. Millimeter Wave Technology for Armament Applications .

    A. S. Bains

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of millimeter wave (MMW technology in armament systems imposes many restrictions on the size, volume and compactness of these systems in addition to ruggedness and reliable functioning in battlefield environment. This paper discusses the related design and technological issues, particularly in, the context of the sensors developed for smart ammunition and active armour protection systems.

  13. Infrared and millimeter waves v.15 millimeter components and techniques, pt.VI

    Button, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Volume 15: Millimeter Components and Techniques, Part VI is concerned with millimeter-wave guided propagation and integrated circuits. This book covers low-noise receiver technology for near-millimeter wavelengths; dielectric image-line antennas; EHF satellite communications (SATCOM) terminal antennas; and semiconductor antennas for millimeter-wave integrated circuits. A scanning airborne radiometer for 30 and 90 GHz and a self-oscillating mixer are also described. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the design of low-n

  14. The University of Texas Millimeter Wave Observatory

    Bout, Paul A Vanden; Loren, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    This is an account of the Millimeter Wave Observatory, a 4.9 meter diameter antenna facility that pioneered continuum observations of planets and interstellar molecular spectroscopy from 1971 to 1988. The circumstances of its founding, development of its instrumentation, and major research contributions are discussed. The MWO role in training of personnel in this new field is illustrated by a listing of student and postdoctoral observers, with titles of PhD theses that included MWO data.

  15. Superconducting submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors

    Nahum, M.

    1992-10-20

    The series of projects described in this dissertation was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Our goal was to develop useful applications which would be competitive with the current state of technology. The high-[Tc] microbolometer was developed into the most sensitive direct detector of millimeter waves, when operated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The thermal boundary resistance of thin YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]0[sub 7-[delta

  16. An Overview of Millimeter Wave Communications for Military Applications

    A. S. Bains

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of millimeter wave for Defence communications can offer a number of benefits to the user. Apart from the benefit of wider capacity, millimeter wave also offers ability to provide secure and survivable communication in the presence of enemy threats. In this paper, some of the important benefits for Defence communication are reviewed. An overview of millimeter wave military communication applications, technology development, present status and trends are also given.

  17. Personnel and mail screening with millimeter waves

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Griffin, Jeffery W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    2005-05-01

    The detection and interdiction of biological and chemical warfare agents at point-of-entry military, government, and civilian facilities remains a high priority for security personnel. Commercial personnel and mail screening technologies for these harmful agents are still being developed and improved upon to meet all security client requirements. Millimeter-wave holographic imaging technology developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is an ideal sensor to interrogate objects concealed behind low dielectric barriers such as paper, cardboard, and clothing. It uses harmless millimeter waves to illuminate the object or person under surveillance. The waves penetrate through the low dielectric barrier and either reflects off or pass through the hidden object, depending on its material dielectric properties. The reflected signals are digitized and sent to high-speed computers to form high-resolution, three-dimensional (3-D) images. Feasibility imaging studies have been conducted to determine whether simulated biological or chemical agents concealed in mail packages or under clothing could be detected using holographic radar imaging techniques. The results of this study will be presented in this paper.

  18. Supplementary report: millimeter wave study program

    This report describes work done during the months of December 1975 and January 1976, following the writing of the final report on the millimeter wave study program for generation of 100 kW or more power at 120 GHz. The work has been directed to three areas for application to gyrotron devices, small signal analysis, electron beam simulation, and microwave measurements on cavity coupling. A small signal analysis is presented, which allows determination of beam loading in cavities. The results are similar to previous published work, but contain a higher order relativistic correction. The electron beam simulations include two magnetron type guns and one based on electrostatic lenses

  19. Universal Millimeter-Wave Radar Front End

    Perez, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-optical front end allows any arbitrary polarization to be transmitted by controlling the timing, amplitude, and phase of the two input ports. The front end consists of two independent channels horizontal and vertical. Each channel has two ports transmit and receive. The transmit signal is linearly polarized so as to pass through a periodic wire grid. It is then propagated through a ferrite Faraday rotator, which rotates the polarization state 45deg. The received signal is propagated through the Faraday rotator in the opposite direction, undergoing a further 45 of polarization rotation due to the non-reciprocal action of the ferrite under magnetic bias. The received signal is now polarized at 90deg relative to the transmit signal. This signal is now reflected from the wire grid and propagated to the receive port. The horizontal and vertical channels are propagated through, or reflected from, another wire grid. This design is an improvement on the state of the art in that any transmit signal polarization can be chosen in whatever sequence desired. Prior systems require switching of the transmit signal from the amplifier, either mechanically or by using high-power millimeter-wave switches. This design can have higher reliability, lower mass, and more flexibility than mechanical switching systems, as well as higher reliability and lower losses than systems using high-power millimeter-wave switches.

  20. Modeling and design of millimeter wave gyroklystrons

    Levush, B.; Blank, M.; Calame, J.; Danly, B.; Nguyen, K.; Pershing, D.; Cooke, S.; Latham, P.; Petillo, J.; Antonsen, T.

    1999-05-01

    A series of high power, high efficiency Ka-band and W-band gyroklystron experiments has been conducted recently at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Stagger tuning of the cavities for bandwidth enhancement is commonly used in the conventional multicavity klystrons. The desired stagger tuning is usually achieved via mechanical tuning of the individual cavities. However, in the millimeter wave regime, particularly, in the case of the high average power operation, it is desirable to be able to achieve the required stagger tuning by design. The NRL gyroklystron experiments explored the tradeoffs between power, bandwidth, efficiency, and gain to study the effects of large stagger tuning in millimeter wave without resorting to mechanical tuning of the cavities. Both, Ka-band and W-band, experiments demonstrated a record power-bandwidth product. The success of the experiments was due in large part to a battery of improved large-signal, stability, and cold test codes employed in the modeling and design stage. Theoretical models that provide the basis for these design simulation tools and the design methodology will be presented.

  1. Millimeter Wave Rheometry: Theory and Experiment

    Chun, Jaehun; McCloy, John S.; Crum, J. V.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2011-01-29

    A novel millimeter wave (MMW) rheometry is developed to determine the viscosity of fluid based on an unsteady film flow in an inclined plane. The method measures fringes due to MMW interference between the front and back surfaces of the fluid flowing across the field of view of a ceramic wave guide coupled to a MMW receiver. With knowledge of the dielectric constant, the interference fringe spacing is used to calculate the thickness of the fluid layer. This thickness is then transformed into the viscosity by means of a simple hydrodynamic theory. Our results show that the MMW rheometry can easily distinguish between the 30, 100, and 200 Pa•s silicone oils. The geometry of the method allows for potential industrial applications such as measuring viscosity of the flowing slag in slagging coal gasifiers. The MMW rheometry with simple modifications can be easily extended to measure important non-Newtonian fluid characteristics such as yield stress.

  2. Measurement techniques for millimeter wave substrate mounted MMW antennas

    Gouker, M. A.; Campbell, D. P.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of measurement techniques for millimeter wave substrate mounted antennas is presented. Scattering and pickup of the millimeter wave radiation on the low frequency leads is a significant problem in these measurements. Methods to reduce these effects are discussed, and preliminary work on dipole antennas at 230 GHz is presented.

  3. The Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI)

    Gault, Amanda C.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bierman, E.; Bunn, E. F.; Hyland, P. O.; Keating, B. G.; Korotkov, A. L.; Malu, S. S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Piccirillo, L.; Timbie, P. T.; Tucker, G. S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the design and tests of a prototype of the Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI). MBI is designed to make sensitive measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It combines the differencing capabilities of an interferometer with the high sensitivity of bolometers at millimeter wavelengths. The prototype, which we call MBI-4, views the sky directly through four corrugated horn antennas. MBI ultimately will have 1000 antennas. These antennas have low sidelobes and nearly symmetric beam patterns, so spurious instrumental polarization from reflective optics is avoided. The MBI-4 optical band is defined by filters with a central frequency of 90 GHz. The set of baselines, determined by placement of the four antennas, results in sensitivity to CMB polarization fluctuations over the multipole range l = 150 - 270. The signals are combined with a Fizeau beam combiner and interference fringes are detected by an array of spiderweb bolometers. In order to separate the visibility signals from the total power detected by each bolometer, the phase of the signal from each antenna is modulated by a ferrite-based waveguide phase shifter. Initial tests and observations have been made at Pine Bluff Observatory (PBO) outside Madison, WI. This work was supported by NASA grants NAG5-12758, NNX07AG82G, the Rhode Island Space Grant and the Wisconsin Space Grant.

  4. Amplifier based broadband pixel for sub-millimeter wave imaging

    Sarkozy, Stephen; Drewes, Jonathan; Leong, Kevin M. K. H.; Lai, Richard; Mei, X. B. (Gerry); Yoshida, Wayne; Lange, Michael D.; Lee, Jane; Deal, William R.

    2012-09-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter wave systems, sub-millimeter wave systems have been hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report a broadband pixel operating from 300 to 340 GHz, biased off a single 2 V power supply. Over this frequency range, the amplifiers provide > 40 dB gain and 1.0 THz. The first sub-millimeter wave-based images using active amplification are demonstrated as part of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization Longe Range Personnel Imager Program. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brownout problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  5. Millimeter wave band ultra wideband transmitter MMIC

    Ling, Jin; Rolland, Nathalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new millimeter-wave (MMW) ultra wideband (UWB) transmitter MMIC which has been developed in an OMMIC 0.1 μm GaAs PHEMT foundry process (ft = 100 GHz) for 22-29 GHz vehicular radar systems. The transmitter is composed of an MMW negative resistance oscillator (NRO), a power amplifier (PA), and two UWB pulse generators (PGs). In order to convert the UWB pulse signal to MMW frequency and reduce the total power consumption, the MMW NRO is driven by one of the UWB pulse generators and the power amplifier is triggered by another UWB pulse generator. The main advantages of this transmitter are: new design, simple architecture, high-precision distance measurements, infinite ON/OFF switch ratio, and low power consumption. The total power consumption of the transmitter MMIC is 218 mW with a peak output power of 5.5 dBm at 27 GHz.

  6. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    Pradere, C., E-mail: christophe.pradere@ensam.eu; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C. [I2M (Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie de Bordeaux) UMR CNRS 5295, TREFLE Department, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S. [LOMA UMR 5798: CNRS-UB1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2014-06-15

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10{sup −3} K{sup −1} versus 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  7. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10−3 K−1 versus 10−5 K−1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications

  8. The millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer

    Gault, Amanda Charlotte

    The Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI) is a technology demonstrator for future searches for the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). If observed, B-modes would be a direct probe of the energy scale of inflation, an energy scale that is impossible to reach with even the most sophisticated particle accelerators. In this thesis, I outline the technology differences between MBI and conventional interferometers, including the Faraday effect phase modulators (FPM) used both to control systematic effects and to allow for phase sensitive detection of signals. MBI is a four element adding interferometer with a Fizeau optical beam combiner. This allows simple scaling of the instrument to a large numbers of baselines without requiring complicated pair-wise correlations of signals. Interferometers have an advantage over imaging telescopes when measuring the CMB power spectrum as each baseline is sensitive to a single Fourier mode (angular scale) on the sky. Recovering individual baseline information with this combination scheme requires phase modulating the signal from each antenna. MBI performs this modulation with Faraday effect phase modulators. In these novel cryogenic devices a modulated magnetic field switches the phase of a millimeter-wave RF signal by +/- 90 degrees at frequencies up to a few Hertz. MBI's second season of observations occurred in the winter of 2009 at Pine Bluff Observatory a few miles west of Madsion, WI. We successfully observed interference fringes of a microwave test source located in the far field of the instrument that agree well with those expected from simulations. MBI has inspired a second generation bolometric interferometer, QUBIC, which will have hundreds of antennas and thousands of detectors. When it deploys in 2015, it will be sensitive enough to search for B-mode signals from the CMB.

  9. An Alternative Millimeter Wave Oscillator using a Dielectric Puck in the Whispering Gallery Mode Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A majority of millimeter wave based systems used for space exploration, communications and research, require a millimeter wave oscillator. These oscillators have...

  10. Research of active panel technology for large aperture millimeter-wave/sub-millimeter-wave telescope

    Wu, Xuhao; Cui, Xiangqun

    2010-05-01

    As Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) project was completed successfully, indicating the key technology of active optics has been mastered by the Chinese astronomical community, experts of Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT), builders of this project, started to consider how to use the technology developed in large optical telescope such as LAMOST to improve the performance of millimeterwave / sub-millimeter-wave telescope. In order to do more research work about active optics of millimeter submillimeter band and improve the performance of Delingha 13.7m millimeter-wave telescope, researchers of NIAOT intend to upgrade the reflect panel accuracy of this telescope. This paper will introduce the preliminary work of the accuracy-upgrading task, numerical simulation of the 13.7m telescope. In this presentation, the primary reflector finite element model (FEM) construction, gravity and thermal deformation, and modal analyze are described. The result shows that the gravity and thermal distortion of the reflector are contributed mostly by the back-structure and the active support for the panels is very necessary to restrain this kind of distortion.

  11. Millimeter wave detection of nuclear radiation: An alternative detection mechanism

    We present a nuclear radiation detection mechanism using millimeter waves as an alternative to conventional detection. It is based on the concept that nuclear radiation causes ionization of air and that if we place a dielectric material near the radiation source, it acts as a charge accumulator of the air ions. We have found that millimeter waves can interrogate the charge cloud on the dielectric material remotely. This concept was tested with a standoff millimeter wave system by monitoring the charge levels on a cardboard tube placed in an x-ray beam.

  12. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims: The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods: The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152-308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results: The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of

  13. Passive millimeter wave simulation in blender

    Murakowski, Maciej

    Imaging in the millimeter wave (mmW) frequency range is being explored for applications where visible or infrared (IR) imaging fails, such as through atmospheric obscurants. However, mmW imaging is still in its infancy and imager systems are still bulky, expensive, and fragile, so experiments on imaging in real-world scenarios are difficult or impossible to perform. Therefore, a simulation system capable of predicting mmW phenomenology would be valuable in determining the requirements (e.g. resolution or noise floor) of an imaging system for a particular scenario and aid in the design of such an imager. Producing simulation software for this purpose is the objective of the work described in this thesis. The 3D software package Blender was modified to simulate the images produced by a passive mmW imager, based on a Geometrical Optics approach. Simulated imagery was validated against experimental data and the software was applied to novel imaging scenarios. Additionally, a database of material properties for use in the simulation was collected.

  14. Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of Ethylmercury Hydride

    Goubet, M.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2012-06-01

    The first millimeter-wave rotational spectrum of an organomercury compound, ethylmercury hydride (CH_3CH_2HgH), has been recorded using the Lille fast-scan spectrometer in the frequency range 120 -- 180 GHz. The spectroscopic study is complemented by quantum chemical calculations taking into account relativistic effects on the mercury atom. The very good agreement between theoretical and experimental molecular parameters validates the chosen ab initio method, in particular its capability to predict the accurate values of the quartic centrifugal distortion constants related to this type of compound. Estimations of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants are not as predictive as the structural parameters but good enough to satisfy the spectroscopic needs. In addition, the orientation of the H--Hg--C bonds axis deduced from the experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants compares well with the corresponding ab initio value. From the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results, together with the observation of the six most abundant isotopes of mercury, ethylmercury hydride is unambiguously identified and its calculated equilibrium geometry is confirmed. Alekseev, E.A. et al. Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy 3 (2012) 78.

  15. Superconducting submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors

    Nahum, M.

    1992-10-20

    The series of projects described in this dissertation was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. Our goal was to develop useful applications which would be competitive with the current state of technology. The high-{Tc} microbolometer was developed into the most sensitive direct detector of millimeter waves, when operated at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The thermal boundary resistance of thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}0{sub 7-{delta}} films was subsequently measured and provided direct evidence for the bolometric response of high-{Tc} films to fast (ns) laser pulses. The low-{Tc} microbolometer was developed and used to make the first direct measurements of the frequency dependent optical efficiency of planar lithographed antennas. The hot-electron microbolometer was invented less than a year prior to the writing of this dissertation. Our analysis, presented here, indicates that it should be possible to attain up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than that of the best available direct detectors when operated at the same temperature. The temperature readout scheme for this device could also be used to measure the intrinsic interaction between electrons and phonons in a metal with a sensitivity that is five orders of magnitude better than in previous measurements. Preliminary measurements of quasiparticle trapping effects at the interface between a metal and a superconductor are also presented.

  16. Millimeter-wave detection of landmines

    Öztürk, Hilmi; Nazli, Hakki; Yeǧin, Korkut; Biçak, Emrullah; Sezgin, Mehmet; Daǧ, Mahmut; Turetken, Bahattin

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter wave absorption relative to background soil can be used for detection landmines with little or no metal content. At these frequencies, soil and landmine absorb electromagnetic energy differently. Stepped frequency measurements from 20 GHz to 60 GHz were used to detect buried surrogate landmines in the soil. The targets were 3 cm and 5 cm beneath the soil surface and coherent transmission and reflection was used in the experimental setup. The measurement set-up was mounted on a handheld portable device, and this device was on a rail for accurate displacement such that the rail could move freely along the scan axis. Measurements were performed with network analyzer and scattering data in frequency domain were recorded for processing, namely for inverse Fourier Transform and background subtraction. Background subtraction was performed through a numerical filter to achieve higher contrast ratio. Although the numerical filter used was a simple routine with minimal computational burden, a specific detection method was applied to the background subtracted GPR data, which was based on correlation summation of consecutive A-scan signals in a predefined window length.

  17. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    Talley, W.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Luhmann, N.C. [Univ. of California at Davis, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-03-12

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band ({approximately}8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies.

  18. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band (∼8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies

  19. An Ultra-Wideband Millimeter-Wave Phased Array

    Novak, Markus H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Volakis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Wideband millimeter-wave arrays are of increasing importance due to their growing use in high data rate systems, including 5G communication networks. In this paper, we present a new class of ultra-wideband millimeter wave arrays that operate from nearly 20 GHz to 90 GHz. The array is based on tightly coupled dipoles. Feeding designs and fabrication challenges are presented, and a method for suppressing feed resonances is provided.

  20. Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    1998-03-01

    A novel cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of metallic and non-metallic concealed weapons. This technique uses a vertical array of millimeter- wave antennas which is mechanically swept around a person in a cylindrical fashion. The wideband millimeter-wave data is mathematically reconstructed into a series of high- resolution images of the person being screened. Clothing is relatively transparent to millimeter-wave illumination,whereas the human body and concealed items are reflective at millimeter wavelengths. Differences in shape and reflectivity are revealed in the images and allow a human operator to detect and identify concealed weapons. A full 360 degree scan is necessary to fully inspect a person for concealed items. The millimeter-wave images can be formed into a video animation sequence in which the person appears to rotate in front of a fixed illumination source.This is s convenient method for presenting the 3D image data for analysis. This work has been fully sponsored by the FAA. An engineering prototype based on the cylindrical imaging technique is presently under development. The FAA is currently opposed to presenting the image data directly to the operator due to personal privacy concerns. A computer automated system is desired to address this problem by eliminating operator viewing of the imagery.

  1. Development and application of millimeter-wave imaging radar

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics in this frequency region. Millimeter wave imaging radar is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. It consists of a frequency-modulated continuous wave or pulsed wave as a probe beam and quasi-optical focusing optics followed by a planar-type detector array. We have started to develop a diagnostic system for the achievement of imaging radar. Representative experimental results obtained with related diagnostic systems are presented. (author)

  2. Development and application of millimeter-wave imaging radar

    Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Akihide; Ohashi, Masamichi; Osako, Shuhei [Kyushu Univ., Advanced Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Bruskin, Leonid G. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hojo, Hitoshi [Tsukuba Univ., Plasma Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics in this frequency region. Millimeter wave imaging radar is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. It consists of a frequency-modulated continuous wave or pulsed wave as a probe beam and quasi-optical focusing optics followed by a planar-type detector array. We have started to develop a diagnostic system for the achievement of imaging radar. Representative experimental results obtained with related diagnostic systems are presented. (author)

  3. Fundamentals of Medium Access Control Design for Millimeter Wave Networks

    Shokri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In current wireless communication systems, demands for extremely high data rates, along with spectrum scarcity at the microwave bands, make the millimeter wave (mmWave) band very appealing to provide these extremely high data rates even for a massive number of wireless devices. MmWave communications exhibit severe attenuation, vulnerability to obstacles (called blockage), and sparse-scattering environments. Moreover, mmWave signals have small wavelengths that allow the incorporation of many a...

  4. Detecting Extrasolar Planets With Millimeter-Wave Observatories

    1996-01-01

    Do nearby stars have planetary systems like our own? How do such systems evolve? How common are such systems? Proposed radio observatories operating at millimeter wavelengths could start answering these questions within the next 6-10 years, according to scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Bryan Butler, Robert Brown, Richard Simon, Al Wootten and Darrel Emerson, all of NRAO, presented their findings today to the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Antonio, TX. Detecting planets circling other stars is a particularly difficult task, and only a few such planets have been discovered so far. In order to answer fundamental questions about planetary systems and their origin, scientists need to find and study many more extrasolar planets. According to the NRAO scientists, millimeter-wavelength observatories could provide valuable information about extrasolar planetary systems at all stages of their evolution. "With instruments planned by 2005, we could detect planets the size of Jupiter around a solar-type star out to a distance of 100 light-years," said Robert Brown, Associate Director of NRAO. "That means," he added, "that we could survey approximately 2,000 stars of different types to learn if they have planets this size." Millimeter waves occupy the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between radio microwaves and infrared waves. Telescopes for observing at millimeter wavelengths utilize advanced electronic equipment similar to that used in radio telescopes observing at longer wavelengths. Millimeter-wave observatories offer a number of advantages in the search for extrasolar planets. Planned multi-antenna millimeter-wave telescopes can provide much higher resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, than current optical or infrared telescopes. Millimeter-wave observations would not be degraded by interference from the "zodiacal light" reflected by interplanetary dust, either in the extrasolar system or our own solar system

  5. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  6. Millimeter Wave Absorber for Secure Identification

    Skirlo, Scott A; Nasr, Magued; Heimbeck, Martin S; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin; Everitt, Henry O; Domash, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate thin, flexible, metamaterial films with a strong, narrowband, polarization- and angle-insensitive absorption designed for wavelengths near one millimeter. These structures, fabricated by photolithography on a commercially available, copper-backed polyimide substrate, are nearly indistinguishable to the unaided human eye but can be easily observed by imaging at the resonance frequency of the film. We demonstrate that these patterns can be used to mark or barcode objects for secure identification with a terahertz imaging system.

  7. Analysis of Millimeter Wave Networked Wearables in Crowded Environments

    Venugopal, Kiran; Valenti, Matthew C.; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The millimeter wave (mmWave) band has the potential to provide high throughput among wearable devices. When mmWave wearable networks are used in crowded environments, such as on a bus or train, antenna directivity and orientation hold the key to achieving Gbps rates. Previous work using stochastic geometry often assumes an infinite number of interfering nodes drawn from a Poisson Point Process (PPP). Since indoor wearable networks will be isolated due to walls, a network with a finite number ...

  8. Microsystem integration from RF to millimeter wave applications

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency systems have been applied successfully to consumer products. Typically these radios operate up to 6 GHz. During recent years, interest towards microwave (up to 30 GHz) and millimeter wave frequencies (30 ... 300 GHz) has increased significantly. Technologies have been developed to have high performance microwave and millimeter wave components. On the other hand, integration and packaging technologies have not developed as fast while their importance is crucial especially in consumer applications. This presentation focuses to latest trends in wireless microsystem component integration and packaging trends backed up with demonstrators and measured results based on VTT's demonstrations.

  9. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    Nanzer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  10. Millimeter-wave detection using resonant tunnelling diodes

    Mehdi, I.; Kidner, C.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.

    1990-01-01

    A lattice-matched InGaAs/InAlAs resonant tunnelling diode is studied as a video detector in the millimeter-wave range. Tangential signal sensitivity and video resistance measurements are made as a function of bias and frequency. A tangential signal sensitivity of -37 dBm (1 MHz amplifier bandwidth) with a corresponding video resistance of 350 ohms at 40 GHz has been measured. These results appear to be the first millimeter-wave tangential signal sensitivity and video resistance results for a resonant tunnelling diode.

  11. CMOS front ends for millimeter wave wireless communication systems

    Deferm, Noël

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the development of circuit and system design techniques for millimeter wave wireless communication systems above 90GHz and fabricated in nanometer scale CMOS technologies. The authors demonstrate a hands-on methodology that was applied to design six different chips, in order to overcome a variety of design challenges. Behavior of both actives and passives, and how to design them to achieve high performance is discussed in detail. This book serves as a valuable reference for millimeter wave designers, working at both the transistor level and system level.   Discusses advantages and disadvantages of designing wireless mm-wave communication circuits and systems in CMOS; Analyzes the limitations and pitfalls of building mm-wave circuits in CMOS; Includes mm-wave building block and system design techniques and applies these to 6 different CMOS chips; Provides guidelines for building measurement setups to evaluate high-frequency chips.  

  12. Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna. Abstract

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    This document outlines the background, objectives and the main results of the project “Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna” completed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with Danish company TICRA for the European Space Agency (ESA) under ESA contract no...

  13. Global design of an active integrated antenna for millimeter wave

    Marzolf, Eric; Drissi, M’hamed

    2001-01-01

    An active integrated antenna working in the millimeter wave has been realized in a monolithic process. The concept of active integrated antenna is first introduced, then the design of the integrated circuit based on a global approach, following electromagnetic and circuit simulations, is presented. The obtained performances of the active antenna are discussed and compared to a passive one.

  14. Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    This document summarizes the main results of the project “Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna” completed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with Danish company TICRA for the European Space Agency (ESA) under ESA contract no. 4000109866/13/NL/MH....

  15. Digitally assisted analog beamforming for millimeter-wave communication

    Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the research question on how digital beamsteering algorithms can be combined with analog beamforming in the context of millimeter-wave communication for next generation (5G) cellular systems. Key is the use of coarse quantisation of the individual antenna signals next to the anal

  16. Planar Millimeter-Wave Antennas: A Comparative Study

    Pitra, K.; Z. Raida

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the design and the experimental verification of three types of wideband antennas. Attention is turned to the bow-tie antenna, the Vivaldi antenna and the spiral antenna designed for the operation at millimeter waves. Bandwidth, input impedance, gain, and directivity pattern are the investigated parameters. Antennas are compared considering computer simulations in CST Microwave Studio and measured data.

  17. Irregular quasi-optical systems of millimeter waves electronics

    G.S. Vorobjov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available he basic types and research results of irregular quasi-optical systems, applied in electronics and millimeter-wave technology, are presented in the review. The general property of such systems is the presence of inhomogeneities, on which the transfor-mation of surface waves of electron beams (or dielectric waveguides into bulk waves, exciting the specified type of quasi-optical device (open resonator or waveguide, periodic or dielectric structure and others, occurs. We compared the levels of development for relativistic and non-relativistic electro-vacuum devices. The applicability of construction of low-voltage amplifiers and oscillators of millimeter range, including the planar technology uses for their microminiaturization, is shown. Based on the review we have built the scheme of irregular quasi-optical systems classification and evaluated the most advanced directions for further researches.

  18. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-02-01

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  19. Electronically steerable millimeter-wave antennas

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Jose, K. A.; Kelly, James F.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, electronically steerable microstrip and leaky wave antennas using tunable ferroelectric material are proposed. These antennas are lightweight, low volume, low profile, and conformal. They have low fabrication costs and are easily mass produced. They are thin and do not perturb the aerodynamics of a host automobile or aircraft. Linear, circular, and dual polarization are achieved with simple changes in feed position. Beam steering is accomplished by varying the relative phase between radiating elements. In planar array, both horizontal and vertical beam can be combined to provide full scanning capabilities. Tunable ceramic phase shifters are used in these antennas. In microstrip antennas, they are deposited as thin films on the feed lines whereas in the leaky wave antennas they have been used as a traveling waveguide with a ground plane on one side and metallic periodic grating on the opposite side. The dielectric properties of the ferroelectric material are changed by a bias voltage applied to the waveguide which in turn controls the leaky wave direction of the antenna. A simple experiment is presented which shows a good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  20. RF to millimeter wave integration and module technologies

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.

    2015-04-01

    Radio Frequency (RF) consumer applications have boosted silicon integrated circuits (IC) and corresponding technologies. More and more functions are integrated to ICs and their performance is also increasing. However, RF front-end modules with filters and switches as well as antennas still need other way of integration. This paper focuses to RF front-end module and antenna developments as well as to the integration of millimeter wave radios. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed both Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) and Integrated Passive Devices (IPD) integration platforms for RF and millimeter wave integrated modules. In addition to in-house technologies, VTT is using module and component technologies from other commercial sources.

  1. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of the SiCl+ ion

    Takeda, Kazuki; Masuda, Satoshi; Harada, Kensuke; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2016-05-01

    The millimeter-wave spectrum of the SiCl+ ion in the ground and first excited vibrational states was observed for the two isotopic (35Cl and 37Cl) species. The ion was generated in a free-space absorption cell by a hollow cathode discharge of SiCl4 diluted with He and discriminated from neutral species by the magnetic field effect on the absorption lines. The observed millimeter-wave spectrum was combined with a previously reported diode laser spectrum in an analysis to determine mass-independent Dunham coefficients as well as the mass scaling parameters. The equilibrium bond length of SiCl+ determined is re = 1.943 978(2) Å.

  2. Detection of Ammonia in Liquids Using Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy

    Hilmi Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of ammonia plays a vital role for counter-bioterrorism applications. Using millimeter wave absorption measurements, ammonia dissolved in water solution is analyzed and compared to water-only solution. The inversion of ammonia molecule results in split rotational spectral lines and transitions of these lines can be detected. Two-port measurements were carried out with vector network analyzer and measurements revealed that ammonia presence can be identified, especially between 30–35 GHz.

  3. Millimeter Wave Scattering from Neutral and Charged Water Droplets

    Heifetz, Alexander; Chien, Hual-Te; Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, N. Sami; Raptis, A. C. Paul

    2010-01-01

    We investigated 94GHz millimeter wave (MMW) scattering from neutral and charged water mist produced in the laboratory with an ultrasonic atomizer. Diffusion charging of the mist was accomplished with a negative ion generator (NIG). We observed increased forward and backscattering of MMW from charged mist, as compared to MMW scattering from an uncharged mist. In order to interpret the experimental results, we developed a model based on classical electrodynamics theory of scattering from a diel...

  4. Vibration and rotation in millimeter-wave SAR

    Rüegg, M; Meier, E; D. Nüesch

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides high-resolution images of static ground scenes, whereas processing of data containing ground object motion results in varying focusing effects. Special cases of such motion are vibration and rotation, which are closely related to each other. Their patterns may be distinctly recognizable in focused SAR intensity images as well as in a time–frequency analysis. Millimeter-wave (mmW) SAR is well suited to image vibration because its wavelength is close to t...

  5. Millimeter Wave Picocellular System Evaluation for Urban Deployments

    Akdeniz, Mustafa Riza; Liu, Yuanpeng; Rangan, Sundeep; Erkip, Elza

    2013-01-01

    With the severe spectrum shortage in conventional cellular bands, millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation micro- and picocellular wireless networks. The mmW bands offer orders of magnitude greater spectrum than current cellular allocations and enable very high-dimensional antenna arrays for further gains via spatial multiplexing. However, the propagation of mmW signals in outdoor non line-of-si...

  6. Advances in Silicon Based Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits

    Han-Chih Yeh; Ching-Chau Chiong; Ming-Tang Chen; Huei Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the advances of the silicon-based millimeter-wave (MMW) monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are reported. The silicon-based technologies for MMW MMICs are briefly introduced. In addition, the current status of the MMW MMICs is surveyed and novel circuit topologies are summarized. Some representative MMW MMICs are illustrated as design examples in the categories of their functions in a MMW system. Finally, there is a conclusion and description of the future trend of the devel...

  7. Beam-searching and Transmission Scheduling in Millimeter Wave Communications

    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Gkatzikis, Lazaros; Fischione, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) wireless networks are capable to support multi-gigabit data rates, by using directional communications with narrow beams. However, existing mmW communications standards are hindered by two problems: deafness and single link scheduling. The deafness problem, that is, a misalignment between transmitter and receiver beams, demands a time consuming beam-searching operation, which leads to an alignment-throughput tradeoff. Moreover, the existing mmW standards schedule a singl...

  8. Millimeter Wave Cellular Wireless Networks: Potentials and Challenges

    Rangan, Sundeep; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Erkip, Elza

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz are a new frontier for cellular communication that offers the promise of orders of magnitude greater bandwidths combined with further gains via beamforming and spatial multiplexing from multi-element antenna arrays. This paper surveys measurements and capacity studies to assess this technology with a focus on small cell deployments in urban environments. The conclusions are extremely encouraging; measurements in New York City at 28 and ...

  9. Thermal Mechanisms of Millimeter Wave Stimulation of Excitable Cells

    Shapiro, Mikhail G.; Priest, Michael F.; Siegel, Peter H.; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between millimeter waves (MMWs) and biological systems have received increasing attention due to the growing use of MMW radiation in technologies ranging from experimental medical devices to telecommunications and airport security. Studies have shown that MMW exposure alters cellular function, especially in neurons and muscles. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying such effects are still poorly understood. Due to the high aqueous absorbance of MMW, thermal mechanisms are...

  10. Millimeter Wave Channel Modeling and Cellular Capacity Evaluation

    Akdeniz, Mustafa Riza; Liu, Yuanpeng; Samimi, Mathew K.; Sun, Shu; Rangan, Sundeep; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Erkip, Elza

    2013-01-01

    With the severe spectrum shortage in conventional cellular bands, millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation micro- and picocellular wireless networks. The mmW bands offer orders of magnitude greater spectrum than current cellular allocations and enable very high-dimensional antenna arrays for further gains via beamforming and spatial multiplexing. This paper uses recent real-world measurements at...

  11. WDM Phase-Modulated Millimeter-Wave Fiber Systems

    Yu, Xianbin; Prince, Kamau; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood;

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a computer simulation case study of two typical WDM phase-modulated millimeter-wave systems. The phase-modulated 60 GHz fiber multi-channel transmission systems employ single sideband (SSB) and double sideband subcarrier modulation (DSB-SC) schemes and present one of the lat...... latest research efforts in the rapidly emerging Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) application space for in-house access networks....

  12. Millimeter-wave brightness temperatures of military vehicles

    Nemarich, Joseph; Cassidy, Thomas W.; Shiner, R.; Agravante, Hiroshi H.; Dixon, David; Moffa, Philip; Quon, Bill H.; Yujiri, Larry; Dahlstrom, R.

    1999-07-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometers operating at 97 and 140 GHz were used to obtain passive MMW images and brightness temperatures of military vehicles at various altitudes and depression angles. The line-scanning radiometer system used for the measurements is described, and several passive MMW images are presented. The upper-bound MMW brightness temperatures of a number of different types of vehicles in an open area were determined and shown to have similar values at various depression angles.

  13. Three-dimensional stereolithography for millimeter wave and terahertz applications

    Macor, Alessandro; Rijk, De; Jacques, Emile; Alberti, Stefano; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Metal-coated polymers shaped by 3D stereolithography are introduced as a new manufacturing method for passive components for millimeter to terahertz electromagnetic waves. This concept offers increased design capabilities and flexibilities while shortening the manufacturing process of complex shapes, e. g., corrugated horns, mirrors, etc. Tests at 92.5, 140, and 170 GHz are reported. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3701738

  14. Millimeter-wave structures and drivers for future linear colliders

    Nassiri, A.; Kang, Y.W.; Song, J.J.

    2000-07-24

    There is a growing interest in the development of very high gradient ({ge} GeV/meter) accelerating structures and millimeter-wave power sources. The need for very high gradient structures to be operated in W-band or at higher frequencies poses great technical challenges and demands innovations in rf science and technology to reach this goal. Requirements for microstructure fabrication and power sources based on deep x-ray lithography techniques are examined.

  15. Millimeter-wave structures and drivers for future linear colliders

    There is a growing interest in the development of very high gradient (ge GeV/meter) accelerating structures and millimeter-wave power sources. The need for very high gradient structures to be operated in W-band or at higher frequencies poses great technical challenges and demands innovations in rf science and technology to reach this goal. Requirements for microstructure fabrication and power sources based on deep x-ray lithography techniques are examined

  16. Two-wavelength millimeter wave “unambiguous” heterodyne interferometer

    Ermak, G.P.; Varavin, A.V.; Vasilev, A.S.; Stumbra, M.; Fateev, A.S.; Žáček, František; Zajac, Jaromír; Varavin, Mykyta; Shevchenko, V.

    Kharkov : IEEE, 2013, s. 529-531. ISBN 978-1-4799-1066-3. [International Kharkov Symposium on Physics and Engineering of Microwaves, Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves, MSMW 2013. Kharkov (UA), 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Detectors * Frequency measurement * Phase measurement * Plasma density * Plasma measurements * Tokamaks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSMW.2013.6622129

  17. Characterization of on-body communications at millimeter waves

    Valerio, Guido; Sauleau, Ronan; Chahat, Nacer; Guraliuc, Anda; Zhadobov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a the study of on-body communications at millimeter waves. An analytical formulation is proposed by assuming a dipole source radiating on a flat skin, whose permittivity is suitably chosen to model human tissues at those frequencies, according to previous investigation. An experimental setup, consisting of two open-ended waveguides placed on the top of a skin-equivalent phantom, is then discussed in order to validate the theoretical analysis.

  18. Planar Millimeter-Wave Antennas: A Comparative Study

    K. Pitra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design and the experimental verification of three types of wideband antennas. Attention is turned to the bow-tie antenna, the Vivaldi antenna and the spiral antenna designed for the operation at millimeter waves. Bandwidth, input impedance, gain, and directivity pattern are the investigated parameters. Antennas are compared considering computer simulations in CST Microwave Studio and measured data.

  19. A Three-Frequency Feed for Millimeter-Wave Radiometry

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Sosnowski, John B.; Johnson, Alan K.; Bruneau, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A three-frequency millimeter-wave feed horn was developed as part of an advanced component technology task that provides components necessary for higher-frequency radiometers to meet the needs of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans, and to measure the global water storage in inland surface water bodies, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. In this innovation, the feed provides three separate output ports in the 87-to- 97-GHz, 125-to-135-GHz, and 161-to-183- GHz bands; WR10 for the 90-GHz channel, WR8 for the 130-GHz channel, and WR5 for the 170-GHz channel. These ports are in turn connected to individual radiometer channels that will also demonstrate component technology including new PIN-diode switches and noise diodes for internal calibration integrated into each radiometer front end. For this application, a prime focus feed is required with an edge taper of approximately 20 dB at an illumination angle of 40 deg. A single polarization is provided in each band. Preliminary requirements called for a return loss of better than 15 dB, which is achieved across all three bands. Good pattern symmetry is also obtained throughout all three-frequency bands. This three-frequency broadband millimeter-wave feed also minimizes mass and provides a common focal point for all three millimeter-wave bands.

  20. Compressive and Adaptive Millimeter-wave SAR

    Mrozack, Alex; Marks, Daniel L; Richard, Jonathan; Everitt, Henry O; Brady, David J

    2014-01-01

    We apply adaptive sensing techniques to the problem of locating sparse metallic scatterers using high-resolution, frequency modulated continuous wave W-band RADAR. Using a single detector, a frequency stepped source, and a lateral translation stage, inverse synthetic aperture RADAR reconstruction techniques are used to search for one or two wire scatterers within a specified range, while an adaptive algorithm determined successive sampling locations. The two-dimensional location of each scatterer is thereby identified with sub-wavelength accuracy in as few as 1/4 the number of lateral steps required for a simple raster scan. The implications of applying this approach to more complex scattering geometries are explored in light of the various assumptions made.

  1. Millimeter wave planar integrated circuit developments for communication applications

    Chang, K.; Sun, C.

    Millimeter wave communication systems offer certain advantages over lower frequency systems. These advantages are related to wider bandwidth, larger data handling capacity, covert operation, and better immunity to jamming. Newer developments in the area of component technology for systems operating at millimeter wavelengths have utilized planar integrated circuits. Such circuits provide benefits of light weight, small size, and inherent low cost due to ease of high volume manufacturing. The present paper is concerned with a number of key IC components which have been developed. These components are ideally suited for direct application in advanced tactical, radar, and satellite communication systems. Attention is given to a rat-race microstrip balanced mixer, a crossbar stripline balanced mixer, and various subsystems developments.

  2. Investigation of the Millimeter-Wave Plasma Assisted CVD Reactor

    A polycrystalline diamond grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is recognized as a unique material for high power electronic devices owing to unrivaled combination of properties such as ultra-low microwave absorption, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength and chemical stability. Microwave vacuum windows for modern high power sources and transmission lines operating at the megawatt power level require high quality diamond disks with a diameter of several centimeters and a thickness of a few millimeters. The microwave plasma-assisted CVD technique exploited today to produce such disks has low deposition rate, which limits the availability of large size diamond disk windows. High-electron-density plasma generated by the millimeter-wave power was suggested for enhanced-growth-rate CVD. In this paper a general description of the 30 GHz gyrotron-based facility is presented. The output radiation of the gyrotron is converted into four wave-beams. Free localized plasma in the shape of a disk with diameter much larger than the wavelength of the radiation is formed in the intersection area of the wave-beams. The results of investigation of the plasma parameters, as well as the first results of diamond film deposition are presented. The prospects for commercially producing vacuum window diamond disks for high power microwave devices at much lower costs and processing times than currently available are outlined

  3. Directional Beamforming for Millimeter-Wave MIMO Systems

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Subramanian, Sundar; Cezanne, Juergen; Sampath, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on beamforming in a millimeter-wave (mmW) multi-input multi-output (MIMO) setup that has gained increasing traction in meeting the high data-rate requirements of next-generation wireless systems. For a given MIMO channel matrix, the optimality of beamforming with the dominant right-singular vector (RSV) at the transmit end and with the matched filter to the RSV at the receive end has been well-understood. When the channel matrix can be accurately captured by a physi...

  4. Advances in Silicon Based Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits

    Han-Chih Yeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the advances of the silicon-based millimeter-wave (MMW monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs are reported. The silicon-based technologies for MMW MMICs are briefly introduced. In addition, the current status of the MMW MMICs is surveyed and novel circuit topologies are summarized. Some representative MMW MMICs are illustrated as design examples in the categories of their functions in a MMW system. Finally, there is a conclusion and description of the future trend of the development of the MMW ICs.

  5. Space-based millimeter-wave debris tracking radar

    Chang, Kai; Pollock, Michael A.; Skrehot, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    NORAD system currently tracks and predicts orbits of space objects of 80 mm or larger in diameter. The small debris of less than 80 mm, traveling at high speed, could cause damage to Space Station or space vehicles. To overcome this problem, a 35 GHz space-based millimeter-wave radar system is proposed to track the particles ranging in size from 4 mm to 80 mm up to a range of 25 Km. The system requires a large phased array which should be developed in monolithic circuits for cost reduction.

  6. Handbook of RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components

    Smolskiy, Sergey M; Kochemasov, Victor N

    2012-01-01

    This unique and comprehensive resource offers you a detailed treatment of the operations principles, key parameters, and specific characteristics of active and passive RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components. The book covers both linear and nonlinear components that are used in a wide range of application areas, from communications and information sciences, to avionics, space, and military engineering. This practical book presents descriptions and clear examples and of the best materials and products used in the field, including laminates, prepregs, substrates; microstrip, coaxial and wa

  7. Millimeter-wave imaging on GAMMA 10 and LHD

    Millimeter-wave imaging system in the frequency range of 70-140 GHz was developed for diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas. It successfully measures time evolutions of three-dimensional (radial and axial) profiles of line density and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the plug cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. It is also being installed in Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to cover the frequency range of the second harmonic ECE on LHD, a novel detector using monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is designed and fabricated. The optical system consisting of an ellipsoidal and a flat mirrors is constructed and evaluated experimentally at 140 GHz. (author)

  8. Broadband notch filter design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank;

    2010-01-01

    Notch filters are integrated in plasma diagnostic systems to protect millimeter-wave receivers from intensive stray radiation. Here we present a design of a notch filter with a center frequency of 140 GHz, a rejection bandwidth of ∼ 900 MHz, and a typical insertion loss below 2 dB in the passband...... in the cylindrical cavities is the fundamental TE11. The performance of the constructed filter is measured using a vector network analyzer monitoring a total bandwidth of 30 GHz. We compare the measurements with numerical simulations. © 2010 EURATOM...

  9. Design of Millimeter-Wave Power Ampliers in Silicon /

    Kalantari, Nader

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this dissertation focuses on the millimeter-wave power amplifier in silicon where both switching and linear power amplifiers were investigated. In Chapter 2, a Q-band, Class-E power amplifier has been designed and fabricated in a 120 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The amplifier was designed for high output power using on-chip power combining networks. It operates respectively from a 1.2 V supply for peak efficiency and a 2.4 V supply for maximum power and occupies an area of 0.8...

  10. Theory for beam-plasma millimeter-wave radiation source experiments

    This paper reports on theoretical studies for millimeter-wave plasma source experiments. In the device, millimeter-wave radiation is generated in a plasma-filled waveguide driven by counter-streaming electron beams. The beams excite electron plasma waves which couple to produce radiation at twice the plasma frequency. Physics topics relevant to the high electron beam current regime are discussed

  11. On the mechanisms of interaction of low-intensity millimeter waves with biological objects

    Betskii, O.V.

    1994-07-01

    The interaction of low-intensity millimeter-band electromagnetic waves with biological objects is examined. These waves are widely used in medical practice as a means of physiotherapy for the treatment of various human disorders. Principal attention is given to the mechanisms through which millimeter waves act on the human organism.

  12. Sniper bullet detection by millimeter-wave radar

    Bernstein, Uri; Lefevre, Russell J.; Mann, John; Avent, Randy K.; Deo, Naresh

    1999-01-01

    Law enforcement and military operations would clearly benefit from a capability to locate snipers by backtracking the sniper's bullet trajectory. Achieving sufficient backtracking accuracy for bullets is a demanding radar design, requiring good measurement accuracy, high update rate, and detection of very low cross-section objects. In addition, reasonable cost is a driving requirement for law enforcement use. These divergent design requirements are addressed in an experimental millimeter-wave focal plane array radar that uses integrated millimeter-wave receiver technology. The radar is being built for DARPA by Technology Service Corporation, with assistance from M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory and QuinStar Technology. The key element in the radar is a 35-GHz focal plane array receiver. The receiving antenna lens focuses radar signals from a wide field of view onto an array of receivers, each receiver processing a separate element of the field of view. Receiver detections are then combined in a tracking processor. An FM-CW waveform is used to provide high average power, good range resolution, and stationary clutter rejection. TSC will be testing the sniper detection radar, using radar environment simulator technology developed at Lincoln Laboratory. The simulator will retransmit the received signal with the range delay, Doppler shift, and ERP for various simulated bullet trajectories.

  13. Beam lead quartz chips for superconducting millimeter-wave circuits

    Bass, Robert B.; Zhang, Jian Z.; Bishop, William L.; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Pan, Shing-Kuo

    2003-02-01

    The assembly of superconducting millimeter and submillimeter-wave circuits often requires RF ground connections. These are usually made by soldering, wire bonding, conductive adhesive or conductive wire gaskets. The difficulty of assembly increases with frequency as chip dimensions and tolerances shrink. The assembly issues, and also the throughput requirements of large radio astronomy projects such as ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array), suggest the need of a beam lead technology for these circuits. Beam lead processes are already established for silicon and gallium arsenide wafers. However, niobium circuits on quartz substrates present unique difficulties. SIS junctions introduce additional thermal and chemical constraints to process development. For quartz, wet etches are isotropic and dry etches with high etch rates require large ion energies. Therefore, it is difficult to develop a conventional process in which gold pads on the substrate surface are formed into beam leads by a backside etch. Instead we have developed a topside process in which, after the mixer circuits are completed, dicing cuts are made at the finished chip dimensions but only partly through the wafer. The dicing cuts are then filled with a sacrificial material in a non-CMP process, and planarized. Gold plated pads are then defined, overhanging the planarized cuts. The sacrificial material is then removed from these cuts, leaving the gold beam leads. The wafer is then backside lapped into the cuts to the desired thickness, separating the individual chips. We discuss the new planarization scheme developed for this beam lead process and compare a variety of sacrificial materials.

  14. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for concealed article detection

    Lovberg, John A.; Galliano, Joseph A., Jr.; Clark, Stuart E.

    1997-02-01

    Passive-millimeter-wave imaging (PMI) provides a powerful sensing tool for law enforcement, allowing an unobtrusive means for detecting concealed weapons, explosives, or contraband on persons or in baggage. Natural thermal emissions at millimeter wavelengths from bodies, guns, explosives, and other articles pass easily through clothing or other concealment materials, where they can be detected and converted into conventional 2-dimensional images. A new implementation of PMI has demonstrated a large-area, near- real-time staring capability for personnel inspection at standoff ranges of greater than 10 meters. In this form, PMI does not require operator cuing based on subjective 'profiles' of suspicious appearance or behaviors, which may otherwise be construed as violations of civil rights. To the contrary, PMI detects and images heat generated by any object with no predisposition as to its nature or function (e.g. race or gender of humans). As a totally passive imaging tool, it generates no radio-frequency or other radiation which might raise public health concerns. Specifics of the new PMI architecture are presented along with a host of imaging data representing the current state- of-the-art.

  15. Millimeter-wave imaging of thermal and chemical signatures

    Development of a passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) system is described for remotely mapping thermal and chemical signatures of process effluents with application to arms control and nonproliferation. Because a large amount of heat is usually dissipated in the air or waterway as a by-product of most weapons of mass destruction facilities, remote thermal mapping may be used to detect concealed or open facilities of weapons of mass destruction. We have developed a focal-plane mm-wave imaging system to investigate the potential of thermal mapping. Results of mm-wave images obtained with a 160-GHz radiometer system are presented for different target scenes simulated in the laboratory. Chemical and nuclear facilities may be identified by remotely measuring molecular signatures of airborne molecules emitted from these facilities. We have developed a filterbank radiometer to investigate the potential of passive spectral measurements. Proof of principle is presented by measuring the HDO spectral line at 80.6 GHz with a 4-channel 77-83 GHz radiometer

  16. Spatial Stationarity of Ultrawideband and Millimeter Wave Radio Channels

    Yi, Tan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    For radio channels with broad bandwidth resource, such as those often used for ultrawideband (UWB) and millimeter wave (mmwave) systems, the Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering (WSSUS) and spatial stationary assumptions are more critical than typical cellular channels with very limited...... bandwidth resource. This paper studies spatial stationarity and bandwidth dependency of the Multipath Component (MPC) parameters, and the concept of local region of stationarity (LRS) is used as the measure of the physical stationarity region. LRS calculation results based on channel measurements show that...... the size of LRS is bandwidth dependent in all measured bands, 2–4 GHz, 14–16 GHz, and 28–30 GHz. The results in this paper point out that an inappropriate choice of bandwidth in channel parameter estimation could violate spatial stationary assumptions. The paper indicates LRS sizes for different...

  17. Experimental demonstration of high power millimeter wave gyro-amplifiers

    Blank, M.; Garven, M.; Calame, J. P.; Choi, J. J.; Danly, B. G.; Levush, B.; Nguyen, K.; Pershing, D. E.

    1999-05-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is currently investigating gyro-amplifiers as high power, broadband sources for millimeter wave radars. A three-cavity Ka-band gyroklystron achieved 225 kW peak output power with 0.82% bandwidth. At W-band, several multi-cavity gyro-amplifiers have been experimentally demonstrated. A four-cavity gyroklystron amplifier has achieved 84 kW peak output power at 34% efficiency with 370 MHz bandwidth. A five-cavity gyroklystron demonstrated 72 kW peak output power with 410 MHz bandwidth and 50 dB saturated gain. For applications requiring greater bandwidth, gyrotwystron amplifiers are also under study. A four section W-band gyrotwystron demonstrated 50 kW peak output power at 925 MHz bandwidth. The results of recent Ka-band and W-band gyro-amplifier experiments and comparisons of measured data with predictions of theory are presented.

  18. Design of Receiver Used for Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging System

    Cheng Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As millimeter wave (MMW electronic technologies have matured, the MMW imaging using for human security inspection is emerging as an effective approach to imaging through obscuring materials, such as clothing for concealed weapons detection or plastic mines. This paper introduces temperature sensitivity firstly and then the fringe-washing functions are derived which decide the structure the antenna array and the receivers of the system BHU-2D. Finally, the fringe-washing functions and their phases are calculated from the frequency responses of 24-receiver, they all show good consistency of the receivers which also can be proved from the test results of receivers. From the final imaging of our system, the 1-2K temperature sensitivity is realized successfully.

  19. Display of polarization information for passive millimeter-wave imagery

    Wilson, John P.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Dillon, Thomas E.; Eng, David L. K.; Kozacik, Stephen; Prather, Dennis W.

    2012-09-01

    A technique is described for displaying polarization information from passive millimeter-wave (mmW) sensors. This technique uses the hue of an image to display the polarization information and the lightness of an image to provide the unpolarized information. The fusion of both images is done in such a way that minimal information is lost from the unpolarized image while adding polarization information within a single image. The technique is applied to experimental imagery collected in a desert environment with two orthogonal linear polarization states of light and the results are discussed. Several objects such as footprints, ground textures, tire tracks, and shrubs display strong polarization features that are clearly visible with this technique, while materials with low polarization signatures such as metal are also clearly visible in the same image.

  20. A MILLIMETER WAVE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA WITH CPW FEED

    GARIMA SANYAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a coplanar waveguide fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna with U slot at 40 Ghz is designed and simulated. Simulated results are presented by using Ansoft HFSS 13 software, a full wave electromagnetic field simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device modeling that takes advantage of the familiar Microsoft Windows graphical user interface.The patch element is been placed on FR4 Epoxy substrate with relative permittivity 4.4 at a height of 1.8 mm. The gain of the proposed antenna is 5dB.This antenna is smallsize,cheap,compact,easy to fabricate ,achieve return loss of -17.8dB at 40GHz which ranges to -25 dB at 10 0GHz and good VSWR.The approach presented in this paper offers major advantages in millimeter waveapplications as in radar communication.

  1. Modeling Human Blockers in Millimeter Wave Radio Links

    Jonathan S. Lu; Daniel Steinbach; Patrick Cabrol; Philip Pietraski

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the loss caused by multiple humans blocking millimeter wave frequencies. We model human blockers as absorbing screens of infinite height with two knife-edges, We take a physical optics approach to computing the diffraction around the absorbing screens, This approach differs to the geometric optics approach described in much of the literature. The blocking model is validated by measuring the gain from multiple-human blocking configurations on an indoor link. The blocking gains predicted using Piazzi ' s numerical integration method (a physical optics method) agree well with measurements taken from approximately 2.7 dB to -50 dB. Thereofre, this model is suitable for real human blockers, The mean prediction error for the method is approximately -1.2 dB, and the standard deviation is approximately 5 dB.

  2. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for security and safety applications

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Sawaya, Kunio; Mizuno, Koji; Uemura, Jun; Takeda, Masamune; Takahashi, Junichi; Yamada, Kota; Morichika, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Haruyuki; Niikura, Hirotaka; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Kato, Shigeto; Nakada, Jun

    2010-04-01

    77 GHz passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging camera for the purpose of security is developed. In order to detect concealed objects in clothes without hindrance to flow of people at airport security checks, video rate imaging is realized using one-dimensional imaging sensor array of 25 elements and a flapping reflector. As receiving antennas, novel antipodal Fermi antenna (APFA) having required characteristics for passive imaging such as broad bandwidth to obtain enough power, axially symmetric directivity with 10dB beam width of 35 degrees to obtain optimum coupling with dielectric lens, narrow width geometry for high spatial resolution of imaging is used. Real-time calibration (RTC) technique is introduced to eliminate the drift of receiving circuits. Interpolation technique to improve the quality of image and marking software for screening of suspicious objects are also developed. High spatial resolution of 20 mm is obtained by using developed imaging camera.

  3. Millimeter Wave Scattering from Neutral and Charged Water Droplets

    Heifetz, Alexander; Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, N Sami; Raptis, A C Paul

    2010-01-01

    We investigated 94GHz millimeter wave (MMW) scattering from neutral and charged water mist produced in the laboratory with an ultrasonic atomizer. Diffusion charging of the mist was accomplished with a negative ion generator (NIG). We observed increased forward and backscattering of MMW from charged mist, as compared to MMW scattering from an uncharged mist. In order to interpret the experimental results, we developed a model based on classical electrodynamics theory of scattering from a dielectric sphere with diffusion-deposited mobile surface charge. In this approach, scattering and extinction cross-sections are calculated for a charged Rayleigh particle with effective dielectric constant consisting of the volume dielectric function of the neutral sphere and surface dielectric function due to the oscillation of the surface charge in the presence of applied electric field. For small droplets with (radius smaller than 100nm), this model predicts increased MMW scattering from charged mist, which is qualitative...

  4. Design of a Broadband Millimeter-Wave Monolithic IQ Mixer

    Xu, Leijun; Wang, Zhigong; Li, Qin

    2010-05-01

    A 26˜40 GHz millimeter-wave monolithic passive IQ mixer was designed by using Win’s 0.15-µm GaAs pHEMT process. It utilizes a ring diode structure, and the performance can be improved effectively by a modified Marchand balun and U-type coupled lines. Through on-wafer measurement, the mixer shows a conversion loss of 6.6˜9 dB over a bandwidth of 26˜40 GHz, an IF bandwidth from DC to 6 GHz, an image rejection ratio of 21˜30 dB, an LO-RF isolation of above 24 dB, an LO-IF isolation of above 35 dB, and an RF-IF isolation of above 25 dB.

  5. Passive fully polarimetric W-band millimeter-wave imaging

    Bernacki, B. E.; Kelly, J. F.; Sheen, D. M.; McMakin, D. L.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Harris, R. V.; Mendoza, A.; Hall, T. E.; Hatchell, B. K.; Valdez, P. L. J.

    2012-03-01

    We present the theory, design, and experimental results obtained from a scanning passive W-band fully polarimetric imager. Passive millimeter-wave imaging offers persistent day/nighttime imaging and the ability to penetrate dust, clouds and other obscurants, including clothing and dry soil. The single-pixel scanning imager includes both far-field and near-field fore-optics for investigation of polarization phenomena. Using both fore-optics, a variety of scenes including natural and man-made objects was imaged and these results are presented showing the utility of polarimetric imaging for anomaly detection. Analysis includes conventional Stokes-parameter based approaches as well as multivariate image analysis methods.

  6. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  7. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  8. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Ciovati, G.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  9. Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication

    Xiao Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI. Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE, zero-forcing (ZF, and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors.

  10. Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication.

    Liu, Xiao; Xiao, Zhenyu; Bai, Lin; Choi, Jinho; Xia, Pengfei; Xia, Xiang-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD) systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx) beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI). Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE), zero-forcing (ZF), and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average) and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors. PMID:27455256

  11. Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication

    Liu, Xiao; Xiao, Zhenyu; Bai, Lin; Choi, Jinho; Xia, Pengfei; Xia, Xiang-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD) systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx) beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI). Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE), zero-forcing (ZF), and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average) and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors. PMID:27455256

  12. Polarization difference imaging for millimeter-wave in a desert environment

    Wilson, John P.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Stein, Edwin L., Jr.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2010-10-01

    The low attenuation of millimeter-wave radiation propagating through sandstorms has created an interest in using millimeter-wave imagers in desert environments. The ground in desert environments can have significant differences in polarization properties depending on the angle of observation. Perturbations to the natural desert surface will change these polarization properties and by using a polarization difference technique these changes are highlighted. This technique has been applied to millimeter-wave images from a desert environment for several different objects including holes in the ground, footsteps, and changes to the surface created by digging.

  13. Millimeter-Wave Dielectric Properties of Single Crystal Ferroelectric and Dielectric Materials

    McCloy, John S.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Li, Zijing; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2011-01-03

    Transmittance measurements on various single crystal ferroelectric materials over a broad millimeter-wave frequency range have been performed. Frequency dependence of the complex dielectric permittivity has been determined in the millimeter wave region for the first time. The measurements have been employed using a free-space quasi-optical millimeter-wave spectrometer equipped with a set of high power backward wave oscillators (BWOs) as sources of coherent radiation, tunable in the range from 30 - 120 GHz. The uncertainties and possible sources of instrumentation and measurement errors related to the free-space millimeter-wave technique are discussed. This work has demonstrated that precise MMW permittivities can be obtained even on small thin crystals using the BWO quasi-optical approach.

  14. Millimeter and submillimeter wave spectra of 13C-glycolaldehydes

    Haykal, I.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. Astronomical surveys of interstellar molecules, such as those available with the very sensitive ALMA telescope, require preliminary laboratory investigations of the microwave and submillimeter-wave spectra of molecular species including new isotopologs - to identify these in the interstellar media. Aims: To achieve the detection of the 13C isotopologs of glycolaldehyde in the interstellar medium, their rotational spectra in the millimeter and submillimeter-wave regions were studied. Methods: The spectra of 13CH2OHCHO and CH2OH13CHO were recorded in the 150-945 GHz spectral range in the laboratory using a solid-state submillimeter-wave spectrometer in Lille. The observed line frequencies were measured with an accuracy of 30 kHz up to 700 GHz and of 50 kHz above 700 GHz. We analyzed the spectra with a standard Watson Hamiltonian. Results: About 10 000 new lines were identified for each isotopolog. The spectroscopic parameters were determined for the ground- and the three lowest vibrational states up to 945 and 630 GHz. Previous microwave assignments of 13CH2OHCHO were not confirmed. Conclusions: The provided line-lists and sets of molecular parameters meet the needs for a first astrophysical search of 13C-glycolaldehydes. Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A96

  15. Microwave and millimeter-wave resonant tunneling diodes

    Sollner, T. C. L. Gerhard; Brown, Elliott R.; Goodhue, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Several demonstrated resonant tunneling devices including oscillators, mixers, multiplexers, and a variable negative resistance are discussed. Techniques of the millimeter/submillimeter regime are also discussed.

  16. Millimeter-wave Molecular Line Observations of the Tornado Nebula

    Sakai, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Miura, Kodai; Takekawa, Shunya

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7--0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic Center region. A 15'x15' area was mapped in the J=1--0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope. The VLA archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V_LSR=-14 km/s and +5 km/s. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado "head" in the -14 km/s cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km/s cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the -14 km/s cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km/s cloud collided into the -14...

  17. Millimeter-wave Molecular Line Observations of the Tornado Nebula

    Sakai, D.; Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumura, S.; Miura, K.; Takekawa, S.

    2014-08-01

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V LSR = -14 km s-1 and +5 km s-1. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado "head" in the -14 km s-1 cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s-1 cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the -14 km s-1 cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s-1 cloud collided into the -14 km s-1 cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  18. Millimeter-wave scattering from neutral and charged water droplets

    We investigated 94 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) scattering from neutral and charged water mist produced in the laboratory with an ultrasonic atomizer. Diffusion charging of the mist was accomplished with a negative ion generator (NIG). We observed increased forward- and backscattering of MMW from charged mist, as compared to MMW scattering from an uncharged mist. In order to interpret the experimental results, we developed a model based on classical electrodynamics theory of scattering from a dielectric sphere with diffusion-deposited mobile surface charge. In this approach, scattering and extinction cross-sections are calculated for a charged Rayleigh particle with effective dielectric constant consisting of the volume dielectric function of the neutral sphere and surface dielectric function due to the oscillation of the surface charge in the presence of applied electric field. For small droplets with radius smaller than 100 nm, this model predicts increased MMW scattering from charged mist, which is qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations. The objective of this work is to develop indirect remote sensing of radioactive gases via their charging action on atmospheric humid air.

  19. Millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado nebula

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, VLSR = –14 km s–1 and +5 km s–1. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado 'head' in the –14 km s–1 cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s–1 cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the –14 km s–1 cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s–1 cloud collided into the –14 km s–1 cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  20. Conformal Antenna Array for Millimeter-Wave Communications: Performance Evaluation

    Semkin, V; Kyro, M; Kolmonen, V-M; Luxey, C; Ferrero, F; Devillers, F; Raisanen, A V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the radius of a cylindrical supporting structure on radiation properties of a conformal millimeter-wave antenna array. Bent antenna array structures on cylindrical surfaces may have important applications in future mobile devices. Small radii may be needed if the antenna is printed on the edges of mobile devices and in items which human beings are wearing, such as wrist watches, bracelets and rings. The antenna under study consists of four linear series-fed arrays of four patch elements and is operating at 58.8 GHz with linear polarization. The antenna array is fabricated on polytetrafluoroethylene substrate with thickness of 0.127 mm due to its good plasticity properties and low losses. Results for both planar and conformal antenna arrays show rather good agreement between simulation and measurements. The results show that conformal antenna structures allow achieving large angular coverage and may allow beam-steering implementations if switches are used to select betw...

  1. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  2. Millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation in a compact storage ring

    Installation of a 2,856 MHz RF system into the XLS compact electron storage ring would allow the generation of millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation. Operating at 150 MeV, one could produce bunches containing on the order of 2 x 107 electrons with a bunch length σL0 = 0.3 mm, resulting in coherent emission at wavelengths above 0.8 mm. The characteristics of the source and the emitted radiation are discussed. In the case of 100 mrad horizontal collection angle, the average power radiated in the wavelength band 1 mm ≤ λ ≤ 2 mm is 0.3 mW for single bunch operation and 24 mW for 80 bunch operation. The peak power in a single pulse of a few picosecond duration is on the order of one watt. By reducing the momentum compaction, the bunch length could be reduced to σL0 = 0.15 mm, resulting in coherent synchrotron radiation down to 500 microm

  3. A Temporal Millimeter Wave Propagation Model for Tunnels Using Ray Frustum Techniques and FFT

    Choonghyen Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A temporal millimeter wave propagation model for tunnels is presented using ray frustum techniques and fast Fourier transform (FFT. To directly estimate or simulate effects of millimeter wave channel properties on the performance of communication services, time domain impulse responses of demodulated signals should be obtained, which needs rather large computation time. To mitigate the computational burden, ray frustum techniques are used to obtain frequency domain transfer function of millimeter wave propagation environment and FFT of equivalent low pass signals are used to retrieve demodulated waveforms. This approach is numerically efficient and helps to directly estimate impact of tunnel structures and surfaces roughness on the performance of millimeter wave communication services.

  4. Miniaturized MMIC-Based Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizers for Space Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMIC technology provides the technology base to reduce the size and weight of microwave and millimeter wave (MMW) equipment on board airborne and space-based...

  5. Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System

    Ghasr, M. T.; Case, J. T.; McClanahan, A. D.; Abou-Khousa, M.; Guinn, K.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Afaki-Beni, A.; DePaulis, F.; Pommerenke, D.

    2008-01-01

    This is the video that accompanies the "Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System" presentation. It shows the operation of the scanning system, and reviews the results of the scanning of a sample.

  6. A Temporal Millimeter Wave Propagation Model for Tunnels Using Ray Frustum Techniques and FFT

    Choonghyen Kwon; Hayeon Kim; Haengseon Lee; Hyo Hyun Choi; Woo-jin Byun; Kwangseon Kim

    2014-01-01

    A temporal millimeter wave propagation model for tunnels is presented using ray frustum techniques and fast Fourier transform (FFT). To directly estimate or simulate effects of millimeter wave channel properties on the performance of communication services, time domain impulse responses of demodulated signals should be obtained, which needs rather large computation time. To mitigate the computational burden, ray frustum techniques are used to obtain frequency domain transfer function of milli...

  7. Analytical model and optical design of distributed aperture optical system for millimeter-wave imaging

    Chen, Caihua; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse; Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; MacKrides, Daniel G.; Mirotznik, Mark; Prather, Dennis W.

    2008-10-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging is very interesting due to its unique transmission properties through a broad range of atmospheric obscurants such as cloud, dust, fog, sandstorms, and smoke, which thereby enables all-weather passive imaging. Unfortunately, the usefulness of millimeter-wave imagers is often limited by the large aperture sizes required to obtain images of sufficient resolution, as governed by the diffraction limit. To this end, we previously proposed a distributed aperture system for direct non-scan millimeter-wave imaging using an optical upconversion technique. In this proposed approach, an antenna array is employed to sample image signals in the millimeter-wave domain. The sampled millimeter-wave signals are then upconverted to the optical domain using electro-optic modulation techniques. These optical signals are mapped into a similar array on the entrance pupil of the following optical system for direct imaging. Although distributed aperture imaging is not new in both radio astronomy and conventional optical inteferometric imaging, the proposed approach is different in that it physically samples image in the millimeter-wave domain and directly forms the image in the optical domain. Therefore, specific analysis and evaluation techniques are required for the design and optimization of the proposed system. In this paper, we will address these issues, develop techniques to evaluate and enhance the system imaging performance and present methods to optimize the geometric configuration.

  8. The Detectability of Millimeter-wave Molecular Rotational Transitions

    Liszt, Harvey S.; Pety, Jerome

    2016-06-01

    Elaborating on a formalism that was first expressed some 40 years ago, we consider the brightness of low-lying millimeter-wave rotational lines of strongly polar molecules at the threshold of detectability. We derive a simple expression relating the brightness to the line-of-sight integral of the product of the total gas and molecular number densities and a suitably defined temperature-dependent excitation rate into the upper level of the transition. Detectability of a line is contingent only on the ability of a molecule to channel enough of the ambient thermal energy into the line, and the excitation can be computed in bulk by summing over rates without solving the multi-level rate equations, or computing optical depths and excitation temperatures. Results for {{HCO}}+, HNC, and CS are compared with escape-probability solutions of the rate equations using closed-form expressions for the expected range of validity of our ansatz, with the result that gas number densities as high as {10}4 {{{cm}}}-3 or optical depths as high as 100 can be accommodated in some cases. For densities below a well-defined upper bound, the range of validity of the discussion can be cast as an upper bound on the line brightness which is 0.3 K for the J = 1–0 lines and 0.8–1.7 K for the J = 2–1 lines of these species. The discussion casts new light on the interpretation of line brightnesses under conditions of weak excitation, simplifies derivation of physical parameters, and eliminates the need to construct grids of numerical solutions of the rate equations.

  9. REMOTE DETECTION OF RADIOACTIVE PLUMES USING MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY

    Barnowski, R.; Chien; H.; Gopalsami, N.

    2009-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, a common method for manufacturing weapons-grade special nuclear materials, is accompanied by the release of fi ssion products trapped within the fuel. One of these fi ssion products is a radioactive isotope of Krypton (Kr-85); a pure β- emitter with a half-life of 10.72 years. Due to its chemical neutrality and relatively long half life, nearly all of the Kr-85 is released into the surrounding air during reprocessing, resulting in a concentration of Kr-85 near the source that is several orders of magnitude higher than the typical background (atmospheric) concentrations. This high concentration of Kr-85 is accompanied by a proportionately high increase in air ionization due to the release of beta radiation from Kr-85 decay. Millimeter wave (MMW) sensing technology can be used to detect the presence of Kr-85 induced plumes since a high concentration of ions in the air increases the radar cross section due to a combination of atmospheric phenomena. Possible applications for this technology include the remote sensing of reprocessing activities across national borders bolstering global anti-proliferation initiatives. The feasibility of using MMW radar technology to uniquely detect the presence of Kr-85 can be tested using commercial ion generators or sealed radioactive sources in the laboratory. In this paper we describe our work to derive an ion dispersion model that will describe the spatial distribution of ions from Kr-85 and other common lab sources. The types and energies of radiation emitted by isotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 were researched, and these parameters were incorporated into these dispersion models. Our results can be compared with the results of MMW detection experiments in order to quantify the relationship between radar cross section and air ionization as well as to further calibrate the MMW detection equipment.

  10. An Overview of Signal Processing Techniques for Millimeter Wave MIMO Systems

    Heath Jr, Robert W.; Gonzalez-Prelcic, Nuria; Rangan, Sundeep; Roh, Wonil; Sayeed, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Communication at millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies is defining a new era of wireless communication. The mmWave band offers higher bandwidth communication channels versus those presently used in commercial wireless systems. The applications of mmWave are immense: wireless local and personal area networks in the unlicensed band, 5G cellular systems, not to mention vehicular area networks, ad hoc networks, and wearables. Signal processing is critical for enabling the next generation of mmWave...

  11. Techniques of Millimeter-wave Signal Generation in ROF Systems: A Review

    Preeti Singh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter-wave ROF (Radio Over Fiber technology has emerged as a competitive candidate that can meet the increasing demands of broadband multimedia services for wireless users. Optical generation of mm-wave signal is one of the most important technologies of millimetre-wave ROF system. Present paper discusses the various techniques of mm-wave generation and their relative pros and cons.

  12. Impact of the Collisional Plasma on the Propagation of Millimeter Waves

    袁忠才; 时家明; 汪家春; 许波

    2004-01-01

    The plasma generated in the low-altitude atmosphere is of high collision frequencies.In this paper, the transmission coefficients of millimeter(MM) waves normally incident upon the plasma with high collision frequencies are calculated and analyzed. The experimental results of reflection and attenuation are presented for the eight-millimeter waves propagating through the plasma. Both the calculated experimental results indicate that the MM-waves concerned are attenuated significantly and reflected weakly, when propagating through the plasma of high collision frequencies.

  13. Power and polarization monitor development for high power millimeter-wave

    Makino, R., E-mail: makino.ryohhei@ms.nifs.ac.jp; Kobayashi, K. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kubo, S. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A new type monitor of power and polarization states of millimeter-waves has been developed to be installed at a miter-bend, which is a part of transmission lines of millimeter-waves, for electron cyclotron resonance heating on the Large Helical Device. The monitor measures amplitudes and phase difference of the electric field of the two orthogonal polarizations which are needed for calculation of the power and polarization states of waves. The power and phase differences of two orthogonal polarizations were successfully detected simultaneously.

  14. Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuit Design for Wireless and Radar Applications

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens; Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Djurhuus, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO), frequency doubler, and sub-harmonic mixer (SHM) for a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) front-end implemented in a high-speed InP DHBT technology. The QVCO exhibits large tuning range from 38 to 47.8 GHz with an output power around -...

  15. Millimeter wave case study of operational deployments: retail, airport, military, courthouse, and customs

    Tryon, Gary V.

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on America, our security and defense industry was instantly tasked with delivering technologies that could be used to help prevent future terrorist activities. The general public world wide is asking for solutions that will foster a safe society and travel environment. Our best defenses rest in our talents within a free open society to prevent dangerous individuals from boarding planes, entering buildings, courthouses, transportations hubs and military bases with weapons capable of causing damage and bodily harm in the first place. Passive millimeter wave (PMMW) whole body imaging systems are based upon the principle that every physical entity emits, reflects, and/or absorbs electromagnetic energy. The term "passive" means that this approach does not bombard the test subject with energy radiation to further induce the discovery of hidden objects. PMMW whole body imaging systems focus on the human body's natural emission and reflection of millimeter wavelength energy. In physics, "millimeter waves" (MMW) are defined as extremely high-frequency (30-300 GHz) electromagnetic oscillations. On the electromagnetic spectrum these waves are just larger than infrared waves, but smaller than radio waves. The wavelength of a MMW is between 1 millimeter and 10 millimeters. That is approximately the thickness of a large paperclip up to the diameter of an "AAA" battery.

  16. Millimeter-wave interferometric radiometry for the detection and geolocation of low-power signals

    Dowgiallo, David J.; Twarog, Elizabeth M.; Rauen, Steve; Peters, Wendy M.; Lazio, T. Joseph; McGlothlin, Norman R.; Helmboldt, Joseph F.; Gaiser, Peter W.

    2011-05-01

    Millimeter wave detection and imaging is becoming increasingly important with the proliferation of hostile, mobile millimeter wave threats from both weapons systems and communication links. Improved force protection, surveillance, and targeting will rely increasingly on the interception, detection, geo-sorting, and the identification of sources, such as point-to point communication systems, missile seekers, precision guided munitions, and fire control radar systems. This paper describes the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) demonstration broadband passive millimeter wave (mmW) interferometric imaging system. This Ka-band system will provide a capability for meter-precision geolocation for imaged objects. The interferometer uses a distributed array of 12 antenna elements to synthesize a large aperture. Each antenna is packaged into an individual receiver, from which a baseband signal is recorded. The correlator is software-based, utilizing signal processing techniques for visibilities, and image formation via beamforming methods. This paper presents first results from an interferometer flight campaign.

  17. Millimeter wave-induced changes in membrane properties of leech Retzius neurons

    Pikov, Victor; Siegel, Peter H.

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated a novel method for modulation of neuronal excitability using non-invasive delivery of millimeter waves. Millimeter waves at 60 GHz and incident power density of 100-600 μW/cm2 were applied to three intact segmental ganglia of the adult leach, and intracellular neuronal activity was recorded from the Retzius neurons using intracellular glass electrode. Transient dosedependent increase in the plasma membrane permeability was observed. In addition, in one of the examined neurons, a decrease in the neuronal firing rate was also evident. The results provide strong evidence for the feasibility of modulating neuronal excitability using non-invasive delivery of millimeter waves, and will be explored further for applications in basic neuroscience and treatment of neurological disorders.

  18. Measuring Water Vapor and Ash in Volcanic Eruptions with a Millimeter-Wave Radar/Imager

    Bryan, Sean; Vanderkluysen, Loÿc; Groppi, Christopher; Paine, Scott; Bliss, Daniel W; Aberle, James; Mauskopf, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter-wave remote sensing technology can significantly improve measurements of volcanic eruptions, yielding new insights into eruption processes and improving forecasts of drifting volcanic ash for aviation safety. Radiometers can measure water vapor density and temperature inside eruption clouds, improving on existing measurements with infrared cameras that are limited to measuring the outer cloud surface. Millimeter-wave radar can measure the 3D mass flow of volcanic ash inside eruption plumes and drifting fine ash clouds, offering better sensitivity than existing weather radar measurements and the unique ability to measure ash particle size in-situ. Here we present sensitivity calculations in the context of developing the WAMS (Water and Ash Millimeter-wave Spectrometer) instrument. WAMS, a radar/radiometer system constructed with off-the-shelf components, would be able to measure water vapor and ash throughout an entire eruption cloud, a unique capability.

  19. Millimeter-wave offset fresnel zone plate lenses characterization

    León Fernández, Germán; Herrán Ontañón, Luis Fernando; Munoz, Max; Las Heras Andrés, Fernando Luis; Hao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fresnel Zone Plate Lenses (FZPLs) are transparent-opaque lenses that filter the desirable phase. The centred Fresnel lenses have a strong back radiation towards the feed. In order to solve this drawback, offset feeding or offset pointing lenses are used. In this work, both offset FZPLs are studied using an optical physics method and experimentally characterized in the millimeter band. Two prototypes have been manufactured and measured, presenting a narrow beamwidth. The characteristics of poi...

  20. Millimeter And Submillimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits On Quartz

    Mehdi, Imran; Mazed, Mohammad; Siegel, Peter; Smith, R. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Proposed Quartz substrate Upside-down Integrated Device (QUID) relies on UV-curable adhesive to bond semiconductor with quartz. Integrated circuits including planar GaAs Schottky diodes and passive circuit elements (such as bandpass filters) fabricated on quartz substrates. Circuits designed to operate as mixers in waveguide circuit at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Integrated circuits mechanically more robust, larger, and easier to handle than planar Schottky diode chips. Quartz substrate more suitable for waveguide circuits than GaAs substrate.

  1. Context Information Based Initial Cell Search for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks

    Abbas, Waqas Bin; Zorzi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is envisioned as a cornerstone to fulfill the data rate requirements for fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. In mmWave communication, beamforming is considered as a key technology to combat the high path-loss, and unlike in conventional microwave communication, beamforming may be necessary even during initial access/cell search. Among the proposed beamforming schemes for initial cell search, analog beamforming is a power efficient approach but suffe...

  2. Particle simulation and experimental study of the high-power narrow-pulse millimeter wave BWO

    The BWO (Backward-Wave Oscillator) slow-wave structure was optimized by the KARAT code, and the experiment was performed at the RADAD303 accelerator flat under the condition of the electron beam with the voltage of 177 kV, the current of 785A, and magnetic field of 1.7T. TE11 mode millimeter wave was generated, whose peak powe is 18 MW, frequency 39.8 GHz and pulse duration 3 ns. (authors)

  3. Double-side fabrication process and millimeter wave response of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    WU JingBo; YI DongChao; GU ZhengHao; KANG Lin; XU WeiWei; CHEN Jian; WU PeiHeng

    2009-01-01

    We adopted double-side fabrication process to prepare intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) based on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x(BSCCO) single crystals. Using crystal cleavage and double-side argon ion milling, we have successfully fabricated very uniform IJJs with the thickness of single crystal slice less than 200 nm. Using quasi-optical system, the response of the IJJs to millimeter wave radiation was studied. With applied magnetic field perpendicular to a-b plane, we have observed Shapiro steps under millimeter wave radiation, and the Josephson oscillation of each junction was phase-locking.

  4. Planar Millimeter Wave Notch Filters Based on Magnetostatic Wave Resonance in Barium Hexagonal Ferrite Thin Films

    Lu, Lei; Song, Young-Yeal; Bevivino, Joshua; Wu, Mingzhong

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need for planar millimeter (mm) wave devices. To meet this need, one important strategy is in the use of high-anisotropy hexagonal ferrite films. The high internal anisotropy field for the hexagonal ferrites can be used to realize low-loss devices in the 30-100 GHz regime without the need for high external magnetic fields. Previous work has demonstrated the use of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite (BaM) films and ferromagnetic resonance therein to make mm-wave notch filters. This presentation reports on a new mm-wave notch filter that uses magnetostatic wave (MSW) resonance in BaM films. The device consists of a BaM film strip positioned on the top of a coplanar waveguide (CPW), with the strip's length along the CPW signal line. The BaM strip was grown by pulsed laser deposition and had uniaxial anisotropy along the strip's length. The device showed a band-stop filtering response centered at 53 GHz in absence of external fields. One can increase this frequency with nonzero external fields. A reduction in the strip's width resulted in an enhancement in peak absorption. This filtering response resulted from MSW resonance across the BaM strip's width. The MSW modes were excited by CPW-produced non-uniform alternating magnetic fields.

  5. Active millimeter-wave imaging system for material analysis and object detection

    Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kallfass, Ingmar; Tessmann, Axel; Zink, Martin; Schlechtweg, Michael; Leuther, Arnulf; Ambacher, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    The use of millimeter-waves for imaging purposes is becoming increasingly important, as millimeter-waves can penetrate most clothing and packaging materials, so that the detector does not require physical contact with the object. This will offer a view to the hidden content of e.g. packets or bags without the need to open them, whereby packaging and content will not be damaged. Nowadays X-ray is used, but as the millimeter-wave quantum energy is far below the ionization energy, it is less harmful for the human health. In this paper we report an active millimeter-wave imaging tomograph for material analysis and concealed object detection purposes. The system is build using in-house W-band components. The object is illuminated with low-power millimeter-waves in the frequency range between 89 and 96GHz; mirrors are used to guide and focus the beam. The object is moved through the focus point to scan the object pixel by pixel. Depending on the actual material some parts of the waves are reflected, the other parts penetrate the object. A single-antenna transmit and receive module is used for illumination and measurement of the material-specific reflected power. A second receiver module is used to measure the transmitted wave. All information is processed for amplitude and phase images by a computer algorithm. The system can be used for security, such as detecting concealed weapons, explosives or contrabands at airports and other safety areas, but also quality assurance applications, e.g. during production to detect defects. Some imaging results will be presented in this paper.

  6. Modeling and Performance of Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Layered Waveguide Filters

    Ardavan Rahimian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the novel designs, analysis, and performance of 4-pole and 8-pole microwave and millimeter-wave (MMW waveguide filters for operation at X and Y frequency bands. The waveguide filters have been designed and analyzed based on the mode matching and coupled resonators design techniques employing layered technology. Thorough waveguide filters working at X-band and Y-band have been designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested along with the analysis of the output characteristics. Accurate designs of RF waveguides along with their filters based on the E-plane filter concept have been carried out with the ability of fitting into layered technology in high frequency production techniques. The filters demonstrate the appropriateness in order to develop high-performance well-established designs for systems that are intended for the multi-layer microwave, millimeter- and sub-millimeter-waves devices and systems; with the potential employment in radar, satellite, and radio astronomy applications.

  7. Engineering Rules for Optical Generation and Detection of High Speed Wireless Millimeter-wave Band Signals

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh;

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the design requirements for 40 Gbit/s wireless generation and detection in the millimeter-wave band, combining baseband optical I/Q modulation and coherent detection with wireless optical heterodyning generation and single-side band electro-optical modulation....

  8. Fast ion millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics on TEXTOR and ASDEX upgrades

    Michelsen, S.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, H.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, Poul; Tsakadze, E.L.; Egedal, J.; Woskov, P.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Leuterer, F.; Westerhof, E.

    2004-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic systems for measuring fast ions in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade are described in this article. Both systems use millimeter waves generated by gyrotrons as probing radiation and the scattered radiation is detected with heterodyne receivers having 40...

  9. Millimeter-Wave Thermal Analysis Development and Application to GEN IV Reactor Materials

    Wosko, Paul; Sundram, S. K.

    2012-10-16

    New millimeter-wave thermal analysis instrumentation has been developed and studied for characterization of materials required for diverse fuel and structural needs in high temperature reactor environments such as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). A two-receiver 137 GHz system with orthogonal polarizations for anisotropic resolution of material properties has been implemented at MIT. The system was tested with graphite and silicon carbide specimens at temperatures up to 1300 ºC inside an electric furnace. The analytic and hardware basis for active millimeter-wave radiometry of reactor materials at high temperature has been established. Real-time, non contact measurement sensitivity to anisotropic surface emissivity and submillimeter surface displacement was demonstrated. The 137 GHz emissivity of reactor grade graphite (NBG17) from SGL Group was found to be low, ~ 5 %, in the 500 – 1200 °C range and increases by a factor of 2 to 4 with small linear grooves simulating fracturing. The low graphite emissivity would make millimeter-wave active radiometry a sensitive diagnostic of graphite changes due to environmentally induced stress fracturing, swelling, or corrosion. The silicon carbide tested from Ortek, Inc. was found to have a much higher emissivity at 137 GHz of ~90% Thin coatings of silicon carbide on reactor grade graphite supplied by SGL Group were found to be mostly transparent to millimeter-waves, increasing the 137 GHz emissivity of the coated reactor grade graphite to about ~14% at 1250 ºC.

  10. In-waveguide measurements of MMW [millimeter-wave] dielectric properties of candidate fusion ceramics

    To measure dielectric constants ''k'' and loss tangents ''tanδ'' at room temperature and millimeter-wave (MMW) frequencies of ceramics within waveguide for their screening as rf-window materials, and to increase the corresponding precision and accuracy for this difficult measurement technique. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. A Novel Reconfigurable Ultra-broadband Millimeter-wave Photonic Harmonic Down-converter

    Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    We propose a novel ultra-broadband reconfigurable photonic harmonic mixer functioning as a millimeter-wave downconverter for multigigabit wireless applications. Based on frequency conversion implemented by an optical frequency comb generator, the photonic mixer is able to operate up to 100GHz...

  12. Photonic Implementation of 4-QAM/QPSK Electrical Modulation at Millimeter-Wave Frequency

    Yu, Xianbin; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2008-01-01

    We propose a photonic method for generating millimeter-wave 4-QAM/QPSK modulated signals. The method is based on optical phase modulation by multilevel electrical signals and optical carrier-suppression. Simulation results are presented for 2.5 Gsymbol/s 4-QAM and QPSK signals at a 36 GHz carrier...

  13. Millimeter and submillimeter wave technology developments for the next generation of fusion devices

    There is increasing demand for compact watt-level coherent sources in the millimeter and submillimeter wave region. The approach that we have taken to satisfy this need is to fabricate two-dimensional grids loaded with oscillators, electronic beam steerers, and frequency multipliers for quasioptical coherent spatial combining of the outputs of a large number of low-power devices

  14. The Einstein polarization interferometer for cosmology (EPIC) and the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI)

    Timbie, P. T.; Tucker, G. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ali, S.; Bierman, E.; Bunn, E. F.; Calderon, C.; Gault, A. C.; Hyland, P. O.; Keating, B. G.; Kim, J.; Korotkov, A.; Malu, S. S.; Mauskopf, P.; Murphy, J. A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Piccirillo, L.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We provide an overview of a mission concept study underway for the Einstein Inflation Probe (EIP). Our study investigates the advantages and tradeoffs of using an interferometer (EPIC) for the mission. We also report on the status of the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI), a ground-based pathfinder optimized for degree-scale CMB polarization measurements at 90 GHz.

  15. Semi and super-conducting technologies for the millimeter and submillimetre wave applications

    Beaudin, G.

    2000-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter-wave observations provide important informations for the studies of atmospheric chemistry and of astrochemistry (molecular clouds, stars formation, galactic study, comets and cosmology). But, these observations depend strongly on instrumentation techniques and on the site quality. New techniques or higher detector performances result in unprecedented observations and sometimes, the observational needs drive developments of new detector technologies, for example, s...

  16. Fusion applications of high power millimeter wave sources

    Heating by means of high power electron cyclotron (EC) waves in the mm wavelength range is considered to be one of the most attractive approaches for heating fusion plasmas to the temperatures required to achieve ignition. EC waves have also been used to drive plasma current by using directional launch and to stabilize MHD instabilities in tokamak plasmas through localized heating or current drive. Experiments are planned on both JET and TFTR to measure the alpha particle distribution by scattering EC waves

  17. Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    The design and test results of a multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator is presented. The intended applications of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at Q-band (37 to 43 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust high data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  18. Characteristics of a Teflon rod antenna for millimeter and submillimeter wave irradiation on living bodies

    TATSUKAWA, Toshiaki; Doi, Akitaka; TERANAKA, Masato; Takashima, Hitoshi; Goda, Fuminori; Idehara, Toshitaka; Ogawa, Isamu; KANEMAKI, Tomohiro; NISHIZAWA, Seiji; NAMBA, Tunetoyo

    2003-01-01

    The development of a millimeter and submillimeter wave catheter for irradiation on living bodies using a Teflon rod dielectric antenna is described. The power sources of electromagnetic wave are an Impatt oscillator (90 GHz, 0.3 W) and gyrotron (302 GHz, 30 W). Irradiation tests using various Teflon rod dielectric antennas were performed on beef livers. Irradiation results were considered by microwave theory and ray optics.

  19. Indoor Operations by FMCW Millimeter Wave SAR Onboard Small UAS: A Simulation Approach

    Antonio Fulvio Scannapieco; Alfredo Renga; Antonio Moccia

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated system simulator is presented in this paper for indoor operations onboard small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) by a novel millimeter wave radar sensor. The sensor relies on the principle of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applied to a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar system. Input to the simulator are both design parameters for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which should be able to cope with the stringent requirements set by indoor operations, and information about ...

  20. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    Mears, C.A.

    1991-09-01

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 {plus_minus} 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker`s theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.

  1. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    Mears, C.A.

    1991-09-01

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 {plus minus} 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker's theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.

  2. Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

    The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 ± 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker's theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs

  3. An adjustable RF tuning element for microwave, millimeter wave, and submillimeter wave integrated circuits

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Mcgrath, William R.; Rutledge, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Planar RF circuits are used in a wide range of applications from 1 GHz to 300 GHz, including radar, communications, commercial RF test instruments, and remote sensing radiometers. These circuits, however, provide only fixed tuning elements. This lack of adjustability puts severe demands on circuit design procedures and materials parameters. We have developed a novel tuning element which can be incorporated into the design of a planar circuit in order to allow active, post-fabrication tuning by varying the electrical length of a coplanar strip transmission line. It consists of a series of thin plates which can slide in unison along the transmission line, and the size and spacing of the plates are designed to provide a large reflection of RF power over a useful frequency bandwidth. Tests of this structure at 1 GHz to 3 Ghz showed that it produced a reflection coefficient greater than 0.90 over a 20 percent bandwidth. A 2 GHz circuit incorporating this tuning element was also tested to demonstrate practical tuning ranges. This structure can be fabricated for frequencies as high as 1000 GHz using existing micromachining techniques. Many commercial applications can benefit from this micromechanical RF tuning element, as it will aid in extending microwave integrated circuit technology into the high millimeter wave and submillimeter wave bands by easing constraints on circuit technology.

  4. Millimeter-Wave Evolution for 5G Cellular Networks

    Sakaguchi, Kei; Tran, Gia Khanh; Shimodaira, Hidekazu; Nanba, Shinobu; Sakurai, Toshiaki; Takinami, Koji; Siaud, Isabelle; Strinati, Emilio Calvanese; Capone, Antonio; Karls, Ingolf; Arefi, Reza; Haustein, Thomas

    Triggered by the explosion of mobile traffic, 5G (5th Generation) cellular network requires evolution to increase the system rate 1000 times higher than the current systems in 10 years. Motivated by this common problem, there are several studies to integrate mm-wave access into current cellular networks as multi-band heterogeneous networks to exploit the ultra-wideband aspect of the mm-wave band. The authors of this paper have proposed comprehensive architecture of cellular networks with mm-wave access, where mm-wave small cell basestations and a conventional macro basestation are connected to Centralized-RAN (C-RAN) to effectively operate the system by enabling power efficient seamless handover as well as centralized resource control including dynamic cell structuring to match the limited coverage of mm-wave access with high traffic user locations via user-plane/control-plane splitting. In this paper, to prove the effectiveness of the proposed 5G cellular networks with mm-wave access, system level simulation is conducted by introducing an expected future traffic model, a measurement based mm-wave propagation model, and a centralized cell association algorithm by exploiting the C-RAN architecture. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed network to realize 1000 times higher system rate than the current network in 10 years which is not achieved by the small cells using commonly considered 3.5 GHz band. Furthermore, the paper also gives latest status of mm-wave devices and regulations to show the feasibility of using mm-wave in the 5G systems.

  5. Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Second Harmonic as Millimeter-Wave Beacon Source for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a CW millimeter-wave satellite beacon source, based on the second harmonic from a traveling-wave tube amplifier and utilizes a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler. A potential application of the beacon source is for investigating the atmospheric effects on Q-band (37-42 GHz) and V/W-band (71- 76 GHz) satellite-to-ground signals.

  6. Ultra-wide Bandwidth Inter-Chip Interconnects for Heterogeneous Millimeter-Wave and THz Circuits

    Fay, Patrick; Bernstein, Gary H.; Lu, Tian; Kulick, Jason M.

    2016-09-01

    Heterogeneous chip-to-chip interconnects with low loss and ultra-wide bandwidths have been demonstrated. Coplanar waveguide-based interconnects between GaAs and Si die have been fabricated and characterized and the results compared to expectations from full-wave electromagnetic simulation. Broadband transmission characteristics were obtained, with insertion losses below 0.3 dB at 100 GHz and below 0.8 dB at frequencies up to 220 GHz demonstrated experimentally. The measured return loss exceeded 11.5 dB at all frequencies up to 220 GHz. The interconnects offer low latency, with a measured group delay of 0.69 ps. The measured results are in good agreement with full-wave simulations, indicating that the measured results do not suffer from significant impairments compared to theoretical predictions. The demonstrated interconnects offer an alternative to conventional approaches to millimeter-wave circuit and system integration, by enabling the compact realization of circuits in the microwave, millimeter-wave, sub-millimeter-wave, and THz frequency regimes in heterogeneous device technologies with very low chip-to-chip insertion loss.

  7. Towards 5G: A Photonic Based Millimeter Wave Signal Generation for Applying in 5G Access Fronthaul

    S. E. Alavi; Soltanian, M. R. K.; I. S. Amiri; M Khalily; A. S. M. Supa’at; H Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    5G communications require a multi Gb/s data transmission in its small cells. For this purpose millimeter wave (mm-wave) RF signals are the best solutions to be utilized for high speed data transmission. Generation of these high frequency RF signals is challenging in electrical domain therefore photonic generation of these signals is more studied. In this work, a photonic based simple and robust method for generating millimeter waves applicable in 5G access fronthaul is presented. Besides gene...

  8. A tunable microplasma gradient-index lens for millimeter waves

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [School of Engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, California 95343 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This work presents proof of concept of a novel application of field emission assisted (FEA) microplasmas that exploits the relatively high plasma number densities encountered in these devices. We hypothesize that the number density gradients and the resulting gradient in the microplasma relative permittivity/refractive index can be utilized as a tunable diverging lens with on/off ability to defocus waves in the Terahertz regime. Electron number density profiles obtained from one-dimensional particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulations for a typical FEA microplasma are used to determine the relative permittivity and conductivity profiles. Frequency domain wave propagation simulations using these profiles show that sub-mm waves can be controlled using the microplasma lens with the degree of defocusing depending on the wavelength. In spite of the non-zero conductivity, the medium is not significantly lossy at the frequencies considered.

  9. A tunable microplasma gradient-index lens for millimeter waves

    This work presents proof of concept of a novel application of field emission assisted (FEA) microplasmas that exploits the relatively high plasma number densities encountered in these devices. We hypothesize that the number density gradients and the resulting gradient in the microplasma relative permittivity/refractive index can be utilized as a tunable diverging lens with on/off ability to defocus waves in the Terahertz regime. Electron number density profiles obtained from one-dimensional particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulations for a typical FEA microplasma are used to determine the relative permittivity and conductivity profiles. Frequency domain wave propagation simulations using these profiles show that sub-mm waves can be controlled using the microplasma lens with the degree of defocusing depending on the wavelength. In spite of the non-zero conductivity, the medium is not significantly lossy at the frequencies considered

  10. Generation of microwave and millimeter-wave based on po-larization scrambler and polarization maintaining fiber

    SHI Yuan-yuan; NING Ti-gang; LI Jing; PEI Li; QI Chun-hui

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed to generate microwave and millimeter-wave by using polarization scrambler and polarization maintaining fiber (PMF), which is based on the coupling and the interaction between the two polarizations of the initial non-chirp Gaussian optical pulse in PMF. The expressions of the microwave and millimeter-wave are derived by couple-mode theory. Moreover, the feasibility is analyzed simulatedly. At last, 0-120 GHz microwave and millimeter-wave can be produced by adjusting system parameter or input pulse duration. The project is of great simplicity, stability and high export efficiency.

  11. A continuous wave millimeter free electron laser experiment with a Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and electron beam recovery

    Problems relevant to a continuous wave free electron laser (FEL) in the centimeter-millimeter region are investigated. The ideas are applied to the FEL experiment in progress at the Legnaro (Padova) INFN laboratory. The accelerator characteristics and laser parameters are discussed. The laser could sweep the centimeter-millimeter region until 2.5 mm with a power around 15 kW

  12. Millimeter-wave radar for brown-out landings using passive imager components

    Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir; Lovberg, John A.

    2010-04-01

    A millimeter-wave radar designed for landing helicopters in brown-out conditions is described and data is presented from an initial flight test. The radar operates in a frequency modulated continuous wave architecture, determining range to target by calculating the difference between transmitted and returned frequencies. The millimeter-wave frequency band provides sand and dust penetration and allows for small apertures appropriate for helicopter mounting. This radar also uses a flat panel phased-array receive antenna and phase processor to sample multiple antenna beams simultaneously, an architecture that has previously been successfully used in passive millimeter-wave imaging systems. The radar presents a wide field-of-view image to the operator at a 3 Hz frame rate where range to the ground and obstacles is depicted in grayscale. The flight test showed the radar to be capable of depicting terrain height variations and obstacles such as buildings, vehicles, building materials, and even power lines. Reductions in noise and symbology improvements are necessary developments for a viable landing system.

  13. Development of power measuring device of transmission type with dielectric for high power millimeter wave

    A power measuring device using a dielectric disk for a high power millimeter waves is investigated. In the device, a high power wave is transmitted in a waveguide and then heats the dielectric disk installed in the waveguide. The transmitted power is estimated from the temperature rise of the dielectric disk. It is a new type of power measurement device, which is not sensitive to higher modes and change of their polarization in time. It also can measure the wide power range of kW to MW levels flexibly by choosing dielectric material proper to the power level as a detector. In the report, materials that have small dielectric loss for millimeter waves are chosen, and their properties of temperature rise and millimeter wave power capacity are estimated. On the basis of these results, design of the power measurement device and fabrication of its prototype are described for practical use in the electron cyclotron heating systems for the JT-60U and JT-60SA. (author)

  14. Rapid fabrication of aluminum nitride with high thermal conductivity by millimeter-wave heating method

    Full text: Aluminum nitride has been interested for the usage of heat-sink substrate in the semiconductor device on account of its high thermal conductivity. But aluminum nitride is not so easily sintered similarly as other nitrides. Polycrystalline bulk aluminum nitride is generally sintered by adding some sintering aids. However, high sintering temperature around 2000 deg C is still required for attaining full densification with the conventional sintering method. In the present study, we show millimeter-wave heating method is the rapid and low temperature process for producing aluminum nitride with high thermal conductivity. Importance in the selection of sintering aid is indicated in the millimeter-wave sintering of aluminum nitride. The relation between thermal conductivity and microstructure is also discussed. AlN powder with the average size of 1μm (Mitsui Kagaku, MAN-2) was used as the starting raw material and Y2O3 or Yb2O3 (Shin-etsu Kagaku, average size; 0.25μm and 1.2μm, UU- and RU-grades, respectively) were used as sintering aids, respectively. After mixing AlN powder and sintering aid at a desired content, the mixed powder with 1-propanol and dispersant was milled for 20 hr with alumina balls in an alumina pot. The milled powder was shaped to the circular disk with 40 mm in diameter and 4-5 mm in thickness by slip-casting method. After drying enough, the slip-casted body was calcined at 600 deg C for 1 h in nitrogen atmosphere. The calcined body was sintered in nitrogen without hydrogen or with several % hydrogen by using millimeter-wave heating method. Millimeter-wave heating was performed in a multi-mode applicator (Fuji Denpa Kogyo, FGS-10-28) combined with a high power 28 GHz gyrotron generator. Density of sintered body was calculated from measured size and weight, and when the relative density was over 90%, the precise density was measured by Archimedean method using oleic acid as immersion liquid. Thermal conductivity of sintered body was

  15. Design Challenges of Millimeter Wave Communications: A MAC Layer Perspective

    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fischione, Carlo; Fodor, Gabor; Athanasiou, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    As the spectrum is becoming more scarce due to exponential demand of formidable data quantities, the new millimiterwave (mmW) band is considered as an enabling player of 5G communications to provide multi-gigabits wireless acccess. MmW communications exhibit high attenuation and blockage, directionality due to massive beamforming, deafness, low-interference, and may need micro waves networks for coordination and fallback support. The current mmW standardizations are challenged by the overwhel...

  16. A tunable microplasma gradient-index lens for millimeter waves

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2015-09-01

    Field-induced electron emission from the cathode and its interaction with microdischarges has gained significant attention in the last few years particularly in the context of microscale gas breakdown. Recent advances in nanofabrication have led to the development of novel cathodes that demonstrate impressive field emission properties with turn-on fields as low as 1 V/ μm and field enhancement factors as high as 1000 implying that field emission could play an important role in microplasmas as large as 500 μm. This work presents proof of concept of a novel application of field emission assisted (FEA) microplasmas that exploits the relatively high plasma number densities encountered in these devices. We hypothesize that the number density gradients and the resulting gradient in the microplasma relative permittivity/refractive index can be utilized as a tunable diverging lens with on/off ability to defocus waves in the Terahertz regime. Electron number density profiles obtained from one-dimensional particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC) simulations for a typical FEA microplasma are used to determine the relative permittivity and conductivity profiles. Frequency domain wave propagation simulations using these profiles show that sub-mm waves can be controlled using the microplasma lens with the degree of defocusing depending on the wavelength. In spite of the non-zero conductivity, it is shown that the medium is not significantly lossy at the frequencies considered.

  17. Optical Synthesis of Terahertz and Millimeter-Wave Frequencies with Discrete Mode Diode Lasers

    O'Brien, Stephen; Bitauld, David; Brandonisio, Nicola; Amann, Andreas; Phelan, Richard; Kelly, Brian; O'Gorman, James

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that optical synthesis of terahertz and millimeter-wave frequencies can be achieved using two-mode and mode-locked discrete mode diode lasers. These edge-emitting devices incorporate a spatially varying refractive index profile which is designed according to the spectral output desired of the laser. We first demonstrate a device which supports two primary modes simultaneously with high spectral purity. In this case sinusoidal modulation of the optical intensity at terahertz frequencies can be obtained. Cross saturation of the material gain in quantum well lasers prevents simultaneous lasing of two modes with spacings in the millimeter-wave region. We show finally that by mode-locking of devices that are designed to support a minimal set of four primary modes, we obtain a sinusoidal modulation of the optical intensity in this frequency region.

  18. Glass Melt Emissivity, Viscosity, and Foaming Monitoring with Millimeter-Waves

    Nuclear waste glass processing efficiencies, improved melter control to anomalies such as foaming, and environmental compliance would be facilitated by the availability of on-line monitoring technologies. It has been shown that the millimeter-wave (MMW) range of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.3-10 mm) is ideally suited to hot melter environments by having wavelengths long enough to penetrate optically obscure views yet short enough to provide spatial resolution with reliable refractory quasi-optical components. A thermal return reflection (TRR) method has been developed that allows a millimeter-wave pyrometer to determine emissivity by returning a portion of the thermal emission as a probe. Melt glass viscosities in the range 20 -2000 Poise and specific gravities have been measured by rates of flow and displacements inside hollow MMW ceramic waveguides immersed into the melts. Glass foaming has been observed by detecting the melt surface swelling followed by the increase in surface emissivity after gases break the surface

  19. Microwave properties of HTS films:measurements in millimeter wave range

    A theoretical and experimental justification of an approach proposed and developed by us for surface impedance standard measurements of HTS films is presented. An analysis of the electromagnetic properties of quasi-optical dielectric resonators with conducting endplates, which provides a theoretical background for studies of HTS films in the millimeter wave range, is performed. With this technique, the highest quality modes, namely whispering gallery modes, are excited in a dielectric cylindrical disc sandwiched between HTS films. Considerable enhancement of the sensitivity of surface resistance measurements in the millimeter wave range is demonstrated, which is important for the fundamental investigation of superconductor physics. It is also shown that the measured frequency shift in the resonator with the HTS endplates as a function of the temperature reveals a possibility for accurate evaluation of the field penetration depth in HTS films

  20. Modeling of InP HBTs in Transferred-Substrate Technology for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Rudolph, Matthias; Jensen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling of InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) in transferred substrate (TS) technology is investigated. At first, a direct parameter extraction methodology dedicated to III-V based HBTs is employed to determine the small-signal equivalent circuit parameters from...... measured S-parameters. It is shown that the model prediction of measured S-parameters can be improved in the millimeter-wave frequency range by augmenting the small-signal model with a description of AC current crowding. The extracted elements of the small-signal model structure are employed as a starting...... point for the extraction of a large-signal model. The developed largesignal model for the TS-HBTs accurately predicts the DC over temperature and small-signal performance over bias as well as the large-signal performance at millimeter-wave frequencies (77 GHz)....

  1. The involvement of cutaneous receptors in the biological effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves

    Anton Emil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of peripheral nerve terminations in the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic millimeter waves (mmW was assessed. It is currently thought that mmW could be used in noninvasive complementary therapy because of their analgesic effect. However, the mechanisms of their antinociceptive effect and non-ionizing radiation are the subjects of controversy. The mechanisms of interaction of mmW and the cutaneous tissue have not been elucidated. We observed mast cell degranulation at the place of mmW action, a decrease of chronaxie and Turck reflex time, an increase in the number of afferent impulses after sciatic nerve at stimulation, as well as an increase electrocardiogram R-R interval of isolated frog heart after application of mmW. Based on these investigations, we propose that electromagnetic waves of millimeter length modify, through indirect mechanisms, the excitability and reactivity of peripheral nerve terminations.

  2. Ground station hardware for the ATS-F millimeter wave experiment

    Duffield, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a program to design, fabricate, test, and install a primary ATS-F millimeter wave ground receiving station. Propagation parameters at millimeter waves are discussed along with the objective of the overall experiment. A general description is given of the receiving system and its function in the experiment. Typical receiver characteristics are presented which show that the experiment is entirely feasible from a link SNR standpoint. The receiving system hardware designs are discussed with separate treatment given to the propagation and the radiometer receiver designs. The modification and relocation are described of an existing 15-ft antenna to meet the ATS-F requirements. The design of a dual frequency feed subsystem and self calibration equipment is included.

  3. Application of Implicit Space Mapping in the Design of Hammerhead Filter in Millimeter-Wave Band

    Fuqun Zhong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present advances in microwave and millimeter-wave device modeling exploiting the Space Mapping (SM technology. New SM-based modeling techniques are used that are easy to implement entirely in the Agilent ADS framework. The implicit space mapping algorithm is applied to the design of hammerhead filter in millimeter-wave band. The validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with fullwave EM simulation result and measured data. Based on the proposed method, a filter was designed and fabricated on a substrate with thickness of 0.254 mm and dielectric constant of 2.2. The experimental results show good agreement with simulated results. It is proved that the accuracy can be achieved using the implicit space mapping algorithm, and the design efficiency can be greatly improved.

  4. Risks of exposure to ionizing and millimeter-wave radiation from airport whole-body scanners.

    Moulder, John E

    2012-06-01

    Considerable public concern has been expressed around the world about the radiation risks posed by the backscatter (ionizing radiation) and millimeter-wave (nonionizing radiation) whole-body scanners that have been deployed at many airports. The backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners currently deployed in the U.S. almost certainly pose negligible radiation risks if used as intended, but their safety is difficult-to-impossible to prove using publicly accessible data. The scanners are widely disliked and often feared, which is a problem made worse by what appears to be a veil of secrecy that covers their specifications and dosimetry. Therefore, for these and future similar technologies to gain wide acceptance, more openness is needed, as is independent review and regulation. Publicly accessible, and preferably peer-reviewed evidence is needed that the deployed units (not just the prototypes) meet widely-accepted safety standards. It is also critical that risk-perception issues be handled more competently. PMID:22494369

  5. Photonic generation of frequency-quadrupling millimeter-wave signals using polarization property

    Zhu, Min; Tang, Xianfeng; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2016-03-01

    We propose and analyze a photonic method of generating frequency-quadrupling millimeter-wave signal. This scheme is realized by using a single LiNbO3 intensity modulator (IM) and a Faraday mirror based transverse-electrical and transverse-magnetic mode converter in a Sagnac loop without using an optical filter or an electrical microwave phase shifter. Making use of the intrinsic polarization dependence and the velocity phenomenon of the IM, a special double sideband modulation is implemented, which ensures that the optical carrier can be effectively cancelled employing polarization manipulation. A linear polarizer is used as the polarization selection element to choose the second-order sidebands from the modulated light. After beating at the photodiode, a frequency-quadrupled millimeter-wave signal with >30 dB radio frequency spurious suppression ratio is generated. The imperfection of the devices is considered when estimating the system performance.

  6. Development of Millimeter-Wave Planar Antennas Using Low-Loss Materials

    Ito, Naoki; Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Shimazu, Hiroshi; Sakata, Eiji

    2010-10-01

    As the importance of advanced millimeter-wave diagnostics increases, the fabrication of high-performance devices and components becomes essential. In this paper, we describe the development of millimeter-wave planar antennas using low-loss fluorine substrates. The problems to be solved in this study are the low degree of adhesion between copper foil and the fluorine substrate and the accuracy of device pattern using conventional fabrication techniques. In order to solve these problems, a new surface treatment of fluorine films and a fabrication method using electro-fine-forming (EF2) are proposed. In order to confirm the performance of the treated films, microstrip lines (MSLs) and planar patch antennas with a low sidelobe level in the E-plane are designed and fabricated on conventional fluorine substrates and grafted poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films.

  7. Video rate passive millimeter-wave imager utilizing optical upconversion with improved size, weight, and power

    Martin, Richard D.; Shi, Shouyuan; Zhang, Yifei; Wright, Andrew; Yao, Peng; Shreve, Kevin P.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Dillon, Thomas E.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Harrity, Charles E.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2015-05-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the performance and limitations of our 220 channel video rate passive millimeter wave imaging system based on a distributed aperture with optical upconversion architecture. We will cover our efforts to reduce the cost, size, weight, and power (CSWaP) requirements of our next generation imager. To this end, we have developed custom integrated circuit silicon-germanium (SiGe) low noise amplifiers that have been designed to efficiently couple with our high performance lithium niobate upconversion modules. We have also developed millimeter wave packaging and components in multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates which greatly improve the manufacturability of the upconversion modules. These structures include antennas, substrate integrated waveguides, filters, and substrates for InP and SiGe mmW amplifiers.

  8. 36th Annual International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves

    Mittleman, Daniel M. [Rice University

    2011-12-31

    The Major Topic List of the 2011 conference featured a category entitled “IR, millimeter-wave, and THz spectroscopy,” another entitled “Gyro-Oscillators and Amplifiers, Plasma Diagnostics,” and a third called “Free Electron Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation.” Topical areas of interest to meeting participants include millimeter-wave electronics, high-power sources, high-frequency communications systems, and terahertz sensing and imaging, all of which are prominent in the research portfolios of the DOE. The development and study of new materials, components, and systems for use in the IR, THz, and MMW regions of the spectrum are of significant interest as well. a series of technical sessions were organized on the following topics: terahertz metamaterials and plasmonics; imaging techniques and applications; graphene spectroscopy; waveguide concepts; gyrotron science and technology; ultrafast terahertz measurements; and quantum cascade lasers.

  9. Soft Computing Methods for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Design Problems

    Chauhan, Narendra; Mittal, Ankush

    2012-01-01

    The growing commercial market of Microwave/ Millimeter wave industry over the past decade has led to the explosion of interests and opportunities for the design and development of microwave components.The design of most microwave components requires the use of commercially available electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools for their analysis. In the design process, the simulations are carried out by varying the design parameters until the desired response is obtained. The optimization of design parameters by manual searching is a cumbersome and time consuming process. Soft computing methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) have been widely used by EM researchers for microwave design since last decade. The aim of these methods is to tolerate imprecision, uncertainty, and approximation to achieve robust and low cost solution in a small time frame.  Modeling and optimization are essential parts and powerful tools for the microwave/millimeter wave design. This boo...

  10. Millimeter Wave Studies of Analogs to Optical Phenomena in Ferroelectric Crystals and Artificial Kerr Media.

    Bobbs, Bradley Lance

    Refractive, absorptive, electrooptical, and nonlinear optical phenomena have traditionally been associated with visible light, but can readily be extended to include analogs for millimeter wave radiation. Studies of such analog phenomena can reveal material properties with remarkable enhancements over corresponding properties in the visible spectrum. This is particularly true for materials grown or developed specifically for millimeter wave applications. One class of materials investigated was tungsten bronze ferroelectric crystals. Indices of absorption and refraction of Sr_{rm x} Ba_{rm 1-x}Nb _2O_6 and Ba_{rm 2-x}Sr _{rm x}K_ {rm1-y}Na_{ rm y}Nb_5O _{15} at millimeter wave frequencies between 55 and 110 GHz and temperatures between 20 and 300K were derived from measurements of transmittance spectra containing Fabry-Perot fringes produced by crystal surface reflections. The anisotropies observed in both indices at these frequencies are huge compared with those at optical frequencies. Absorption in both materials decreases markedly upon cooling, but only for incident waves polarized along the crystal polar axis. Measurements of linear electrooptic modulation show this effect to be quite large at 300 K, but indicate a significant reduction upon cooling. An artificial Kerr medium consisting of a suspension of short graphite fibers was shown to provide an effective means for observing nonlinear millimeter wave interactions. Using a 18 GHz pump beam with up to 20 W continuous power, changes in the 94 GHz refractive index were measured by interferometry. The induced birefringence and anisotropic absorption indicate an alignment of the fibers with the electric field of the pump beam. The resulting nonlinear refractive index is predicted to be of sufficient magnitude to demonstrate millimeter wave bistability and phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing. Although theoretical model fits to the experimental results show a reasonable degree of success, they also

  11. Measurements of millimeter wave test structures for high speed chip testing

    De Keulenaer, Timothy; Ban, Yu; Torfs, Guy; Sercu, Stefaan; Geest, Jan van de; Bauwelinck, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the frequency domain characterization of very high bandwidth connectorized traces and a millimeter wave rat race coupler. These connectorized differential grounded coplanar waveguide traces, essential for the testability of high speed integrated circuits, have a measured flat frequency response up to 67GHz which indicates correct connector footprint and transmission line design. The differential traces narrow down to a chip scale pitch of 150 μm allowing direct flip chip c...

  12. The involvement of cutaneous receptors in the biological effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves

    Anton Emil; Aurel Saulea; Gabriela Saulea; Ciobica Alin; Bruma SI.; Anton C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of peripheral nerve terminations in the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic millimeter waves (mmW) was assessed. It is currently thought that mmW could be used in noninvasive complementary therapy because of their analgesic effect. However, the mechanisms of their antinociceptive effect and non-ionizing radiation are the subjects of controversy. The mechanisms of interaction of mmW and the cutaneous tissue have not been elucidated. We ob...

  13. Millimeter-wave Wireless LAN and its Extension toward 5G Heterogeneous Networks

    Sakaguchi, Kei; Mohamed, Ehab Mahmoud; Kusano, Hideyuki; Mizukami, Makoto; Miyamoto, Shinichi; Rezagah, Roya; Takinami, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Shirakata, Naganori; Peng, Hailan; Yamamoto, Toshiaki; Namba, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmw) frequency bands, especially 60 GHz unlicensed band, are considered as a promising solution for gigabit short range wireless communication systems. IEEE standard 802.11ad, also known as WiGig, is standardized for the usage of the 60 GHz unlicensed band for wireless local area networks (WLANs). By using this mmw WLAN, multi-Gbps rate can be achieved to support bandwidth-intensive multimedia applications. Exhaustive search along with beamforming (BF) is usually used to over...

  14. Analysis of multiple antenna ultra-wideband and millimeter wave communication systems

    Nagvanshi, Preeti

    2007-01-01

    The home and office environments are experiencing an ever increasing penetration of consumer electronic devices, often requiring data rates well in excess of tens of megabits per second. Communication to and from such devices has mostly relied on wireline technologies such as USB, DVI and IEEE1394. Ultra-wideband (UWB) and millimeter -wave (mmW) systems have been proposed to replace these wireline communication systems with short range high speed wireless networks. The significantly higher oc...

  15. Aligning and tracking a beam steerable millimeter-wave radio link

    Leinonen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide high-throughput mobile broadband in a dense urban information society, upcoming cellular networks will finally employ the under-utilized millimeter-wave (mmW) frequencies. The challenging mmW radio environment, however, necessitates massive cell densification with wireless backhauling using very directional links. This thesis investigates how these links between access points may be aligned efficiently, and how alignment reflects the network organization. The work prov...

  16. Analytical Model for Outdoor Millimeter Wave Channels using Geometry-Based Stochastic Approach

    Muhammad, Nor Aishah; Wang, Peng; Li, Yonghui; Vucetic, Branka

    2016-01-01

    The severe bandwidth shortage in conventional microwave bands has spurred the exploration of the millimeter wave (MMW) spectrum for the next revolution in wireless communications. However, there is still lack of proper channel modeling for the MMW wireless propagation, especially in the case of outdoor environments. In this paper, we develop a geometry-based stochastic channel model to statistically characterize the effect of all the first-order reflection paths between the transmitter and re...

  17. Tractable Model for Rate in Self-Backhauled Millimeter Wave Cellular Networks

    Singh, Sarabjot; Kulkarni, Mandar N.; Ghosh, Amitava; Andrews, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) cellular systems will require high gain directional antennas and dense base station (BS) deployments to overcome high near field path loss and poor diffraction. As a desirable side effect, high gain antennas provide interference isolation, providing an opportunity to incorporate self-backhauling--BSs backhauling among themselves in a mesh architecture without significant loss in throughput--to enable the requisite large BS densities. The use of directional antennas and r...

  18. ENHANCED ABSORPTION OF MILLIMETER WAVE ENERGY IN MURINE SUBCUTANEOUS BLOOD VESSELS

    Alekseev, Stanislav I.; Ziskin, Marvin C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine millimeter wave (MMW) absorption by blood vessels traversing the subcutaneous fat layer of murine skin. Most calculations were performed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. We used two types of models: (1) a rectangular block of multilayer tissue with blood vessels traversing the fat layer and (2) cylindrical models with circular and elliptical cross sections simulating the real geometry of murine limbs. We found that the spe...

  19. Uniplanar Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antenna Fed by Coplanar Waveguide

    Jianjun Gao; Shouzheng Zhu; Qiuyan Yin; Yong Cheng; Guohua Zhai

    2013-01-01

    A uniplanar millimeter-wave broadband printed log-periodic dipole array (PLPDA) antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) is introduced. This proposed structure consists of several active dipole elements, feeding lines, parallel coupled line, and the CPW, which are etched on a single metallic layer of the substrate. The parallel coupled line can be optimized to act as a transformer between the CPW and the PLPDA antenna. Meanwhile, this transform performs the task of a balun to achieve a wideban...

  20. BCB-Si Based Wide Band Millimeter Wave Antenna Fed by Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Hamsakutty Vettikalladi; Majeed A. S. Alkanhal

    2013-01-01

    A benzocyclobutene (BCB) silicon (Si) based wideband antenna for millimeter wave applications is presented. The antenna consists of multilayer with one layer of BCB and the remaining three layers of Si. A patch is etched on the Si substrate above the air gap, which is excited through a slot. This architecture of slot, air gap, and patch will produce wide bandwidth by merging each one of resonances. The simulated results show that the antenna provides an S11

  1. Electro-thermal Modelling of Monolithic and Hybrid Microwave and Millimeter Wave IC's

    Batty, W.; Panks, A. J.; Johnson, R G; C. M. Snowden

    2000-01-01

    The first completely physical electro-thermal model is presented that is capable of describing the large signal performance of MESFET- and HEMT-based, high power microwave and millimeter wave monolithic and hybrid ICs, on timescales suitable for CAD. The model includes the effects of self-heating and mutual thermal interaction on active device performance with full treatment of all thermal non linearities. The electrical description is provided by the rapid quasi-2D Leeds Physi...

  2. Millimeter wave radiometer installation in Río Gallegos, southern Argentina

    Orte, P. F.; Salvador, J.; Wolfram, E.; D'Elia, R.; Nagahama, T.; Kojima, Y.; Tanada, R.; Kuwahara, T.; Morihira, A.; Quel, E.; Mizuno, A.

    2011-05-01

    With the aim of contribution to the study of atmospheric ozone layer, a new sensitive radiometer for atmospheric minor constituents has been installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, División LIDAR, CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET), in October 2010. This observatory is established in the city of Rio Gallegos (51° 36' S, 69° 19' W), Argentina, close to the spring ozone hole. The millimeter wave radiometer was developed in STEL (Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory), Nagoya University, Japan. This passive remote sensing instrument is able to measure the ozone (O3) amount in the high stratosphere and mesosphere continuously and automatically with a high time resolution. The millimeter wave radiometer ozone profiles will be supplemented with the ozone profiles obtained from the DIAL system existent in the observatory. The millimeter wave radiometer is based on the spectral signal detection from the atmosphere due to the molecular rotational transition of molecules under study. The operation is based on a superheterodyne system which uses a Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer receiver operating at 203.6GHz. The SIS mixer junction consists of a sandwich structure of Nb/AlOx/Nb, and is cooled to 4.2K with a closed cycle He-gas refrigerator. Two additional heterodyne-mixed stages are realized with the aim to shift the measured spectral line until a frequency around of 500 MHz. A FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) spectrometer system is used as a back end. The aims of this work are to show the potential of the millimeter wave radiometer installed in the subpolar latitudes close to the polar ozone hole and to present the preliminary result of the first measurements.

  3. Experimental study of millimeter wave-induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes.

    Wu, Guang-Wen; Liu, Xian-Xiang; Wu, Ming-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Yan; Chen, Wen-Lie; Lin, Ru-Hui; Lin, Jiu-Mao

    2009-04-01

    Low power millimeter wave irradiation is widely used in clinical medicine. We describe the effects of this treatment on cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and attempted to identify the underlying mechanism. Cells cultured using the whole marrow attachment culture method proliferated dispersedly or in clones. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the MSCs were CD90 positive, but negative for CD45. The negative control group (A) did not express detectable levels of Cbfa1 or Sox9 mRNA at any time point, while cells in the millimeter wave-induced groups (B and C) increasingly expressed both genes after the fourth day post-induction. Statistical analysis showed that starting on the fourth day post-induction, there were very significant differences in the expression of Cbfa1 and Sox9 mRNA between groups A and B as well as A and C at any given time point, between treated groups B and C after identical periods of induction, and within each treated group at different induction times. Transition electron microscopy analysis showed that the rough endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the induced groups was richer and more developed than in cells of the negative control group, and that the shape of cells shifted from long-spindle to near ellipse. Toluidine blue staining revealed heterochromia in the cytoplasm and extracellular matrix of cells in the induced groups, whereas no obvious heterochromia was observed in negative control cells. Induced cells also exhibited positive immunohistochemical staining of collagen II, in contrast to the negative controls. These results show that millimeter wave treatment successfully induced MSCs to differentiate as chondrocytes and the extent of differentiation increased with treatment duration. Our findings suggest that millimeter wave irradiation can be employed as a novel non-drug inducing method for the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes. PMID:19288021

  4. ANALYSIS OF GROUND TARGET STEALTH BASED ON PASSIVE MILLIMETER-WAVE DETECTION

    Shi Xiang; Lou Guowei; Li Xingguo

    2008-01-01

    Passive Millimeter-Wave (MMW) detection has become a threat to ground targets. To nhance the survivability of the ground target in the future battlefield, passive MMW stealth tech- nology is analyzed in this paper. Based on the passive MMW detection principle, computation and analysis are made for the MMW apparent temperature of tank in different actual combat conditions. The necessity of the passive MMW stealth is analyzed and the passive MMW stealth methods are also studied.

  5. A 94-GHz Millimeter-Wave Sensor for Speech Signal Acquisition

    Jianqi Wang; Hua Zhang; Huijun Xue; Hao Lv; Xiao Yu; Yang Zhang; Guohua Lu; Ying Tian; Sheng Li; Xijing Jing

    2013-01-01

    High frequency millimeter-wave (MMW) radar-like sensors enable the detection of speech signals. This novel non-acoustic speech detection method has some special advantages not offered by traditional microphones, such as preventing strong-acoustic interference, high directional sensitivity with penetration, and long detection distance. A 94-GHz MMW radar sensor was employed in this study to test its speech acquisition ability. A 34-GHz zero intermediate frequency radar, a 34-GHz superheterodyn...

  6. Second generation of AVTIS FMCW millimeter wave radars for mapping volcanic terrain

    Macfarlane, David Graham; Robertson, Duncan Alexander; Cassidy, Scott Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    The second generation AVTIS ground-based millimeter wave instruments designed for monitoring topography of volcanic lava domes are solid state 94 GHz FMCW rastered, real beam radars operating at ranges of up to ~7 km with a range resolution of ~2.5 m. Operating ten times faster than the prototype with reduced power consumption suitable for battery powered portable use as well as installation at a telemetered site under solar power, we examine their performance as tools for monitoring topograp...

  7. Plasma density measurements using FM--CW millimeter wave radar techniques

    Modified FM--CW radar techniques using swept millimeter--wave oscillators are useful for determining when a particular density has been reached in a plasma. Narrowband measurements on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) demonstrate the suitability of these techniques for controlling high-power auxiliary plasma heating systems. Broadband measurements using these same techniques are proposed, by which the density profile could be determined

  8. Plasma density measurements using FM-CW millimeter wave radar techniques

    Modified FM-CW radar techniques using swept millimeter-wave oscillators are useful for determining when a particular density has been reached in a plasma. Narrowband measurements on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) demonstrate the suitability of these techniques for controlling high-power auxiliary plasma heating systems. Broadband measurements using these same techniques are proposed, by which the density profile could be determined

  9. RF Performance of Layer-Structured Broadband Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging System

    Kunio Sakakibara; Kunihiko Ohkawa; Yutaka Aoki; Nobuyoshi Kikuma

    2016-01-01

    Low profile and simple configuration are advantageous for RF module in passive millimeter-wave imaging system. High sensitivity over broad operation bandwidth is also necessary to detect right information from weak signal. We propose a broadband layer-structured module with low profile, simple structure, and ease of manufacture. This module is composed of a lens antenna and a detector module that consists of a detector circuit and a broadband microstrip-to-waveguide transition. The module for...

  10. Millimeter-Wave Wireless Power Transfer Technology for Space Applications

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Mojarradi, Hadi; Bae, Sam Y.; Marzwell, Neville

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new compact, scalable, and low cost technology for efficient receiving of power using RF waves at 94 GHz. This technology employs a highly innovative array of slot antennas that is integrated on substrate composed of gold (Au), silicon (Si), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) layers. The length of the slots and spacing between them are optimized for a highly efficient beam through a 3-D electromagnetic simulation process. Antenna simulation results shows a good beam profile with very low side lobe levels and better than 93% antenna efficiency.

  11. System-in-package LTCC platform for 3D RF to millimeter wave

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation shows recent trends and results in 3D Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics (LTCC) modules in applications from RF to millimeter waves. The system-in-package LTCC platform is a true three dimensional module technology. LTCC is a lightweight multi-layer technology having typically 6-20 ceramic layers and metallizations between. The metallization levels i.e different metal layers can be patterned and connected together with metal vias. Passive devices can also be fabricated on LTCC while active devices and other chips are connected with flip-chip, wire bonding or soldering. In addition to passives directly fabricated to LTCC, several different technologies/ chips can be hybrid integrated to the same module. LTCC platform is also well suited for the realization of antenna arrays for microwave and millimeter wave applications. Potential applications are ranging from short range communications to space and radars. VTT has designed, fabricated and characterized microwave and millimeter wave packages for Radio Frequency (RF) Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as active devices. Also, several types of system-in-package modules have been realized containing hybrid integrated CMOS and GaAs MMICs and antenna arrays.

  12. Millimeter-Wave Heterodyne Six-Port Receiver: New Implementation and Demodulation Results

    D Hammou; E. Moldovan; S.O. Tatu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new implementation of a millimeter-wave heterodyne receiver based on six-port technology. The six-port model is implemented in Advanced Design System (ADS) using S-parameter measurements for realistic advanced simulation of a short-range 60 GHz wireless link. Millimeter-wave frequency conversion is performed using a six-port down-converter. The second frequency conversion is performed using conventional means because of low IF. A comparison between the proposed receiver and a conventional balanced millimeter-wave mixer shows that the proposed receiver improves conversion loss and I/Q phase stability over the local oscillator (LO) and RF power ranges. The results of demodulating a V-band quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal at a high data rate of 100 Mb/s-1 Gb/s are discussed. The results of a bit error rate (BER) and error vector magnitude (EVM) analysis prove that the proposed architecture can be successfully used for wireless link transmission up to 10 m.

  13. Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ε-iron oxide

    Chao, Liu; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2014-05-01

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) and strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ɛ-iron oxides (ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz-150 GHz. The ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  14. Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ε-iron oxide

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) and strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ε-iron oxides (ε-GaxFe2−xO3) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz–150 GHz. The ε-GaxFe2−xO3 is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ε-GaxFe2−xO3 particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ε-GaxFe2−xO3 are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found

  15. Development and Testing of a Refractory Millimeter-Wave Absorbent Heat Exchanger

    Lambot, Thomas; Myrabo, Leik; Murakami, David; Parkin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Central to the Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) is the millimeter-wave absorbent heat exchanger. We have developed metallic and ceramic variants, with the key challenge being the millimeter-wave absorbent coatings for each. The ceramic heat exchanger came to fruition first, demonstrating for the first time 1800 K peak surface temperatures under illumination by a 110 GHz Gaussian beam. Absorption efficiencies of up to 80 are calculated for mullite heat exchanger tubes and up to 50 are calculated for alumina tubes. These are compared with estimates based on stratified layer and finite element analyses. The problem of how to connect the 1800 K end of the ceramic tubes to a graphite outlet manifold and nozzle is solved by press fitting, or by threading the ends of the ceramic tubes and screwing them into place. The problem of how to connect the ceramic tubes to a metallic or nylon inlet pipe is solved by using soft compliant PTFE and PVC tubes that accommodate thermal deformations of the ceramic tubes during startup and operation. We show the resulting heat exchangers in static tests using argon and helium as propellants.

  16. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network

    Kai Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC. The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods.

  17. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network.

    Lin, Kai; Wang, Di; Hu, Long

    2016-01-01

    With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC). The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods. PMID:27376302

  18. RF Performance of Layer-Structured Broadband Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging System

    Kunio Sakakibara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low profile and simple configuration are advantageous for RF module in passive millimeter-wave imaging system. High sensitivity over broad operation bandwidth is also necessary to detect right information from weak signal. We propose a broadband layer-structured module with low profile, simple structure, and ease of manufacture. This module is composed of a lens antenna and a detector module that consists of a detector circuit and a broadband microstrip-to-waveguide transition. The module forms a layer structure as a printed substrate with detector circuit is fixed between two metal plates with horn antennas and back-short waveguides. We developed a broadband passive millimeter-wave imaging module composed of a lens antenna and a detector module in this work. The gain and the antenna efficiency were measured, and the broadband operation was observed for the lens antenna. For the detector module, peak sensitivity was 8100 V/W. Furthermore, the detector module recognized a difference in the absorber’s temperature. The designs of the lens antenna and the detector module are presented and the RF performances of these components are reported. Finally, passive millimeter-wave imaging of a car, a human, and a metal plate in clothes is demonstrated in this paper.

  19. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network

    Lin, Kai; Wang, Di; Hu, Long

    2016-01-01

    With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC). The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods. PMID:27376302

  20. Coherent Fiber-Optic Links for Transmission and Signal Processing in Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Systems

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1998-01-01

    The principles of coherent fiber-optic links are presented and the transmission and signal processing capabilities offered to microwave and millimeter-wave systems are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of implemented transmitter types and link experiments is given......The principles of coherent fiber-optic links are presented and the transmission and signal processing capabilities offered to microwave and millimeter-wave systems are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of implemented transmitter types and link experiments is given...

  1. Application of Temperature-Dependent Fluorescent Dyes to the Measurement of Millimeter Wave Absorption in Water Applied to Biomedical Experiments

    Nataliia Kuzkova; Oleksandr Popenko; Andrey Yakunov

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensitivity of the fluorescence intensity of the organic dyes solutions was used for noncontact measurement of the electromagnetic millimeter wave absorption in water. By using two different dyes with opposite temperature effects, local temperature increase in the capillary that is placed inside a rectangular waveguide in which millimeter waves propagate was defined. The application of this noncontact temperature sensing is a simple and novel method to detect temperature change in...

  2. Wide-open, high-resolution microwave/millimeter-wave Doppler frequency shift estimation using photonics technology

    Zou, Xihua; Li, Wangzhe; Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan; Shao, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    Today, wide-open, high-resolution Doppler frequency shift (DFS) estimation is essential for radar, microwave/millimeter-wave, and communication systems. Using photonics technology, an effective approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, providing a high-resolution and frequency-independent solution. In the approach consisting of two cascaded opto-electronic modulators, DFS between the transmitted microwave/ millimeter-wave signal and the received echo signal is mapped into a double...

  3. Waveguide Bandpass Filters for Millimeter-Wave Radiometers

    Furtula, V.; Zirath, H.; Salewski, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for most mm-wave heterodyne receivers is the rejection of the input image signal which is located close to the local oscillator frequency. For this purpose we use a bandpass filter, which for heterodyne receivers is also called an image rejection filter. In this paper we...... present a systematic approach to the design of a waveguide bandpass filter with a passband from 100 to 110 GHz and upper rejection bandwidth in the range from 113 to 145 GHz. We consider two non-tunable filter configurations: the first one is relatively selective with 11 sections (poles) whereas the...... second one is simpler with 5 sections. We used established design equations to propose an initial guess for the geometries of the filters, optimized the geometries, constructed the filters using two different milling methods, measured their transmission and reflection characteristics, and compared the...

  4. Characteristics of Off-Chip Millimeter-Wave Radiation from Serial Josephson Junction Arrays

    WANG Zheng; FAN Bin; ZHAO Xin-Jie; YUE Hong-Wei; HE Ming; JI Lu; YAN Shao-Lin; FANG Lan; Klushin A. M.

    2011-01-01

    @@ We investigate the self-emissions from serial high-temperature superconductor bicrystal Josephson junction ar- rays embedded in a quasi-optical resonator.A bicrystal substrate is used as a dielectric resonator antenna, which increases the coupling strength between the junction array and the electromagnetic (EM) wave.Both three-dimension (3D) electromagnetic simulations and experiments are performed.Strong ofT-chip radiations axe measured from the junction array at 78 GHz and 78 K.The proposed method and the experimental results are important for millimeter wave applications in junction arrays.

  5. Tractable Resource Management with Uplink Decoupled Millimeter-Wave Overlay in Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    Park, Jihong; Kim, Seong-Lyun; Zander, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The forthcoming 5G cellular network is expected to overlay millimeter-wave (mmW) transmissions with the incumbent micro-wave ({\\mu}W) architecture. The overall mm-{\\mu}W resource management should therefore harmonize with each other. This paper aims at maximizing the overall downlink (DL) rate with a minimum uplink (UL) rate constraint, and concludes: mmW tends to focus more on DL transmissions while {\\mu}W has high priority for complementing UL, under time-division duplex (TDD) mmW operation...

  6. Tractable Resource Management in Millimeter-Wave Overlaid Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    Park, Jihong; Kim, Seong-Lyun; Zander, Jens

    2015-01-01

    What does millimeter-wave (mmW) seek assistance for from micro-wave ({\\mu}W) in a mmW overlaid 5G cellular network? This paper raises the question of whether to complement downlink (DL) or uplink (UL) transmissions, and concludes that {\\mu}W should aid UL more. Such dedication to UL results from the low mmW UL rate due to high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) at mobile users. The DL/UL allocations are tractably provided based on a novel closed-form mm-{\\mu}W spectral efficiency (SE) derivat...

  7. Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes

    Westerhof, E.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Oosterbeek, J.W.;

    2009-01-01

    In tokamak plasmas with a tearing mode, strong scattering of high power millimeter waves, as used for heating and noninductive current drive, is shown to occur. This new wave scattering phenomenon is shown to be related to the passage of the O point of a magnetic island through the high power...... heating beam. The density determines the detailed phasing of the scattered radiation relative to the O-point passage. The scattering power depends strongly nonlinearly on the heating beam power. ©2009 The American Physical Society...

  8. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    Osman, Nurul [Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Malaysia); Free, Charles [Department of Engineering and Design, University of Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.

  9. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application

  10. Safety Aspect Analysis of Helmet Mounted Millimeter Wave Radio

    K. Nageswari

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of millimetric wave (MMW power density from two-helmet-mounted MMW radiating horn antennas were made at various distances on the three axes. These three axes are representing three planes: (i in the direction of propagation (Z-axis, (ii horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of propagation (Y-axis, i.e., 15 cm to the left or right of Z-axis, and (iii vertical axis (X-axis also perpendicular to the direction of propagation and extending up and down an imaginary central reference line passing through the centre of the horn and the centre of the microwave measuring probe. Measurements were also made inside the helmet close to the metallic plate at 17 locations and 10 cm away from it. The Narda-8723 broadband isotropic microwave probe [frequency of operation (0.3-40 GHz power density range 0.05-100 mW/cm1 was placed at various distance points marked at 15 nm intervals and also at distances of relevance on Z-axis. For each of the distance points on Z-axis, measurements were taken at 7 probe locations on X-axis. For Y-axis measurements, 4 probe locations were selected (on vertical or X-axis. The results revealed no leakage of microwave power inside the helmets. In the transmitting mode of operation, there was a great variability of microwave power emitted closest to the horn antennas (2.5-5.0 mW / 2 and 6.0-105 mW /cm2 for helmet Nos.11 and2, respectively. As the distance from the antenna increased in the direction of propagation, the power density dropped to 0.04 m W / cm2 or 0.075 m W / cm{ maximum value at 1 m. As the values recorded are within American National Standards Institute (ANSI safety guidelines (10mW/cm2 at 35 GHz.

  11. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR MILLIMETER-WAVE CAVITY ORIGINATES IN THE TEMPERATURE MINIMUM REGION

    De la Luz, Victor [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 (Mexico); Raulin, Jean-Pierre [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP 01302-907 (Brazil); Lara, Alejandro [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-01-10

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the local radio emission at the lower part of the solar atmosphere. To accomplish this, we have used a numerical code to simulate the emission and transport of high-frequency electromagnetic waves from 2 GHz up to 10 THz. As initial conditions, we used VALC, SEL05, and C7 solar chromospheric models. In this way, the generated synthetic spectra allow us to study the local emission and absorption processes with high resolution in both altitude and frequency. Associated with the temperature minimum predicted by these models, we found that the local optical depth at millimeter wavelengths remains constant, producing an optically thin layer that is surrounded by two layers of high local emission. We call this structure the Chromospheric Solar Millimeter-wave Cavity (CSMC). The temperature profile, which features temperature minimum layers and a subsequent temperature rise, produces the CSMC phenomenon. The CSMC shows the complexity of the relation between the theoretical temperature profile and the observed brightness temperature and may help us to understand the dispersion of the observed brightness temperature in the millimeter wavelength range.

  12. Proof-of-Concept of a Millimeter-Wave Integrated Heterogeneous Network for 5G Cellular.

    Okasaka, Shozo; Weiler, Richard J; Keusgen, Wilhelm; Pudeyev, Andrey; Maltsev, Alexander; Karls, Ingolf; Sakaguchi, Kei

    2016-01-01

    The fifth-generation mobile networks (5G) will not only enhance mobile broadband services, but also enable connectivity for a massive number of Internet-of-Things devices, such as wireless sensors, meters or actuators. Thus, 5G is expected to achieve a 1000-fold or more increase in capacity over 4G. The use of the millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum is a key enabler to allowing 5G to achieve such enhancement in capacity. To fully utilize the mmWave spectrum, 5G is expected to adopt a heterogeneous network (HetNet) architecture, wherein mmWave small cells are overlaid onto a conventional macro-cellular network. In the mmWave-integrated HetNet, splitting of the control plane (CP) and user plane (UP) will allow continuous connectivity and increase the capacity of the mmWave small cells. mmWave communication can be used not only for access linking, but also for wireless backhaul linking, which will facilitate the installation of mmWave small cells. In this study, a proof-of-concept (PoC) was conducted to demonstrate the practicality of a prototype mmWave-integrated HetNet, using mmWave technologies for both backhaul and access. PMID:27571074

  13. Planar Superconducting Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Channelizing Filter

    Ehsan, Negar; U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is a compact, superconducting, channelizing bandpass filter on a single-crystal (0.45 m thick) silicon substrate, which operates from 300 to 600 GHz. This device consists of four channels with center frequencies of 310, 380, 460, and 550 GHz, with approximately 50-GHz bandwidth per channel. The filter concept is inspired by the mammalian cochlea, which is a channelizing filter that covers three decades of bandwidth and 3,000 channels in a very small physical space. By using a simplified physical cochlear model, and its electrical analog of a channelizing filter covering multiple octaves bandwidth, a large number of output channels with high inter-channel isolation and high-order upper stopband response can be designed. A channelizing filter is a critical component used in spectrometer instruments that measure the intensity of light at various frequencies. This embodiment was designed for MicroSpec in order to increase the resolution of the instrument (with four channels, the resolution will be increased by a factor of four). MicroSpec is a revolutionary wafer-scale spectrometer that is intended for the SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Mission. In addition to being a vital component of MicroSpec, the channelizing filter itself is a low-resolution spectrometer when integrated with only an antenna at its input, and a detector at each channel s output. During the design process for this filter, the available characteristic impedances, possible lumped element ranges, and fabrication tolerances were identified for design on a very thin silicon substrate. Iterations between full-wave and lumped-element circuit simulations were performed. Each channel s circuit was designed based on the availability of characteristic impedances and lumped element ranges. This design was based on a tabular type bandpass filter with no spurious harmonic response. Extensive electromagnetic modeling for each channel was performed. Four channels

  14. Millimeter-wave properties of neutron-irradiated ceramics for RF-window MFE applications

    In response to materials needs connected with electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactors, the facility at Los Alamos for dielectric properties measurements on irradiated materials was upgraded to include a capability in the millimeter-wave region. With it, dielectric constants (K) and loss tangents (tandelta) were measured at frequencies (f) of about 95 GHz for polycrystalline alumina and beryllia specimens inserted into WR-10 waveguide after irradiations in EBR-II at 3850C and an average fluence of 8 x 1025 n/cm2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Relative to annealed controls, the dielectric loss quantity Ktandelta doubled for both ceramic types. Furthermore, the BeO material underwent substantial enough changes in K and mass density rho to indicate the likelihood of millimeter-window thickness detuning

  15. Maps of millimeter wave emission from three galactic star-forming regions

    Barsony, Mary

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate the gas dynamics around young stellar objects, three sources were mapped which exhibit supersonic velocities in the 115 GHZ, J = 1-0 transition of CO. The maps, made with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Interferometer, are the highest spatial resolution images currently available of millimeter-wave continuum and line emission from the sources S106, S87, and LkHalpha101. Observations were made in the CS (J = 2-1) and C-13O (J = 1-0) transitions. In all the sources, the observations indicate that the ionized stellar wind is sweeping up ambient molecular gas. The molecular gas is found adjacent to the outer edges of the ionized winds, which originate in embedded infrared sources. From the observations presented, it may be inferred that the outflowing ionized winds are channeled by the surrounding dense, neutral gas.

  16. Millimeter Wave Detection via Autler-Townes Splitting in Rubidium Rydberg Atoms

    Gordon, Joshua A; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in 85Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric- field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 waveguide band is measured for frequencies of 93 GHz, and 104 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measure the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  17. Characterization and Applications of Micro- and Nano- Ferrites at Microwave and Millimeter Waves

    Chao, Liu

    Ferrite materials are one of the most widely used magnetic materials in microwave and millimeter wave applications such as radar, wireless communication. They provide unique properties for microwave and millimeter wave devices especially non-reciprocal devices. Some ferrite materials with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy fields can extend these applications to tens of GHz range while reducing the size, weight and cost. This thesis focuses on characterization of such ferrite materials as micro- and nano-powder and the fabrication of the devices. The ferrite materials with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy field are metal/non-metal substituted iron oxides oriented in low crystal symmetry. The ferrite materials characterized in this thesis include M-type hexagonal ferrites such as barium ferrite (BaFe12O19), strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), epsilon phase iron oxide (epsilon-Fe 2O3), substituted epsilon phase iron oxide (epsilon-Ga xFe2-xO3, epsilon-AlxFe2-xO 3). These ferrites exhibit great anisotropic magnetic fields. A transmission-reflection based in-waveguide technique that employs a vector network analyzer was used to determine the scattering parameters for each sample in the microwave bands (8.2--40 GHz). From the S-parameters, complex dielectric permittivity and complex magnetic permeability are evaluated by an improved algorithm. The millimeter wave measurement is based on a free space quasi-optical spectrometer. Initially precise transmittance spectra over a broad millimeter wave frequency range from 40 GHz to 120 GHz are acquired. Later the transmittance spectra are converted into complex permittivity and permeability spectra. These ferrite powder materials are further characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) to understand the crystalline structure relating to the strength and the shift of the ferromagnetic resonance affected by the particle size. A Y-junction circulator working in the 60 GHz frequency band is designed based on characterized M

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurological Disorders by Millimeter-Wave Stimulation

    Siegel, Peter H.; Pikov, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, millimeter waves are being employed for telecomm, radar, and imaging applications. To date in the U.S, however, very few investigations on the impact of this radiation on biological systems at the cellular level have been undertaken. In the beginning, to examine the impact of millimeter waves on cellular processes, researchers discovered that cell membrane depolarization may be triggered by low levels of integrated power at these high frequencies. Such a situation could be used to advantage in the direct stimulation of neuronal cells for applications in neuroprosthetics and diagnosing or treating neurological disorders. An experimental system was set up to directly monitor cell response on exposure to continuous-wave, fixed-frequency, millimeter-wave radiation at low and modest power levels (0.1 to 100 safe exposure standards) between 50 and 100 GHz. Two immortalized cell lines derived from lung and neuronal tissue were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) that locates on the inside of the cell membrane lipid bi-layer. Oxonol dye was added to the cell medium. When membrane depolarization occurs, the oxonal bound to the outer wall of the lipid bi-layer can penetrate close to the inner wall where the GFP resides. Under fluorescent excitation (488 nm), the normally green GFP (520 nm) optical signal quenches and gives rise to a red output when the oxonol comes close enough to the GFP to excite a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with an output at 620 nm. The presence of a strong FRET signature upon exposures of 30 seconds to 2 minutes at 5-10 milliwatts per square centimeter RF power at 50 GHz, followed by a return to the normal 520-nm GFP signal after a few minutes indicating repolarization of the membrane, indicates that low levels of RF energy may be able to trigger non-destructive membrane depolarization without direct cell contact. Such a mechanism could be used to stimulate neuronal cells in the cortex without the need for

  19. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  20. Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ε-iron oxide

    Chao, Liu, E-mail: liu.chao@tufts.edu; Afsar, Mohammed N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ε-iron oxides (ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz–150 GHz. The ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  1. CCAM: A novel millimeter-wave instrument using a close-packed TES bolometer array

    Lau, Judy M.

    This thesis describes CCAM, an instrument designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), and also presents some of the initial measurements made with CCAM on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). CCAM uses a CCD-like camera of millimeter-wave TES bolometers. It employs new detector technology, read-out electronics, cold re-imaging optics, and cryogenics to obtain high sensitivity CMB anisotropy measurements. The free-standing 8×32 close-packed array of pop- up TES detectors is the first of its kind to observe the sky at 145 GHz. We present the design of the receiver including the antireflection coated silicon lens re-imaging system, construction and optimization of the pulse tube/ sorption refrigerator cryogenic system, as well as the technology developed to integrate eight 1×32 TES columns and accompanying read-out electronics in to an array of 256 millimeter-wave detectors into a focal plane area of 3.5 cm 2. The performance of the detectors and optics prior to deployment at the ACT site in Chile are reported as well as preliminary performance results of the instrument when optically paired with the ACT telescope in the summer of 2007. Here, we also report on the feasibility of the TES detector array to measure polarization when coupled to a rotating birefringent sapphire half wave plate and wire-grid polarizer.

  2. Optimization of millimeter wave system in ITER Equatorial EC H and CD Launcher

    Kajiwara, K., E-mail: kajiwara.ken@jaea.go.jp; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Sakamoto, K.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •We improved the millimeter wave design of the ITER Equatorial EC H and CD Launcher. •The transmission efficiency inside the launcher is increased to 99.1% while maintaining the narrow opening and beam concentration at plasma. •An effect of the high order mode inside the launcher is estimated by using the high power beam pattern. •The 1–2% additional loss inside the launcher is appeared, which is the first quantitative analysis of the high order mode effect in the launcher. -- Abstract: A high power (20 MW) and CW millimeter wave (mm-wave) injection is planned for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) in ITER. An optimization of the mm-wave system for the ITER EC H and CD Equatorial Launcher (EL) is performed. The optimization of the system is aimed to obtain the maximum transmission efficiency on the condition that 1.8 MW injection per waveguide, ∼20 cm in beam radius at the resonance layer and narrow opening of the Blanket Shielding Module (BSM). The transmission efficiency of 99.1% from the end of the waveguide inside the launcher to the output of the BSM is achieved. The mm-wave propagation with high order modes is also calculated by using an experimentally obtained high power mm-wave beam pattern that includes 95%HE{sub 11}, 0.6%LP{sub 11}, 0.2%LP{sub 02} and 4.2% other higher order modes. The analysis predicts the 1–2% additional loss will be induced by the high order modes.

  3. Human Skin as Arrays of Helical Antennas in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Range

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Agranat, Aharon J.

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography showed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. A computer simulation study of these structures in millimeter and submillimeter wave bands show that the human skin functions as an array of low-Q helical antennas. Experimental evidence is presented that the spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure.

  4. Dynamic Time-domain Duplexing for Self-backhauled Millimeter Wave Cellular Networks

    Ford, Russell; Gomez-Cuba, Felipe; Mezzavilla, Marco; Rangan, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) bands between 30 and 300 GHz have attracted considerable attention for next-generation cellular networks due to vast quantities of available spectrum and the possibility of very high-dimensional antenna ar-rays. However, a key issue in these systems is range: mmW signals are extremely vulnerable to shadowing and poor high-frequency propagation. Multi-hop relaying is therefore a natural technology for such systems to improve cell range and cell edge rates without the addi...

  5. Millimeter-wave UWB signal generation via frequency Up-conversion using fiber optical parametric amplifier

    Wong, KKY; Li, J.; Liang, Y

    2009-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to generate millimeter-wave (MMW) ultra-wideband (UWB) signal via frequency up-conversion using fiber optical parametric amplifier (OPA). The baseband UWB signal is amplified by a high-repetition-rate pulsed pump and generates many sidebands separated by the modulation frequency of the pump. By selecting two or three of the sidebands and beating in the photodetector, we can obtain an up-converted signal in the MMW band. In our experiment, we have su...

  6. Simulations of polarization dependent contrast during the diurnal heating cycle for passive millimeter-wave imagery

    Wilson, John P.; Murakowski, Maciej; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2013-09-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) sensors are especially suited to persistent surveillance applications due to their ability to operate during day/night conditions and through transient atmospheric obscurants such as clouds, rain and fog. The contrast of targets will change throughout a diurnal heating cycle and this change will be polarization dependent. Simulations are presented from a ray tracing program developed for the mmW regime that has been modified to account for polarization information. Results are shown demonstrating periods during the day when the contrast of certain targets drop to zero for a linear polarization state while the orthogonal state still maintains a high contrast.

  7. Millimeter Wave Beamforming Based on WiFi Fingerprinting in Indoor Environment

    Mohamed, Ehab Mahmoud; Sakaguchi, Kei; Sampei, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Millimeter Wave (mm-w), especially the 60 GHz band, has been receiving much attention as a key enabler for the 5G cellular networks. Beamforming (BF) is tremendously used with mm-w transmissions to enhance the link quality and overcome the channel impairments. The current mm-w BF mechanism, proposed by the IEEE 802.11ad standard, is mainly based on exhaustive searching the best transmit (TX) and receive (RX) antenna beams. This BF mechanism requires a very high setup time, which makes it diff...

  8. Beamforming Tradeoffs for Initial UE Discovery in Millimeter-Wave MIMO Systems

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Cezanne, Juergen; Subramanian, Sundar; Sampath, Ashwin; Koymen, Ozge

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter-wave MIMO systems have gained increasing traction towards the goal of meeting the high data-rate requirements in next-generation wireless systems. The focus of this work is on low-complexity beamforming approaches for initial UE discovery in such systems. Towards this goal, we first note the structure of the optimal beamformer with per-antenna gain and phase control and the structure of good beamformers with per-antenna phase-only control. Learning these beamforming structures in m...

  9. Towards an Appropriate Receiver Beamforming Scheme for Millimeter Wave Communication: A Power Consumption Based Comparison

    Abbas, Waqas Bin; Zorzi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    At millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies, beamforming and large antenna arrays are an essential requirement to combat the high path loss for mmW communication. Moreover, at these frequencies, very large bandwidths are available to fulfill the data rate requirements of future wireless networks. However, utilization of these large bandwidths and of large antenna arrays can result in a high power consumption which is an even bigger concern for mmW receiver design. In a mmW receiver, the analog-to-di...

  10. Online Ski Rental for ON/OFF Scheduling of Energy Harvesting, Millimeter Wave Base Stations

    Lee, Gilsoo; Saad, Walid; Bennis, Mehdi; Mehbodniya, Abolfazl; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The co-existence of millimeter wave (mmW) small cell base stations (SBSs) with conventional microwave macrocell base stations is a promising approach to boost the capacity and coverage of cellular networks. However, densifying the network with a viral deployment of mmW SBSs can significantly increase energy consumption. To reduce the reliance on unsustainable energy sources, one can adopt self-powered, mmW SBSs that rely solely on energy harvesting. Due to the uncertainty of energy arrival an...

  11. Millimeter-wave imaging with frequency scanning antenna and optical arrayed waveguide gratings

    He, Yuntao; Yu, Guoxin; Fu, Xinyu; Jiang, Yuesong

    2012-12-01

    The principle of a novel passive millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging method using frequency scanning antenna (FSA) and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is analyzed theoretically. The imaging processes are divided to three stages and discussed respectively. Then the FSA with 33~ 43GHz frequency scanning range is designed carefully with a field of view of +/-25°for the MMW imaging system. An AWG of 1×24 is then simply designed with a channel spacing of 0.5GHz. The designing and simulating demonstrated the feasibility to build such an imaging system which is progressing.

  12. Liquid Crystal-Reconfigurable Antenna Concepts for Space Applications at Microwave and Millimeter Waves

    A. Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel approaches of tunable devices for millimeter wave applications based on liquid crystal (LC are presented. In the first part of the paper, a novel concept of a tunable LC phase shifter realized in Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics technology is shown while the second part of the paper deals with a tunable high-gain antenna based on an LC tunable reflectarray. The reflectarray features continuously beam scanning in between ±25∘. Also first investigations on radiation hardness of LCs are carried out, indicating that LCs might be suitable for space applications.

  13. Millimeter-wave imaging radiometer for cloud, precipitation and atmospheric water vapor studies

    Racette, P. E.; Dod, L. R.; Shiue, J. C.; Adler, R. F.; Jackson, D. M.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Zacharias, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A millimeter-wave imaging radiometer (MIR) developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is described. The MIR is a nine-channel total power radiometer developed for atmospheric research. Three dual-pass band channels are centered about the strongly opaque 183-GHz water vapor absorption line; the frequencies are 183 +/- 1, +/- 3, and +/- 7 GHz. Another channel is located on the wing of this band at 150 GHz. These four channels have varying degrees of opacity from which the water vapor profile can be inferred. The design and salient characteristics of this instrument are discussed, together with its expected benefits.

  14. HANET: Millimeter wave based intelligent radio architecture for serving place time capacity issue

    Lala, Purnima; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are advancing their scope beyond military applications. Most of the work has been concentrated in employing multi-UAV systems in providing cellular services to enhance network coverage. However, little or no attention has been considered in serving moving...... hotspot conditions aka Place Time Capacity (PTC). In this paper, we explore a disparate way of employing multi-UAV systems by proposing a concept of Hovering Ad-Hoc Network (HANET) distinctively to solve PTC congestion using millimeter wave communication. We present a suitable architecture based on...

  15. High-Efficiency and High-Power CMOS Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Applications /

    Agah, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the analysis and design of stacked-FET power amplifiers for millimeter-wave applications. We analyze the loss mechanisms in the stacked-FET PA circuit to develop the fundamental bounds on PAE and output power. Two-stack power amplifiers are designed and implemented at 45 and 90GHz achieving 19 and 15.8dbm output power with 34% and 11% PAE, respectively. The gate resistance of the stacked-FET PA is demonstrated to be a dominant source of loss at high frequency. To over...

  16. DTU-ESA millimeter-wave validation standard antenna (mm-vast) – performance verification

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, R.; Vesterdal, N.; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Markussen, Christen Malte; Paquay, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new multi-frequency Validation Standard (VAST) antenna covering upper microwave (K/Ka) and millimeter wave (Q/V) bands, and thus called mmVAST, was developed in cooperation between DTU and TICRA under contract from the European Space Agency. In this paper, the mechanical and electrical...... requirements as well as the design and manufacturing of the mm-VAST antenna are briefly presented. The focus is then given to the details of conducted mechanical and electrical tests aimed at verifying the performance of the manufactured antenna and to the obtained measurement results....

  17. Influence of Millimeter Electromagnetic Waves on Fluorescence of Water-Saline Solutions of Human Serum Albumin

    Vardevanyan, P. O.; Antonyan, A. P.; Shahinyan, M. A.; Mikaelyan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of electromagnetic waves of the millimeter region on the conformation and fluorescence characteristics of human serum albumin was studied. It is shown that the irradiation of the albumin solution leads to an increase of the fluorescence intensity depending on the duration of irradiation. At an irradiation frequency of 48 GHz the fluorescence intensity of albumin hardly changes at all, while at 41.8 and 51.8 GHz it increases. It is also shown that when the irradiation frequency is 51.8 GHz, the intensity of the albumin solution fluorescence increases with increase of the irradiation time.

  18. High-performance packaging for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Li, K.; Shih, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    Packaging schemes are developed that provide low-loss, hermetic enclosure for enhanced monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits. These package schemes are based on a fused quartz substrate material offering improved RF performance through 44 GHz. The small size and weight of the packages make them useful for a number of applications, including phased array antenna systems. As part of the packaging effort, a test fixture was developed to interface the single chip packages to conventional laboratory instrumentation for characterization of the packaged devices.

  19. Telecommunication service markets through the year 2000 in relation to millimeter wave satellite systems

    Stevenson, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    NASA is currently conducting a series of millimeter wave satellite system market studies to develop 30/20 GHz satellite system concepts that have commercial potential. Four contractual efforts were undertaken: two parallel and independent system studies and two parallel and independent market studies. The marketing efforts are focused on forecasting the total domestic demand for long haul telecommunications services for the 1980-2000 period. Work completed to date and reported in this paper include projections of: geographical distribution of traffic; traffic volume as a function of urban area size; and user identification and forecasted demand.

  20. Measurement of the lowest millimeter-wave transition frequency of the CH radical

    Truppe, S.; Hendricks, R. J.; Hinds, E. A.; Tarbutt, M. R., E-mail: m.tarbutt@imperial.ac.uk [Center for Cold Matter, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW72AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    The CH radical offers a sensitive way to test the hypothesis that fundamental constants measured on Earth may differ from those observed in other parts of the universe. The starting point for such a comparison is to have accurate laboratory frequencies. Here, we measure the frequency of the lowest millimeter-wave transition of CH, near 535 GHz, with an accuracy of 0.6 kHz. This improves the uncertainty by roughly two orders of magnitude over previous determinations and opens the way for sensitive new tests of varying constants.

  1. Integrated Coherent Radio-over-Fiber Units for Millimeter-Wave Wireless Access

    Stöhr, A.; Babiel, S.; Chuenchom, M.;

    2015-01-01

    next generation optical and wireless access services and high-capacity fixed wireless links for mobile backhaul. Proof-of-concept system experiments are reported including the wireless transmission of a 2.5 Gb/s data signal over 40 m (limited by lab space) at 76 GHz carrier frequency after 20 km fiber......-dense WDM. We propose and demonstrate novel radio access units (RAU) using coherent optical heterodyne detection for the generation of the millimeter-wave radio signals in the RAUs. The proposed CRoF concept supports the provision of multiple services over a single optical distribution network including......-optic transmission....

  2. The Application of Identification Method of Ground Surfacesusing Fractal Dimension to Millimeter Wave Radar Altimeter

    Araki, Kan

    Data of scattering coefficient on vertical incidence against ground surface at U-band are obtained by Millimeter Wave Radar Altimeter using FM-CW ranging. Noise suppression by wavelet shrinkage can be utilized to extract feature parameter in high spatial frequency band, in which level of fractal noise is dominated by that of white noise. We propose approximate algorithm for estimation of local fractal dimension in high spatial frequency band which is the most effective parameter for identification for classification of ground surfaces such as vegetation, town area and rice field.

  3. Gravitational Wave Signatures of Dark Matter Sub-Millimeter Primordial Black Holes

    Davoudiasl, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    We entertain the possibility that primordial black holes of mass $\\sim (10^{24} - 10^{26})$ g, with sub-millimeter Schwarzschild radii, constitute all or a significant fraction of cosmic dark matter, as allowed by various constraints. In case such primordial black holes get captured in orbits around neutron stars or astrophysical black holes in our galactic neighborhood, gravitational waves from the resulting "David & Goliath" binaries could be detectable at Advanced LIGO or Advanced Virgo from days to years, for a range of possible parameters. The proposed Einstein Telescope would further expand the reach for dark matter primordial black holes in this search mode.

  4. Design procedure for millimeter-wave InP DHBT stacked power amplifiers

    Squartecchia, Michele; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Midili, Virginio

    2015-01-01

    The stacked-transistor concept for power amplifiers (PA) has been investigated in this work. Specifically, this architecture has been applied in the design of millimeter-wave monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) using indium phosphide (InP) double heterojunction bipolar transistors...... gives 13.1 dBm of output power, 10.1 dB of gain and 13 % of PAE. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation of multi-level stacked PAs based on InP HBT technology....

  5. Three-dimensional passive millimeter-wave imaging and depth estimation

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su; Lee, Hyoung; Son, Jung-Young; Guschin, Vladimir P.

    2010-04-01

    We address three-dimensional passive millimeter-wave imaging (MMW) and depth estimation for remote objects. The MMW imaging is very useful for the harsh environment such as fog, smoke, snow, sandstorm, and drizzle. Its penetrating property into clothing provides a great advantage to security and defense systems. In this paper, the featurebased passive MMW stereo-matching process is proposed to estimate the distance of the concealed object under clothing. It will be shown that the proposed method can estimate the distance of the concealed object.

  6. The Effect of Clouds on Water Vapor Profiling from the Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Measurements

    Wang, J. R.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Racette, P.; Chang, L. A.; Hart, W.

    1997-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements with the millimeter-wave imaging radiometer (MIR), cloud lidar system (CLS), and the MODIS airborne simulator (MAS) were made aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft over the western Pacific Ocean on 17-18 January 1993. These measurements were used to study the effects of clouds on water vapor profile retrievals based on millimeter-wave radiometer measurements. The CLS backscatter measurements (at 0.532 and 1.064 am) provided information on the heights and a detailed structure of cloud layers; the types of clouds could be positively identified. All 12 MAS channels (0.6-13 Am) essentially respond to all types of clouds, while the six MIR channels (89-220 GHz) show little sensitivity to cirrus clouds. The radiances from the 12-/Am and 0.875-gm channels of the MAS and the 89-GHz channel of the MIR were used to gauge the performance of the retrieval of water vapor profiles from the MIR observations under cloudy conditions. It was found that, for cirrus and absorptive (liquid) clouds, better than 80% of the retrieval was convergent when one of the three criteria was satisfied; that is, the radiance at 0.875 Am is less than 100 W/cm.sr, or the brightness at 12 Am is greater than 260 K, or brightness at 89 GHz is less than 270 K (equivalent to cloud liquid water of less than 0.04 g/cm). The range of these radiances for convergent retrieval increases markedly when the condition for convergent retrieval was somewhat relaxed. The algorithm of water vapor profiling from the MIR measurements could not perform adequately over the areas of storm-related clouds that scatter radiation at millimeter wavelengths.

  7. An Overview of Signal Processing Techniques for Millimeter Wave MIMO Systems

    Heath, Robert W.; Gonzalez-Prelcic, Nuria; Rangan, Sundeep; Roh, Wonil; Sayeed, Akbar M.

    2016-04-01

    Communication at millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies is defining a new era of wireless communication. The mmWave band offers higher bandwidth communication channels versus those presently used in commercial wireless systems. The applications of mmWave are immense: wireless local and personal area networks in the unlicensed band, 5G cellular systems, not to mention vehicular area networks, ad hoc networks, and wearables. Signal processing is critical for enabling the next generation of mmWave communication. Due to the use of large antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver, combined with radio frequency and mixed signal power constraints, new multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication signal processing techniques are needed. Because of the wide bandwidths, low complexity transceiver algorithms become important. There are opportunities to exploit techniques like compressed sensing for channel estimation and beamforming. This article provides an overview of signal processing challenges in mmWave wireless systems, with an emphasis on those faced by using MIMO communication at higher carrier frequencies.

  8. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies)

  9. A tunable millimeter-wave phase shifter driven by dielectric elastomer actuators

    Araromi, O. A.; Romano, P.; Rosset, S.; Perruisseau-Carrier, J.; Shea, H. R.

    2014-03-01

    We present the successful operation of the first dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) driven tunable millimeter-wave phase shifter. The development of dynamically reconfigurable microwave/millimeter-wave (MW/MMW) antenna devices is becoming a prime need in the field of telecommunications and sensing. The real time updating of antenna characteristics such as coverage or operation frequency is particularly desired. However, in many circumstances currently available technologies suffer from high EM losses, increased complexity and cost. Conversely, reconfigurable devices based on DEAs offer low complexity, low electromagnetic (EM) losses and analogue operation. Our tunable phase shifter consists of metallic strips suspended a fixed distance above a coplanar waveguide (CPW) by planar DEAs. The planar actuators displace the metallic strips (10 mm in length) in-plane by 500 μm, modifying the EM field distribution, resulting in the desired phase shift. The demanding spacing (50 +/-5 μm between CPW and metallic strips) and parallel alignment criteria required for optimal device operation are successfully met in our device design and validated using bespoke methods. Our current device, approximately 60 mm x 60 mm in planar dimensions, meets the displacement requirements and we observe a considerable phase shift (~95° at 25 GHz) closely matching numerical simulations. Moreover, our device achieves state of the art performance in terms of phase shift per EM loss ~235°/dB (35 GHz), significantly out performing other phase shifter technologies, such as MMIC phase shifters.

  10. The general optics structure of millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic on TOKAMAK

    Advanced imaging optics techniques have significantly improved the performance of millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics, such as Electron Cyclotron Emission imaging and Microwave Imaging of Reflectometry. The fundamental functions of millimeter-wave imaging optics are focusing, collecting the emission or reflected microwave signal from the target area in the plasma and focusing the emitted (reflected) signal on the detector array. The location of the observation area can be changed using the focus lens. Another important function of the imaging optics is zooming. The size of the observation area in poloidal direction can be adjusted by the zoom lenses and the poloidal spatial resolution is determined by the level of zoom. The field curvature adjustment lenses are employed to adjust the shape of the image plane in the poloidal direction to reduce crosstalk between neighboring channels. The incident angle on each channel is controlled using the specific surface type of the front-side lenses to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. All functions are decoupled with the minimum number of lenses. Successful applications are given

  11. Planar Schottky varactor diode and corresponding large signal model for millimeter-wave applications

    A GaAs-based planar Schottky varactor diode (PSVD) is successfully developed to meet the demand of millimeter-wave harmonic generation. Based on the measured S-parameter, I–V and C–V characteristics, an accurate and reliable extraction method of the millimeter-wave large signal equivalent circuit model of the PSVD is proposed and used to extract the model parameters of two PSVDs with Schottky contact areas of 160 μm2 and 49 μm2, respectively. The simulated S-parameter, I–V and C–V performances of the proposed physics-based model are in good agreement with the measured one over the frequency range from 0.1 to 40 GHz for wide operation bias range from −10 to 0.6 V for these two PSVDs. The proposed equivalent large signal circuit model of this PSVD has been proven to be reliable and can potentially be used to design microwave circuits., planar Schottky varactor diode (semiconductor devices)

  12. Broadband Plasma-Sprayed Anti-reflection Coating for Millimeter-Wave Astrophysics Experiments

    Jeong, O.; Lee, A.; Raum, C.; Suzuki, A.

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a plasma-sprayed anti-reflection (AR) coating technology for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics which achieves minimal dissipative loss and broad bandwidth and is easily and accurately applied. Plasma spraying is a coating process through which melted or heated materials are sprayed onto a substrate. The dielectric constants of the plasma-sprayed coatings were tuned between 2.7 and 7.9 by mixing hollow ceramic microspheres with alumina powder as the base material and varying the plasma energy of the spray. By spraying low loss ceramic materials with a tunable dielectric constant, we can apply multiple layers of AR coating for broadband millimeter-wave detection. At 300 K, we achieved a fractional bandwidth of 106 over 90% transmission using a three-layer AR coating. Applying ceramic coatings on ceramic lenses offers an additional benefit of preventing cryogenic delamination of the coatings. We report on methodology of coating application and measurement of uniformity, repeatability, transmission property, and cryogenic adhesion performance.

  13. Broadband Plasma-Sprayed Anti-reflection Coating for Millimeter-Wave Astrophysics Experiments

    Jeong, O.; Lee, A.; Raum, C.; Suzuki, A.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a plasma-sprayed anti-reflection (AR) coating technology for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics which achieves minimal dissipative loss and broad bandwidth and is easily and accurately applied. Plasma spraying is a coating process through which melted or heated materials are sprayed onto a substrate. The dielectric constants of the plasma-sprayed coatings were tuned between 2.7 and 7.9 by mixing hollow ceramic microspheres with alumina powder as the base material and varying the plasma energy of the spray. By spraying low loss ceramic materials with a tunable dielectric constant, we can apply multiple layers of AR coating for broadband millimeter-wave detection. At 300 K, we achieved a fractional bandwidth of 106 over 90% transmission using a three-layer AR coating. Applying ceramic coatings on ceramic lenses offers an additional benefit of preventing cryogenic delamination of the coatings. We report on methodology of coating application and measurement of uniformity, repeatability, transmission property, and cryogenic adhesion performance.

  14. First Eigenmode Transmission by High Efficient CSI Estimation for Multiuser Massive MIMO Using Millimeter Wave Bands.

    Maruta, Kazuki; Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Ohta, Atsushi; Arai, Takuto; Shirato, Yushi; Kurosaki, Satoshi; Iizuka, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Drastic improvements in transmission rate and system capacity are required towards 5th generation mobile communications (5G). One promising approach, utilizing the millimeter wave band for its rich spectrum resources, suffers area coverage shortfalls due to its large propagation loss. Fortunately, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) can offset this shortfall as well as offer high order spatial multiplexing gain. Multiuser MIMO is also effective in further enhancing system capacity by multiplexing spatially de-correlated users. However, the transmission performance of multiuser MIMO is strongly degraded by channel time variation, which causes inter-user interference since null steering must be performed at the transmitter. This paper first addresses the effectiveness of multiuser massive MIMO transmission that exploits the first eigenmode for each user. In Line-of-Sight (LoS) dominant channel environments, the first eigenmode is chiefly formed by the LoS component, which is highly correlated with user movement. Therefore, the first eigenmode provided by a large antenna array can improve the robustness against the channel time variation. In addition, we propose a simplified beamforming scheme based on high efficient channel state information (CSI) estimation that extracts the LoS component. We also show that this approximate beamforming can achieve throughput performance comparable to that of the rigorous first eigenmode transmission. Our proposed multiuser massive MIMO scheme can open the door for practical millimeter wave communication with enhanced system capacity. PMID:27399715

  15. The general optics structure of millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic on TOKAMAK

    Zhu, Y.; Xie, J.; Liu, W. D.; Luo, C.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Chen, M.; Hu, X.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced imaging optics techniques have significantly improved the performance of millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics, such as Electron Cyclotron Emission imaging and Microwave Imaging of Reflectometry. The fundamental functions of millimeter-wave imaging optics are focusing, collecting the emission or reflected microwave signal from the target area in the plasma and focusing the emitted (reflected) signal on the detector array. The location of the observation area can be changed using the focus lens. Another important function of the imaging optics is zooming. The size of the observation area in poloidal direction can be adjusted by the zoom lenses and the poloidal spatial resolution is determined by the level of zoom. The field curvature adjustment lenses are employed to adjust the shape of the image plane in the poloidal direction to reduce crosstalk between neighboring channels. The incident angle on each channel is controlled using the specific surface type of the front-side lenses to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. All functions are decoupled with the minimum number of lenses. Successful applications are given.

  16. Printed circuit board impedance matching step for microwave (millimeter wave) devices

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Aguirre, Jerardo; Sargis, Paul

    2013-10-01

    An impedance matching ground plane step, in conjunction with a quarter wave transformer section, in a printed circuit board provides a broadband microwave matching transition from board connectors or other elements that require thin substrates to thick substrate (>quarter wavelength) broadband microwave (millimeter wave) devices. A method of constructing microwave and other high frequency electrical circuits on a substrate of uniform thickness, where the circuit is formed of a plurality of interconnected elements of different impedances that individually require substrates of different thicknesses, by providing a substrate of uniform thickness that is a composite or multilayered substrate; and forming a pattern of intermediate ground planes or impedance matching steps interconnected by vias located under various parts of the circuit where components of different impedances are located so that each part of the circuit has a ground plane substrate thickness that is optimum while the entire circuit is formed on a substrate of uniform thickness.

  17. Millimeter waves scanning--New methods and possibilities investigating the high temperature superconductors

    Various experimental techniques are in use at present time to investigate electromagnetic properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS). Usually, integral measurements of a surface impedance or related characteristics are being made. Non-resonance methods are based on the measurements of electromagnetic wave transition through the HTS sample. This technique requires very sensitive equipment unless the samples are very thin, approximately, no more than 100 nm. Resonance methods are more precise but technologically sophisticated and expensive. Specific difficulties occur when measurements are to be made in a millimeter wave (MMW) band due to small dimensions of resonators and samples. In the present work two new experimental methods of investigating the HTS in the MMW band have been proposed. The HTS tested was YBa2Cu3O7

  18. MARC: A code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimeter-wave limb measurements

    Carli, B.; Bazzini, G.; Castelli, E.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Del Bianco, S.; Dinelli, B. M.; Gai, M.; Magnani, L.; Ridolfi, M.; Santurri, L.

    2007-07-01

    A new data analysis software is presented that has been developed for the retrieval of atmospheric minor constituents from limb-sounding observations made in the millimeter and sub-millimeter spectral regions. The code, which is called MARC (Millimetre-wave Atmospheric-Retrieval Code), has been designed to analyze the observations of the MARSCHALS (Millimetre-wave Airborne Receivers for Spectroscopic CHaracterisation in Atmospheric Limb-Sounding) instrument which operates on the M-55 stratospheric aircraft. The main objective of the analysis of MARSCHALS observations will be to assess long-wave measurement capabilities for the study of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere regions. The key questions will be the accuracy and spatial resolution that can be achieved by long-wave measurements in presence of clouds and horizontal gradients. MARC performs a global-fit multi-target retrieval, in which optimal estimation is used and errors of the forward model parameters are taken into account for the definition of the cost function minimized in the retrieval. With these features it is easy to use the variables of the problem as either forward model constant parameters or retrieved unknowns with minimum impact on the stability of the retrieval. MARC can perform a wide spectral-band analysis of the observations without a selection of the analyzed channels, and the retrieval process provides an error budget of the retrieved unknowns that includes both the forward model errors and the measurement errors. The error budget obtained in this way is smaller than that obtained when accounting a posteriori for the systematic errors. The new combination of the retrieval features makes possible an efficient and optimal exploitation of the information content of the observations.

  19. Photonic methods of millimeter-wave generation based on Brillouin fiber laser

    Al-Dabbagh, R. K.; Al-Raweshidy, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    In optical communication link, generation and delivering millimeter-wave (mm-waves) in radio over fiber (RoF) systems has limitation due to fiber non-linearity effects. To solve this problem, photonic methods of mm-wave generation based on characterizations of Brillouin fiber laser are proposed in this work for the first time. Three novel photonic approaches for mm-wave generation methods based on Brillouin fiber laser and phase modulator are proposed and demonstrated by simulation. According to our theoretical analysis and simulation, mm-waves with frequency up to 80 GHz and good signal to noise ratio (SNR) up to 90 dB are generated by new and cost effective methods of generation that make them suitable for applications of the fifth generation (5G) networks. The proposed configurations increase the stability and the quality of the mm-wave generation system by using a single laser source as a pump wave and the fiber non-linearity effects are reduced. A key advantage of this research is that proposed a number of very simple generation methods and cost effective which only use standard components of optical telecommunications. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) effect that exists in the optical fiber is studied with the characterization of phase modulator. An all optically stable mm-wave carriers are achieved successfully in the three different methods with different frequencies from 20 GHz up to 80 GHz. Simulation results show that all these carriers have low phase noise, good SNR ranging between 60 and 90 dB and tuning capability in comparison with previous methods reported. This makes them suitable for mm-wave transmission in RoF systems to transmit data in the next generation networks.

  20. A New E-Band (60 - 90 GHz) Fourier Transform Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    An E-band (60 - 90 GHz) cavity Fourier transform millimeter-wave (FTmmW) spectrometer system has been built and used for molecular measurements for the first time. These frequencies are the highest acheived using cavity FTM/mmW techniques. This new system, implemented as a millimeter frequency band on the current FTMW spectrometer of the Ziurys group, utilizes waveguide for radiation propagation and commercial E-band doublers and quadruplers to achieve continuous operation from 60 to 90 GHz. This system also employs an ALMA Band 2 low-noise amplifier (LNA), designed by NRAO. The Fabry-Perot cavity consists of two 170 mm diameter mirrors with a radius of curvature of 840 mm and a separation of 700 mm. The Q factor of the system is around 100,000. Using this system, the N_{Ka,Kc} = 4_{04} → 3_{03} transition of ScC_2 near 62 GHz has been recorded for the first time. These data, as well as other molecular lines, will be presented.

  1. High-resolution near-infrared and millimeter-wave spectroscopy of NGC 7027

    The compact planetary nebula NGC 7027 has been observed at high spectral resolution at near-infrared and millimeter wavelengths. In the near-infrared, the line profiles of H Brackett γ, He ii 10--4, He i 21P--21S are presented and discussed. The widths and intensities of the three lines are generally in agreement with visual and radio recombination line observations. New J = 1→0 12CO and 13CO millimeter-wave observations are also presented. While 12CO was readily detected, 13CO emission at a level reported previously for NGC 7027 could not be confirmed. A peak antena temperature of T(/sub A/ = 0.035 +- 0.007 K was found for 13CO. An isotope ratio of [12C]/[13C]> or =36 +- 6 is derived for the planetary. On the basis of this value, it is suggested that NGC 7027 evolved from a 3 M/sub sun/ star that passed through at least the asymptotic giant branch stage

  2. Improved design of a passive millimeter-wave synthetic aperture interferometric imager for indoor applications

    Yao, Xianxun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Anyong; Miao, Jungang

    2015-10-01

    A passive millimeter-wave imager prototype based on synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer (SAIR) technique is developing at Beihang University. It is designed for concealed contraband detection on human body in indoor environment at video imaging rate. The radiometric sensitivity requirements have been discussed in details, and the performance requirements of the digital processing subsystem have been analytically determined. A novel distributed digital correlator array architecture is proposed by using FPGA array, which results in reduction of hardware complexity and cost of the digital processing subsystem. In the proposed architecture, multistage pipeline technique is introduced for the reuse of logical resource that in turn results in decrease of transmission rate requirements for each FPGA, so that the feasibility of the digital processing subsystem can be greatly enhanced.

  3. Exact Reconstruction for Near-Field Three-Dimensional Planar Millimeter-Wave Holographic Imaging

    Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an exact reconstruction formula is presented for near-field three-dimensional (3D) planar millimeter-wave (MMW) holographic imaging. The proposed formula is derived based on scalar diffraction theory, and the round-trip imaging process is equivalent to a unidirectional optical field propagation. Because of compensating the propagation loss of the source for the near-field imaging configuration, the inconsistency in range domain of the reconstructed 3D images is avoided. The proposed reconstruction formula also gives a phase correction for the reconstructed complex-valued reflectivity of the target and the range coordinate can be exactly determined. Simulations and laboratory imaging experiments are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction formula.

  4. Analysis of Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Membrane Potential under the Exposure to Millimeter-wave Radiation

    Non-thermal effects of millimeter wave (MMW) on Pheochromocytoma (PC12) were studied by potential measurement with a voltage sensitive dye (DiBAC4(3)). Cells were irradiated at fixed frequencies of 30, 40, 60, 76GHz as well as sweeping frequency between 10 and 100 GHz by an MMW generator based on a uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), the most widely tunable MMW source. However there were no significant changes in membrane potential between MMW-irradiated and control cells. The results suggest that MMW irradiation in the range from 10 to 100GHz appears to be safe for ordinary PC12 cells under non-thermal conditions

  5. Palm-shaped spectrum generation for dual-band millimeter wave and baseband signals over fiber

    Lin, R.; Feng, Z.; Tang, M.; Wang, R.; Fu, S.; Shum, P.; Liu, D.; Chen, J.

    2016-05-01

    In order to offer abundant available bandwidth for radio access networks satisfying future 5G requirements on capacity, this paper proposes a simple and cost-effective palm-shaped spectrum generation scheme that can be used for high capacity radio over fiber (RoF) system. The proposed scheme can simultaneously generate an optical carrier used for upstream and two bands of millimeter wave (MMW) that are capable of carrying different downstream data. The experiment results show that the proposed palm-shaped spectrum generation scheme outperforms optical frequency comb (OFC) based multi-band MMW generation in terms of upstream transmission performance. Furthermore, simulation is carried out with different dual-band MMW configurations to verify the feasibility of using the proposed spectrum generation scheme in the RoF system.

  6. The millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI) for observing the cosmic microwave background polarization

    Kim, Jaiseung

    This thesis describes the Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI) to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMBP) anisotropy at angular scales 0.5°--1° and a center frequency of 90 GHz. The measurement of the CMBP anisotropy on these angular scales will put more stringent constraints on cosmological models and parameters. The prototype instrument employs four corrugated feedhorns and cooled bolometers. Using a Butler beam combiner, beams from four feedhorns are correlated, yielding interferometric measurements of the CMBP. From these interferometric measurements, we can reconstruct the image of polarization by aperture synthesis and estimate the power spectrum of the CMBP by maximum likelihood method. We describe aperture synthesis and maximum likelihood method. We present the result of the image reconstruction and the power spectrum estimation from simulated MBI observations. With the planned sensitivity of the MBI, the MBI will be able to estimate the E mode power spectra of the CMBP in the multipole range (150 MBI.

  7. Epoxy-based broadband anti-reflection coating for millimeter-wave optics

    Rosen, Darin; Keating, Brian; Krantz, William; Lee, Adrian T; Quealy, Erin; Richards, Paul L; Siritanasak, Praween; Walker, William

    2013-01-01

    We have developed epoxy-based, broadband anti-reflection coatings for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics. By using multiple-layer coatings where each layer steps in dielectric constant, we achieved low reflection over a wide bandwidth. We suppressed the reflection from an alumina disk to 10% over fractional bandwidths of 92% and 104% using two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively. The dielectric constants of epoxies were tuned between 2.06 and 7.44 by mixing three types of epoxy and doping with strontium titanate powder required for the high dielectric mixtures. At 140 Kelvin, the band-integrated absorption loss in the coatings was suppressed to less than 1% for the two-layer coating, and below 10% for the three-layer coating.

  8. Detection and measurements of air pollutants and constituents by millimeter-wave microwave spectroscopy

    The properties of millimeter-wave spectrometers as highly specific and sensitive experimental research tools for monitoring gaseous pollutants of interest in pollution research are presented. A spectrometer system operating at frequencies in the vicinity of 70 GHz and employing a semi-confocal Fabry--Perot resonator as the sample cell is described. The resonator is voltage tuned by means of a piezoelectric transducer which enables it to track the microwave source frequency. The operation and performance of the spectrometer are discussed and illustrated by measurements of diluted samples of sulfur dioxide. The noise from the microwave source, the absorption cell and the receiver, which ultimately limits the achievable sensitivity are discussed along with considerations for future sensitivity improvements

  9. Sensor structure concepts for the analysis or local radiation exposure of biological samples at terahertz and millimeter wave frequencies

    Dornuf, Fabian; Dörr, Roland; Lämmle, David; Schlaak, Helmut F.; Krozer, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    We have studied several sensor concepts for biomedical applications operating in the millimeter wave and terahertz range. On one hand, rectangular waveguide structure were designed and extended with microfluidic channels. In this way a simple analysis of aqueous solutions at various waveguide bands is possible. In our case, we focused on the frequency range between 75 GHz and 110 GHz. On the other hand, planar sensor structures for aqueous solutions have been developed based on coplanar waveguides. With these planar sensors it is possible to concentrate the interaction volume on small sensor areas, which achieve a local exposure of the radiation to the sample. When equipping the sensor with microfluidic structures the sample volume could be reduced significantly and enabled a localized interaction with the sensor areas. The sensors are designed to exhibit a broadband behavior up to 300 GHz. Narrow-band operation can also be achieved for potentially increased sensitivity by using resonant structures. Several tests with Glucose dissolved in water show promising results for the distinction of different glucose levels at millimeter wave frequencies. The planar structures can also be used for the exposure of biological cells or cell model systems like liposomes with electromagnetic radiation. Several studies are planned to distinguish on one hand the influence of millimeter wave exposure on biological systems and also to have a spectroscopic method which enables the analysis of cell processes, like membrane transport processes, with millimeter wave and terahertz frequencies by focusing the electric field directly on the analyzing sample.

  10. Effects of atmospheric turbulence on microwave and millimeter wave satellite communications systems. [attenuation statistics and antenna design

    Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the microwave and millimeter wave link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is presented with emphasis on satellite communications systems. The analysis is based on standard methods of statistical theory. The results are directly usable by the design engineer.

  11. Specific methodology for the design of new monolithic millimeter wave integrated circuits. Combination of several simulation and modeling tools.

    Salmer, G.; De Jaeger, J.C.; Langrez, D.; Kolanowski, C.; Duhamel, F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new millimeter wave monolithic integrated circuits needs the availability of accurate model tools such as physical simulations and experimental parameters extraction methods. Accurate electrical models have been built even in the difficult case of submicrometer dual gate pseudomorphic HEMTs. Their validity has been clearly demonstrated by the design of 60 GHz mixers.

  12. Device and packaging considerations for MMIC-based millimeter-wave quasi-optical amplifier arrays

    Kolias, Nicholas J.; Kazior, Thomas E.; Chen, Yan; Wright, Warren

    1999-11-01

    Practical implementation of millimeter-wave quasi-optical amplifier arrays will require high device uniformity across the array, efficient coupling to and from each gain device, good device-to-device isolation, and efficient heat removal. This paper presents techniques that address these issues for a 44 GHz MMIC-based design. To improve device uniformity, a double selective gate recess approach is introduced which results in a demonstrated 3 - 5X improvement in uniformity when compared to Raytheon's standard production pHEMT process. For packaging, direct backside interconnect technology (DBIT) is introduced as a bondwire-free scheme for connecting each amplifier to the array. This approach significantly reduces interconnect loss by reducing interconnect inductance. Measured insertion loss at 44 GHz for the DBIt transition is 0.35 dB compared to 2.3 dB for a typical bondwire transition produced on a manufacturing automated bonding machine. By eliminating bondwires which tend to radiate at millimeter wave frequencies, the DBIT approach also significantly improves the device-to-device isolation, thereby improving the array stability. The DBIT approach would not be viable if it could not effectively dissipate heat (a typical 25 watt array generates greater than 100 watts of heat). Finite element thermal analysis results are presented which show that the DBIT approach adds a tolerable 15.5 degree(s)C temperature rise over a standard solder-based MMIC die-attach to a heatsink. Thus, the DBIT approach, along with the double selective gate recess process, provides an attractive, low-loss, bondwire-free approach for producing uniform amplifier arrays.

  13. Recent Advances in High Power Millimeter Wave Gyroklystron Amplifiers at NRL

    Danly, B. G.

    1998-04-01

    Amplifiers based on the electron cyclotron resonance maser or gyrotron interaction are capable of producing both high peak and high average powers in the millimeter wave band. These devices are of interest for a variety of applications including use in millimeter wave radars and as drivers for high frequency RF accelerators. Recent progress on 35 GHz and 93 GHz gyroklystron and gyrotwystron amplifiers in the Vacuum Electronics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory will be described. At 35 GHz, a two-cavity device has produced up to 210 kW peak power at 37% efficiency with limited bandwidth( J.J. Choi, A.H. McCurdy, F. Wood, R.H. Kyser, J. Calame, K. Nguyen, B.G. Danly, T.M. Antonsen Jr., B. Levush, and R.K. Parker, Experimental Investigation of a High Power, Two-Cavity, 35 GHz Gyroklystron Amplifier IEEE Trans.Plasma Sci., To Be Published, 1998.), and a three-cavity device has produced up to 225 kW peak power with 0.6% bandwidth. At 93 GHz, successive experimental four-cavity gyroklystrons have produced up to 67 kW with 460 MHz bandwidth and 60 kW with 640 MHz bandwidth(M. Blank, B.G. Danly, B. Levush, P.E. Latham, and D. Pershing, Experimental Demonstration of a W-Band Gyroklystron Amplifier Phys.Rev.Lett., vol. 79, pp. 4485-4488, 1997.). These amplifiers have had gains in the 27 - 30 dB range. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Recent progress will be detailed, and opportunities for higher power and bandwidth will be discussed.

  14. Towards 5G: A Photonic Based Millimeter Wave Signal Generation for Applying in 5G Access Fronthaul

    Alavi, S. E.; Soltanian, M. R. K.; Amiri, I. S.; Khalily, M.; Supa'At, A. S. M.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-01-01

    5G communications require a multi Gb/s data transmission in its small cells. For this purpose millimeter wave (mm-wave) RF signals are the best solutions to be utilized for high speed data transmission. Generation of these high frequency RF signals is challenging in electrical domain therefore photonic generation of these signals is more studied. In this work, a photonic based simple and robust method for generating millimeter waves applicable in 5G access fronthaul is presented. Besides generating of the mm-wave signal in the 60 GHz frequency band the radio over fiber (RoF) system for transmission of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with 5 GHz bandwidth is presented. For the purpose of wireless transmission for 5G application the required antenna is designed and developed. The total system performance in one small cell was studied and the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the system was evaluated.

  15. An open-styled dielectric-lined azimuthally periodic circular waveguide for a millimeter wave traveling-wave tube

    Liu Yang; Wei Yan-Yu; Xu Jin; Yin Hai-Rong; Yue Ling-Na; Gong Yu-Bin; Wang Wen-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    An open-styled dielectric-lined azimuthally periodic circular waveguide (ODLAP-CW) for a millimeter-wave traveling-wave tube (TWT) is proposed,which is a modified form of a dielectric-lined azimuthally periodic circular waveguide (DLAP-CW).The slow-wave characteristics of the open-styled DLAP-CW are studied by using the spatial harmonics method,which includes normalized phase velocity and interaction impedance.The complicated dispersion equations are numerically solved with MATLAB and the results are in good agreement with the simulation results obtained from HFSS.The influence of structural parameters on the RF properties is investigated based on our theory.The numerical results show that the optimal thickness of the metal rod can increase the interaction impedance,with the dielectric constant held fixed.Finally,the slow-wave characteristics and transmission properties of an open-styled structure are compared with those of the DLAP-CW.The results validate that the mode competition is eliminated in the improved structure with only a slight influence on the dispersion characteristics,which may significantly improve the stability of an open-styled DLAP-CW-based TWT,and the interaction efficiency is also improved.

  16. Multiplexed Millimeter Wave Communication with Dual Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Mode Antennas

    Hui, Xiaonan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Hu, Yiping; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-01-01

    Communications using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of radio waves have attracted much attention in recent years. In this paper, a novel millimeter-wave dual OAM mode antenna is cleverly designed, using which a 60 GHz wireless communication link with two separate OAM channels is experimentally demonstrated. The main body of the dual OAM antenna is a traveling-wave ring resonator using two feeding ports fed by a 90° hybrid coupler. A parabolic reflector is used to focus the beams. All the antenna components are fabricated by 3D printing technique and the electro-less copper plating surface treatment process. The performances of the antenna, such as S-parameters, near-fields, directivity, and isolation between the two OAM modes are measured. Experimental results show that this antenna can radiate two coaxially propagating OAM modes beams simultaneously. The multiplexing and de-multiplexing are easily realized in the antennas themselves. The two OAM mode channels have good isolation of more than 20 dB, thus ensuring the reliable transmission links at the same time. PMID:25988501

  17. Multiplexed Millimeter Wave Communication with Dual Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Mode Antennas.

    Hui, Xiaonan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Hu, Yiping; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-01-01

    Communications using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of radio waves have attracted much attention in recent years. In this paper, a novel millimeter-wave dual OAM mode antenna is cleverly designed, using which a 60 GHz wireless communication link with two separate OAM channels is experimentally demonstrated. The main body of the dual OAM antenna is a traveling-wave ring resonator using two feeding ports fed by a 90° hybrid coupler. A parabolic reflector is used to focus the beams. All the antenna components are fabricated by 3D printing technique and the electro-less copper plating surface treatment process. The performances of the antenna, such as S-parameters, near-fields, directivity, and isolation between the two OAM modes are measured. Experimental results show that this antenna can radiate two coaxially propagating OAM modes beams simultaneously. The multiplexing and de-multiplexing are easily realized in the antennas themselves. The two OAM mode channels have good isolation of more than 20 dB, thus ensuring the reliable transmission links at the same time. PMID:25988501

  18. A Tutorial on Optical Feeding of Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antennas for Communication Applications

    Ivan Aldaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the interference avoidance capacity, high gain, and dynamical reconfigurability, phased array antennas (PAAs have emerged as a key enabling technology for future broadband mobile applications. This is especially important at millimeter-wave (mm-wave frequencies, where the high power consumption and significant path loss impose serious range constraints. However, at mm-wave frequencies the phase and amplitude control of the feeding currents of the PAA elements is not a trivial issue because electrical beamforming requires bulky devices and exhibits relatively narrow bandwidth. In order to overcome these limitations, different optical beamforming architectures have been presented. In this paper we review the basic principles of phased arrays and identify the main challenges, that is, integration of high-speed photodetectors with antenna elements and the efficient optical control of both amplitude and phase of the feeding current. After presenting the most important solutions found in the literature, we analyze the impact of the different noise sources on the PAA performance, giving some guidelines for the design of optically fed PAAs.

  19. Development and Performance of the Millimeter-wave Cloud Profiling Radar at 95 GHz

    Takano, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Jun; Abe, Hideji; Futaba, Ken-Ichi; Yokote, Shin-Ichi; Kawamura, Youhei; Takamura, Tamio; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Yuji; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    We developed a cloud profiling radar, named FALCON-I, transmitting frequency-modulated continuous wave (FM-CW) at 95 GHz for high sensitivity and high spatial resolution ground-based observations. Millimeter wave at 95 GHz is used to realize high sensitivity to small cloud particles. An FM-CW type radar realizes similar sensitivity with much smaller output power to a pulse type radar. Two 1m-diameter parabolic antennas separated by 1.4m each other are used for transmitting and receiving the wave. The direction of the antennas is fixed at the zenith at this moment. The radar can observe clouds up to 20 km in height with a resolution of 9 m. Beam size of the antenna is as small as 0.2 degree of arc, which corresponds to 15 m at the range of 5 km. Observation results showed that the sensitivity of -34 dBZ is realized at 5 km in range, and good spatial resolutions.

  20. Metamaterial CRLH Antennas on Silicon Substrate for Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits

    Gheorghe Ioan Sajin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two composite right/left-handed (CRLH coplanar waveguide (CPW zeroth-order resonant (ZOR antennas which were designed, processed, and electrically characterized for applications in the millimetric wave frequency range. Two CRLH antennas were developed for f=27 GHz and f=38.5, GHz, respectively. The CRLH antenna on f=27 GHz shows a return loss of RL<−18.78 dB at f=26.88 GHz. The −3 dB radiation characteristic beamwidth was approximately 37° and the gain was Gi=2.82 dBi. The CRLH antenna on f=38.5 GHz has a return loss of RL<−38.5 dB at f=38.82 GHz and the −3 dB radiation characteristic beamwidth of approximately 17°. The gains were Gi=1.08 dBi at f=38 GHz and Gi=1.2 dBi at f=38.6 GHz. The maximum measured gain was Gi=1.75 dBi at f=38.2 GHz. It is, upon the authors' knowledge, the first report of millimeter wave CRLH antennas on silicon substrate in CPW technique for use in mm-wave monolithic integrated circuit.

  1. Millimeter-wave circuits and pulse compression radar baseband/analog signal processing blocks in silicon processes

    Parlak, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The power dissipation and cost of the next generation pulse radar beamforming systems needs to be reduced for the imaging and surveillance sensors. This research work aims at developing and innovating the next generation, mobile hand-held, high performance radar systems for outdoor surveillance applications, i.e. pedestrian detection sensor. Integrating the low cost millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging array platforms with advanced analog/ baseband signal processing on silicon is proposed for re...

  2. Physics of Propagation in Left-Handed Guided Wave Structures at Microwave and Millimeter Wave Frequencies

    Krowne, Clifford M.

    2003-01-01

    Guided wave propagation through a left-handed medium has been studied, and new physics discovered. The results are based upon ab initio Green's function calculations. Numerically generated dispersion diagrams and field distribution plots are provided.

  3. Optimization of kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter and submillimeter wave detection

    Coiffard, G.; Schuster, K. F.; Monfardini, A.; Adane, A.; Barbier, B.; Boucher, C.; Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; Leclercq, S.; Pignard, S.

    2014-07-01

    We present the latest improvements of lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) for the NIKA camera at the 30-m telescope of IRAM at Pico Veleta (Spain) [1]. LEKIDs are direct absorption detectors for millimeter wavelength and represent a particularly efficient concept of planar array continuum detectors for the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range. To improve the detector radiation coupling over a wider frequency range, a combination of backplane reflector and a supplementary layer of dielectric between silicon substrate and backplane has been successfully explored. To this end we apply deep silicon etching to the substrate in order to decrease its effective dielectric constant in an intermediate layer. In the first generation of LEKIDs array, the response is disturbed by the presence of slot-modes in the frequency multiplexing coplanar feed/readout line, an effect which was reduced when applying wire bonding across the readout line. Superconducting air-bridges can be integrated into the array fabrication process. The suppression of slot-modes also reduces undesired cross-talk between pixels. Our current KID detectors are made of very thin aluminum films, but with a thickness of less than 20 nm we have reached some limitations concerning the layout and material processing. Following the results from Leduc et al. [2], we developed non-stoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) at IRAM as an alternative material. We focus on the work done to achieve reproducible and homogenous films with the required transition temperature for mm-wave detection. We present characterization techniques that allow room temperature measurements to be correlated to the transition temperature of TiNx and first measurements on a test sample.

  4. Matched calorimetric loads for high power, long pulse millimeter-wave gyrotrons

    A compact matched load for high power gyrotron testing in ECRH plants for fusion research applications is in development, with the main goal of providing reflection-free absorption and fast calorimetric measurement of the millimeter-wave power, also at long pulse duration. It is based on the results of the tests at full power and pulse length (140 GHz, 0.5 MW, 0.5 s) on similar loads installed on the ECRH plant of the FTU Tokamak in Frascati. Basically, the load is made of an integrating sphere in copper, with the inner wall covered by plasma spray with a mixture of lossy ceramics, providing an average wall reflectivity in the order of 40%. Absorbing material degradation, small-scale and large-scale damage patterns, caused by fatigue and long-term exposure to high power mm-wave, have been analyzed in detail, with the aim of improving the performances in terms of power handling capability and energy extraction efficiency. Physical-chemical analyses, performed on the original and on the degraded absorbing material, showed the effects of the mm-wave exposure. Damage patterns were recognized as interference of multiple reflections inside the load, with radiation accumulation close to the entrance port, as confirmed by a detailed numerical analysis. Increase in power and energy deposition capabilities require improvements of the present design in different areas: - strategies for the mitigation of the different causes of non-homogeneous deposition; - use of different plasma-sprayed materials as mm-wave absorbers; - improved cooling channel geometry with increased heat transfer rate to the cooling medium, for achieving 1 MW-CW power capability. (authors)

  5. Built-in self-test (BIST) techniques for millimeter wave CMOS transceivers

    Mahzabeen, Tabassum

    The seamless integration of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transceivers with a digital CMOS process enhances on-chip testability, thus reducing production and testing costs. Built in self testability also improves yield by offering on-chip compensation. This work focuses on built in self test techniques for CMOS based millimeter wave (mm-wave) transceivers. Built-in-self-test (BIST) using the loopback method is one cost-effective method for testing these transceivers. Since the loopback switch is always present during the normal operation of the transceiver, the requirement of the switch is different than for a conventional switch. The switch needs to have high isolation and high impedance during its OFF period. Two 80 GHz single pole single throw (SPST) switches have been designed, fabricated in standard CMOS process, and measured to connect the loopback path for BIST applications. The loopback switches in this work provide the required criteria for loopback BIST. A stand alone 80 GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) and the same LNA integrated with one of the loopback switches have been fabricated, and measured to observe the difference in performance when the loopback switch is present. Besides the loopback switch, substrate leakage also forms a path between the transmitter and receiver. Substrate leakage has been characterized as a function of distance between the transmitter and receiver for consideration in using the BIST method. A BIST algorithm has been developed to estimate the process variation in device sizes by probing a low frequency ring oscillator to estimate the device variation and map this variation to the 80 GHz LNA. Probing a low frequency circuit is cheaper compared to the probing of a millimeter wave circuit and reduces the testing costs. The performance of the LNA degrades due to variation in device size. Once the shift in the device size is being estimated (from the ring oscillator's shifted frequency), the LNA's performance can be

  6. Synergy between middle infrared and millimeter-wave limb sounding of atmospheric temperature and minor constituents

    Cortesi, Ugo; Del Bianco, Samuele; Ceccherini, Simone; Gai, Marco; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Castelli, Elisa; Oelhaf, Hermann; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Höpfner, Michael; Gerber, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Synergistic exploitation of redundant and complementary information from independent observations of the same target remains a major issue in atmospheric remote sounding and increasing attention is devoted to investigate optimized or innovative methods for the combination of two or more measured data sets. This paper focuses on the synergy between middle infrared and millimeter-wave limb sounding measurements of atmospheric composition and temperature and reports the results of a study conducted as part of the preparatory activities of the PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimeter-wave Emitted Radiation) mission candidate to the Core Missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Explorer 7. The activity was based on data acquired by the MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft) and MARSCHALS (Millimetre-wave Airborne Receivers for Spectroscopic CHaracterisation in Atmospheric Limb Sounding) instruments on-board the high-altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica during the flight of the PremierEx (PREMIER Experiment) campaign on 10 March 2010 from Kiruna, Sweden, for observation of the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The cloud coverage observed along the flight provided representative test cases to evaluate the synergy in three different scenarios: low clouds in the first part, no clouds in the central part and high tropospheric clouds at the end. The calculation of synergistic profiles of four atmospheric targets (i.e., O3, HNO3, H2O and temperature) was performed using a posteriori combination of individual retrieved profiles, i.e., Level 2 (L2) data rather than simultaneous inversion of observed radiances, i.e., Level 1 (L1) data. An innovative method of data fusion, based on the Measurement Space Solution (MSS) was applied along with the standard approach of inversion of MARSCHALS spectral radiances using MIPAS-STR retrieval products as a priori

  7. Development of a Millimeter-Wave Beam Position and Profile Monitor for Transmission Efficiency Improvement in an ECRH System

    Shimozuma T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a high power Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH system, a long-distance and low-loss transmission system is required to realize effective heating of nuclear fusion-relevant plasmas. A millimeter-wave beam position and profile monitor, which can be used in a high-power, evacuated, and cooled transmission line, is proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested. The beam monitor consists of a reflector, Peltier-device array and a heat-sink. It was tested using simulated electric heater power or gyrotron output power. The data obtained from the monitor were well agreed with the heat source position and profile. The methods of data analysis and mode-content analysis of a propagating millimeter-wave in the corrugated wave-guide are proposed.

  8. Millimeter-Wave Absorption as a Quality Control Tool for M-Type Hexaferrite Nanopowders

    McCloy, John S.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Afsar, Mohammed N.

    2013-01-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) absorption measurements have been conducted on commercial samples of large (micrometer-sized) and small (nanometer-sized) particles of BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 using a quasi-optical MMW spectrometer and a series of backwards wave oscillators encompassing the 30-120 GHz range. Effective anisotropy of the particles calculated from the resonant absorption frequency indicates lower overall anisotropy in the nano-particles. Due to their high magnetocrystalline anisotropy, both BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 are expected to have spin resonances in the 45-55 GHz range. Several of the sampled BaFe12O19 powders did not have MMW absorptions, so they were further investigated by DC magnetization and x-ray diffraction to assess magnetic behavior and structure. The samples with absent MMW absorption contained primarily iron oxides, suggesting that MMW absorption could be used for quality control in hexaferrite powder manufacture.

  9. Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-wave-to-terahertz and high power microwave generation

    Homeland security and military defense technology considerations have stimulated intense interest in mobile, high power sources of millimeter-wave (mmw) to terahertz (THz) regime electromagnetic radiation, from 0.1 to 10 THz. While vacuum electronic sources are a natural choice for high power, the challenges have yet to be completely met for applications including noninvasive sensing of concealed weapons and dangerous agents, high-data-rate communications, high resolution radar, next generation acceleration drivers, and analysis of fluids and condensed matter. The compact size requirements for many of these high frequency sources require miniscule, microfabricated slow wave circuits. This necessitates electron beams with tiny transverse dimensions and potentially very high current densities for adequate gain. Thus, an emerging family of microfabricated, vacuum electronic devices share many of the same plasma physics challenges that are currently confronting 'classic' high power microwave (HPM) generators including long-life bright electron beam sources, intense beam transport, parasitic mode excitation, energetic electron interaction with surfaces, and rf air breakdown at output windows. The contemporary plasma physics and other related issues of compact, high power mmw-to-THz sources are compared and contrasted to those of HPM generation, and future research challenges and opportunities are discussed

  10. Direct single-shot observation of millimeter wave superradiance in Rydberg-Rydberg transitions

    Grimes, David D; Barnum, Timothy J; Zhou, Yan; Yelin, Susanne F; Field, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We have directly detected millimeter wave (mm-wave) free space superradiant emission from Rydberg states ($n \\sim 30$) of barium atoms in a single shot. We trigger the cooperative effects with a weak initial pulse and detect with single-shot sensitivity and 20 ps time resolution, which allows measurement and shot-by-shot analysis of the distribution of decay rates, time delays, and time-dependent frequency shifts. Cooperative line shifts and decay rates are observed that exceed values that would correspond to the Doppler width of 250 kHz by a factor of 20 and the spontaneous emission rate of 50 Hz by a factor of $10^5$. The initial superradiant output pulse is followed by evolution of the radiation-coupled many-body system toward complex long-lasting emission modes. A comparison to a mean-field theory is presented which reproduces the quantitative time-domain results, but fails to account for either the frequency-domain observations or the long-lived features.

  11. Improved Modeling of Millimeter-Wave Observations of Convective and Stratiform Precipitation

    Leslie, R. V.; Bickmeier, L. J.; Blackwell, W. J.; Chen, F. W.

    2006-12-01

    Convective precipitation has recently been imaged by an airborne spectrometer operating at frequencies ranging from 50 to 425 GHz. These unique observations, together with mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, provide an opportunity to validate new radiative transfer (RT) models, which relate the radiances measured by the sensor to the underlying microphysical properties of the precipitation. Once validated and optimized, these radiative transfer models can then be used to derive novel precipitation retrieval algorithms suitable for use on a global scale by spaceborne millimeter-wave spectrometers. Such a system in geosynchronous orbit, for example, could provide precipitation mapping capabilities at spatial resolutions approaching 10 km and revisit times approaching 15 minutes. This level of performance on a global scale would be a significant improvement over current spaceborne precipitation sensing systems. The NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed Microwave (NAST-M) suite of passive spectrometers collected radiometric images of convective and stratiform precipitation at a spatial resolution of approximately 2.5 km during 27 sorties from 1998 through 2004. These observations have been assembled into a database of over 10,000 precipitation-impacted pixels. The National Center for Atmospheric Research / Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) was used to simulate the regional-scale atmospheric circulation during these 27 sorties. The results of the MM5 analyses were entered into TBSCAT, a multiple-stream initial-value radiative transfer algorithm developed at the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics. Observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NOAA-KLM satellites were compared with simulated radiances over a range of precipitation events to determine the most accurate TBSCAT parameter set. A second RT model (RTTOV-SCATT) was also used to generate simulated radiances, which were compared to AMSU observations. RTTOV-SCATT is an Eddington

  12. Design and development of high linearity millimeter wave traveling-wave tube for satellite communications

    何俊; 黄明光; 李现霞; 李海强; 赵磊; 赵建东; 李跃; 赵石雷

    2015-01-01

    The linearity of the traveling-wave tube is a very important characteristic for a modern communication system. To improve the linearity of the traveling-wave tube at no expense of the saturated output power and overall efficiency, a modified pitch profile combined with a small adjustment of operating parameters is proposed. The optimal design of the helix circuit is evaluated theoretically by a large signal analysis, and the experimental test is also carried out to make a comparison of performance between the novel and original designed traveling-wave tubes. The experiments show that the saturated output powers and efficiencies of these two tubes are close to each other, while the linearity of the traveling-wave tube is obviously improved. The total phase shift and AM/PM conversion at saturation of the novel tube, averaged over the operating band, are only 30.6◦/dB and 2.5◦/dB, respectively, which are 20.1◦/dB and 1.6◦/dB lower than those of the original tube, respectively. Moreover, the third-order intermodulation of the novel tube is up to 2.2 dBc lower than that of the original tube.

  13. Design and development of high linearity millimeter wave traveling-wave tube for satellite communications

    He, Jun; Huang, Ming-Guang; Li, Xian-Xia; Li, Hai-Qiang; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Li, Yue; Zhao, Shi-Lei

    2015-10-01

    The linearity of the traveling-wave tube is a very important characteristic for a modern communication system. To improve the linearity of the traveling-wave tube at no expense of the saturated output power and overall efficiency, a modified pitch profile combined with a small adjustment of operating parameters is proposed. The optimal design of the helix circuit is evaluated theoretically by a large signal analysis, and the experimental test is also carried out to make a comparison of performance between the novel and original designed traveling-wave tubes. The experiments show that the saturated output powers and efficiencies of these two tubes are close to each other, while the linearity of the traveling-wave tube is obviously improved. The total phase shift and AM/PM conversion at saturation of the novel tube, averaged over the operating band, are only 30.6°/dB and 2.5°/dB, respectively, which are 20.1°/dB and 1.6°/dB lower than those of the original tube, respectively. Moreover, the third-order intermodulation of the novel tube is up to 2.2 dBc lower than that of the original tube. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401430).

  14. Measurement of density fluctuations on the JIPP T-II tokamak plasma by millimeter and sub-millimeter wave scattering

    Scattering experiments with a 2-mm microwave oscillator (E.I.O.) and a 337-μm HCN laser were performed to measure density fluctuations on the JIPP T-II/T-IIU tokamak in a wide range of the plasma density. It is found from the measurements of the frequency and wavenumber spectra of the instability that the density fluctuation shows characteristics of a turbulence which is originated in the instability of drift type. The dependence of the fluctuation level on the plasma parameters was investigated and compared with the scaling law of the energy confinement time of the plasma. The relation between the density fluctuation level and the confinement time was obtained. The fluctuation level decreases as the electron density is increased. The plasma temperature dependence of the density fluctuation was also investigated. During the rf heating in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) the increase in the density fluctuation level was observed in low-frequency and long-wavelength region. The temporal behavior of the density fluctuation was correlated with the MHD oscillation observed by magnetic probes. The excited wave during the ICRF heating experiment was studied by the HCN laser scattering. The frequency and wavenumber spectra of the excited wave observed during the heating are found to be consistent with the theoretically estimated wave dispersion of the ion Bernstein wave which is mode-converted from the fast wave in the vicinity of the ion-ion hybrid resonance layer. When the MHD activity grows and the plasma becomes unstable, the scattered signal from the ion Bernstein wave decreases, being accompanied with large pulsation. (author)

  15. Fully Polarimetric Passive W-band Millimeter Wave Imager for Wide Area Search

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Sheen, David M.; Kelly, James F.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-09-27

    We describe the design and phenomenology imaging results of a fully polarimetric W-band millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for wide-area search. Operating from 92 - 94 GHz, the W-band radiometer employs a Dicke switching heterodyne design isolating the horizontal and vertical mm-wave components with 40 dB of polarization isolation. Design results are presented for both infinite conjugate off-axis parabolic and finite conjugate off-axis elliptical fore-optics using optical ray tracing and diffraction calculations. The received linear polarizations are down-converted to a microwave frequency band and recombined in a phase-shifting network to produce all six orthogonal polarization states of light simultaneously, which are used to calculate the Stokes parameters for display and analysis. The resulting system performance produces a heterodyne receiver noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 150m Kelvin. The radiometer provides novel imaging capability by producing all four of the Stokes parameters of light, which are used to create imagery based on the polarization states associated with unique scattering geometries and their interaction with the down welling MMW energy. The polarization states can be exploited in such a way that man-made objects can be located and highlighted in a cluttered scene using methods such as image comparison, color encoding of Stokes parameters, multivariate image analysis, and image fusion with visible and infrared imagery. We also present initial results using a differential imaging approach used to highlight polarization features and reduce common-mode noise. Persistent monitoring of a scene using the polarimetric passive mm-wave technique shows great promise for anomaly detection caused by human activity.

  16. Fully polarimetric passive W-band millimeter wave imager for wide area search

    Tedeschi, Jonathan; Bernacki, Bruce; Sheen, Dave; Kelly, Jim; McMakin, Doug

    2013-09-01

    We describe the design and phenomenology imaging results of a fully polarimetric W-band millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for wide-area search. Operating from 92-94 GHz, the W-band radiometer employs a Dicke switching heterodyne design isolating the horizontal and vertical mm-wave components with 40 dB of polarization isolation. Design results are presented for both infinite conjugate off-axis parabolic and finite conjugate off-axis elliptical fore-optics using optical ray tracing and diffraction calculations. The received linear polarizations are down-converted to a microwave frequency band and recombined in a phase-shifting network to produce all six orthogonal polarization states of light simultaneously, which are used to calculate the Stokes parameters for display and analysis. The resulting system performance produces a heterodyne receiver noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 150m Kelvin. The radiometer provides novel imaging capability by producing all four of the Stokes parameters of light, which are used to create imagery based on the polarization states associated with unique scattering geometries and their interaction with the down welling MMW energy. The polarization states can be exploited in such a way that man-made objects can be located and highlighted in a cluttered scene using methods such as image comparison, color encoding of Stokes parameters, multivariate image analysis, and image fusion with visible and infrared imagery. We also present initial results using a differential imaging approach used to highlight polarization features and reduce common-mode noise. Persistent monitoring of a scene using the polarimetric passive mm-wave technique shows great promise for anomaly detection caused by human activity.

  17. The new approaches in a process engineering high power microwaves diodes millimeter wave band

    Khapachev; Yu.; P.; Dyshekov; A.; A.; Tashilov; A.; S.; Barashev; M.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The reachings in the field of deriving modern materials of a microelectronics engineering are especially effective, when the process engineering of manufacture of the concrete device allows maximum to realize the resources, included in active structure.In the report the outcomes of results on a considerable diminution of thermal restrictions generating impatt diodes millimeter (mm) wave band are submitted with the purpose of improving exit pupils and reliability. The complex of original design technological receptions has allowed to solve a problem of making multimesa wave band structures, in which the thermal resistance is possible to reduce in inverse proportion√n,where n-number of mesa structures. The sectional process engineering has general purpose character and is applicable to the most composite materials in particular to heterostrucructures and all types of made on their bases microwaves diodes containing a mesa structure. The results are illustrated on silicon double drift six mesa structure 5 mm wave band for which the level of an output continuous power 1.04watts on frequency 65.9 GH2 is obtained. Thus p-n junction temperature did not exceed 220℃ usual copper heatsink also was utillized. The electronic snapshots and outcomes of investigation of thermal fields silicon mesa diodes of a various configuration are reduced: to six mesa, eight mesa, ring.Singularity of a sectional process engineering are higher specific mechanical loadings at assembly of devices, therefore with the purpose of a raise of reliability and percent of an exit of suitable devices designed and the procedure permitting to inspect on starting plates amplitude and a strain gradient in active region is tested X-ray diffraction method that is especially important for heterostructure mesa diodes.

  18. Laboratory microwave, millimeter wave and far-infrared spectra of dimethyl sulfide

    Jabri, A.; Van, V.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Dimethyl sulfide, CH3SCH3 (DMS), is a nonrigid, sulfur-containing molecule whose astronomical detection is considered to be possible in the interstellar medium. Very accurate spectroscopic constants were obtained by a laboratory analysis of rotational microwave and millimeter wave spectra, as well as rotation-torsional far-infrared (FIR) spectra, which can be used to predict transition frequencies for a detection in interstellar sources. Aims: This work aims at the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state and ground torsional band ν15 of DMS in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40 GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110 GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. Results: DMS has two equivalent methyl internal rotors with a barrier height of about 730 cm-1. We performed a fit, using the XIAM and BELGI-Cs-2Tops codes, that contained the new measurements and previous transitions reported in the literature for the ground torsional state νt = 0 (including the four torsional species AA, AE, EA and EE) and for the ground torsional band ν15 = 1 ← 0 (including only the AA species). In the microwave region, we analyzed 584 transitions with J ≤ 30 of the ground torsional state νt = 0 and 18 transitions with J ≤ 5 of the first excited torsional state νt = 1. In the FIR range, 578 transitions belonging to the torsional band ν15 = 1 ← 0 with J ≤ 27 were assigned. Totally, 1180 transitions were included in a global fit with 21 accurately determined parameters. These parameters can be used to produce a reliable line-list for an astrophysical detection of DMS. Full Tables B.1 and C.1, and Table E.1 are

  19. Millimeter and submillimeter wave spectra of mono-13C-acetaldehydes

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Guillemin, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The acetaldehyde molecule is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of our galaxy, and due to its dense and complex spectrum, large dipole moment, and several low-lying torsional states, acetaldehyde is considered to be a "weed" molecule for radio astronomy observations. Mono-13C acetaldehydes 13CH3CHO and CH313CHO are likely to be identified in astronomical surveys, such as those available with the very sensitive ALMA telescope. Laboratory measurements and analysis of the millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectra are the prerequisites for the successful radioastronomical search for the new interstellar molecular species, as well as for new isotopologs of already detected interstellar molecules. Aims: In this context, to provide reliable predictions of 13CH3CHO and CH313CHO spectra in millimeter and submillimeter wave ranges, we study rotational spectra of these species in the frequency range from 50 to 945 GHz. Methods: The spectra of mono-13C acetaldehydes were recorded using the spectrometer based on Schottky-diode frequencymultiplication chains in the Lille laboratory. The rotational spectra of 13CH3CHO and CH313CHO molecules were analyzed using the Rho axis method. Results: In the recorded spectra we have assigned 6884 for the 13CH3CHO species and 6458 for CH313CHO species new rotational transitions belonging to the ground, first, and second excited torsional states. These measurements were fitted together with previously published data to the Hamiltonian models that use 91 and 87 parameters to achieve overall weighted rms deviations 0.88 for the 13CH3CHO species and 0.95 for CH313CHO. On the basis of the new spectroscopic results, predictions of transition frequencies in the frequency range up to 1 THz with J ≤ 60 and Ka ≤ 20 are presented for both isotopologs. Full Tables 3-6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/579/A46

  20. Generation of millimeter-wave sub-carrier optical pulse by using a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Qing Ye; Ronghui Qu; Zujie Fang

    2007-01-01

    A novel scheme is proposed to transform a Gaussian optical pulse to a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency modulation pulse by using a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for radio-over-fiber (ROF) system.It is shown that modulation frequency of mm-wave is determined by the optical path of the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity, and amplitude decay time and energy transfer efficiency are related to the reflectivity of the F-P cavity mirror. The effect of pulse train extension on inter-symbol interference is also discussed.

  1. BOOMERANG A Balloon-borne Millimeter Wave Telescope and Total Power Receiver for Mapping Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Crill, B P; Artusa, D R; Bhatia, R S; Bock, J J; Boscaleri, A; Cardoni, P; Church, S E; Coble, K; De Bernardis, P; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Haynes, C V; Hivon, E; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Jones, W C; Lange, A E; Martinis, L; Masi, S; Mason, P V; Mauskopf, P D; Miglio, L; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Paine, C G; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Pongetti, F; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scaramuzzi, F; Sforza, D M; Turner, A D

    2002-01-01

    We describe BOOMERANG; a balloon-borne microwave telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at a resolution of 10' from the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform. The millimeter-wave receiver employs new technology in bolometers, readout electronics, cold re-imaging optics, millimeter-wave filters, and cryogenics to obtain high sensitivity to CMB anisotropy. Sixteen detectors observe in 4 spectral bands centered at 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The wide frequency coverage, the long duration flight, the optical design and the observing strategy provide strong rejection of systematic effects. We report the flight performance of the instrument during a 10.5 day stratospheric balloon flight launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica that mapped ~2000 square degrees of the sky.

  2. Excess Propagation Loss of Semi-Closed Obstacles for Inter/Intra-Device Communications in the Millimeter-Wave Range

    Guan, Ke; Ai, Bo; Fricke, Alexander; He, Danping; Zhong, Zhangdui; Matolak, David W.; Kürner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The ever decreasing geometrical dimensions of electronic devices makes miscellaneous cables or connectors of relatively large dimensions unwanted. Thus, wireless inter/intra-device communications in the millimeter-wave range become a topic of recent interest. In this paper, the excess losses of three groups of typical semi-closed obstacles (connectors, heatsinks, and printed circuit boards) in inter/intra-device communications are measured and empirically modeled. Specific coefficients for each of the obstacles are estimated to describe the excess loss in the millimeter-wave band. Validation shows that the empirical model structure combined with the specific coefficients can provide an effective and simple way to include various semi-closed obstacles in the network planning, simulation, and design of inter/intra-device communications.

  3. System Coverage and Capacity Analysis on Millimeter-Wave Band for 5G Mobile Communication Systems with Massive Antenna Structure

    Jun Suk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of a millimeter-wave band defined as a 30–300 GHz range is significant element for improving performance of 5th generation (5G mobile communication systems. However, since the millimeter-wave signal has peculiar propagation characteristics especially toward non-line-of-sight regions, the system architecture and antenna structure for 5G mobile communications should be designed to overcome these propagation limitations. For realization of the 5G mobile communications, electronics and telecommunications research institute (ETRI is developing central network applying various massive antenna structures with beamforming. In this paper, we have introduced the central network and evaluated the system coverage and capacity through C++ language-based simulations with real geospatial information.

  4. Low-altitude millimeter-wave propagation in the evaporation duct

    Anderson, K. D.

    1989-07-01

    One-way, low altitude radio propagation measurements at 94 GHz and simultaneous surface meteorological measurements were made on a 40.6-km over-the-horizon, over-water path along the southern California coast to assess the effects of the evaporation duct on signal propagation. More than 2000 hours of received signal power were recorded in eight measurement periods from July 1986 through July 1987. The average received power was 63 dB greater than expected for propagation in a nonducting, or standard, atmosphere; 90 percent of the measurements were at least 55 dB greater than the standard atmosphere. Predictions of transmission loss based on the observed surface meteorology compared favorably to the measured transmission loss; on the average, the predictions underestimated the transmission loss by 10 dB. The reliability and reasonable accuracy of the model provided a strong justification for utilizing the technique to assess millimeter-wave communication and radar systems operating in many, if not all, ocean regions.

  5. Precise equilibrium structure determination of hydrazoic acid (HN3) by millimeter-wave spectroscopy.

    Amberger, Brent K; Esselman, Brian J; Stanton, John F; Woods, R Claude; McMahon, Robert J

    2015-09-14

    The millimeter-wave spectrum of hydrazoic acid (HN3) was analyzed in the frequency region of 235-450 GHz. Transitions from a total of 14 isotopologues were observed and fit using the A-reduced or S-reduced Hamiltonian. Coupled-cluster calculations were performed to obtain a theoretical geometry, as well as rotation-vibration interaction corrections. These calculated vibration-rotation correction terms were applied to the experimental rotational constants to obtain mixed theoretical/experimental equilibrium rotational constants (Ae, Be, and Ce). These equilibrium rotational constants were then used to obtain an equilibrium (Re) structure using a least-squares fitting routine. The Re structural parameters are consistent with a previously published Rs structure, largely falling within the uncertainty limits of that Rs structure. The present Re geometric parameters of HN3 are determined with exceptionally high accuracy, as a consequence of the large number of isotopologues measured experimentally and the sophisticated (coupled-cluster theoretical treatment (CCSD(T))/ANO2) of the vibration-rotation interactions. The Re structure exhibits remarkable agreement with the CCSD(T)/cc-pCV5Z predicted structure, validating both the accuracy of the ab initio method and the claimed uncertainties of the theoretical/experimental structure determination. PMID:26374038

  6. Portable concealed weapon detection using millimeter-wave FMCW radar imaging

    Johnson, Michael A.; Chang, Yu-Wen

    2001-02-01

    Unobtrusive detection of concealed weapons on persons or in abandoned bags would provide law enforcement a powerful tool to focus resources and increase traffic throughput in high- risk situations. We have developed a fast image scanning 94 GHz radar system that is suitable for portable operation and remote viewing of radar data. This system includes a novel fast image-scanning antenna that allows for the acquisition of medium resolution 3D millimeter wave images of stationary targets with frame times on order of one second. The 3D radar data allows for potential isolation of concealed weapons from body and environmental clutter such as nearby furniture or other people. The radar is an active system so image quality is not affected indoors, emitted power is however very low so there are no health concerns for operator or targets. The low power operation is still sufficient to penetrate heavy clothing or material. Small system size allows for easy transport and rapid deployment of the system as well as an easy migration path to future hand held systems.

  7. Full Band Millimeter-Wave Power-Combining Amplifier Using a Lossy Power-Combining Network

    Xie, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Guiting; Zhang, Yunhua; Zhao, Xuan; She, Yuchen

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a millimeter-wave broadband power-combining amplifier using a novel lossy waveguide-based power combiner. The lossy combiner has a performance of broadband low-loss combining symmetrically and has properties of good match and high isolation at and between ports, because lossy planar lines are embedded in the lossy combiner and even-mode excitations are weakened. The measured results show that the lossy combiners has a loss of about 0.14 dB and achieves reflection and isolation of about—15 dB in 26.5-40 GHz. And then, using the lossy combiner, a compact lossy waveguide-based four-way-combining network is fabricated. The lossy network has a measured loss of about 0.25 dB and achieves good improvements of match and isolation in the full Ka-band. The improvements can enhance stability of amplifying units when the lossy combining network used in multi-way power-combining amplifier. Using the lossy combining network, a solid-state power-combining amplifier is developed, and corresponding experimental results show that output power is more than 30 dBm and combining efficiency is more than 80 % in the full Ka-band.

  8. Constraining the Origins of Neptune's Carbon Monoxide Abundance with CARMA Millimeter-wave Observations

    Luszcz-Cook, Statia H; 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.002

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of Neptune's 1- and 3-mm spectrum from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). Radiative transfer analysis of the CO (2-1) and (1-0) rotation lines was performed to constrain the CO vertical abundance profile. We find that the data are well matched by a CO mole fraction of 0.1^+0.2_-0.1 parts per million (ppm) in the troposphere, and 1.1^+0.2_-0.3 ppm in the stratosphere. A flux of 0.5-20 times 10^8 CO molecules cm-2 s-1 to the upper stratosphere is implied. Using the Zahnle et al. (2003) estimate for cometary impact rates at Neptune, we calculate the CO flux that could be formed from (sub)kilometer-sized comets; we find that if the diffusion rate near the tropopause is small (200 cm2 s-1), these impacts could produce a flux as high as 0.5^+0.8_-0.4 times 10^8 CO molecules cm-2 s-1. We also revisit the calculation of Neptune's internal CO contribution using revised calculations for the CO ->CH4 conversion timescale in the deep atmosphere (Visscher et al. 2...

  9. Design of CMOS Power Amplifier for Millimeter Wave Systems at 70 GHz

    Rashid A. Saeed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new CMOS power amplifier that can operate at 70 GHz is designed and developed. The advantages of using 70 GHz at millimeter wave (mmW band is the huge amount of bandwidth available for various purposes whether they are in the cellular industry or manufacture devices such as high bandwidth wireless LAN and low attenuation of bandwidth frequencies around 70 GHz bands comparing with 60 GHz. Design power amplifiers at 70 GHz are quite challenges task. The complication such as the stability of the amplifier is difficult and hard to be achieved. In this paper, we design power amplifier with 3 single ended, common source stages biased in class A. The proposed circuit resulted in a stable power amplifier capable of working at 70 GHz frequency. The purpose of using three stages is not only to maximize gain but also to increase isolation against reflections. We found that this configuration has many advantages in terms of lower power supply required, leading to higher efficiencyand good linearity. The first stage is biased at a peak Fmax biased of 0.2 mA/μm to maximize the gain to 10.58 dB. The second and third stages are biased at optimum linearity current density of 0.28 mA/μm.

  10. Oversampling advances in millimeter-wave scan imaging using inexpensive neon indicator lamp detectors

    Levanon, Assaf; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir; Rozban, Daniel; Joseph, Hezi; Aharon, Avihai; Belenky, Alex; Gefen, Michael; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop room temperature inexpensive, but sensitive, millimeter wave (MMW) and terahertz (THz) detectors that can be used as pixels in focal plane arrays, which is important for real-time imaging. A new 18×2 neon indicator lamp MMW/THz scanner was developed. The components of the camera include horizontally shifted two-column glow discharge detectors in a scanning array. The detectors, costing about 50 cents each, are wired to a preprocessing card, a VLSI board, and a motor for scanner movement. A description of the VLSI Verilog programmable hardware of the new scanner, the physical architecture, the software user interface, and imaging results at 97 GHz are presented. At this stage, the emphasis is focused on the lamp exposure time and spatial resolution when the scanning is performed horizontally. In the future it is planned to expose all pixels simultaneously for real-time imaging. New software capabilities allow the application of digital image enhancement algorithms. Fast scanning permits obtaining images in 1 to 5 s. Oversampling yields a sharper edge response and a higher signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. Demonstration of Passive W-Band Millimeter Wave Imaging Using Optical Upconversion Detection Methodology with Applications

    Samluk, Jesse P.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Dillon, Thomas; Martin, Richard D.; Stein, E. Lee; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Wilson, John; Robbins, Andrew; Shi, Shouyuan; Chen, Caihua; Yao, Peng; Shireen, Rownak; Macario, Julien; Prather, Dennis W.

    2012-11-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) imaging has enjoyed a measure of success due to the unique properties of imaging in this spectral region, some of which are still being discovered. For example, a key advantage of mmW imaging is the ability to penetrate through various atmospheric obscurants, including fog, dust, sand, and smoke, due to its longer wavelengths as compared to visible or infrared imaging. Various methods of imaging with mmW energy exist, such as direct detection, downconversion, and upconversion, where this manuscript focuses on the latter. Until now, passive imaging using an optical upconversion method was limited to Q-band frequencies due to the lack of commercially available parts, namely a sufficiently high frequency optical modulator. To overcome this limitation, a custom-built modulator using in-house fabrication facilities was realized to allow imaging within the W-band frequency range (75-110 GHz). Therefore, in this manuscript we report new results of passive imaging in the W-band frequency range using a unique optical upconversion technique, where the higher frequency operation allows for greater detail in the imagery thus collected.

  12. A Novel Method for Speech Acquisition and Enhancement by 94 GHz Millimeter-Wave Sensor

    Fuming Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the speech acquisition ability of a non-contact method, a 94 GHz millimeter wave (MMW radar sensor was employed to detect speech signals. This novel non-contact speech acquisition method was shown to have high directional sensitivity, and to be immune to strong acoustical disturbance. However, MMW radar speech is often degraded by combined sources of noise, which mainly include harmonic, electrical circuit and channel noise. In this paper, an algorithm combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD and mutual information entropy (MIE was proposed for enhancing the perceptibility and intelligibility of radar speech. Firstly, the radar speech signal was adaptively decomposed into oscillatory components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs by EMD. Secondly, MIE was used to determine the number of reconstructive components, and then an adaptive threshold was employed to remove the noise from the radar speech. The experimental results show that human speech can be effectively acquired by a 94 GHz MMW radar sensor when the detection distance is 20 m. Moreover, the noise of the radar speech is greatly suppressed and the speech sounds become more pleasant to human listeners after being enhanced by the proposed algorithm, suggesting that this novel speech acquisition and enhancement method will provide a promising alternative for various applications associated with speech detection.

  13. A real-time heart rate analysis for a remote millimeter wave I-Q sensor.

    Bakhtiari, S.; Liao, S.; Elmer, T.; Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyzes heart rate (HR) information from physiological tracings collected with a remote millimeter wave (mmW) I-Q sensor for biometric monitoring applications. A parameter optimization method based on the nonlinear Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used. The mmW sensor works at 94 GHz and can detect the vital signs of a human subject from a few to tens of meters away. The reflected mmW signal is typically affected by respiration, body movement, background noise, and electronic system noise. Processing of the mmW radar signal is, thus, necessary to obtain the true HR. The down-converted received signal in this case consists of both the real part (I-branch) and the imaginary part (Q-branch), which can be considered as the cosine and sine of the received phase of the HR signal. Instead of fitting the converted phase angle signal, the method directly fits the real and imaginary parts of the HR signal, which circumvents the need for phase unwrapping. This is particularly useful when the SNR is low. Also, the method identifies both beat-to-beat HR and individual heartbeat magnitude, which is valuable for some medical diagnosis applications. The mean HR here is compared to that obtained using the discrete Fourier transform.

  14. The possibilities of material processing by intense millimeter-wave radiation

    This paper reports on powerful sources of millimeter wavelength (MMW) radiation that are developed for plasma investigation, particularly for thermonuclear plasma heating. Powerful oscillators for plasma heating - gyrotrons - at wavelengths down to 2 mm with output of several hundreds kilowatt at CW operation and over 1 MW at pulsed operation (pulse duration up to 1 s) are created or being created. The existence of CW multi kilowatt gyrotrons allows for new possibilities for material processing. The MMW range is situated at the end of the microwave range close to infrared and naturally allows applications either in the multimode microwave-oven manner or in the form of wave beam energy fluxes similar to laser radiation. Gyrotrons are close to technological lasers from the view-point of high flux densities up to 106W/cm2. By their efficiency (40%), gyrotrons are among the most effective electromagnetic devices and significantly exceed technological lasers in efficiency as well as in CW outputs. So gyrotrons can be used for various material transformation processes requiring great amounts of energy such as plasma chemistry and processing of solid materials

  15. Behavioral response and cell morphology changes of caenorhabditis elegans under high power millimeter wave irradiation

    C. elegans were exposed to high power millimeter waves (MMWs) with different mean power densities, to investigate their behavioral response and cell morphology changes under MMW irradiation. The time-course photomicrography system was used to record the behavioral changes of C. elegans. The behavioral response and cell morphology changes were further observed by stereoscopic microscopes. The results show that freely moving C. elegans will escape from the MMW irradiation region quickly. After the exposure to MMWs with output mean power of 10 W and 12 W, the bending speed of C. elegans increases significantly at first, while the movement gradually slows down until the bodies get rigid. However, exposed to 5 W MMW, C. elegans show a distinctive tolerant reaction because of the thermal effect. In addition, cell morphological observations show that the nuclear structure of the eggs are abnormal after abnormal after MMW irradiation. High power MMW significantly affects the behaviors and cell morphology of C. elegans, which suggests the C. elegans could be used as a typical model species to study the biological effects of MMW irradiation. (authors)

  16. Integrating Millimeter Wave Radar with a Monocular Vision Sensor for On-Road Obstacle Detection Applications

    Zheng Ma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic scheme for fusing millimeter wave (MMW radar and a monocular vision sensor for on-road obstacle detection. As a whole, a three-level fusion strategy based on visual attention mechanism and driver’s visual consciousness is provided for MMW radar and monocular vision fusion so as to obtain better comprehensive performance. Then an experimental method for radar-vision point alignment for easy operation with no reflection intensity of radar and special tool requirements is put forward. Furthermore, a region searching approach for potential target detection is derived in order to decrease the image processing time. An adaptive thresholding algorithm based on a new understanding of shadows in the image is adopted for obstacle detection, and edge detection is used to assist in determining the boundary of obstacles. The proposed fusion approach is verified through real experimental examples of on-road vehicle/pedestrian detection. In the end, the experimental results show that the proposed method is simple and feasible.

  17. 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Over Fiber with Directly Modulated Dual-mode Laser Diode

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-06-01

    A directly modulated dual-mode laser diode (DMLD) with third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) suppression is proposed for a 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber (MMWoF) architecture, enabling new fiber-wireless communication access to cover 4-km single-mode-fiber (SMF) and 3-m wireless 16-QAM OFDM transmissions. By dual-mode injection-locking, the throughput degradation of the DMLD is mitigated with saturation effect to reduce its threshold, IMD3 power and relative intensity noise to 7.7 mA, ‑85 dBm and ‑110.4 dBc/Hz, respectively, providing huge spurious-free dynamic range of 85.8 dB/Hz2/3. This operation suppresses the noise floor of the DMLD carried QPSK-OFDM spectrum by 5 dB. The optical receiving power is optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the bit error rate to 1.9 × 10‑3 and the receiving power penalty to 1.1 dB. Such DMLD based hybrid architecture for 60-GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for next-generation indoor and short-reach mobile communications.

  18. First lasing of the KAERI millimeter-wave free electron laser

    Lee, B.C.; Jeong, Y.U.; Cho, S.O. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The millimeter-wave FEL program at KAERI aims at the generation of high-power CW laser beam with high efficiency at the wavelength of 3{approximately}10 mm for the application in plasma heating and in power beaming. In the first oscillation experiment, the FEL has lased at the wavelength of 10 mm with the pulsewidth of 10{approximately}30 {mu}s. The peak power is about 1 kW The FEL is driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator having tandem geometry. The energy and the current of the electron beam are 400 keV and 2 A, respectively. The FEL resonator is located in the high-voltage terminal and is composed of a helical undulator, two mesh mirrors, and a cylindrical waveguide. The parameters of the permanent-magnet helical undulator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, magnetic field = 1.3 kG. At present, with no axial guiding magnetic field only 15 % of the injected beam pass through the undulator. Transport ratio of the electron beam through the undulator is very sensitive to the injection parameters such as the diameter and the divergence of the electron beam Simulations show that, with unproved injection condition, the FEL can generate more than 50 kW of average power in CW operation. Details of the experiments, including the spectrum measurement and the recirculation of electron beam, are presented.

  19. Super-resolution processing of passive millimeter-wave images based on adaptive projected Landweber algorithm

    Zheng Xin; Yang Jianyu

    2008-01-01

    Passive millimeter wave(PMMW)images inherently have the problem of poor resolution owing to limited aperture dimension.Thus,efficient post-processing is necessary to achieve resolution improvement.An adaptive projected Laadweber(APL)super-resolution algorithm using a spectral correction procedure,which attempts to combine the strong points of all of the projected Landweber(PL)iteration and the adaptive relaxation parameter adjustment and the spectral correction method,is proposed.In the algorithm,the PL iterations are implemented as the main image restoration scheme and a spectral correction method is included in which the calculated spectrum within the passband is replaced by the known low frequency component.Then,the algorithm updates the relaxation parameter adaptively at each iteration.A qualitative evaluation of this algorithm is performed with simulated data as well as actual radiometer image captured by 91.5 GHz mechanically scanned radiometer.From experiments,it is found that the super-resolution algorithm obtains better results and enhances the resolution and has lower mean square error(MSE).These constraints and adaptive character and spectral correction procedures speed up the convergence of the Landweber algorithm and reduce the ringing effects that are caused by regularizing the image restoration problem.

  20. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of carbonyl diazide, OC(N3)2

    Amberger, Brent K.; Esselman, Brian J.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter-wave absorption spectra for carbonyl diazide (OC(N3)2) are reported in the frequency range of 243-360 GHz, at both 293 K and 213 K. Transitions for two of the three possible conformations, one with both of the azide groups syn to the carbonyl group, or with one syn and the other anti, were observed in the spectra. Theoretical calculations at the CCSD(T)/ANO1 level do an excellent job of predicting the ground state rotational constants and 4th order centrifugal distortion terms for both conformers. Relative line intensities, along with theoretically predicted dipole moments, were used to estimate the energy difference of the two observed forms, yielding a result in good agreement with the ab initio potential energy surface. The spectra of the ν12, ν7, ν9 and 2ν12 excited vibrational states for the more abundant syn-syn conformer have been assigned, and a great many transitions for each of them have been fit using partial 6th and 8th order centrifugal distortion Hamiltonians. Anharmonic vibration-rotation interaction constants from the CCSD(T)/ANO1 calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined constants in the case of ν7 and ν9, but not for ν12.

  1. Monolithic millimeter-wave diode array beam controllers: Theory and experiment

    Sjogren, L. B.; Liu, H.-X. L.; Wang, F.; Liu, T.; Wu, W.; Qin, X.-H.; Chung, E.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Maserjian, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the current work, multi-function beam control arrays have been fabricated and have successfully demonstrated amplitude control of transmitted beams in the W and D bands (75-170 GHz). While these arrays are designed to provide beam control under DC bias operation, new designs for high-speed electronic and optical control are under development. These arrays will fill a need for high-speed watt-level beam switches in pulsed reflectometer systems under development for magnetic fusion plasma diagnostics. A second experimental accomplishment of the current work is the demonstration in the 100-170 GHz (D band) frequency range of a new technique for the measurement of the transmission phase as well as amplitude. Transmission data can serve as a means to extract ('de-embed') the grid parameters; phase information provides more complete data to assist in this process. Additional functions of the array beam controller yet to be tested include electronically controlled steering and focusing of a reflected beam. These have application in the areas of millimeter-wave electronic scanning radar and reflectometry, respectively.

  2. Measurements of Antenna Surface for Millimeter-Wave Space Radio Telescope

    Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Doi, Akihiro; Sato, Eiichi

    2011-01-01

    In the construction of a space radio telescope, it is essential to use materials with a low noise factor and high mechanical robustness for the antenna surface. We present the results of measurements of the reflection performance of two candidates for antenna surface materials for use in a radio telescope installed in a new millimeter-wave astronomical satellite, ASTRO-G. To estimate the amount of degradation caused by fluctuations in the thermal environment in the projected orbit of the satellite, a thermal cycle test was carried out for two candidates, namely, copper foil carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and aluminum-coated CFRP. At certain points during the thermal cycle test, the reflection loss of the surfaces was measured precisely by using a radiometer in the 41-45 GHz band. In both candidates, cracks appeared on the surface after the thermal cycle test, where the number density of the cracks increased as the thermal cycle progressed. The reflection loss also increased in proportion to the number...

  3. The mechanical design of a high-power, dual frequency, millimeter-wave antenna feed system

    Moldovan, N.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design and fabrication of a high power, dual-frequency, millimeter-wave feed system. The feed system consists of a 35 GHz circularly polarized monopulse subsystem and a 95 GHz circularly polarized feed. The 35 GHz feed is designed to handle 5.0 kW average and 50 kW peak power and the 95 GHz 1.2 kW average and 12 kW peak power. A Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) is incorporated to provide dual frequency capability. Each feed is liquid cooled to provide suitable cooling during high power operation. The two feeds and FSS assembly are mounted in a supporting space frame to provide an optically integral assembly ready to be mounted at the vertex of a reflector. The paper addresses three main areas: the general feed design, which includes the manufacturing processes, flange considerations and waveguide cooling; the FSS fabrication; and beam alignment for both the primary and secondary field.

  4. Novel Millimeter Wave Sensor Concepts for Energy, Environment, and National Security

    Millimeter waves (30-300 GHz) are ideally suited for sensing and diagnosing materials, devices, and processes that are broadly important to energy, environment, and national security missions. The wavelengths are long enough to penetrate dust, smoke, and industrial environment yet short enough to enable focusing and manipulating of the signals for useful applications. We have developed a novel thermal return reflection (TRR) technique that uses emission as a probe to interrogate and diagnose materials and systems and determine emissivity and temperature simultaneously. Scientific basis of TRR, 2-D and potentially 3-D measurements, and selected results on application of TRR will be presented. We will also present new sensor concepts based on emit-probe and pump-probe modes to further broaden its applications. In its 3-D manifestation of this technique, one can track three different parameters or view/measure at three different directions (x, y, and z). On application to materials and processes, it shows promise for measuring temperature (T) - position (x) - time (t) simultaneously in real time leading to T-x-t diagrams that can be exploited for spatial resolution of emissivity or stability over a function of time. Selected examples of applications in fusion plasma diagnostics, nuclear waste disposal, and non-proliferation will be presented.

  5. A blind green bank telescope millimeter-wave survey for redshifted molecular absorption

    Kanekar, N.; Gupta, A. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Stocke, J. T. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Willett, K. W., E-mail: nkanekar@ncra.tifr.res.in [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We present the methodology for 'blind' millimeter-wave surveys for redshifted molecular absorption in the CO/HCO{sup +} rotational lines. The frequency range 30-50 GHz appears optimal for such surveys, providing sensitivity to absorbers at z ≳ 0.85. It is critical that the survey is 'blind', i.e., based on a radio-selected sample, including sources without known redshifts. We also report results from the first large survey of this kind, using the Q-band receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to search for molecular absorption toward 36 sources, 3 without known redshifts, over the frequency range 39.6-49.5 GHz. The GBT survey has a total redshift path of Δz ≈ 24, mostly at 0.81 < z < 1.91, and a sensitivity sufficient to detect equivalent H{sub 2} column densities ≳ 3 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} in absorption at 5σ significance (using CO-to-H{sub 2} and HCO{sup +}-to-H{sub 2} conversion factors of the Milky Way). The survey yielded no confirmed detections of molecular absorption, yielding the 2σ upper limit n(z = 1.2) < 0.15 on the redshift number density of molecular gas at column densities N(H{sub 2}) ≳ 3 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2}.

  6. A blind green bank telescope millimeter-wave survey for redshifted molecular absorption

    We present the methodology for 'blind' millimeter-wave surveys for redshifted molecular absorption in the CO/HCO+ rotational lines. The frequency range 30-50 GHz appears optimal for such surveys, providing sensitivity to absorbers at z ≳ 0.85. It is critical that the survey is 'blind', i.e., based on a radio-selected sample, including sources without known redshifts. We also report results from the first large survey of this kind, using the Q-band receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to search for molecular absorption toward 36 sources, 3 without known redshifts, over the frequency range 39.6-49.5 GHz. The GBT survey has a total redshift path of Δz ≈ 24, mostly at 0.81 < z < 1.91, and a sensitivity sufficient to detect equivalent H2 column densities ≳ 3 × 1021 cm–2 in absorption at 5σ significance (using CO-to-H2 and HCO+-to-H2 conversion factors of the Milky Way). The survey yielded no confirmed detections of molecular absorption, yielding the 2σ upper limit n(z = 1.2) < 0.15 on the redshift number density of molecular gas at column densities N(H2) ≳ 3 × 1021 cm–2.

  7. Precise equilibrium structure determination of hydrazoic acid (HN{sub 3}) by millimeter-wave spectroscopy

    Amberger, Brent K.; Esselman, Brian J.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, Robert J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas–Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The millimeter-wave spectrum of hydrazoic acid (HN{sub 3}) was analyzed in the frequency region of 235-450 GHz. Transitions from a total of 14 isotopologues were observed and fit using the A-reduced or S-reduced Hamiltonian. Coupled-cluster calculations were performed to obtain a theoretical geometry, as well as rotation-vibration interaction corrections. These calculated vibration-rotation correction terms were applied to the experimental rotational constants to obtain mixed theoretical/experimental equilibrium rotational constants (A{sub e}, B{sub e}, and C{sub e}). These equilibrium rotational constants were then used to obtain an equilibrium (R{sub e}) structure using a least-squares fitting routine. The R{sub e} structural parameters are consistent with a previously published R{sub s} structure, largely falling within the uncertainty limits of that R{sub s} structure. The present R{sub e} geometric parameters of HN{sub 3} are determined with exceptionally high accuracy, as a consequence of the large number of isotopologues measured experimentally and the sophisticated (coupled-cluster theoretical treatment (CCSD(T))/ANO2) of the vibration-rotation interactions. The R{sub e} structure exhibits remarkable agreement with the CCSD(T)/cc-pCV5Z predicted structure, validating both the accuracy of the ab initio method and the claimed uncertainties of the theoretical/experimental structure determination.

  8. Precise equilibrium structure determination of hydrazoic acid (HN3) by millimeter-wave spectroscopy

    The millimeter-wave spectrum of hydrazoic acid (HN3) was analyzed in the frequency region of 235-450 GHz. Transitions from a total of 14 isotopologues were observed and fit using the A-reduced or S-reduced Hamiltonian. Coupled-cluster calculations were performed to obtain a theoretical geometry, as well as rotation-vibration interaction corrections. These calculated vibration-rotation correction terms were applied to the experimental rotational constants to obtain mixed theoretical/experimental equilibrium rotational constants (Ae, Be, and Ce). These equilibrium rotational constants were then used to obtain an equilibrium (Re) structure using a least-squares fitting routine. The Re structural parameters are consistent with a previously published Rs structure, largely falling within the uncertainty limits of that Rs structure. The present Re geometric parameters of HN3 are determined with exceptionally high accuracy, as a consequence of the large number of isotopologues measured experimentally and the sophisticated (coupled-cluster theoretical treatment (CCSD(T))/ANO2) of the vibration-rotation interactions. The Re structure exhibits remarkable agreement with the CCSD(T)/cc-pCV5Z predicted structure, validating both the accuracy of the ab initio method and the claimed uncertainties of the theoretical/experimental structure determination

  9. Simplified human model and pedestrian simulation in the millimeter-wave region

    Han, Junghwan; Kim, Seok; Lee, Tae-Yun; Ka, Min-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar sensors have been studied as a strong candidate for advanced driver assistance systems(ADAS) because of their all-weather capability and accurate range and radial velocity measuring scheme. However, developing a reliable pedestrian recognition system hasmany obstacles due to the inaccurate and non-trivial radar responses at these high frequencies and the many combinations of clothes and accessories. To overcome these obstacles, many researchers used electromagnetic (EM) simulation to characterize the radar scattering response of a human. However, human simulation takes so long time because of the electrically huge size of a human in the millimeter-wave region. To reduce simulation time, some researchers assumed the skin of a human is the perfect electric conductor (PEC) and have simulated the PEC human model using physical optics (PO) algorithm without a specific explanation about how the human body could be modeled with PEC. In this study, the validity of the assumption that the surface of the human body is considered PEC in the EM simulation is verified, and the simulation result of the dry skin human model is compared with that of the PEC human model.

  10. A 94-GHz millimeter-wave sensor for speech signal acquisition.

    Li, Sheng; Tian, Ying; Lu, Guohua; Zhang, Yang; Lv, Hao; Yu, Xiao; Xue, Huijun; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Jianqi; Jing, Xijing

    2013-01-01

    High frequency millimeter-wave (MMW) radar-like sensors enable the detection of speech signals. This novel non-acoustic speech detection method has some special advantages not offered by traditional microphones, such as preventing strong-acoustic interference, high directional sensitivity with penetration, and long detection distance. A 94-GHz MMW radar sensor was employed in this study to test its speech acquisition ability. A 34-GHz zero intermediate frequency radar, a 34-GHz superheterodyne radar, and a microphone were also used for comparison purposes. A short-time phase-spectrum-compensation algorithm was used to enhance the detected speech. The results reveal that the 94-GHz radar sensor showed the highest sensitivity and obtained the highest speech quality subjective measurement score. This result suggests that the MMW radar sensor has better performance than a traditional microphone in terms of speech detection for detection distances longer than 1 m. As a substitute for the traditional speech acquisition method, this novel speech acquisition method demonstrates a large potential for many speech related applications. PMID:24284764

  11. A 94-GHz Millimeter-Wave Sensor for Speech Signal Acquisition

    Jianqi Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High frequency millimeter-wave (MMW radar-like sensors enable the detection of speech signals. This novel non-acoustic speech detection method has some special advantages not offered by traditional microphones, such as preventing strong-acoustic interference, high directional sensitivity with penetration, and long detection distance. A 94-GHz MMW radar sensor was employed in this study to test its speech acquisition ability. A 34-GHz zero intermediate frequency radar, a 34-GHz superheterodyne radar, and a microphone were also used for comparison purposes. A short-time phase-spectrum-compensation algorithm was used to enhance the detected speech. The results reveal that the 94-GHz radar sensor showed the highest sensitivity and obtained the highest speech quality subjective measurement score. This result suggests that the MMW radar sensor has better performance than a traditional microphone in terms of speech detection for detection distances longer than 1 m. As a substitute for the traditional speech acquisition method, this novel speech acquisition method demonstrates a large potential for many speech related applications.

  12. Capturing atmospheric effects on 3D millimeter wave radar propagation patterns

    Cook, Richard D.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Keefer, Kevin J.; Stringer, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Traditional radar propagation modeling is done using a path transmittance with little to no input for weather and atmospheric conditions. As radar advances into the millimeter wave (MMW) regime, atmospheric effects such as attenuation and refraction become more pronounced than at traditional radar wavelengths. The DoD High Energy Laser Joint Technology Offices High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) in combination with the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) code have shown great promise simulating atmospheric effects on laser propagation. Indeed, the LEEDR radiative transfer code has been validated in the UV through RF. Our research attempts to apply these models to characterize the far field radar pattern in three dimensions as a signal propagates from an antenna towards a point in space. Furthermore, we do so using realistic three dimensional atmospheric profiles. The results from these simulations are compared to those from traditional radar propagation software packages. In summary, a fast running method has been investigated which can be incorporated into computational models to enhance understanding and prediction of MMW propagation through various atmospheric and weather conditions.

  13. Dual-Double Slot Antennas Fabricated with Single Superconducting Film for Millimeter Wave Camera

    Naruse, Masato; Nitta, Tom; Karatsu, Kenichi; Sekine, Msakazu; Sekiguchi, Shigeyuki; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Noguchi, Takashi; Taino, Tohru; Myoren, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    We propose an entirely plane-structure camera for millimeter wave astronomy, in order to reduce production cost and time. The camera is composed of a silicon lens-let, antennas, feed lines, and detectors made from the same superconducting aluminum film on a silicon substrate. A couple of double-slot antennas are located the same focal plane of a small substrate lens to enhance the packing density of detectors and observation efficiency. To achieve high sensitivity, we adapted a microwave kinetic inductance detector as a photon sensor, which consists of a superconducting microresonator. We examined the optical performance of the camera attached to a silicon lens array at 220 GHz in a 0.3 K cryostat. The measured beams were in good agreement with the calculations within the dynamic range of the setup (20 dB). Polarization misalignments between the dual-double slot antenna were less than 2∘, and cross-polarization level was around -7 dB. The relatively high cross-polarization would be explained by an antenna crosstalk mediated by quasiparticle diffusion.

  14. The millimeter wave spectrum of methyl cyanate: a laboratory study and astronomical search in space

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Bermúdez, C.; Alonso, E. R.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: The recent discovery of methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO) in Sgr B2(N) and Orion KL makes methyl cyanate (CH3OCN) a potential molecule in the interstellar medium. The aim of this work is to fulfill the first requirement for its unequivocal identification in space, i.e. the availability of transition frequencies with high accuracy. Methods: The room-temperature rotational spectrum of methyl cyanate was recorded in the millimeter wave domain from 130 to 350 GHz. All rotational transitions revealed A-E splitting owing to methyl internal rotation and were globally analyzed using the ERHAM program. Results: The data set for the ground torsional state of methyl cyanate exceeds 700 transitions within J'' = 10-35 and K"a= 0-13 and newly derived spectroscopic constants reproduce the spectrum close to the experimental uncertainty. Spectral features of methyl cyanate were then searched for in Orion KL, Sgr B2(N), B1-b, and TMC-1 molecular clouds. Upper limits to the column density of methyl cyanate are provided. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A75

  15. Millimeter Wave Fabry-Perot Resonator Antenna Fed by CPW with High Gain and Broadband

    Xue-Xia Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel millimeter wave coplanar waveguide (CPW fed Fabry-Perot (F-P antenna with high gain, broad bandwidth, and low profile is reported. The partially reflective surface (PRS and the ground form the F-P resonator cavity, which is filled with the same dielectric substrate. A dual rhombic slot loop on the ground acts as the primary feeding antenna, which is fed by the CPW and has broad bandwidth. In order to improve the antenna gain, metal vias are inserted surrounding the F-P cavity. A CPW-to-microstrip transition is designed to measure the performances of the antenna and extend the applications. The measured impedance bandwidth of S11 less than −10 dB is from 34 to 37.7 GHz (10.5%, and the gain is 15.4 dBi at the center frequency of 35 GHz with a 3 dB gain bandwidth of 7.1%. This performance of the antenna shows a tradeoff among gain, bandwidth, and profile.

  16. Status of SuperSpec: A Broadband, On-Chip Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Barry, P S; Bradford, C M; Chattopadhyay, G; Day, P; Doyle, S; Hollister, M; Kovacs, A; LeDuc, H G; Mauskopf, P; McKenney, C M; Monroe, R; O'Brient, R; Padin, S; Reck, T; Swenson, L; Tucker, C E; Zmuidzinas, J

    2015-01-01

    SuperSpec is a novel on-chip spectrometer we are developing for multi-object, moderate resolution (R = 100 - 500), large bandwidth (~1.65:1) submillimeter and millimeter survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies. The spectrometer employs a filter bank architecture, and consists of a series of half-wave resonators formed by lithographically-patterned superconducting transmission lines. The signal power admitted by each resonator is detected by a lumped element titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector (KID) operating at 100-200 MHz. We have tested a new prototype device that is more sensitive than previous devices, and easier to fabricate. We present a characterization of a representative R=282 channel at f = 236 GHz, including measurements of the spectrometer detection efficiency, the detector responsivity over a large range of optical loading, and the full system optical efficiency. We outline future improvements to the current system that we expect will enable construction of a photon-noise-lim...

  17. High-power millimeter-wave mode converters in overmoded circular waveguides using periodic wall perturbations

    This work reports on measurements and calculations (coupled mode equations) on the conversion of circular elecric TEsub(0n) gyrotron mode compositions (TE01 to TE04) at 28 and 70 GHz to the linearly polarized TE11 mode by means of a mode converter system using periodic waveguide wall perturbations. Mode transducers with axisymmetric radius perturbations transform the TEsub(0n) gyrotron mode mixture to the more convenient TE01 mode for long-distance transmission through overmoded waveguides. Proper matching of the phase differences between the TEsub(0n) modes and of lengths and perturbation amplitudes of the several converter sections is required. A mode converter with constant diameter and periodically perturbed curvature transfers the unpolarized TE01 mode into the TE11 mode which produces an almost linearly polarized millimeter-wave beam needed for efficient electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) of plasmas in thermonuclear fusion devices. The experimentally determined TEsub(0n)-to-TE01 conversion efficiency is (98+-1)% at 28 and 70 GHz (99% predicted) while the TE01-to-TE11 converter has a (96+-2)% conversion efficiency at 28 GHz (95% predicted) and (94+-2)% at 70 GHz (93% predicted); ohmic losses are included. (orig./AH)

  18. Numerical optimization of integrating cavities for diffraction-limited millimeter-wave bolometer arrays.

    Glenn, Jason; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Edgington, Samantha F; Lange, Andrew E; Bock, James J; Mauskopf, Philip D; Lee, Adrian T

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared to millimeter-wave bolometers designed to make astronomical observations are typically encased in integrating cavities at the termination of feedhorns or Winston cones. This photometer combination maximizes absorption of radiation, enables the absorber area to be minimized, and controls the directivity of absorption, thereby reducing susceptibility to stray light. In the next decade, arrays of hundreds of silicon nitride micromesh bolometers with planar architectures will be used in ground-based, suborbital, and orbital platforms for astronomy. The optimization of integrating cavity designs is required for achieving the highest possible sensitivity for these arrays. We report numerical simulations of the electromagnetic fields in integrating cavities with an infinite plane-parallel geometry formed by a solid reflecting backshort and the back surface of a feedhorn array block. Performance of this architecture for the bolometer array camera (Bolocam) for cosmology at a frequency of 214 GHz is investigated. We explore the sensitivity of absorption efficiency to absorber impedance and backshort location and the magnitude of leakage from cavities. The simulations are compared with experimental data from a room-temperature scale model and with the performance of Bolocam at a temperature of 300 mK. The main results of the simulations for Bolocam-type cavities are that (1) monochromatic absorptions as high as 95% are achievable with or = 1.5 lambda. Good general agreement between the simulations and the experiments was found. PMID:11900429

  19. Realization of a video-rate distributed aperture millimeter-wave imaging system using optical upconversion

    Schuetz, Christopher; Martin, Richard; Dillon, Thomas; Yao, Peng; Mackrides, Daniel; Harrity, Charles; Zablocki, Alicia; Shreve, Kevin; Bonnett, James; Curt, Petersen; Prather, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    Passive imaging using millimeter waves (mmWs) has many advantages and applications in the defense and security markets. All terrestrial bodies emit mmW radiation and these wavelengths are able to penetrate smoke, fog/clouds/marine layers, and even clothing. One primary obstacle to imaging in this spectrum is that longer wavelengths require larger apertures to achieve the resolutions desired for many applications. Accordingly, lens-based focal plane systems and scanning systems tend to require large aperture optics, which increase the achievable size and weight of such systems to beyond what can be supported by many applications. To overcome this limitation, a distributed aperture detection scheme is used in which the effective aperture size can be increased without the associated volumetric increase in imager size. This distributed aperture system is realized through conversion of the received mmW energy into sidebands on an optical carrier. This conversion serves, in essence, to scale the mmW sparse aperture array signals onto a complementary optical array. The side bands are subsequently stripped from the optical carrier and recombined to provide a real time snapshot of the mmW signal. Using this technique, we have constructed a real-time, video-rate imager operating at 75 GHz. A distributed aperture consisting of 220 upconversion channels is used to realize 2.5k pixels with passive sensitivity. Details of the construction and operation of this imager as well as field testing results will be presented herein.

  20. CROSS-TRACK THREE APERTURES MILLIMETER WAVE SAR SIDE-LOOKING THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING

    Teng Xiumin; Li Daojing; Li Liechen; Liu Bo; Pan Zhouhao

    2012-01-01

    The airborne cross-track three apertures MilliMeter Wave (MMW) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) side-looking three-Dimensional (3D) imaging is investigated in this paper.Three apertures are distributed along the cross-track direction,and three virtual phase centers will be obtained through one-input and three-output.These three virtual phase centers form a sparse array which can be used to obtain the cross-track resolution.Because the cross-track array is short,the cross-track resolution is low.When the system works in side-looking mode,the cross-track resolution and height resolution will be coupling,and the low cross-track resolution will partly be transformed into the height uncertainty.The beam pattern of the real aperture is used as a weight to improve the Peak to SideLobe Ratio (PSLR) and Integrated SideLobe Ratio (ISLR) of the cross-track sparse array.In order to suppress the high cross-track sidelobes,a weighting preprocessing method is proposed.The 3D images of a point target and a simulation scene are achieved to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.And the imaging result of the real data obtained by the cross-track three-baseline MMW InSAR prototype is presented as a beneficial attempt.

  1. Simultaneous generation of 3G and millimeter-wave signals using a dual-electrode MZM in ROF systems

    Ying, Xiang-yue; Xu, Tie-feng; Liu, Tai-jun; Nie, Qiu-hua; Wen, Hua-feng; Li, Jun

    2015-07-01

    A novel radio-over-fiber (ROF) scheme to simultaneously generate and transmit the 3rd generation telecommunication (3G) and millimeter-wave (MMW) signals by using a single dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is proposed. There is no apparent nonlinearity induced by the ROF system. By employing this analog ROF signal transmission technique, highly transparent fiber-wireless convergence networks can be realized, which are ideal for multi-standard wireless system operation.

  2. Simultaneous generation of independent WCDMA and millimeter-wave signals using a dual-electrode MZM in ROF systems

    Ying, Xiang-yue; Xu, Tie-feng; Liu, Tai-jun; Nie, Qiu-hua; Wen, Hua-feng; Li, Jun

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a novel radio-over-fiber (ROF) scheme to simultaneously generate and transmit wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) and millimeter-wave (MMW) signals by using a single dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is proposed. There is no apparent nonlinearity induced by the ROF system. By employing this analog ROF signal transmission technique, the highly transparent fiber-wireless networks, which are ideal for multi-standard wireless system operation, can be realized.

  3. Context-Aware Scheduling of Joint Millimeter Wave and Microwave Resources for Dual-Mode Base Stations

    Semiari, Omid; Saad, Walid; Bennis, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches to overcome the drastic channel variations of millimeter wave (mmW) communications is to deploy dual-mode base stations that integrate both mmW and microwave (\\muW) frequencies. Reaping the benefits of a dual-mode operation requires scheduling mechanisms that can allocate resources efficiently and jointly at both frequency bands. In this paper, a novel resource allocation framework is proposed that exploits users' context, in terms of user application (UA)...

  4. Effects of millimeter wave irradiation and equivalent thermal heating on the activity of individual neurons in the leech ganglion

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Many of today's radiofrequency-emitting devices in telecommunication, telemedicine, transportation safety, and security/military applications use the millimeter wave (MMW) band (30–300 GHz). To evaluate the biological safety and possible applications of this radiofrequency band for neuroscience and neurology, we have investigated the physiological effects of low-intensity 60-GHz electromagnetic irradiation on individual neurons in the leech midbody ganglia. We applied incident power densities...

  5. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Contribution of Thermal and the Specific Effects in Cellular Response to Millimeter Wave Exposure

    Denis Habauzit; Catherine Le Quément; Maxim Zhadobov; Catherine Martin; Marc Aubry; Ronan Sauleau; Yves Le Dréan

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiations constitute a new form of environmental pollution. Among them, millimeter waves (MMW) will be widely used in the near future for high speed communication systems. This study aimed therefore to evaluate the biocompatibility of MMW at 60 GHz. For this purpose, we used a whole gene expression approach to assess the effect of acute 60 GHz exposure on primary cultures of human keratinocytes. Controls were performed to dissociate the electromagnetic from the thermal effect ...

  6. Rain attenuation measurement and prediction on parallel 860-nm free space optical and 58-GHz millimeter-wave paths

    Grábner, M.; Kvičera, V.; Fišer, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2012), 031206/1-031206/6. ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376 Grant ostatní: MŠMT(CZ) OC09076 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : optical communications * propagation * atmospheric optics * millimeter waves * rain attenuation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.880, year: 2012 http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1183343

  7. An airborne millimeter-wave FM-CW radar for thickness profiling of freshwater ice

    Yankielun, Norbert E.

    1992-11-01

    The ability to profile rapidly and accurately the structure of freshwater ice down to a thickness of a few centimeters over large surfaces of frozen ponds, lakes, and rivers has wide military, industrial, commercial, and recreational application, including safety and trafficability surveys. A prototype broadband millimeter wave (26.5 to 40 GHz) Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave (FM-CW) radar, employing real-time data acquisition and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) techniques, was developed for continuously recording the thickness profile of freshwater ice. Thickness resolution is better than 3 cm plus or minus 10 percent, which improves on short-pulse and FM-CW radars operating at frequencies less than 10 GHz. These other radars have a best reported thickness resolution of approximately 10 cm with a plus or minus 10 percent accuracy; this is insufficient because a freshwater ice sheet as thin as 5 cm, floating on water, can be safely traversed by an individual of average weight. System specifications include a 15-dBm output RF (Radio Frequency) power level, a 0.066-second sweep rate and less than a 50 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). This radar was tested on the ground and from a helicopter at heights of up to 7 m above ice surfaces at speeds up to 40 km/hr. Pond and river ice sheets between 3 and 35 cm thick, with and without fresh snow cover, and with minimal surface roughness were profiled. Results showed direct correlation between radar and borehole thickness measurements. Losses from volume scattering by imbedded air bubbles did not significantly affect the system's capability to discern the air/ice and ice/water scattering boundaries.

  8. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  9. Research and development on high-power millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave electron tubes

    Mourier, G.

    Several high-power generators operating in the frequency range above 20 GHz are examined. These are hot-cathode vacuum tubes of the gyrotron type, which operate at voltages under 200 kV and in a magnetic field under 40 kG. A gyrotron research and development program is described, with particular emphasis on its computer-aided design and the use of superconducting magnets. Devices operating in frequency ranges above 200-300 GHz are described, and the concept of using transverse interaction rather than longitudinal interaction is discussed. Although transverse interaction has less energetic efficiency, its uniform magnetic field, high value of deceleration, and the possibility of using a wave with low group velocity make it a viable option. Devices incorporating a small electron accelerator in the same vacuum envelope and operating at relatively low voltage at higher frequencies are presently being investigated.

  10. Broadband sub-millimeter wave amplifer module with 38dB gain and 8.3dB noise figure

    Sarkozy, S.; Leong, K.; Lai, R.; Leakey, R.; Yoshida, W.; Mei, X.; Lee, J.; Liu, P.-H.; Gorospe, B.; Deal, W. R.

    2011-05-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter-wave systems, sub-millimeter-wave systems are hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report on the development of a sub-millimeter wave amplifier module as part of a broadband pixel operating from 300-350 GHz, biased off of a single 2V power supply. Over this frequency range, > 38 dB gain and chain consists of two WR3 waveguide amplifier blocks, and a horn antenna and diode detector. The low noise amplifier Sub-Millimeter-wave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (SMMIC) was originally developed under the DARPA SWIFT and THz Electronics programs and is based on sub 50 nm Indium Arsenide Composite Channel (IACC) transistor technology with a projected maximum oscillation frequency fmax > 1.0 THz. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brown-out problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  11. Superconducting Resonator Spectrometer for Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Astrophysics Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose to develop a novel ultra-compact spectrograph-on-a-chip for the submillimeter and millimeter waveband. SuperSpec uses planar lithographed...

  12. Deep Geothermal Drilling Using Millimeter Wave Technology. Final Technical Research Report

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States); Woskov, Paul [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Einstein, Herbert [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Livesay, Bill [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Conventional drilling methods are very mature, but still have difficulty drilling through very deep,very hard and hot rocks for geothermal, nuclear waste entombment and oil and gas applications.This project demonstrated the capabilities of utilizing only high energy beams to drill such rocks,commonly called ‘Direct Energy Drilling’, which has been the dream of industry since the invention of the laser in the 1960s. A new region of the electromagnetic spectrum, millimeter wave (MMW) wavelengths at 30-300 giga-hertz (GHz) frequency was used to accomplish this feat. To demonstrate MMW beam drilling capabilities a lab bench waveguide delivery, monitoring and instrument system was designed, built and tested around an existing (but non-optimal) 28 GHz frequency, 10 kilowatt (kW) gyrotron. Low waveguide efficiency, plasma generation and reflected power challenges were overcome. Real-time monitoring of the drilling process was also demonstrated. Then the technical capability of using only high power intense millimeter waves to melt (with some vaporization) four different rock types (granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone) was demonstrated through 36 bench tests. Full bore drilling up to 2” diameter (size limited by the available MMW power) was demonstrated through granite and basalt samples. The project also demonstrated that MMW beam transmission losses through high temperature (260°C, 500oF), high pressure (34.5 MPa, 5000 psi) nitrogen gas was below the error range of the meter long path length test equipment and instruments utilized. To refine those transmission losses closer, to allow extrapolation to very great distances, will require a new test cell design and higher sensitivity instruments. All rock samples subjected to high peak temperature by MMW beams developed fractures due to thermal stresses, although the peak temperature was thermodynamically limited by radiative losses. Therefore, this limited drill rate and rock strength data were not able to be

  13. Possibilities of the observation of the discrete spectrum of the water dimer at equilibrium in millimeter-wave band

    Attempts of experimental observations of the water dimer spectrum at equilibrium conditions have lasted for more than 40 years since the dimeric hypothesis for extra absorption, but have not yielded any positive confirmed result. In the present paper a new approach is considered: using a high-resolution millimeter-wave spectrum of the water dimer at equilibrium, calculated by a rigorous fully quantum method, we show the potential existence of discernible spectral series of discrete features of the water dimer, which correspond to J+1 1 symmetry, already observed in cold molecular beam experiments and having, therefore, well-defined positions. The intensity of spectral series and contrast to the remaining continuum-like spectrum of the dimer are calculated and compared with the monomer absorption. The suitability of two types of microwave spectrometers for observing these series is considered. The collisional line-width of millimeter lines of the dimer at equilibrium is estimated and the width of IR dimer bands is discussed. It is pointed out that the large width of IR dimer bands may pose difficulties for their reliable observation and conclusive separation from the rest of absorption in water vapor. This situation contrasts with the suggested approach of dimer detection in millimeter-waves.

  14. Rotational study of the CH4-CO complex: Millimeter-wave measurements and ab initio calculations.

    Surin, L A; Tarabukin, I V; Panfilov, V A; Schlemmer, S; Kalugina, Y N; Faure, A; Rist, C; van der Avoird, A

    2015-10-21

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex CH4-CO has been measured with the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 110-145 GHz. Newly observed and assigned transitions belong to the K = 2-1 subband correlating with the rotationless jCH4 = 0 ground state and the K = 2-1 and K = 0-1 subbands correlating with the jCH4 = 2 excited state of free methane. The (approximate) quantum number K is the projection of the total angular momentum J on the intermolecular axis. The new data were analyzed together with the known millimeter-wave and microwave transitions in order to determine the molecular parameters of the CH4-CO complex. Accompanying ab initio calculations of the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of CH4-CO have been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] and an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The global minimum of the five-dimensional PES corresponds to an approximately T-shaped structure with the CH4 face closest to the CO subunit and binding energy De = 177.82 cm(-1). The bound rovibrational levels of the CH4-CO complex were calculated for total angular momentum J = 0-6 on this intermolecular potential surface and compared with the experimental results. The calculated dissociation energies D0 are 91.32, 94.46, and 104.21 cm(-1) for A (jCH4 = 0), F (jCH4 = 1), and E (jCH4 = 2) nuclear spin modifications of CH4-CO, respectively. PMID:26493903

  15. High-Resolution Broadband Millimeter-Wave Astrophysical Spectrometer with Triple Product Acousto-Optical Processor

    Dagostino, Miguel Chavez; Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adan Omar; Chavushyan, Vahram

    An advanced conceptual design of a high-bit-rate triple product acousto-optical processor is presented that can be applied in a number of astrophysical problems. We briefly describe the Large Millimeter Telescope as one of the potential observational infrastructures where the acousto-optical spectrometer can be successfully used. A summary on the study of molecular gas in relatively old (age > 10 Myr) disks around main sequence stars is provided. We have identified this as one of the science cases in which the proposed processor can have a big impact. Then we put forward triple product acousto-optical processor is able to realize algorithm of the space-and-time integrating, which is desirable for a wide- band spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals with an improved resolution providing the resolution power of about 105 - 106. It includes 1D-acousto-optic cells as the input devices for a 2D-optical data processing. The importance of this al- gorithm is based on exploiting the chirp Z-transform technique providing a 2D-Fourier transform of the input signals. The system produces the folded spectrum, accumulating advantages of both space and time integrating. Its frequency bandwidth is practically equal to the bandwidth of transducers inherent in acousto-optical cells. Then, similar processor is able to provide really high frequency resolution, which is practically equal to the reciprocal of the CCD-matrix photo-detector integration time. Here, the current state of developing the triple product acousto-optical processor in frames of the astrophysical instrumentation is shortly discussed.

  16. Search for frequency-specific effects of millimeter-wave radiation on isolated nerve function

    Pakhomov, A.G.; Campbell, C.B.G. [Army Medical Research Detachment of the Walter Reed Army Inst. of Research, Brooks AFB, TX (United States). Microwave Bioeffects Branch; Prol, H.K.; Mathur, S.P.; Akyel, Y. [McKesson BioServices, Brooks AFB, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Effects of a short-term exposure to millimeter waves on the compound action potential (CAP) conduction were studied in an isolated frog sciatic nerve preparation. CAPs were evoked by either a low-rate or a high-rate electrical stimulation of the nerve. The low-rate stimulation did not alter the functional state of the nerve, and the amplitude, latency, and peak latency of CAPs could stay virtually stable for hours. Microwave irradiation for 10--60 min at 0.24--1.5 mW/cm{sup 2}, either at various constant frequencies or with a stepwise frequency change, did not cause any detectable changes in CAP conduction or nerve refractoriness. The effect observed under irradiation at a higher field intensity of 2--3 mW/cm{sup 2} was a subtle and transient reduction of CAP latency and peak latency along with a rise of the test CAP amplitude. These changes could be evoked by any tested frequency of the radiation; they reversed shortly after cessation of exposure and were both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the effect of conventional heating of 0.3--0.4 C. The high-rate electrical stimulation caused gradual and reversible decrease of the amplitude of conditioning and test CAPs and increased their latencies and peak latencies. These changes were essentially the same with and without irradiation, except for attenuation of the decrease of the test CAP amplitude. This effect was observed at both field intensities, but was statistically significant only for certain frequencies of the radiation. Within the studied limits, this effect appeared to be dependent on the frequency rather than on the intensity of the radiation, but this observation requires additional experimental confirmation.

  17. Use of proteomics and HPLC to screen plasma for markers of millimeter wave overexposure

    Recent development of commercial and military technologies for communication, automotive, weapon detection, and non-lethal weapon applications has led to wider use of millimeter wave (MMW) generating sources, some of which utilize increasingly higher power outputs. As more of these systems are employed in the field, maintenance technicians and operators may face a greater risk of overexposure. Currently, no known markers exist for diagnosis of MMW exposure, particularly in cases with no overt thermal skin injury. The purpose of this study was to screen plasma proteins to determine the presence of unique markers of MMW heating. Rats were anesthetized and then either sham exposed or exposed to environmental heating (EH) or MMWs at 35-GHz until colonic temperatures reached 42 deg C. Animals were allowed to recover and plasma was collected at 6 and 24 hr after exposure. Plasma proteins were separated using 2-D gel electrophoresis and images of silver stained gels were analyzed manually to identify proteins that were up-regulated following MMW treatment. Comparison of the 2-D gels shows a pattern in which several protein spots increased in intensity at 24 hr post-exposure for MMW heating with the most obvious changes in the range of 30-50 kD. These changes were not observed in plasma from EH treated rats indicating the existence of MMW specific markers and different biological responses to these two forms of heating. In order to detect changes in the 6 hr post-exposure samples, size exclusion chromatography and reverse phase HPLC were also used to separate proteins into fractions ranging from 1-700 kD. Chromatograms show quantitative protein differences, particularly in the ranges of 40-50 kD and 180-200 kD. Final identification of these potential plasma markers is in progress and is expected to allow further development of targets for diagnosis and therapeutic interventions to improve standards for protection and treatment of personnel

  18. Design and Fabrication of Millimeter Wave Hexagonal Nano-Ferrite Circulator on Silicon CMOS Substrate

    Oukacha, Hassan

    The rapid advancement of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology has formed the backbone of the modern computing revolution enabling the development of computationally intensive electronic devices that are smaller, faster, less expensive, and consume less power. This well-established technology has transformed the mobile computing and communications industries by providing high levels of system integration on a single substrate, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. The driving force behind this computing revolution is the scaling of semiconductor devices to smaller geometries which has resulted in faster switching speeds and the promise of replacing traditional, bulky radio frequency (RF) components with miniaturized devices. Such devices play an important role in our society enabling ubiquitous computing and on-demand data access. This thesis presents the design and development of a magnetic circulator component in a standard 180 nm CMOS process. The design approach involves integration of nanoscale ferrite materials on a CMOS chip to avoid using bulky magnetic materials employed in conventional circulators. This device constitutes the next generation broadband millimeter-wave circulator integrated in CMOS using ferrite materials operating in the 60GHz frequency band. The unlicensed ultra-high frequency spectrum around 60GHz offers many benefits: very high immunity to interference, high security, and frequency re-use. Results of both simulations and measurements are presented in this thesis. The presented results show the benefits of this technique and the potential that it has in incorporating a complete system-on-chip (SoC) that includes low noise amplifier, power amplier, and antenna. This system-on-chip can be used in the same applications where the conventional circulator has been employed, including communication systems, radar systems, navigation and air traffic control, and military equipment. This set of applications of

  19. Development of millimeter- and submillimeter-wave local oscillator circuits for a space telescope

    Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Eric; Arzumanyan, Aram; Bruston, Jean; Siegel, Peter H.; Smith, R. P.; Pearson, John C.; Martin, S. C.; Porterfield, David W.

    1999-11-01

    FIRST (Far InfraRed and Submillimeter Telescope) is a European science mission that will perform photometry and spectroscopy in the 80 - 670 micrometers range. The proposed heterodyne instrument for FIRST is a seven-channel receiver, which combines the high spectral resolving capability (0.3 - 300 km/s) of the radio heterodyne technique with the low noise detection offered by superconductor-insulator- superconductor and hot electron bolometer mixers. It is designed to provide almost continuous frequency coverage from 480 - 2700 GHz. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible for developing and implementing the local oscillator sources for the 1200 - 2700 GHz mixers. The present state-of-the-art approach for millimeter-wave multipliers, based on waveguide blocks and discretely mounted devices, becomes harder and harder to implement as the frequency range is extended beyond 300 GHz. This talk will focus on the technology that is being developed to enhance and extend planar integrated Schottky devices and circuits to meet mission local oscillator requirements. The baseline approach is to use GaAs power amplifiers from 71 to 115 GHz followed by a series of planar Schottky diode varactor multiplier stages to generate the required LO signal. The circuits have to be robust, relatively easy to assemble, and must provide broad fix-tuned bandwidth. A number of new technology initiatives being implemented to achieve these goals will be discussed. Approaches include quartz-based and substrate-less diode circuitry and integrated GaAs membrane technology. Recent results and progress-to-date will be presented.

  20. On the performance of compressed sensing-based methods for millimeter-wave holographic imaging.

    Cheng, Qiao; Alomainy, Akram; Hao, Yang

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates compressed sensing (CS) based methods for reducing data-acquisition time in 2D millimeter-wave holographic imaging systems. Specific attention is paid to situations where the array element spacing does not satisfy the Nyquist criterion due to physical limitations. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that CS methods achieve better reconstruction than the conventional backpropagation method with undersampled data at the cost of increased computational complexity. Specifically, the definition-based CS (D-CS) method derived by discretizing the scattering model achieves the best image resolution but can produce ghost targets when the sampling interval is greater than approximately twice the Nyquist sampling interval. On the contrary, the Fourier-transform-based CS (FT-CS) method has relatively lower resolution but performs well in the case of low number of measurements, large sampling interval, and low transmit power. In addition, the D-CS method requires much higher time complexity and space complexity than the FT-CS method because the 2D data needs to be processed in vector form. Particularly, the space complexity of constructing and loading the dictionary matrix makes the D-CS method extremely inefficient in dealing with real-time applications. The overall algorithm running time of the D-CS method can be up to 50 times greater than the FT-CS method with a scanning aperture of 81×81 and 121×121 grid size in reconstruction. An efficient method is to use the FT-CS method for coarse imaging and then use the D-CS method for specific regions where better precision is required. PMID:26836074

  1. Additive Effects of Millimeter Waves and 2-Deoxyglucose Co-Exposure on the Human Keratinocyte Transcriptome.

    Soubere Mahamoud, Yonis; Aite, Meziane; Martin, Catherine; Zhadobov, Maxim; Sauleau, Ronan; Le Dréan, Yves; Habauzit, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter Waves (MMW) will be used in the next-generation of high-speed wireless technologies, especially in future Ultra-Broadband small cells in 5G cellular networks. Therefore, their biocompatibilities must be evaluated prior to their massive deployment. Using a microarray-based approach, we analyzed modifications to the whole genome of a human keratinocyte model that was exposed at 60.4 GHz-MMW at an incident power density (IPD) of 20 mW/cm2 for 3 hours in athermic conditions. No keratinocyte transcriptome modifications were observed. We tested the effects of MMWs on cell metabolism by co-treating MMW-exposed cells with a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxyglucose (2dG, 20 mM for 3 hours), and whole genome expression was evaluated along with the ATP content. We found that the 2dG treatment decreased the cellular ATP content and induced a high modification in the transcriptome (632 coding genes). The affected genes were associated with transcriptional repression, cellular communication and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. The MMW/2dG co-treatment did not alter the keratinocyte ATP content, but it did slightly alter the transcriptome, which reflected the capacity of MMW to interfere with the bioenergetic stress response. The RT-PCR-based validation confirmed 6 MMW-sensitive genes (SOCS3, SPRY2, TRIB1, FAM46A, CSRNP1 and PPP1R15A) during the 2dG treatment. These 6 genes encoded transcription factors or inhibitors of cytokine pathways, which raised questions regarding the potential impact of long-term or chronic MMW exposure on metabolically stressed cells. PMID:27529420

  2. Millimeter-Wave Wireless LAN and Its Extension toward 5G Heterogeneous Networks

    Sakaguchi, Kei; Mohamed, Ehab Mahmoud; Kusano, Hideyuki; Mizukami, Makoto; Miyamoto, Shinichi; Rezagah, Roya E.; Takinami, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Shirakata, Naganori; Peng, Hailan; Yamamoto, Toshiaki; Nanba, Shinobu

    Millimeter-wave (mmw) frequency bands, especially 60 GHz unlicensed band, are considered as a promising solution for gigabit short range wireless communication systems. IEEE standard 802.11ad, also known as WiGig, is standardized for the usage of the 60 GHz unlicensed band for wireless local area networks (WLANs). By using this mmw WLAN, multi-Gbps rate can be achieved to support bandwidth-intensive multimedia applications. Exhaustive search along with beamforming (BF) is usually used to overcome 60 GHz channel propagation loss and accomplish data transmissions in such mmw WLANs. Because of its short range transmission with a high susceptibility to path blocking, multiple number of mmw access points (APs) should be used to fully cover a typical target environment for future high capacity multi-Gbps WLANs. Therefore, coordination among mmw APs is highly needed to overcome packet collisions resulting from un-coordinated exhaustive search BF and to increase the total capacity of mmw WLANs. In this paper, we firstly give the current status of mmw WLANs with our developed WiGig AP prototype. Then, we highlight the great need for coordinated transmissions among mmw APs as a key enabler for future high capacity mmw WLANs. Two different types of coordinated mmw WLAN architecture are introduced. One is the distributed antenna type architecture to realize centralized coordination, while the other is an autonomous coordination with the assistance of legacy Wi-Fi signaling. Moreover, two heterogeneous network (HetNet) architectures are also introduced to efficiently extend the coordinated mmw WLANs to be used for future 5th Generation (5G) cellular networks.

  3. Design and performance of a distributed aperture millimeter-wave imaging system using optical upconversion

    Martin, Richard; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Dillon, Thomas E.; Chen, Caihua; Samluk, Jesse; Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Mirotznik, Mark; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive imaging using millimeter waves (mmWs) has many advantages and applications in the defense and security markets. All terrestrial bodies emit mmW radiation and these wavelengths are able to penetrate smoke, blowing dust or sand, fog/clouds/marine layers, and even clothing. One primary obstacle to imaging in this spectrum is that longer wavelengths require larger apertures to achieve the resolutions typically desired in surveillance applications. As a result, lens-based focal plane systems tend to require large aperture optics, which severely limit the minimum achievable volume and weight of such systems. To overcome this limitation, a distributed aperture detection scheme is used in which the effective aperture size can be increased without the associated volumetric increase in imager size. However, such systems typically require high frequency (~ 30 - 300 GHz) signal routing and down conversion as well as large correlator banks. Herein, we describe an alternate approach to distributed aperture mmW imaging using optical upconversion of the mmW signal onto an optical carrier. This conversion serves, in essence, to scale the mmW sparse aperture array signals onto a complementary optical array. The optical side bands are subsequently stripped from the optical carrier and optically recombined to provide a real-time snapshot of the mmW signal. In this paper, the design tradeoffs of resolution, bandwidth, number of elements, and field of view inherent in this type of system will be discussed. We also will present the performance of a 30 element distributed aperture proof of concept imaging system operating at 35 GHz.

  4. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Wagner D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  5. Modular Low-Heater-Power Cathode/Electron Gun Assembly for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tubes

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost, low-mass, electrically efficient, modular cathode/electron gun assembly has been developed by FDE Inc. of Beaverton, Oregon, under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This new assembly offers significant improvements in the design and manufacture of microwave and millimeter wave traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) used for radar and communications. It incorporates a novel, low-heater-power, reduced size and mass, high-performance barium dispenser type thermionic cathode and provides for easy integration of the cathode into a large variety of conventional TWT circuits. Among the applications are TWT's for Earth-orbiting communication satellites and for deep space communications, where future missions will require smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (a hybrid microwave/millimeter wave amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid-state driver, a small TWT, and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package), where electrical efficiency and thermal loading are critical factors and lower cost is needed for successful commercialization. The design and fabrication are based on practices used in producing cathode ray tubes (CRT's), which is one of the most competitive and efficient manufacturing operations in the world today. The approach used in the design and manufacture of thermionic cathodes and electron guns for CRT's has been optimized for fully automated production, standardization of parts, and minimization of costs. It is applicable to the production of similar components for microwave tubes, with the additional benefits of low mass and significantly lower cathode heater power (less than half that of dispenser cathodes presently used in TWT s). Modular cathode/electron gun assembly. The modular

  6. Millimeter wave spectroscopic measurements of stratospheric and mesospheric constituents over the Italian Alps: stratospheric ozone

    V. Romaniello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of rotational lines emitted by middle atmospheric trace gases have been carried out from the Alpine station of Testa Grigia (45.9°N, 7.7°E, elev. 3500 m by means of a Ground-Based Millimeter-wave Spectrometer (GBMS. Observations of species such as O3, HNO3, CO, N2O, HCN, and HDO took place during 4 winter periods, from February 2004 to March 2007, for a total of 116 days of measurements grouped in about 18 field campaigns. By studying the pressure-broadened shape of emission lines the vertical distribution of the observed constituents is retrieved within an altitude range of ?17-75 km, constrained by the 600 MHz pass band and the 65 kHz spectral resolution of the back-end spectrometer. This work discusses the behavior of stratospheric O3 during the entire period of operation at Testa Grigia. Mid-latitude O3 columnar content as estimated using GBMS measurements can vary by large amounts over a period of very few days, with the largest variations observed in December 2005, February 2006, and March 2006, confirming that the northern winter of 2005-2006 was characterized by a particularly intense planetary wave activity. The largest rapid variation from maximum to minimum O3 column values over Testa Grigia took place in December 2006 and reached a relative value of 72% with respect to the average column content for that period. During most GBMS observation times much of the variability is concentrated in the column below 20 km, with tropospheric weather systems and advection of tropical tropospheric air into the lower stratosphere over Testa Grigia having a large impact on the observed variations in column contents. Nonetheless, a wide variability is also found in middle stratospheric GBMS O3 measurements, as expected for mid-latitude ozone. We find that O3 mixing ratios at ?32 km are very well correlated with the solar illumination experienced by air masses over the previous ?15 days, showing that already at 32 km

  7. Observation of atmospheric composition by Superconducting SubMillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) onbord International Space Station

    Kasai, Y.; Philippe, B.; Mendrok, J.; Ochiai, S.; Urban, J.; Manabe, T.; Kikuchi, K.; Nishibori, T.; Sano, T.; Moller, J.; Murtagh, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Superconducting SubMillimeter-wave Limb Emission The Superconducting SubMillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) is the first application of superconductor--insulator--superconductor (SIS) heterodyne detector technology to the investigation of the Earth atmosphere from space. SMILES was designed to be onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS), and is scheduled to be launched on 11 September 2009 by the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). SMILES is a collaboration project of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The performance of this state-of-the-art SIS receiver, with an estimated single side band (SSB) receiver noise temperature of 500 K at 625--650 GHz, provides a large improvement in sensitivity compared to the conventional submillimeter-wave Schottky-diode receivers used by the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) onboard the Odin satellite (3000K, single side band, 485--580 GHz, cooled) and the Millimeter-wave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard Aura (12000K, double side band at 625--650 GHz, uncooled). Since the integration time reduces with the square of the system noise temperature, this performance is roughly equivalent to reducing by a factor of up to 5-10 the integration time needed to reaching the same noise equivalent brightness temperatures. SMILES measurements thus have the potential to provide meaningful information on the global distribution of short-lived radical species, such as ozone, HCl, ClO, HO2, HOCl, CH3CN, BrO, H2O and ice cloud. NICT is operating the L2 research/L3 operational processing chain. In this paper, we introduce the status of SMILES data and its observation performance.

  8. A hybrid MAC protocol design for energy-efficient very-high-throughput millimeter wave, wireless sensor communication networks

    Jian, Wei; Estevez, Claudio; Chowdhury, Arshad; Jia, Zhensheng; Wang, Jianxin; Yu, Jianguo; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for very-high-throughput millimeter-wave (mm-wave) wireless sensor communication networks (VHT-MSCNs) based on hybrid multiple access techniques of frequency division multiplexing access (FDMA) and time division multiplexing access (TDMA). An energy-efficient Superframe for wireless sensor communication network employing directional mm-wave wireless access technologies is proposed for systems that require very high throughput, such as high definition video signals, for sensing, processing, transmitting, and actuating functions. Energy consumption modeling for each network element and comparisons among various multi-access technologies in term of power and MAC layer operations are investigated for evaluating the energy-efficient improvement of proposed MAC protocol.

  9. High-purity 60GHz band millimeter-wave generation based on optically injected semiconductor laser under subharmonic microwave modulation.

    Fan, Li; Xia, Guangqiong; Chen, Jianjun; Tang, Xi; Liang, Qing; Wu, Zhengmao

    2016-08-01

    Based on an optically injected semiconductor laser (OISL) operating at period-one (P1) nonlinear dynamical state, high-purity millimeter-wave generation at 60 GHz band is experimentally demonstrated via 1/4 and 1/9 subharmonic microwave modulation (the order of subharmonic is with respect to the frequency fc of the acquired 60 GHz band millimeter-wave but not the fundamental frequency f0 of P1 oscillation). Optical injection is firstly used to drive a semiconductor laser into P1 state. For the OISL operates at P1 state with a fundamental frequency f0 = 49.43 GHz, by introducing 1/4 subharmonic modulation with a modulation frequency of fm = 15.32 GHz, a 60 GHz band millimeter-wave with central frequency fc = 61.28 GHz ( = 4fm) is experimentally generated, whose linewidth is below 1.6 kHz and SSB phase noise at offset frequency 10 kHz is about -96 dBc/Hz. For fm is varied between 13.58 GHz and 16.49 GHz, fc can be tuned from 54.32 GHz to 65.96 GHz under matched modulation power Pm. Moreover, for the OISL operates at P1 state with f0 = 45.02 GHz, a higher order subharmonic modulation (1/9) is introduced into the OISL for obtaining high-purity 60 GHz band microwave signal. With (fm, Pm) = (7.23 GHz, 13.00 dBm), a microwave signal at 65.07 GHz ( = 9fm) with a linewidth below 1.6 kHz and a SSB phase noise less than -98 dBc/Hz is experimentally generated. Also, the central frequency fc can be tuned in a certain range through adjusting fm and selecting matched Pm. PMID:27505789

  10. Effects of dielectric permittivities on skin heating due to millimeter wave exposure

    Hirata Akimasa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the possibility of millimeter wave (MMW exposure has increased, public concern about the health issues due to electromagnetic radiation has also increased. While many studies have been conducted for MMW exposure, the effect of dielectric permittivities on skin heating in multilayer/heterogeneous human-body models have not been adequately investigated. This is partly due to the fact that a detailed investigation of skin heating in a multilayer model by computational methods is difficult since many parameters are involved. In the present study, therefore, theoretical analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between dielectric permittivities and MMW-induced skin heating in a one-dimensional three-layer model (skin, fat, and muscle. Methods Approximate expressions were derived for the temperature elevation and temperature difference in the skin due to MMW exposure from analytical solutions for the temperature distribution. First, the power absorption distribution was approximated from the analytical solution for a one-layer model (skin only. Then, the analytical expression of the temperature in the three-layer model was simplified on the basis of the proposal in our previous study. By examining the approximate expressions, the dominant term influencing skin heating was clarified to identify the effects of the dielectric permittivities. Finally, the effects of dielectric permittivities were clarified by applying partial differentiation to the derived dominant term. Results Skin heating can be characterized by the parameters associated with the dielectric permittivities, independently of morphological and thermal parameters. With the derived expressions, it was first clarified that skin heating correlates with the total power absorbed in the skin rather than the specific absorption rate (SAR at the skin surface or the incident power density. Using Debye-type expression we next investigated the effect of

  11. An Overview of the NASA Ames Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System

    Murakami, David

    2012-01-01

    The Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) is a beamed-energy propulsion concept being designed at NASA Ames Research Center. This effort is in response to the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s announcement of the Ride the Light program. Our objective is to produce a design that goes beyond the feasibility analysis level of previous studies and provides a solid foundation for low cost access to space. The MTLS is designed to place a 500 lb payload into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) two times a day. This frequent launch, small payload niche is well suited for the particular advantages and constraints of beamed-energy propulsion, and has the potential to drastically increase access to space by reducing the cost per kilogram of placing payloads into LEO. This paper summarizes the findings of the MTLS study. The chemical rocket engine is in principle a simple device. It acts by releasing the chemical energy stored in propellants such as hydrogen and oxygen through combustion, then converting that thermal energy into kinetic energy by expansion through a nozzle. As such, it is fundamentally limited by the energy released in combustion reactions and the molecular weight of the products of those reactions. The highest performing conventional propellant combination, liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, can produce vacuum specific impulses of around 450 seconds. The design space of current launch vehicles (which tend to be large, multi-stage, and expendable) are defined by these limitations. An entirely new approach may be necessary in order to enable future launch vehicles of radically improved capabilities. Beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) is an alternative approach that bypasses the energy limitations of chemical propulsion. Instead of relying on a chemical reaction as the energy source, it is supplied externally via a beam of electromagnetic energy produced on the ground. In the concept examined in the MTLS, this energy is absorbed by a heat exchanger which then

  12. Absorbing coatings for high power millimeter-wave devices and matched loads

    Bin, W., E-mail: wbin@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Muzzini, V. [Istituto di Biologia Agro-ambientale e Forestale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Area di Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy); Simonetto, A.; Spinicchia, N. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Angella, G. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Dell’Era, F. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Gantenbein, G.; Leonhardt, W. [Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls-und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nardone, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Samartsev, A.; Schmid, M. [Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls-und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► An overview of the activity at IFP-CNR concerning the absorbing coatings is presented. ► The application of the absorbing ceramics to the IFP-CNR matched loads is described. ► B{sub 4}C is presented as a promising material for power absorption in the EC frequency range. ► The most important high power validation tests performed on coatings are described. ► Some results from simulations of the absorption capability of a double layer coating are shown. -- Abstract: In the electron cyclotron frequency range the handling of high power is critical. In some cases an unpredictable amount of stray radiation can reach some components or accumulate in localized regions, with risk of damages caused by thermal overloads, and any uncontrolled reflection represents a danger for the sources. A possibility to mitigate the problem consists in covering some regions exposed to radiation with absorbers. Enhanced absorption of stray radiation lowers requirements on active protection systems in microwave diagnostics. The released heat can be extracted by dedicated cooling systems. The chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}), largely tested at IFP-CNR, has been routinely used as internal coating for matched loads. The performances of a variable thickness coating has been tested at high power at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with a 140 GHz gyrotron of the W7-X ECRH system and an averaged power density absorbed at the coating surface higher than 1 MW/m{sup 2} for 3 min. Also boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) has been tested at low power and patented as a millimeter-wave absorber. In the paper, the results of some tests performed on these coatings are given, together with some simulations of the absorption capability based on low power measurements on samples. Finally, some calculations are presented for a coating obtained combining together Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 4}C.

  13. Planar millimeter wave band-stop filters based on the excitation of confined magnetostatic waves in barium hexagonal ferrite thin film strips

    Lu, Lei; Song, Young-Yeal; Bevivino, Joshua; Wu, Mingzhong

    2011-05-01

    A planar millimeter wave band-stop filter based on confined magnetostatic wave (MSW) excitations in an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite (BaM) film strip was demonstrated. The device consists of a BaM film strip on the top of a coplanar waveguide with the strip length along the signal line. For zero magnetic fields, the device shows a band-stop filtering response at 53 GHz. This response originates from the excitation of confined MSW modes across the BaM strip width. The filter operation frequency is tunable with low fields. This tuning relies on the change in the MSW dispersion with field.

  14. Real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging based FMCW using GGD focal plane array as detectors

    Levanon, Assaf; Rozban, Daniel; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging systems are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to give a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with a Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA) of plasma based detectors. Each point on the object corresponds to a point in the image and includes the distance information. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. The radar system requires that the millimeter wave detector (GDD) will be able to operate as a heterodyne detector. Since the source of radiation is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), the detected signal as a result of heterodyne detection gives the object's depth information according to value of difference frequency, in addition to the reflectance of the image. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of GDD devices. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  15. Change in erythrocyte number of rat's peripheral blood after combined irradiation with millimeter waves and gamma-rays

    Male random breed Wistar rats used in this experiment have been treated as follows: 6 Gy gamma irradiated; irradiated with 5.6 millimeter waves (MMW) and 7.1 MMW only; irradiated with 5.6 MMW and 7.1 MMW before gamma irradiation. The results show a similarity in dynamics of erythrocyte number for both frequencies used. The treatment with MMW leads to a well pronounced radioprotective effect on hemopoiesis, which is due to the stimulation of bone-marrow cells proliferation observed by other authors as well. 2 figs., 8 refs

  16. Effects of acute millimeter wave exposure on the expression of substance P and c-fos in rat spinal cord

    Yan-wen ZHANG; Yao, Quan; Shang-cheng XU; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Guang-bin ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Objective  To observe the expression changes in substance P (SP) and c-fos in rat spinal cord after acute millimeter-wave (MMW) exposure, and explore the mechanism of thermal hyperalgesia at the spinal level. Methods  The back skin of SD rats was exposed to 35 GHz MMW (40W/cm2) for 0s (control group), 30s, 1min, or 3min. The corresponding segment of the spinal cord was taken at 0min, 5min, 10min, 1h and 3h after MMW irradiation for total RNA and protein extraction. The expressions of SP and c...

  17. Millimeter wave absorption by confined acoustic modes in CdSe/CdTe core-shell quantum dots

    Liu, T-M [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lu, J-Y [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kuo, C-C [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Wen, Y-C [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lai, C-W [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yang, M-J [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chou, P-T [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Murray, D B [Mathematics, Statistics and Physics Unit, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada V1V 1V7 (Canada); Saviot, L [Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 DIJON Cedex, FRANCE (France); Sun, C-Kuang [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2007-12-15

    Taking advantage of the specific core-shell charge separation structure in the CdSe/CdTe core-shell Type-II quantum dots (QDs), we experimentally observed the resonant-enhanced dipolar interaction between millimeter-wave (MMW) photons and their corresponding (l = 1) confined acoustic phonons. With proper choice of size, the absorption band can be tuned to desired frequency of MMW imaging. Exploiting this characteristic absorption, in a fiber-scanned MMW imaging system, we demonstrated the feasibility of CdSe/CdTe QDs as the contrast agents of MMW imaging.

  18. Millimeter wave absorption by confined acoustic modes in CdSe/CdTe core-shell quantum dots

    Taking advantage of the specific core-shell charge separation structure in the CdSe/CdTe core-shell Type-II quantum dots (QDs), we experimentally observed the resonant-enhanced dipolar interaction between millimeter-wave (MMW) photons and their corresponding (l = 1) confined acoustic phonons. With proper choice of size, the absorption band can be tuned to desired frequency of MMW imaging. Exploiting this characteristic absorption, in a fiber-scanned MMW imaging system, we demonstrated the feasibility of CdSe/CdTe QDs as the contrast agents of MMW imaging

  19. Effect of low-intensity millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation on regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Kolosova, L.I.; Akoev, G.N.; Avelev, V.D.; Riabchikova, O.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Pavlov Inst. of Physiology; Babu, K.S. [Christian Medical Coll. and Hospital, Tamilnadu (India)

    1996-04-01

    The effect of low-intensity millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation (MWR) on regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve after transection and microsurgical reapproximation was examined. Rates were exposed to 54 GHz MWR at a power density of 4 mW/cm{sup 2}. It was found that MWR treatment of the femoral skin in the area of suture accelerated the regeneration of nerve fibers. At the twentieth postoperative day, the MWR-treated animals had a 32% increase in the regeneration distance compared to the control animals. The conduction velocity showed a 26% increase in the MWR-treated animals.

  20. Application of passive millimeter-wave imaging and UHF-based synthetic aperture radar for threat detection

    Schreiber, Eric; Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Jirousek, Matthias; Kempf, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Passive millimeter-wave remote sensing for enhanced vision: For many military or peace-keeping operations it is necessary to provide better situational awareness to the commander of a vehicle with respect to possible threats in his local environment (predominantly ahead), at a distance of a few ten to a few hundred meters. As a beneficial part of a suitable multi-sensor system, an imaging radiometer with a sufficiently high frame rate and field of view is considered and will be presented i...

  1. Millimeter-wave response and linewidth of Josephson oscillations in YBa2Cu3O7 step-edge junctions

    Divin, Yu. Ya.; Andreev, A. V.; Fischer, Gerd Michael;

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the response of YBa2Cu3O7 step-edge junctions to low-intensity millimeter-wave radiation in the temperature range from 4 to 80 K. The linewidth of the Josephson oscillations derived from the resonant part of the response at voltages V congruent-to (h/2e)f is shown to be determined...... be considered as a multijunction multiloop interferometer and the excess noise can be discussed in terms of spontaneous transitions between the different states of these interferometers....

  2. Millimeter-wave and Terahertz Reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber Systems

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    will be required. The current WiFi (low)frequency bands do not have enough capacity and wireless communication needs to move to the millimeterwavelength or sub-terahertz range. Furthermore, millimeter-wavelength links offer a flexibility solution for non-incumbent operators to lay down fiber-like capacity links...

  3. Dual-frequency meter of atmospheric absorption in the millimeter wave range

    The measuring complex of super high-frequency range is described for measuring the atmospheric absorption of radiowave in the millimeter range. The function diagram of radiometric system, measurement technique and processing are given. The first results of observations of atmospheric absorption in the area of high-mountain plateau Suffa are presented. (authors)

  4. Development of the Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud ICE (TWICE) Millimeter- and Sub-millimeter Wave Radiometer Instrument for 6U-Class Nanosatellites

    Reising, S. C.; Kangaslahti, P.; Schlecht, E.; Bosch-Lluis, X.; Ogut, M.; Padmanabhan, S.; Cofield, R.; Chahat, N.; Brown, S. T.; Jiang, J. H.; Deal, W.; Zamora, A.; Leong, K.; Shih, S.; Mei, G.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of upper-tropospheric water vapor and cloud ice at a variety of local times are critically needed to provide information not currently available from microwave sensors in sun-synchronous orbits. Such global measurements would enable increasingly accurate cloud and moisture simulations in global circulation models, improving both climate predictions and knowledge of their uncertainty. In addition, this capability would address the need for measurements of cloud ice particle size distribution and water content in both clean and polluted environments. Complementary measurements of aerosol pollution would allow investigation of its effects on cloud properties and climate. This is particularly important since the uncertainty in the aerosol effect on climate is at least four times as great as the uncertainty in greenhouse gas effects. To address this unmet need, a collaborative team among Colorado State University, Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Northrop Grumman Corporation is developing and fabricating the Tropospheric Water and Cloud ICE (TWICE) radiometer instrument. TWICE is designed with size, mass, power consumption and downlink data rate compatible with deployment aboard a 6U-Class nanosatellite. TWICE is advancing the state of the art of spaceborne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave radiometers by transitioning from Schottky mixer-based front ends to InP HEMT MMIC low-noise amplifier front ends, substantially reducing the radiometer's mass, volume and power consumption. New low-noise amplifiers and related front-end components are being designed and fabricated by JPL and Northrop Grumman based on InP HEMT MMIC technology up to 670 GHz. The TWICE instrument will provide 16 radiometer channels, including window frequencies near 240, 310 and 670 GHz to perform ice particle sizing and determine total ice water content, as well as four sounding channels each near 118 GHz for temperature sounding and near 183 GHz and 380 GHz for water vapor sounding

  5. Field plated 0.15μm GaN HEMTs for millimeter-wave application

    Ren Chunjiang; Li Zhonghui; Yu Xuming; Wang Quanhui; Wang Wen; Chen Tangsheng; Zhang Bin

    2013-01-01

    SiN dielectrically-defined 0.15 μm field plated GaN HEMTs for millimeter-wave application have been presented.The AlGaN/GaN hetero-structure epitaxial material for HEMTs fabrication was grown on a 3-inch SiC substrate with an Fe doped GaN buffer layer by metal-organic chemical deposition.Electron beam lithography was used to define both the gate footprint and the cap of the gate with an integrated field plate.Gate recessing was performed to control the threshold voltage of the devices.The fabricated GaN HEMTs exhibited a unit current gain cut-off frequency of 39 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation of 63 GHz.Load-pull measurements carried out at 35 GHz showed a power density of 4 W/mm with associated power gain and power added efficiency of 5.3 dB and 35%,respectively,for a 0.15 mm gate width device operated at a 24 V drain bias.The developed 0.15 μm gate length GaN HEMT technology is suitable for Ka band applications and is ready for millimeter-wave power MMICs development.

  6. Stabilisation dopant-dependent facilitation in ionic conductivity on millimeter-wave irradiation heating of zirconia-based ceramics

    Ionic conductivity was measured on scandia-, calcia-, and gadolinia-stabilised zirconia ceramics under quasi-millimeter-wave (MMW) irradiation heating and conventional heating. Conductivity enhancement was evaluated for these ceramics and compared with our previous report on yttria- and ytterbia-stabilised zirconia ceramics (YSZ and YbSZ, respectively). The ionic conduction for the various cation-substituted zirconia ceramics was enhanced under MMW irradiation heating. In the case of scandia-stabilisation, the optimal composition demonstrating maximum ionic conductivity was 12-mol% zirconia (ScSZ) under MMW irradiation heating, which was larger than under conventional heating. Such an optimal composition shift was similar to results for YSZ ceramics. These results are discussed in terms of the activation energies for vacancy–ion dissociation and ion transfer. - Highlights: • Under millimeter-wave irradiation heating ionic conductivity of zirconia ceramics was examined. • The optimal composition in scandium stabilized zirconia ceramics shifted the higher doping side. • MMW irradiation heated ScSZ showed the highest ionic conductivity value in zirconia ceramics ever reported. • The activation process was examined in relation to the non-thermal effects

  7. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and emissivity of lunar regolith simulant using dual-channel millimeter-wave radiometry

    McCloy, J. S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Matyas, J.; Woskov, P. P.

    2011-01-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments). The state-of-the-art dual channel MMW passive radiometer with active interferometric capabilities at 137 GHz described here allows for radiometric measurements of sample temperature and emissivity up to at least 1600 °C with simultaneous measurement of sample surface dynamics. These capabilities have been used to demonstrate dynamic measurement of melting of powders of simulated lunar regolith and static measurement of emissivity of solid samples. The paper presents the theoretical background and basis for the dual-receiver system, describes the hardware in detail, and demonstrates the data analysis. Post-experiment analysis of emissivity versus temperature allows further extraction from the radiometric data of millimeter wave viewing beam coupling factors, which provide corroboratory evidence to the interferometric data of the process dynamics observed. Finally, these results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters for industrial processes and access to real-time dynamics of materials behavior in extreme environments.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and emissivity of lunar regolith simulant using dual-channel millimeter-wave radiometry.

    McCloy, J S; Sundaram, S K; Matyas, J; Woskov, P P

    2011-05-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments). The state-of-the-art dual channel MMW passive radiometer with active interferometric capabilities at 137 GHz described here allows for radiometric measurements of sample temperature and emissivity up to at least 1600 °C with simultaneous measurement of sample surface dynamics. These capabilities have been used to demonstrate dynamic measurement of melting of powders of simulated lunar regolith and static measurement of emissivity of solid samples. The paper presents the theoretical background and basis for the dual-receiver system, describes the hardware in detail, and demonstrates the data analysis. Post-experiment analysis of emissivity versus temperature allows further extraction from the radiometric data of millimeter wave viewing beam coupling factors, which provide corroboratory evidence to the interferometric data of the process dynamics observed. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters for industrial processes and access to real-time dynamics of materials behavior in extreme environments. PMID:21639528

  9. A wideband on-chip millimeter-wave patch antenna in 0.18 μm CMOS

    A wideband on-chip millimeter-wave patch antenna in 0.18 μm CMOS with a low-resistivity (10 Ω·bm) silicon substrate is presented. The wideband is achieved by reducing the Q factor and exciting the high-order radiation modes with size optimization. The antenna uses an on-chip top layer metal as the patch and a probe station as the ground plane. The on-chip ground plane is connected to the probe station using the inner connection structure of the probe station for better performance. The simulated S11 is less than −10 dB over 46–95 GHz, which is well matched with the measured results over the available 40–67 GHz frequency range from our measurement equipment. A maximum gain of −5.55 dBi with 4% radiation efficiency at a 60 GHz point is also achieved based on Ansoft HFSS simulation. Compared with the current state-of-the-art devices, the presented antenna achieves a wider bandwidth and could be used in wideband millimeter-wave communication and image applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Stabilisation dopant-dependent facilitation in ionic conductivity on millimeter-wave irradiation heating of zirconia-based ceramics

    Kishimoto, Akira, E-mail: kishim-a@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Hasunuma, Hideki; Teranishi, Takashi; Hayashi, Hidetaka

    2015-11-05

    Ionic conductivity was measured on scandia-, calcia-, and gadolinia-stabilised zirconia ceramics under quasi-millimeter-wave (MMW) irradiation heating and conventional heating. Conductivity enhancement was evaluated for these ceramics and compared with our previous report on yttria- and ytterbia-stabilised zirconia ceramics (YSZ and YbSZ, respectively). The ionic conduction for the various cation-substituted zirconia ceramics was enhanced under MMW irradiation heating. In the case of scandia-stabilisation, the optimal composition demonstrating maximum ionic conductivity was 12-mol% zirconia (ScSZ) under MMW irradiation heating, which was larger than under conventional heating. Such an optimal composition shift was similar to results for YSZ ceramics. These results are discussed in terms of the activation energies for vacancy–ion dissociation and ion transfer. - Highlights: • Under millimeter-wave irradiation heating ionic conductivity of zirconia ceramics was examined. • The optimal composition in scandium stabilized zirconia ceramics shifted the higher doping side. • MMW irradiation heated ScSZ showed the highest ionic conductivity value in zirconia ceramics ever reported. • The activation process was examined in relation to the non-thermal effects.

  11. Direct detection of Rydberg-Rydberg millimeter-wave transitions in a buffer gas cooled molecular beam

    Zhou, Yan; Grimes, David D.; Barnum, Timothy J.; Patterson, David; Coy, Stephen L.; Klein, Ethan; Muenter, John S.; Field, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Millimeter-wave transitions between molecular Rydberg states (n ∼ 35) of barium monofluoride are directly detected via Free Induction Decay (FID). Two powerful technologies are used in combination: Chirped-Pulse millimeter-Wave (CPmmW) spectroscopy and a buffer gas cooled molecular beam photoablation source. Hundreds of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions are recorded in 1 h with >10:1 signal:noise ratio and ∼150 kHz resolution. This high resolution, high spectral velocity experiment promises new strategies for rapid measurements of structural and dynamical information, such as the electric structure (multipole moments and polarizabilities) of the molecular ion-core and the strengths and mechanisms of resonances between Rydberg electron and ion-core motions. Direct measurements of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions with kilo-Debye dipole moments support efficient and definitive spectral analysis techniques, such as the Stark demolition and polarization diagnostics, which enable semi-automatic assignments of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states. In addition, extremely strong radiation-mediated collective effects (superradiance) in a dense Rydberg gas of barium atoms are observed.

  12. Development of a Propagating Millimeter-Wave Beam Position and Profile Monitor in the Oversize Corrugated Waveguide Used in an ECRH System

    Shimozuma, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakuji; Ito, Satoshi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Shin; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Nishiura, Masaki; Igami, Hiroe; Takahashi, Hiromi; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Okada, Kohta; Mutoh, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In a high-power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system for plasma heating, a long-distance and low-loss transmission system of the millimeter wave is required. A real-time monitor of the millimeter-wave beam position and its intensity profile, which can be used in a high-power, evacuated, and cooled transmission line, is proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested. The beam-position and profile monitor (BPM) consists of a reflector, Peltier-device array, and a heat-sink, which is installed in the reflector-plate of a miterbend. The BPM was tested using both simulated electric heater power and high-power gyrotron output power. The profile obtained from the monitor using the gyrotron output was well agreed with the burn patter on a thermal sensitive paper. Methods of data analysis and mode-content analysis of a propagating millimeter-wave in the corrugated waveguide are proposed.

  13. Gigawatt-class radiation generated by a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator

    Particle simulation and experimental results are presented about a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator in this paper. The relativistic electron beam with peak current of 8.4 kA was generated by a pulsed power accelerator working at the voltage of 625 kV, which was guided by an axial magnetic field of 1.05 T and transported through the beam-wave interaction structures. After careful calibration, the microwave power radiated in the far field was as high as about 500 MW, with a frequency of 32.1 GHz and a pulse width of 20 ns. The radiation mode was well controlled to be TM0n mode

  14. Linear Analysis of Folded Double-Ridged Waveguide Slow-Wave Structure for Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tube

    A novel slow-wave structure (SWS), the folded double-ridged waveguide structure, is presented and its linear gain properties are investigated. The perturbed dispersion equation is derived and the small signal growth rate is calculated for dimensions of the ridge-loaded region and the parameters of the electron beam. The novel structure has potential applications in the production of high power and broad band radiation. For a cold beam, the linear theory predicts a gain of 1.1–1.27 dB/period and a 3-dB small-signal gain bandwidth of 30% in W-band. A comparison between the folded double-ridged waveguide SWS and folded waveguide SWS (FWSWS) shows that with the same physical parameters, the novel SWS has an advantage over the FWSWS on the bandwidth and electron efficiency. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  15. Linear Analysis of Folded Double-Ridged Waveguide Slow-Wave Structure for Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tube

    HE Jun; WEI Yan-Yu; GONG Yu-Bin; WANG Wen-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    A novel slow-wave structure (SWS), the folded double-ridged waveguide structure, is presented and its linear gain properties are investigated. The perturbed dispersion equation is derived and the small signal growth rate is calculated for dimensions of the ridge-loaded region and the parameters of the electron beam. The novel structure has potential applications in the production of high power and broad band radiation. For a cold beam, the linear theory predicts a gain of 1.1-1.27dB/period and a 3-dB small-signal gain bandwidth of 30% in W-band. A comparison between the folded double-ridged waveguide SWS and folded waveguide SWS (FWSWS) shows that with the same physical parameters, the novel SWS has an advantage over the FWSWS on the bandwidth and electron efficiency.

  16. Fabrication of novel structures to enhance the performance of microwave, millimeter wave and optical radiators

    Gbele, Kokou

    full depletion-recovery cycle in the nonequilibrium state. The third part discusses work in the microwave and millimeter wave frequency regimes. A new method to fabricate Luneburg lenses was proposed and demonstrated. This type of lens is well known; it is versatile and has been used for many applications, including high power radars, satellite communications, and remote sensing systems. Because the fabrication of such a lens requires intricate and time consuming processes, we demonstrated the design, fabrication and testing of a Luneburg lens prototype using a 3-D printing rapid prototyping technique both at the X and Ka-V frequency bands. The measured results were in very good agreement with their simulated values. The fabricated X-band lens had a 12 cm diameter and produced a beam having a maximum gain of 20 dB and a beam directivity (half-power beam width (HPBW)) ranging from 12° to 19°). The corresponding Ka-V band lens had a 7 cm diameter; it produced a beam with a HPBW about the same as the X-band lens, but with a maximum gain of more than 20 dB.

  17. Probe modeling for millimeter-wave integrated-circuit horn antennas

    Guo, Yong; Chiao, Jung-Chih; Potter, Kent A.; Rutledge, David B.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated-circuit probe-excited horn-antenna arrays etched in silicon are well developed. They are a very promising class of antenna arrays for milli-meter and submillimeter applications. Further development of this technology involves integrating mixers and amplifiers into the antenna arrays. In an effort to develop an antenna-mixer array based on the existing technology, various antenna probes inside the pyramidal horns have been examined on scaled model-horns at the micr...

  18. Radio Capacity Estimation for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks Using Narrow Beamwidth Antennas at the Base Stations

    AlMuthanna Turki Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents radio frequency (RF capacity estimation for millimeter wave (mm-wave based fifth-generation (5G cellular networks using field-level simulations. It is shown that, by reducing antenna beamwidth from 65° to 30°, we can enhance the capacity of mm-wave cellular networks roughly by 3.0 times at a distance of 220 m from the base station (BS. This enhancement is far much higher than the corresponding enhancement of 1.2 times observed for 900 MHz and 2.6 GHz microwave networks at the same distance from the BS. Thus the use of narrow beamwidth transmitting antennas has more pronounced benefits in mm-wave networks. Deployment trials performed on an LTE TDD site operating on 2.6 GHz show that 6-sector site with 27° antenna beamwidth enhances the quality of service (QoS roughly by 40% and more than doubles the overall BS throughput (while enhancing the per sector throughput 1.1 times on average compared to a 3-sector site using 65° antenna beamwidth. This agrees well with our capacity simulations. Since mm-wave 5G networks will use arbitrary number of beams, with beamwidth much less than 30°, the capacity enhancement expected in 5G system when using narrow beamwidth antennas would be much more than three times observed in our simulations.

  19. Multi-Band (K- Q- and E-Band) Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Radio Wave Propagation Studies

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust multi-Gbps data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links. Lastly, the architecture for a compact multi-tone beacon transmitter, which includes a high frequency synthesizer, a polarizer, and a conical horn antenna, has been investigated for a notional CubeSat based space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment.

  20. Measurement and simulation of ionic current as a means of quantifying effects of therapeutic millimeter wave radiation

    Slovinsky, William Stanley

    A "millimeter wave" (MMW) is an electromagnetic oscillation with a wavelength between 1 and 10 mm, and a corresponding frequency of 30 to 300 GHz. In the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, this band falls above the frequencies of radio waves and microwaves, and below that of infrared radiation. Since the 1950s, frequencies in this regime have been used for short range communications and beginning in the 1970s, a form of therapy known as "millimeter wave therapy" (MWT) , or microwave resonance therapy, in some publications. This form of therapy has been widely used in the republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). As of 1995, it is estimated that more than one thousand medical centers in the FSU have performed MWT and more than three million patients have received this method of treatment. Despite the abundant use of this form of medicine, very little is known about the mechanisms by which it works. Early accounts of use are limited to Soviet government documents, largely unavailable to the scientific public, and limited translations and oral accounts from FSU scientists and literature reviews . This anecdotal body of evidence lacks the scrutiny of peer-reviewed journal publications. In order to gain more widespread acceptance in Western medicine, the pathway through which this regime of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum affects the human body must be rigorously mapped and quantified. Despite the anecdotal nature of a large portion of the existing research on biological MMW effects, a common link is the idea of an interaction occurring at the skin level, which is transduced into a signal used at a remote location in the body. This study explores a possible mechanism for the generation of this signal. The effects of therapeutic frequency MMW on the ionic currents through two different types of ion transport channels were studied, and the results are discussed with emphasis on how they relate to possible changes in nerve signals used by the body for

  1. Filterless frequency 12-tupling optical millimeter-wave generation using two cascaded dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators.

    Zhu, Zihang; Zhao, Shanghong; Zheng, Wanze; Wang, Wei; Lin, Baoqin

    2015-11-10

    A novel frequency 12-tupling optical millimeter-wave (mm-wave) generation using two cascaded dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (DP-MZMs) without an optical filter is proposed and demonstrated by computer simulation. By properly adjusting the amplitude and phase of radio frequency (RF) driving signal and the direct current (DC) bias points of two DP-MZMs, a 120 GHz mm-wave with an optical sideband suppression ratio (OSSR) of 25.1 dB and a radio frequency spurious suppression ratio (RFSSR) of 19.1 dB is shown to be generated from a 10 GHz RF driving signal, which largely reduces the response frequency of electronic devices. Furthermore, it is also proved to be valid that even if the phase difference of RF driving signals, the RF driving voltage, and the DC bias voltage deviate from the ideal values to a certain degree, the performance is still acceptable. Since no optical filter is employed to suppress the undesired optical sidebands, a high-spectral-purity mm-wave signal tunable from 48 to 216 GHz can be obtained theoretically when a RF driving signal from 4 to 18 GHz is applied to the DP-MZMs, and the system can be readily implemented in wavelength-division-multiplexing upconversion systems to provide high-quality optical local oscillator signal. PMID:26560769

  2. Millimeter-Wave Broadband Anti-Reflection Coatings Using Laser Ablation of Sub-Wavelength Structures

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 \\mu m and total height of near 800 \\mu m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape should have a fractional bandwidth response of $\\Delta \

  3. Millimeter-Wave Broadband Anti-Reflection Coatings Using Laser Ablation of Sub-Wavelength Structures

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Young, Karl; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Ishino, Hirokazu; Inoue, Yuki; Hazumi, Masashi; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 $\\mu$m and total height of near 800 $\\mu$m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape ...

  4. Millimeter-wave broadband antireflection coatings using laser ablation of subwavelength structures

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Young, Karl; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Ishino, Hirokazu; Inoue, Yuki; Hazumi, Masashi; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 $\\mu$m and total height of near 800 $\\mu$m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape should have a fractional bandwidth response of $\\Delta \

  5. Study of a millimeter-wave squint indirect holographic algorithm suitable for imaging with large field-of-view

    In this paper a millimeter-wave (MMW) squint indirect holographic method is presented, which is suitable for imaging with a large field-of-view. The proposed system employs the squint operation mode to remove the background and twin-image interferences, which achieves a similar effect to off-axis holography but leaves out the large-aperture quasi-optical component. The translational scanning manner enables a large field of view and ensures the image uniformity, which is difficult to realize in off-axis holography. In addition, a corresponding imaging algorithm for the presented scheme is developed to reconstruct the image from the recorded hologram. Some imaging results on typical objects, obtained with electromagnetic simulation, demonstrate good performance of the imaging scheme and validate the effectiveness of the image reconstruction algorithm. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Study of a millimeter-wave squint indirect holographic algorithm suitable for imaging with large field-of-view

    Gao, Xiang; Li, Chao; Fang, Guang-You

    2014-02-01

    In this paper a millimeter-wave (MMW) squint indirect holographic method is presented, which is suitable for imaging with a large field-of-view. The proposed system employs the squint operation mode to remove the background and twin-image interferences, which achieves a similar effect to off-axis holography but leaves out the large-aperture quasi-optical component. The translational scanning manner enables a large field of view and ensures the image uniformity, which is difficult to realize in off-axis holography. In addition, a corresponding imaging algorithm for the presented scheme is developed to reconstruct the image from the recorded hologram. Some imaging results on typical objects, obtained with electromagnetic simulation, demonstrate good performance of the imaging scheme and validate the effectiveness of the image reconstruction algorithm.

  7. Radio-over-fiber system with tunable millimeter-wave generation and wavelength reuse for uplink connection

    Zhang, Chan; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Lin, Heng; Liu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate a radio-over-fiber system to generate an optical millimeter wave (MMW) and realize wavelength reuse for an uplink connection. A tunable optical comb generated by a single Fabry-Perot laser serves as the optical source. The central carrier is separated by an optical circulator cascaded with a fiber Bragg grating. For the downlink, the unmodulated central carrier is coupled with one subcarrier, which has been modulated with 2.5-Gb/s data. Then, different MMWs can be generated by choosing different subcarriers. While for the uplink, the same central carrier is reused for an uplink connection with 1.25-Gb/s data. In the scheme, a 60-GHz MMW is obtained and the bidirectional data are simultaneously transmitted over 60-km transmission with <0.5-dB power penalty. This system shows a simple cost-efficient configuration and good performance over long-distance delivery.

  8. Low noise wide bandgap SiC based IMPATT diodes at sub-millimeter wave frequencies and at high temperature

    We have presented a comparative account of the high frequency prospective as well as noise behaviors of wide-bandgap 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC based on different structures of IMPATT diodes at sub-millimeter-wave frequencies up to 2.18 THz. The computer simulation study establishes the feasibility of the SiC based IMPATT diode as a high power density terahertz source. The most significant feature lies in the noise behavior of the SiC IMPATT diodes. It is noticed that the 6H-SiC DDR diode shows the least noise measure of 26.1 dB as compared to that of other structures. Further, it is noticed that the noise measure of the SiC IMPATT diode is less at a higher operating frequency compared to that at a lower operating frequency. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Millimeter Wave and Terahertz Spectra and Global Fit of Torsion-Rotation Transitions in the Ground, First and Second Excited Torsional States of 13CH3OH Methanol

    Xua, Li-Hong; Hao, Yun; Mueller, H S P; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Schlemmer, S; Menten, K M

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is observed in a wide range of astrophysical sources throughout the universe, and comprehensive databases of the millimeter and THz spectra of CH3OH and its principal isotopologues represent important tools for the astronomical community. A previous combined analysis of microwave and millimeter wave spectra of 13CH3OH together with Fourier transform far-infrared spectra was limited to the first two torsional states, v_t = 0 and 1, for J values up to 20. The limits on frequency and quantum number coverage have recently been extended by new millimeter and THz measurements on several different spectrometers in the Cologne laboratory in the frequency windows 34-70 GHz, 75-120 GHz, 240-340 GHz, 360-450 GHz and 1.12-1.50 THz. With the new data, the global treatment has now been expanded to include the first three torsional states for J values up to 30. The current 13CH3OH data set contains about 2,300 microwave, millimeter-wave, sub-millimeter and THz lines and about 17,100 Fourier-transform far-infrared l...

  10. Design of InP DHBT power amplifiers at millimeter-wave frequencies using interstage matched cascode technique

    Yan, Lei; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2013-01-01

    employed to improve the power handling ability through optimizing the input impedance of the CB device. The minimized power mismatch between the CB and the common-emitter(CE) devices results in an improved saturated output power. To demonstrate the technique for power amplifier designs at mm......In this paper, the design of InP DHBT based millimeter-wave(mm-wave) power amplifiers(PAs) using an interstage matched cascode technique is presented. The output power of a traditional cascode is limited by the early saturation of the common-base(CB) device. The interstage matched cascode can be......-wave frequencies, a single-branch cascode based PA using single-finger devices and a two-way combined based PA using three-finger devices are fabricated. The single-branch design shows a measured power gain of 9.2dB and a saturated output power of 12.3dBm at 67.2GHz and the two-way combined design shows a power...

  11. Microcontroller-based binary integrator for millimeter-wave radar experiments

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ruoskanen, Jukka; Peltonen, Jouni

    2010-05-01

    An easily on-site reconfigurable multiple binary integrator for millimeter radar experiments has been constructed of static random access memories, an eight bit microcontroller, and high speed video operational amplifiers. The design uses a raw comparator path and two adjustable m-out-of-n chains in a wired-OR configuration. Standard high speed memories allow the use of pulse widths below 100 ns. For eight pulse repetition intervals it gives a maximum improvement of 6.6 dB for stationary low-level target echoes. The doubled configuration enhances the capability against fluctuating targets. Because of the raw comparator path, also single return pulses of relatively high amplitude are processed.

  12. Study on filterless frequency-tupling millimeter-wave generator with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio

    Chen, Hongyao; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Pei, Li; Zhang, Chan; Yuan, Jin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, two filterless frequency-tupling millimeter-wave (mm-wave) generator schemes are theoretically analyzed and verified by simulation. The first one is a frequency 12-tupler, made by a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM), capable of generating the six-order optical harmonic, directly. The second one is a frequency 36-tupler, consisted by the proposed frequency 12-tupler and an optical remodulator, which can utilize the six-order optical harmonic to generate frequency 36-tupling mm-wave signal and adjust the optical carrier to sideband ratio (OCSR) of the generated optical signal. The simulations show that without any filter, two frequency-tupling schemes both with good frequency tunability. By turning the RF driving signal from 5 GHz to 8 GHz, the frequency 12-tupler, with the frequency ranging from 60 to 96 GHz can be obtained, and the optical sideband suppression ratio (OSSR) and the electrical spurious suppression ratio (ESSR) is over 37 dB and 36 dB, respectively. With the RF driving signal varying from 1.75 GHz to 3.25 GHz, a wideband mm-wave signals with the frequency ranging from 63 GHz to 117 GHz will generated by the frequency 36-tupler, the OSSR and ESSR is over 28 dB and 23 dB, respectively. Moreover, with careful adjusting the gain of remodulator, the OCSR of the mm-wave signal generated by the frequency 36-tupler can be continuous turning from 4.1 dB to 44.1 dB and the transmission performance of the proposed schemes based radio-over-fiber downlink system is also demonstrated.

  13. SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology for millimeter-wave applications

    Joseph, Alvin; Dahlstrom, Mattias; Liu, Qizhi; Orner, Bradley; Liu, Xuefeng; Sheridan, David; Rassel, Robert; Dunn, Jim; Ahlgren, David

    2006-03-01

    We present the advances in Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (SiGe HBT) and BiCMOS technology capabilities to address the emerging millimetre-wave (mmWave) applications. SiGe HBTs with f MAX performance reaching 350 GHz that are integrated with advanced CMOS and high-frequency passives is envisioned to allow better integration capability for mmWave applications. This capability of SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology is discussed relative to an InP HBT technology.

  14. Low Noise Titanium Nitride KIDs for SuperSpec: A Millimeter-Wave On-Chip Spectrometer

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Barry, P S; Bradford, C M; Chapman, S; Che, G; Glenn, J; Hollister, M; Kovács, A; LeDuc, H G; Mauskopf, P; McKenney, C; O'Brient, R; Padin, S; Reck, T; Shiu, C; Tucker, C E; Wheeler, J; Williamson, R; Zmuidzinas, J

    2015-01-01

    SuperSpec is a novel on-chip spectrometer we are developing for multi-object, moderate resolution (R = 100 - 500), large bandwidth (~1.65:1) submillimeter and millimeter survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies. The spectrometer employs a filter bank architecture, and consists of a series of half-wave resonators formed by lithographically-patterned superconducting transmission lines. The signal power admitted by each resonator is detected by a lumped element titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector (KID) operating at 100 - 200 MHz. We have tested a new prototype device that achieves the targeted R = 100 resolving power, and has better detector sensitivity and optical efficiency than previous devices. We employ a new method for measuring photon noise using both coherent and thermal sources of radiation to cleanly separate the contributions of shot and wave noise. We report an upper limit to the detector NEP of $1.4\\times10^{-17}$ W Hz$^{-1/2}$, within 10% of the photon noise limited NEP for a gr...

  15. Low Noise Titanium Nitride KIDs for SuperSpec: A Millimeter-Wave On-Chip Spectrometer

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chapman, S.; Che, G.; Glenn, J.; Hollister, M.; Kovács, A.; LeDuc, H. G.; Mauskopf, P.; McKenney, C.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Shiu, C.; Tucker, C. E.; Wheeler, J.; Williamson, R.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2016-07-01

    SuperSpec is a novel on-chip spectrometer we are developing for multi-object, moderate resolution (R = 100-500), large bandwidth ({˜ }1.65:1), submillimeter and millimeter survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies. The spectrometer employs a filter bank architecture, and consists of a series of half-wave resonators formed by lithographically-patterned superconducting transmission lines. The signal power admitted by each resonator is detected by a lumped element titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector operating at 100-200 MHz. We have tested a new prototype device that achieves the targeted R=100 resolving power, and has better detector sensitivity and optical efficiency than previous devices. We employ a new method for measuring photon noise using both coherent and thermal sources of radiation to cleanly separate the contributions of shot and wave noise. We report an upper limit to the detector NEP of 1.4× 10^{-17} W Hz^{-1/2}, within 10 % of the photon noise-limited NEP for a ground-based R=100 spectrometer.

  16. WSPEC: A waveguide filter-bank focal plane array spectrometer for millimeter wave astronomy and cosmology

    Bryan, Sean; Che, George; Doyle, Simon; Flanigan, Daniel; Groppi, Christopher; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Glenn; Mauskopf, Philip; McCarrick, Heather; Monfardini, Alessandro; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths are key frontiers in astronomy and cosmology. Large area spectral surveys with moderate spectral resolution (R=50-200) will be used to characterize large scale structure and star formation through intensity mapping surveys in emission lines such as the CO rotational transitions. Such surveys will also be used to study the SZ effect, and will detect the emission lines and continuum spectrum of individual objects. WSPEC is an instrument proposed to target these science goals. It is a channelizing spectrometer realized in rectangular waveguide, fabricated using conventional high-precision metal machining. Each spectrometer is coupled to free space with a machined feed horn, and the devices are tiled into a 2D array to fill the focal plane of the telescope. The detectors will be aluminum Lumped-Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKIDs). To target the CO lines and SZ effect, we will have bands at 135-175 GHz and 190-250 GHz, each Nyquist-sampled at R~200...

  17. WSPEC: A Waveguide Filter-Bank Focal Plane Array Spectrometer for Millimeter Wave Astronomy and Cosmology

    Bryan, Sean; Aguirre, James; Che, George; Doyle, Simon; Flanigan, Daniel; Groppi, Christopher; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Glenn; Mauskopf, Philip; McCarrick, Heather; Monfardini, Alessandro; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths are key frontiers in astronomy and cosmology. Large area spectral surveys with moderate spectral resolution (R=50 -200) will be used to characterize large-scale structure and star formation through intensity mapping surveys in emission lines such as the CO rotational transitions. Such surveys will also be used to study the the Sunyaev Zeldovich (SZ) effect, and will detect the emission lines and continuum spectrum of individual objects. WSPEC is an instrument proposed to target these science goals. It is a channelizing spectrometer realized in rectangular waveguide, fabricated using conventional high-precision metal machining. Each spectrometer is coupled to free space with a machined feed horn, and the devices are tiled into a 2D array to fill the focal plane of the telescope. The detectors will be aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs). To target the CO lines and SZ effect, we will have bands at 135-175 and 190-250 GHz, each Nyquist-sampled at R≈ 200 resolution. Here, we discuss the instrument concept and design, and successful initial testing of a WR10 (i.e., 90 GHz) prototype spectrometer. We recently tested a WR5 (180 GHz) prototype to verify that the concept works at higher frequencies, and also designed a resonant backshort structure that may further increase the optical efficiency. We are making progress towards integrating a spectrometer with a LEKID array and deploying a prototype device to a telescope for first light.

  18. Zoned near-zero refractive index fishnet lens antenna: Steering millimeter waves

    A zoned fishnet metamaterial lens is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths to work as a negative near-zero refractive index lens suitable for compact lens antenna configurations. At the design frequency f = 56.7 GHz (λ0 = 5.29 mm), the zoned fishnet metamaterial lens, designed to have a focal length FL = 9λ0, exhibits a refractive index n = −0.25. The focusing performance of the diffractive optical element is briefly compared with that of a non-zoned fishnet metamaterial lens and an isotropic homogeneous zoned lens made of a material with the same refractive index. Experimental and numerically-computed radiation diagrams of the fabricated zoned lens are presented and compared in detail with that of a simulated non-zoned lens. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement, demonstrating an enhancement generated by the zoned lens of 10.7 dB, corresponding to a gain of 12.26 dB. Moreover, beam steering capability of the structure by shifting the feeder on the xz-plane is demonstrated

  19. Zoned near-zero refractive index fishnet lens antenna: Steering millimeter waves

    Pacheco-Peña, V., E-mail: victor.pacheco@unavarra.es; Orazbayev, B., E-mail: b.orazbayev@unavarra.es; Beaskoetxea, U., E-mail: unai.beaskoetxea@unavarra.es; Beruete, M., E-mail: miguel.beruete@unavarra.es [TERALAB (MmW—THz—IR and Plasmonics Laboratory), Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus Arrosadía, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Navarro-Cía, M., E-mail: m.navarro@imperial.ac.uk [Optical and Semiconductor Devices Group, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Centre for Plasmonics and Metamaterials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Terahertz Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-28

    A zoned fishnet metamaterial lens is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths to work as a negative near-zero refractive index lens suitable for compact lens antenna configurations. At the design frequency f = 56.7 GHz (λ{sub 0} = 5.29 mm), the zoned fishnet metamaterial lens, designed to have a focal length FL = 9λ{sub 0}, exhibits a refractive index n = −0.25. The focusing performance of the diffractive optical element is briefly compared with that of a non-zoned fishnet metamaterial lens and an isotropic homogeneous zoned lens made of a material with the same refractive index. Experimental and numerically-computed radiation diagrams of the fabricated zoned lens are presented and compared in detail with that of a simulated non-zoned lens. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement, demonstrating an enhancement generated by the zoned lens of 10.7 dB, corresponding to a gain of 12.26 dB. Moreover, beam steering capability of the structure by shifting the feeder on the xz-plane is demonstrated.

  20. WSPEC: A Waveguide Filter-Bank Focal Plane Array Spectrometer for Millimeter Wave Astronomy and Cosmology

    Bryan, Sean; Aguirre, James; Che, George; Doyle, Simon; Flanigan, Daniel; Groppi, Christopher; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Glenn; Mauskopf, Philip; McCarrick, Heather; Monfardini, Alessandro; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths are key frontiers in astronomy and cosmology. Large area spectral surveys with moderate spectral resolution (R=50-200) will be used to characterize large-scale structure and star formation through intensity mapping surveys in emission lines such as the CO rotational transitions. Such surveys will also be used to study the the Sunyaev Zeldovich (SZ) effect, and will detect the emission lines and continuum spectrum of individual objects. WSPEC is an instrument proposed to target these science goals. It is a channelizing spectrometer realized in rectangular waveguide, fabricated using conventional high-precision metal machining. Each spectrometer is coupled to free space with a machined feed horn, and the devices are tiled into a 2D array to fill the focal plane of the telescope. The detectors will be aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs). To target the CO lines and SZ effect, we will have bands at 135-175 and 190-250 GHz, each Nyquist-sampled at R≈ 200 resolution. Here, we discuss the instrument concept and design, and successful initial testing of a WR10 (i.e., 90 GHz) prototype spectrometer. We recently tested a WR5 (180 GHz) prototype to verify that the concept works at higher frequencies, and also designed a resonant backshort structure that may further increase the optical efficiency. We are making progress towards integrating a spectrometer with a LEKID array and deploying a prototype device to a telescope for first light.

  1. The millimeter-wave spectrum of the CaF radical (X(sup 2)Sigma(+))

    Anderson, M. A.; Allen, M. D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of the CaF radical has been measured in the laboratory using millimeter/sub-mm direct absorption spectroscopy. Fourteen rotational transitions have been detected originating in the v = 0 mode of the species. Rotational lines of the vibrationally excited v = 1, 2, and 3 states have also been observed. Spin-rotation splittings, as well as hyperfine interactions arising from the nuclear spin of the fluorine atom, were resolved in the CaF spectra. Rotational, fine-structure, and in some cases, hyperfine parameters were determined for the various vibrational modes of the molecule from a nonlinear least-squares fit to the data, using a (sup 2)Sigma Hamiltonian, and are in agreement with past measurements. The newly measured rest frequencies for CaF, which are accurate to at least + or - 100 kHz, will enable astronomical searches to be conducted for the molecule in interstellar and circumstellar gas. Given the recent detection of AlF in IRC + 10216, metal fluoride species may be more abundant than previously thought.

  2. A MILLIMETER-WAVE INTERFEROMETRIC SEARCH FOR A MOLECULAR TORUS IN THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 4261

    NGC 4261 is an elliptical galaxy with a pair of symmetric kiloparsec-scale jets. We observed a nucleus of NGC 4261 at 2.6 mm and 1.3 mm with the NRO RAINBOW interferometer, the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, and the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to determine the excitation state of molecular gas. In this observation, neither CO(J = 2-1) nor CO(J = 1-0) absorption lines were detected even at higher sensitivity than the previous work. The 3σ upper limits on the optical depths of CO lines were 0.098 for J = 2-1 and 0.042 for J = 1-0, respectively. These upper limits are much smaller than the optical depth obtained from the previous claimed detection of CO(J = 2-1) absorption (0.7), indicating that the claimed CO(J = 2-1) absorption profile could be a false feature. Our results suggest that there is a possibility that CO molecules are highly excited by the active galactic nucleus, since the optical depths of low-J CO molecules in NGC 4261 are significantly low.

  3. Integrated Electron-tunneling Refrigerator and TES Bolometer for Millimeter Wave Astronomy

    Silverberg, R. F.; Benford, D. J.; Chen, T. C.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Moseley, S. H.; Duncan, W.; Miller, N.; Schmidt, D.; Ullom, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe progress in the development of a close-packed array of bolometers intended for use in photometric applications at millimeter wavelengths from ground- based telescopes. Each bolometer in the may uses a proximity-effect Transition Edge Sensor (TES) sensing element and each will have integrated Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) refrigerators to cool the bolometer below the ambient bath temperature. The NIS refrigerators and acoustic-phonon-mode-isolated bolometers are fabricated on silicon. The radiation-absorbing element is mechanically suspended by four legs, whose dimensions are used to control and optimize the thermal conductance of the bolometer. Using the technology developed at NIST, we fabricate NIS refrigerators at the base of each of the suspension legs. The NIS refrigerators remove hot electrons by quantum-mechanical tunneling and are expected to cool the biased (approx.10 pW) bolometers to bolometers are inside a pumped 3He-cooled cryostat operating at approx.280 mK. This significantly lower temperature at the bolometer allows the detectors to approach background-limited performance despite the simple cryogenic system.

  4. Real-Time Detection and Tracking of Vital Signs with an Ambulatory Subject Using Millimeter-Wave Interferometry

    Mikhelson, Ilya V.

    Finding a subject's heart rate from a distance without any contact is a difficult and very practical problem. This kind of technology would allow more comfortable patient monitoring in hospitals or in home settings. It would also allow another level of security screening, as a person's heart rate increases in stressful situations, such as when lying or hiding malicious intent. In addition, the fact that the heart rate is obtained remotely means that the subject would not have to know he/she is being monitored at all, adding to the efficacy of the measurement. Using millimeter-wave interferometry, a signal can be obtained that contains composite chest wall motion made up of component motions due to cardiac activity, respiration, and interference. To be of use, these components have to be separated from each other by signal processing. To do this, the quadrature and in-phase components of the received signal are analyzed to get a displacement waveform. After that, processing can be done on that waveform in either the time or frequency domains to find the individual heartbeats. The first method is to find the power spectrum of the displacement waveform and to look for peaks corresponding to heartbeats and respiration. Another approach is to examine the signal in the time domain using wavelets for multiresolution analysis. One more method involves studying the statistics of the wavelet-processed signal. The final method uses a heartbeat model along with probabilistic processing to find heartbeats. For any of the above methods to work, the millimeter-wave sensor has to be accurately pointed at the subject's chest. However, even small subject motions can render the rest of the gathered data useless as the antenna may have lost its aim. To combat this, a color and a depth camera are used with a servo-pan/tilt base. My program finds a face in the image and subsequently tracks that face through upcoming frames. The pan/tilt base adjusts the aim of the antenna depending on

  5. 毫米波微带天线阵列设计%Design of a millimeter wave microstrip antenna array

    于慧娟

    2016-01-01

    A circular aperture millimeter wave series and parallel fed microstrip antenna array was proposed. The antenna was designed with rectangular microstrip patch which was fed by slot-coupled to increase the bandwidth. A series-fed microstrip antenna array was selected in order to use the antenna aperture area effectively and decrease the net complexity. At the same time, according to design of the circular aperture millimeter wave micro-strip antenna array, the part array was series and parallel fed to increase the bandwidth of the microstrip antenna. Results show that the bandwidth of the antenna is about 5%. The simulation result of the antenna’s gain is better than 30.6 dBi in working band. The beam width is about 4.0°×3.5° and the side lobe level is lower than –13 dB. Multi beam and phased array functions can be realized with the antenna array and the net.%设计了一个圆口径串并联混合馈电的毫米波微带天线阵列。该天线采用矩形微带工字型缝隙贴片耦合馈电的方法展宽带宽。为了有效利用天线口径面积,减小网络复杂度,选取串联微带天线阵列形式。同时为了展宽带宽,根据设计的圆形口径阵列,将部分子阵采用串并联混合馈电的形式,得到带宽为5%的毫米波微带天线阵列。仿真表明,该天线在工作频带内增益大于30.6 dBi,波束宽度为4.0°×3.5°,副瓣电平低于–13 dB。该天线阵面与网络配合,可以实现多波束或相控阵的功能。

  6. Development of Signal Processing Algorithms for High Resolution Airborne Millimeter Wave FMCW SAR

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    For airborne earth observation applications, there is a special interest in lightweight, cost effective, imaging sensors of high resolution. The combination of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques can lead to such a sensor. In this paper

  7. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    Dalir, Hamed, E-mail: dalir.h.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Koyama, Fumio [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55 dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 μm long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  8. The DTU-ESA Millimeter-Wave Validation Standard Antenna – Manufacturing and Testing

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav;

    2015-01-01

    A new precision tool for antenna test range qualification and inter-comparisons at mm-waves – the mm-VAST antenna – is under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with TICRA under a European Space Agency (ESA) contract. The DTU-ESA mm-VAST antenna will facilitate...... mechanical design, fabrication and assembling procedures. The performance verification test plan as well as first measurement results are also discussed....

  9. Electron density and temperature study of plasmas using a millimeter-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer

    The contents of this article, which have been used as a basis for a State doctorate thesis, deal with research into focussing systems of the Fabry-Perot, millimetre wave type. With the help of this equipment, measurements have been made of the electronic density using interferometry in the range from 109 to 1014 electrons/cm3, and of the electron temperature by Thomson diffusion, of plasmas formed by laser ionisation and by high frequency. (author)

  10. A quasioptically stabilized resonant-tunneling-diode oscillator for the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave regions

    Brown, Elliott R.; Parker, Christopher D.; Molvar, Karen M.; Stephan, Karl D.

    1992-01-01

    A semiconfocal open-cavity resonator has been used to stabilize a resonant-tunneling-diode waveguide oscillator at frequencies near 100 GHz. The high quality factor of the open cavity resulted in a linewidth of approximately 10 kHz at 10 dB below the peak, which is about 100 times narrower than the linewidth of an unstabilized waveguide oscillator. This technique is well suited for resonant-tunneling-diode oscillators in the submillimeter-wave region.

  11. Millimeter-wave aperture synthesis for remote sensing of the Earth

    Harvey, Andrew R.; Greenaway, Alain H.; Camps Carmona, Adriano José; Bará Temes, Francisco Javier; Torres Torres, Francisco; Corbella Sanahuja, Ignasi; Martín Neira, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    Millimetre-wave radiometry of the earth's surface from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a resolution of a few km requires antenna apertures several metres across and sub-second scanning times. Fulfilling these requirements with a mechanically scanned real-aperture antenna presents formidable mechanical challenges. An attractive alternative described here is to use synthetic aperture techniques employing a sparse-array of antennas that trade the mechanical complexity of real-aperture imaging for the...

  12. Millimeter wave experiment of ITER equatorial EC launcher mock-up

    Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Isozaki, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Omori, T.; Henderson, M. [ITER Organization, St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2014-02-12

    The full-scale mock-up of the equatorial launcher was fabricated in basis of the baseline design to investigate the mm-wave propagation properties of the launcher, the manufacturability, the cooling line management, how to assemble the components and so on. The mock-up consists of one of three mm-wave transmission sets and one of eight waveguide lines can deliver the mm-wave power. The mock-up was connected to the ITER compatible transmission line and the 170GHz gyrotron and the high power experiment was carried out. The measured radiation pattern of the beam at the location of 2.5m away from the EL mock-up shows the successful steering capability of 20°∼40°. It was also revealed that the radiated profile at both steering and fixed focusing mirror agreed with the calculation. The result also suggests that some unwanted modes are included in the radiated beam. Transmission of 0.5MW-0.4sec and of 0.12MW-50sec were also demonstrated.

  13. Invited Article: Dielectric material characterization techniques and designs of high-Q resonators for applications from micro to millimeter-waves frequencies applicable at room and cryogenic temperatures

    Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Fan, Y.; Humbert, Georges; Shan, Qingxiao; Férachou, Denis; Bara-Maillet, Romain; Aubourg, Michel; Hartnett, John G.; Madrangeas, Valerie; Cros, Dominique; Blondy, Jean-Marc; Krupka, Jerzy; Tobar, Michael E.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric resonators are key elements in many applications in micro to millimeter wave circuits, including ultra-narrow band filters and frequency-determining components for precision frequency synthesis. Distributed-layered and bulk low-loss crystalline and polycrystalline dielectric structures have become very important for building these devices. Proper design requires careful electromagnetic characterization of low-loss material properties. This includes exact simulation with precision numerical software and precise measurements of resonant modes. For example, we have developed the Whispering Gallery mode technique for microwave applications, which has now become the standard for characterizing low-loss structures. This paper will give some of the most common characterization techniques used in the micro to millimeter wave regime at room and cryogenic temperatures for designing high-Q dielectric loaded cavities.

  14. Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Observation Period (RCS-IOP) millimeter-wave radar calibration and data intercomparison

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    During April 1994, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) fielded two millimeter-wave atmospheric radars in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operation Period (RCS-IOP) experiment. The UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) operates simultaneously at 33.12 GHz and 94.92 GHz through a single antenna. The Penn State radar operates at 93.95 GHz and has separate transmitting and receiving antennas. The two systems were separated by approximately 75 meters and simultaneously observed a variety of cloud types at verticle incidence over the course of the experiment. This abstract presents some initial results from our calibration efforts. An absolute calibration of the UMass radar was made from radar measurements of a trihedral corner reflector, which has a known radar cross-section. A relative calibration of between the Penn State and UMass radars is made from the statistical comparison of zenith pointing measurements of low altitude liquid clouds. Attenuation is removed with the aid of radiosonde data, and the difference in the calibration between the UMass and Penn State radars is determined by comparing the ratio of 94-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity values to a model that accounts for parallax effects of the two antennas used in the Penn State system.

  15. Assessment of risks of EMI for personal medical electronic devices (PMEDs) from emissions of millimeter-wave security screening systems

    Witters, Donald; Bassen, Howard; Guag, Joshua; Addissie, Bisrat; LaSorte, Nickolas; Rafai, Hazem

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes research and testing of a representative group of high priority body worn and implantable personal medical electronic devices (PMEDs) for exposure to millimeter wave (MMW) advanced imaging technology (AIT) security systems used at airports. The sample PMEDs included in this study were implantable cardiac pacemakers, ICDs, neurostimulators and insulin pumps. These PMEDs are designed and tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI) under the present standards for medical device electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). However, the present standards for medical equipment do not address exposure to the much higher frequency fields that are emitted by MMW security systems. Initial AIT emissions measurements were performed to assess the PMED and passenger exposures. Testing protocols were developed and testing methods were tailored to the type of PMED. In addition, a novel exposure simulation system was developed to allow controlled EMC testing without the need of the MMW AIT system. Methodology, test results, and analysis are presented, along with an assessment of the human exposure and risks for PMED users. The results on this study reveal no effects on the medical devices from the exposure to the MMW security system. Furthermore, the human exposure measurements and analysis showed levels well below applicable standard, and the risks for PMED users and others we assessed to be very low. These findings apply to the types of PMEDs used in the study though these findings might suggest that the risks for other, similar PMEDs would likely be similar.

  16. Effect of millimeter-wave irradiation on cation interdiffusion in the calcium titanate/strontium titanate ceramic couple

    Interdiffusion between the perovskite CaTiO3 and SrTiO3 diffusion couple was investigated in an annealing method using 24-GHz MMW irradiation as the heating source. Interdiffusion was enhanced by MMW irradiation, and the apparent activation energy for interdiffusion decreased 54%, compared with conventional furnace heating. The intrinsic diffusions for both Ca2+ and Sr2+ were also enhanced, although their relative degrees of enhancement differed, partly as a result of differences in MMW absorptivity between the two ceramics. The observed isothermal diffusion enhancement could be ascribed to a nonthermal effect, apart from the differential degree of enhancement between the transport species. - Highlights: ► Interdiffusion was enhanced by MMW (millimeter-wave) irradiation. ► At the same time the apparent activation energy decreased. ► The enhancement degrees were different between the transport species. ► The observed diffusion enhancement can be ascribed to a nonthermal effect. ► MMW irradiation could be an effective means of preparing novel complex oxides

  17. Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Karen; Trchounian, Armen

    2016-06-01

    Millimeter waves (MMW) or electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies at low intensity is a new environmental factor, the level of which is increased as technology advance. It is of interest that bacteria and other cells might communicate with each other by electromagnetic field of sub-extremely high frequency range. These MMW affected Escherichia coli and many other bacteria, mainly depressing their growth and changing properties and activity. These effects were non-thermal and depended on different factors. The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The effects might have applications in the development of technique, therapeutic practices, and food protection technology. PMID:27087527

  18. Effect of millimeter-wave irradiation on cation interdiffusion in the calcium titanate/strontium titanate ceramic couple

    Kishimoto, Akira, E-mail: kishim-a@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Division of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kamakura, Yukari; Teranishi, Takashi; Hayashi, Hidetaka [Division of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Interdiffusion between the perovskite CaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} diffusion couple was investigated in an annealing method using 24-GHz MMW irradiation as the heating source. Interdiffusion was enhanced by MMW irradiation, and the apparent activation energy for interdiffusion decreased 54%, compared with conventional furnace heating. The intrinsic diffusions for both Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} were also enhanced, although their relative degrees of enhancement differed, partly as a result of differences in MMW absorptivity between the two ceramics. The observed isothermal diffusion enhancement could be ascribed to a nonthermal effect, apart from the differential degree of enhancement between the transport species. - Highlights: ► Interdiffusion was enhanced by MMW (millimeter-wave) irradiation. ► At the same time the apparent activation energy decreased. ► The enhancement degrees were different between the transport species. ► The observed diffusion enhancement can be ascribed to a nonthermal effect. ► MMW irradiation could be an effective means of preparing novel complex oxides.

  19. High temperature millimeter wave radiometric and interferometric measurements of slag-refractory interaction for application to coal gasifiers

    McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2011-09-17

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments) such as in slagging coal gasifiers, where sensors have been identified as a key enabling technology need for process optimization. We present a state-of-the-art dual-channel MMW heterodyne radiometer with active interferometric capability that allows simultaneous radiometric measurements of sample temperature, emissivity, and flow dynamics to over 1873 K. Interferometric capability is supplied via a probe signal originating from the 137 GHz radiometer local oscillator (LO). The interferometric 'video' channels allow measurement of additional parameters simultaneously, such as volume expansion, thickness change, and slag viscosity along with temperature or emissivity. This capability has been used to demonstrate measurement of temperature and simulated coal slag infiltration into a chromia refractory brick sample as well as slag flow down a vertically placed refractory brick. Observed phenomena include slag melting and slumping, slag reboil and foam with oxygen evolution, and eventual failure of the alumina crucible through corrosion by the molten slag. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters from operating slagging coal gasifiers, providing valuable information for process efficiency, control, and increased productivity.

  20. High power millimeter wave experiment of torus diamond window prototype for ITER EC H and CD system

    Highlights: ► The diamond window prototype was fabricated based on the reliable and manufacturable design. ► Transmission of 740 kW-100 s on the window prototype was successfully demonstrated. ► tan δ = 7.8 × 10−6, which was the lowest value that we had ever obtained at JAEA, was evaluated. ► The window structure promising the high power transmission more than 1 MW was obtained. -- Abstract: The design of the torus diamond window for the ITER electron cyclotron heating and current drive (EC H and CD) system has advanced considering a reliable and manufacturable structure. The diamond window prototype was fabricated based on the design and the high power experiment was carried out to verify the millimeter wave transmission capability. Transmission of 740 kW-100 s was demonstrated and no significant temperature increase of the window structure and no damage on the diamond disk were obtained. The temperature saturation of the cooling water for the window was observed and loss tangent of 7.8 × 10−6, which was the lowest value that we had ever obtained at JAEA, was evaluated. This result indicates that the diamond window design is feasible and promising the high power more than 1 MW transmission

  1. Diamond Based DDR IMPATTs: Prospects and Potentiality as Millimeter-Wave Source at 94 GHz Atmospheric Window

    A. Acharyya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-signal simulation is carried out in this paper to investigate the prospects and potentiality of Double-Drift Region (DDR Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT device based on semiconducting type-IIb diamond as millimeter-wave source operating at 94 GHz atmospheric window frequency. Large-signal simulation method developed by the authors and presented in this paper is based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation. The simulation is carried out to obtain the large-signal characteristics such as RF power output, DC to RF conversion efficiency etc. of DDR diamond IMPATT device designed to operate at 94 GHz. The results show that the device is capable of delivering a peak RF power output of 7.01 W with 10.18% DC to RF conversion efficiency for a bias current density of 6.0×10^8 A m^-2 and voltage modulation of 60% at 94 GHz; whereas for the same voltage modulation 94 GHz DDR Si IMPATT can deliver only 693.82 mW RF power with 8.74 efficiency for the bias current density of 3.4×10^8 A m^-2.

  2. Ground-based millimeter-wave observation of stratospheric ClO over Atacama, Chile in the midlatitude Southern Hemisphere

    T. Kuwahara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed ground-based measurements of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO during the summer in 2009 over the Atacama highland, Chile, a new observing site in the mid-latitude region in the Southern Hemisphere by using a millimeter-wave spectroscopic radiometer. The radiometer equipped with a superconducting receiver and a digital Fourier spectrometer is developed by Nagoya University, and the new system provides us high sensitivity and stable performance to measure the very weak ClO lines. The receiver noise temperature of the superconducting receiver is 170 K in DSB. To reveal the diurnal variation of ClO, we retrieved the vertical mixing ratio profiles by the weighted-damped least squares algorithm applied for the spectral data at 203 GHz obtained between 5 and 16 December 2009. The total error on the retrieval is estimated to be 20% to 30% in an altitude range from 40 to 50 km. The amplitude of the diurnal variation is ±33, ±33, and ±36% at 40, 45, and 50 km, respectively. The time variation curve is basically similar to the previous diurnal variation observed in the northern mid-latitude region but there is a tendency that the increasing rate after the sunrise becomes smaller as the altitude increases.

  3. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (CalSat)

    Johnson, Bradley R; Drysdale, Timothy D; Kalman, Andrew; Fujikawa, Steve; Keating, Brian; Kaufman, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact, and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five "tones" with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309 GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB c...

  4. High-frequency millimeter wave absorption of indium-substituted ɛ-Fe2O3 spherical nanoparticles (invited)

    Yoshikiyo, Marie; Namai, Asuka; Nakajima, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Keita; Suemoto, Tohru; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we prepared indium-substituted ɛ-iron oxide (ɛ-InxFe2-xO3) spherical nanoparticles by a combination method of reverse-micelle and sol-gel techniques. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern with Rietveld analysis shows that ɛ-InxFe2-xO3 has an orthorhombic crystal structure (space group: Pna21), and the In3+ ions mainly replace the Fe3+ ions at B site among the four nonequivalent Fe3+ sites (A-D sites). The magnetic measurements show that the coercive field (Hc) at 300 K decreases with increasing x, i.e., Hc = 21.9 kOe (x = 0), 12.2 kOe (x = 0.04), 11.6 kOe (x = 0.09), 7.8 kOe (x = 0.13), and 5.9 kOe (x = 0.18). Millimeter wave absorption was measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, and the decrease of resonance frequency (fr) is observed, i.e., fr = 182 GHz (x = 0), 160 GHz (x = 0.04), 143 GHz (x = 0.09), 123 GHz (x = 0.13), and 110 GHz (x = 0.18). This decrease in the fr value is understood by the decrease of magnetic anisotropy, which is caused by the replacement of Fe3+ (S = 5/2) with nonmagnetic In3+ (S = 0) at B site contributing to the magnetic anisotropy.

  5. The Development of Si and SiGe Technologies for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits

    Ponchak, George E.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    1997-01-01

    Historically, microwave technology was developed by military and space agencies from around the world to satisfy their unique radar, communication, and science applications. Throughout this development phase, the sole goal was to improve the performance of the microwave circuits and components comprising the systems. For example, power amplifiers with output powers of several watts over broad bandwidths, low noise amplifiers with noise figures as low as 3 dB at 94 GHz, stable oscillators with low noise characteristics and high output power, and electronically steerable antennas were required. In addition, the reliability of the systems had to be increased because of the high monetary and human cost if a failure occurred. To achieve these goals, industry, academia and the government agencies supporting them chose to develop technologies with the greatest possibility of surpassing the state of the art performance. Thus, Si, which was already widely used for digital circuits but had material characteristics that were perceived to limit its high frequency performance, was bypassed for a progression of devices starting with GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) and ending with InP Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors (PHEMTs). For each new material or device structure, the electron mobility increased, and therefore, the high frequency characteristics of the device were improved. In addition, ultra small geometry lithographic processes were developed to reduce the gate length to 0.1 pm which further increases the cutoff frequency. The resulting devices had excellent performance through the millimeter-wave spectrum.

  6. High power millimeter wave experiment of torus diamond window prototype for ITER EC H and CD system

    Takahashi, K., E-mail: takahashi.koji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kajiwara, K.; Oda, Y.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Omori, T.; Henderson, M. [ITER Organization, CS90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The diamond window prototype was fabricated based on the reliable and manufacturable design. ► Transmission of 740 kW-100 s on the window prototype was successfully demonstrated. ► tan δ = 7.8 × 10{sup −6}, which was the lowest value that we had ever obtained at JAEA, was evaluated. ► The window structure promising the high power transmission more than 1 MW was obtained. -- Abstract: The design of the torus diamond window for the ITER electron cyclotron heating and current drive (EC H and CD) system has advanced considering a reliable and manufacturable structure. The diamond window prototype was fabricated based on the design and the high power experiment was carried out to verify the millimeter wave transmission capability. Transmission of 740 kW-100 s was demonstrated and no significant temperature increase of the window structure and no damage on the diamond disk were obtained. The temperature saturation of the cooling water for the window was observed and loss tangent of 7.8 × 10{sup −6}, which was the lowest value that we had ever obtained at JAEA, was evaluated. This result indicates that the diamond window design is feasible and promising the high power more than 1 MW transmission.

  7. Comparison of X-Ray, Millimeter Wave, Shearography and Through-Transmission Ultrasonic Methods for Inspection of Honeycomb Composites

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Ryley, A.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Daniels, D.; Kreitinger, N.; Steffes, G.

    2007-03-01

    Honeycomb composites are increasingly finding utility in a variety of environments and applications, such as aircraft structural components, flight control components, radomes, etc. In-service and environmental stresses can produce unwanted flaws that adversely affect the structural integrity and functionality of these composites. These flaws may be in the forms of disbonds, delaminations, impact damage, crushed honeycomb, moisture intrusion, internal cracks, etc. There are several nondestructive testing (NDT) methods that may be used to inspect these composites for the presence and evaluation of these flaws. Such NDT methods include X-ray computed tomography, near-field millimeter wave, shearography, and ultrasonic testing. To assess the capabilities of these methods for honeycomb composite inspection, two honeycomb composites panels were produced with several embedded flaws and missing material primarily representing planar disbonds at various levels within the thickness of the panels and with different shapes. Subsequently, the aforementioned NDT methods were used to produce images of the two panels. This paper presents the results of these investigations and a comparison among the capabilities of these methods.

  8. High efficiency planar and RFIC-based antennas for millimeter-wave communication systems

    Alhalabi, Ramadan A.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation presents the design and measurements of several planar and RFIC-based high efficiency antennas for mm-wave applications. The high-efficiency microstrip-fed endfire angled-dipole antenna is designed mainly for phased-array applications. It is built on both sides of a Teflon substrate ([epsilon]r = 2.2) and allows a wideband feed from the single-ended microstrip line to the differential dipole. The design results in wide radiation patterns for scanning purposes with a gain of a...

  9. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory

    Kogi, Y., E-mail: kogi@fit.ac.jp; Higashi, T.; Matsukawa, S. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-0811 (Japan); Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5202 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  10. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory.

    Kogi, Y; Higashi, T; Matsukawa, S; Mase, A; Kohagura, J; Nagayama, Y; Kawahata, K; Kuwahara, D; Yoshikawa, M

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image. PMID:25430174

  11. Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas

    Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

  12. Doppler Observations with the Millimeter-Wave Clouds Profiling Radar FALCON-I

    Abe, Hideji; Yamazaki, Fumihiro; Yamaguchi, Jun; Kawamura, Youhei; Ohno, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Yuji; Takano, Toshiaki; Takamura, Tamio

    We developed a cloud profiling radar, named FALCON-I, transmitting frequency modulated continuous wave (FM-CW) at 95GHz. The radar can observe vertical radar reflectivity factor of clouds with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. The observation of Doppler velocity is more necessary to know the inside structure of clouds and interaction with aerosol. Doppler velocities of clouds can be obtained from the phase shift of the signal by using double-FFT method. As a result of the observations at Chiba University, Doppler velocities of thin clouds were successfully obtained as well as of bright band, and rainfall.

  13. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  14. Nanoliter liquid characterization by open whispering-gallery mode dielectric resonators at millimeter wave frequencies

    Shaforost, E. N.; Klein, N.; Vitusevich, S. A.; Offenhäusser, A.; Barannik, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    We present an approach for identification and concentration determination of liquids of pico to nanoliter volumes at a frequency of 35 GHz based on a whispering-gallery mode (WGM) dielectric resonator technique. A quasioptical coupling scheme based on dielectric image waveguides was employed to excite high-Q running wave WGMs with uniform azimuthal field distribution in cylindrical sapphire disks with quality factors up to 4×105 at room temperature. Measurement of the liquid induced changes in the resonator quality factor and resonance frequency has been performed for droplets down to 90 pl volume spotted at different positions on the surface of the sapphire disk. We have employed our method for concentration determination of ethanol, glucose, and albumin dissolved in water. Solutions with concentration values well below 10% could be clearly separated from pure water. Our method is promising for the characterization of biological liquids.

  15. ϵ-near-zero (ENZ) graded index quasi-optical devices: steering and splitting millimeter waves

    Graded index ϵ-near-zero (GRIN-ENZ) quasi-optical components such as beam steerers and power splitters are designed, simulated and analyzed. The GRIN-ENZ medium is realized using stacked narrow hollow waveguides whose infinite array shows the first transmission peak at 1.0002 THz. Several GRIN-ENZ beam steerers to channel a normal incident plane wave to different output angles (15, 45, 65 and 80°) with good impedance matching (low reflection) are analytically and numerically demonstrated using planar structures with a thickness of 5λ0 = 1500 μm along the z-axis. Moreover, symmetrical and asymmetrical power splitters are designed with output angles (±45°) and (−80, +35°), respectively. (special issue article)

  16. One millimeter wave interferometer for the measurement of line integral electron density on TFTR

    A two-pass interferometer at 285 GHz has been developed to measure the line-integrated electron density on the horizontal midplane of the Toroidal Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Presently, the interferometer employs a 2 MW solid state source to supply the launch wave, a 2 mm klystron oscillator, and a harmonic mixer to provide a superheterodyne front end. The transmission system consists of 25 meters of C-band rectangular waveguide, adjustable miter bends, and a spherical mirror in the vacuum vessel with a total round trip transmission loss of 21 dB. The interferometer signal-to-noise ratio is greater than or equal to 50 dB. Utilization of a feed-forward tracking system provides long-term stable operation. The interferometer routinely provides real time feedback control for the gas injection system and a permissive for neutral beam operation

  17. A millimeter wave relativistic backward wave oscillator operating in TM{sub 03} mode with low guiding magnetic field

    Ye, Hu; Wu, Ping [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an Shaanxi 710024 (China); Teng, Yan; Chen, Changhua; Ning, Hui; Song, Zhimin; Cao, Yibing [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an Shaanxi 710024 (China)

    2015-06-15

    A V-band overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) guided by low magnetic field and operating on a TM{sub 03} mode is presented to increase both the power handling capacity and the wave-beam interaction conversion efficiency. Trapezoidal slow wave structures (SWSs) with shallow corrugations and long periods are adopted to make the group velocity of TM{sub 03} mode at the intersection point close to zero. The coupling impedance and diffraction Q-factor of the RBWO increase, while the starting current decreases owing to the reduction of the group velocity of TM{sub 03} mode. In addition, the TM{sub 03} mode dominates over the other modes in the startup of the oscillation. Via numerical simulation, the generation of the microwave pulse with an output power of 425 MW and a conversion efficiency of 32% are achieved at 60.5 GHz with an external magnetic field of 1.25 T. This RBWO can provide greater power handling capacity when operating on the TM{sub 03} mode than on the TM{sub 01} mode.

  18. A millimeter wave relativistic backward wave oscillator operating in TM03 mode with low guiding magnetic field

    A V-band overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) guided by low magnetic field and operating on a TM03 mode is presented to increase both the power handling capacity and the wave-beam interaction conversion efficiency. Trapezoidal slow wave structures (SWSs) with shallow corrugations and long periods are adopted to make the group velocity of TM03 mode at the intersection point close to zero. The coupling impedance and diffraction Q-factor of the RBWO increase, while the starting current decreases owing to the reduction of the group velocity of TM03 mode. In addition, the TM03 mode dominates over the other modes in the startup of the oscillation. Via numerical simulation, the generation of the microwave pulse with an output power of 425 MW and a conversion efficiency of 32% are achieved at 60.5 GHz with an external magnetic field of 1.25 T. This RBWO can provide greater power handling capacity when operating on the TM03 mode than on the TM01 mode

  19. Millimeter-wave fixed-tuned subharmonic mixers with planar Schottky diodes

    Yao Changfei; Zhou Ming; Luo Yunsheng; Wang Yigang; Xu Conghai

    2012-01-01

    Two different frequency bandwidth subharmonic mixers (SHM) using planar Schottky mixing diodes are discussed and fabricated.Full-wave analysis is carried out to find the optimum diode embedding impedances with a lumped port for modeling the nonlinear junction.The SHM circuit is divided into several different parts and each part is optimized using the calculated diode impedances.The divided parts are then combined and optimized together.The exported S-parameter files of the global circuit are used for conversion loss (CL) discussion.For the 150 GHz SHM,the lowest measured CL is 10.7 dB at 153 GHz,and typical CL is 12.5 dB in the frequency range of 135-165 GHz.The lowest measured CL of the 180 GHz SHM is 5.8 dB at 240 GHz,and typical CL is 13.5 dB and 11.5 dB in the frequency range of 165-200 GHz and 210-240 GHz,respectively.

  20. Technical overview of the millimeter-wave imaging reflectometer on the DIII-D tokamak (invited)

    Muscatello, C. M., E-mail: cmuscate@ucdavis.edu; Domier, C. W.; Hu, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Ren, X.; Riemenschneider, P.; Spear, A.; Valeo, E.; Yu, L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California Davis, 347 Memorial Un, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Kramer, G. J.; Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The two-dimensional mm-wave imaging reflectometer (MIR) on DIII-D is a multi-faceted device for diagnosing electron density fluctuations in fusion plasmas. Its multi-channel, multi-frequency capabilities and high sensitivity permit visualization and quantitative diagnosis of density perturbations, including correlation length, wavenumber, mode propagation velocity, and dispersion. The two-dimensional capabilities of MIR are made possible with 12 vertically separated sightlines and four-frequency operation (corresponding to four radial channels). The 48-channel DIII-D MIR system has a tunable source that can be stepped in 500 μs increments over a range of 56 to 74 GHz. An innovative optical design keeps both on-axis and off-axis channels focused at the cutoff surface, permitting imaging over an extended poloidal region. The integrity of the MIR optical design is confirmed by comparing Gaussian beam calculations to laboratory measurements of the transmitter beam pattern and receiver antenna patterns. Measurements are presented during the density ramp of a plasma discharge to demonstrate unfocused and focused MIR signals.

  1. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  2. New movable plate for efficient millimeter wave vertical on-chip antenna

    Marnat, Loic

    2013-04-01

    A new movable plate concept is presented in this paper to realize mm-wave vertical on-chip antennas through MEMS based post-processing steps in a CMOS compatible process. By virtue of its vertical position, the antenna is isolated from the lossy Si substrate and hence performs with a better efficiency as compared to the horizontal position. In addition, the movable plate concept enables polarization diversity by providing both horizontal and vertical polarizations on the same chip. Through a first iteration fractal bowtie antenna design, dual band (60 and 77 GHz) operation is demonstrated in both horizontal and vertical positions without any change in dimensions or use of switches for two different mediums (Si and air). To support the movable plate concept, the transmission line and antenna are designed on a flexible polyamide, where the former has been optimized to operate in the bent position. The design is highly suitable for compact, low cost and efficient SoC solutions. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  3. Control of millimeter wave propagation by tailoring the dispersive properties of the medium

    Full Text:We have developed a space - frequency model for the propagation of a high frequency signal A an arbitrary dispersive medium. The model can be solved analytically under certain conditions for a Gaussian pulse, revealing the conditions under which pulse compression or expansion occurs. It can also be shown that under appropriate conditions the delay time of the pulse can be stretched almost indefinitely. By studying a Gaussian pulse propagating in air described by the standard dispersion model of Liebe we were able to shoe, that even in a substance as trivial as standard atmospheric air some of the effects that we predict are pronounced especially for carrier frequencies in the vicinity of the 60 GHz O2 absorption line. In this case the calculations were carried both analytically and numerically. We further discuss how materials and wave-guides might be tailored for a certain pulse characteristics in order to achieve an a priori-defined amount of compression and delay

  4. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    Antonio F. Scannapieco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  5. A dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic mode output

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-04-01

    An overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) mode output is designed and presented, by using a kind of coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with large transversal dimension and small distance between inner and outer conductors. The generator works in dual-mode operation mechanism. The electron beam synchronously interacts with 7π/8 mode of quasi-TEM, at the meanwhile exchanges energy with 3π/8 mode of TM01. The existence of TM01 mode, which is traveling wave, not only increases the beam-wave interaction efficiency but also improves the extraction efficiency. The large transversal dimension of coaxial SWS makes its power capacity higher than that of other reported millimeter-wave devices and the small distance between inner and outer conductors allows only two azimuthally symmetric modes to coexist. The converter after the SWS guarantees the mode purity of output power. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 400 kV and beam current is 3.8 kA, the generation of microwave at 32.26 GHz with an output power of 611 MW and a conversion efficiency of 40% is obtained. The power percentage carried by TEM mode reaches 99.7% in the output power.

  6. Broadband Millimeter-Wave In-Phase and Out-of-Phase Waveguide Dividers with High Isolation

    Dong, Jun; Liu, Yu; Yang, Ziqiang; Peng, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, two novel broadband in-phase and out-of-phase waveguide power dividers with high isolation are presented. Based on the substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) divider and SIW-to-waveguide transition circuit, two kinds of E-plane waveguide dividers have been implemented. Due to the features of in-phase and out-of-phase performances, the proposed waveguide dividers can provide much more flexibilities than that of conventional E-plane waveguide T-junction. A broadband phase and amplitude performances are achieved across the whole Ka-band owing to the wideband characteristic of the SIW divider and transition circuits. To minimize the size and loss of the divider, a compact and low-loss SIW-to-waveguide transition circuit has been developed using the antisymmetric tapered probes. Two prototypes of the Ka-band waveguide dividers, including the in-phase and out-of-phase types, have been fabricated and measured. Measured results show that the isolation, input return loss, output return loss, amplitude imbalance, and phase imbalance of the in-phase divider are better than 15.5, 13.1, 10.8, 0.4 dB, and 3.50, while those of the out-of-phase divider are better than 15.0, 13.4, 10.4, 0.5 dB, and 3.60, respectively, over the frequency range from 26.5 to 40 GHz. The measured results agree well with the simulated ones. Considering their wide bandwidth, high isolation, good port matching performance, and compact configuration, the two types of waveguide dividers can be good candidates for broadband applications in millimeter-wave waveguide systems.

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals the contribution of thermal and the specific effects in cellular response to millimeter wave exposure.

    Denis Habauzit

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency radiations constitute a new form of environmental pollution. Among them, millimeter waves (MMW will be widely used in the near future for high speed communication systems. This study aimed therefore to evaluate the biocompatibility of MMW at 60 GHz. For this purpose, we used a whole gene expression approach to assess the effect of acute 60 GHz exposure on primary cultures of human keratinocytes. Controls were performed to dissociate the electromagnetic from the thermal effect of MMW. Microarray data were validated by RT-PCR, in order to ensure the reproducibility of the results. MMW exposure at 20 mW/cm2, corresponding to the maximum incident power density authorized for public use (local exposure averaged over 1 cm2, led to an increase of temperature and to a strong modification of keratinocyte gene expression (665 genes differentially expressed. Nevertheless, when temperature is artificially maintained constant, no modification in gene expression was observed after MMW exposure. However, a heat shock control did not mimic exactly the MMW effect, suggesting a slight but specific electromagnetic effect under hyperthermia conditions (34 genes differentially expressed. By RT-PCR, we analyzed the time course of the transcriptomic response and 7 genes have been validated as differentially expressed: ADAMTS6, NOG, IL7R, FADD, JUNB, SNAI2 and HIST1H1A. Our data evidenced a specific electromagnetic effect of MMW, which is associated to the cellular response to hyperthermia. This study raises the question of co-exposures associating radiofrequencies and other environmental sources of cellular stress.

  8. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (CalSat)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Vourch, Clement J.; Drysdale, Timothy D.; Kalman, Andrew; Fujikawa, Steve; Keating, Brian; Kaufman, Jon

    2015-10-01

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five “tones” with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB community and (iii) the Amateur Satellite Service bands in the Table of Frequency Allocations used by the Federal Communications Commission. CalSat would be placed in a polar orbit allowing visibility from observatories in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Summit Station in Greenland, and the Southern Hemisphere, such as the Atacama Desert in Chile and the South Pole. CalSat also would be observable by balloon-borne instruments launched from a range of locations around the world. This global visibility makes CalSat the only source that can be observed by all terrestrial and sub-orbital observatories, thereby providing a universal standard that permits comparison between experiments using appreciably different measurement approaches.

  9. Modulation of neuronal activity and plasma membrane properties with low-power millimeter waves in organotypic cortical slices

    Pikov, Victor; Arakaki, Xianghong; Harrington, Michael; Fraser, Scott E.; Siegel, Peter H.

    2010-08-01

    As millimeter waves (MMWs) are being increasingly used in communications and military applications, their potential effects on biological tissue has become an important issue for scientific inquiry. Specifically, several MMW effects on the whole-nerve activity were reported, but the underlying neuronal changes remain unexplored. This study used slices of cortical tissue to evaluate the MMW effects on individual pyramidal neurons under conditions mimicking their in vivo environment. The applied levels of MMW power are three orders of magnitude below the existing safe limit for human exposure of 1 mW cm-2. Surprisingly, even at these low power levels, MMWs were able to produce considerable changes in neuronal firing rate and plasma membrane properties. At the power density approaching 1 µW cm-2, 1 min of MMW exposure reduced the firing rate to one third of the pre-exposure level in four out of eight examined neurons. The width of the action potentials was narrowed by MMW exposure to 17% of the baseline value and the membrane input resistance decreased to 54% of the baseline value across all neurons. These effects were short lasting (2 min or less) and were accompanied by MMW-induced heating of the bath solution at 3 °C. Comparison of these results with previously published data on the effects of general bath heating of 10 °C indicated that MMW-induced effects cannot be fully attributed to heating and may involve specific MMW absorption by the tissue. Blocking of the intracellular Ca2+-mediated signaling did not significantly alter the MMW-induced neuronal responses suggesting that MMWs interacted directly with the neuronal plasma membrane. The presented results constitute the first demonstration of direct real-time monitoring of the impact of MMWs on nervous tissue at a microscopic scale. Implication of these findings for the therapeutic modulation of neuronal excitability is discussed.

  10. Millimeter wave radar system on a rotating platform for combined search and track functionality with SAR imaging

    Aulenbacher, Uwe; Rech, Klaus; Sedlmeier, Johannes; Pratisto, Hans; Wellig, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Ground based millimeter wave radar sensors offer the potential for a weather-independent automatic ground surveillance at day and night, e.g. for camp protection applications. The basic principle and the experimental verification of a radar system concept is described, which by means of an extreme off-axis positioning of the antenna(s) combines azimuthal mechanical beam steering with the formation of a circular-arc shaped synthetic aperture (SA). In automatic ground surveillance the function of search and detection of moving ground targets is performed by means of the conventional mechanical scan mode. The rotated antenna structure designed as a small array with two or more RX antenna elements with simultaneous receiver chains allows to instantaneous track multiple moving targets (monopulse principle). The simultaneously operated SAR mode yields areal images of the distribution of stationary scatterers. For ground surveillance application this SAR mode is best suited for identifying possible threats by means of change detection. The feasibility of this concept was tested by means of an experimental radar system comprising of a 94 GHz (W band) FM-CW module with 1 GHz bandwidth and two RX antennas with parallel receiver channels, placed off-axis at a rotating platform. SAR mode and search/track mode were tested during an outdoor measurement campaign. The scenery of two persons walking along a road and partially through forest served as test for the capability to track multiple moving targets. For SAR mode verification an image of the area composed of roads, grassland, woodland and several man-made objects was reconstructed from the measured data.

  11. Rotational study of the CH4–CO complex: Millimeter-wave measurements and ab initio calculations

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex CH4–CO has been measured with the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 110–145 GHz. Newly observed and assigned transitions belong to the K = 2–1 subband correlating with the rotationless jCH4 = 0 ground state and the K = 2–1 and K = 0–1 subbands correlating with the jCH4 = 2 excited state of free methane. The (approximate) quantum number K is the projection of the total angular momentum J on the intermolecular axis. The new data were analyzed together with the known millimeter-wave and microwave transitions in order to determine the molecular parameters of the CH4–CO complex. Accompanying ab initio calculations of the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of CH4–CO have been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] and an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The global minimum of the five-dimensional PES corresponds to an approximately T-shaped structure with the CH4 face closest to the CO subunit and binding energy De = 177.82 cm−1. The bound rovibrational levels of the CH4–CO complex were calculated for total angular momentum J = 0–6 on this intermolecular potential surface and compared with the experimental results. The calculated dissociation energies D0 are 91.32, 94.46, and 104.21 cm−1 for A (jCH4 = 0), F (jCH4 = 1), and E (jCH4 = 2) nuclear spin modifications of CH4–CO, respectively

  12. Low-power millimeter wave radiations do not alter stress-sensitive gene expression of chaperone proteins.

    Zhadobov, M; Sauleau, R; Le Coq, L; Debure, L; Thouroude, D; Michel, D; Le Dréan, Y

    2007-04-01

    This article reports experimental results on the influence of low-power millimeter wave (MMW) radiation at 60 GHz on a set of stress-sensitive gene expression of molecular chaperones, namely clusterin (CLU) and HSP70, in a human brain cell line. Selection of the exposure frequency is determined by its near-future applications for the new broadband civil wireless communication systems including wireless local area networks (WLAN) for domestic and professional uses. Frequencies around 60 GHz are strongly attenuated in the earth's atmosphere and such radiations represent a new environmental factor. An exposure system operating in V-band (50-75 GHz) was developed for cell exposure. U-251 MG glial cell line was sham-exposed or exposed to MMW radiation for different durations (1-33 h) and two different power densities (5.4 microW/cm(2) or 0.54 mW/cm(2)). As gene expression is a multiple-step process, we analyzed chaperone proteins induction at different levels. First, using luciferase reporter gene, we investigated potential effect of MMWs on the activation of transcription factors (TFs) and gene promoter activity. Next, using RT-PCR and Western blot assays, we verified whether MMW exposure could alter RNA accumulation, translation, or protein stability. Experimental data demonstrated the absence of significant modifications in gene transcription, mRNA, and protein amount for the considered stress-sensitive genes for the exposure durations and power densities investigated. The main results of this study suggest that low-power 60 GHz radiation does not modify stress-sensitive gene expression of chaperone proteins. PMID:17080454

  13. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters

    Johnson, Bradley

    2016-06-01

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact, and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five "tones'" with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309 GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB community, and (iii) The Amateur Satellite Service bands in the Table of Frequency Allocations used by the Federal Communications Commission. CalSat will be placed in a polar orbit allowing visibility from observatories in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Mauna~Kea in Hawaii and Summit Station in Greenland, and the Southern Hemisphere, such as the Atacama Desert in Chile and the South Pole. CalSat also will be observable by balloon-borne instruments launched from a range of locations around the world. This global visibility makes CalSat the only source that can be observed by all terrestrial and sub-orbital observatories, thereby providing a universal standard that permits comparison between experiments using appreciably different measurement approaches.

  14. The CARMA Paired Antenna Calibration System: Atmospheric Phase Correction for Millimeter Wave Interferometry and its Application to Mapping the Ultraluminous Galaxy Arp 193

    Zauderer, B Ashley; Vogel, Stuart N; Carpenter, John M; Peréz, Laura M; Lamb, James W; Woody, David P; Bock, Douglas C -J; Carlstrom, John E; Culverhouse, Thomas L; Curley, Roger; Leitch, Erik M; Plambeck, Richard L; Pound, Marc W; Marrone, Daniel P; Muchovej, Stephen J; Mundy, Lee G; Teng, Stacy H; Teuben, Peter J; Volgenau, Nikolaus H; Wright, Melvyn C H; Wu, Dalton

    2014-01-01

    Phase fluctuations introduced by the atmosphere are the main limiting factor in attaining diffraction limited performance in extended interferometric arrays at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We report the results of C-PACS, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Paired Antenna Calibration System. We present a systematic study of several hundred test observations taken during the 2009-2010 winter observing season where we utilize CARMA's eight 3.5-m antennas to monitor an atmospheric calibrator while simultaneously acquiring science observations with 6.1-m and 10.4-m antennas on baselines ranging from a few hundred meters to ~2 km. We find that C-PACS is systematically successful at improving coherence on long baselines under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We find that the angular separation between the atmospheric calibrator and target source is the most important consideration, with consistently successful phase correction at CARMA requiring a suitable calibrator locate...

  15. Design, Analysis, and Characterization of Metamaterial Quasi-Optical Components for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar

    Nguyen, Vinh Ngoc

    metamaterials show material properties closely matching those predicted by full-wave simulations. Due to the high losses associated with resonant metamaterials, I shift my focus to non-resonant metamaterials. I discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of non-resonant metamaterials for fabrication on multilayer LCP printed circuit boards (PCBs). I then use these non-resonant metamaterials in a W-band planar metamaterial GRIN lens. Radiation pattern measurements show that this lens functions as a strong collimating element. Using similar lens design methods, I design a metamaterial GRIN lens from polytetrafluoroethylene-based (PTFE-based) non-resonant metamaterials. This GRIN lens is designed to match a target dielectric lens's radiation characteristics across a +/-6° field of view. Measurements at automotive radar frequencies show that this lens has approximately the same radiation characteristics as the target lens across the desired field of view. Finally, I describe the development of electrically reconfigurable metamaterials using thin-film silicon semiconductors. These silicon-based reconfigurable metamaterials were developed in close collaboration with several other researchers. My major contribution to the development of these reconfigurable metamaterials consisted of the initial metamaterial design. The Jokerst research group fabricated this initial design while TRI-NA characterized the fabricated metamaterial experimentally. Measurements showed approximately 8% variation in transmission under a 5 Volt DC bias. This variation in transmission closely matched the variation in transmission predicted by coupled electronic-electromagnetic simulation run by Yaroslav Urzhumov, one of other contributors to the development of the reconfigurable metamaterial.

  16. Millimeter wave and terahertz spectra and global fit of torsion-rotation transitions in the ground, first and second excited torsional states of 13CH3OH methanol

    Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, R. M.; Hao, Yun; Müller, H. S. P.; Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F.; Schlemmer, S.; Menten, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Methanol is observed in a wide range of astrophysical sources throughout the universe, and comprehensive databases of the millimeter and THz spectra of CH3OH and its principal isotopologues represent important tools for the astronomical community. A previous combined analysis of microwave and millimeter wave spectra of 13CH3OH together with Fourier transform far-infrared spectra was limited to the first two torsional states, νt = 0 and 1, for J values up to 20. The limits on frequency and quantum number coverage have recently been extended by new millimeter and THz measurements on several different spectrometers in the Cologne laboratory in the frequency windows 34-70 GHz, 75-120 GHz, 240-340 GHz, 360-450 GHz and 1.12-1.50 THz. With the new data, the global treatment has now been expanded to include the first three torsional states for J values up to 30. The current 13CH3OH data set contains about 2300 microwave, millimeter-wave, sub-millimeter and THz lines and about 17,100 Fourier-transform far-infrared lines, representing the most recent available information in the quantum number ranges J ⩽ 30, K ⩽ 13 and νt ⩽ 2. The transitions have been successfully fitted to within the assigned measurement uncertainties of ±50 kHz for most of the frequency-measured (i.e. MW, MMW, Sub-MMW, THz) lines and ±6 MHz for the FIR lines. A convergent global fit was achieved using 103 adjustable parameters to reach an overall weighted standard deviation of 1.37. Our new C-13 methanol database is improved substantially compared to the existing one (Li-Hong et al., 1997), and will be available in the Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS (http://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/cdms/), in support of astronomical studies associated with results from HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared) on the Herschel Space Observatory and new observations from SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) and ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array).

  17. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  18. THE EFFECT INDUCED BY MILLIMETER WAVES WITH THE FREQUENCY 53.33 GHZ ON SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE CNMN-Y-18 YEAST STRAIN

    Agafia Usatîi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves on the biosynthetic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-18 yeast strain in dependence on the duration of irradiation was studied. The maximum amount of biomass, protein, carbohydrates, mannoproteins and catalase has been showed to accumulate when the yeast cells were irradiated with a frequency f = 53.33 GHz for 10 minutes. High degree of dependence between the content of cellular components (a correlation coefficient between R2 = 0.875 and 0.926 it has been shown which demonstrates that biosynthetic processes were influenced by the same phenomenon - millimeter waves. A procedure for increasing of mannoprotein content in yeasts with the utilization of extremely high frequency waves has been proposed in this study.

  19. A Multifrequency Notch Filter for Millimeter Wave Plasma Diagnostics based on Photonic Bandgaps in Corrugated Circular Waveguides

    Wagner D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive millimeter wave diagnostics need often to be protected against unwanted radiation like, for example, stray radiation from high power Electron Cyclotron Heating applied in nuclear fusion plasmas. A notch filter based on a waveguide Bragg reflector (photonic band-gap may provide several stop bands of defined width within up to two standard waveguide frequency bands. A Bragg reflector that reflects an incident fundamental TE11 into a TM1n mode close to cutoff is combined with two waveguide tapers to fundamental waveguide diameter. Here the fundamental TE11 mode is the only propagating mode at both ends of the reflector. The incident TE11 mode couples through the taper and is converted to the high order TM1n mode by the Bragg structure at the specific Bragg resonances. The TM1n mode is trapped in the oversized waveguide section by the tapers. Once reflected at the input taper it will be converted back into the TE11 mode which then can pass through the taper. Therefore at higher order Bragg resonances, the filter acts as a reflector for the incoming TE11 mode. Outside of the Bragg resonances the TE11 mode can propagate through the oversized waveguide structure with only very small Ohmic attenuation compared to propagating in a fundamental waveguide. Coupling to other modes is negligible in the non-resonant case due to the small corrugation amplitude (typically 0.05·λ0, where λ0 is the free space wavelength. A Bragg reflector for 105 and 140 GHz was optimized by mode matching (scattering matrix simulations and manufactured by SWISSto12 SA, where the required mechanical accuracy of ± 5 μm could be achieved by stacking stainless steel rings, manufactured by micro-machining, in a high precision guiding pipe. The two smooth-wall tapers were fabricated by electroforming. Several measurements were performed using vector network analyzers from Agilent (E8362B, ABmm (MVNA 8-350 and Rohde&Schwarz (ZVA24 together with frequency multipliers. The

  20. Changes of mouse cytokines and Th1/Th2 balance in acute stress induced by millimeter-wave

    Rong SUN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the regular pattern of variation of cytokines, especially the Th1/Th2 cytokines, and its effect on immune balance in stress induced by 35GHz millimeter-wave (MMW exposure in mice. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to 420mW/cm2, 35GHz MMW for 60s, and the dorsal skin temperature was real-time monitored with infrared monitor during the period of exposure. Peripheral WBC, thymic and splenic indexes of mice were detected at different time points after MMW exposure. Meanwhile, the contents of serum IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and Th1/Th2 cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4 were analyzed by ELISA. Results The temperature of ear auricle rapidly increased to 50℃ after initiation of exposure, and continuously rose to about 60℃ at 50s to 60s. Peripheral WBC and lymphocytes showed transient reduction at 6h and restored to the control level from 1 to 7d after radiation exposure. Compared with control group, thymus index displayed a transient increase at 6h and thereafter decreased, and then diminished to which significantly lower than control level 7d after radiation exposure. However, spleen index increased significantly on day 3 and day 7 after radiation exposure. Peripheral IL-1β levels immediately increased to the maximum at 6h and decreased to the minimum at 1d (P<0.05, then gradually recovered to control level during 3d and 7d after radiation exposure. However, IL-6 level displayed a significant increment from 6h to 3d, and increased to peak value at 1d and still obviously higher than that of control group up to 7d (P<0.05 after radiation exposure. Simultaneously, Th1/Th2 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 both increased to the maximal at 3d and still significantly higher than those of control group at 7d (P<0.01 after radiation exposure. Ratios of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4 evidently raised to 1.34 and 1.66 times of control values at 1d and 3d respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions 35GHz MMW exposure can induce obvious thermal effects in mice, and serum