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Sample records for acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF HOSPITAL ACQUIRED METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Preethi. B.M; J.Vimalin Hena

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. The MRSA can cause a wide range of diseases, which is associated with its production to large number of extracellular toxins and other virulence factors. The diseases are toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome and food poisoning. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) in persons who have had frequent or recent contact with hospitals or healthcare facilities within the prev...

  2. Postpartum Mastitis and Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Reddy, Pavani; Qi, Chao; Zembower, Teresa; Noskin, Gary A.; Bolon, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    This single-center, case-control study documents a relative increase in methicillin resistance among 48 cases of Staphylococcus aureus–associated postpartum mastitis during 1998–2005. Of 21 cases with methicillin resistance, 17 (81%) occurred in 2005. Twenty (95%) isolates contained the Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec type IV gene; this suggests that the increase is due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus": Considerations for School Nurses

    Alex, Aniltta; Letizia, MariJo

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is a disease-causing organism that has been present in hospital settings since the 1960s. However, a genetically distinct strain of MRSA, called community-acquired methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA), has emerged in recent years in community settings among healthy…

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF HOSPITAL ACQUIRED METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Preethi. B.M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains have emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. The MRSA can cause a wide range of diseases, which is associated with its production to large number of extracellular toxins and other virulence factors. The diseases are toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome and food poisoning. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA in persons who have had frequent or recent contact with hospitals or healthcare facilities within the previous year, has recently undergone an invasive medical procedure, or is immunocompromised. Mostly HA-MRSA are transmitted most frequently through direct skin-to-skin contact or contact with shared items or surfaces that have come into contact with someone else’s colonized or infected skin. Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL is a biocomponent toxin has been shown to induce lysis of host defence cells. The absence of the PVL gene confirms the MRSA as HA-MRSA. Slime layer plays a remarkable role in bacterial colonization of exterior surfaces by adhesion and production of slime factor plays an important role in antibiotic resistance. Beta lactamases render bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics by hydrolyzing the beta lactam ring of penicillin’s and cephalosporins.There is a linear correlation between beta-lactamase activity and the level of resistance of bacteria to penicillins. The phage groups II and III were present in hospital acquired MRSA which colonizes on the normal skin and enter the body through cut/wound or by fracture and cause osteomyelitis and bacterial arthritis. Bacteriophage typing of MRSA strains is an epidemiological marker and is a successful method in strain characterization.

  5. Emerging Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Pneumonia

    Dragana Orlovic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been an important nosocomial pathogen worldwide for more than four decades. Community-acquired MRSA infections, generally occurring in previously healthy persons without recognizable risk factors for health care setting-related MRSA, are emerging as serious clinical and public health concerns. The most frequent of these community-based infections include skin and soft tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonias. A majority of causative community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA isolates are associated with genes that encode the virulence factor, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL toxin. Aims & Objectives: To describe six cases of CA-MRSA pneumonia recently admitted to our community hospital in Florida, and discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of these expanding infections. Methods/Study Design: The medical records of six patients with radiographically-confirmed pneumonia and positive sputum cultures for MRSA at the time of hospitalization at the Lawnwood Regional Medical Center and Heart Institute, Fort Pierce, Florida, from December 2006 through January 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were seen by one of the authors (DO, an infectious diseases consultant. Lawnwood Regional Medical Center is a 341-bed, acute care institution and regional referral center for four counties of Treasure Coast, FL. The hospital institution review board gave permission for this study. Results/Findings: Six patients (5 men, 1 woman with CA-MRSA pneumonia were identified. The mean patient age was 57 years (range, 32-79 years. Three patients had no history of previous hospital admission, while two patients had been last hospitalized two years prior to the study admission. Three elderly patients had known co-morbidities predisposing to pneumonia including carcinoma of the lung (2 patients, and cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, COPD, and cardiomyopathy (1

  6. An Outbreak of Community-Acquired Foodborne Illness Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Jones, Timothy F.; Kellum, Molly E.; Porter, Susan S.; Bell, Michael; Schaffner, William

    2002-01-01

    Infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are increasingly community acquired. We investigated an outbreak in which a food handler, food specimen, and three ill patrons were culture positive for the same toxin-producing strain of MRSA. This is the first report of an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by community-acquired MRSA.

  7. Comparative Molecular Analysis of Community- or Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Fey, P. D.; Saïd-Salim, B.; Rupp, M. E.; Hinrichs, S H; Boxrud, D. J.; Davis, C C; Kreiswirth, B N; Schlievert, P M

    2003-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a growing public health concern that has been associated with pediatric fatalities. It is hypothesized that the evolution of CA-MRSA is a recent event due to the acquisition of mec DNA by previously methicillin-susceptible strains that circulated in the community. This study investigated the genetic relatedness between CA-MRSA, hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), and nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome (nmTSS) isolates....

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Community Acquired and Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    P R, Vysakh; M, Jeya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance against most of the therapeutic agents. The most notable example of this phenomenon was the emergence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We are reporting the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates from a tertiary care hospital.

  9. Acute haematogenous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in an adult: Case report and review of literature

    Dhanoa Amreeta; Singh Vivek; Mansor Azura; Yusof Mohd; Lim King-Ting; Thong Kwai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has of late emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections among immunocompetent adults without risk factors. Skin and soft tissue infections represent the majority of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clinical presentations, whilst invasive and life-threatening illness like necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis, osteomyelitis and sepsis syndrome are less comm...

  10. Prevalence and invasiveness of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A meta-analysis

    Shipeng Li; Juan Li; Yanhong Qiao; Xue Ning; Ting Zeng; Xuzhuang Shen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reports suggest that the prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has increased, and that CA-MRSA is more virulent than healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA. Aims: The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the invasiveness and prevalence of CA-MRSA in patients; we systematically reviewed the literature by conducting a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and PUBMED databases from the year these data...

  11. Facet joint septic arthritis due to community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - A case report.

    Purushothaman, Rajesh; Inassi, Jojo; Marthya, Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Septic arthritis of facet joint (SAFJ) is extremely rare. Only about sixty cases have been reported so far. A single case of SAFJ in a series of 491 cases of spinal infections was first reported by David-Chaussé in 1981. A case report of SAFJ was published by Halpin in 1987. With the growing availability and use of MRI, more and more cases are being reported. The most common organism that causes SAFJ is Staphylococcus aureus. We are reporting a case of SAFJ caused by community acquired, methicillin resistant S aureus (MRSA) successfully treated by Linezolid. PMID:26719620

  12. Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pyogenic community and hospital acquired skin and soft tissues infections

    Objective: To determine the percentage and frequency of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community and hospital-acquired pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dermatology Department of Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad, from June 2009 to March 2010, and comprised 144 community-acquired and 54 hospital-acquired skin and soft tissue infections. Pus swabs from the infected lesions one from each individual were sent to laboratory for culture and sensitivity tests. Methicillin resistance was detected by 1 (mu) g oxacillin disk. Organisms were labelled methicillin-resistant once the inhibition zone for oxocillin was less than 10 mm. Data analysis was done by using SPSS 20. Results: Of the 198 patients in the study, 98(49.5%) were males and 100(50.5%) were females, with an overall mean age of 33.7+-14.8144 years. There were 144(72.72%) community-acquired infections and 54(27.27%) had hospital-acquired infections. Community-acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus numbered 40(27.8%) and hospital-acquired ones numbered 26(48.1%). Conclusion: Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community and hospital-acquired pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections was high. (author)

  13. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pyomyositis with myelitis: A rare occurrence with diverse presentation

    Kulkarni Girish

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial pathogen implicated in pyomyositis. There are increasing reports of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infections. The present case report brings out the diverse clinical manifestations of MRSA infection in the form of paraspinal pyomyositis, myelitis, spinal osteomyelitis, and pneumonia. Molecular typing of the organism confirmed the diagnosis. Patient was successfully treated with vancomycin and surgical drainage. Consideration of the possibility of methicillin-resistance and appropriate antibiotic selection is vital in the treatment of serious community-acquired staphylococcal infections.

  14. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: What do we need to know?

    Witte, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a matter of concern worldwide, in particular in the USA. For the analysis of emergence and spread, clear definitions based on epidemiological origin are needed for discrimination between CA-MRSA, healthcare-associated community MRSA, and healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). Although its role in pathogenesis is currently under debate, the capability for Panton-Valentine leukocidin formation is associated wit...

  15. Successful reduction of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a urology ward: a 10-year study

    Tatokoro, Manabu; Kihara, Kazunori; Masuda, Hitoshi; Ito, Masaya; Yoshida, Soichiro; Kijima, Toshiki; Yokoyama, Minato; Saito, Kazutaka; Koga, Fumitaka; Kawakami, Satoru; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Background To eradicate hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a stepwise infection control strategy that includes an avoidance of antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) based on surgical wound classification and an improvement in operative procedures in gasless single-port urologic surgery. Methods The study was conducted at an 801-bed university hospital. Since 2001, in the urology ward, we have introduced the stepwise infection control strategy. In 2007, survei...

  16. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Malaysian tertiary centre.

    Rashid, Zetti Zainol; Bahari, Norazlah; Othman, Amizah; Jaafar, Roslinda; Mohamed, Nurul Azmawati; Jabbari, Idimaz; Sulong, Anita; Hashim, Rohaidah; Ahmad, Norazah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a pathogen recognized to be distinct in both phenotype and genotype from hospital-acquired MRSA. We have identified CA-MRSA cases in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, including their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genotypic characteristics. Cases were identified during January to December 2009 from routine clinical specimens, where culture and antibiotic susceptibility results yielded pauci-resistant MRSA isolates suspected as being CA-MRSA. The patients' clinical data were collected and their specimens were sent for molecular confirmation and analysis. Five cases of CA-MRSA were identified, which had a multi-sensitive pattern on antibiotic susceptibility tests and were resistant to only penicillin and oxacillin. All cases were skin and soft-tissue infections, including diabetic foot with gangrene, infected scalp hematoma, philtrum abscess in a healthcare worker, thrombophlebitis complicated with abscess and infected bedsore. All five cases were confirmed MRSA by detection of mecA. SCCmec typing (ccr and mec complex) revealed SCCmec type IV for all cases except the infected bedsore case. Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene was positive in all isolates. As clinical features among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, CA-MRSA and "nosocomial CA-MRSA" are indistinct, early recognition is necessary in order to initiate appropriate antibiotics and infection control measures. Continual surveillance of pauci-resistant MRSA and molecular analysis are necessary in order to identify emerging strains as well as their epidemiology and transmission, both in the community and in healthcare setting. PMID:23682444

  17. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA):A Public Health Concern in Athletic Settings

    Lindsay K. Drewes

    2008-01-01

    @@ Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria, commonly manifesting itself in the form of skin infections, and resistant to beta-lactum antibiotics[2]. These infections were seen in hospital settings starting in the 1960s in patients that had recently been hospitalized or undergone a medical procedure[3]. In the 1980s reports were first published in the literature of MRSA acquired in otherwise healthy individuals from community settingsr[4,5]. An increased occurrence of community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been on the rise since the late 1990s and manifests itself as a skin infection in populations without other previously known risk factors[6-8].

  18. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: molecular background, virulence, and relevance for public health

    MF Bonesso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS are frequently found in nosocomial environments as the main pathogen in several infections. In 1961, reports of nosocomial S. aureus resistant to methicillin, the drug of choice against penicillin-resistant strains, required new alternatives and vancomycin started being used to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA was first reported in 1990 affecting patients without risk factors for infection with MRSA of hospital origin. MRSA of community origin harbor the genes responsible for the synthesis of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a toxin associated with skin and soft tissue infections and that carries the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA emergence has caused great impact on the worldwide medical community since the presence of this pathogen in patients without risk factors represents a high risk to public health.

  19. Prevalence and invasiveness of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A meta-analysis

    Shipeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports suggest that the prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA has increased, and that CA-MRSA is more virulent than healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA. Aims: The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the invasiveness and prevalence of CA-MRSA in patients; we systematically reviewed the literature by conducting a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and PUBMED databases from the year these databases were established to January 2013. Results: The pooled CA-MRSA prevalence among 50,737 patients from 33 studies was 39.0% (range, 30.8-47.8%. The pooled CA-MRSA prevalence rates among pediatric and adult patients with MRSA infection were 50.2% (range, 37.5-62.8% and 42.3% (range, 16.4-73.3%, respectively. The pooled CA-MRSA prevalence rates of MRSA-infected patients in Asia, Europe, and North America were 23.1% (range, 12.0-39.8%, 37.4% (range, 21.1-56.4%, and 47.4% (range, 35.8-59.4%, respectively. Using the random effects model, we determined that the pooled odds ratio of invasive infections in CA- and HA-MRSA was 0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.08-1.10; P = 0.07, test for heterogeneity P < 0.00001. Conclusions: The prevalence of CA-MRSA in MRSA infection varied with area and population. No difference in the ability to cause invasive infections was found between CA- and HA-MRSA. This finding challenges the view that CA-MRSA is more virulent than HA-MRSA.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of tigecycline against community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from North American medical centers.

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Deshpande, Lalitagauri; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-04-01

    A total of 1989 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) were susceptibility tested by broth microdilution. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, SCCmec type, and polymerase chain reaction for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were also performed. The overall tigecycline susceptibility rate was 98.2%. Glycopeptides, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, and chloramphenicol were also active against this collection (< or =0.7% resistant). The vast majority (70.8%) of the CA-MRSA was SCCmec type IV, from which 88.4% belonged to the USA300-0114 clone and 94.7% were PVL positive. Tigecycline showed in vitro activity comparable with other highly active parenteral agents and represents an option for treating complicated infections caused by CA-MRSA. PMID:18068326

  1. Acute haematogenous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in an adult: Case report and review of literature

    Dhanoa Amreeta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has of late emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections among immunocompetent adults without risk factors. Skin and soft tissue infections represent the majority of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA clinical presentations, whilst invasive and life-threatening illness like necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis, osteomyelitis and sepsis syndrome are less common. Although more widely described in the pediatric age group, the occurrence of CA-MRSA osteomyelitis in adults is an uncommonly reported entity. Case presentation We describe an invasive CA-MRSA infection in a 28 year-old previously healthy male, manifesting with bacteraemia, osteomyelitis of femur, pyomyositis and septic arthritis of the knee. Initially a preliminary diagnosis of osteosarcoma was suggested by imaging studies and patient underwent a bone biopsy. MRSA was subsequently isolated from blood cultures taken on day of admission, bone, tissue and pus cultures. Incision and drainage of abscess was performed and patient was treated with vancomycin, with fusidic acid added later. It took 6 months for the inflammatory markers to normalize, warranting 6-months of anti-MRSA therapy. Patient was a fervent deer hunter and we speculate that he acquired this infection from extensive direct contact with deer. Molecular characterization of this isolate showed that it belonged to multilocus sequence type (MLST ST30 and exhibited the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec type IV, staphylococcus protein A (spa type t019, accessory gene regulator (agr type III and dru type dt10m. This strain harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl genes together with 3 other virulent genes; sei (enterotoxin, hlg (hemolysin and fnbA (fibronectin binding protein. Conclusion This case study alerts physicians that beyond the most commonly encountered skin and soft tissue

  2. Sepse por Staphylococus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirida na comunidade no sul do Brasil Sepsis due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil

    Luciane Cristina Gelatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina foi inicialmente descrito como um típico microrganismo adquirido em infecções nosocomiais. No entanto, nos últimos anos Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade é causa de infecções de pele e tecidos moles, mas infecções graves como pneumonia e sepse podem ocorrer. Este relato descreve um caso de sepse em criança, complicado com pneumonia secundária a lesão em partes moles por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade no Sul do Brasil. O paciente foi atendido em Unidade de Emergência com história de ferimento provocado por trauma em membro inferior que evoluiu para celulite, pneumonia e sepse.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was initially described as a typical microorganism acquired in nosocomial infections. However, over recent years, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been a cause of skin and soft-tissue infections. Serious infections such as pneumonia and sepsis can also occur. This report describes a case of sepsis in a child that was complicated by pneumonia secondary to soft tissue lesions that were due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil. The patient was attended at the Emergency Unit with a history of injury caused by lower-limb trauma that evolved to cellulitis, pneumonia and sepsis.

  3. Radiological findings of community-acquired methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus pediatric pneumonia in Hawaii

    Erdem, Guliz; Bergert, Lora; Len, Kyra; Melish, Marian [University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kon, Kevin; DiMauro, Robert [Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections are common among pediatric patients in Hawaii. We wanted to characterize the radiological features of methicillin-susceptible (CA-MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (CA-MRSA) staphylococcal pneumonia in Hawaiian children. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and imaging studies of children with SA pneumonia identified from 1996 through 2007. Of 40 children, 26 (65%) had CA-MRSA pneumonia and 14 patients (35%) had CA-MSSA pneumonia. CA-MRSA patients were significantly younger than CA-MSSA patients (65% younger than 1 year vs. 36% older). In a majority (62%) of CA-MRSA patients, the consolidation was unilateral; in most of the CA-MSSA cases (79%), the consolidation was bilateral. Fifty percent of the patients with CA-MRSA and 21% of those with CA-MSSA had pneumatoceles (P = 0.1). CA-MRSA patients more commonly had pleural effusions (85% vs. 64% for CA-MSSA) and pleural thickening (50% vs. 36% for CA-MSSA). This case series describes the radiologic characteristics of CA-MRSA and CA-MSSA pneumonia in children in a highly endemic area. We found that CA-MRSA pneumonias are unilateral in a majority of pediatric pneumonia cases, are more common in children 1 year or younger, and have higher rates of complications in comparison to CA-MSSA patients. (orig.)

  4. Comparing the epidemiology of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone groups in Alberta, Canada.

    Bruzzese, S; Bush, K; Leal, J; Kim, J; Vickers, D M; Rusk, A; Fathima, S; Li, V; Chui, L; Louie, M; Henderson, E

    2016-07-01

    Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones, which were traditionally seen in the community setting (USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10), are often identified as hospital-acquired (HA) infections using Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) surveillance definitions. This study examined the demographics and healthcare risk factors of patients with HA-MRSA to help understand if community MRSA clones are from a source internal or external to the hospital setting. Despite USA300/CMRSA10 being the predominant clone in Alberta, hospital clones (USA100/CMRSA2) still dominated in the acute care setting. In the Alberta hospitalized population, patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones were significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, and a greater proportion had none or ambulatory care-only healthcare exposure. These findings suggest that there are two distinct populations of HA-MRSA patients, and the patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones identified in hospital more greatly resemble patients affected by those clones in the community. It is possible that epidemiological assessment overidentifies HA acquisition of MRSA in patients unscreened for MRSA on admission to acute care. PMID:26947456

  5. Radiological findings of community-acquired methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus pediatric pneumonia in Hawaii

    Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections are common among pediatric patients in Hawaii. We wanted to characterize the radiological features of methicillin-susceptible (CA-MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (CA-MRSA) staphylococcal pneumonia in Hawaiian children. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and imaging studies of children with SA pneumonia identified from 1996 through 2007. Of 40 children, 26 (65%) had CA-MRSA pneumonia and 14 patients (35%) had CA-MSSA pneumonia. CA-MRSA patients were significantly younger than CA-MSSA patients (65% younger than 1 year vs. 36% older). In a majority (62%) of CA-MRSA patients, the consolidation was unilateral; in most of the CA-MSSA cases (79%), the consolidation was bilateral. Fifty percent of the patients with CA-MRSA and 21% of those with CA-MSSA had pneumatoceles (P = 0.1). CA-MRSA patients more commonly had pleural effusions (85% vs. 64% for CA-MSSA) and pleural thickening (50% vs. 36% for CA-MSSA). This case series describes the radiologic characteristics of CA-MRSA and CA-MSSA pneumonia in children in a highly endemic area. We found that CA-MRSA pneumonias are unilateral in a majority of pediatric pneumonia cases, are more common in children 1 year or younger, and have higher rates of complications in comparison to CA-MSSA patients. (orig.)

  6. Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Japanese Girl with Disseminating Multiple Organ Infection: A Case Report and Review of Japanese Pediatric Cases

    Ryuta Yonezawa; Tsukasa Kuwana; Kengo Kawamura; Yasuji Inamo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric invasive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection is very serious and occasionally fatal. This infectious disease is still a relatively rare and unfamiliar infectious disease in Japan. We report a positive outcome in a 23-month-old Japanese girl with meningitis, osteomyelitis, fasciitis, necrotizing pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and bacteremia due to CA-MRSA treated with linezolid. PCR testing of the CA-MRSA strain was positive for PVL...

  7. Analysis of the Clinical Characteristics and Antibiotics Resistance of Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    章税锋; 徐志江; 王林峰

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the clinical characteristics of infections by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the condition of antibiotics resistance of the clinical isolates in order to guide for the rational use of antibiotics. With the clinical isolates from cases of hospital-acquired MRSA at the same period as contro|s, the clinical characteristics of infections by community-acquired MRSA in Hangzhou area and the pattern of non-β-lactamase antibiotics resistance were determined in this study. It was found that the average age of patients with community-acquired MRSA infections was 30.89 + 13.3, in comparison with those of the hospital-acquired patients of 56.0 + 11.8, appearing to be younger than those of the latter, and the former showing no any basic illness. Both of the former and the latter were sensitive to vancomycin ( 100% vs 100% ), and they had the same degrees of sensitivity to rifampicin, fosfomycin, and STM/TMP (86.8%vs88.1%, P>0.05; 81.6% vs 82.9%, P>0.05; and 52.6% vs 61.9%, P>0.05, respectively). The former was more sensitive to netimycin, chndamycin, erythromycin and minocycline than those of the latter (73.7% vs50.5%, P<0.01; 60.5% vs45.7%, P<0.05; 28.9% vs 11.4%, P<0.01; and81.6% vs58.6%, P<0.01 respectively). Meanwhile, the incidence of multi-resistant strain of isolates in the former was significantly lowerthan that of the latter (31.6% vs 81.0%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, it appears that the strains of clinical isolates isolated from patients with the community-acquired MRSA infections show different clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility in comparison with those of the hospital-acquired cases of infection, and this necessitates an alteration in the chemotherapy of infections suspected to be caused by community-acquired MRSA.

  8. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable ...

  9. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Su-Hyun Mun; Sung-Bae Kim; Ryong Kong; Jang-Gi Choi; Youn-Chul Kim; Dong-Won Shin; Ok-Hwa Kang; Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA ...

  10. Increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in household contacts of children with community acquired disease

    Rafee Yaseen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To measure Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA nasal colonization prevalence in household contacts of children with current community associated (CA-MRSA infections (study group in comparison with a group of household contacts of children without suspected Staphylococcus aureus infection (a control group. Methods This is a cross sectional study. Cultures of the anterior nares were taken. Relatedness of isolated strains was tested using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results The prevalence of MRSA colonization in the study group was significantly higher than in the control group (18/77 (23% vs 3/77 (3.9%; p ≤ 0.001. The prevalence of SA colonization was 28/77 (36% in the study group and 16/77 (21% in the control group (p = 0.032. The prevalence of SA nasal colonization among patients was 6/24 (25%; one with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and 5 with MRSA. In the study (patient group, 14/24 (58% families had at least one household member who was colonized with MRSA compared to 2/29 (6.9% in the control group (p = 0.001. Of 69 total isolates tested by PFGE, 40 (58% were related to USA300. Panton-Valetine leukocidin (PVL genes were detected in 30/52 (58% tested isolates. Among the families with ≥1 contact colonized with MRSA, similar PFGE profiles were found between the index patient and a contact in 10/14 families. Conclusions Prevalence of asymptomatic nasal carriage of MRSA is higher among household contacts of patients with CA-MRSA disease than control group. Decolonizing such carriers may help prevent recurrent CA-MRSA infections.

  11. Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Japanese Girl with Disseminating Multiple Organ Infection: A Case Report and Review of Japanese Pediatric Cases

    Ryuta Yonezawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric invasive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infection is very serious and occasionally fatal. This infectious disease is still a relatively rare and unfamiliar infectious disease in Japan. We report a positive outcome in a 23-month-old Japanese girl with meningitis, osteomyelitis, fasciitis, necrotizing pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and bacteremia due to CA-MRSA treated with linezolid. PCR testing of the CA-MRSA strain was positive for PVL and staphylococcal enterotoxin b and negative for ACME. SCC mec was type IVa. This case underscores the selection of effective combinations of antimicrobial agents for its treatment. We need to be aware of invasive CA-MRSA infection, which rapidly progresses with a serious clinical course, because the incidence of the disease may be increasing in Japan.

  12. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  13. Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterimias from 1980 to 1993: Impact of Intravascular Devices and Methicillin Resistance

    J.P. Steinberg; C.C. Clarke; B.O. Hackman

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe rate of nosocomial bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus has increased over the past decade, but trends in community-acquired S. aureus bacteremia are less certain. This hospital-based observational study compares nosocomial and community-acquired S. aureus bacteremias during 1980-

  14. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistance mechanisms

    Petrović-Jeremić Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In many hospitals in the world and in our country, the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is so wide that nowdays vancomycin is recommended for empiric treatment of staphylococcal life threatening infections (sepsis, pneumonia instead of beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the production of beta-lactamases in hospital and community isolates of staphyloococus aureus, i. e. hospital associated MRSA (HA-MRSA and community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA, the presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous type of methicillin resistance, and border-line resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA. The aim of this study was also to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between mechanisms of resistance in HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA. Methods. A total 216 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the General Hospital in the town of Cuprija and 186 ambulance Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the community were examined for the presence of methicillin-resistance using disk-diffusion test with penicillin disk (10 ij, oxacillin disk (1 μg and cefoxitin disk (30 μg. Betalactamases production was detected by nitrocefin disk and betalactamase tablets. Determination of oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentracion (MIC was done by agar-dilution method. Results. The prevalence of HA-MRSA was 57.4%, and CA-MRSA was 17.7% (p < 0.05. There was a higher rate of heterogeneous type of resistance among clinical MRSA isolates (11.1% compared with ambulance ones (3.8% (p < 0.05. The rates of beta-lactamases production were similar among hospital associated isolates (97.5%, as well as in the community associated isolates (95.5% (p > 0.05. There were 4.6 % of BORSA hospital isolates and 3.3 % of BORSA ambulance isolates (p > 0.05. Conclusion. The frequency of MRSA isolates in hospital was significantly higher than in community, as well as the heterogeneous type of resistance. The frequency of BORSA

  15. Methicillin resistance & inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Soumyadeep Ghosh; Mandira Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with inducible clindamycin resistance (iCR) are resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin on routine testing and inducible clindamycin resistance can only be identified by D-test. This study was aimed to detect methicillin resistance and iCR among S. aureus isolates, effectiveness of some commonly used antibiotics and correlation between methicillin resistance and iCR. Methods: The present cro...

  16. Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus involved in community acquired skin and soft tissue infections?: Experience from a tertiary care centre in Mumbai

    R S Phakade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To improve the empiric antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired (CA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs, it is necessary to generate data on the current spectrum and susceptibility profile of associated bacteria. CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA MRSA is increasingly being reported in SSTIs in India and globally. Aims: The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial profile of CA-SSTIs, to know the contribution of MRSA in these infections, to determine inducible clindamycin resistance in S. aureus and to compare the resistance patterns of isolates from hospital-acquired (HA SSTIs. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and twenty patients with CA SSTIs were prospectively studied. Pus samples were cultured and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern determined. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by D-test. Laboratory records were analyzed retrospectively to generate data on HA SSTIs. Results: 619 isolates were recovered in CA-SSTIs, of which S. aureus (73% and Streptococci (12% were the most common. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28% and Acinetobacter spp (18% were the predominant HA-SSTI pathogens. Susceptibility of CA S. aureus to antibiotics tested was, penicillin (6%, co-trimoxazole (20%, ciprofloxacin (37%, cefazolin (100%, erythromycin (84%, clindamycin (97%, gentamicin (94% and fusidic acid (95%. No MRSA was found in CA SSTIs whereas 45% of HA S. aureus strains were methicillin-resistant. HA strains demonstrated significantly higher resistance as compared to their CA counterparts (P<0.001. D test was positive in 22% of CA S. aureus tested. Conclusions: In CA SSTIs, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus is the predominant pathogen. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins, clindamycin and erythromycin in that order can be used as suitable antimicrobials for empiric therapy. D test should be carried out routinely. No CA MRSA was detected in the present series.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the superbug.

    Ippolito, Giuseppe; Leone, Sebastiano; Lauria, Francesco N; Nicastri, Emanuele; Wenzel, Richard P

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as serious pathogens in the nosocomial and community setting. Hospitalization costs associated with MRSA infections are substantially greater than those associated with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infections, and MRSA has wider economic effects that involve indirect costs to the patient and to society. In addition, there is some evidence suggesting that MRSA infections increase morbidity and the risk of mortality. Glycopeptides are the backbone antibiotics for the treatment of MRSA infections. However, several recent reports have highlighted the limitations of vancomycin, and its role in the management of serious infections is now being reconsidered. Several new antimicrobials demonstrate in vitro activity against MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria. Data from large surveys indicate that linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline are almost universally active against MRSA. This review will briefly discuss the epidemiology, costs, outcome, and therapeutic options for the management of MRSA infections. PMID:20851011

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    increase the risk of contaminating hands, arms and the front of the uniform. Hand hygiene is therefore essential, but the use of protection gowns with long sleeves is also important in order to prevent transmission of MRSA. After culture of MRSA and implementation of specific precautions to prevent......INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...... transmission of MRSA, no further transmissions were observed. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The data in this study are included in the routine surveillance of MRSA at Rigshospitalet and do not form part of a trial....

  19. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin;

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  20. Incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Pantone-Valentine leucocidin gene at a referral hospital in United Arab Emirates.

    Dash, Nihar; Panigrahi, Debadatta; Al Zarouni, Mansour; Yassin, Faten; Al-Shamsi, Moza

    2014-04-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging pathogen in hospitalized patients worldwide. The present study was undertaken to identify CA-MRSA in hospitalized patients in a 350-bed tertiary care hospital in Sharjah, UAE over a 2-year period from January 2011 to December 2012. CA-MRSA was defined based on identification within first 48 h of admission in the hospital. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing of the CA-MRSA isolates was carried out by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of PVL and mecA genes was done by PCR using the GenoType(®) MRSA test system (Hain Lifescience). Patient's clinical data and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the CA-MRSA isolates were also evaluated. Fifty seven of the 187 MRSA isolates were identified as CA-MRSA. All the CA-MRSA strains in our study belonged to SCCmecIV type and were positive for both PVL and mecA genes. The patients with CA-MRSA infections were young (median age, 32 years) and the majority of infections involved the skin and soft tissue (36%). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the CA-MRSA isolates showed a better susceptibility profile to the non-beta-lactam antimicrobials with the exception of ciprofloxacin having 28% resistance. This study evidently strengthens the recent observation of an increase in CA-MRSA emergence among hospitalized patients in the UAE. PMID:23919760

  1. Influence of papain in biofilm formed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates

    Hanna Lara da Cruz Dinéas de Oliveira; Maria Emília de Castro Kling Fleming; Patrícia Vollu Silva; Geraldo Renato de Paula; Débora Omena Futuro; Guillermo Coca Velarde; Luciana Maria Ramires Esper; Lenise Arneiro Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus (MRSHa) are important coagulase-negative staphylococci. They are often isolated from bacteremia in humans mainly due to their ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of medical devices. Papain is a complex mixture of proteolytic enzymes and peroxidases extracted from the latex of Carica papaya and it is recognized by accelerating the healing process of wounds. This study aimed to eval...

  2. Nasal carriage of a single clone of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among kindergarten attendees in northern Taiwan

    Lee Shih-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the prevalence and microbiological characterization of community-acquired (CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA nasal carriage in a kindergarten. Methods: Point prevalence study. Nasal swabs were collected from healthy children younger than 7 years of age who were attending a kindergarten in Taipei, Taiwan. A parent questionnaire regarding MRSA risk factors was administered simultaneously. All CA-MRSA colonization isolates were archived for subsequent antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing. Results: Of the 68 children who participated in the study, 17 (25% had S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs. Nine (13.2% of the 68 children had CA-MRSA carriage, and none of them had any identified risk factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed all of the 9 CA-MRSA colonization isolates had uniformly high resistance (100% to both clindamycin and erythromycin, the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-constitutive phenotype and the ermB gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 8 (88.9% of 9 CA-MRSA colonization isolates were genetically related and multilocus sequence typing revealed all isolates had sequence type 59. All of the colonization isolates carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV, but none were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a single predominant CA-MRSA colonization strain featuring high clindamycin resistance circulated in this kindergarten. Additionally, due to the established transmissibility of colonization isolates, the high prevalence of nasal carriage of CA-MRSA among healthy attendees in kindergartens may indicate the accelerated spread of CA-MRSA in the community.

  3. Molecular characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from outpatients with skin and soft tissue infections in Wuhan, China.

    Liu, Xiaoli; Liang, Jiansheng; Jiang, Yuanshan; Wang, Bin; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Lihua; Zhou, Yanfei; Xu, Huiqiong; Zhou, Wang

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characteristics and virulence genes of community-acquired methicillin-resistant ITALIC! Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA) isolates with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Outpatients with SSTIs visiting five medical and health institutions were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Available ITALIC! S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and detection of PVL genes. For CA-MRSA isolates, we performed typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome ITALIC! mec(SCC ITALIC! mec), multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and carriage of 27 virulence genes. A total of 203 ITALIC! S. aureusstrains were isolated from 1400 outpatients with SSTIs, and 21 (10.3%) were CA-MRSA isolates. The positive rate of PVL genes among ITALIC! S. aureus, CA-MRSA and methicillin-susceptible ITALIC! S. aureus(MSSA) isolates were 39.4%, 71.4% and 35.7%, respectively. CA-MRSA strains had greater sensitivity to non-β-lactam antimicrobial agents. All CA-MRSA isolates belonged to SCC ITALIC! mecIV and V, accounting for 47.6% and 52.4%, respectively. ST59 was the most common lineage accounting for 76.2%; ST59-SCC ITALIC! mecIVa-PVL-positive clone was found to be the predominant clone, accounting for 38.1%. All CA-MRSA isolates were found to be positive for one or more virulence genes, 28.6% of isolates carried PVL, ITALIC! seb, ITALIC! sek, ITALIC! seq, ITALIC! hla, ITALIC! hlb, ITALIC! hldand ITALIC! hlg-2. CA-MRSA infections were relatively uncommon in outpatients with SSTIs, but they carried many virulence genes, ST59-SCC ITALIC! mecIV a-PVL-positive clone was the predominant clone in Wuhan, China. PMID:27060098

  4. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G. MacKay (William); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTen samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Sample

  5. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    van Belkum, Alex; Niesters, Hubert G M; MacKay, William G; van Leeuwen, Willem B

    2007-01-01

    Ten samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Samples containing

  6. Insights on Evolution of Virulence and Resistance from the Complete Genome Analysis of an Early Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain and a Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain†

    Gill, Steven R.; Derrick E Fouts; Archer, Gordon L.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; DeBoy, Robert T; Ravel, Jacques; Paulsen, Ian T.; Kolonay, James F.; Brinkac, Lauren; Beanan, Mauren; Robert J Dodson; Sean C Daugherty; Madupu, Ramana; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Durkin, A. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and the major causative agent of numerous hospital- and community-acquired infections. Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a causative agent of infections often associated with implanted medical devices. We have sequenced the ∼2.8-Mb genome of S. aureus COL, an early methicillin-resistant isolate, and the ∼2.6-Mb genome of S. epidermidis RP62a, a methicillin-resistant biofilm isolate. Comparative analysis of these and other staphylococc...

  7. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to lysostaphin.

    Huber, M M; Huber, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and eleven isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from patients at the Olin E. Teague Veterans Center from March 1983 to April 1987 were as susceptible to lysis by lysostaphin as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus controls were.

  8. Advances of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus%社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌研究现状

    季剑苹

    2012-01-01

    一直以来,耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,MRSA)作为医院内感染的重要病原菌,其临床特征及耐药状况一直备受关注.然而自20世纪90年代首次报道社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,CA-MRSA)后,20年来尤其是近3年来其感染率明显上升,并有超过医院获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,HA-MRSA)的趋势,成为社区及医院感染的主要致病菌,其临床特征、耐药状况、传播方式和分子生物学特征与HA-MRSA有着较大的差异.%Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major pathogens of the hospital infection.Its clinical features and drug-resisetance situations have always been concerned.But since the late 1990s,another class of MRSA has become a major concern worldwide as an emerging pathogen in the community.This new class of MRSA is called community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA).With the rapid development of the infection of CA-MRSA in 20 years,especially in the latest 3 years,CA-MRSA may be replacing the hospital-acquired MRSA strains(HA-MRSA) as one of the major pathogens in the hospital and the community as well.The characteristics of CA-MRSA are very different from those of HA-MRSA.This review summarizes the current studies of CA-MRSA on the epidemiology and the molecular characteristics.

  9. Laboratory Maintenance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Nicholas P Vitko; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen in the hospital and community settings, especially Staphylococcus aureus clones that exhibit methicillin-resistance (MRSA). Many strains of S. aureus are utilized in the laboratory, underscoring the genetic differences inherent in clinical isolates. S. aureus grows quickly at 37°C with aeration in rich media (e.g. BHI) and exhibits a preference for glycolytic carbon sources. Furthermore, S. aureus has a gold pigmentation, exhibits β-hem...

  10. PREVALENCE OF HETEROGENEOUS GLYCOPEPTIDE INTERMEDIATE RESISTANCE IN METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Manu Chaudhary; Anurag Payasi

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections and is on the rise. The aim of this investigation was to explore the prevalence of MRSA and heterogeneous Glycopeptide Intermediate Staphylococcus Aureus (hGISA) in various clinical samples, to investigate the various antibiotic resistant determinant genes among these strains collected from north and west Indian hospitals and to evaluate the response of vario...

  11. Personal Hygiene and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002–2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygien...

  12. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the intensive care unit

    Haddadin, A; Fappiano, S; Lipsett, P

    2002-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. MRSA strains are endemic in many American and European hospitals and account for 29%–35% of all clinical isolates. Recent studies have documented the increased costs associated with MRSA infection, as well as the importance of colonisation pressure. Surveillance strategies have been proposed especially in high risk areas such as the intensive care unit. Pneum...

  13. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Bhone Myint Kyaw; Shuchi arora; Chu Sing Lim

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination ...

  14. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection in Taiwan

    Kang, Yu-Chuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Ma, David H. K.; Chen, Phil Y. F.; Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chen, Shin-Yi; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an important public health issue. This observational study aimed to characterize clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypes of ocular infections caused by MRSA based on the clinical and molecular definitions of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) strains. Fifty-nine patients with culture-proven S aureus ocular infection were enrolled from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 at Chang...

  15. [Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    Ticse, Ray; Melgarejo, Weymar; Fuentes-Dávila, Alfredo; Ortíz, Jesús; Zegarra, Jaime

    2012-03-01

    Diffuse tropical primary pyomyositis is an infrequent entity in our country, with few cases associated to community-acquired Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There are no reported cases of Community-Acquired Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA) in Peru. We present the case of a 70 year old male with a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving irregular treatment, who was admitted to the hospital with a history of 10 days of low back pain radiating to the left leg, fever and forced flexion of the right hip due to pain during movement. The diagnosis of diffuse pyomyositis of both psoas muscles was performed with MRI and culture of a posterior paravertebral collection, from which Staphylococcus aureus resistant to oxacillin, penicillin and dicloxacillin was isolated. PMID:22510919

  16. Rapid detection (4 h) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a bioluminescence method.

    Park, C. H.; Hixon, D L; McLaughlin, C M; Cook, J F

    1988-01-01

    A 4-h bioluminescence method for methicillin susceptibility determination was compared with reference methods. Of the Staphylococcus aureus strains tested, 80 were methicillin resistant, 180 were methicillin susceptible, and 10 were borderline susceptible. There was 100% correlation between bioluminescence and reference methods for methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains. All borderline-susceptible strains were identified as methicillin resistant by bioluminescence.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), Ocular Methicillin-Resistant Isolates

    Velusamy, Nithya

    2014-03-20

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) and ST672 are the two major emerging clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in India. ST672 strains were found to cause severe ocular infections. We report the draft genome sequences of two emerging strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), isolated from patients with ocular infections.

  18. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Treatment

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Diagnosis

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  20. ST59 Type Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Factors%ST59型社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌毒力因子研究

    陈咏君; 田素飞; 褚云卓; 郭丽洁; 丁丽萍; 李富顺

    2013-01-01

    了解ST59型社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,CA-MRSA)携带毒力因子的情况.用PCR方法扩增ST59型CA-MRSA PSMα、PVL、SEA、SEB、SEC、SED、SEE、TSST-1、ETA、ETB基因.5株CA-MRSA全部检出PSMα基因和PVL基因,均未检出SEA、SEB、SEC、SED、SEE、TSST-1、ETA、ETB基因.PSMα和PVL基因是ST59型社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌常见的毒力因子.%In order to understand virulence factors carrying case of STS9 type community acquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) , PSMα, PVL, SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, TSST-1, ETA, and ETB genes of ST59 type were amplified by PCR. The results showed that 5 strains of ST59 CA-MRSA were all detected PSMa and PVL genes, however, SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, TSST-1, ETA, and ETB genes were not detected. Therefore, PSMα and PVL genes were common virulence factors of ST59 type CA-MRSA.

  1. Reduced Triclosan Susceptibility in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Schmid, Molly B.; Kaplan, Nachum

    2004-01-01

    Triclosan MIC determination showed that recent Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates (n = 100) were highly susceptible to triclosan, with a 50% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 0.12 μg/ml and a MIC90 of 0.25 μg/ml. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (n = 96) were less susceptible, with a MIC50 of 0.12 μg/ml and a MIC90 of 8 μg/ml. Decreased susceptibility to triclosan was more prevalent among methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis than among methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis is...

  2. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...... in 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital...

  3. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121 in...... 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital...

  4. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Persistent or Recurrent Bacteremia

    Henry Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially with persistent (PB or recurrent bacteremia (RB.

  5. Development of antimicrobial resistance in acinetobacter spp and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    Davies, Sarah Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent the most worrying Gram-negative and Gram-positive nosocomial pathogens of the present age. They are of increasing concern in the clinical environment due to their multi-drug resistance and the dwindling therapeutic options available. A. baumannii is the most frequently isolated clinical species of the genus, and is able to rapidly acquire resistance. Hypermutators, most frequent...

  6. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detected at Four U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Shirley A. Micallef; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Davis, Johnnie A.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Schreiber, Nicole A.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. Objective: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants. Methods: We collected wastewater samples from two Mid...

  7. Misidentification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abdulbaset R. Abuzweda; Alghazali, Mohamed H.; Asma K Elramalli; Amri, Samira G.; Aghila, Ezzeddin Sh.; Abouzeed, Yousef M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen of exceptional concern. It is responsible for life-threatening infections in both the hospital and the community. Aims: To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reident...

  8. Clinical utility of the Xpert MRSA assay for early detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OH, AE-CHIN; Lee, Jin Kyung; LEE, HA NA; HONG, YOUNG JUN; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Kim, Dong Ho

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for many nosocomial and community-acquired infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A practical way to limit the spread of MRSA is early detection and proper treatment. However, screening culture for MRSA typically requires 2–3 days. The Xpert MRSA assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay developed for screening an MRSA-specific DNA sequence within the staphyl...

  9. Prospective analysis methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and its risk factors

    Abdallah, Soad A; Khulood K Al-Asfoor; Mona F Salama; Al-Awadi, Bashayer M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the early nineties, a new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has existed in a form correlating with community health personnel. Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) could be differentiated from healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) microbiologically, epidemiologically, and molecularly. Aims: To determine the prevalence, risk factors of MRSA infections in community and hospital. Settings: The incidence and risk factors for CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA among patients of med...

  10. Prospective Analysis Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its Risk Factors

    Abdallah, Soad A; Khulood K Al-Asfoor; Mona F Salama; Al-Awadi, Bashayer M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the early nineties, a new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has existed in a form correlating with community health personnel. Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) could be differentiated from healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) microbiologically, epidemiologically, and molecularly. Aims: To determine the prevalence, risk factors of MRSA infections in community and hospital. Settings: The incidence and risk factors for CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA among patients of med...

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis carrying SCCmec type V misidentified as MRSA

    Eliezer Menezes Pereira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a rare cause of severe infections and clinical manifestations are similar to those related to S. aureus infection. We describe a hospital-acquired bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis, misidentified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The oxacillin MIC was 16 µg/mL and the mecA gene and SCCmec type V were determined by PCR. Although treatment had been appropriated, the patient died after rapid progressive respiratory failure and another nosocomial sepsis. It is important not only to identify S. lugdunensis in view of its clinical course, but also to determine its susceptibility to oxacillin by detecting the mecA gene or its product.

  12. Inhibition of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a plasma needle

    Miletić, Maja; Vuković, Dragana; Živanović, Irena; Dakić, Ivana; Soldatović, Ivan; Maletić, Dejan; Lazović, Saša; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran; Puač, Nevena

    2014-03-01

    In numerous recent papers plasma chemistry of non equilibrium plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure has been linked to plasma medical effects including sterilization. In this paper we present a study of the effectiveness of an atmospheric pressure plasma source, known as plasma needle, in inhibition of the growth of biofilm produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Even at the lowest powers the biofilms formed by inoculi of MRSA of 104 and 105 CFU have been strongly affected by plasma and growth in biofilms was inhibited. The eradication of the already formed biofilm was not achieved and it is required to go to more effective sources.

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in schoolteachers in Ontario.

    Hanselman, Beth A; Kruth, Steven A; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2008-11-01

    A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers' conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2%) participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33%) individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population. PMID:19436569

  14. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Schoolteachers in Ontario

    Beth A Hanselman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers’ conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2% participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33% individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population.

  15. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: vancomycin and beyond.

    Holmes, Natasha E; Tong, Steven Y C; Davis, Joshua S; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2015-02-01

    There has been a welcome increase in the number of agents available for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Vancomycin remains an acceptable treatment option, with moves toward individualized dosing to a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target. Numerous practicalities, however, would need to be resolved before implementation. Lipoglycopeptides as a class show excellent in vitro potency. Their long half-lives and complex PKs may preclude these agents being used in critically ill patients. Anti-MRSA cephalosporins provide great promise in the treatment of MRSA. These agents, despite broad-spectrum activity, should be reserved for patients with MRSA infections as it is likely that usage will be associated with increased rates of resistance. Daptomycin is currently the only antibiotic to have shown noninferiority to vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA bacteremia. The results of an open-labeled trial to address the superiority of daptomycin compared with vancomycin in reduced vancomycin susceptibility infections are eagerly anticipated. No drug to date has shown superiority to vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA infections with the possible exception of linezolid in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), making linezolid an important option in the treatment of MRSA-proven HAP. Whether these strengths and features are agent or class specific are unclear but will likely be answered with the marketing of tedizolid. There are insufficient data to recommend either quinupristin/dalfopristin or tigecycline, as first line in the treatment of severe MRSA infections. These agents however remain options in patients with no other alternatives. PMID:25643268

  16. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Health Care Workers in a Downtown Emergency Department in Toronto, Ontario

    Gregory Saito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA acquired in the community, otherwise known as community-acquired MRSA, has emerged rapidly in recent years. Colonization with MRSA has been associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and serious infections and, in some settings, health care workers (HCWs exhibit a higher prevalence of MRSA colonization.

  17. Nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy population of Kashmir, India

    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal colonisation with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is being increasingly reported, especially in places where people are in close contact and where hygiene is compromised. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA colonising anterior nares of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs of healthy subjects were collected aseptically and cultured using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and amplification of mecA gene by PCR. Strain typing of MRSA strains was done by PFGE. Results: Out of 820 samples, S.aureus was isolated from 229 (27.92% subjects. Of the 229 isolates, 15 were methicillin resistant. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Nasal carriage of MRSA was found to be 1.83% among healthy population. The isolates were found to be polyclonal by PFGE analysis. Conclusion: High prevalence of MRSA is a cause of concern and strategies to interrupt transmission should be implemented.

  18. The dominant Australian community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST93-IV [2B] is highly virulent and genetically distinct.

    Kyra Y L Chua

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159 to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding α-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and α-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new virulence factors, suggesting that this clone's enhanced pathogenicity could lie within subtler genome changes, such as SNPs within regulatory genes. To investigate the role of accessory genome elements in CA-MRSA epidemiology, we next sequenced three additional Australian non-ST93 CA-MRSA strains and compared them with JKD6159, 19 completed S. aureus genomes and 59 additional S. aureus genomes for which unassembled genome sequence data was publicly available (82 genomes in total. These comparisons showed that despite its distinctive genotype, JKD6159 and other CA-MRSA clones (including USA300 share a conserved repertoire of three notable accessory elements (SSCmecIV, PVL prophage, and pMW2. This study demonstrates that the genetically distinct ST93 CA-MRSA from Australia is highly virulent. Our comparisons of geographically and genetically diverse CA-MRSA genomes suggest that apparent convergent evolution in CA-MRSA may be better explained by the rapid

  19. Proti meticilinu odporna bakterija Staphylococcus aureus domačega okolja (CA-MRSA): Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA):

    Dermota, Urška; Grmek-Košnik, Irena; Juteršek, Borut

    2005-01-01

    Background. Community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections affect patients without risk factors. CA-MRSA infections can be serious and also fatal even inpreviously healthy subjects. CA-MRSA differs from hospital acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA). CA-MRSA is more susceptible for non-beta-lactam antibiotics than HA-MRSA, has different PFGE subtypes, and can produce Panton-Valentine leukocidine. Methods. In Institute of Public Health Kranj we routinely performepidemiologic survey of MRSA positive patients. ...

  20. Enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirida en la comunidad Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disseminated disease

    Clarisa Brezzo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-c. Paciente varón de 21 años, previamente sano, que consultó por nódulos subcutáneos compatibles con gomas. La ultrasonografía reveló múltiples abscesos subcutáneos e imágenes consistentes con piomiositis, además de derrame pleural y pericárdico. En el cultivo del material purulento obtenido por punción-aspiración con aguja fina de las lesiones se aisló S. aureus. El antibiograma por difusión mostró resistencia a cefalotina, eritromicina y clindamicina, y sensibilidad a trimetroprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina y rifampicina. La meticilino resistencia se confirmó por aglutinación con partículas de látex sensibilizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra la proteína ligadora de penicilina 2A. El paciente fue tratado con ciprofloxacina y rifampicina durante cuatro semanas, con evolución favorable. La frecuencia de infecciones por SAMR-c está en aumento, observándose en personas sin factores de riesgo aparentes. Esto llevaría a fracaso en el tratamiento empírico para infecciones de la comunidad en los que se presume etiología estafilocócica.A 21 year old man, previously healthy, presented with subcutaneous nodes consistent with gummas. Ultrasonography disclosed multiple subcutaneous abscesses and images suitable with piomiositis, pleural and pericardium effusion. A puncture-aspirate with fine-needle was performed and produced purulent material, with isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion showed resistant to cefalotin, erythromycin and clindamycin, and susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Methicilin-resistance was confirmed by Staphyslide agglutination testing (Biomérieux. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin during four weeks, with a good clinical response. The

  1. Hospital-acquired infection with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive staphylococci.

    Law, M R; Gill, O. N.

    1988-01-01

    In-patients at a London hospital over one year from whom the south-east England strain of 'epidemic' methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated were compared with in-patients with strains of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). MRSA were virtually entirely hospital-acquired; isolates before 10 days were uncommon and related to recent previous admission. Thereafter first isolates occurred at a fairly constant daily rate of about 1.9 per 1,000 in-patients. Ac...

  2. Reversal of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by thioridazine

    Klitgaard, Janne K; Skov, Marianne N; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H;

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Thioridazine has been shown to reverse oxacillin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether thioridazine alone or in combination with oxacillin affects the transcription of the methicillin resistance gene...... that reversal of methicillin resistance by thioridazine in MRSA may be explained by a reduced transcription of mecA and blaZ, resulting in a reduced protein level of PBP2a....

  3. Frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among patients suffering from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    Aslam, Nadia; Izhar, Mateen; Mehdi, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine rate of nasal colonization in Patients suffering from bacteraemia caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a tertiary ca re, University Teaching Hospital (Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore) from October 2010 to August 2011. Nasal swabs were taken from patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia and were plated on mannitol salt agar plates to isolate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which were then tested for oxacillin susceptibility. Results: Nasal colonization was present in 52.5% of patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia. Conclusion: Nasal colonization rates with MRSA were high among patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia especially in those undergoing dialysis or surgical procedures. Therefore, screening and nasal decolonization should be practiced in hospitals. PMID:24550968

  4. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  5. Missense mutations in PBP2A Affecting ceftaroline susceptibility detected in epidemic hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonotypes ST228 and ST247 in Western Switzerland archived since 1998

    Kelley, William; Jousselin, Ambre; Barras, Christine; Lelong, Emmanuelle; Renzoni, Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed cef...

  6. Community Acquisition of Gentamicin-Sensitive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Nimmo, Graeme R.; Schooneveldt, Jacqueline; O'Kane, Gabrielle; McCall, Brad; Vickery, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) susceptible to gentamicin has been reported in a number of countries in the 1990s. To study the acquisition of gentamicin-sensitive MRSA (GS-MRSA) in southeast Queensland and the relatedness of GS-MRSA to other strains of MRSA, 35 cases of infection due to GS-MRSA from October 1997 through September 1998 were examined retrospectively to determine the mode of acquisition and risk factors for MRSA acquisition. Thirty-one isol...

  7. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Nelson, Melissa U.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent source of infections affecting premature and critically ill infants in neonatal intensive care units. Neonates are particularly vulnerable to colonization and infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and many studies have attempted to identify risk factors that predispose certain infants to its acquisition in order to discover potential areas for clinical intervention. In addition, epidemiologic assessment of transmi...

  8. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat in Qena, Egypt

    Mohamed Karmi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in poultry meat and its products. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 poultry samples were collected during 2012 in Qena governorate for presence of pathogenic coagulase positive, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Samples were taken from freshly slaughtered whole chicken carcasses (25/125), chicken portions (25/125), chicken luncheon (25/125), chicken sausages ...

  9. Ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute-care hospital.

    Raviglione, M. C.; Boyle, J. F.; Mariuz, P; Pablos-Mendez, A; Cortes, H; Merlo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Use of ciprofloxacin as an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection has been paralleled by the emergence of resistant strains. This phenomenon has also been noticed in our hospital. To confirm our observation, methicillin and ciprofloxacin susceptibilities were tested by disk diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. We studied 83 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various sources over a 4-month period...

  10. Emergence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive ST8-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (USA300 clone) in Korea causing healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired bacteraemia.

    Jung, J; Song, E H; Park, S Y; Lee, S-R; Park, S-J; Sung, H; Kim, M-N; Kim, S-H; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Woo, J H; Kim, Y S; Chong, Y P

    2016-08-01

    Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive sequence type (ST)8-MRSA-SCCmec IVa (USA300) is the epidemic strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in North America. USA300 is extremely rare in South Korea, and PVL-negative ST72 SCCmec type IVc is the predominant CA-MRSA clone. In a multicentre, prospective cohort study of S. aureus bacteraemia, we identified PVL-positive ST8-MRSA isolates by performing multilocus sequence typing and PCR for PVL. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with PVL-positive ST8-MRSA bacteraemia, and performed SCCmec, spa, and agr typing, PCR for arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), virulence gene profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among a total of 818 MRSA isolates, we identified ten isolates of PVL-positive ST8-MRSA (USA300) (3 from Hospital D, 4 from Hospital G, and 3 from Hospital A), all of which involved exclusively healthcare-associated (5 isolates) and hospital-acquired bacteraemia (5 isolates). This strain accounted for 8~10 % of the hospital-acquired MRSA bacteraemia in Hospitals D and G. Bacteraemia of unknown origin was the most common type of infection followed by pneumonia. All the isolates were SCCmec type IVa, spa type t008, and agr group I. Eight of the isolates harboured ACME. In a PFGE analysis, four isolates were identical to the USA300 control strain, five differed by a single band, and the remaining one differed by two bands. All the isolates were pulsed-field type USA300. This is the first report of healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired bacteraemia caused by USA300 in South Korea. USA300 seems to be an emerging hospital clone in this country. PMID:27209287

  11. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Health Care Workers in a Downtown Emergency Department in Toronto, Ontario

    Gregory Saito; Jessica Thom; Yanliang Wei; Piraveina Gnanasuntharam; Pirasanya Gnanasuntharam; Nathan Kreiswirth; Barbara Willey; Michelle Loftus; Catherine Varner; Vanessa Porter; Allison McGeer; Bjug Borgundvaag

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired in the community, otherwise known as community-acquired MRSA, has emerged rapidly in recent years. Colonization with MRSA has been associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and serious infections and, in some settings, health care workers (HCWs) exhibit a higher prevalence of MRSA colonization.OBJECTIVE: To determine MRSA colonization in emergency department (ED) HCWs in the setting of a moderate prevalence of MRSA...

  12. Sepse por Staphylococus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirida na comunidade no sul do Brasil Sepsis due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil

    Luciane Cristina Gelatti; Tereza Sukiennik; Ana Paula Becker; Fernanda Matsiko Inoue; Mirian Silva do Carmo; Fernanda Marques da Silva Castrucci; Antônio Carlos Campos Pignatari; Luis Carlos Ribeiro; Renan Rangel Bonamigo; Pedro Alves d?Azevedo

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina foi inicialmente descrito como um típico microrganismo adquirido em infecções nosocomiais. No entanto, nos últimos anos Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade é causa de infecções de pele e tecidos moles, mas infecções graves como pneumonia e sepse podem ocorrer. Este relato descreve um caso de sepse em criança, complicado com pneumonia secundária a lesão em partes moles por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticil...

  13. Typing of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A technical review

    P L Mehndiratta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA worldwide is a growing public health concern. MRSA typing is an essential component of an effective surveillance system to describe epidemiological trends and infection control strategies. Current challenges for MRSA typing are focused on selecting the most appropriate technique in terms of efficiency, reliability, ease of performance and cost involved. This review summarises the available information on application, potential and problems of various typing techniques in discriminating the strains and understanding the epidemiology of MRSA strains. The phenotypic methods in general are easier to perform, easier to interpret, cost effective and are widely available, however less discriminatory. The genotypic methods are expensive and technically demanding, however more discriminatory. Newer technologies involving sequencing of various genes are coming up as broadly applicable and high throughput typing systems. Still there is no consensus regarding the single best method for typing of MRSA strains. Phage typing is recommended as first line approach in epidemiological investigation of MRSA strains. PFGE remains the gold standard for characterisation of outbreak strains. DNA sequencing methods including MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing and toxin gene profile typing are more practical methods for detecting evolutionary changes and transmission events. The choice of typing technique further depends on the purpose of the study, the facilities available and the utility of data generated to answer a desirable research question. A need for harmonisation of typing techniques by following standard protocols is emphasised to establish surveillance networks and facilitate global MRSA control.

  14. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in veterinary personnel.

    Hanselman, Beth A; Kruth, Steve A; Rousseau, Joyce; Low, Donald E; Willey, Barbara M; McGeer, Allison; Weese, J Scott

    2006-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from nares of 27/417 (6.5%) attendees at an international veterinary conference: 23/345 (7.0%) veterinarians, 4/34 (12.0%) technicians, and 0/38 others. Colonization was more common for large-animal (15/96, 15.6%) than small-animal personnel (12/271, 4.4%) or those with no animal patient contact (0/50) (p<0.001). Large-animal practice was the only variable significantly associated with colonization (odds ratio 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.2-6.6). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 2 predominant clones with similar distribution among veterinarians as previously reported for horses and companion animals. Canadian epidemic MRSA-2 (CMRSA) was isolated from 11 small-animal and 2 large-animal personnel from the United States (n = 12) and Germany (n = 1). In contrast, CMRSA-5 was isolated exclusively from large-animal personnel (p<0.001) in the United States (n = 10), United Kingdom (n = 2), and Denmark (n = 1). MRSA colonization may be an occupational risk for veterinary professionals. PMID:17326947

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in central Iowa wildlife.

    Wardyn, Shylo E; Kauffman, Lin K; Smith, Tara C

    2012-10-01

    Livestock and pets have been identified as carriers of Staphylococcus aureus; however, the role of wild animals as a reservoir of S. aureus strains has not yet been examined. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 37 species of wild animals rehabilitated at a university clinic. Nasal, wing, wound, and cloacal swabs were collected. Of 114 animals, seven (6.1%) were MSSA-positive and three (2.6%) were MRSA-positive. The MRSA isolates were obtained from two eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and a Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), a migratory shorebird. Antibiotic resistance testing of the MRSA isolates revealed that two were additionally resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and the third isolate was also resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. All three isolates were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Sequence typing of the staphylococcal protein A (spa) region revealed one MRSA isolate to be t002, whereas the other two MRSA isolates were found to be t008. Our results suggest that S. aureus, including MRSA, is being carried by wild animals, although at a low prevalence with the limited number of animals tested. Additional studies are needed to determine how this may impact human health. PMID:23060511

  16. Impact of Colonization Pressure and Strain Type on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission in Children

    Popoola, Victor O; Carroll, Karen C.; Ross, Tracy; Reich, Nicholas G.; Perl, Trish M.; Aaron M Milstone

    2013-01-01

    We studied the transmissibility of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) strains and the association of MRSA colonization pressure and MRSA transmission in critically ill children. Importantly, we found that in hospitalized children MRSA colonization pressure above 10% increases the risk of MRSA transmission 3-fold, and CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains have similar transmission dynamics.

  17. Healthcare-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Kumari, Jyoti; Shenoy, Shalini M.; Baliga, Shrikala; Chakrapani, M.; Bhat, Gopalkrishna K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen worldwide and its multidrug resistance is a major concern. This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility profile of healthcare-associated MRSA with emphasis on resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotypes and vancomycin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between February 2014 and February 2015 across four tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore, South India. Healthcare-associated infections among 291 inpatients at these hospitals were identified according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Clinical specimens were collected based on infection type. S. aureus and MRSA isolates were identified and antibiotic susceptibility tests performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin was determined using the Agar dilution method and inducible clindamycin resistance was detected with a double-disk diffusion test (D-test). Results: Out of 291 healthcare-associated S. aureus cases, 88 were MRSA (30.2%). Of these, 54.6% were skin and soft tissue infections. All of the isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin and linezolid. Four MRSA isolates exhibited intermediate resistance to vancomycin (4.6%). Of the MRSA strains, 10 (11.4%) were constitutive MLSB phenotypes, 31 (35.2%) were inducible MLSB phenotypes and 14 (15.9%) were macrolide-streptogramin B phenotypes. Conclusion: Healthcare-associated MRSA multidrug resistance was alarmingly high. In routine antibiotic susceptibility testing, a D-test should always be performed if an isolate is resistant to erythromycin but susceptible to clindamycin. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin is necessary when treating patients with MRSA infections. PMID:27226908

  18. Prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Humphreys, H

    2009-02-01

    Recent efforts to combat infections have focused on pharmaceutical interventions. However, the global spread of antimicrobial resistance calls for the reappraisal of personal and institutional hygiene. Hygiene embodies behavioural and procedural rules that prevent bacterial transmission. Consequently, the chance of spreading bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is significantly reduced. Hygiene is part of the primacy and totality of patient care, ensuring that no harm is done. Any prevention and control strategy must be underpinned by changes in attitude, embraced by all. The major components of preventing and controlling MRSA include hand and environmental hygiene (as part of standard precautions), patient isolation, and patient\\/staff decolonization. Improving hand hygiene practice is especially important where the risk of infection is highest, e.g. in intensive care. Physical isolation has two advantages: the physical barrier interrupts transmission, and this barrier emphasizes that precautions are required. With limited isolation facilities, risk assessment should be conducted to indicate which patients should be isolated. Environmental hygiene, although important, has a lower priority than standard precautions. When a patient is ready for discharge (home) or transfer (to another healthcare facility), the overall interests of the patient should take priority. All patients should be informed of their MRSA-positive status as soon as possible. Because of increased mupirocin resistance, a selective approach to decolonization should be taken. When MRSA-positive staff are identified, restricting their professional activity will depend on the nature of their work. Finally, politicians and others need to commit to providing the necessary resources to maximize MRSA prevention and control.

  19. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Bhone Myint Kyaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination with selected antibiotics was tested against 12 strains of S. aureus (ATCC MRSA 43300, ATCC methicillin sensitive S. aureus or MSSA 29213 and 10 MRSA clinical strains collected from National University Hospital, Singapore. Out of the six phytochemicals used, tannic acid was synergistic with fusidic acid, minocycline, cefotaxime and rifampicin against most of strains tested and additive with ofloxacin and vancomycin. Quercetin showed synergism with minocycline, fusidic acid and rifampicin against most of the strains. Gallic acid ethyl ester showed additivity against all strains in combination with all antibiotics under investigation except with vancomycin where it showed indifference effect. Eugenol, menthone and caffeic acid showed indifference results against all strains in combination with all antibiotics. Interestingly, no antagonism was observed within these interactions. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration indices, synergistic pairs were further examined by time-kill assays to confirm the accuracy and killing rate of the combinations over time. The two methods concurred with each other with 92% accuracy and the combinatory pairs were effective throughout the 24 hours of assay. The study suggests a possible incorporation of effective phytochemicals in combination therapies for MRSA infections.

  20. Status Report from the Scientific Panel on Antibiotic Use in Dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society: Part 3: Current Perspectives on Skin and Soft Tissue Infections with Emphasis on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Commonly Encountered Scenarios when Antibiotic Use May Not Be Needed, and Concluding Remarks on Rational Use of Antibiotics in Dermatology.

    Del Rosso, James Q; Rosen, Ted; Thiboutot, Diane; Webster, Guy F; Gallo, Richard L; Leyden, James J; Walker, Clay; Zhanel, George; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    In this third article of the three-part series, management of skin and soft tissue infections is reviewed with emphasis on new information on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Due to changes in the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones, previous distinctions between healthcare-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are currently much less clinically relevant. Many nosocomial cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection are now caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with changing patterns of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance. Also reviewed are clinical scenarios where antibiotics may not be needed and suggestions for optimal use of antibiotic therapy for dermatologie conditions, including recommendations on perioperative antibiotic use. PMID:27386047

  1. Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton–Valentine leukocidin in a Chinese teenager: case report and literature review

    Jie Chen

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report from Mainland China of necrotizing pneumonia due to PVL-positive CA-MRSA among those aged older than 1 year. CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in previously healthy individuals.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp. colonizing health care workers of a cancer hospital

    Dayane de Melo Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03, habit of nail biting (p = 0.04 and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04 were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  4. Community acquired pneumonia with shock, severe hypoxemia and leucopenia: Is the etiology methicillin resistant Staphylococci?

    Garima Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A young, male presented to the emergency department with respiratory signs and symptoms along with shock and leucopenia. The suspected diagnosis of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA necrotizing pneumonia was confirmed later radiographically and microbiologically. This entity is common in childhood, but rarely reported in adults. This form of pneumonia affects young individuals without any comorbid illness. This is the first reported case of necrotizing pneumonia caused by community acquired-MRSA from Indian subcontinent. The probability to predict etiology of pneumonia from clinical signs is low; yet in the presence of shock, severe hypoxemia and leucopenia suspicion of MRSA should be kept high and hence that prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobials may reduce mortality.

  5. Homology of mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus simulans to that of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Ubukata, K; Nonoguchi, R; Song, M D; Matsuhashi, M; Konno, M

    1990-01-01

    A penicillin-binding protein of molecular weight 76,000 inducible by beta-lactams was detected in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus simulans. DNA from these strains hybridized to the mecA gene from Staphylococcus aureus; however, the chromosomal HindIII fragments containing the mecA genes were 3.4 kilobases in S. haemolyticus and 4.3 kilobases in S. simulans.

  6. Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis

    Alper Ciftci; Arzu Findik; Ertan Emek Onuk; Serap Savasan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to detect methicillin resistant and slime producing Staphylococcus aureus in cases of bovine mastitis. A triplex PCR was optimized targetting 16S rRNA, nuc and mecA genes for detection of Staphylococcus species, S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively. Furthermore, for detection of slime producing strains, a PCR assay targetting icaA and icaD genes was performed. In this study, 59 strains were detected as S. aureus by both conventional tests and PCR, and 13 of them...

  7. In vitro phagocytosis of methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that causes a number of diseases such as abscesses, infective endocarditis, septic arthritis, etc. It is acquiring resistance against many antibiotics like methicillin; therefore its control is becoming increasingly difficult. Peripheral blood phagocytes particularly polymorphonuclear leucocytes play an important role in the protective mechanisms against these organisms. Phagocytes interact with bacteria and phagocytose these microorganisms to kill them. Phenotypically different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were collected from various hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Fresh polymorphonuclaer leucocytes were obtained from healthy individuals by centrifugation using Ficol-Hypaque gradient combined with dextran sedimentation. Microbiological method was used for the determination of phagocytic index of phenotypic variants of Staphylococcus aureus. A significant difference was observed between the phagocytic index of both bacterial groups. MSSA group showed the Mean+-SD of 79.46%+-3.9 while MRSA group showed 72.35%+-2.5. Significant difference in phagocytic index indicates that it can be one of the mechanisms of MRSA to evade host immune system as compare to MSSA. (author)

  8. Presence of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Is Associated with Severity and Clinical Outcome of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in a Single Center Study in China.

    Zhang, Chuanling; Guo, Liang; Chu, Xu; Shen, Limeng; Guo, Yuanyu; Dong, Huali; Mao, Jianfeng; van der Veen, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have previously been associated with severe infections. Here, the impact of the PVL genes on severity of disease and clinical outcome of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to MRSA was investigated in a single center observational study in a hospital in China. HAP due to MRSA was diagnosed in 100 patients and 13 of the patients were PVL positive, while VAP was diagnosed in 5 patients and 2 were PVL positive. The PVL positive patient group showed a significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (14.3 ±7.8 vs. 10.1 ±4.7, P = 0.005) and significantly more patients with CRP levels >80 mg/L (8/15 vs. 12/90, P = 0.006) or WBC counts >15x109/L (7/15 vs. 12/90, P = 0.006), indicating that the severity of disease is affected by the presence of the PVL genes. The outcome of the study was defined by 30-day mortality. Four (27%) of the PVL positive patients and four (4%) of the PVL negative patients died within 30 days (P = 0.01, Fisher exact test). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated for the PVL positive and PVL negative patient groups, which differed significantly (P = 0.003). Among the patients that died, the mean interval between diagnosis and death was shorter for the PVL positive patients (9.3 ±5.6 vs. 40.8 ±6.6 days, P = 0.013). Further analysis within the HAP and VAP patient groups showed that the presence of PVL in MRSA impacted the severity of disease and clinical outcome of HAP, but for VAP the number of patients included in the study was too low. In conclusion, in this single center study in a Chinese hospital the presence of the PVL genes in MRSA impacted the severity of disease and clinical outcome in patients with HAP due to MRSA. PMID:27249225

  9. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in small animal veterinarians

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Moodley, Arshnee; Ghibaudo, G.;

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is increasingly reported in small animals and cases of human infections have already been described despite its recent emergence in veterinary practice. We investigated the prevalence of MRSP and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus...... aureus (MRSA) among small animal dermatologists attending a national veterinary conference in Italy. Nasal swabs were obtained from 128 veterinarians, seven of which harboured MRSP (n = 5; 3.9%) or MRSA (n = 2; 1.6%). A follow-up study of two carriers revealed that MRSP persisted for at least 1 month in...... rized by spa typing. Methicillin-resistant isolates were further typed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, SCCmec and multi-locus sequence typing. Two lineages previously associated with pets were identified among the five MRSP isolates; the European epidemic clone ST71-SCCmec II-III and ST106...

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization among pediatric health care workers from different outpatient settings

    Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Satola, Sarah W.; Jain, Shabnam; Courtney, McCracken; Watson, J. Reneé; Chan, Trisha; Traci, Leong; Gottlieb, Edward; Jerris, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization rates in pediatric health care workers from different types of outpatient settings were determined from December 2008 through May 2010. Colonization rates for Staphylococcus aureus and, specifically, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates were similar to the rates that have been reported for the general population. The predominant MRSA pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type associated with colonization in these health care workers is not MRS...

  11. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using an integrated and modular microfluidic system.

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Soper, Steven A

    2013-02-21

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-acquired (HA-MRSA) infection worldwide. As a result, the rapid and specific detection of MRSA is crucial not only for early prevention of disease spread, but also for the effective treatment of these infections. We report here an integrated modular-based microfluidic system for MRSA identification, which can carry out the multi-step assay used for MRSA identification in a single disposable fluidic cartridge. The multi-step assay included PCR amplification of the mecA gene harboring methicillin resistance loci that can provide information on drug susceptibility, ligase detection reaction (LDR) to generate fluorescent ligation products appended with a zip-code complement that directs the ligation product to a particular address on a universal array containing zip-code probes and a universal DNA array, which consisted of a planar waveguide for evanescent excitation. The fluidic cartridge design was based on a modular format, in which certain steps of the molecular processing pipeline were poised on a module made from a thermoplastic. The cartridge was comprised of a module interconnected to a fluidic motherboard configured in a 3-dimensional network; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and was used for PCR and LDR, while the module was made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA, and contained an air-embedded waveguide serving as the support for the universal array. Fluid handling, thermal management and optical readout hardware were situated off-chip and configured into a small footprint instrument. In this work, the cartridge was used to carry out a multiplexed PCR/LDR coupled with the universal array allowed for simultaneous detection of five genes that encode for 16S ribosomal RNA (SG16S), protein A (spa), the femA protein of S. epidermidis (femA), the virulence factor of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and the gene that confers methicillin resistance (mecA). Results

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence: Current susceptibility patterns in Trinidad

    Land Michael

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become one of the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recently, reports have emerged that S. aureus strains recovered from community-acquired infections are also methicillin-resistant. This study was undertaken to analyze the prevalence of methicillin resistance among isolates at a regional hospital in Trinidad, and document the current resistance profile of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA to the commonly used anti-staphylococcal agents. Methods Over a 6-year period we analyzed 2430 isolates of S. aureus strains recovered from various clinical sources, from hospital and community practices. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to guideline recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results The prevalence of MRSA from surgical/burn wounds, urine and pus/abscess were 60.1%, 15.5% and 6.6%, respectively. The major sources of MSSA were surgical/burn wounds, pus/abscess and upper respiratory tract specimens with rates of 32.9%, 17.1% and 14.3%, respectively. The greatest prevalence of resistance of MRSA was seen for erythromycin (86.7%, and clindamycin (75.3%. Resistance rates among MSSA were highest for ampicillin (70%. Resistance rates for tetracycline were similar among both MRSA (78.7% and MSSA (73.5%. The MRSA recovery rates from nosocomial sources (20.8% was significantly higher than that of previous years (12.5% (p Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA in the hospital increased from 12.5% in 1999 to 20.8% in 2004. Most isolates were associated with infected surgical/burn wounds which may have become infected via the hands of HCPs during dressing exercises. Infection control measures aimed at the proper hand hygiene procedures may interrupt the spread of MRSA. HCPs may also be carriers of MRSA in their anterior nares. Surveillance cultures of both patients and HCPs may help

  13. Pig-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Family transmission and severe pneumonia in a newborn

    Hartmeyer, Gitte Nyvang; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Skov, Robert L;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Carriage of pig-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to occur in pig farmers. Zoonotic lineages of MRSA have been considered of low virulence and with limited capacity for inter-human spread. We present a case of family transmission of pig-associated MRSA...

  14. Nosocomial Infections and Drug Susceptibility Patterns in Methicillin Sensitive and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Sharma, Nitish Kumar; Garg, Raina; Baliga, Shrikala; Bhat K., Gopalkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and is known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. The drug susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) may vary.

  15. Rapid first-line discrimination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains using MALDI-TOF MS

    Østergaard, Claus; Grønvall Kjær Hansen, Sanne; Møller, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    Fast and reliable discrimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is essential in identifying an outbreak. Molecular typing methods, such as S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are generally...

  16. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012 1

    Hanley, Patrick W.; Barnhart, Kirstin F.; Christian R. Abee; Lambeth, Susan P.; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  17. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement.

  18. Frequent emergence and limited geographic dispersal of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Nübel, Ulrich; Roumagnac, Philippe; Feldkamp, Mirjam;

    2008-01-01

    A small number of clonal lineages dominates the global population structure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), resulting in the concept that MRSA has emerged on a few occasions after penicillinase-stable beta-lactam antibiotics were introduced to clinical practice, followed...

  19. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Hospitals

    Hetem, David J; Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit;

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has changed the epidemiology of MRSA infections worldwide. In contrast to hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), CA-MRSA more frequently affects healthy individuals, both with and without recent healthcare...

  20. Heterogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italian pig finishing holdings

    Battisti, A.; Franco, A.; Merialdi, G.;

    2010-01-01

    A survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in finishing pig holdings was carried out in Italy in 2008. MRSA isolates were characterised by spa-. SCCmec- and antimicrobial susceptibility typing. A prevalence of 38% (45/118, 95% CI 29.4-46.9%) positive holdings was observed...

  1. Control of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in a day-care institution

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Jensen, ET; Larsen, AR;

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in two institutions for multi-handicapped children in Copenhagen. The aim of the study was to determine whether it was possible to eradicate MRSA in a setting with multi-handicapped children and staff where...

  2. Simplified screening in an emergency department detected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Mogensen, Christian Backer; Kjældgaard, Poul; Jensen, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: All patients admitted to Danish hospitals are screened for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by a questionnaire consisting of 19 questions issued by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (DHMA). This study aimed to evaluate which of the questions were most useful...

  3. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by healthy companion animals

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant human pathogen and has also been associated with wounded or ill companion animals. Healthy animals may also harbor MRSA without presenting any symptoms, but little is known about the prevalence of MRSA among these animals. Therefo...

  4. The Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Germany

    Koeck, Robin; Mellmann, Alexander; Schaumburg, Frieder; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Kipp, Frank; Becker, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Background: For decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of infection in hospitals and nursing homes (health care-associated MRSA, HA-MRSA). Beginning in the late 1990s, many countries have also experienced a rising incidence of MRSA infection outside of the

  5. Dissemination of a single clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Turkish hospitals

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); S.C. Sacilik; C. Cokmus; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA collection of 39 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) stains derived from six different hospitals in Ankara and one hospital in Barsa, Turkey, were analyzed by multiple genotyping. In agreement with the other genotyping assays, pulsed-field g

  6. Preventing Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" among Student Athletes

    Many, Patricia S.

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) was once thought to be a bacterium causing infections in only hospitalized patients. However, a new strain of MRSA has emerged among healthy individuals who have not had any recent exposure to a hospital or to medical procedures. This new strain is known as "community-associated MRSA". Studies…

  7. The Costs and Consequences of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Treatments in Canada

    Andrew J Rosner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A multinational randomized controlled trial has shown a trend toward early discharge of patients taking oral linezolid versus intravenous vancomycin (IV in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Infection treatments resulting in shorter hospitalization durations are associated with cost savings from the hospital perspective.

  8. Rapid increase of genetically diverse methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Boye, Kit; Rhod Larsen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for <15 isolates per year during 1980-2002. However, since 2003 an epidemic increase has been observed, with 33 MRSA cases in 2003 and 110 in 2004. We analyzed these 143 cases epidemiologically and characterized isolates ...

  9. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  10. Clindamycin-susceptibility Rates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Varies by Infection Type in Pediatric Patients.

    Li, Amanda; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Ogden, Richard; French, Brandon; Yu, Diana

    2016-08-01

    Hospital-wide antibiograms provide general susceptibility patterns. Specific antibiograms were created for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates based on infection process and epidemiology. Using clinical microbiology laboratory data and patient profiles, high clindamycin resistance rates were seen for nonskin and soft tissue infections and noncommunity-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. PMID:27164465

  11. New antimicrobial combinations: substituted chalcones- oxacillin against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Juan Manuel Talia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus, the most virulent Staphylococcus species, is also the prevalent pathogen isolated from hospitalized patients and the second most common from patients in outpatient settings. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit and acquire resistance to drugs, which are utilized as therapeutic agents. Related studies of antimicrobial activity indicate that crude extracts containing flavonoids, triterpenes and steroids have showed significative activity against several Staphylococcus aureus strains. Combination effects between flavonoids and antibiotics also have been reported. The aim of the present work was to investigate in vitro synergism between several chalcones substituted in combination with oxacillin, an antibiotic used conventionally against S. aureus ATCC 43 300 that is resistant to meticillin, using the kinetic turbidimetric method developed earlier. The results were satisfactory for all assayed combinations and in accordance with the mechanism of bacteriostatic inhibition previously proposed, except for 2´,4´-dihydroxy-3´-methoxychalcone - oxacillin. The best combination was 2´,3´-dihydroxychalcone - oxacillin (MIC: 11.2 μg/mL. Further investigations are needed to characterize the interaction mechanism with antibiotics. Thus, chalcones - oxacillin combination could lead to the development of new antibiotics against methicillin resistant S. aureus infection.

  12. The pls Gene Found in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Is Common in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri

    Juuti, Katri; Ibrahem, Salha; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Kuusela, Pentti

    2005-01-01

    pls, a gene found in type I staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) regions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, was present in 12 of the 15 human clinical Staphylococcus sciuri isolates studied. Pls was expressed in the S. sciuri isolates, although at a lower level than in S. aureus. Other parts of SCCmec could also be found in the S. sciuri genome.

  13. Survey of Staphylococcus isolates among hospital personnel, environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance

    Shobha K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among hospital personnel and hospital environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance. A total of 205 samples from hospital personnel and environment were collected from casualty, oncology and multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Samples were collected using sterile cotton wool swabs and inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were done onto blood agar and MacConkey′s agar. Isolates were identified by standard methods up to species level. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to standardized disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer method. Each of the isolates was screened for methicillin resistance using oxacillin disc on Mueller Hinton agar plate followed by MIC for methicillin and cefoxitin susceptibility test by disc diffusion method. Sixty five out of 205 strains (31.7% were Staphylococcus spp. and all of them were coagulase negative. Most of the strains belonged to S.epidermidis 49.23%(32/65 followed by S. saprophyticus 26.15%(17/65. Maximum isolates of S.epidermidis were from anterior nares 28.12%(9/32 strains of S.epidermidis . Highest number of methicillin resistant coagulase negative strains (3/9, 33.33% were isolated from stethoscope of multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward followed by carriers in the anterior nares (2/9, 22.22%. Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci are prevalent in anterior nares of hospital personnel and in the hospital environment thereby providing a definite source for hospital acquired infection. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin.

  14. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus in companion animals: a cross-sectional study

    Ruzauskas, Modestas; Siugzdiniene, Rita; Klimiene, Irena; Virgailis, Marius; Mockeliunas, Raimundas; Vaskeviciute, Lina; Zienius, Dainius

    2014-01-01

    Background Among coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the second most frequently isolated species from human blood cultures and has the highest level of antimicrobial resistance. This species has zoonotic character and is prevalent both in humans and animals. Recent studies have indicated that methicillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (MRSH) is one of the most frequent isolated Staphylococcus species among neonates in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to ...

  15. Prevalence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Sutton-Shields, Tameaka N.; Kerr, Alan; Wedd, Joel P.; Miller, Melissa B.; Gilligan, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    We prospectively determined the prevalence of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus in a large cystic fibrosis (CF) center between October 2005 and October 2007. We found that 2.7% (19/707) of the CF patients who had cultures during the study period were infected with this organism, representing 14% of the total methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (n = 140) recovered from the patient population during the study period.

  16. Comparison of two different sensitivity testing agard for detecting methicillin resistance in staphylococcus aureus

    To compare the accuracy of Mueller-Hinton agar and Isosensitest agar using cefoxitin disc for detecting methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus using mecA gene PCR assay as gold standard. One hundred clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated; 64 MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and 36 MSSA (methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) by mecA PCR assay. All the isolates were tested with cefoxitin 30 macro g disc using semi-confluent growth on Mueller-Hinton agar as well as on Iso-sensitest agar in ambient air at 35-37degree C after an overnight incubation as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Following diameters provided the best sensitivity and specificity without substantial overlapping between the zones of resistant and sensitive isolates; Mueller-Hinton agar: R/sup 2/ 20 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity 100%), S/sup 3/ 22 mm (sensitivity 97.2% and specificity 100%), and Iso-sensitest agar: R/sup 2/ 26 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity100%), S/sup 3/ 26 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity 100%). High accuracy was obtained with cefoxitin disc on both media. Performance of both media was equally convincing for reliable prediction of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by placing cefoxitin 30 macro g disc on either of these in routine susceptibility testing. (author)

  17. Determination of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in blood by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Horká, M. (Marie); Tesařová, M. (Marie); Karásek, P. (Pavel); Růžička, F.; Holá, V.; Sittová, M.; Roth, M

    2015-01-01

    We used capillary zone electrophoresis in supercritical water-etched and modified fused silica capillaries to separate methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteria from clinical samples of whole blood.

  18. Student Self-Screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Nasal Colonization in Hand Hygiene Education

    Lum, Tia; Picardo, Kristin; Westbay, Theresa; Barnello, Amber; Fine, Lynn; Lavigne, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of adding a hand hygiene exercise in self-screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization to a health care delivery course for first-year pharmacy (P1) students.

  19. Inactivating Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Other Pathogens by Bacteriocins OR-7 and E 50-52.

    Worldwide, reports document the increasing frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Other human pathogens are recognized as unresponsive to antibiotics of last resort. These previously treatable infections now account for increased numbers of human disease and de...

  20. Characterization and lytic activity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA phages isolated from NICU

    Golnar Rahimzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a well-known pathogen that causes serious diseases in humans. As part of the efforts to control this pathogen, an isolated bacteriophage, Siphoviridae, which specifically targets Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, was characterized. Aims The objective of this study was to characterize of a virulent bacteriophage (Siphoviridae isolated from a NICU bathroom sink. Methods The MRSA strain was isolated from patient blood. The isolated strain was confirmed as MRSA using conventional methods. Phages were isolated from a NICU bathroom sink and activity was lytic as determined by spot test. Titer phage lysate was measured by the Double Layer Agar (DLA technique. The morphology was found with electron microscopy. The single-step growth curve was plotted. Results Electron microscopy showed the phage as a member of the family Siphoviridae, serogroup A and F. The isolated phage was capable of lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain as shown by spot test. By DLA, the titre of the phages was determined to be 10×108PFU/ml. The single-step growth curve showed that the latent period of the isolated bacteriophage was 30 min and the total number of viable progeny per infected host, burst size, was 2600 PFU/infected host. Conclusion In this study, two phages were isolated and characterized from a NICU bathroom sink, from the Siphoviridae family, which specifically targetsmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

  1. Community acquired pneumonia with shock, severe hypoxemia and leucopenia: Is the etiology methicillin resistant Staphylococci?

    Garima Kapoor; Saurabh Saigal; Jai Prakash Sharma; Mohan Gurjar

    2014-01-01

    A young, male presented to the emergency department with respiratory signs and symptoms along with shock and leucopenia. The suspected diagnosis of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) necrotizing pneumonia was confirmed later radiographically and microbiologically. This entity is common in childhood, but rarely reported in adults. This form of pneumonia affects young individuals without any comorbid illness. This is the first reported case of necrotizing pneumonia caused by com...

  2. European ST80 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital cellulitis in a neonate

    Tsironi Evangelia E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital environment, but also, lately, in the community. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first detailed description of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST80 orbital cellulitis in a previously healthy neonate. Possible predisposing factors of microbial acquisition and treatment selection are also discussed. Case presentation A 28-day-old Caucasian boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right orbital cellulitis. His symptoms included right eye proptosis, periocular edema and redness. Empirical therapy of intravenous daptomycin, rifampin and ceftriaxone was initiated. The culture of pus yielded a methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate and the molecular analysis revealed that it was a Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive ST80 strain. The combination antimicrobial therapy was continued for 42days and the infection was successfully controlled. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware that young infants, even without any predisposing condition, are susceptible to orbital cellulitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empirical therapy, according to the local epidemiology, should successfully address the infection, preventing ocular and systemic complications.

  3. Small colony variant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from an osteomyelitis case

    Server Yagci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants may cause soft tissue infections. However, any casepresenting with soft tissue abscess after a fracture surgery is not been reported yet. In this report; a case of methicillinresistantS. aureus small colony variant that was isolated from a 68-years-old man who has a fracture surgery history andrecurrent abscess developing in his left thigh was reported. This variant was recovered from aspiration material of theopen wound. Daptomycin was used successfully in the treatment of the bacterial infection which is resistant to rifampin.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(2: 89-92Keywords: Small colony variant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, recurrent abscess

  4. Infections of diabetic foot ulcers with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Cervantes-García, Estrella; García-González, Rafael; Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz Maria

    2015-03-01

    Infected diabetic foot is the most common reason for hospitalization and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is frequently isolated from such lesions, and its presence is growing, seriously deteriorating the infected patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MRSA as well as other microbiota in 100 patients diagnosed with (DM2) and with infected foot ulcers at the Hospital General de Mexico. The main results obtained show a prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (42%), followed by Escherichia coli (36%) and, in lower percentages, other bacteria. MRSA was predominant (34%), and we conclude that the use of cefoxitin instead of oxacillin as the first-choice antibiotic has an advantage because it is a better inducer of methicillin-resistance expression. PMID:25573977

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection risks from companion animals: current perspectives

    Petinaki E

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efthimia Petinaki,1 Iris Spiliopoulou21Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Thessalia, Larissa, 2Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, GreeceAbstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA remains one of the most virulent human pathogens and has also recently been recognized as such in the veterinary settings. Companion animals, including dogs, cats, horses, small exotic animals, wildlife animals, and livestock, may constitute a reservoir for MRSA transmission to humans and vice versa. The evolution, emergence, and risk factors for MRSA transmission among colonized or infected animals are reviewed in the present paper, and infection control practices are discussed.Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, companion animals, close contacts

  6. Daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomycin-intermediate, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    Ryan Yu; Dale, Suzanne E; Deborah Yamamura; Vida Stankus; Christine Lee

    2012-01-01

    Due to the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility, newer antibiotics, including daptomycin, have been used to treat methicillin-resistant S aureus infections. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is approved to treat S aureus bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis, and reports of S aureus with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin are infrequent. To our knowledge, the present report describes the first Canadian case of daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomyci...

  7. Prevalence of Chlorhexidine-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus following Prolonged Exposure

    Schlett, Carey D.; Millar, Eugene V.; Crawford, Katrina B.; Cui, Tianyuan; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Tribble, David R.; Ellis, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorhexidine has been increasingly utilized in outpatient settings to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks and as a component of programs for MRSA decolonization and prevention of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of chlorhexidine resistance in clinical and colonizing MRSA isolates obtained in the context of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for SSTI prevention, during which...

  8. Sub-acute mastitis associated with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a cow: A case report

    Duraisamy Chandrasekaran; Periasamy Venkatesan; Krishnasamy Gopalan Tirumurugaan; Balakrishnan Gowri; Subramanian Subapriya; Subramanium Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year old Holstein Friesian cross breed cow was presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history of reduced milk yield. Clinical examination of udder revealed normal milk color and soft udder. The milk pH was 7.0, with California Mastitis Test score 3+, Electrical Conductivity 270U, and Somatic Cell Count as 328,000. Isolation and identification of causative agent revealed Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the sub-acute mastitis sample. Agar d...

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp. colonizing health care workers of a cancer hospital

    Dayane de Melo Costa; André Kipnis; Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira Leão-Vasconcelos; Larissa Oliveira Rocha-Vilefort; Sheila Araújo Telles; Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borges André; Anaclara Ferreira Veiga Tipple; Ana Beatriz Mori Lima; Nádia Ferreira Gonçalves Ribeiro; Mayara Regina Pereira; Marinésia Aparecida Prado-Palos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for gen...

  10. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Saarland, Germany: The Long-Term Care Facility Study

    Nillius, Dorothea; von Müller, Lutz; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Klein, Renate; Herrmann, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiresistant organisms pose a threat for patients and care recipients. Control interventions need to be tailored to region, the type of institution considered, and risk factors. The German state of Saarland is ideally suited to study colonisation epidemiology throughout its various health and care institutions. After conclusion of a large admission prevalence study in acute care hospitals, we now performed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) point prevalence stud...

  11. Improved understanding of factors driving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic waves

    Chatterjee SS; Otto M.

    2013-01-01

    Som S Chatterjee, Michael OttoPathogen Molecular Genetics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Since the global spread of MRSA in the 1960s, MRSA strains have evolved with increased pathogenic potential. Notably, some strains are now capable of causing persistent infections not only in hospitalized patients but al...

  12. Ceftaroline Fosamil for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pulmonary Exacerbation in a Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Patient

    Molloy, Leah; Snyder, Ashley Hall; Srivastava, Ruma; Rybak, Michael J.; McGrath, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ceftaroline, an advanced generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), may present a new therapeutic alternative for treating lung infections among patients with cystic fibrosis. We report a case of ceftaroline therapy in a pediatric patient with cystic fibrosis, whose dose was increased from 9.7 mg/kg/dose every 12 hours to 10.8 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours by using pharmacokinetic analyses.

  13. Antibacterial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng (Lamiaceae) in Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Gurgel, Ana P.A.D.; Silva, Jackeline G. da; Grangeiro, Ana R.S.; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; Oliveira, Rinalda Araújo Guerra de; Maria S.V. Pereira; Ivone A. Souza

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes some in vitro experiments with hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng (Lamiaceae) in several Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in the attempt to determine whether the popular use corroborates with pharmacological properties. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar diffusion assay method. The evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using the agar dilution method...

  14. A Survey of Staphylococcus sp and its Methicillin Resistance aboard the International Space Station

    Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Ott, C.; Healy, M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Within the past few years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, such as hospitals and nursing homes. As the International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts occupying ISS or on surfaces of the space station itself. Methods: Identification of isolates was completed using VITEK (GPI cards, BioMerieux), 16S ribosomal DNA analysis (MicroSeq 500, ABI), and Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting (Divemilab, Bacterial Barcodes). Susceptibility tests were performed using VITEK (GPS-105 cards, BioMerieux) and resistance characteristics were evaluated by testing for the presence of the mecA gene (PBP2' MRSA test kit, Oxoid). Results: Rep-PCR analysis indicated the transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers and between crewmembers and ISS surfaces. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and environment, evaluations of the microbial population indicated minimal methicillin resistance. Results of this study indicated that within the semi-closed ISS environment, transfer of bacteria between crewmembers and their environment has been occurring, although there was no indication of a high concentration of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species. Conclusions: While this study suggests that the spread of methicillin resistant S. aureus is not currently a concern aboard ISS, the increasing incidence of Earth-based antibiotic resistance indicates a need for continued clinical and environmental monitoring.

  15. The Rise of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. Correctional Populations

    Malcolm, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging threat to public health, especially in correctional settings. Outbreaks have been seen in jails and prisons in Mississippi, California, Texas, and Georgia in recent years. Also, many correctional settings have seen an increase in MRSA infection greater than in the general population. This article examines the lessons that have been learned about MRSA in correctional settings and ponders what is yet to be learned about this dise...

  16. Risk Factors for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization of Healthy Children

    Soltani, Babak; Abbas TAGHAVI ARDAKANI; Moravveji, Alireza; Erami, Mahzad; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Moniri, Rezvan; Namazi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nasal colonization of healthy children with Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for different infections. Detection of colonized individuals with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and its eradication is the proper prevention strategy for infection spread in the community and health-care centers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antibiotic resistance pattern among healthy children who were nasal carrie...

  17. Melittin, a honeybee venom-derived antimicrobial peptide, may target methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Choi, Ji Hae; JANG, A YEUNG; Lin, Shunmei; Lim, Sangyong; Kim, Dongho; Park, Kyungho; Han, Sang-Mi; YEO, JOO-HONG; Seo, Ho Seong

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is difficult to treat using available antibiotic agents. Honeybee venom has been widely used as an oriental treatment for several inflammatory diseases and bacterial infections. The venom contains predominantly biologically active compounds, however, the therapeutic effects of such materials when used to treat MRSA infections have not been investigated extensively. The present study evaluated bee venom and its principal active component, meli...

  18. Role of Berberine in the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    Ming Chu; Ming-bo Zhang; Yan-chen Liu; Jia-rui Kang; Zheng-yun Chu; Kai-lin Yin; Ling-yu Ding; Ran Ding; Rong-xin Xiao; Yi-nan Yin; Xiao-yan Liu; Yue-dan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used in the treatment of microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that berberine can enhance the inhibitory efficacy of antibiotics against clinical multi-drug resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of berberine exhibited no bactericidal activity against MRSA, but affected MRSA b...

  19. Ceftaroline Fosamil Use in 2 Pediatric Patients With Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    Williams, Amanda W.; Newman, Patrick M; Ocheltree, Sara; Beaty, Rachel; Hassoun, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is one of the most common pathogens causing pediatric infections including skin and soft tissue infections, pyogenic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and septic shock. For decades, patients were treated with antibiotics such as vancomycin and clindamycin, but there is an increasing incidence of resistance to these traditional therapies. We describe 2 cases of patients with CA-MRSA invasive infections with bacteremia who exper...

  20. Experimental Endocarditis Model of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Rat

    Hady, Wessam Abdel; Bayer, Arnold S.; Xiong, Yan Q.

    2012-01-01

    Endovascular infections, including endocarditis, are life-threatening infectious syndromes1-3. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common world-wide cause of such syndromes with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality even with appropriate antimicrobial agent treatments4-6. The increase in infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the high rates of vancomycin clinical treatment failures and growing problems of linezolid and daptomycin resistance have all further complicated th...

  1. Molecular characteristics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonizing surgical patients in Greece.

    Hadjihannas, Linos; Psichogiou, Mina; Empel, Joanna; Kosmidis, Chris; Goukos, Dimitrios; Bouzala, Jina; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Harbarth, Stephan; Daikos, George L

    2012-12-01

    Fifty-one of 925 patients screened for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) upon admission to a surgical unit were MRSA carriers; 15 were classified as community- and 36 as hospital-associated-MRSA. Fourteen of 22 isolates typed by molecular methods belonged to the European clone ST80-IVc, 3 of which exhibited resistance to ≥3 non-β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:23021063

  2. Increasing the efficiency of a targeted methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening program.

    Goldsack, Jennifer C; DeRitter, Christine; Power, Michelle; Spencer, Amy; Taylor, Cynthia L; Manta, Christine J; Kirk, Ryan; Drees, Marci L

    2016-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team implemented a screening program targeting patients with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), to reduce unnecessary contact isolation. After converting from a 2-step culture-based protocol to single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, we increased the efficiency of the screening program from 77% to 100%. Despite the higher cost of PCR-based testing, this program remained cost-saving. PMID:26769283

  3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus Infection in an Irradiated Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Shipley, Steven T; Tatarov, Ivan I; DeTolla, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus infection in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). The nonhuman primate described was part of a research project that involved whole-body gamma irradiation and subsequently developed acute generalized dermatitis with skin dryness, peeling, and erythema around the eyes. After initial evaluation, which included microbiologic culture and 6 d of medical treatment, the animal was euthanized due to concern regarding a possible outbr...

  4. Evaluation of four phenotypic methods for the rapid identification of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Narasinga R. Bandaru; Srinivas Budati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a superbug has been recognized as one of the major pathogens in hospitals as well as community settings. The prevalence of MRSA is 30 and ndash;70% and many studies have suggested an alarming rate of infections caused by this organism. In spite of modern diagnostic procedures and technological advancement, infections caused by MRSA still remain difficult to diagnose in developing countries like India. We tried to evaluate four ph...

  5. Classifying spa Types in Complexes Improves Interpretation of Typing Results for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Ruppitsch, Werner; Indra, Alexander; Stöger, Anna; Mayer, Barbara; Stadlbauer, Silke; Wewalka, Günther; Allerberger, Franz

    2006-01-01

    A total of 382 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus originating from three Austrian regions and one adjacent Italian region (Vienna, Lower Austria, North Tyrol, and South Tyrol) were typed by DNA sequence analysis of the variable repeat region of the protein A gene (spa typing). The strain collection consisted of arbitrarily chosen isolates originating from clinical specimens taken in the years 2003 to 2005 at 17 hospitals. The most common spa types found were t001 (28.8% o...

  6. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Epidemiology and Clinical Consequences of an Emerging Epidemic

    David, Michael Z.; Daum, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), endovascular infections, pneumonia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were once confined largely to hospitals, other health care environments, and patients frequenting these facilities. Since the mid-1990s, however, there has been an explosion in the number of MRSA infections reported in populations l...

  7. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST9 in Pigs in Thailand

    Jesper Larsen; Maho Imanishi; Soawapak Hinjoy; Prasit Tharavichitkul; Kwanjit Duangsong; Davis, Meghan F; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community-associated pathogen. Recently, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) has emerged and disseminated in Europe and North America and now constitutes a considerable zoonotic burden in humans with risk factors of pig exposure, whereas the extent of the livestock reservoir is relatively unknown on other continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March through April 2011, MRSA was identified i...

  8. The costs and consequences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection treatments in Canada

    Rosner, Andrew J; Becker, Debbie L; Wong, Angelina H; Elizabeth Miller; John M Conly

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multinational randomized controlled trial has shown a trend toward early discharge of patients taking oral linezolid versus intravenous vancomycin (IV) in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Infection treatments resulting in shorter hospitalization durations are associated with cost savings from the hospital perspective.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether similar economic advantages are associated with oral linezolid, the costs and consequ...

  9. Mechanisms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis

    Perrone, Erin E.; Jung, Enjae; Breed, Elise; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T.; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia-induced sepsis is a common cause of morbidity in the intensive care unit. Although pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, extrapulmonary manifestations occur commonly. In light of the key role the intestine plays in the pathophysiology of sepsis, we sought to determine whether MRSA pneumonia induces intestinal injury. FVB/N mice were subjected to MRSA or sham pneumonia and sacrificed 24 hours later. Septic animals had a marked increas...

  10. Kinase Inhibitors that Increase the Sensitivity of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-Lactam Antibiotics

    Jay Vornhagen; Kellie Burnside; Christopher Whidbey; Jessica Berry; Xuan Qin; Lakshmi Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus are Gram-positive bacteria that are the leading cause of recurrent infections in humans that include pneumonia, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. The emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) has imposed a significant concern in sustained measures of treatment against these infections. Recently, MRSA strains deficient in expression of a serine/threonine kinase (Stk1 or PknB) were described to exhibit increased...

  11. Epidemiological Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Children with Eczematous Atopic Dermatitis Lesions▿

    Chung, Hee-Jung; Jeon, Hong-Seon; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the rate of colonization of skin of children with atopic dermatitis (AD) by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and characterized the isolates. Active skin lesions in pediatric AD patients were cultured with Rodac Staph (Komed, Korea). S. aureus isolates were examined for drug susceptibilities, analyzed for the eta, etb, tst, and pvl genes, and typed using agr polymorphism, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-restricted chromosomal DNA, and s...

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health

    AnnalisaPantosti

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbioma and resistoma, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged fifty years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become...

  13. Incidence of Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in a Regional Hospital

    Kawabata, Hidenobu; Murakami, Manabu; Kisa, Kengo; Maezawa, Masaji

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Since the early 2000s, the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections among the community of people lacking known healthcare risk factors has increased. This MRSA infection is referred to as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infection and is distinct from hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) infection, which occurs among people with known healthcare risk factors. Understanding the epidemiology of CA-MRSA infections is critical; however...

  14. Cross-Border Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin Region

    Deurenberg, Ruud H.; Nulens, Eric; Valvatne, Havard; Sebastian, Silvie; Driessen, Christel; Craeghs, Jos; De Brauwer, Els; Heising, Bernhard; Kraat, Yvette J.; Riebe, Joachim; Stals, Frans S.; Trienekens, Thera A.; Scheres, Jacques; Friedrich, Alexander W.; van Tiel, Frank H.

    2009-01-01

    Because the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) differs among the 3 countries forming the Euregio Meuse-Rhin (EMR) region (Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands), cross-border healthcare requires information about the spread of MRSA in the EMR. We investigated the emergence, dissemination, and diversity of MRSA clones in the EMR by using several typing methods. MRSA associated with clonal complexes 5, 8, 30, and 45 was disseminated throughout the EMR. Dutch isolat...

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Perry, John D.; Davies, Amie; Butterworth, Lynne A.; Hopley, Andrew L. J.; Nicholson, Audrey; Gould, F. Kate

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMérieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the selection of MRSA from other strains of S. aureus. MRSA ID (c...

  16. Evaluation of a New Chromogenic Medium, MRSA Select, for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Louie, Lisa; Soares, Deirdre; Meaney, Helen; Vearncombe, Mary; Simor, Andrew E

    2006-01-01

    We compared MRSA Select to mannitol-salt agar with 8 μg/ml cefoxitin for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from 6,199 clinical samples submitted for MRSA screening. The sensitivities and specificities of MRSA Select and mannitol-salt agar with cefoxitin were 98% and 92% versus 90% and 78%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Most (96%) MRSA were detected after overnight incubation using MRSA Select.

  17. Predictive Value of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Nasal Swab PCR Assay for MRSA Pneumonia

    Dangerfield, Benjamin; Chung, Andrew; Webb, Brandon; Seville, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with poor outcomes and frequently merits empirical antibiotic consideration despite its relatively low incidence. Nasal colonization with MRSA is associated with clinical MRSA infection and can be reliably detected using the nasal swab PCR assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the nasal swab MRSA PCR in predicting MRSA pneumonia. A retrospective cohort study was performed in a tertiary care cente...

  18. The Increasing Problem of Wound Bacterial Burden and Infection in Acute and Chronic Soft-Tissue Wounds Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Demling, Robert H.; Waterhouse, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of colonization and infection in both acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds. Objective: Our objective is to define this current epidemic problem caused by both community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), focusing on the similarities and differences between these 2 isolates as well as the impact on wound management decisions. Methods: Methods used include a literature review on the growth o...

  19. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] colonization or carriage among health-care workers.

    Pathare, Nirmal A; Asogan, Harshini; Tejani, Sara; Al Mahruqi, Gaitha; Al Fakhri, Salma; Zafarulla, Roshna; Pathare, Anil V

    2016-01-01

    In Oman, the prevalence of health care associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [HA-MRSA] is unknown. Therefore, to estimate the prevalence of HA-MRSA, we collected nasal swabs and swabs from cell phones on sterile polyester swabs and immediately inoculated on the mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin from medical students and hospital health care providers. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was then performed using the Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Additionally, a brief survey questionnaire was used to acquire demographic data. Amongst the 311 participants enrolled, nasal colonization with HA-MRSA was found in 47 individuals (15.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=11.1%, 19.1%). HA-MRSA was also isolated from the cell phone surfaces in 28 participants (9.0%, 95% CI=8.6%, 9.3%). 5 participants (1.6%) showed positive results both from their nasal swabs and from their cell phones. Antibiotic resistance to erythromycin [48%] and clindamycin [29%] was relatively high. 9.3% HA-MRSA isolates were vancomycin resistant [6.6% nasal carriage]. There was no statistically significant correlation between HA-MRSA isolates and the demographic characteristics or the risk factors namely gender, underlying co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, skin/soft tissue infections, skin ulcers/wounds, recent exposure to antibiotics, or hospital visits (p>0.05, Chi-square test). PMID:26768668

  20. The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of sophoraflavanone B against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Mun, Su-Hyun; Joung, Dae-Ki; Kim, Sung-Bae; Park, Sung-Joo; Seo, Yun-Soo; Gong, Ryong; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shin, Dong-Won; Rho, Jung-Rae; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2014-03-01

    Sophoraflavanone B (SPF-B), a prenylated flavonoid, can be isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of SPF-B's antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a multidrug-resistant pathogen and the main cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of SPF-B was assessed using the broth microdilution method. The mechanism of action of SPF-B on S. aureus was analyzed in combination assays incorporating detergents, ATPase inhibitors, and peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from S. aureus. Furthermore, morphological changes in the SPF-B-treated MRSA strains were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The MIC of SPF-B for MRSA was in the range of 15.6-31.25 μg/mL. The mechanism of action of SPF-B on MRSA was investigated using combination assays with detergent and ATPase inhibitors. The optical density at 600 nm of MRSA suspensions treated with a combination of detergent and SPF-B reduced the MRSA by 63%-73%. In the SPF-B and PGN combination assay, direct binding of SPF-B with PGN from S. aureus was evident. These data may be validated for the development of new antibacterial drugs for low MRSA resistance. PMID:24601672

  1. Alternative agents to vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Culos, Kathryn A; Cannon, Joan P; Grim, Shellee A

    2013-01-01

    Resistant gram-positive infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carry an increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Historically, MRSA has been a cause of nosocomial infections, although recent reports have noted an increased prevalence in community-acquired MRSA infections. Vancomycin is the preferred agent to treat MRSA. However, cases of S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin have been reported, prompting the need for alternative treatment options. In this review, we discuss the currently available agents with MRSA activity and those in development. Linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been demonstrated as effective although potential toxicities must be taken into consideration before their use. Daptomycin, tigecycline, telavancin, and ceftaroline are well tolerated but lack the clinical data to support a superior place in treatment over vancomycin. Several new agents in various stages of development have also demonstrated MRSA activity. Currently, vancomycin remains the gold-standard treatment option for MRSA infections. In situations that limit its use, consideration of patient-specific parameters, cost, and relevant clinical data demonstrating drug safety and efficacy should be employed for the selection of the appropriate alternative agent. PMID:21642833

  2. Comparison of different phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Abbas Farahani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is known as a powerful pathogen that causes various infections. Emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MSRA is responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections worldwide. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance and ability of eight different phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of MSRA. Materials and Methods: A total of 186 S. aureus isolates were defined as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA; 95 and MSRA (91 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as the gold standard. Susceptibility to methicillin was investigated using oxacillin, methicillin, cefotetan, cefoxitin, and cefmetazole disks, by oxacillin Adata Tab and strips. For all S. aureus isolates minimal inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin were determined using the broth microdilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among the diagnostic methods studied, broth microdilution and the cefoxitin disk had the highest specificity (98.9 and 94.7%, sensitivity (100 and 98.9%, and concordance with PCR results (98.9 and 93.6%. The cefotetan and cefmetazole disks had the lowest concordance with PCR results. Conclusion: Our results suggest that microdilution and cefoxitin disk methods have high sensitivities compared with other methods for detection of MSRA. The cefoxitin disk method may be preferred in clinical laboratories because it is easy to perform and does not require special equipment.

  3. Staphylococcus species and their Methicillin-Resistance in 7424 Blood Cultures for Suspected Bloodstream Infections

    Ariana ALMAŞ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Staphylococcus species in bloodstream infections and to assess their susceptibility to methicillin. Material and Methods: Between January 1st 2008 - December 31st 2010, 7424 blood culture sets were submitted to the Laboratory Department of the Hospital for Clinical Infectious Diseases in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The blood cultures were performed using BacT/Alert until January 2010 and BacT/Alert 3D automated system (bioMérieux after that date. The blood culture bottles were incubated at 37°C in a continuously monitoring system for up to 7 days. The strain identifications were performed by conventional methods, ApiStaph galleries and Vitek 2 Compact system. Susceptibility to methicillin was determined by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin disk and by using Vitek 2 Compact system. Results: From the total number of performed blood cultures, 568 were positive with Staphylococcus species. From 168 bacteriemic episodes 103 were with Staphylococcus aureus. Among 65 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (34, followed by Staphylococcus hominis (15, Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (3, Staphylococcus cohnii (1, Staphylococcus auricularis (1, and 3 strains that were not identified at species level. Methicillin resistance was encountered in 53.40% of Staphylococcus aureus strains and in 80% of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: An important percentage of blood cultures were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. The main species identified in true bacteriemia cases were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The percentage of methicillin-resistance, proved to be high not only for coagulase-negative staphylococci but also for Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medicine: a "new emerging pathogen"?].

    Walther, Birgit; Friedrich, Alexander W; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2006-01-01

    The problem of nosocomial infections is of increasing importance in veterinary medicine. As an example, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a typical example, as these pathogens are the most important agents of nosocomial infections in human medicine worldwide and are being increasingly reported in veterinary medicine. MRSA are classified by their ability to be resistant against oxacillin/methicillin, this feature being confered by mecA, a gene which was acquired by horizontal gene transfer of the staphylococcal gene cassette (SCCmec). It is this genetic information that enables MRSA to be resistant against all penicillins, cehalosporins and carbapenems. In addition, MRSA are often resistant against a variety of other antiinfectives, i.e. aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamide, streptomycins, tetracyclin, chloramphenicol, but also against fluorquinolones and rifampicin. Presumably, these highly adapted strains are particularly able to acquire resistance genes located on plasmids or transposons. They are also able to develop point mutations, further leading to resistant phenotypes. If these pathogens are leading to infectious diseases, veterinarians may be confronted with a worst-case scenario, being left without any antiinfective therapeutic. As Staphylococcus aureus is highly tenacid, professional hygiene management is of utmost importance. The increasing number of published sporadic MRSA infections, MRSA-infectious diseases as well as MRSA outbreaks in veterinary medicine justifies their recognition as a "New Emerging Pathogen". So far, horses and dogs are mostly affected by MRSA. Although transmission between humans and animals has been reported occasionally, the sources, routes of transmission or the epidemiological relevance of MRSA infections in animals are far from being understood. Therefore, epidemiological investigations utilizing molecular typing tools are mandatory. Typing tools like

  5. Laboratory evaluation of phenotypic detection methods of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Arunava Kali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests are most commonly performed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, the results of these phenotypic tests are dependent on the standardization of the culture conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the conventional phenotypic screening tests in comparison to the mecA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and two clinical isolates of MRSA identified by the oxacillin disk diffusion were subjected to PCR for the mecA gene and by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test and culture on oxacillin screen agar, mannitol salt agar, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Agar (MeReSA selective medium, for MRSA. Although all 102 isolates were resistant in oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion, 92 (90.1% isolates were positive for the mecA gene. The sensitivities of the mannitol salt agar, MeReSA agar, and oxacillin screen agar were 89.13, 97.82, and 98.91%, respectively. The oxacillin screen agar may be recommended for confirming methicillin resistance in the disk diffusion test in resource-poor settings, where molecular methods are not available.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Korea.

    Nam, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Ae-Li; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Mal-Nam; Jang, Geum-Chan; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-02-01

    A total of 402 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk collected during 2003-2009 in Korea were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to 11 of 20 antimicrobials tested; no resistance was observed against pirlimycin, telithromycin, novobiocin, penicillin/novobiocin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, clindamycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, trimethprim/sulfamethoxazol, vancomycin, and linezolid. Over 66% of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin. Resistance was also seen for gentamicin (11.9%), erythromycin (7.7%), methicillin (oxacillin and cefoxitin, 6.2%), and tetracycline (4.2%). No noticeable change was observed in penicillin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance over the 7-year period. Tetracycline resistance appeared to decrease consistently, whereas methicillin resistance was observed from 2005. About 2.7% (11/402) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Genotyping of the 17 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from each cow revealed two staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (IV and IVa), three spa types (t286, t324, and untypable), and two sequence types (ST1 and ST72). Eleven of 17 (64.7%) MRSA strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t324-ST72. The rest of strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t286-ST1 (n = 3) and SCCmec IV-untypable-ST72 (n = 3). None of the MRSA carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. These characteristics are the same as those found in community-acquired (CA) MRSA strains prevalent in humans in Korea. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types (A-C) were observed among the 17 MRSA strains examined, and 14 strains belonged to the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern regardless of their geographical origin and year of isolation. The results of this study provide evidence of CA-MRSA infection in dairy cattle for the first time in Korea. PMID:21034263

  7. Treating Central Catheter-Associated Bacteremia Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Beyond Vancomycin.

    Holt, Shannon; Thompson-Brazill, Kelly A; Sparks, E Ryan; Lipetzky, Juliana

    2016-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of hospital-associated infections, including central catheter-associated bacteremia. Vancomycin has been the drug of choice for treating this type of bacteremia for decades in patients who have no contraindications to the antibiotic. However, resistance to vancomycin is an emerging problem. Newer antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug Administration have activity against methicillin-resistant S aureus Some of the antibiotics also have activity against strains of S aureus that are intermediately susceptible or resistant to vancomycin. This article uses a case study to highlight the clinical signs of vancomycin failure and describes the indications for and appropriate use of alternative antimicrobials such as ceftaroline, daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and telavancin. (Critical Care Nurse 2016;36[4]:46-57). PMID:27481801

  8. A laboratory study of susceptibility of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Objective: To study the mode of infection, incidence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and their susceptibility against glycopeptides and fucidic acid, so that awareness may be created for consultants against such notorious rapidly spreading bacteria and recommendation can be made for their prevention and control. Methods: The specimens from various infections suspected on clinical ground were processed by standard methods and antibiotic susceptibility testing of all the 350 S. aureus and 135 MRSA isolates was done by using modified Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion technique. Results: Of 350 positive S.aureus cultures, 135 were found to be Methicillin resistant (38.5%) which showed susceptibility 96%, 94% and 86% to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Fucidic acid respectively. Conclusion: This study showed a high incidence of MRSA at Mayo Hospital Lahore, Glycopeptides and Fucidic acid were found to be valuable antibiotics against MRSA. (author)

  9. Colonization of butchers with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Boost, Maureen; Ho, J.; Guardabassi, Luca;

    2013-01-01

    Reports have documented colonization of swine in Europe, North America and more recently in China with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). Contamination of pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers with these strains has been observed. However, although...... collected from 300 pork butchers at markets throughout Hong Kong were enriched in brain heart infusion broth with 5% salt and cultured on MRSASelect(®) . Isolates were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus and susceptibility testing performed. The presence of mecA was confirmed, SCCmec and spa type determined...

  10. Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod;

    2007-01-01

    In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for <15 isolates per year during 1980-2002. However, since 2003 an epidemic increase has been observed, with 33 MRSA cases in 2003 and 110 in 2004. We analyzed these 143 cases epidemiologically and characterized isolates by...... pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Seventy-one percent of cases were community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA); of these, 36% had no...

  11. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly from clinical samples: methods, effectiveness and cost considerations

    Stürenburg, E

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is a serious public health problem whose ever-increasing rate is commensurate with the pressure it is exerting on the healthcare system. At present, more than 20% of clinical S. aureus isolates in German hospitals are methicillin resistant. Strategies from low-prevalence countries show that this development is not necessarily inevitable. In the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, thanks to a rigorous prevention programme, M...

  12. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly from clinical samples: methods, effectiveness and cost considerations

    Stürenburg, Enno

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is a serious public health problem whose ever-increasing rate is commensurate with the pressure it is exerting on the healthcare system. At present, more than 20% of clinical S. aureus isolates in German hospitals are methicillin resistant. Strategies from low-prevalence countries show that this development is not necessarily inevitable. In the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, thanks to a rigorous prevention programme, MRS...

  13. Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test

    van Leeuwen, Willem; Pelt, Cindy; Luijendijk, Ad; Verbrugh, Henri; Goessens, Wil

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) antigen in 87 of 90 genetically diverse methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) stock culture strains, leading to a sensitivity of 97%. The three discrepant MRSA strains displayed positive results only after induction o...

  14. Prophylactic Effect of Vancomycin on Infection after Cranioplasty in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Carriers with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Bang, Jin Hyuk; Cho, Keun-Tae; Park, Seong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) are major causes of neurosurgical infection. Nasal colonization of MRSA is the most important risk factor and MRSA screening can be a screening method to identify MRSA and MRCNS colonization. We retrospectively evaluated prophylactic effect of vancomycin on MRSA or MRCNS surgical site infection (SSI) after cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy (DC) after t...

  15. Frequency and Treatment of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Obstetric and Gynaecological Sepsis

    Objective: To perform culture and sensitivity for pathogens causing puerperal and postoperative wound sepsis and determine the frequency of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in such infections. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Ward, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from December 2008 to May 2010. Methodology: All patients presenting with puerperal sepsis or postoperative wound infection were enrolled. Pus was collected for culture and sensitivity using standard technique. Two samples were taken from each patient; one before starting the treatment and one at the end of treatment. Ames transport medium was used. Empirical treatment with triple regimen (Ampicillin, Metronidazole and Gentamicin) was started immediately to cover Gram positive as well as negative bacteria in addition to anaerobic infection. After receiving the sensitivity report, antimicrobial agent were changed accordingly. Samples from ward and theater staff and environment were also taken to look for possible mode of transmission. Data was recorded on a proforma. Discrete variables are expressed as percentages. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent organism isolated in 34.6% cases. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was seen in 20% cases and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was seen in 14.6%. Out of these 14.6% MRSA, (17) 77% was associated with puerperal sepsis and rest (5) 23% was associated with postoperative wound infection. It showed best sensitivity to vancomycin. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were common causative agent of postoperative infections and puerperal sepsis. (author)

  16. Genetic behavior of the methicillin resistance determinant in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Stewart, G C; Rosenblum, E D

    1980-01-01

    The cotransformation frequency of mecC5 with pur-102 using Staphylococcus aureus C5 deoxyribonucleic acid was found to be approximately 45%. However, in cotransduction studies, there was a 15% cotransduction of purine prototrophy and methicillin sensitivity but, in the reciprocal cross, no purine-prototrophic plus Mecr cotransductants were obtained (frequency less than 0.06%). The data support the hypothesis that the mec determinant resides on an inserted deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in S. ...

  17. Diversity of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Elements in Predominant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones in a Small Geographic Area ▿

    Basset, Patrick; Senn, Laurence; Vogel, Valérie; Zanetti, Giorgio; Blanc, Dominique S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent population genetic studies suggest that staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) was acquired much more frequently than previously thought. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the diversity of SCCmec elements in a local methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) population. Each MRSA isolate (one per patient) recovered in the Vaud canton of Switzerland from January 2005 to December 2008 was analyzed by the double-locus sequence typing (DLST) method and SCCmec t...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of PVP from an Antarctic bacterium, Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2, on multi-drug and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Huang, Jonathan P.; Mojib, Nazia; Goli, Rakesh R.; Watkins, Samantha; Ken B Waites; Ravindra, Rasik; Andersen, Dale T.; Bej, Asim K.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple drug resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become increasingly prevalent as a community acquired infection. As a result limited treatment options are available with conventional synthetic antibiotics. Bioprospecting natural products with potent antimicrobial activity show promise for developing new drugs against this pathogen. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of a purple violet pigment (PVP) from an Antarctic bacteri...

  19. Impact of Vancomycin on sarA-Mediated Biofilm Formation: Role in Persistent Endovascular Infections Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Abdelhady, W; Bayer, A S; Seidl, K; Moormeier, D E; Bayles, K W; Cheung, A.; Yeaman, M R; Xiong, Y Q

    2014-01-01

    Background. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of endovascular infections. The staphylococcal accessory regulator A locus (sarA) is a major virulence determinant that may potentially impact methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) persistence in such infections via its influence on biofilm formation. Methods. Two healthcare-associated MRSA isolates from patients with persistent bacteremia and 2 prototypical community-acquired MRSA strains, as well as their respective isogenic sar...

  20. Current Concepts in Antimicrobial Therapy Against Select Gram-Positive Organisms: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococci, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    Rivera, Ana Maria; Boucher, Helen W.

    2011-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria cause a broad spectrum of disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Despite increasing knowledge about resistance transmission patterns and new antibiotics, these organisms continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the health care setting. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus poses major problems worldwide as a cause of nosocomial infection and has emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections. This change in epidemi...

  1. Comparison of multi-drug resistant environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] isolated from recreational beaches and high touch surfaces in built environments

    MarilynCRoberts; OlusegunOSoge

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major cause of disease in the general population with no health care exposure or known classical risk factors for MRSA infections. The potential community reservoirs have not been well defined though certain strains such as ST398 and USA300 have been well studied in some settings. MRSA has been isolated from recreational beaches, high-touch surfaces in homes, universities, and other com...

  2. Molecular Studies on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    The present study of the MecA gene in our clinical isolates has been detected and verified by antibiotic disc diffusion test and nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Part of the product of the second PCR was also sequenced. The results indicated 97.7% similarity between the sequences of the mecA gene isolated from an Egyptian Staphylococcus aureus strain and that compared from Staphylococcus aureus strain no. GI46628 cited at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) database under accession number Y00688 in the region from nucleotide 467 to 875. The effect of gamma-radiation on these isolates was observed by plotting the dose survival curves of these isolates and determining their D10 values. Their D10 values were found to be ranged from 0.44 to 0.66 kGy. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were also carried out after exposure of Oxacillin-susceptible isolate to sub -lethal doses of γ-radiation.Results indicated that Staphylococcus aureus isolates which were sensitive to oxacillin discs were found by PCR to harbor the mecA gene in their genomes. Also, exposure of a sensitive isolate to sublethal doses of gamma radiation led to the emergence of a oxacillin-resistant variant which could be a serious problem in case of using sub-lethal doses of radiation for the sterilization of medical products

  3. Missense mutations in PBP2A Affecting ceftaroline susceptibility detected in epidemic hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonotypes ST228 and ST247 in Western Switzerland archived since 1998.

    Kelley, William L; Jousselin, Ambre; Barras, Christine; Lelong, Emmanuelle; Renzoni, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed ceftaroline-resistant strains (MIC, >1 μg/ml in 40/60 strains; EUCAST breakpoints, susceptible [S], ≤1 μg/ml; resistant [R], >1 μg/ml) were present from 1998 to 2003. The detected resistant strains predominantly belonged to sequence type 228 (ST228) (South German clonotype) but also to ST247 (Iberian clonotype). A sequence analysis of these strains revealed missense mutations in the penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A) allosteric domain (N146K or E239K and N146K-E150K-G246E). The majority of our ST228 PBP2A mutations (N146K or E150K) were distinct from ST228 PBP2A allosteric domain mutations (primarily E239K) recently described for MRSA strains collected in Thailand and Spain during the 2010 Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) global surveillance program. We also found that similar allosteric domain PBP2A mutations (N146K) correlated with ceftaroline resistance in an independent external ST228 MRSA set obtained from the nearby University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, collected from 2003 to 2008. Thus, ceftaroline resistance was observed in our archived strains (including two examples of an MIC of 4 µg/ml for the Iberian ST247 clonotype with the triple mutation N146K/E150K/G246E), at least as far back as 1998, considerably predating the commercial introduction of ceftaroline. Our results reinforce the notion that unknown parameters can potentially exert selective pressure on PBP2A that can subsequently modulate ceftaroline

  4. PCR-based identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and their antibiotic resistance profiles

    Abazar Pournajaf; Abdollah Ardebili; Leyla Goudarzi; Mahmoud Khodabandeh; Tahmineh Narimani; Hassan Abbaszadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluated the PCR for mecA gene compared with the conventional oxacillin disk diffusion method for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) identification. Methods: A total of 292 S. aureus strains were isolated from various clinical specimens obtained from hospitalized patients. Susceptibility test to several antimicrobial agents was performed by disk diffusion agar according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The PCR amplification of the mecA gene was carried out in all the clinical isolates.Results:activity and vancomycin was the most effective. The rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus prevalence determined by oxacillin disk diffusion method was 47.6%; whereas, 45.1% of S. aureus isolates were mecA- positive in the PCR assay. Among antibiotics used in our study, penicillin showed the least anti-staphylococcal Conclusions: This study is suggestive that the PCR for detection of mecA gene is a fast, accurate and valuable diagnostic tool, particularly in hospitals in areas where methicillin-resistant S. aureus is endemic.

  5. Key genetic elements and regulation systems in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), popularly known as a type of superbug, has been a serious challenge for animal and human health. S. aureus has developed methicillin resistance mainly by expression of β-lactamase and PBP2a, which is regulated by the blaZ-blaI-blaR1 and mecA-mecI-mecRI systems. Other genetic elements, including murE and femA, also participate in expression of methicillin resistance, but the mechanism remains unclear. The evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec determines the epidemiological risk of MRSA. The plasmid-located gene cfr might contribute to multiresistance and transmission of MRSA. Some virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol-soluble modulin, arginine catabolic mobile element and other toxin elements enhance the pathogenesis and fitness of MRSA. Two-component regulation systems (agr, saeRS and vraRS) are closely associated with pathogenesis and drug resistance of MRSA. The systematic exploration of key genetic elements and regulation systems involved in multidrug resistance/pathogenesis/transmission of MRSA is conclusively integrated into this review, providing fundamental information for the development of new antimicrobial agents and the establishment of reasonable antibiotic stewardship to reduce the risk of this superbug. PMID:23075449

  6. Prospective Analysis Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its Risk Factors

    Abdallah, Soad A; Al-Asfoor, Khulood K; Salama, Mona F; Al-Awadi, Bashayer M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the early nineties, a new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has existed in a form correlating with community health personnel. Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) could be differentiated from healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) microbiologically, epidemiologically, and molecularly. Aims: To determine the prevalence, risk factors of MRSA infections in community and hospital. Settings: The incidence and risk factors for CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA among patients of medical, surgical, and pediatrics wards and ICU at a Kuwaiti teaching hospital between 1 March 2011 and 30 November 2011 were studied. Materials and Methods: Cultures for MRSA were taken from nasal (nostril), groin, axilla, wound, sputum, or throat, and the inguinal area in all enrolled patients upon admission. All preserved isolates were examined for their susceptibility to different types of antibiotics. Results and Conclusion: A total of 71 MRSA patients admitted to different hospital wards were examined. Among these patients, 52 (73.2%) were carriers of MRSA before they were admitted to the hospital. Nineteen patients (26.8%) were found to have acquired MRSA during their stay in the hospital. Twenty-nine patients (40.8%) were given mupirocin local skin antibiotic. Binomial and the t-test (paired) were used to compare the prevalence of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA; significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the type of MRSA and different wards, sites, and lengths of hospital stay was found. The level of serum albumin that is routinely measured at hospital admission is a predictor to MRSA infection. This study suggests that S. aureus and MRSA should become a national priority for disease control to avoid outbreaks. PMID:23599613

  7. Use of oligoarrays for characterization of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Koessler, Thibaud; Francois, Patrice; Charbonnier, Yvan; Huyghe, Antoine; Bento, Manuela; Dharan, Sasi; Renzi, Gesuele; Lew, Daniel; Harbarth, Stephan; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was considered the prototype of a hospital-acquired bacterial pathogen. However, recent reports have shown that MRSA has now emerged in the community. Characterization of specific markers for distinguishing the origin of isolates could contribute to improved knowledge of MRSA epidemiology. The release of whole-genome sequences of hospital- and community-acquired S. aureus strains allowed the development of whole-genome content analysis techniques, including microarrays. We developed a microarray composed of 8,191 open reading frame-specific oligonucleotides covering >99% of the four sequenced S. aureus genomes (N315, Mu50, MW2, and COL) to evaluate gene contents of hospital- and community-onset S. aureus strains. In parallel, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable number of tandem repeats, antibiogram, staphylococcal cassette chromosome-mec element typing, and presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene were evaluated in a collection of 15 clinical isolates. Clusters obtained with microarrays showed a high degree of similarity with those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or variable number of tandem repeats. Clusters clearly segregated hospital-onset strains from community-onset strains. Moreover, the microarray approach allowed definition of novel marker genes and chromosomal regions specific for given groups of isolates, thus providing better discrimination and additional information compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and variable number of tandem repeats. Finally, the comparative genome hybridization approach unraveled the occurrence of multiple horizontal transfer events leading to community-onset MRSA as well as the need for a specific genetic background in recipient strains for both the acquisition and the stability of the mec element. PMID:16517892

  8. Use of Oligoarrays for Characterization of Community-Onset Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Koessler, Thibaud; Francois, Patrice; Charbonnier, Yvan; Huyghe, Antoine; Bento, Manuela; Dharan, Sasi; Renzi, Gesuele; Lew, Daniel; Harbarth, Stephan; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was considered the prototype of a hospital-acquired bacterial pathogen. However, recent reports have shown that MRSA has now emerged in the community. Characterization of specific markers for distinguishing the origin of isolates could contribute to improved knowledge of MRSA epidemiology. The release of whole-genome sequences of hospital- and community-acquired S. aureus strains allowed the development of whole-genome content analysis techniques, including microarrays. We developed a microarray composed of 8,191 open reading frame-specific oligonucleotides covering >99% of the four sequenced S. aureus genomes (N315, Mu50, MW2, and COL) to evaluate gene contents of hospital- and community-onset S. aureus strains. In parallel, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable number of tandem repeats, antibiogram, staphylococcal cassette chromosome-mec element typing, and presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene were evaluated in a collection of 15 clinical isolates. Clusters obtained with microarrays showed a high degree of similarity with those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or variable number of tandem repeats. Clusters clearly segregated hospital-onset strains from community-onset strains. Moreover, the microarray approach allowed definition of novel marker genes and chromosomal regions specific for given groups of isolates, thus providing better discrimination and additional information compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and variable number of tandem repeats. Finally, the comparative genome hybridization approach unraveled the occurrence of multiple horizontal transfer events leading to community-onset MRSA as well as the need for a specific genetic background in recipient strains for both the acquisition and the stability of the mec element. PMID:16517892

  9. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database....... The database can be applied for identification of virulence genes in S. aureus using whole genome 5 sequence data. The S. aureus VirulenceFinder will be part of the tool package generated for the Centre for Genomic Epidemiology (CGE) (www.genomicepidemiology.org)....

  10. Antibacterial activity of mupirocin (pseudomonic Acid A) against, clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    Colonized patients and health care workers are the main source of spread of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. The elimination of nasal colonized MRSA plays a crucial role in infection control protocols. Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A) is used for eradication of MRSA nasal carriage. Increasing use of pseudomonic acid A (mupirocin) has led to emergence of resistance. Objective To determine low and high level resistance of MRSA isolates from clinical specimens against mupirocin. Place and duration of study: Study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2006 to June 2007. Material and methods Three hundred methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were studied. All clinical specimens were processed for culture and sensitivity. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were tested for methicillin resistance using 1 micro g oxacillin disk. The isolates were further tested by PCR for the presence of mecA gene. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of mupirocin against MRSA isolates was determined using agar dilution technique. Results Out of 300 MRSA isolates, 98% were found to have MlC against mupirocin as smaller than 4 micro g/mL. Remaining 2% isolates revealed low level resistance (MIC greater than 8 micro g/mL to 256 micro g/mL), no high level resistance (MIC greater than 512 micro g/mL) against mupirocin was detected. Conclusions: High level mupirocin resistance has not emerged so far in our setup. Due to increasing use of mupirocin, emergence of resistance against mupirocin among MRSA is a strong possibility. Strategy encompassing rational use of antimicrobials, hospital infection control, surveillance for the detection of mupirocin resistance and judicious use of this agent is required. (author)

  11. Alternatives to vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Micek, Scott T

    2007-09-15

    Vancomycin remains the reference standard for the treatment of systemic infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, as a result of limited tissue distribution, as well as the emergence of isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin, the need for alternative therapies that target MRSA has become apparent. New treatment options for invasive MRSA infections include linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Additionally, a number of new anti-MRSA compounds are in development, including novel glycopeptides (dalbavancin, telavancin, and oritavancin), ceftobiprole, and iclaprim. The present article will review clinical issues surrounding the newly marketed and investigational agents with activity against MRSA. PMID:17712745

  12. Origins and Evolution of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Lineages

    Gomes, AR; Westh, Henrik; Lancastre, H de

    2006-01-01

    Most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates identified among blood isolates collected in Denmark between 1957 and 1970 belonged to either phage group III or the closely related 83A complex and had a PSTM antibiotype (resistance to penicillin [P], streptomycin [S], tetracycline...... [T], and methicillin [M]). Recently, some of these isolates were shown to have the same genetic backgrounds as contemporary epidemic MRSA isolates, and Danish methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from the 1960s with a PST antibiotype were proposed to have been the recipients of the mec...

  13. Fatal myocardial microabscesses caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a burn patient

    Hsiang-Wei Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia- or sepsis-associated myocardial abscess is often an incidental postmortem diagnosis in patients who die of overwhelming septicemia. Myocardial abscess is more rarely the immediate cause of death as a consequence of abscess rupture or the cause of arrhythmia. We report a 66-year-old female who succumbed to sudden cardiac death with a hemodynamically stable methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bacteremia, while in recovery after an accidental thermal burn. Autopsy revealed extensive myocardial abscesses and an abscess in the pineal gland. Myocardial microabscesses should be considered a rare cause of sudden cardiac death in patients with hemodynamically stable MRSA bacteremia.

  14. Zinc resistance of Staphylococcus aureus of animal origin is strongly associated with methicillin resistance

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of zinc and copper resistances in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from swine and veal calves in a global strain collection.The test population consisted of 476 porcine MRSA isolates from ten European countries, 18 porcine MRSA...... isolates from Canada and seven MRSA from China, 92 MRSA and 60 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from veal calves in the Netherlands and 88 porcine MSSA isolates from four European countries. Most porcine MRSA (n=454) and all bovine MRSA belonged to clonal complex (CC) 398 whereas 37...

  15. Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Ribosome Spacer and Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Essawi, Tamer; Adwan, Kamel; ABU-HASSAN, Nael; ADWAN, Galeb; Saleh, Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates were collected from 3 hospitals in the northern and southern parts of Palestine between February and May 1998. These isolates were typed by ribosome spacer PCR (RS-PCR) and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR). RS-PCR generated 9 different genotypes. The use of AP-PCR provided a high resolution typing method and allowed us to define 11 different clusters. Three major clusters, however, based on the combination of both...

  16. Sternal and costochondral infections with gentamicin and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus following thoracic surgery.

    Cafferkey, M T; Luke, D A; Keane, C T

    1983-01-01

    Six patients in a thoracic unit developed sternal osteomyelitis and costochondritis following median sternotomy. Five of the patients were operated on in another hospital. Gentamicin and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in pure culture in each case. The S. aureus isolate from 2 patients was of the same phage type suggesting cross-infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis administered in the perioperative period was ineffective. One patient, treated with amikacin (to which all of the strains were sensitive in vitro) and cefuroxime, died from overwhelming infection in spite of débridement and resuturing of the wound. The remaining 5 patients were cured with vancomycin therapy usually coupled with surgical intervention. PMID:6557667

  17. Evaluation of Three Rapid Methods for Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Louie, L.; Matsumura, S. O.; Choi, E; Louie, M; Simor, A E

    2000-01-01

    The probe-based Velogene Rapid MRSA Identification Assay (ID Biomedical Corp., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) and the latex agglutination MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Tokyo, Japan) were evaluated for their ability to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and to distinguish strains of MRSA from borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA; mecA-negative, oxacillin MICs of 2 to 8 μg/ml). The Velogene is a 90-min assay using a chimeric probe to detect the mecA ge...

  18. Misidentification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya

    Mohamed O. Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a nosocomial (hospital-acquired pathogen of exceptional concern. It is responsible for life-threatening infections in both the hospital and the community. Aims: To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 Staph System and retested for resistance to methicillin using the cefoxitin disk diffusion susceptibility test and PBP2a. D-tests and vancomycin E-tests (Van-E-tests were also performed for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Results: Of the 170 isolates examined, 86 (51% were confirmed as MRSA (i.e. 49% were misidentified as MRSA. Fifteen (17% of the confirmed MRSA strains exhibited inducible clindamycin resistance. Of the 86 confirmed MRSA isolates, 13 (15% were resistant to mupirocin, 53 (62% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 41 (48% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and none were resistant to linezolid. Although disc-diffusion testing indicated that 23 (27% of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, none of the isolates were vancomycin-resistant by Van-E-test. Conclusions: Misidentification of nosocomial S. aureus as MRSA is a serious problem in Libyan hospitals. There is an urgent need for the proper training of microbiology laboratory technicians in standard antimicrobial susceptibility procedures and the implementation of quality control programs in microbiology laboratories of Libyan hospitals.

  19. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS. The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5% rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10 containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82, and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85 and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58 compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  20. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from outpatient clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    To examine the recovered strains phenotypically, by conventional methods and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) gene (which serves as an internal control) and mecA gene. Secondly, introduce multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type 4. Thirty-seven strains of S. aureus collected in 2007 from outpatient clinics in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were tested in the College of Pharmacy phenotypically by conventional methods and genotypically by PCR for direct detection of S. aureus 16S rRNA and mecA genes. All the 37 strains, were tested also by multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, PVL, and (SCCmec) type 4. Polymerase chain reaction detected all the 37 bacteriologically positive S. aureus (100%) and the mecA gene in all strains phenotypically resistant to methicillin (100%), at the same time it detected the mecA gene in 2 strains phenotypically sensitive to methicillin. Only 3 strains (8.1%) recovered from skin and soft tissue infections were positive for PVL and SCCmec type 4. The PCR assay can be used for rapid detection of S. aureus and mecA gene. At the same time the multiplex PCR assay explained in this study is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable test for direct detection of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. (author)

  1. Infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en un hospital de agudos Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in a hospital for acute diseases

    S. Palombarani; Gardella, N.; A. Tuduri; S. Figueroa; G. Sly; R. Corazza; G. Gutkind; Almuzara, M.; Mollerach, M.

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SAMR) es uno de los principales agentes asociados a infecciones intrahospitalarias; sin embargo, en los últimos años ha surgido como un patógeno emergente de la comunidad, causando infecciones graves, principalmente en jóvenes. Se describen 33 casos de infecciones por SAMR de origen comunitario, diagnosticadas entre mayo de 2005 y junio de 2006 en el HIGA "Eva Perón". Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los aislamientos; se confirmó la resistencia a...

  2. Quercus infectoria: a candidate for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Chusri, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2008-04-01

    Acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol and aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria (Q. infectoria) demonstrated significant antibacterial activities against all strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Inhibition zones were in the range 11.75-16.82 mm. Both MRSA and MSSA strains exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values at 0.13 and 0.13-1.00 mg/mL, respectively. At 2 MIC, the growth of two representative MRSA strains was continually inhibited for at least 20 h. Surviving MRSA cells were not detected within 12-14 h after treatment with the extract at 4 MIC concentration. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 demonstrated similar results. PMID:18338770

  3. A pentaplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin

    Al-Talib Hassanain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, which causes a wide range of hospital and community-acquired infections worldwide. Conventional testing for detection of MRSA takes 2–5 days to yield complete information of the organism and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Results The present study focused on the development of a pentaplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of MRSA. The assay simultaneously detected five genes, namely 16S rRNA of the Staphylococcus genus, femA of S. aureus, mecA that encodes methicillin resistance, lukS that encodes production of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a necrotizing cytotoxin, and one internal control. Specific primer pairs were successfully designed and simultaneously amplified the targeted genes. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the pentaplex PCR assay was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional method. The analytical sensitivity of the pentaplex PCR at the DNA level was found to be 10 ng DNA. The analytical specificity was evaluated with 34 reference staphylococci and non-staphylococcal strains and was found to be 100%. The diagnostic evaluation of MRSA carried out using 230 clinical isolates, showed 97.6% of sensitivity, 99.3% of specificity, 98.8% of positive predictive value and 98.6% of negative predictive value compared to the conventional method. The presence of an internal control in the pentaplex PCR assay is important to exclude false-negative cases. Conclusion The pentaplex PCR assay developed was rapid and gave results within 4 h, which is essential for the identification of Staphylococcus spp., virulence and their resistance to methicillin. Our PCR assay may be used as an effective surveillance tool to survey the prevalence of MRSA and PVL-producing strains in hospitals and the community.

  4. A timescale for evolution, population expansion, and spatial spread of an emerging clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Nübel, Ulrich; Dordel, Janina; Kurt, Kevin;

    2010-01-01

    or antibiotic resistance, together with the forces driving pathogen spread. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of hospital-acquired infections. We have investigated an MRSA strain (ST225) that is highly prevalent in hospitals in Central Europe. By using mutation discovery...... at 269 genetic loci (118,804 basepairs) within an international isolate collection, we ascertained extremely low diversity among European ST225 isolates, indicating that a recent population bottleneck had preceded the expansion of this clone. In contrast, US isolates were more divergent, suggesting...... they represent the ancestral population. While diversity was low, however, our results demonstrate that the short-term evolutionary rate in this natural population of MRSA resulted in the accumulation of measurable DNA sequence variation within two decades, which we could exploit to reconstruct its recent...

  5. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A LYTIC METHICILLIN RESISTANT-STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BACTERIOPHAGE

    Sulaiman Al-Yousef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in the infection incidence caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains has been noted in medical practice in recent years. This study was conducted to study the biological and characterize of MRSA-phage. Methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus was detected and confirmed by determining of the MIC of oxacillin by the standard agar dilution method. Phage was biologically purified using single plaque technique, then phage characterization were studied using host range, adsorption time, particle morphology and its structural protein. MRSA phage showing lytic nature was purified by repeated plating after picking of single isolated plaques. This phage is active against all 11 isolates either of S. aureus or MRSA tested as hosts. Phage produced clear plaques indicating their lytic nature. This phage was concentrated employing polyethylene glycol (PEG-NaCl precipitation method. Morphologically, MRSA Phage has a hexagonal head having a long non-contractile tail, indicating his icosahedral nature. Adsorption studies showed 100% adsorption of MRSA-Phage after 35 minutes of exposure. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE experimentation indicated that the phage particles contain one major structural protein (about 30 Kda.

  6. Daptomycin approved in Japan for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Mori T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mao Hagihara1, Takumi Umemura1, Takeshi Mori1,2, Hiroshige Mikamo11Department of Infection Control and Prevention, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 2Division of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Aichi, JapanAbstract: Daptomycin is a lipoglycopeptide antibacterial drug that is rapidly bactericidal for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection and has antibiotic activity against a wide range of Gram-positive organisms. It has been approved by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan for the treatment for bacteremia, right-sided endocarditis, and skin and skin-structure infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, due to MRSA on the basis of a Phase III trial conducted in Japan since July, 2011. In Japanese Phase I and III trials, daptomycin therapy given at 4 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg once per day was well tolerated and effective as standard therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections and bacteremia caused by MRSA, but side effects remain to be evaluated in large-scale trials.Keywords: daptomycin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Japan

  7. In vitro susceptibility of chloramphenicol against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    To determine the in vitro susceptibility of chloramphenicol against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to June 2012. Methodology: One hundred and seventy four isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were included in this study using cefoxitin (30 A g) disc for detection. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chloramphenicol against MRSA was determined by using E-strip (AB BIO DISK). The susceptibility was determined by swabbing the Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) plates with the resultant saline suspension of MRSA and applying E-strip of chloramphenicol from AB Biodisk Sweden and determining the MIC of chloramphenicol (in A g/ml). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations of A=8 A g/ml being sensitive, 16 A g/ml as intermediate and A 32 A g/ml as resistant were followed in interpreting the results. Results: Out of the 174 MRSA isolates, 132 (75.86%) isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol with MICs of A=8 A g/ml, 38 (21.84%) were resistant A=32 A g/ml while 4 (2.30%) were in intermediate range with MIC of 16 A g/ml. Conclusion: Chloramphenicol has shown good in vitro activity against MRSA and is likely to have a key role in the treatment of MRSA infections providing us a good alternative to newer expensive antimicrobials in resource limited countries. (author)

  8. PREVALENCE OF HETEROGENEOUS GLYCOPEPTIDE INTERMEDIATE RESISTANCE IN METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Manu Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA is a major cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections and is on the rise. The aim of this investigation was to explore the prevalence of MRSA and heterogeneous Glycopeptide Intermediate Staphylococcus Aureus (hGISA in various clinical samples, to investigate the various antibiotic resistant determinant genes among these strains collected from north and west Indian hospitals and to evaluate the response of various drugs to these strains. A total of 413 clinical specimens collected from different hospitals were processed for the screening of S. aureus and MRSA. All these MRSA strains were further screened for hGISA on Mueller-Hinton agar containing 8 µg mL-1 teicoplanin or 6 µg mL-1 vancomycin. hGISA confirmed by the E-test method with a dense inoculum and a simplified method of population analysis. Susceptibility study was conducted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI methods. Among 211 S. aureus clinical isolates, 61.6% (130/211 of the isolates were confirmed to be MRSA which included maximum isolates from pus, blood, urine, wound swab and ear swab samples in decreasing order. hGISA strains were found in 8/130 (6.1% isolates. Vancoplus, a novel antibiotic adjuvant entity was found to be susceptible in 96.1 to 97.8% MRSA strains and showed intermediate response in 2.2 to 3.8% of isolates. Linezolid appeared to be second most active antibiotic with 48.0 to 81.2% susceptibility, followed by teicoplanin (41.3 to 56.2% susceptibility. There was 8.7 to 9.6% resistance observed in Linezolid which was increased to 48% in teicoplanin, to >60% indaptomycin and >75% in vancomycin. Interestingly, none of the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefoperazone plus sulbactam. From the above study it can be concluded that prevelance of MRSA has reached a significant level and Vancoplus is the most effective in MRSA as well as h

  9. Mechanisms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis.

    Perrone, Erin E; Jung, Enjae; Breed, Elise; Dominguez, Jessica A; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia-induced sepsis is a common cause of morbidity in the intensive care unit. Although pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, extrapulmonary manifestations occur commonly. In light of the key role the intestine plays in the pathophysiology of sepsis, we sought to determine whether MRSA pneumonia induces intestinal injury. FVB/N mice were subjected to MRSA or sham pneumonia and killed 24 h later. Septic animals had a marked increase in intestinal epithelial apoptosis by both hematoxylin-eosin and active caspase 3 staining. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus-induced intestinal apoptosis was associated with an increase in the expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Bax and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL in the mitochondrial pathway. In the receptor-mediated pathway, MRSA pneumonia induced an increase in Fas ligand but decreased protein levels of Fas, FADD, pFADD, TNF-R1, and TRADD. To assess the functional significance of these changes, MRSA pneumonia was induced in mice with genetic manipulations in proteins in either the mitochondrial or receptor-mediated pathways. Both Bid-/- mice and animals with intestine-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 had decreased intestinal apoptosis compared with wild-type animals. In contrast, Fas ligand-/- mice had no alterations in apoptosis. To determine if these findings were organism-specific, similar experiments were performed in mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced gut apoptosis, but unlike MRSA, this was associated with increased Bcl-2 and TNF-R1 and decreased Fas. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus pneumonia thus induces organism-specific changes in intestinal apoptosis via changes in both the mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, although the former may be more functionally significant. PMID:22592747

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus containing mecC in Swedish dairy cows

    Unnerstad Helle Ericsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has not been detected in Swedish cattle. However, due to the report of mecC, a novel homologue to the mecA gene, there was reason to re-evaluate susceptibility results from strain collections of Staphylococcus aureus and test suspected isolates for the presence of mecC. Findings Bovine isolates of S. aureus with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactams were retrospectively tested for presence of mecC. In four of the isolates mecC was detected. Conclusion In Sweden, this is the first finding of MRSA in cattle and the first detection of MRSA harbouring mecC of domestic animal origin. MRSA in animal populations has implications as a potential reservoir with risk for spread to humans. Occurrence of MRSA among Swedish cattle appears still very limited.

  11. Expression and inducibility in Staphylococcus aureus of the mecA gene, which encodes a methicillin-resistant S. aureus-specific penicillin-binding protein.

    Ubukata, K; Nonoguchi, R; Matsuhashi, M; Konno, M

    1989-01-01

    A beta-lactam-sensitive strain of Staphylococcus aureus could be converted to methicillin resistance by the introduction of a plasmid carrying the 4.3-kilobase HindIII chromosomal DNA fragment which encoded the mecA gene from a methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Transformant cells produced methicillin-resistant S. aureus-specific penicillin-binding protein constitutively, and additional insertion of an inducible penicillinase plasmid caused production of the pencillin-binding protein to become ...

  12. In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Silymarin Nanoliposomes against Isolated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Faezizadeh, Zohreh; Gharib, Amir; Godarzee, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and remains a common cause of burn wound infections. Different studies have shown that entrapment of plant-derived compounds into liposomes could increase their anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity. Silymarin is the bioactive extract from the known plant Silybum marianum L. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of silymarin in free and nanoliposomal forms against isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain...

  13. Biofilm formation on tympanostomy tubes depends on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genetic lineage.

    Jotić, Ana; Božić, Dragana D; Milovanović, Jovica; Pavlović, Bojan; Ješić, Snežana; Pelemiš, Mijomir; Novaković, Marko; Ćirković, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation has been implicated in the high incidence of persistent otorrhoea after tympanostomy tube insertion. The aim of the study was to investigate whether biofilm formation on tympanostomy tubes depends on the genetic profile of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Capacity of biofilm formation on fluoroplastic tympanostomy tubes (TTs) was tested on 30 MRSA strains. Identification and methicillin resistance were confirmed by PCR for nuc and mecA genes. Strains were genotypically characterised (SCCmec, agr and spa typing). Biofilm formation was tested in microtiter plate and on TTs. Tested MRSA strains were classified into SCCmec type I (36.7 %), III (23.3 %), IV (26.7 %) and V (13.3 %), agr type I (50 %), II (36.7 %) and III (13.3 %), and 5 clonal complexes (CCs). All tested MRSA strains showed ability to form biofilm on microtiter plate. Capacity of biofilm formation on TTs was as following: 13.3 % of strains belonged to the category of no biofilm producers, 50 % to the category of weak biofilm producers and 36.7 % to moderate biofilm producers. There was a statistically significant difference between CC, SCCmec and agr types and the category of biofilm production on TTs tubes (p tube otorrhea. PMID:25796207

  14. The Pleiotropic Antibacterial Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Wang, Chao-Min; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between ursolic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); (2) METHODS: The ability of ursolic acid to damage mammalian and bacterial membranes was examined. The proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in ursolic acid treatment was investigated using two-dimensional (2D) proteomic analysis; (3) RESULTS: Ursolic acid caused the loss of staphylococcal membrane integrity without hemolytic activity. The comparison of the protein pattern of ursolic acid-treated and normal MRSA cells revealed that ursolic acid affected a variety of proteins involved in the translation process with translational accuracy, ribonuclease and chaperon subunits, glycolysis and oxidative responses; (4) CONCLUSION: The mode of action of ursolic acid appears to be the influence on the integrity of the bacterial membrane initially, followed by inhibition of protein synthesis and the metabolic pathway. These findings reflect that the pleiotropic effects of ursolic acid against MRSA make it a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical research. PMID:27399657

  15. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using the NanoLantern Biosensor

    Strohsahl, Christopher M.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Krauss, Todd D.

    2009-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human illness, and has developed the remarkable ability to resist the bactericidal capabilities of many of the world's leading antibiotics (i.e. MRSA). In an effort to enable rapid detection and treatment of MRSA infections, we have developed a DNA detection technology termed the NanoLantern(TM). The NanoLantern(TM) biosensor technology is based on the simple immobilization of a fluorophore-terminated DNA hairpin onto a gold chip. This produces a label-free sensor that allows for a positive response to be obtained without extensive processing of the sample, saving cost and increasing accuracy. We will also discuss a newly developed method of partial gene analysis, used to develop a DNA hairpin probe that is capable of detecting the presence of the mecR gene, a gene necessary for methicillin resistance to be present in S. aureus, with 100% sequence specificity. The successful incorporation of this probe into the NanoLantern(TM) platform, along with the concomitant development of the paired PCR assay has allowed for the successful detection of methicillin-resistance directly from a culture of S. aureus. These results represent an important step forward in terms of developing the ability to rapidly and effectively detect the presence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial infections.

  16. Cloning, expression and crystallization of dihydrodipicolinate reductase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Given the recent rise in antimicrobial resistance, there is an urgent need to identify and characterize new antibiotic drug targets. One such target is dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR), which is an essential bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the second step in the lysine-biosynthesis pathway. In this paper, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of DHDPR from methicillin-resistant S. aureus are presented. Dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR; EC 1.3.1.26) catalyzes the nucleotide (NADH/NADPH) dependent second step of the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria and plants. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPR from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-DHDPR) are presented. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, with the best crystal form diffracting to beyond 3.65 Å resolution. Crystal structures of the apo form as well as of cofactor (NADPH) bound and inhibitor (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate) bound forms of MRSA-DHDPR will provide insight into the structure and function of this essential enzyme and valid drug target

  17. Comparing Whole-Genome Sequencing with Sanger Sequencing for spa Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Petersen, Andreas; Worning, Peder;

    2014-01-01

    spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has traditionally been done by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the spa repeat region. At Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of all MRSA isolates has been performed routinely since January 2013, and an...

  18. A new multiplex PCR for easy screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SCCmec types I-V

    Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Andersen, Ina S;

    2007-01-01

    A multiplex PCR with four primer-pairs was designed to identify the five main known SCCmec types. A clear and easily discriminated band pattern was obtained for all five types. The SCCmec type was identified for 98% of 312 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA...

  19. The value of nasal mupirocin in containing an outbreak of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an orthopaedic unit

    S.P. Barrett

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAn outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurred in two adjacent orthopaedic wards following the admission of a known carrier. The outbreak was not contained by ward closure or by standard infection control measures. Eventually several nasal carriers were identi

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals in Tbilisi, the Republic of Georgia, are variants of the Brazilian clone

    Bartels, M.D.; Nanuashvili, A.; Boye, K.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from the Republic of Georgia, part of the former Soviet Union. Thirty-two non-duplicate MRSA isolates were collected in the period from May 2006 to February 2007. The patient data were analysed...

  1. Recurrent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cutaneous Abscesses and Selection of Reduced Chlorhexidine Susceptibility during Chlorhexidine Use

    Johnson, Ryan C.; Schlett, Carey D.; Crawford, Katrina; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Merrell, D. Scott; Ellis, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the selection of reduced chlorhexidine susceptibility during chlorhexidine use in a patient with two episodes of cutaneous USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus abscess. The second clinical isolate harbors a novel plasmid that encodes the QacA efflux pump. Greater use of chlorhexidine for disease prevention warrants surveillance for resistance.

  2. Zinc-resistance gene CzrC identified in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis.

    Slifierz, Mackenzie J; Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Weese, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus (MRSH) was investigated for czrC, a gene conferring zinc-resistance. The czrC gene was identified in 50% (14/28) of MRSH isolates, representing 14 pigs with exudative epidermitis from 8 farms. Newly weaned pigs, which are particularly susceptible to exudative epidermitis, are commonly fed high levels of zinc oxide. PMID:24790238

  3. Automated DNA sequence-based early warning system for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks

    Mellmann, Alexander; Friedrich, Alexander W; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Rothgänger, Jörg; Karch, Helge; Reintjes, Ralf; Harmsen, Dag

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) usually requires the implementation of often rigorous infection-control measures. Prompt identification of an MRSA epidemic is crucial for the control of an outbreak. In this study we evaluated various early warning algo

  4. Prevalence and characterization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail meat and humans in Georgia

    There is increasing interest in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, specifically methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), on retail meat products. In this study, staphylococci were isolated from retail pork and retail beef in Georgia and MRSA from the products were compared to human MRSA from the...

  5. Introduction of plasmid DNA into an ST398 livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain

    MRS926 is a livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain of sequence type (ST) 398. In order to facilitate in vitro and in vivo studies of this strain, we sought to tag it with a fluorescent marker. We cloned a codon-optimized gene for TurboGFP into a shuttle vector...

  6. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Pediatric Emergency Department in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Erin Peebles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: First-generation cephalosporins and antistaphylococcal penicillins are typically the first choice for treating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI, but are not effective for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. It is currently unclear what percentage of SSTIs is caused by community-associated MRSA in different regions in Canada.

  7. Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iceland from 2000 to 2008: a challenge to current guidelines

    Holzknecht, B.J.; Hardardottir, H.; Haraldsson, Gustav Helgi; Westh, Henrik; Valsdottir, F.; Boye, K.; Karlsson, Helena Sigrid; Kristinsson, Kári; Gudlaugsson, O.

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is continuously changing. Iceland has a low incidence of MRSA. A "search and destroy" policy (screening patients with defined risk factors and attempting eradication in carriers) has been implemented since 1991. Clinical and...

  8. Potential Role of Pet Animals in Household Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Narrative Review

    Bramble, Manuel; Morris, Daniel; Tolomeo, Pam; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2011-01-01

    In this narrative review, we found numerous reports suggesting that dogs and cats may play a role in household methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and recurrent MRSA infection in human contacts. Future work should emphasize elucidating more clearly the prevalence of MRSA in household pets and characterize transmission dynamics of MRSA humans and pet animals.

  9. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. One hypothesis to explain the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. To invest...

  10. Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy or Alone Antibiotherapy? Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mediastinitis in a Rat Model

    Tolga Kurt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: In the post-sternotomy mediastinitis patients, Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogenic microorganism encountered most often. In our study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of antibiotic treatment with vancomycin and tigecycline, alone or in combination with hyperbaric oxygen treatment, on bacterial elimination in experimental S. aureus mediastinitis. METHODS: Forty-nine adult female Wistar rats were used. They were randomly divided into seven groups, as follows: non-contaminated, contaminated control, vancomycin, tigecycline, hyperbaric oxygen, hyperbaric oxygen + vancomycin and hyperbaric oxygen + tigecycline. The vancomycin rat group received 10 mg/kg/day of vancomycin twice a day through intramuscular injection. The tigecycline group rats received 7 mg/kg/day of tigecycline twice a day through intraperitoneal injection. The hyperbaric oxygen group underwent 90 min sessions of 100% oxygen at 2.5 atm pressure. Treatment continued for 7 days. Twelve hours after the end of treatment, tissue samples were obtained from the upper part of the sternum for bacterial count assessment. RESULTS: When the quantitative bacterial counts of the untreated contaminated group were compared with those of the treated groups, a significant decrease was observed. However, comparing the antibiotic groups with the same antibiotic combined with hyperbaric oxygen, there was a significant reduction in microorganisms identified (P<0.05. Comparing hyperbaric oxygen used alone with the vancomycin and tigecycline groups, it was seen that the effect was not significant (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We believe that the combination of hyperbaric oxygen with antibiotics had a significant effect on mediastinitis resulting from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus mediastinitis can be treated without requiring a multidrug combination, thereby reducing the medication dose and concomitantly decreasing the side effects.