WorldWideScience

Sample records for acquired brown syndrome

  1. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  2. Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome

    郭涛

    2005-01-01

    @@ Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is kind of bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those in congenital yon Willebrand disease (vWD).AvWS doesn's have any personal or family history of bleeding, but is associated with certain diseases or abnormal conditions or drugs. Although AvWS is being stated as a rare disease, it has gained more and more attention during the past years. Not because of the severity of the disease, but it is more common than we thought and most patients don' t have a proper diagnosis.

  3. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: current status.

    Quagliarello, V.

    1982-01-01

    A recently recognized syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-AIDS) has arisen since June 1981. It has received international attention. The clinical spectrum consists of repeated opportunistic infections, rare malignancies, and autoimmune phenomena, occurring in previously healthy adults with no history of an immunologic disorder. The population subset at risk for this syndrome appears to be predominantly homosexual American males and intravenous drug abuser...

  4. Immunological memory and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis.

    Kaur, A; Rosenzweig, M; Johnson, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus results in profound perturbations in immunological memory, ultimately resulting in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We have used rhesus macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model to understand better the effects of AIDS virus infection on immunological memory. Acute infection with SIV resulted in significant deficits in CD4+ helper responses to cyto...

  5. A CMA position. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    1989-01-01

    The following general principles serve as guidelines for various bodies, health care professionals and the general public. Specific aspects of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that relate to physicians' ethical responsibilities as well as society's moral obligations are discussed. Such matters include the need for education, research and treatment resources; the patient's right to investigation and treatment and to refusal of eith...

  6. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

  7. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.)

  8. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia. PMID:2132469

  9. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  10. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.; Rønsholt, L.; Speck, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  11. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome. Pt. 2

    In the second part of this publication, we describe some additional findings in cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH). These include focal hyperostosis of the spine, in the pelvis and in the extremities and psoriatric skin lesions and severe forms of acne (acne conglobata, acne fulminans). An analysis of our 13 patients and of the relevant literature indicates that the hyperostosis is due to increased bone metabolism and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue and that these are the pathogenic bases of the changes in the axial skeleton, the pelvis and the bones of the extremities. We have suggested a scheme which would categorise the syndrom into complete, incomplete and possibly acquired forms. (orig./GDG)

  12. A case of acquired Gitelman syndrome presenting as hypokalemic paralysis

    Kulkarni, M.; Kadri, P.; Pinto, R.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a young female patient who presented with weakness of upper and lower limbs. On evaluation, she had hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria. Anti-Ro (SSA) antibody was positive. She had an acquired Gitelman syndrome due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SS presenting with features of Gitelman syndrome is very rare.

  13. A case of acquired Gitelman syndrome presenting as hypokalemic paralysis.

    Kulkarni, M; Kadri, P; Pinto, R

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a young female patient who presented with weakness of upper and lower limbs. On evaluation, she had hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria. Anti-Ro (SSA) antibody was positive. She had an acquired Gitelman syndrome due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SS presenting with features of Gitelman syndrome is very rare. PMID:26199478

  14. Cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    GENG Shuang; YE Jun-jie; ZHAO Jia-liang; LI Tai-sheng; HAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most severe intraocular complication that results in total retinal destruction and loss of visual acuity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to investigate the fundus characteristics, systemic manifestations and therapeutic outcomes of CMV retinitis associated with AIDS.Methods It was a retrospective case series. CMV retinitis was present in 39 eyes (25 patients). Best corrected visual acuities, anterior segment, fundus features, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of the patients with CMV retinitis associated with AIDS were analyzed. Intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (400 μg) were performed in 4 eyes (2 patients).Results Retinal vasculitis, dense, full-thickness, yellow-white lesions along vascular distribution with irregular granules at the border, and hemorrhage on the retinal surface were present in 28 eyes. The vitreous was clear or mildly opaque.Late stage of the retinopathy was demonstrated in 8 eyes characterized as atrophic retina, sclerotic and attenuated vessels, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy, and optic nerve atrophy. Retinal detachment was found in 3 eyes. The average CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood of the patients with CMV retinitis was (30.6±25.3) ×106/L (range,(0-85) × 106/L). After intravitreal injections of ganciclovir, visual acuity was improved and fundus lesions regressed.Conclusions CMV retinitis is the most severe and the most common intraocular complication in patients with AIDS. For the patients with yellow-white retinal lesions, hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis without clear cause, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology should be performed. Routine eye examination is also indicated in HIV positive patients.

  15. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  16. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities.

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  17. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

    Syed Yousuf Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity.

  18. Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil

    Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil. The authors studied the incidence of tuberculosis in South Brazilian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome from January 1985 to June 1988. During this period, tuberculosis occurred in 10.3% of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. The socioeconomic conditions and the incidence of disease in the population were not confirmed as a potential risk for tuberculosis infection. Chest radiographs revealed pulmonary infiltrates in six patients, hilar and/or mediastinal adenopathy in three, and pleural effusion in two. The two remaining patients had pulmonary consolidation associated with other features. None of these patients presented pulmonary cavitation or radiographic findings of typical reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  19. Cervical disc herniation manifesting as a Brown-Sequard syndrome

    Kunio Yokoyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Sequard syndrome is commonly seen in the setting of spinal trauma or an extramedullary spinal neoplasm. The clinical picture reflects hemisection of the spinal cord. We report a rare case of Brown-Sequard syndrome caused by a large cervical herniated disc. A 63-year-old man presented with progressive right hemiparesis and disruption of pain and temperature sensation on the left side of the body. Magnetic resonance imaging showed large C3-C4 disc herniation compressing the spinal cord at that level, with severe canal stenosis from C4 through C7. Decompressive cervical laminoplasty was performed. After surgery, complete sensory function was restored and a marked improvement in motor power was obtained.

  20. Hemorrhagic abscess in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is frequent among patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The common computed tomography appearance of this complication is multiple low density area with ring enhancement. We describe a very rare picture of cerebral toxoplasmosis, this is multiple hemorrhagic toxoplasmic abscess. (orig.)

  1. Ethnicity Knowledge and Attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    Goh, David S.

    This study examined the effects of race/ethnicity and degree of acculturation on knowledge and attitudes about human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Subjects were 274 college students from 5 racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, U.S. born, having an Asian origin with families that…

  2. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions

  4. Cerebral computed tomography in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Cerebral CT scannings were performed in 19 homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly half of them (9 patients) had cortical atrophy. Three patients with toxoplasmosis had cerebral pathology, in two of them with ring enhancement while the third had an ill-defined nonspecific lesion with slight heterogeneous enhancement without ring formation. Two patients with multifocal leucoencephalopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively, presented non-enhancing, low attenuating lesions at CT. (orig.)

  5. Improving Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Related Cancer Outcomes through International Collaboration

    Mostafa Nokta

    2011-01-01

    @@ The spectrum of cancers seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infected individuals is diverse and complex,and reflects an ever-changing HIV epidemic.In parts of the world where combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is available,HIV-infected patients are living longer and are less likely to die of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)defining malignancies within a year or two of developing AIDS.

  6. Cerebral computed tomography in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Brun, B.; Boesen, F.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, J.O.; Praestholm, J.

    Cerebral CT scannings were performed in 19 homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly half of them (9 patients) had cortical atrophy. Three patients with toxoplasmosis had cerebral pathology, in two of them with ring enhancement while the third had an ill-defined nonspecific lesion with slight heterogeneous enhancement without ring formation. Two patients with multifocal leucoencephalopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively, presented non-enhancing, low attenuating lesions at CT.

  7. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in patients with Legionella pneumonia

    Kinoshita-Katahashi, Naoko; Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Isobe, Shinsuke; Imokawa, Shiro; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Furuya, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia is often observed in patients with Legionella pneumonia. However, other electrolyte abnormalities are uncommon and the mechanism remains to be clarified. Case presentation We experienced two male cases of acquired Fanconi syndrome associated with Legionella pneumonia. The laboratory findings at admission showed hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypouricemia and/or hyponatremia. In addition, they had the generalized dysfunction of the renal proximal tubules presenting decr...

  8. A Case of Brown-McLean Syndrome

    Gökçen Gökçe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 89-year-old man with a history of cataract surgery ten years ago presented to our ophthalmology department with blurred vision. On ophthalmic examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/32 in the left. Slit lamp examination revealed bilateral symmetrical peripheral corneal oedema, advanced at the inferior part of the cornea in both eyes. Considering clinical and confocal microscopy findings, a diagnosis of Brown-McLean Syndrome (BMS was made. BMS is a rare condition that may developed after cataract surgery, and it can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Our report points to this rare syndrome and we tried to emphasis the importance of BMS considering it in the differential diagnosis of refractory peripheral corneal oedema developed in pseudophakic patients. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 365-7

  9. Sweet′s Syndrome Leading To Acquired Cutis Laxa (Marshall′s Syndrome In A Child

    Narayanan Meenakshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (AFND, commonly known as Sweet’s syndrome, is a disorder seen in adult females, being extremely rare in children. Typical features include spiky fever, sudden eruption of raised painful erythematous to plum-colored nodules and plaques, neutrophilic leucocytosis, a dermal neutrophili infiltrate an a rapid response to systemic steroid. The eruption is believed to represent a hypersensitivity reaction to an antecedent infection or malignancy. There have been rare reports of acquired cutis laxa (Marshall’s syndrome following Sweet’s syndrome. We report one such case of Sweet’s syndrome leading to acquired cutis laxa (Marshall’ syndrome in a child.

  10. Anthracyclines and Acquired Long QT Syndrome. A Case Report

    Carlos Rodríguez Armada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquired long QT syndrome results from secondary causes and can be caused by more than 100 non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac arrest due to Torsades de pointes induced by drugs causing prolonged QT syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal event, even in hospitals. The case of a 47-year-old patient diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma admitted to the hematology department of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. The patient had been previously treated with anthracyclines and developed episodes of palpitations and syncope later. The treatment included monitoring the patient, avoiding other QT prolonging agents and administrating magnesium sulfate and potassium chloride with a proper maintenance of the fluid and acid-base balance. The presentation of this case aims at motivating interest in new reports on the subject and establishing a direct causal relationship through the evidence provided by new experiences.

  11. Acquired long QT syndrome: a focus for the general pediatrician.

    Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Benettoni, Alessandra; Germani, Claudio; Ferrara, Giovanna; D'Agata, Biancamaria; Barbi, Egidio

    2014-04-01

    Acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder of cardiac repolarization most often due to specific drugs, hypokalemia, or hypomagnesemia that may precipitate torsade de pointes and cause sudden cardiac death. Common presentations of the LQTS are palpitations, presyncope, syncope, cardiac arrest, and seizures. An abnormal 12-lead electrocardiogram obtained while the patient is at rest is the key to diagnosis. The occurrence of drug-induced LQTS is unpredictable in any given individual, but a common observation is that most patients have at least 1 identifiable risk factor in addition to drug exposure. The cornerstone of the management of acquired LQTS includes the identification and discontinuation of any precipitating drug and the correction of metabolic abnormalities, such as hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia. Most of the episodes of torsade de pointes are short-lived and terminate spontaneously. We propose a management protocol that could be useful for the daily practice in the emergency pediatric department to reduce the risk of acquired QT prolongation. PMID:24694881

  12. Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus

    Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A;

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or...

  13. Cervical Disc Herniation Causing Brown-Séquard's Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Tarush Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard's syndrome (BSS is caused by hemisection or hemicompression of the cord leading to ipsilateral motor deficit and contralateral sensory loss. Cervical disc herniation has been reported to be a rare cause of Brown-Séquard's syndrome. We describe a rare case of multilevel cervical disc herniation presenting as BSS. The condition was confirmed by MRI scan. Cervical corpectomy, decompression, and fusion gave a satisfying result. Pertinent literature has been reviewed.

  14. Bronchogenic carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - report of two cases

    The authors report two cases of bronchogenic carcinoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first patient, a ee-year-old male, developed a left hilar adenocarcinoma, with spleen and bilateral adrenal metastases. The disease progressed unfavourably, resulting in the patient's death in less than a month. The second patient, a 47-year-old male, developed a large mass in the left upper lobe, with invasion of the thoracic wall and destruction of adjacent ribs. The histopathologic study revealed a non-oat-cell carcinoma. Both patients received palliative treatment since diagnosis was established late in the course of the disease. Recent studies suggest an association between bronchogenic carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, an actual increase in the prevalence of bronchogenic carcinoma in HIV-positive patients remains controversial. (author)

  15. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Toxoplasmosis now constitutes a relatively frequent central nervous system (CNS) complication of AIDS, primary CNS lymphoma being far less common. CT scanning using the double-dose delayed (D-D-D) scan technique has proved an effective way of helping in the diagnosis of these complications. 16 patients with CNS complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are described. All patients were male homosexuals. The most common demonstrable lesion in the parenchyma was toxoplasmosis, which produced an area of focal oedema, usually containing a central zone of nodular or ring-shaped enhancement. Cerebral atrophy was also a common finding. One patient had diffuse peri-ventricular lymphomatous infiltration, and a further two patients had both cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma. A delayed double dose contrast examination appears to be the most accurate method of outlining the total extent of CNS disease in these patients. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Brain CT in pediatric patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Review of the cranial Ct scans of 28 infants and children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome revealed that cerebral atrophy was the most common finding, occurring in 19 patients. Next most common was basal ganglionic calcification, present in 11 patients without the usual biochemical abnormalities associated with this finding. In ten patients varying degrees of abnormally low attenuation were seen in the white matter. In contrast to the situation in adults, there were no examples of mass lesions due to opportunistic infections. Pathologic specimens were available in eight patients. These confirmed the presence of calcific vasculopathy in four patients with basal ganglionic calcification on CT and showed calcification in an additional four patients. Other findings included glial nodules, tract degeneration, and white matter pallor

  17. Acquired Von Willebrand’s Syndrome in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Sara Taveras Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS is an uncommon, underdiagnosed, and heterogeneous disease which is increasingly recognized as a cause of bleeding diatheses. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an infrequent cause of AVWS. Herein, we report a case of AVWS diagnosed during the initial presentation of SLE in a previously healthy young man with no family history of bleeding diathesis who presented with worsening epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and anasarca. He was found to have severe anemia and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT with severely decreased levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF measurements in addition to markedly decreased factor VIII levels. Further evaluation revealed nephrotic syndrome and interstitial lung disease due to SLE. He initially received combination therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates without significant improvement. Treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab was followed by clinical improvement evidenced by cessation of bleeding. The short follow-up did not allow us to definitely prove the therapeutic effect of immunosuppressive treatment on AVWS in SLE patients. This case adds to the literature supporting the relationship between AVWS and SLE and highlights the importance of combination therapy in the treatment of severe AVWS as well as the role of IVIG, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in AVWS associated with SLE.

  18. Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a human immune system disease characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, certain cancers and neurological disorders. The syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV that is transmitted through blood or blood products, sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection but is increasingly reported to be associated with increasing reports of metabolic abnormalities. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients on antiretroviral therapy is high. Recently, a joint panel of American Diabetes Association (ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD experts updated the treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM in a consensus statement which provides guidance to health care providers. The ADA and EASD consensus statement concur that intervention in T2DM should be early, intensive, and uncompromisingly focused on maintaining glycemic levels as close as possible to the nondiabetic range. Intensive glucose management has been shown to reduce microvascular complications of diabetes but no significant benefits on cardiovascular diseases. Patients with diabetes have a high risk for cardiovascular disease and the treatment of diabetes should emphasize reduction of the cardiovascular factors risk. The treatment of diabetes mellitus in AIDS patients often involves polypharmacy, which increases the risk of suboptimal adherence

  19. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  20. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Costa, D.C.; Gacinovic, S.; Miller, R.F. [London University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin`s B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with {sup 201}Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma.

  1. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with 201Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma

  2. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis. PMID:26676359

  3. Computed tomography of the lungs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Computed tomography of the chest was performed on 42 occasions as part of the diagnostic work-up in 26 homosexual men with, or suspected of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 17 cases both the chest radiographs and the lung scans were abnormal, and bronchoscopy and/or lung biopsy established an etiologic diagnosis in the majority of these cases. In 9 cases CT of the lungs revealed unequivocal interstitial infiltration in the presence of a normal chest radiography, and subsequently and etiologic agent was demonstrated in all these cases. In 9 cases, patients with symptoms indicative of pulmonary infection had both a normal chest radiograph and a normal lung scan, and in none of these cases did the clinical course or additional diagnostic procedures indicate the presence of current opportunistic lung infection. CT of the lungs seems to identify accurately those patients with severe HIV-related diseases in whom invasive diagnostic procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung biopsy should be done. (orig.)

  4. An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected individuals. The etiology of this occurrence in HIV infections is controversial. This problem seems to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. In AIDS, the main suggested risk factors for the development of osteoporosis are use of protease inhibitors, longer duration of HIV infection, lower body weight before antiretroviral therapy, high viral load. Variations in serum parameters like osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, levels of elements like Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, concentration of vitamin-D metabolites, lactate levels, bicarbonate concentrations, amount of alkaline phosphatase are demonstrated in the course of development of osteoporosis. OPG/RANKL/RANK system is final mediator of bone remodeling. Bone mineral density (BMD test is of added value to assess the risk of osteoporosis in patients infected with AIDS. The biochemical markers also aid in this assessment. Clinical management mostly follows the lines of treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia.

  5. Bilateral Brown's syndrome in a mother and her son: case report Síndrome de Brown bilateral em mãe e filho: relato de caso

    Rosália Maria Simões Antunes-Foschini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes clinical data from mother and son with bilateral Brown's syndrome and highlights possible genetically determined predispositions.Este relato de caso descreve achados clínicos de mãe e filho com síndrome de Brown bilateral e discute a possibilidade de predisposição genética.

  6. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease.

  7. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease

  8. Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from colonic carcinoma presenting as Brown-Sequard syndrome: a case report

    Kaballo, Mohammed A

    2011-08-02

    Abstract Introduction Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis is very rare. The majority are discovered incidentally during autopsy. Most symptomatic patients present with rapidly progressive neurological deficits and require immediate examination. Few patients demonstrate features of Brown-Séquard syndrome. Radiotherapy is the gold-standard of therapy for Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. The overall prognosis is poor and the mortality rate is very high. We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of colorectal carcinoma presenting as Brown-Séquard syndrome. Case presentation We present the case of a 71-year-old Caucasian man with colonic adenocarcinoma who developed Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis and showed features of Brown-Séquard syndrome, which is an uncommon presentation of Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. Conclusion This patient had an Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis, a rare form of metastatic disease, secondary to colonic carcinoma. The metastasis manifested clinically as Brown-Séquard syndrome, itself a very uncommon condition. This syndrome is rarely caused by intramedullary tumors. This unique case has particular interest in medicine, especially for the specialties of medical, surgical and radiation oncology. We hope that it will add more information to the literature about these entities.

  9. Outcome after incomplete spinal cord injury: central cord versus Brown-Sequard syndrome

    Wirz, M.; Zörner, B; Rupp, R; Dietz, V.

    2010-01-01

    Study design : A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.Objective:A hemisection of the spinal cord is a frequently used animal model for spinal cord injury (SCI), the corresponding human condition, that is, the Brown-Sequard syndrome (BS), is relatively rare as compared with the central cord syndrome (CC). The time course of neurological deficit, functional recovery, impulse conductivity and rehabilitation length of stay in BS and CC subjects were compared.Setting:Nine Europea...

  10. Utility of the National Death Index in Ascertaining Mortality in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Surveillance

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Maddox, Lorene M.; Lieb, Spencer; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2011-01-01

    To assess the utility of the National Death Index (NDI) in improving the ascertainment of deaths among people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors determined the number and characteristics of additional deaths identified through NDI linkage not ascertained by using standard electronic linkage with Florida Vital Records and the Social Security Administration’s Death Master File. Records of people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome between 1993 an...

  11. A case of phace syndrome and acquired hypopituitarism?

    Denzer Friederike

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PHACE is a neurocutaneous syndrome associated with: Posterior fossa brain malformations, large “segmental” facial hemangiomas, arterial cerebrovascular-, cardiovascular-, and eye anomalies. Case vignette We are reporting a girl with PHACE syndrome. The patient had a congenital right-sided facial hemangioma with plaque-morphology. At age 11 years and 2 months she presented with short stature, markedly decreased growth velocity and signs and symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the brain revealed complex structural and cerebrovascular arterial anomalies, including an empty sella. Testing of pituitary function revealed multiple pituitary dysfunctions, including absolute growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, central hypothyroidism, and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions This case suggests the necessity to screen all patients with PHACE syndrome and intracranial malformations for pituitary dysfunction at regular intervals.

  12. Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome due to 2p23 microdeletion.

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Toribe, Yasuhisa; Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome is a new overgrowth syndrome due to DNMT3A (DNA cytosine 5 methyltransferase 3A) mutations. Mutation carriers show a distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability, and increased height. We report a patient with overgrowth who showed submicroscopic deletion of chromosome 2p23 including DNMT3A. The deletion was detected by array-CGH. He showed moderate ID and distinctive facial gestalt. His clinical features were consistent with those of Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome. We suggest that 2p23 microdeletion including DNMT3A may cause similar symptoms in patients with DNMT3A mutations and should be considered in patients with overgrowth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26866722

  13. Reiter's Syndrome associated with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: a case report

    J.B.N.S. Malta

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The association of Reiter's Syndrome (RS with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is seldom mentioned in the medical literature. This report illustrates this relationship in a 46 years old male patient suffering from AIDS (CD4+ = 240 cells/mm³, CD8+ = 1,301 cells/mm³ and viral load = 330,000 copies/ml, pulmonary tuberculosis (positive catarrhal bacilluscopy, and RS. The diagnosis of RS was based on the combination of dermatological and articular alterations. The patient's cutaneous lesions were characterized by exfoliation and the formation of crusts located on the face, scalp, genitals, hands, and feet; onychodystrophy with opacity; yellowish coloring; and hyperkeratosis of the nails. Articular lesions led to progressive deformity of phalangeal joints of the hands, and intensive arthralgia, mainly of the larger joints (shoulders, elbows, hips and knees. AIDS treatment was administered with anti-retroviral drugs (zidovudine and didanosine; for tuberculosis (isoniazid, rifampicine, and pyrazinamide; and (prednisone and inometacine for the RS. The patient recovered with the improvement of articular symptoms; however, on the eighth day of treatment, the patient showed significant hemoptysis and hypovolemic shock, and died. The association of RS and HIV infection is reviewed.

  14. Erythema elevatum diutinum in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Can it be an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    Jose, Sheethal K; Marfatia, Yogesh S

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with multiple hyperpigmented papules and nodules on both ankles, dorsum of bilateral feet and soles. It was associated with mild itching and pain. The patient was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2007. First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 2009 to which he responded initially. He was shifted to second-line ART 11 months ago in March 2015 due to treatment failure as suggested by CD4 count of 50 cells/mm(3). The present skin lesions started 2 months after the initiation of second-line ART. Differential diagnoses considered were Kaposi's sarcoma and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) related infections, but biopsy was suggestive of erythema elevatum diutinum (EED). Patient was started on oral dapsone 100 mg/day and increased to 200 mg/day to which he is responding gradually. In the present case, appearance of the lesions after initiation of second-line ART coupled with increase in CD4 count and decrease of viral load below undetectable level suggest that EED could be an IRIS. PMID:27190420

  15. Erythema elevatum diutinum in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Can it be an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    Sheethal K Jose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS presented with multiple hyperpigmented papules and nodules on both ankles, dorsum of bilateral feet and soles. It was associated with mild itching and pain. The patient was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in 2007. First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART was started in 2009 to which he responded initially. He was shifted to second-line ART 11 months ago in March 2015 due to treatment failure as suggested by CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. The present skin lesions started 2 months after the initiation of second-line ART. Differential diagnoses considered were Kaposi's sarcoma and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS related infections, but biopsy was suggestive of erythema elevatum diutinum (EED. Patient was started on oral dapsone 100 mg/day and increased to 200 mg/day to which he is responding gradually. In the present case, appearance of the lesions after initiation of second-line ART coupled with increase in CD4 count and decrease of viral load below undetectable level suggest that EED could be an IRIS.

  16. Abacavir-induced reversible Fanconi syndrome with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Ahmad M

    2006-01-01

    There are several reports of Fanconi syndrome (FS) with or without nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, treated with various antiretroviral medications like cidofovir, adefovir, didenosine and tenofovir. But neither FS nor NDI has been documented with abacavir therapy. We are reporting the first case of abacavir-induced reversible FS with NDI in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, who recovered completely with suppo...

  17. Cervical Disc Herniation as a Cause of Brown-Séquard Syndrome

    Choi, Kyeong Bo; Lee, Choon Dae; Chung, Dai-Jin; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The possible causes of Brown-Séquard Syndrome (BSS) have been frequently observed with spinal trauma and extramedullary spinal tumors, but the cervical disc herniation to cause BSS is rare. The authors present five cases of patients who were diagnosed with BSS resulting from cervical disc herniation, and the results of the literature in view of their distinctive symptoms and clinical outcomes. Postoperatively, the patients showed complete or almost complete recovery from their motor and senso...

  18. Jejunitis and brown bowel syndrome with multifocal carcinogenesis of the small bowel.

    Raithel, Martin; Rau, Tilman T; Hagel, Alexander F; Albrecht, Heinz; de Rossi, Thomas; Kirchner, Thomas; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2015-09-28

    This is the first report describing a case where prolonged, severe malabsorption from brown bowel syndrome progressed to multifocally spread small bowel adenocarcinoma. This case involves a female patient who was initially diagnosed with chronic jejunitis associated with primary diffuse lymphangiectasia at the age of 26 years. The course of the disease was clinically, endoscopically, and histologically followed for 21 years until her death at the age 47 due to multifocal, metastasizing adenocarcinoma of the small bowel. Multiple lipofuscin deposits (so-called brown bowel syndrome) and severe jejunitis were observed microscopically, and sections of the small bowel showed dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the lamina propria as well as blocked lymphatic vessels. After several decades, multifocal nests of adenocarcinoma cells and extensive, flat, neoplastic mucosal proliferations were found only in the small bowel, along with a loss of the mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a long-term consequence of chronic jejunitis with malabsorption. No evidence was found for hereditary nonpolyposis colon carcinoma syndrome. This article demonstrates for the first time multifocal carcinogenesis in the small bowel in a malabsorption syndrome in an enteritis-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. PMID:26420973

  19. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    ZHAO Da-wei; ZHANG Tong; MA Da-qing; WANG Wei; YUAN Chun-wang; DUAN Yong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the only thermally dimorphic fungus. This fungal infection is commonly found in Southeast Asian, Hong Kong, south China, and especially in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.1-4 We reported a patient with AIDS in whom infection due to P. marneffei was demonstrated.

  20. Unsuspected pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    Niazi Masooma; DeLaCruz Angel E; Tejwani Dimple; Diaz-Fuentes Gilda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Diffuse lung infiltrates are a common finding in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and causes range from infectious processes to malignancies or interstitial lung diseases. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disorder rarely reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is associated with conditions involving functional impairment or reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages. It can b...

  1. Brown syndrome: clinical and radiological correlation%Brown综合征的临床特征与影像学诊断

    王乙迪; 满凤媛; 常青林; 卢炜; 王京辉; 鲜军舫; 焦永红

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brown syndrome is characterized by limitation of elevation in adduction,with complex mechanisms involving muscle,tendon,and trochlea.Here,we investigated mechanisms of Brown syndrome by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.Methods It was a retrospective case series study.Fourteen patients with unilateral Brown syndrome between 3 and 54 years of age (l0 cases of congenital and 4 cases with acquired disease) were included in the study.All patients underwent complete ophthalmic and orthoptic evaluation.Imaging of the ocular motor nerves at the brainstem was performed on 3D-FIESTA sequence,the orbits were imaged with FSE T1 、T2WI using surface coils.Results Nine of 10 with congenital Brown syndrome demonstrated hypoplasia of the superior oblique (SO) of the affected side.Abnormal low signal intensity in the trochlea area was found in one patient.Three of 4 acquired patients had a history of trauma and were demonstrated fracture of the trochlea,extensive scarring,and superior orbital fracture.One acquired case was demonstrated scarring of anterior part of the SO and hypoplasia ofthe posterior part.Conclusion Brown syndrome consists of a series of diseases.Their clinical features are quite similar while their anatomical mechanism varies in numerous ways.Therefore,based on patient's individual pathophysiology,the management in Brown syndrome should be personalized.%目的 探讨Brown综合征的临床特征与影像学诊断.方法 回顾性系列病例研究.回顾性分析2011年4月至2014年10月临床诊断为单侧Brown综合征的患者14例,其中先天性10例,后天性4例;男性12例,女性2例,年龄3~54岁,年龄中位数为4岁.对所有患者均进行了斜视度数、眼球运动、双眼视觉、前节及眼底检查.眼球运动神经脑池段采用头线圈,3D-FIESTA序列;眼眶段采用表面线圈,横断面加冠状面加矢状面,快速自旋回波T1与T2加权扫描.分析眼球运动神经、眼外肌及周围组织MRI表现.结果 所

  2. Brown-bowel syndrome. Review of the literature and presentation of cases

    Horn, T; Svendsen, L B; Nielsen, R

    1990-01-01

    degradation of smooth-muscle cell mitochondria. It is probable that BBS is a manifestation of vitamin E deficiency causing smooth-muscle cell 'mitochondrial myopathy'. Normal bowel function is retained, causing bowel hypotonia, and an aggravation of the underlying disease occurs. On suspicion of BBS......Four cases of brown-bowel syndrome (BBS) are presented. BBS is found in malabsorptive conditions secondary to diseases involving the liver, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract. Morphologically, BBS is characterized by deposition of lipofuscin in the tunica muscularis, and electron microscopy shows...

  3. Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Naidoo P

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available P Naidoo, D Pillay, S SamanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Port Shepstone Regional Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaAbstract: A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement, and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stridor and a cerebrovascular accident with left hemiplegia. She died approximately 2 weeks after admission. The potential causes of her stridor included a mediastinal mass or a central mechanism secondary to tuberculosis meningitis. Limited resources precluded definitive imaging of the chest to rule out a mediastinal mass. Further, an autopsy was not done. Despite these limitations, this case is unique because it reports the presence of both stridor and tuberculosis meningitis in an adult patient.Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, meningitis, stridor, tuberculosis

  4. A Case Report of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy Presenting as Acquired Symptomatic West Syndrome

    Shridhar Jadhav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen Syndrome By Proxy (MSBP is an extremely complicated diagnosis because of the difficulty in finding the incriminating evidence of its existence and because of the ethical issue it raises for caregivers. Its implications from a medical, psychological and legal point of view raise difficult questions for any professional confronted to it. We present a case of 8 month female infant who was diagnosed to have Hyperinsulinism causing hypoglycemic brain injury and later developing intractable convulsion with head drops, where EEG was suggestive of West Syndrome, was actually a case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy to start with.

  5. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome : a case report

    A variety of pulmonary complications, including infection and neoplastic inflammatory diseases, commonly develop in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, one such complication, is not uncommon, and is very difficult to differentiate, clinically and radiologically, from pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. We describe a case of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, including the chest radiographic and HRCT findings, occurring in an AIDS patient and involving complications. (author)

  6. Heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Detection by gallium scintigraphy

    A case of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) secondary to the central nervous system complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Because of the overwhelming suspicion of infection in this patient, this diagnosis was not considered until a gallium scan revealed the typical findings of heterotopic ossification. Because of the increasing utilization of gallium imaging in the AIDS population, every imaging specialist should be aware of this potential disorder

  7. Nontropical pyomyositis as a cause of subacute, multifocal myalgia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection, in which severe myalgia was the presenting symptom over several weeks. Multifocal muscle lesions were identified by gallium scanning and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The epidemiology, possible pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic imaging, and therapy are reviewed. Early suspicion of nontropical pyomyositis in severely immunocompromised patients with cryptic myalgia is recommended

  8. Simian virus 40-induced disease in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Horvath, C J; Simon, M A; Bergsagel, D. J.; Pauley, D. R.; King, N W; Garcea, R L; Ringler, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) disease was diagnosed in four rhesus monkeys that died with SIV-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). One juvenile monkey seroconverted for SV40 6 months after inoculation with SIV and developed severe bilateral tubulointerstitial nephritis. In contrast, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) occurred in two adult monkeys that were seropositive for SV40 before SIV inoculation, as well as a third adult that was naturally infected with SIV and serop...

  9. Progressive multifocal leukoence-phalopathy presenting as homonymous hemianopia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Amit Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patient who was referred for retinal evaluation to rule out ophthalmic manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. She complained of some disturbance in vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed no abnormality. Perimetry, done to rule out optic nerve pathology, showed a left homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scan showed features of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML. She had no other neurological symptoms or signs.

  10. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Combined with Vitreous Hemorrhage in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    You, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chang Hyun; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an unusual case of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) with vitreous hemorrhage in a 41-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from what was probably varicellar-zoster virus combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1,2, as proven by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Methods This study is a case report detailing clinical follow-up and ...

  11. Unilateral acquired Brown′s syndrome in systemic scleroderma: An unusual cause for diplopia

    Neelam Pawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown′s syndrome can be congenital or acquired with multiple causes. It has been described as a ocular complication in various rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases. We describe a case of 27-year-old female patient with 5 years old history of systemic scleroderma who developed vertical diplopia, a left head tilt, and restriction of left eye on elevation in adduction. The patient responded to systemic steroids with resolution of diplopia.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.

    Duesberg, P H

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, ...

  13. Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Naidoo P; Pillay D; Saman S

    2013-01-01

    P Naidoo, D Pillay, S SamanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Port Shepstone Regional Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaAbstract: A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement), and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stri...

  14. Brown Syndrome

    ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ...

  15. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with cryptococcal lymphadenitis as the first presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Tahir M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is commonly seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients having concomitant opportunistic infection, following initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. We describe IRIS in a young man with unknown human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status who presented with cryptococcal lymphadenitis as the first manifestation of AIDS. At presentation the patient had features overlapping with tuberculosis (TB lymphadenitis which was ruled out by fine needle aspiration cytology. The patient responded to antifungal treatment but following the start of HAART, symptoms recurred which were managed conservatively. Though TB is common in India, a thorough workup including histopathology of lymph node should be done before the patient is started on anti-tuberculosis treatment. HIV infected patients having opportunistic co-infection should be closely monitored following initiation of HAART.

  16. Sweet′s Syndrome Leading To Acquired Cutis Laxa (Marshall′s Syndrome) In A Child

    Narayanan Meenakshi; Phiske Meghana; Jerajani H R; Dhurat Rachita

    2004-01-01

    Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (AFND), commonly known as Sweetâ€s syndrome, is a disorder seen in adult females, being extremely rare in children. Typical features include spiky fever, sudden eruption of raised painful erythematous to plum-colored nodules and plaques, neutrophilic leucocytosis, a dermal neutrophili infiltrate an a rapid response to systemic steroid. The eruption is believed to represent a hypersensitivity reaction to an antecedent infection or malignancy....

  17. Síndrome de Brown bilateral associada com hipermobilidade articular benigna: relato de caso Bilateral Brown's syndrome associated with benign joint hypermobility: a case report

    David Kirsch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Brown é caracterizada por grande limitação de elevação em adução, elevação ligeiramente diminuída ou normal na abdução, anisotropia em "Y" ou "V", intorção do olho em supraversão e ducção forçada positiva. Sua causa se deve à inelastibilidade do músculo oblíquo superior ou por sua contenção em sua própria bainha. A hipermobilidade articular benigna é doença hereditária do tecido conectivo caracterizada por aumento da mobilidade em diversas articulações. Sua prevalência é muito variável em relação à idade, sexo e etnia, variando de 2 a 35% em homens e de 5 a 57% e mulheres. Neste relato os autores descrevem um caso de síndrome de Brown associada com hipermobilidade articular benigna e atentam para a associação pouco referida na literatura. J.C.S, masculino, 6 anos de idade, pardo, estudante, foi encaminhado à Universidade de Santo Amaro com queixa de exotropia há dois anos que aumentava na supraversão. Paciente com o diagnóstico de síndrome de Brown bilateral teve o diagnóstico de hipermobilidade articular benigna pelo Reumatologista. O paciente com hipermobilidade articular benigna pode desenvolver sintomas articulares como artralgia devido a uma inflamação articular. Acreditamos na possibilidade de que síndrome de Brown possa ter ocorrido devido a processo inflamatório na tróclea que teve início devido a hipermobilidade articular benigna.Brown's syndrome is characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction, slight or normal limitation of elevation in abduction, divergence in straight upgaze (V-pattern, intorsion in upgaze and positive forced duction. It is caused by a tight or inelastic superior oblique tendon. Benign joint hypermobility is a hereditary disease of the connective tissue characterized by an increase of mobility in diverse joints. Its prevalence is very changeable regarding age range, sex and ethnicity, varying from 2 to 35% in men and 5 to 57% in women. In

  18. Brown-Séquard syndrome: a rare manifestation of decompression sickness.

    Tseng, W-S; Huang, N-C; Huang, W-S; Lee, H-C

    2015-12-01

    Neurological decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition that commonly leads to spinal cord injury. We report the case of a 30-year-old man who developed left-sided weakness and numbness after diving to a maximum depth of 15 m with a total dive time of 205min (10 repetitive dives). To the best of our knowledge, only six cases diagnosed as Brown-Séquard syndrome caused by DCS have been reported in the literature. Divers should be aware of the risk factors of DCS before diving and clinicians should make the diagnosis of spinal cord DCS based primarily on clinical symptoms, not on magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26400970

  19. Ganglion cyst of the cervical spine presenting with Brown-Sequard syndrome.

    Cheng, Wen-Yu; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Wen, Mei-Chin

    2006-12-01

    Ganglion cysts of the spine are uncommon. They occur mostly in the dorsolateral trunk and arise with the greatest frequency in the lumbar spine. However, they are rarely symptomatic. We report a rare case of a patient with a ganglion cyst of the lower cervical spine presenting with acute Brown-Sequard syndrome. The patient had no history of trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed a cystic lesion connecting to the synovial joint C6-7 and compressing the posterior aspect of the spinal cord. The patient underwent emergent C6-7 laminectomy with total removal of the cyst. Neurological function recovered completely 4 months after operation. Ganglion cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an extradural mass of the cervical spine. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a rapid and correct diagnosis, and laminectomy with removal of the cyst results in good neurological recovery. PMID:17113987

  20. Optimising technetium 99m diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate lung clearance in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases, largely as a result of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Since the mortality from recurrent infection is between 40% and 60%, early diagnosis and therapy are the keys to survival. The role of technetium 99m diethylenetriaminepentacetate (DTPA) aerosol pulmonary clearance was studied in 81 patients with AIDS. The mathematical technique of curve stripping was found to be the optimal method of analysis and to provide an overall sensitivity of 94% for the detection of interstitial pneumonitis. The procedure was superior to standard pathology parameters and radiography and more convenient than gallium 67 scintigraphy. (orig.)

  1. Radiological findings in three acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia

    Objective: To study the imaging appearances of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in three patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS). Methods: Thoracic imaging appearances of' Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in three patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The chest radiograph showed patchy consolidations and small nodules (n=3), large consolidations with multiple cavitations (n=2). CT showed large lobar or segmental consolidations with multiple cavitations (n=2), patchy consolidations (n=2), bronchiectasis (n=1), multiple small centrilobular nodules (n=2) and tree-in-bud patterns (n=2). Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in AIDS patients with Rhodococcus equi pulmonary infection are large consolidations with multiple cavitations and multiple centrilobular nodules. (authors)

  2. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M; Lönnqvist, J K

    1994-01-01

    other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls for......Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger and...... recognition of depression and differentiation of the origin and content of fear....

  3. Acquired infantile Horner syndrome and spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection: a case report and review of literature.

    Pirouzian, Amir; Holz, Huck A; Ip, Kenneth C; Sudesh, Rattehalli

    2010-04-01

    Horner syndrome, a triad of ptosis, anisocoria, and anhidrosis, results from interruption in the oculosympathetic pathway. It is classically described as either congenital or acquired to depict its underlying pathophysiology and requisite work-up. We report a case of a 10-month-old infant presenting with an acute onset of left Horner syndrome secondary to a spontaneous extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature of acute onset of acquired infantile Horner syndrome in association with spontaneous carotid artery dissection confirmed with magnetic resonance angiogram. PMID:20451860

  4. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a common cause of pulmonary disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    During a 4.4-year period, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis was seen in 41 of 110 (38%) patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and accounted for 32% (48/152) of all episodes of clinical pneumonitis. Diffuse alveolar damage was typically a feature of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, but neither lung biopsy nor bronchoalveolar lavage detected a pathogen. Of these 41 patients, 13 had no associated pulmonary tumor and had not been exposed to pulmonary toxins, whereas 28 patients had either concurrent pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma, previous experimental therapies, or a history of pneumocystis pneumonia or drug abuse. Of these 41, 23 had normal chest radiographs. The clinical features of patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis were similar to those of patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, although histologic findings showed less severe alveolar damage in patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (p less than 0.001). Pathologic evaluation and clinical follow-up suggest that many clinical episodes of pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are due to nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis of unknown cause

  5. Gallium-67 scans of the chest in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Eighty-six [67Ga]citrate chest scans were performed in 71 adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Forty-five of these patients also had Kaposi's sarcoma. Only 29 of 57 abnormal scans were correlated with abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiographs were negative for 27 scans and unavailable for one. Several scan patterns were seen. Diffusely increased lung uptake was seen most commonly with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, but also other infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. Focal uptake corresponding to regional lymph node groups occurred most often with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare but aslo with lymphoma. Localized intrapulmonary uptake was seen in bacterial pneumonias. Perihilar activity occurred in two cases. When chest radiographs were abnormal and 67Ga scans negative, the most common diagnosis was pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

  6. Chest radiographs in acquired antibody deficiency syndrome with chronic granulomatous inflammation

    Ten cases of acquired antibody deficiency syndrome with chronic granulomatous infection were diagnosed in our hospital during the past 10 years. We were able to perform a retrospective analysis of the initial and follow-up chest radiographs in 8 of these patients. The following pathological findings could be demonstrated: 1. increased bronchovascular markings in the basal lung fields, 2. reticular densities in the middle and basal lung fields, 3. confluent nodular densities of varying size in the periphery of the basal and middle fields, 4. pulmonary infiltrates in the middle and lower lobes, 5. hilar node enlargement of moderate extent. Findings 2, 3 and 5 completely disappeared under steroid therapy whereas 1 showed only partial recovery. If both the radiologic and serologic findings are considered, it is possible to differentiate this disease from sarcoidosis. (orig.)

  7. Rapidly progressed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex as an initial manifestation.

    Takeuchi, Makoto; Nobukuni, Keigo; Takata, Hiroshi; Kawata, Noriko; Hayashibara, Noriko; Ishizu, Hideki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi

    2005-07-01

    We report a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex (ADC) that presented human immunodeficiency virus infection as an initial manifestation. A 34-year-old man developed disturbance of consciousness and severe abulia over 3 months. The CD4 lymphocyte count was 7.9/microl, while human immunodeficiency virus RNA in blood amounted to 4.2 x 10(4) copies/ml. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusely high signal intensity in the deep white matter of both cerebral hemispheres. On the 20th hospital day, the patient died of sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Autopsy findings in the brain included increased glial cells and multinucleated giant cells in cerebral white matter and subcortical gray matter. These features were compatible with ADC. PMID:16093602

  8. Toxoplasmosis of spinal cord in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient presenting as paraparesis: A rare entity

    Sachin R Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm 3 based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion.

  9. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A case report and systematic review

    Somchai Meesiri

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma,lymphoma,cystic neoplasia,retroperitoneal tumors,pancreatitis or pseudocysts.Here,I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia,fever,weight loss and an epigastric mass.The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy.The clinical presentation,radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection.I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fineneedle aspiration.

  10. Bone paracoccidioidomycosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: evaluation by radiological methods - a case report

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease, caused by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis fungus. This disease involves primarily the lungs, although disseminated forms may occur. Bone involvement is rare, and is associated to systemic disease or may present as a focal lesion. An association between paracoccidioidomycosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first established in 1989. There are only a few reports on this association, and none of them was the fungus isolated from bone lesions. This is the first case report on the paracoccidioidomycosis-AIDS association in which bone lesions demonstrated infection by P. brasiliensis. The authors propose the inclusion of paracoccidioidomycosis in the differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions in patients with AIDS and discuss the role of radiological diagnostic in this case. (author)

  11. 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes

    In order to investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS), 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging was performed in 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex and age matched normal controls, and the rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum were calculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in 1 patient with dementia. Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal and temporal lobe were seen in 4 asymptomatic patients. The rCBF in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, front and pons were decreased significantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (p < 0.005). It is concluded that there exists reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in AIDS patients

  12. Social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and associated factors.

    Ansari, S K; Nedjat, S; Jabbari, H; Saiepour, N; Heris, M J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the associated factors. In a cross-sectional study the Integrated Social Capital Questionnaire was filled by a sequential sample of 300 patients visiting a referral counselling centre in Tehran. The patients' social capital scores were around 50% in the trust, social cohesion, collective action and cooperation and political empowerment domains. The groups and networks membership domain scored the lowest (27.1%). In regression analysis, employment status was significantly associated with groups and networks membership; age, marital status and financial status were associated with collective action and cooperation; period of disease awareness and marital status affected social cohesion and inclusion; and having risky behaviour affected empowerment and political action. Efforts are needed to enhance the social capital of those patients living with AIDS who are younger, unemployed, divorced/widowed, with risky behaviours and shorter disease awareness. PMID:26750165

  13. 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS), 99mTc-ECDbrain SPECT imaging was performed in 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex and agematched normal controls, and the rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum werecalculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Hypoperfusions in the rightand left frontal, temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in1 patient with dementia. Hypoperfusions in the right and left frontal and temporallobe were seen in 4 asymptomatic patients. The rCBF in the right and left frontal.temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, front and pons were decreasedsignificantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (p <0.005). Itis concluded that there exists reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in AIDS patients.``

  14. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  15. Meeting Minutes of International Conference on Prevention and Treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome with Chinese Medicine

    LI Yong; WANG Jie; LIN Hong-sheng; WU Xin-fang; LIU Jie; TANG Yan-li; NAN Ji-hong

    2011-01-01

    @@ The International Conference on Prevention and Treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) with Chinese Medicine (CM) was held in Beijing International Hotel from October 16to 17,2010.It was cosponsored by Guang'anmen Hospital,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (CACMS),and the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  16. Selected Laws, Rules and State-Level Activities in Wisconsin Related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Information Memorandum 87-4.

    Sweet, Richard

    This information memorandum describes the selected laws, rules, and state-level activities in Wisconsin related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tests for antibodies to the virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. A section on current state laws on AIDS and HIV antibody testing describes laws related to informed consent for testing,…

  17. Thermal and sedimentation stress are unlikely causes of brown spot syndrome in the coral reef sponge, Ianthella basta.

    Heidi M Luter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine diseases are being increasingly linked to anthropogenic factors including global and local stressors. On the Great Barrier Reef, up to 66% of the Ianthella basta population was recently found to be afflicted by a syndrome characterized by brown spot lesions and necrotic tissue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the role of environmental stressors in this syndrome. Specifically, the effects of elevated temperature and sedimentation on sponge health and symbiont stability in I. basta were examined. Neither elevated temperature nor increased sedimentation were responsible for the brown spot lesions, but sponges exposed to 32°C developed substantial discoloration and deterioration of their tissues, resulting in death after eight days and a higher microbial diversity in those samples. No shifts in the microbial community of I. basta were observed across a latitudinal gradient or with increased sedimentation, with three previously described symbionts dominating the community of all sponges (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from this study highlight the stable microbial community of I. basta and indicate that thermal and sedimentation stress are not responsible for the brown spot lesions currently affecting this abundant and ecologically important sponge species.

  18. Respiratory failure in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    Maxfield, R A; Sorkin, I B; Fazzini, E P; Rapoport, D M; Stenson, W M; Goldring, R M

    1986-05-01

    Seven patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were studied to define the pathophysiology of their respiratory failure. The patients had fever, cough, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray. Biopsies revealed a spectrum of alveolar filling, interstitial edema and infiltration, and fibrosis. The patients were studied on mechanical ventilation to assess the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and supplemental oxygen on shunt fraction. Mean anatomic shunt (measured on 100% oxygen) was 34 +/- 8%, which increased significantly (p less than .001) to 43 +/- 9% when the FIO2 was decreased to 40% to 60% (physiologic shunt), indicating ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) imbalance or impaired diffusion. Increasing PEEP by 9 +/- 2 cm H2O reduced the anatomic shunt to 30 +/- 7% (p less than .01) and the physiologic shunt to 37 +/- 7% (p less than .02). There was a similar decrease in anatomic and physiologic shunts in five studies, a greater decrease in physiologic shunt in four, and a greater decrease in anatomic shunt in two. Evidence of alveolar recruitment with PEEP, measured by an increase in static thoracic compliance, was found in only one study. There was no correlation between the effect of PEEP on compliance and its effect on shunt. The data suggest that in patients with AIDS and P. carinii pneumonia, PEEP can decrease shunt by reducing the anatomic shunt, improving V/Q imbalance, and converting areas of anatomic shunt to areas of low V/Q. P. carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS can produce a clinical and pathophysiologic pattern similar to that described in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:3516574

  19. Acquired CNS Demyelinating Syndrome in Children Referred to Shiraz Pediatric Neurology Ward

    Soroor INALOO*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Inaloo S, Haghbin S, Moradi M, Dashti H, Safari N. Acquired CNS Demyelinating Syndrome in Children Referred to Shiraz Pediatric Neurology Ward. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring; 8(2:18-23.ObjectiveIncidence of CNS acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS, especially multiple sclerosis (MS in children, appears to be on the rise worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence, clinical presentation, neuroimagingfeatures, and prognosis of different types of ADS in Iranian children.Materials & MethodsDuring the period 2002-2012, all the patients (aged 1-18 years with ADS, such as MS, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, optic neurotic (ON, Devic disease, and transverse myelitis (TM, referred to the pediatric neurology ward, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, were includedin this study. Demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms, past and family history, preclinical findings, clinical course, and outcome were obtained.ResultsWe identified 88 patients with ADS in our center. The most prevalent disease was MS with 36.5% (n=32, followed by AEDM 26.1% (n=31, ON 17% (n=13, TM 15.9% (n=14, and Devic disease 4.5% (n=4. MS, ON, TM were morecommon among females while ADEM was more common in males. Children with ADEM were significantly younger than those with other types of ADS.Family history was positive in 10% of patients with MS.Previous history of recent infection was considerably seen in cases with ADEM.Clinical presentation and prognosis in this study was in accordance with those in previous studies on children.ConclusionIn this study, the most common type of ADS was MS, which was more common in female and older age cases. ADEM was more common in male and younger children. ADEM and ON had the best and Devic disease had the worst prognosis.References1. Longer-Gould A, Zhaug JL, Chung J, Yeung Y, Wanbant E, Yao J. Incidence of acquired CNS demyelinating syndrome in a

  20. Infection and T lymphocyte subpopulations: changes associated with bacteremia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Fishman, J A; Martell, K M; Rubin, R H

    1983-01-01

    Patients with bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were prospectively studied using monoclonal antibody reagents to assess alterations in T-lymphocyte subpopulations. Patients with endocarditis had significantly higher ratios of T-helper (OKT4+) to T-suppressor-cytotoxic (OKT8+) cells than did patients with bacteremia alone. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis patients had a mean ratio of 8.49 (range 4.73-22.36) while S aureus bacteremia had a mean ratio of 2.75 (range 2.15 to 3.21). Similar results were found with Staphylococcus epidermidis endocarditis (mean 1.62) and bacteremia (mean 1.23). Klebsiella pneumoniae endocarditis (5.10) and sepsis (4.32), and E coli bacteremia (2.15). Nine male patients with AIDS had markedly depressed ratios (mean 0.25, range 0.04 to 0.67) while eight male homosexuals with unexplained lymphadenopathy ("pre-AIDS") had normal or increased ratios. Bacteremic infections are associated with an increased OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio with the degree of increase dependent upon virulence, location, and duration of infection. The immunomodulating effects of infection are manifested in changes in T-cell subsets, and these measurements can be useful in clinical management. PMID:6094086

  1. Erythrovirus B19 infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: screening by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infects erythrocytic progenitors, transiently interrupting erythropoiesis. In AIDS patients it causes chronic anemia amenable to treatment. We looked for evidences of B19 infection in stored bone marrow material from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histological sections were made from stored paraffin blocks from 33 autopsies (39 blocks and 35 biopsies (45 blocks, 30 patients performed from 1988 to 2002. They were examined after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, immunohistochemical (IHC, and in situ hybridization. HE revealed intra-nuclear inclusion bodies ("lantern cells" suggesting B19 infection in 19 sections corresponding to 19 of 63 patients examined with this test. Seven of 78 sections subjected to immunohistochemistry were positive, corresponding to 7 of 58 patients examined with this test. Fourteen sections corresponding to 13 of the 20 HE and/or IHC positive patients were subjected to in situ hybridization, with six positives results. Among the 13 patients subjected to the three techniques, only one gave unequivocal positive results in all and was considered a true positive. The frequency of B19 infection (1/63 patients in the material examined can be deemed low.

  2. Computed tomography of the lungs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An early indicator of interstitial pneumonia

    Hartelius, H.; Gaub, J.; Jensen, L.I.; Jensen, J.; Faber, V.

    Computed tomography of the chest was performed on 42 occasions as part of the diagnostic work-up in 26 homosexual men with, or suspected of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 17 cases both the chest radiographs and the lung scans were abnormal, and bronchoscopy and/or lung biopsy established an etiologic diagnosis in the majority of these cases. In 9 cases CT of the lungs revealed unequivocal interstitial infiltration in the presence of a normal chest radiography, and subsequently and etiologic agent was demonstrated in all these cases. In 9 cases, patients with symptoms indicative of pulmonary infection had both a normal chest radiograph and a normal lung scan, and in none of these cases did the clinical course or additional diagnostic procedures indicate the presence of current opportunistic lung infection. CT of the lungs seems to identify accurately those patients with severe HIV-related diseases in whom invasive diagnostic procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung biopsy should be done.

  3. Unsuspected pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    Niazi Masooma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diffuse lung infiltrates are a common finding in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and causes range from infectious processes to malignancies or interstitial lung diseases. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disorder rarely reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is associated with conditions involving functional impairment or reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages. It can be caused by hematologic malignancies, inhalation of toxic dust, fumes or gases, infectious or pharmacologic immunosuppression, or lysinuric protein intolerance. Case presentation A 42-year-old African American man infected with human immunodeficiency virus was admitted with chronic respiratory symptoms and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces, for which he required bilateral chest tubes. Initial laboratory investigations did not reveal any contributory conditions. Histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracoscopy showed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis concurrent with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. After ganciclovir treatment, our patient showed radiologic and clinical improvement. Conclusion The differential diagnosis for patients with immunosuppression and lung infiltrates requires extensive investigations. As pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is rare, the diagnosis can be easily missed. Our case highlights the importance of invasive investigations and histology in the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary disease who do not respond to empiric therapy.

  4. [Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in a patient with immune thrombocytopenic purpura].

    Ihara, Akihiro; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Matsushita, Tadashi; Ichinose, Akitada

    2015-07-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder similar to inherited von Willebrand disease. We describe a 78-year-old woman with coexistent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and AVWS. The patient had once been admitted to our hospital because of cerebral infarction. Her platelet count had been normal at that time. Ten years later, she showed a severe bleeding tendency (platelet count 3.2×10(4)/μl). Analysis of hemostatic parameters showed very low (IgG4) to VWF was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Factor XIII activity was 42%. Treatment with corticosteroids did not improve the thrombocytopenia, but did correct the bleeding diathesis. Also, VWF: Rco and VIII: C showed normalization. These findings indicated that the patient had ITP associated with AVWS. All reported cases of AVWS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus were cured by appropriate treatment of the underlying autoimmune disease with prednisone or immunosuppression. This bleeding disorder occurs mainly in patients with lymphoproliferative, myeloproliferative, cardiovascular and immunologic disorders, but no patients with ITP have previously been reported. This patient had the rare presentation of AVWS complicated by ITP and factor XIII deficiency. PMID:26256928

  5. Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva and eyelids associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Three studies were performed to assess more accurately the prevalence, natural history, and appropriate treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma involving ocular structures. The first study was a prospective examination of 100 male homosexuals with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma for signs of ophthalmic involvement. Of the 20 patients who had ophthalmic lesions, 16 had eyelid lesions and seven had conjunctival lesions. In four patients, the ophthalmic lesion was the first, and initially the only, clinically identified manifestation of Kaposi sarcoma. The second study was a retrospective review of all patients with ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma examined at one institution over a six-year period to determine its natural history and response to therapy. Most lesions were slowly progressive and responded to systemic drug therapy. Six patients were successfully treated with radiation therapy to prevent complications. The third study was a retrospective review of all patients with AIDS-related ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma treated with local irradiation by one radiation oncologist. Each of 12 patients showed a response to treatment, and ten had a complete resolution of lesions, but recurrences were common. Side effects included skin erythema in six patients and hair loss in one patient. For local treatment of ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma, irradiation appears to be safe and effective for palliative therapy

  6. Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. They can be severe leading to ocular morbidity and visual handicap. Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person. Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS. This in turn has led to an increase in the prevalence of anterior segment and adnexal disorders. Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi′s sarcoma. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise. Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye. This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population.

  7. A patient with hypereosinophilic syndrome that manifested with acquired hemophilia and elevated IgG4: a case report

    Nagao Yoshiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypereosinophilic syndrome is defined as a prolonged state (more than six months of eosinophilia (greater than 1500 cells/μL, without an apparent etiology and with end-organ damage. Hypereosinophilic syndrome can cause coagulation abnormalities. Among hypereosinophilic syndrome types, the lymphocytic variant (lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome is derived from a monoclonal proliferation of T lymphocytes. Here, we describe the case of a patient with lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome who presented with a coagulation abnormality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report including a detailed clinical picture and temporal cytokine profile. Case presentation A 77-year-old Japanese man presented to our facility with massive hematuria and hypereosinophilia (greater than 2600 cells/μl. His eosinophilia first appeared five years earlier when he developed femoral artery occlusion. He manifested with multiple hematomas and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. His IgG4 level was remarkably elevated (greater than 2000 mg/dL. Polymerase chain reaction tests of peripheral blood and bone marrow identified lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome. His prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time was found to be due to acquired hemophilia. Glucocorticoids suppressed both the hypereosinophilia and coagulation abnormality. However, tapering of glucocorticoids led to a relapse of the coagulation abnormality alone, without eosinophilia. Tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-5, and/or eotaxin-3 may have caused the hypereosinophilia, and interleukin-10 was correlated with the coagulation abnormality. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in which lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome and IgG4-related disease have overlapped. In addition, our patient is only the second case of hypereosinophilic disease that manifested with acquired hemophilia. Our patient relapsed with the

  8. Impaired riboflavin transport due to missense mutations in SLC52A2 causes Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

    Haack, Tobias B.; Makowski, Christine; Yao, Yoshiaki; Graf, Elisabeth; Hempel, Maja; Wieland, Thomas; Tauer, Ulrike; Ahting, Uwe; Mayr, Johannes A.; Freisinger, Peter; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Inui, Ken; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Yonezawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS [MIM 211530]) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by infancy onset sensorineural deafness and ponto-bulbar palsy. Mutations in SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), coding for riboflavin transporter 2 (hRFT2), have been identified as the molecular genetic correlate in several individuals with BVVLS. Exome sequencing of just one single case revealed that compound heterozygosity for two pathogenic mutations in the SLC52A2 gene coding for riboflavin tran...

  9. Correlation of diagnostic imaging and autopsy findings of eight patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Objective: To investigate the imaging findings with pathologic correlation in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: Imaging findings, autopsy and pathological data were retrospectively analyzed in eight patients with AIDS. Routine CT scanning of different body parts was performed during their hospitalization. CT scanning was performed from the skull to the pelvis immediately following their death. After routine formalin fixing, 7 cadavers were cross sectioned for autopsy in freezing state and 1 for gross autopsy. Tissues were obtained from each sections and organs for pathological examinations. Results: The autopsy data showed parasitic infections (5 cases), bacterial infections (3 cases), fungal infections (2 cases), virus infections (2 cases), lymphoma (1 case) and cerebrovascular diseases (1 case)in eight patients with AIDS. The CT scanning demonstrated symmetrical ground glass liked shadows with pulmonary hilus as the center in 5 cases of pulmonary PCP infection; pulmonary patchy shadows, scattering distribution of nodular shadows, extensive military nodular shadows with even distribution and tuberculous pleurisy; cloudy shadows for 2 cases of fungi infection with multiple foci of chronic inflammation; pulmonary net-like parenchymal changes for 2 cases of pulmonary CMV infection; thickened intestinal wall and narrowed intestinal lumen for 1 case of intestinal tumor; low density shadows of brain tissue for 1 case of CMV encephalitis and MRI findings of high T1 and high T2 signals as well as MRA findings of broken vascular channels in liquefied areas of brain tissues; patchy low density areas inside a cyst of brain for one case of brain toxoplasmosis infection; multiple small patchy low density areas in cerebral basal ganglia for one case of brain cryptococcus infection. Conclusions: In AIDS patients, infection and tumor may occur in various organs resulting in complex symptoms, which makes it more complicated and difficult to make

  10. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary cerebral lymphoma: response to irradiation

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary cerebral lymphoma (AIDS-PCL) is uncommon. Fourteen cases of presumed AIDS-PCL between 1986 and 1995 were reviewed retrospectively in order to characterize the natural history, and the response to radiotherapy. The median age was 38 years (range 24-65). The median interval between seropositive diagnosis of HIV and AIDS-PCL was 28 months (range 5-113). The median duration of symptoms was 2 weeks (range 0.2-12). At presentation, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) was PS1 (2/14 patients), PS2 (6/14) and PS3 (6/14). The symptoms and signs were non-specific and depended on the site and extent of cerebral involvement. There was no characteristic pattern of brain imaging in terms of size, number, location or pattern of contrast enhancement of the cerebral lesions. Nine patients received various fractionation-dose schedules (range 8-50 Gy). Complete and partial responses were seen in 2/9 and 3/9 cases, respectively. Clinical stabilization of neurological symptoms was noted in 3/9 cases and disease progression in 1/9. The median survival times (MST) from presentation for irradiated and non-irradiated patients were 9.3 and 2.1 weeks, respectively (range 0.9-43.1). Although patient selection introduced bias, there appears to be a modest improvement in MST for treated patients. The MST with radiotherapy alone remains poor, but radiotherapy may provide palliation. For some selected patients, a prolonged response is possible. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Distinct mechanisms account for acquired von Willebrand syndrome in plasma cell dyscrasias.

    Dicke, Christina; Schneppenheim, Sonja; Holstein, Katharina; Spath, Brigitte; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Dittmer, Rita; Budde, Ulrich; Langer, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder that may cause life-threatening hemorrhages in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs). Early diagnosis and treatment require a thorough understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. Two patients with IgG MGUS presented with dramatically decreased plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a severe type-1 pattern on multimer analysis. A prompt response to intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), but not to VWF/FVIII, was consistent with accelerated immunologic clearance of plasma VWF. Another IgG MGUS patient showed a type-2 pattern and a less pronounced response to IVIG, suggesting that additional mechanism(s) contributed to AVWS evolution. In a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and severe depletion of plasma VWF, multimer analysis indicated association of the IgM paraprotein with VWF before, but not after plasmapheresis, resulting in destruction of the agarose gel and a characteristically distorted band structure of VWF multimers. A type-2 pattern with highly abnormal VWF triplets and laboratory evidence of excessive fibrinolytic activity suggested that plasmin-mediated VWF degradation contributed to AVWS in a patient with multiple myeloma (MM) and AL amyloidosis. Finally, in a patient with IgG MM, maximally prolonged PFA-100® closure times and a specific defect in ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, both of which resolved after remission induction, indicated interference of the paraprotein with VWF binding to platelet GPIb. Importantly, in none of the six patients, circulating autoantibodies to VWF were detected by a specific in-house ELISA. In summary, when evaluating PCD patients with severe bleeding symptoms, AVWS due to various pathogenic mechanisms should be considered. PMID:27040683

  12. Cholecystitis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrasonographic findings in a case of uncommon presentation during childhood

    We present the case of a boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom ultrasound revealed the presence of a calculous cholecystitis. Abdominal ultrasound was essential in the initial diagnosis and the assessment of the response to treatment. This entity has rarely been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. In our patient, the cholecystitis may have been caused by infection, and the involvement of regional lymphatic obstruction in the pathogenesis is considered. (Author) 14 refs

  13. An Aggressive Plasmablastic Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity as Primary Manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review

    Corti, Marcelo; Minué, Gonzalo; Campitelli, Ana; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare entity that was first described in the jaws and the oral cavity of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Plasmablastic lymphoma is considered as a diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma with a unique phenotype and a predilection for the oral cavity. Objective The authors describe a case of an aggressive plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity as the primary manifestation of AIDS. Resumed Report ...

  14. Rapid diagnosis by buffy coat smear of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Nussbaum, J. M.; Dealist, C; Lewis, W; Heseltine, P N

    1990-01-01

    A smear of the buffy coat of peripheral blood for acid-fast bacilli was assessed for sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Seventeen AIDS patients with blood cultures positive for MAC had simultaneous quantitative blood cultures and buffy coat smears performed, as did 4 patients later proven not to have disseminated MAC. The sensitivity of the buffy coat smear for the dete...

  15. IgGG Kappa Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) Presenting as Acquired Type III Von Willebrand Syndrome

    Howard, C.; Lin, T; Cunningham, M; Lipe, B

    2014-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder associated with hematoproliferative disorders, autoimmune conditions, neoplasia, and cardiovascular disorders that often presents a diagnostic challenge. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is one of the most common causes of AVWS that typically presents later in life with mucocutaneous or postsurgical bleeding and multimers consistent with type I or II von Willebrand Disease (VWD). Here we present the c...

  16. Serum selenium and skin diseases among Nigerians with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Akinboro AO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adeolu Oladayo Akinboro,1 David Ayodele Mejiuni,2 Olaniyi Onayemi,3 Olugbenga Edward Ayodele,4 Adeniran Samuel Atiba,5 Gbenga Micheal Bamimore6 1Dermatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, and LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; 2Bullsbrook Medical Practice, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Department of Dermatology and Venereology, College of Health Science, Obafemi Awolowo University and OAUTHC, Ile – Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo and LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, and Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 6Dermatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The role of selenium as an antioxidant micronutrient has garnered the unprecedented focus of researchers in recent times. No clinical study has related serum selenium concentration to skin diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Methods: In this study, 134 newly diagnosed HIV patients that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included. Skin diseases were clinically diagnosed and fasting venous blood was taken for assessment of serum selenium using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The mean age of HIV subjects with and without skin disease were not significantly different: 32.72 ± 9.21 versus 35.86 ± 8.55 years, P = 0.077, respectively. The mean of serum selenium (0.51 ± 0.48 versus 0.81 ± 0.39, CD4+ count (228.06 ± 212.89 versus 446.41 ± 182.87, and body mass index (BMI; 21.09 ± 3.58 versus 23.53 ± 3.35 were significantly lower (P 0.05. Conclusion: serum selenium concentration was lower among HIV subjects with skin diseases than those without skin disease. Pruritic papular eruption, xeroderma

  17. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cancers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Thomas, J O

    2001-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is considered home to more than 60% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cases, with an estimated adult prevalence of 8.0%. It is stated that this region has contributed more than 90% of childhood deaths related to HIV infection and about 93% of childhood acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths. Although no country in Africa is spared of the infection, the bulk is seen in East and South Africa, with the highest recorded rates of 20% to 50% in Zimbabwe. On the other hand, West Africa is less affected, while countries in Central Africa have relatively stable infection rates. Although infections, especially tuberculosis, have emerged as the most important HIV/AIDS-associated killers in recent times, AIDS-associated malignancies are increasingly identified in the late stages. As a result of incomplete data from African countries, it is unclear whether the epidemiology and risks of these cancers are the same as observed in the developed countries. Since the advent of AIDS, epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has become more common in both sexes in Africa, with a dramatic lowering of the male to female ratio from 19:1 to 1.7:1, especially in East Africa. Although there has been a rising trend of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) worldwide, there is an apparently lower risk in Africa compared with that in the developing world. At present, there is no strong evidence linking increased incidence of invasive cervical cancer to the HIV epidemic; however, some studies have demonstrated an association between HIV and the increased prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). On the other hand, HIV infection is now established as a risk factor for the development of squamous cell neoplasia of the conjunctiva based on studies from Rwanda, Malawi, and Uganda. Despite the problems and limitations of information from sub-Saharan Africa, interesting trends of HIV/AIDS-related cancers

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging depiction of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis: Report of two cases

    Ranjana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, also known as hemispheric atrophy, is characterized by loss of volume of one cerebral hemisphere from an insult in early life. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to dysfunction/atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere which is secondary to contralateral supratentorial insult. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis.

  19. Brown's syndrome with ocular albinism: Case report of a rare presentation and literature review

    Soumya Nambiar; Srikanth Ramasubramanian; Meenakshi Swaminathan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of Brown′s syndrome associated with ocular albinism in a 10-year-old boy. This report highlights the importance of further analysis of cases of Brown′s syndrome and throws some light on the etiology and association of this rare condition.

  20. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Combined with Artery Occlusions in A Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Haitai Li; Ruiduan Liao; Dezheng Wu

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This is the first report of a bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusionscombined with artery occlusions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS). Methods: Case report. Results: A 22-year-old Chinese(male) with a positive human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection developed bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusions combinedwith artery occlusions and severe vision loss. The manifestations of the fundus andfluorescein angiography were similar in both eyes.Conclusion: This case report provides the evidences that central retinal vein and arteryocclusions are probably part of the spectrum of AIDS vascular diseases.

  1. Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone

    The authors considered an infectious molecular clone of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus. Upon transfection, this clone directed the production of infectious virus particles in a wide variety of cells in addition to human T4 cells. The progeny, infectious virions, were synthesized in mouse, mink, monkey, and several human non-T cell lines, indicating the absence of any intracellular obstacle to viral RNA or protein production or assembly. During the course of these studies, a human colon carcinoma cell line, exquisitely sensitive to DNA transfection, was identified

  2. De Novo intracerebral aneurysm in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G.; Ahamed, Naushad A.; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated aneurysmal vasculopathy is a rare complication of HIV infection affecting the pediatric and adult population. We present a case of a 7-year-old male child known to have a congenitally acquired HIV infection presenting with a ruptured left distal internal carotid artery fusiform aneurysm that was diagnosed on MRI scans 6 months prior to his presentation. He underwent craniotomy and successful aneurysm reconstruction. He had uncomplicated ...

  3. Lymphoma Secondary to Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes at a Turkish Pediatric Oncology Center.

    Tanyildiz, Hikmet G; Dincaslan, Handan; Yavuz, Gulsan; Unal, Emel; Ikinciogulları, Aydan; Dogu, Figen; Tacyildiz, Nurdan

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of lymphoma in primary immunodeficiency cases and autoimmune diseases, as well as on a background of immunodeficiency following organ transplants, is increasing. The lymphoma treatment success rate is known to be a low prognosis. Our study aimed to emphasize the low survival rates in immunodeficient vs. immunocompetent lymphoma patients and also to investigate the effect of rituximab in patients with ataxia telangiectasia and other immunodeficiencies. We summarized the clinical characteristics and treatment results of 17 cases with primary immunodeficiency that developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) retrospectively. Seven patients were diagnosed with ataxia-telangiectasia, two with common variable immunodeficiency, two with selective IgA deficiency, one with X-related lymphoproliferative syndrome, one with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, one with Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative syndrome, one with interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) deficiency, and one with lymphoma developing after autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). One patient underwent a renal transplant. Of the nine males and eight females (aged 3-12 years, median = 7) that developed lymphoma, seven were diagnosed with HL and ten with NHL (seven B-cell, three T-cell). The NHL patients were started on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster, POG9317, LMB-96, or R-CHOP treatment protocols with reduced chemotherapy dosages. HL cases were started on the doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and/or cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) protocol, also with modified dosages. Importantly, all seven cases of HL are alive and in remission, while six of the ten NHL patients have died. Primary immunodeficiency is a strong predisposing factor for developing lymphoma. Low treatment success rates relative to other lymphomas and difficulties encountered during treatment indicate that new treatment agents are needed

  4. Sleep Apnea Syndrome after Posterior Fossa Surgery: A Case of Acquired Ondine's Curse

    Elnaz Faraji rad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ondine’s Curse is a catastrophic but rare condition in adults. It is referred to as a congenital or acquired condition, in which the patient cannot breathe automatically while asleep. Acquired causes of this disease can be any cause affecting the ventrolateral part of the medulla, which is considered to be the breathing center in humans.    Case Report:   A 51-year-old woman, with ataxia and the symptoms and signs of rising Intra-Cranial Pressure, who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting and removal of tumour, developed episodic apnea during sleep after surgery and hypercapnia when awake. In her post-operative CT scan, some fine spots of hypodensity in the left lateral part of the medulla were observed. She was managed pharmacologically and underwent tracheotomy. After 50 days, she was discharged from the hospital when she was able to breathe normally.   Conclusion:  Having experience with this condition after resection of a fourth ventricle tumor, it was found that Ondine’s Curse can be considered as one of the complications of  posterior fossa surgery and is curable by proper management.

  5. Primary stomal lymphoma. An unusual complication of ileostomy in a patient with transfusion-related acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Levecq, H; Hautefeuille, M; Hoang, C; Galian, A; Hautefeuille, P; Rambaud, J C

    1990-02-15

    A 73-year-old heterosexual man developed a high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at the site of an ileostomy only 2 years after proctectomy for undetermined colitis not cured by previous colectomy. In fact, the early occurrence of this usually very late and rare complication of ileostomy was probably favored by the simultaneous presence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to repeated blood transfusions for refractory anemia with excess blasts. The intestinal location of the tumor, its high-grade malignancy and B-cell origin are all features of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This case report seems to be one of the rarely identified examples of the cooperation between general predisposing factors and local irritating agents at the origin of a malignant tumor. PMID:2297651

  6. Antiarrhythmic properties of a rapid delayed-rectifier current activator in rabbit models of acquired long QT syndrome

    Diness, Thomas G; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Qi, Xiao Yan; Chartier, Denis; Tsuji, Yukiomi; Hansen, Rie S; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten; Nattel, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Impaired repolarization in cardiac myocytes can lead to long QT syndrome (LQTS), with delayed repolarization and increased susceptibility to Torsades de Pointes (TdP) arrhythmias. Current pharmacological treatment of LQTS is often inadequate. This study sought to evaluate the antiarrhythmic...... effect of a novel compound (NS1643) that activates the rapid delayed-rectifier K+ current, I(Kr), in two rabbit models of acquired LQTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used two clinically relevant in vivo rabbit models of TdP in which we infused NS1643 or vehicle: (i) three-week atrioventricular block with...... ventricular bradypacing; (ii) dofetilide-induced I(Kr) inhibition in methoxamine-sensitized rabbits. In addition, we studied effects on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes with I(Kr) suppressed by bradycardia remodelling or dofetilide exposure. Bradypaced rabbits developed QT interval prolongation, spontaneous...

  7. A preliminary report of 99Tcm-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Objective: To investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 99Tcm-ECD brain SPECT imaging was performed on 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex- and age-matched normal controls. The rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum were calculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Results: Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in 1 patient with dementia. Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal and temporal lobe were seen in 4 patients without dementia. The rCBF in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, straight gyri and pons decreased significantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in patients with AIDS

  8. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Narwal, Anjali; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Prakash, Sant; Gupta, Shally

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(-)) ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(-) ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:27041916

  9. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Anjali Narwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(− ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(− ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  10. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: An Unusual Consequence of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-Case Report and Literature Review.

    Larsen, Timothy R; Dragu, Dritan; Williams, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a well-described syndrome characterized by the classic triad of confusion, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia. Wernicke's encephalopathy results from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Common causes include alcoholism and gastric disorders. Wernicke's has been described in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); however, given these patients' immunosuppressed state, the diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy is not apparent. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old previously healthy male presented to the ER complaining of progressive dyspnea. Workup revealed HIV/AIDS and PCP pneumonia. He was treated and improved. On day 14 he became confused and developed nystagmus and ataxia. Considering his immunocompromised state, infectious and neoplastic etiologies topped the differential diagnosis. CT head was negative. Lumbar puncture was unremarkable. Brain MRI revealed increased T2 signal in the medial thalamus bilaterally. Intravenous thiamine was administered resulting in resolution of symptoms. Discussion. The classic triad of Wernicke's encephalopathy occurs in 10% of cases. When immunosuppressed patients develop acute neurologic symptoms infectious or neoplastic etiologies must be excluded. However, given the relative safety of thiamine supplementation, there should be a low threshold for initiating therapy in order to reverse the symptoms and prevent progression to Korsakoff dementia, which is permanent. PMID:23935638

  11. Recovery of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from natural infection with Geomyces destructans, white-nose syndrome

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Valent, Mick; Kashmer, Jackie; Buckles, Elizabeth L.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David S.; Lollar, Amanda; Berndt, Douglas; Wheeler, Emily; White, C. LeAnn; Ballmann, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Geomyces destructans produces the white fungal growth on the muzzle and the tacky white discoloration on wings and ears that characterize white-nose syndrome (WNS) in cave-hibernating bats. To test the hypothesis that postemergent WNS-infected bats recover from infection with G. destructans, 30 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in May 2009 from a WNS-affected hibernation site in New Jersey. All bats were confirmed to be infected with G. destructans using a noninvasive fungal tape method to identify the conidia of G. destructans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The bats were then held in captivity and given supportive care for 70 days. Of the 26 bats that survived and were humanely killed after 70 days, 25 showed significant improvement in the external appearance of wing membranes, had no microscopic evidence of infection by G. destructans, and had wing tissue samples that were negative for G. destructans by PCR. A subset of the bats was treated topically at the beginning of the rehabilitation study with a dilute vinegar solution, but treatment with vinegar provided no added advantage to recovery. Provision of supportive care to homeothermic bats was sufficient for full recovery from WNS. One bat at day 70 still had both gross pathology and microscopic evidence of WNS in wing membranes and was PCR-positive for G. destructans. Dense aggregates of neutrophils surrounded the hyphae that remained in the wing membrane of this bat.

  12. Toxoplasma encephalitis in Haitian adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathologic-CT correlation

    The clinical data, histologic findings, and computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in eight adult Haitians with toxoplasma encephalitis were analyzed retrospectively. Diagnosis was established by identification of Toxoplasma gondii on autopsy in five and brain biopsy in three specimens and subsequently confirmed by the immunoperoxidase method. All these patiens, six of whom had been in the United States for 24 months or less, had severe idiopathic immunodeficiency syndrome. All were lymphopenic and six were on treatment for tuberculosis when the toxoplasma encephalitis developed. All patients were studied with CT when they developed an altered mental status and fever associated with seizures and/or focal neurologic deficits. Scans before treatment showed multiple intraparenchymal lesions in seven and a single lesion in the thalamus in one. Ring and/or nodular enhancement of the lesions was found in six and hypodense areas in two. Progressions of abnormalities occurred on serial studies. These CT findings that were best shown on axial and coronal thin-section double-dose contrast studies were useful but not diagnostically pathognomonic. In patients with similar clinical presentation CT is recommended to identify focal areas of involvement and to guide brain biopsy or excision so that prompt medical thereapy of this often lethal infection can be instituted

  13. The hypertriglyceridemia of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an increased prevalence of low density lipoprotein subclass pattern B

    Feingold, K.R.; Krauss, R.M.; Pang, M.; Doerrler, W.; Jensen, P.; Grunfeld, C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    To better define the role of environmental factors on LDL phenotypic expression, the authors determined LDL patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and infection characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and weight loss. Similar to previous studies, plasma triglyceride levels were increased, whereas plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in the AIDS subjects compared to those in age-matched controls. The percentage of AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype was increased 2.5-fold, demonstrating an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype in an acquired form of hypertriglyceridemia. For each LDL phenotype in AIDS, serum triglyceride levels were higher than the same phenotypic pattern in controls, with the most marked elevations in triglycerides found in AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype. In contrast to what was observed in controls, HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in all AIDS subjects and were unrelated to LDL pattern. Total and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in controls with the LDL B phenotype than in those with the LDL A phenotype, but there was no difference in total and LDL cholesterol in AIDS subjects with LDL B compared to A. On multiple regression analysis in subjects with AIDS, plasma triglyceride levels, age, and HDL cholesterol all contribute to the occurrence of the LDL B phenotype, but elevations in plasma triglyceride levels are the strongest independent predictor. Body mass index was not a predictor of LDL B phenotype in AIDS. These results suggest that disturbances in triglyceride metabolism that are caused by AIDS lead to the appearance of the LDL subclass B phenotype and provide further evidence that environmental or disease states that perturb lipid metabolism can produce an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype. 35 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Up-regulation of mitochondrial activity and acquirement of brown adipose tissue-like property in the white adipose tissue of fsp27 deficient mice.

    Shen Yon Toh

    Full Text Available Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27(-/- mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse strains. Furthermore, we isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs from wildtype and Fsp27(-/- mice, followed by their differentiation into adipocytes in vitro. We found that Fsp27 is expressed in both brown adipose tissue (BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT and its levels were significantly elevated in the WAT and liver of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Fsp27(-/- mice had increased energy expenditure, lower levels of plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids. Furthermore, Fsp27(-/-and Fsp27/lep double-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and display increased insulin sensitivity. Moreover, white adipocytes in Fsp27(-/- mice have reduced triglycerides accumulation and smaller lipid droplets, while levels of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial size and activity are dramatically increased. We further demonstrated that BAT-specific genes and key metabolic controlling factors such as FoxC2, PPAR and PGC1alpha were all markedly upregulated. In contrast, factors inhibiting BAT differentiation such as Rb, p107 and RIP140 were down-regulated in the WAT of Fsp27(-/- mice. Remarkably, Fsp27(-/- MEFs differentiated in vitro show many brown adipocyte characteristics in the presence of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3. Our data thus suggest that Fsp27 acts as a novel regulator in vivo to control WAT identity, mitochondrial activity and insulin sensitivity.

  15. MR findings of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient : a report of two cases

    Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients are an early and common feature. The spectrum of AIDS-related CNS diseases are encephalitis caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) itself, opportunistic infection, infarct and malignancy. We experienced two cases of CNS involvement in AIDS and they were serologically diagnosed as HIV encephalitis and CNS toxoplasmosis, respectively. In the case of the HIV encephalitis patient, brain MRI showed a non-enhancing lesion with high signal intensity on T2WI and low signal on T1WI and there was no mass effect on the right frontal lobe, periventricular white matter, splenium of the corpus callosum or bilateral basal ganglia. In the other case of CNS toxoplasmosis, MR showed multiple nodular and rim enhanced mass lesions in the right basal ganglia, thalamus and periventricular white matter, which were of low signal intensity on T1WI and of high intensity on T2WI. We thus report the related MRI findings

  16. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients

    Yanagawa, Noriyo, E-mail: noriyo_yana@ybb.ne.jp [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Takemura, Tamiko [Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8935 (Japan); Ishikawa, Satoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Chiba-East-Hospital, 673 Nitona-cho, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8712 (Japan); Takaki, Yasunobu [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Hishima, Tsunekazu [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Kamata, Noriko [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. Results: The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups.

  17. A Web-Based System To Enchance The Management Of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV In Nigeria

    Agbelusi Olutola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, a global disease, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is arguably the greatest health problem of this age and there is need to make first class information on the management of HIV/AIDS available through the use of Web-Based Technology. This paper examined the various ways of contacting HIV and the effort made by Information and Technology to make life easier for people living with the virus in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to Doctors and people living with HIV/AIDS to access their knowledge and belief about the said disease. MySQL was used to generate the database, to store all the vital information about the patients, their Doctors and their complaints. PHP programming for the implementation of the interfaces, Dreamweaver HTML for the design of the web-based application, T-test and Microsoft Excel were used for the analysis of data collected. The study looked into the occupation, age range and the marital status of different categories of people living with the virus. It was discovered that there were quite large numbers of people who are living with the virus.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus myelitis and Castleman's disease in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report

    Balderacchi Jasminka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few cases of Epstein-Barr virus myelitis have been described in the literature. Multi-centric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that is well known for its associations with the human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, and Kaposi's sarcoma. The concurrent presentation of these two diseases in a patient at the same time is extremely unusual. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who presented with fever, weight loss and diffuse lymphadenopathy, and was diagnosed with multi-centric Castleman's disease. He presented three weeks later with lower extremity weakness and urinary retention, at which time cerebrospinal fluid contained lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal spinal cord signal intensity over several cervical and thoracic segments, suggesting the diagnosis of myelitis. Our patient was ultimately diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus myelitis, as Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multi-centric Castleman's disease followed by acute Epstein-Barr virus myelitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clinicians caring for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients should be vigilant about monitoring patients with increasing lymphadenopathy, prompting thorough diagnostic investigations when necessary.

  19. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research

    Elizabeth Fischer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins. ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides.

  20. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    Ebara, Takeshi [Municipal Kanbara General Hospital, Fujikawa, Shizuoka (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  1. The chest radiographic appearances of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Objective: To study the chest radiographic appearances of the non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: Ten patients with AIDS and NTM underwent chest X-ray radiography and 7 patients performed high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan. Chest radiographic features of' NTM in patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The chest radiograph showed bilateral pulmonary involvement in 6 cases and single lung involvement in 4 cases (3 cases in the right, 1 case in the left). Patchy air space consolidation (6 cases), large consolidation (5 cases), cavitation (5 cases), small nodules (3 cases), military nodules (2 cases), linear opacity (1 cases) were demonstrated on radiography. On HRCT, air space consolidation (7 cases), small nodules (6 cases), large consolidation (5 cases) with cavitation and cylindric bronchiectasis after the absorption of consolidation, enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes (4 cases), ground-glass opacities (3 cases), military nodules and 'tree-in-bud' sign (2 case), pleural effusion (1 case), pericardial effusion (1 case) and fibrotic band (1 case) were found. Conclusion: The most common radiographic appearances of NTM in patients with AIDS are bilateral small nodules, large consolidation with cavitation and cylindric bronchiectasis, enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. (authors)

  2. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients

    Purpose: The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. Results: The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups

  3. X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Objective: To summarize X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The data of X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections in 18 patients with AIDS were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: Of 18 patients with AIDS, the CT features of soft tissue demonstrated that subcutaneous patchy high density in 1 case which considered as cellulitis, round low density lesions with ring enhancement in 6 cases which considered as soft tissue abscesses, heterogeneous density lesions with peripheral enhancement in 1 case which considered as pyomyositis. Of 18 patients with AIDS, septic arthritis was found in 4 cases involving knee lesion in 3 cases and hip lesion. In the 4 case, the X-ray films showed bony destruction in 2 cases and the CT showed bone destruction in 3 cases and arthroedema in 4 cases. Of 18 patients with AIDS, osteomyelitis was found in 9 cases of which tuberculosis was considered in. 8 cases and vertebral involvement in 6 cases. In the 9 cases, the X-ray films and CT displayed bony destruction, hyperostosis, small sequestra, and intervertebral space narrowing. Of 18 patients with AIDS, costal lesions were found in 3 cases in which the CT showed expandable bony destruction. Of 18 patients with AIDS, ilium and sacroiliac joint lesions were found in 1 case in which the X-ray films and CT showed bony destruction, sequestra, and joint widening. Of 18 patients with AIDS, chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis of femur was found in 1 case in which the X-ray films showed bony destruction, hyperostosis osteosclerosis, and periosteal reaction. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT features of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS are characterized. The X-ray and CT are useful tools to early diagnose soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS. (authors)

  4. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation.

    Pindyck, J; Waldman, A; Zang, E; Oleszko, W; Lowy, M; Bianco, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether volunteers giving blood to the Greater New York Blood Program (GNYBP) cooperated with procedures implementing public health recommendations intended to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission by blood transfusion. Predonation medical screening was expanded to exclude donors who might be ill with AIDS. To exclude possible asymptomatic carriers of the disease, members of groups at increased risk of AIDS were asked either not to give blood or to give it for laboratory studies. A confidential questionnaire, administered to all donors after medical screening, provided the vehicle for donors to advise the GNYBP whether their donation was for laboratory studies or for patient transfusion. We found that the number of male donors decreased; AIDS-related questions in medical history led to a 2 percent increase in donor rejections; 97 percent of donors said their blood could be used for transfusions; 1.4 percent said their blood could be used for laboratory studies only; and 1.6 percent did not respond. Only units designated for transfusion were released to hospitals. People who indicated that their donation was for laboratory studies had a higher prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus and of antibodies to cytomegalovirus. White cell counts and helper/suppressor T lymphocyte ratios were not significantly different in the two groups. We conclude that volunteer donors have cooperated with the established procedures. None of the laboratory assays identified blood units donated by individuals who, based on information about AIDS high-risk groups, designated their donation for laboratory studies. PMID:3969698

  5. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome and epidemic of infection with human immunodeficiency virus: costs of care and prevention in an inner London district

    1986-01-01

    The epidemic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) necessitates early planning of services and allocation of resources. The use of hospital resources by patients with AIDS and the planned additional costs of clinical and preventive services for the epidemic of infection with HIV were calculated for an inner London health district that has treated 18% of the cases in the United Kingdom. Patients with AIDS required on average 50 ...

  6. Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare strains from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and animal sources.

    Byrne, S K; Geddes, G L; Isaac-Renton, J. L.; Black, W A

    1990-01-01

    Difloxacin, A-56620, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cephapirin, SK&F 88070, and spectinomycin were used to compare the in vitro susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellular isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and diseased animals. Against the isolates from humans without AIDS, the quinolone compounds difloxacin and A-56620 were found to be the most effective, each inhibiting 50% of strains at a concentration of 2 micro...

  7. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J.; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was...

  8. Brown-Sequard Syndrome

    ... opposite side. BSS may be caused by a spinal cord tumor, trauma (such as a puncture wound to the neck or back), ischemia (obstruction of a blood vessel), or infectious or inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis, or multiple sclerosis. Is there ...

  9. Impaired expression of mitochondrial and adipogenic genes in adipose tissue from a patient with acquired partial lipodystrophy (Barraquer-Simons syndrome: a case report

    Guallar Jordi P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acquired partial lipodystrophy or Barraquer-Simons syndrome is a rare form of progressive lipodystrophy. The etiopathogenesis of adipose tissue atrophy in these patients is unknown. Case presentation This is a case report of a 44-year-old woman with acquired partial lipodystrophy. To obtain insight into the molecular basis of lipoatrophy in acquired partial lipodystrophy, we examined gene expression in adipose tissue from this patient newly diagnosed with acquired partial lipodystrophy. A biopsy of subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from the patient, and DNA and RNA were extracted in order to evaluate mitochondrial DNA abundance and mRNA expression levels. Conclusion The expression of marker genes of adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism, including the master regulator PPARγ, was down-regulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue from this patient. Adiponectin mRNA expression was also reduced but leptin mRNA levels were unaltered. Markers of local inflammatory status were unaltered. Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function was reduced despite unaltered levels of mitochondrial DNA. It is concluded that adipogenic and mitochondrial gene expression is impaired in adipose tissue in this patient with acquired partial lipodystrophy.

  10. Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in Danish acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with complete follow-up. The Danish Study Group for HIV Infection (DASHI)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Melbye, M; Pedersen, C;

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi's sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 (n = 687) were followed...... developing Kaposi's sarcoma after the AIDS diagnosis. Age, antiretroviral therapy, and primary Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis failed to influence the development of Kaposi's sarcoma. Thus, the occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma remained constant over time but developed later in the course of AIDS and...

  11. Clinical features and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    杨蓉蓉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the clinical features of hepatitis B virus(HBV)and hepatitis C virus(HCV)co-infection among acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)patients and the interaction of lamivudine(3 TC)contained antiretroviral therapy(ART)with hepatitis virus replication.Methods From 2004 to 2010,199human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/HBV coinfected patients admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University were enrolled,including 76 cases of HIV/HBV/HCV triple infection and 123 cases of

  12. Differential expression profiles of microRNA in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with white nose syndrome affected and unaffected individuals

    Iwanowicz, D.D.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Hitt, N.P.; King, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    First documented in New York State in 2006, white nose syndrome (WNS) quickly became the leading cause of mortality in hibernating bat species in the United States. WNS is caused by a psychrophilic fungus, Geomyces destructans. Clinical signs of this pathogen are expressed as a dusty white fungus predominately around the nose and on the wings of affected bats. Relatively new biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are being targeted as markers to predict the syndrome prior to the clinical manifestation. The primary objective of this study was to identify miRNAs that could serve as biomarkers and proxies of little brown bat health. Bats were collected from hibernacula that had tested positive and negative for WNS. Genetic sequencing was completed using the Ion Torrent platform. A number of miRNAs were identified from the liver as putative biomarkers of WNS. However, given the small sample size for each treatment, this data set has only coarsely identified miRNAs indicative of WNS, and further validation is required.

  13. Bronchogenic carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - report of two cases; Carcinoma broncogenico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida - relato de dois casos

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    The authors report two cases of bronchogenic carcinoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first patient, a ee-year-old male, developed a left hilar adenocarcinoma, with spleen and bilateral adrenal metastases. The disease progressed unfavourably, resulting in the patient's death in less than a month. The second patient, a 47-year-old male, developed a large mass in the left upper lobe, with invasion of the thoracic wall and destruction of adjacent ribs. The histopathologic study revealed a non-oat-cell carcinoma. Both patients received palliative treatment since diagnosis was established late in the course of the disease. Recent studies suggest an association between bronchogenic carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, an actual increase in the prevalence of bronchogenic carcinoma in HIV-positive patients remains controversial. (author)

  14. Bone paracoccidioidomycosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: evaluation by radiological methods - a case report; Paracoccidioidomicose ossea associada a sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida - relato de um caso

    Maeda, Lucimara; Hara, Monica Hiromi; Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Montandon, Cristiano; Torriani, Martin; Nanni, Livio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-03-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease, caused by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis fungus. This disease involves primarily the lungs, although disseminated forms may occur. Bone involvement is rare, and is associated to systemic disease or may present as a focal lesion. An association between paracoccidioidomycosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first established in 1989. There are only a few reports on this association, and none of them was the fungus isolated from bone lesions. This is the first case report on the paracoccidioidomycosis-AIDS association in which bone lesions demonstrated infection by P. brasiliensis. The authors propose the inclusion of paracoccidioidomycosis in the differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions in patients with AIDS and discuss the role of radiological diagnostic in this case. (author)

  15. Reversible acquired epileptic frontal syndrome and CSWS suppression in a child with congenital hemiparesis treated by hemispherotomy

    Kallay-Zetchi C.

    2009-01-01

    Rapport de synthèse : Cette thèse a étudié en détail le cas d'un enfant souffrant d'une hémiplégie congénitale sur un infarctus prénatal étendu qui a développé une forme particulière d'épilepsie, le syndrome des pointes ondes continues du sommeil (POCS), associé à une régression mentale massive. Les caractéristiques de cette détérioration pointaient vers un dysfonctionnement de type frontal. Une chirurgie de l'épilepsie (hémisphérotomie) a, non seulement, permis la guérison de l'épilepsie mai...

  16. SLC52A3, A Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome candidate gene is essential for mouse development, but dispensable for motor neuron differentiation.

    Intoh, Atsushi; Suzuki, Naoki; Koszka, Kathryn; Eggan, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is essential for cellular reduction-oxidation reactions, but is not readily synthesized by mammalian cells. It has been proposed that riboflavin absorption occurs through solute carrier family 52 members (SLC52) A1, A2 and A3. These transporters are also candidate genes for the childhood onset-neural degenerative syndrome Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL). Although riboflavin is an essential nutrient, why mutations in its transporters result in a neural cell-specific disorder remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Slc52a3 is the mouse ortholog of SLC52A3 and show that Slc52a3 deficiency results in early embryonic lethality. Loss of mutant embryos was associated with both defects in placental formation and increased rates of apoptosis in embryonic cells. In contrast, Slc52a3 -/- embryonic stem cell lines could be readily established and differentiated into motor neurons, suggesting that this transporter is dispensable for neural differentiation and short-term maintenance. Consistent with this finding, examination of Slc52a3 gene products in adult tissues revealed expression in the testis and intestine but little or none in the brain and spinal cord. Our results suggest that BVVL patients with SCL52A3 mutations may be good candidates for riboflavin replacement therapy and suggests that either the mutations these individuals carry are hypomorphic, or that in these cases alternative transporters act during human embryogenesis to allow full-term development. PMID:26976849

  17. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits. PMID:27118135

  18. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    Mika F. Asaba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understanding of the relationship between cognitivefunctioning and sleep disturbances in a new model for RLS. Here, we tested learning andmemory in wild type and dBTBD9 mutant flies by Pavlovian olfactory conditioning, duringwhich a shock was paired with one of two odors. Flies were then placed in a T-maze with oneodor on either side, and successful associative learning was recorded when the flies chose theside with the unpaired odor. We hypothesized that due to disrupted sleep patterns, dBTBD9mutant flies would be unable to learn the shock-odor association. However, the current studyreports that the recently generated Drosophila model of RLS shows successful olfactorylearning, despite disturbed sleep patterns, with learning performance levels matching or betterthan wild type flies.

  19. The application of root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG for the detection of acquired and congenital long QT syndrome.

    Robert L Lux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Precise measurement of the QT interval is often hampered by difficulty determining the end of the low amplitude T wave. Root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG provides a novel alternative measure of ventricular repolarization. Experimental data have shown that the interval between the RMS ECG QRS and T wave peaks (RTPK closely reflects the mean ventricular action potential duration while the RMS T wave width (TW tracks the dispersion of repolarization timing. Here, we tested the precision of RMS ECG to assess ventricular repolarization in humans in the setting of drug-induced and congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS. METHODS: RMS ECG signals were derived from high-resolution 24 hour Holter monitor recordings from 68 subjects after receiving placebo and moxifloxacin and from standard 12 lead ECGs obtained in 97 subjects with LQTS and 97 age- and sex-matched controls. RTPK, QTRMS and RMS TW intervals were automatically measured using custom software and compared to traditional QT measures using lead II. RESULTS: All measures of repolarization were prolonged during moxifloxacin administration and in LQTS subjects, but the variance of RMS intervals was significantly smaller than traditional lead II measurements. TW was prolonged during moxifloxacin and in subjects with LQT-2, but not LQT-1 or LQT-3. CONCLUSION: These data validate the application of RMS ECG for the detection of drug-induced and congenital LQTS. RMS ECG measurements are more precise than the current standard of care lead II measurements.

  20. Associação de carcinoma broncogênico com síndrome de Pancoast e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Association of bronchogenic carcinoma with Pancoast's syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    A.C. FRÖHLICH

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente portador da síndrome de Pancoast associada à síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. Esta apresentação é rara, visto que os tumores mais freqüentemente associados à SIDA são o sarcoma de Kaposi e o linfoma não-Hodgkin. O paciente, com passado de uso de drogas injetáveis, internou-se para investigação de massa em ápice pulmonar, com presença de síndrome de Pancoast, sendo solicitado anti-HIV, com resultado positivo, e tendo sido feito diagnóstico de Ca brônquico não-pequenas células.A case of a patient with Pancoast's syndrome associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is reported. This association is rare and Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are the most recurrent tumors in AIDS. The patient was an IV drug user and was admitted to the hospital for diagnosis of apex lung mass with signs of Pancoast's syndrome. HIV serology was positive and pathology of lung mass showed non-small cell lung cancer.

  1. Manifestações reumáticas da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS Rheumatic manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes síndromes reumáticas e fenômenos auto-imunes já foram associados à infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, quer pela maior freqüência de adoecimento, quer pela maior gravidade. Ademais, em muitos casos, sintomas e sinais da doença reumática estão presentes na abertura do quadro de infecção pelo HIV (como na síndrome de soroconversão ou da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS. O reconhecimento deste horizonte é da maior importância para a prática do reumatologista, tornando-se altamente necessário ampliar a familiaridade com estes conceitos. Revisitar as interseções reumatológicas da infecção pelo HIV - enfatizando-se situações como as espondiloartropatias soronegativas, as artralgias, as artrites infecciosas, fibromialgia, miopatias, vasculites, síndrome linfocítica infiltrante difusa, lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e fenômenos auto-imunes - é, pois, o objetivo do presente artigo.Different rheumatic syndromes and auto-immune phenomena have already been associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, either by the higher frequency of the disease or by the greater severity. Furthermore, in many cases, symptoms and signs of rheumatic disease are present at the beginning of the infection condition by HIV (as in the serum conversion or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Recognition of these possibilities is of fundamental importance to the rheumatologist practice and is necessary to have familiarity with these concepts. Revisiting the rheumatologic intersections of the infection by HIV - emphasizing situations such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies, arthralgia, infectitious arthritis, fibromyalgia, myopathy, vasculitis, difuse infiltranting lymphocytic syndrome systemic lupus erythematous and auto-immune phenomena - is then, the aim of the present article.

  2. The correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty in people with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran

    Moosa Sajjadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illness uncertainty is a source of a chronic and pervasive psychological stress for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLWH, and largely affects their quality of life and the ability to cope with the disease. Based on the uncertainty in illness theory, the social support is one of the illness uncertainty antecedents, and influences the level of uncertainty perceived by patients. Aim: To examine uncertainty in PLWH and its correlation with social support in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 80 PLWH presenting to AIDS Research Center, Tehran, Iran in 2013. The data collected using illness uncertainty and social support inventories were analyzed through Pearson′s correlation coefficient, Spearman′s correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results: The results showed a high level of illness uncertainty in PLWH and a negative significant correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty ( P = 0.01, r = -0.29. Conclusion: Uncertainty is a serious aspect of illness experience in Iranian PLWH. Providing adequate, structured information to patients as well as opportunities to discuss their concerns with other PLWH and receive emotional support from their health care providers may be worthwhile.

  3. Dermoscopia da sarna crostosa associada à síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Dermoscopy of Norwegian scabies in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Loan Towersey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com sarna norueguesa e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida com baixa aderência à terapia antirretroviral. O diagnóstico definitivo foi confirmado pelo exame parasitológico direto. A dermatoscopia mostrou sulcos escabióticos e estruturas acastanhadas em asa-delta já descritas, além de uma estrutura morfologicamente semelhante a um gongolo (diplopodasímile. Esta última representa um elemento patodiagnóstico da SN não previamente descrito. Houve boa reposta clínica ao uso oral da ivermectina e ao uso tópico da vaselina com enxofre a 10%, com concomitante melhora dos parâmetros dermatoscópicos.The authors report here on the case of a female patient with Norwegian (crusted scabies and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome whose compliance with antiretroviral therapy was poor. Definitive diagnosis was confirmed by direct microscopic examination, which revealed numerous Sarcoptes scabei. Dermoscopy showed pathognomonic scabetic burrows and brownish structures in the shape of a hand-glider with a millipede-like appearance. The latter constitutes a diagnostic feature in the pathology of Norwegian scabies that has not yet been described. The patient responded well to oral ivermectin and topical vaseline with sulphur at a proportion of 10%. There was a simultaneous improvement in dermoscopic parameters.

  4. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection. PMID:27515208

  5. Risky sexual behavior related to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among seasonal labor migrants: A cross-sectional study from far Western Region of Nepal

    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a global public health problem; enormously affecting the national economy, social development and human rights with posing a challenge to human civilization. Seasonal labor migrants are the most at risk population for HIV/AIDS and their risky sexual behaviors exacerbate its transmission. The aim of the study was to explore the HIV/AIDS related sexual behavior of migrant workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 372 migrant workers backing to Nepal from Banbasa border of India-Nepal during August-October 2010. Migrants having permanent residents of far western region, Nepal were individually contacted at the entry point of Nepal and interviewed in a confidential environment after obtaining informed consent. Data were analysed using the SPSS (16.0 version. Descriptive and inferencial statistics were applied considering P 3 sex partners. Most (82.25% had vaginal sex and 43.54% reported the consistent use of condom. About 64.76% had sex after drinking alcohol. Age, education, monthly income and nature of works were significant with risky behaviors. Conclusion: Inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners and sex after drinking alcohol have a cumulative effect on the risk of HIV transmission.

  6. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines. PMID:26577109

  7. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  8. Psychopathology in 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients with mostly intravenous drug use history.

    Perretta, P; Nisita, C; Zaccagnini, E; Lorenzetti, C; Nuccorini, A; Cassano, G B; Akiskal, H S

    1996-01-01

    This report presents systematic clinical data regarding psychiatric diagnoses, personal and family psychiatric histories, and symptomatologic aspects of 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, of whom slightly less than two thirds were at risk due to intravenous drug abuse. In addition, a comparison was made between the distribution patterns of these variables at various stages of HIV illness and related at-risk behaviors. Eighty-four percent of the patients met criteria for a spectrum of DSM-III-R diagnoses (mostly affective) that were associated with high rates of affective and alcohol abuse disorders among first-degree relatives. Mood disorders did not differ significantly between the two main groups at risk (intravenous drug users [IVDUs] v others) by gender, age, or stage of illness. The overall data from the rating scales show high levels of psychic and somatic anxiety in the early stages of illness, whereas cognitive symptoms, retardation, and disorientation are dominant in later stages. A noteworthy finding in this study is that many depressed patients demonstrated current and/or past hypomanic, hyperthymic, or cyclothymic features with no evidence of brain damage detectable by computed axial tomography (CAT). These temperamental attributes, which preceded HIV infection, may have served as risk factors for both drug abuse and impulsive sexual behavior in all types of at-risk groups. PMID:8826691

  9. Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them

    Francisco I Bastos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review findings from Brazilian settings where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs seems to be decreasing, highlighting recent findings from Rio de Janeiro and discussing methodological alternatives. Former analyses using serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion have shown that HIV incidence has been low in IDUs recruited by two different surveys carried out in Rio, where low injection frequencies and infection rates have been found among new injectors. The proportion of AIDS cases among IDUs in Rio has been fairly modest, compared to São Paulo and especially to the southernmost states. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of findings from serial surveys constitutes a challenge, magnified in the assessment of HIV spread among IDUs due to the dynamic nature of the drug scenes and limitations of sampling strategies targeting hard-to-reach populations. Assessment of epidemic trends may profit from the triangulation of data, but cannot avert biases associated with sampling errors. Efforts should be made to triangulate data from different sources, besides exploring specific studies from different perspectives. In an attempt to further assess the observed trends, we carried out original analyses using data from Brazilian AIDS databank.

  10. Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    This paper discusses MRI and CT scanning in the evaluation of AIDS patients with neurological symptoms. MRI is the more sensitive of the two techniques but has poor tissue specificity. Contrast enhancement and identification of tissue calcification on CT scans may improve tissue characterization, but a specific etiological diagnosis may not be possible with either MRI or CT scanning; confirmation by biopsy or the response to treatment is often needed. The finding of multiple focal cerebral lesions on MRI and CT scans usually indicates T. gondii infection. Toxoplasmosis may, however, coexist with primary CNS lymphoma or with fungal, mycobacterial, or viral infection. The presence of a solitary focal cerebral lesion, especially on MRI scans, suggests lymphoma or infection with an agent other than T. gondii. Focal cerebral lesions show a variety of complex signal patterns on MRI and enhancement patterns on CT, none of which are specific for a single etiology. Focal lesions on MRI and CT scans are usually associated with focal neurological deficits, but a significant minority of these lesions, especially those seen on MRI scans, may cause only generalized complaints, such as headache and encephalopathy. MRI and CT are both useful for monitoring therapy and show a reduction in the size, number, and enhancement of lesions with successful treatment. The authors conclude that, owing to its greater sensitivity, MRI appears to be more useful for detecting recurrent disease

  11. Identical rearranged forms of JC polyomavirus transcriptional control region in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    Fedele, Cesare Giovanni; Ciardi, Maria Rosa; Delia, Salvatore; Contreras, Gerardo; Perez, José Luis; De Oña, Maria; Vidal, Elisa; Tenorio, Antonio

    2003-10-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human polyomavirus JC (JCV). JCV has a hypervariable noncoding transcriptional control region (TCR) that spans the origin of replication of the JCV genome through to the first ATG start codon for late gene transcription. The archetype form of TCR is frequently found in the urine and kidneys of healthy and immunocompromised subjects. However the rearranged forms, whose prototype is Mad-1, possibly generated by deletion and duplication of segments of the archetype sequence, are found in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PML patients. In this study the authors compared JCV TCR detected in paired CSF, plasma, and urine samples of 11 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients affected by PML to try to determine where the rearranged JCV TCRs are selected. In one patient, it was also possible to amplify and sequence the TCR in the brain and lymphocytes. Moreover, in 5/11 patients, the CSF, plasma, and urine samples corresponding to 2 months after PML development were available; and in another patient, it was possible to sequence the TCR in plasma and lymphocytes sampled 8 months before the onset of PML. The presence of the same TCR sequences in all the CSF and plasma samples taken from individual patients could strengthen the hypothesis that the blood is a compartment where JCV may replicate and undergo rearrangement of the TCR. This further supports the hypothesis that JCV reaches the brain by a hematogenous route and indicates that the JCV TCR sequences detected in plasma could be used as an early marker of JCV pathogenicity before the clinical appearance of PML in immunocompromised patients. PMID:13129769

  12. Nocardiose pulmonar em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Pulmonary nocardiosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

    Ana Carina Gamboa da Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de nocardiose pulmonar em um homem de 37 anos de idade com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, em tratamento com anti-retrovirais, cujos sintomas de apresentação foram tosse com expectoração, hemoptóicos e emagrecimento progressivo. Foi realizada radiografia do tórax, que demonstrou consolidação no lobo superior do pulmão direito, e tomografia computadorizada do tórax, que evidenciou consolidação pulmonar com áreas escavadas. Diante dos achados radiológicos inespecíficos, foi realizada broncoscopia com lavado broncoalveolar, evidenciando estruturas filamentosas Gram-positivas compatíveis com Nocardia sp. O tratamento utilizado foi sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, com remissão completa do quadro respiratório. Após revisão da literatura, foram discutidos os principais aspectos radiológicos desta doença.The authors describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis in a 37-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in treatment with antiretroviral drugs. Clinical symptoms were productive cough, hemoptysis and progressive weight loss. A chest x-ray film showed a right upper lobe consolidation while the computed tomography demonstrated consolidation and areas of cavitation. The radiologic findings were unspecific. Consequently, a bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, revealing filamentous Gram-positive bacteria (Nocardia sp. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete remission of the respiratory symptoms. The authors review the literature and discuss the main radiological features of this disease.

  13. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area. PMID:27499166

  14. Acquired Techniques

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  15. Acquired blepharoptosis

    Oosterhuis, HJGH

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the aetiology and possible treatment of acquired (non-congenital) blepharoptosis, which is a common but not specific sign of neurological disease: The diagnostic categories of upper eyelid drooping are scheduled as (a) pseudo-ptosis due to a local process or overactivity of eye

  16. Cholecystitis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrasonographic findings in a case of uncommon presentation during childhood; Colecistitis en un nino con sida: hallazgos ecograficos en una forma infrecuente de presentacion en la infancia

    Rubi-Palomares, I.; Martinez-Leon, M. I.; Alonso-Usabiaga, I.; Ceres-Ruiz, L. [Hospital Materno Infantil del C.H.U. Carlos Haya. Malaga (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    We present the case of a boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom ultrasound revealed the presence of acalculous cholecystitis. Abdominal ultrasound was essential in the initial diagnosis and the assessment of the response to treatment. This entity has rarely been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. In our patient, the cholecystitis may have been caused by infection, and the involvement of regional lymphatic obstruction in the pathogenesis is considered. (Author) 14 refs.

  17. Síndrome de Brown-Séquard por hérnia discal cervical a duplo nível: caso clínico e revisão da literatura Síndrome de Brown-Séquard por hernia discal cervical en nivel doble: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura Brown-Séquard syndrome by double level cervical disc herniation: case report and review of the literature

    Jorge Miguel Silva Ribeiro Olliveira Alves

    2012-09-01

    paciente con síndrome de Brown-Séquard por hernia de disco cervical.This article presents a case in which Brown-Séquard syndrome resulted from a double level cervical disc herniation. A 40-year-old man without previous history of cervical pathology, presented with insidious right arm and leg paresis associated with associated with decreased pain and thermal sensitivity in the left hemibody after diving which caused indirect trauma of the cervical spine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed double level disc herniation in C4-C5 and C5-6 with compression of the right half of spinal cord and hyperintensity in T2-weighted images. After a complete decompression of neural structures, a double level interbody fusion was performed. There was partial recovery of neurological status after a long period of physical therapy. Early surgical intervention and prompt rehabilitation are paramount to achieve neurological recovery in patients with Brown-Séquard syndrome resulting from a cervical disc herniation.

  18. Mitoxantrone and acquired Long-QT Syndrome. Case presentation. Mitoxantrone y síndrome QT prolongado adquirido. Presentación de un caso.

    Brandy Viera Valdés

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquired Long-QT Syndrome can be caused by more than 100 non anti-arrhythmic drugs. These drugs block potassium channels; particularly the IKr which extends the ventricular repolarization beyond 450 ms. This syndrome is associated with ventricular helical tachycardia that could potentially cause immediate death. We report a patient with diagnosis of leukaemia who was treated with mitoxantrone and presented syncope. The electrocardiogram showed an interval QTc of 576 ms. After an exclusion diagnosis we concluded that there could be an association with the use of this drug caused by its toxic effects for the cardiac system. Mitoxantrone interferes in ionic transportation through cellular membrane, delays the exit of potassium from the cells and acts in the functioning of ATP asa Na/K altering the ventricular repolarization; however, it is not on the list of drugs that enlarge the QT interval. Our objective with this work is to raise the interest on new reports on this subject, and to establish a more direct causal relation through the evidence derived from new experiences.

    El síndrome QT largo adquirido puede ser producido entre otros aspectos por más de 100 fármacos no antiarrítmicos. Estos tienen la capacidad de bloquear los canales de potasio; fundamentalmente los IKr, prolongan la repolarización ventricular más allá de los 450 ms. Este síndrome se asocia a taquicardias ventriculares helicoidales con potencial para producir una muerte súbita. Se reporta un paciente con diagnóstico de leucemia tratado con mitoxantrone, que presentó un síncope. Además, en el electrocardiograma se constató el hallazgo de un intervalo QTc de 576 ms. Después de realizar un diagnóstico de exclusi

  19. First results about recovery of walking function in patients with intensive care unit-acquired muscle weakness from the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) cohort study

    Mehrholz, Jan; Mückel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. Design This is a cohort study. Participants We included critically ill patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Setting Post-acute ICU and rehabilitation units in Germany. Measures We measured walking function, muscle strength, activities in daily living, motor and cognitive function. Results We recruited 150 patien...

  20. Bilateral acute acquired toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis after steroid therapy for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: case report Retinite toxoplásmica bilateral adquirida após terapia com corticoesteróide para síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus: relato de caso

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira; Rodrigo Jorge; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2007-01-01

    Description of a case of acute acquired ocular toxoplasmosis following hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. A 41-year-old man presenting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, confirmed in the laboratory by detection of IgM antibodies to the virus, was submitted to high doses of intravenous corticosteroids for two months. After clinical improvement of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome the patient presented visual loss in both eyes that was secondary to a toxoplasmosis retinitis. The retinitis resolved with ant...

  1. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation 1 . Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans 2-5 , BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome 1 . Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and...

  2. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation1. Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans2-5, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome1. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anato...

  3. Transcriptomic signatures in whole blood of patients who acquire a chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) following an exposure to the marine toxin ciguatoxin

    Ryan, James C.; Wu, Qingzhong; Shoemaker, Ritchie C

    2015-01-01

    Background Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are polyether marine neurotoxins found in multiple reef-fish species and are potent activators of voltage-gated sodium channels. It is estimated that up to 500,000 people annually experience acute ciguatera poisoning from consuming toxic fish and a small percentage of these victims will develop a chronic, multisymptom, multisystem illness, which can last years, termed a Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS). Symptoms of ciguatera CIRS include fatigue, cog...

  4. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  5. Primary parotid B-cell lymphoma successfully treated with chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy with prolonged survival and immune reconstitution in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient: Case report and review of the literature

    Marcelo Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL is the second most common acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining cancer. In this population, up to 70-80% of cases may present as extranodal location as the primary clinical manifestation of the neoplasm disease. Gastrointestinal tract is the most frequent location of AIDS-associated NHL. However, salivary gland involvement, including the parotid gland is a rare complication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-patients. Here, we describe a patient seropositive for the HIV, who developed a primary NHL of the parotid gland histologically classified as a high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Patient was treated with a combination of chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy with a good clinical, virological and immunological response and a prolonged survival, more than 5 years, without evidence of neoplasm relapse.

  6. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - correlation of high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology; Pneumocistose na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Marchiori, Edson; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia; Pereira, Cyntia Inez Guedes Soares

    2001-12-01

    We present the main findings observed on the high-resolution computed tomography examinations of 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The high-resolution computed tomography and autopsy findings of 5 patients were also compared. The most frequently observed high-resolution computed tomography patterns were ground-glass attenuation, consolidation areas, crazy-paving pattern and cysts. Nodules and intralobular reticulation were less frequently observed. Ground-glass attenuation and consolidation areas corresponded to alveolar filling with inflammatory exudate. Thickening of the interlobular septa was due to cell infiltration and edema. One patient presented interlobular reticulation, and the pathology study revealed alveolar septa thickening due to cell infiltration and fibrosis. Nodules observed in one of the patients corresponded to a patchy intra alveolar accumulation of microorganisms and inflammatory cells forming a 'granulomatous' pattern. (author)

  7. Síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: descrição anátomo-patológica de dois casos de necropsia Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: pathologic description of two autopsy cases

    Vera L. C. Delmonte

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam dois casos de Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida com ênfase aos achados de necropsia. A criptococose generalizada de padrão miliar, infreqüente, e a pneumocistose foram infecções oportunísticas de curso fatal pela destruição parenquimatosa de órgãos vitais que acarretaram. É destacado o papel etiopatogênico do citomegalovírus, pela concomitância de infecção em ambos os casos e associação aos órgãos mais afetados. Extensa necrose de supra-renal foi constatada, possivelmente secundária à destruição celular viral pelo CMV.Two autopsy cases of acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome are reported. One case showed widespread miliar cryptococcosis, with scarce inflammatory response. The other developed respiratory failure due to pulmonary infection by P. carinii. In both cases we could observe generalized cytomegalic infection, with striking adrenal involvement. Special emphasis is given to the pathologic changes and the possible etiopathogenic role of cytomegaloviroses in the acquired immunodeficiency cases.

  8. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  9. An implementation evaluation of a voluntary counselling and testing programme for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

    Tarryn N. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employee wellness programmes have become standard interventions in mostorganisations. In South Africa, these programmes invariably contain an element to addressthe problem of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiencysyndrome (AIDS in the workplace.Research purpose: The purpose of this evaluation was to assess whether or not a VoluntaryCounselling and Testing (VCT programme for HIV and AIDS, at a South African university,was implemented as intended.Motivation for the study: The evaluators were motivated to explore indications in the existingliterature about these programmes that participants in VCT programmes are often not theintended target population who live a high risk lifestyle.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive design was used to evaluate serviceutlisation, service delivery and organisational support. Questionnaire data from 285respondents who participated in the programme and programme records supplied by theprogramme staff were consulted to answer the evaluation questions.Main findings: The evaluation showed that the highest uptake for the programme occurredamongst female students. The low uptake amongst men was a concern. It was found that theprogramme was delivered as intended and that there were enough resources to implement itaccording to standards set.Practical/managerial implications: The systematic report on the programme process providedthe programme managers with practical suggestions for programme improvement.Contribution/value-add: This was the first implementation evaluation of a VCT programme ina South African university context. As such it aimed to educate programme managers to thinkevaluatively about introducing new or continuing existing programmes.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  11. Father Brown, Selected sories

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  12. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  13. Field and experimental data indicate that the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is susceptible to infection with European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) virus and not with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus.

    Lavazza, Antonio; Cavadini, Patrizia; Barbieri, Ilaria; Tizzani, Paolo; Pinheiro, Ana; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Grilli, Guido; Gioia, Emanuela; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Meneguz, Pier; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Chiari, Mario; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is an American lagomorph. In 1966, it was introduced to Italy, where it is currently widespread. Its ecological niche is similar to those of native rabbits and hares and increasing overlap in distribution brings these species into ever closer contact. Therefore, cottontails are at risk of infection with the two lagoviruses endemically present in Italy: Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus (RHDV) and European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus (EBHSV). To verify the susceptibility of Sylvilagus to these viruses, we analyzed 471 sera and 108 individuals from cottontail populations in 9 provinces of north-central Italy from 1999 to 2012. In total, 15-20% of the cottontails tested seropositive for EBHSV; most titres were low, but some were as high as 1/1280. All the cottontails virologically tested for RHDV and EBHSV were negative with the exception of one individual found dead with hares during a natural EBHS outbreak in December 2009. The cottontail and the hares showed typical EBHS lesions, and the EBHSV strain identified was the same in both species (99.9% identity). To experimentally confirm the diagnosis, we performed two trials in which we infected cottontails with both EBHSV and RHDV. One out of four cottontails infected with EBHSV died of an EBHS-like disease, and the three surviving animals developed high EBHSV antibody titres. In contrast, neither mortality nor seroconversion was detected after infection with RHDV. Taken together, these results suggest that Sylvilagus is susceptible to EBHSV infection, which occasionally evolves to EBHS-like disease; the eastern cottontail could therefore be considered a "spill over" or "dead end" host for EBHSV unless further evidence is found to confirm that it plays an active role in the epidemiology of EBHSV. PMID:25828691

  14. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  15. Olmsted syndrome

    Kumar Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmsted syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial, keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar keratoderma. New associated features are being reported. Olmsted syndrome is particularly rare in a female patient, and we report such a case in a six year-old Indian girl, who presented with keratoderma of her soles since birth and on her palms since the age of two years along with perioral and perinasal hyperkeratosis. She had sparse, light brown, thin hair. Although the psychomotor development of the child was normal until 18 months of age, the keratoderma plaques had restricted the child′s mobility after that stage.

  16. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  17. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in acquired immuno deficiency syndrome

    Authors report a case of fatal CNS toxoplasmosis in a young homosexual man suffering from Kaposi angio-sacroma. This paper is principally concerned with CT scan and neuropathological correlations. (orig.)

  18. Behcet's disease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Beenish Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS patients often present with orogenital ulcers. In the immunocompromised patient diagnosis of these ulcers pose a challenge, as there is a myriad of etiologies. We present a case of an HIV/AIDS patient with recurrent orogenital aphthosis that was confirmed to have concomitant diagnosis of Behcet's disease. Proper awareness of the causes of these ulcers is essential for prompt and effective treatment. While rare causes may be at the bottom of a differential list in an immunocompetent host, when HIV/AIDS is involved these rare causes often percolate to the top.

  19. Genetics of acquired long QT syndrome

    Roden, Dan M.; Viswanathan, Prakash C.

    2005-01-01

    The QT interval is the electrocardiographic manifestation of ventricular repolarization, is variable under physiologic conditions, and is measurably prolonged by many drugs. Rarely, however, individuals with normal base-line intervals may display exaggerated QT interval prolongation, and the potentially fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes, with drugs or other environmental stressors such as heart block or heart failure. This review summarizes the molecular and cellula...

  20. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its ocular complications

    Rao Narsing

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.

  1. Clinicopathological analysis of ten cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients complicated with malignant tumors%艾滋病合并恶性肿瘤10例临床病理分析

    刘德纯; 李宏军

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) patients complicated with malignant tumors. Methods:The consulted pathological biopsy and autopsy data of 48 AIDS patients were studied by the combination of clinical analysis,imaging,anatomy and pathology. Results:Among the 48 AIDS cases,10 patients were complicated with malignant tumors;the 2 children acquired the disease from their mothers and 4 of the 8 adults from blood transfusion. Four of the cases were complicated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma,2 cases breast carcinoma,1 case was complicated with Kaposi's sarcoma,1 case hepatic blastoma,1 case esophageal carcinoma and 1 case renal carcinoma. Conclusions:AIDS patients tend to develop malignant tumors with broad spectrum,among which malignant lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are commonly seen. Diagnosis should be based on pathologic examination.%目的::分析艾滋病( AIDS)合并恶性肿瘤的临床与病理特点。方法:对会诊和复查的48例AIDS患者的病理活检与尸检材料进行临床、影像、解剖与病理对照研究。结果:48例AIDS患者中合并恶性肿瘤10例;其中儿童2例系母婴传播;成年人8例中经输血传播4例。合并非霍奇金淋巴瘤4例,乳腺癌2例,卡波西肉瘤1例,肝母细胞瘤1例,食管癌1例,肾癌1例。结论:AIDS患者易合并恶性肿瘤,疾病谱广泛,以淋巴瘤多见,确诊需依赖病理检查。

  2. Tuberculose como doença definidora de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: dez anos de evolução na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro Tuberculosis as a disease defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ten years of surveillance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Elizabeth Cristina Coelho Soares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a freqüência da tuberculose e das outras principais doenças oportunistas definidoras de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, no momento em que estes casos são notificados, no Município do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Análise do banco de dados do Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Programa de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis e Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 1993 a 2002. RESULTADOS: A expansão da definição de casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida ocorrida em 1998 criou um aumento substancial no número de casos notificados de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, principalmente por aqueles que passaram a ser definidos pelo critério imunológico. Dentre os casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida que foram definidos apenas por doença, a candidíase em suas diversas formas manteve-se como a doença oportunista de maior freqüência no momento da notificação. Embora a pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii se apresentasse como a segunda doença mais freqüente na maioria dos anos observados, a partir de 2001, a tuberculose ultrapassou-a em freqüência, tornando-se a segunda doença mais freqüente no momento da notificação dos casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da diminuição do número de casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida definidos por doença, a tuberculose manteve-se como um importante evento definidor dessa síndrome, sendo atualmente de ocorrência mais freqüente do que a pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii e a toxoplasmose, provavelmente por sua alta taxa de prevalência na cidade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of tuberculosis and of the other principal opportunistic infections defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the time such cases were reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Analysis of the data compiled in the Rio de Janeiro Municipal

  3. Acidosis láctica fatal en paciente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirido y tratamiento antiretroviral de alto grado de actividad: comunicación de un caso Fatal lactic acidosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: Report of one case

    Martín Lasso B; Jorge Pérez G; L. Miguel Noriega R; Rebeca Northland A

    2000-01-01

    Type B lactic acidosis occurs without any evidence of cellular hypoxia and is associated with the use of drugs or toxins. We report a 36 years old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that was admitted to the hospital with a severe lactic acidosis. She had been treated with didanosine, stavudine and efavirenz for four months prior to admission. Despite the use of high bicarbonate doses and vasoactive drugs, the patient had a catastrophic evolution and died in shock and multiple organ...

  4. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  5. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  6. 脾阳虚证大鼠棕色脂肪组织和解偶联蛋白1关联性的研究%Experimental Research on Relationship between Brown Adipose Tissue and Uncoupling Protein 1 in Rats with Spleen Yang Deficiency Syndrome

    吴云起; 唐汉庆; 吴翠松; 劳传君; 庞广福

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship and mechanism about brown adipose tissue, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), high fatty diet and Chinese herbal decoction during the process of energy metabolism. Method: Rats were divided into four groups (n = 16 each). ①Control group was fed with ordinary food, also ig given 0.9% NaCl 10 g·kg-1 during d70-d98 daily. The ability of ISO deducing heat generating was tested on d98, and the curve of the rectal temperature was monitored, and the peak within two hours and the area under the curve were determined.②Yang deficiency syndrome group: the same procedure was carried out as the control group except removing brown adipose tissue on d42. ③Spleen yang deficiency syndrome group: the same procedure was carried out as the yang deficiency syndrome group except of being fed with high fatty diet (including 83% ordinary diet,15% triglycerides,2% cholesterol) from d49 to d98 and placed in 19 ℃ environment every other day. ④Chinese herbal decoction group: the same procedure was carried out as the spleen yang deficiency syndrome group except giving 4 g·kg-1 ig daily with Aconitum Lizhong decoction and the body weight was measured every week. The index of the weight growth rate, the peak of temperature and the area under the temperature curve were all investigated. The content of UCP1 was determined by using brown adipose tissue. Result: ①Weight growth rate: compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, weight growth rate in spleen yang deficiency syndrome group was lower( P < 0. 01 ); compared with spleen yang deficiency syndrome group, weight growth rate was higher in the Chinese herbal decoction group (P < 0.01 ). ②Temperature: compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, the temperature peak of heat generating in spleen yang deficiency syndrome group was higher(P < 0.01 ); compared with spleen yang deficiency syndrome group, temperature peak of heat generating was higher in Chinese herbal decoction group ( P

  7. 莫西沙星治疗艾滋病合并下呼吸道感染的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Moxifloxacin in the Treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Complicated with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    李洪智

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨莫西沙星治疗敏感菌引起的艾滋病合并下呼吸道感染的疗效.方法将184例艾滋病合并下呼吸道感染患者随机分成两组,治疗组(n=94)予莫西沙星静脉滴注,对照组(n=90)予盐酸左氧氟沙星静脉滴注,疗程均为7 ~12 d.结果两组治疗效果比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).细菌清除率:治疗组92.3%,对照组88.5%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);不良反应发生率:治疗组4.3%,对照组5.6%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论莫西沙星治疗艾滋病合并下呼吸道感染疗效确切,安全性好.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin therapy in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome( AIDS )complicated with lower respiratory tract infection.Methods 184 patients with AIDS complicated with lower respiratory tract Infection were randomly divided into two groups. In treatment group( n = 94 ),moxifloxacin was administered by intravenous infusion. In control group( n = 90 ), levofloxacin was administered by intravenous infusion. The total treatment duration was 7 ~ 12 days. Results There was statistically significant difference( P < 0.05 )in treatment effectiveness. The bacterial clearance rates were 92.3% in treatment group,88.5% in control group. There was no significant difference( P > 0.05 ). The incidence of adverse drug reactions of two groups were 4.3% in treatment group and 5.6% in control group,respectively. There was no significant difference( P > 0.05 ). Conclusion moxifloxacin intravenous infusion in the treatment of AIDS complicated with lower respiratory tract infection was more effective and safe.

  8. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  9. Esofagites em pacientes com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida: estudo histológico e imunoistoquímico Esophagitis in patients with acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome: an histological and immunohistochemistry study

    Ana Paula Aguiar Vidal

    2007-12-01

    citomegalovírus, respectivamente. O emprego da técnica de imunoistoquímica auxilia no diagnóstico das esofagites virais e torna possível detectar o citomegalovírus em esôfagos normais à endoscopia e/ou ao exame histopatológico.BACKGROUND: Almost all patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome will have gastrointestinal symptoms during the course of their illness. The high prevalence and complications of esophagitis are well documented. AIM: Graduate esophagitis; identify microorganisms like Candida sp, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria; identify by immunohistochemical staining viral agents cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus I, herpesvirus II, Epstein-Barr Virus, human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus; verify how immunohistochemistry changes the profile of esophagitis; verify the association between the histological and endoscopical findings; verify the relevance of the number of fragments studied in the characterization of the histological agents. METHODS: We studied retrospectively esophageal biopsies in 227 patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome using hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid of Schiff, Groccott and Ziehl-Nielsen stains and immunoperoxidase stains to detect opportunistic agents. Endoscopic aspects were studied. RESULTS: The non-specific esophagitis grade III, in the inferior third of the esophagus, was the most frequent type. Candida sp was the most frequent agent, followed by viruses cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria. The presence of plaque and ulceration suggested the diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis and cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Immunohistochemical allowed the characterization of cytomegalovirus and of herpesvirus in those cases where other techniques could not achieve it, furthermore the cytomegalovirus was also found in histological normal cases, making the use of this technique advisable in routine diagnosis. The herpesvirus I was not found isolated but associated to

  10. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Emiel Beijer; Janna Schoenmakers; Guy Vijgen; Fons Kessels; Anne-Marie Dingemans; Patrick Schrauwen; Miel Wouters; Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt; Jaap Teule; Boudewijn Brans

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activ...

  11. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  12. Germ-line GATA2 p.THR354MET mutation in familial myelodysplastic syndrome with acquired monosomy 7 and ASXL1 mutation demonstrating rapid onset and poor survival

    Bödör, Csaba; Renneville, Aline; Smith, Matthew; Charazac, Aurélie; Iqbal, Sameena; Étancelin, Pascaline; Cavenagh, Jamie; Barnett, Michael J; Kramarzová, Karolina; Krishnan, Biju; Matolcsy, András; Preudhomme, Claude; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Owen, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    While most myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia cases are sporadic, rare familial cases occur and provide some insight into leukemogenesis. The most clearly defined familial cases result from inherited mutations in RUNX1 or CEBPA. Recently, novel germline mutations in GATA2 have been reported. We, therefore, investigated individuals from families with one or more first-degree relatives with myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with wild-type RUNX1 and CEBPA, for GATA2 mu...

  13. Síndromes disexecutivas do desenvolvimento e adquiridas na prática clínica: três relatos de caso Developmental and acquired dysexecutive syndromes in clinical practice: three case-reports

    Manuela Borges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Síndromes disexecutivas podem ser observadas em diversas condições neuropsiquiátricas, como transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH, traumatismos cranioencefálicos (TCE ou esquizofrenia, frequentemente se associando à ampla gama de comprometimento, incluindo ambientes familiar, acadêmico e profissional. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar três casos de disfunções executivas, nos quais, embora todos os pacientes tenham QI dentro dos limites da normalidade, existe significativo comprometimento social e ocupacional. O primeiro caso apresenta uma jovem que sofreu TCE, com queixas de dificuldades de memória para material novo, além de apatia e diminuição de iniciativa e persistência. O segundo caso versa sobre uma mulher que apresenta problemas desde a educação infantil, com histórico de tratamentos ineficazes e nenhum diagnóstico formal. Segundo relato de informante colateral, há déficits de planejamento, comportamentos antissociais, aversão a gratificações tardias e dificuldades de ativação. O último caso refere-se a indivíduo do sexo masculino, avaliado depois de grave TCE após acidente de carro. Há relato de mudança de comportamento com desinibição, diminuição da persistência e desatenção, relatadas como mais graves do que as apresentadas durante a infância, apesar de desempenho normal em testes de funções executivas. A avaliação de disfunções executivas (do desenvolvimento ou adquiridas pode ser de extrema importância para servir como base de tratamento visando à diminuição de comprometimento nas atividades cotidianas.Dysexecutive syndromes are often observed in several neuropsychiatric conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, traumatic brain injuries (TBI or schizophrenia, and usually associate with significant impairments, including familial, academic and professional areas. The present paper aims at presenting three cases of executive

  14. Lesões do trato gastrointestinal na síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: [title]estudo de 45 necrópsias consecutivas Gastrointestinal tract lesions in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: study of forty five consecutive necropsies

    Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar afrequência e etiologia das lesões do tubo digestivo na Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (AIDS, foram analisadas retrospectivamente 45 necrópsias consecutivas de pacientes adultos portadores do vírus da AIDS. Lesões macroscópicas e cortes histológicos de amostras da boca à região anal foram estudados, sendo as lâminas coradas por HE, métodos histoquímicos ou imunohistoquímicos. Trinta e sete (82,3 %pacientes apresentaram lesões no tubo digestivo. O local mais freqüente de lesões foi a boca (73,3%, seguido do cólon (55,5%. Lesões múltiplas foram identificadas em 17 (37,7% casos. O diagnóstico mais prevalente foi infecção pelo citomegalovírus (35,7% identificado predominantemente no cólon. Candidíasefoi mais freqüente na boca (26,6% e infecção herpética no esôfago (8,8%. Verificou-se leucoplasiapilosa oral em 16 (35,5% eneoplasias emsete (15,5%. Asneoplasias incluíram quatro sarcomas de Kaposi, dois Carcinomas intramucosos anais e um linfoma gástrico. Os dados do presente estudo confirmam a importância do trato gastrointestinal como sede de alterações patológicas relacionadas à AIDS.This study was designed to evaluate restropectivefy the frequency and etiology of the gastrointestinal (GI lesions in 45 consecutive necropsies of adult patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Gross descriptions and histological sections of the GI tract, from mouth to anus, were reviewed. The slides were H&E stained, and when necessary special stains and immunohistochemicalmethods were also employed. There were lesions in GI tract in 37(82.3% patients; the mouth was the segment mostfrequently involved (73.3% of the cases, followed by the colon (55.5%. Multiple lesions occurred in 17 (37.7% cases. Cytomegalovirus caused colonic lesions in 35.7% of the cases. Candidiasis was observed in 26.6% mainly in the mouth and herpes simplex (8.8% was the important agent of esophageal lesions. Oral

  15. FLASH形式在中学生预防艾滋病教育活动中的作用%Effects of FLASH on health education of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in middle school students

    韩娟; 赵丽娜; 时俊新; 杨森焙; 宋阎超; 陈宏平

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨FLASH形式在预防艾滋病教育活动中的作用,了解中学生对预防艾滋病的相关知识和态度.方法:在湖北省大冶市和宜昌市秭归县的4所中学采用分层整群抽样的方法抽取在校学生共1 211人,用自制的中学生预防艾滋病生活技能教育的FLASH片进行专题教育,并对其教育前后的预防艾滋病相关知识、态度进行问卷调查.结果:调查对象对艾滋病流行趋势、艾滋病与青少年的关系以及对艾滋病主要传播途径认识,教育后正确回答率提高至80%以上,而对艾滋病的概念以及蚊虫叮咬、同性恋、纹身等认识提高不足80%.结论:中学生仍需加强预防艾滋病知识的教育,教育形式应多样化.FLASH形式生动活泼,教育效果显著,但因其稍纵即逝,会影响教育效果,可作为辅助教材.%Objective: To explore the effects of FLASH on health education of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), un-derstand the related knowledge and attitude to AIDS prevention in middle school students. Methods: 1 211 students were selected from 4 middle school by stratified cluster sampling, then health education of AIDS prevention was carried out in the form of self-designed FLASH,the related knowledge and attitude to AIDS prevention of middle school students before and after health education were observed. Results:The accuracy rates of prevailing trend of AIDS, the relationship between AIDS and adolescents, major spread approaches of AIDS after heslth education were increased to over 80%, but the others improved less than 80% such as the meaning of AIDS, mosquito and insect bite, ho-mesexuallty and tattoo and so on. Conclusion: The middle school students still need to strengthen AIDS preventive education which shouldbe multiple modes and be enjoyed by them. FLASH is a lifelike and brisk mode enjoyed by the students which education effect is marked,but it may be an assistant teaching material because it is easy to go in

  16. Heyde's syndrome

    Perišić Nenad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heyde's syndrome implies an association of calcified aortic stenosis with the high gradient of pressure and angiodysplasic bleeding from the digestive tract. It has been proven that in patients with this syndrome, acquired form of von Willebrand type II A develops. Replacing of aortic valves by artificial ones brings about the spontaneous retreat of coagulation disorder, and the stoppage of the digestive tract bleeding. Case report. We reported two patients with the Heyde's syndrome. In one of the patients the aortic valves were replaced by biologic valves, after which the digestive tract bleeding stopped, while the second patient was treated conservatively due to a high operation risk. Conclusion. Patients with Heyde's syndrome are a complex multidisciplinary problem, thus their adequate treatment requires a team work in order to provide the most rational type of therapy for each patient separately.

  17. Field and experimental data indicate that the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is susceptible to infection with European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) virus and not with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus

    Lavazza, A.; P. Cavadini; I. Barbieri; P. Tizzani; A.C. Pinheiro; Abrantes, J.; Esteves, P.J.; G. Grilli; E. Gioia; Zanoni, M.; P. Meneguz; Guitton, J.; S. Merchandeau; M. Chiari; Capucci, L

    2015-01-01

    International audience The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is an American lagomorph. In 1966, it was introduced to Italy, where it is currently widespread. Its ecological niche is similar to those of native rabbits and hares and increasing overlap in distribution brings these species into ever closer contact. Therefore, cottontails are at risk of infection with the two lagoviruses endemically present in Italy: Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus (RHDV) and European Brown Hare Synd...

  18. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    ... breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in persons who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility such as a ...

  19. Etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma

    Prabodh Karnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma has undergone numerous changes over the past 150 years. However, certain facts stand out with clarity. The presence of cytokeratins in acquired cholesteatoma, which are akin to those found in the tympanic membrane and external auditory canal, shows that these are probably the site of origin of acquired cholesteatoma. The cholesteatoma sac also shows its greatest growth at its tympanic membrane attachment into the middle ear. Implantations of squamous epithelium due to trauma or surgery could be another originating factor. The basic pathology is the formation of papillary cones from the tympanic membrane or external auditory canal, which progress from microcholesteatoma to frank cholesteatoma with keratin collections. There is an altered matrix metalloproteinase pathway. Tumor necrosis factor activation with altered wound healing process contributes to the collateral destruction of bone. Trisomy and aneuploidy of chromosome 8 predispose to cholesteatoma formation in affected individuals. In this article, we present the etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma as it stands today.

  20. Acidosis láctica fatal en paciente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirido y tratamiento antiretroviral de alto grado de actividad: comunicación de un caso Fatal lactic acidosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: Report of one case

    Martín Lasso B

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Type B lactic acidosis occurs without any evidence of cellular hypoxia and is associated with the use of drugs or toxins. We report a 36 years old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that was admitted to the hospital with a severe lactic acidosis. She had been treated with didanosine, stavudine and efavirenz for four months prior to admission. Despite the use of high bicarbonate doses and vasoactive drugs, the patient had a catastrophic evolution and died in shock and multiple organ failure, 68 hours after admission. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1139-43.

  1. Bilateral acute acquired toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis after steroid therapy for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: case report Retinite toxoplásmica bilateral adquirida após terapia com corticoesteróide para síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus: relato de caso

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of a case of acute acquired ocular toxoplasmosis following hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. A 41-year-old man presenting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, confirmed in the laboratory by detection of IgM antibodies to the virus, was submitted to high doses of intravenous corticosteroids for two months. After clinical improvement of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome the patient presented visual loss in both eyes that was secondary to a toxoplasmosis retinitis. The retinitis resolved with anti-toxoplasma therapy. Acquired toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis can occur following steroid therapy for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.Descrição de um caso de toxoplasmose ocular adquirida pós-síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus. Paciente com 41 anos do sexo masculino apresentando síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus, confirmado no laboratório pela detecção de anticorpos IGM para o vírus, foi submetido a altas doses de corticosteróides intravenosos durante dois meses. Após melhora clínica da síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus, apresentou perda visual em ambos os olhos secundária a retinite por toxoplasmose confirmada com sorologia (IGG e IGM positivo A retinite resolveu após terapia sistêmica específica. A retinite por toxoplasmose pode ocorrer após terapia sistêmica com esteróide para síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus.

  2. Syndrome of arachnomelia in Simmental cattle

    Weppert Myriam; Reichenbach Horst-Dieter; Emmerling Reiner; Luntz Bernhard; Buitkamp Johannes; Schade Benjamin; Meier Norbert; Götz Kay-Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia syndrome. The goal of this work was the characterization of the morp...

  3. Similarity of mouse perivascular and brown adipose tissues and their resistance to diet-induced inflammation

    Fitzgibbons, Timothy P.; Kogan, Sophia; Aouadi, Myriam; Hendricks, Greg M.; Straubhaar, Juerg; Czech, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose depot that likely influences vascular function and susceptibility to pathogenesis in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Surprisingly, PVAT has been reported to share characteristics of both brown and white adipose, but a detailed direct comparison to interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) has not been performed. Here we show by full genome DNA microarray analysis that global gene expression profiles of PVAT are virtually ident...

  4. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    Choyke, P.L. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2000-11-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  5. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  6. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Maricel Sucar Batista; Yanier Serrano García; Taimí Miranda Vergara

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology wa...

  7. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  8. Síndrome de Brown-Séquard por hérnia discal cervical a duplo nível: caso clínico e revisão da literatura Síndrome de Brown-Séquard por hernia discal cervical en nivel doble: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura Brown-Séquard syndrome by double level cervical disc herniation: case report and review of the literature

    Jorge Miguel Silva Ribeiro Olliveira Alves; Paulo Peixoto; Nuno Ferreira; Rui Martins; João Correia; Fernando Silva; Carlos de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Descrição do caso clínico de um paciente com síndrome de Brown-Séquard por hérnia de disco cervical em duplo nível, 40 anos, do sexo masculino, sem história de patologia prévia da coluna cervical; teve início insidioso de paresia nos membros direitos, associada à diminuição da sensibilidade dolorosa e térmica do hemicorpo esquerdo, após mergulho que ocasionou trauma indireto da coluna cervical. A RM da coluna cervical mostrou hérnias discais paramedianas direitas nos níveis C4-C5 e C5-C6 com ...

  9. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  10. Learning-By-Being-Acquired

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    -categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if acquired inventors have higher innovation ability relative to their acquiring peers but is...

  11. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF HOSPITAL ACQUIRED METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Preethi. B.M; J.Vimalin Hena

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. The MRSA can cause a wide range of diseases, which is associated with its production to large number of extracellular toxins and other virulence factors. The diseases are toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome and food poisoning. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) in persons who have had frequent or recent contact with hospitals or healthcare facilities within the prev...

  13. Acquired Blaschkoid dermatitis

    Mercy P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Blaschkoid dermatitis characterised by unilateral relapsing inflammatory disease along the lines of Blaschko. A 40-year-old Indian male presented with unilateral erythematous, itchy grouped papules on the left side of the chest, abdomen, back and left arm of 15 days duration. The eruption stopped abruptly at the midline of the torso, completely sparing the right side of the body. The lesions were arranged in whorls and streaks corresponding to the lines of Blaschko. Skin biopsy showed hyperkeratosis and features suggestive of sub-acute spongiotic dermatitis with lymphocytic infiltrate around the blood vessels in the dermis. Patient was diagnosed as a case of Blaschkoid dermatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of this condition being reported from India.

  14. Brown coal and the climate

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  15. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  16. Progress toward automatic classification of human brown adipose tissue using biomedical imaging

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcom J.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a small but significant tissue, which may play an important role in obesity and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Interest in studying BAT in adult humans is increasing, but in order to quantify BAT volume in a single measurement or to detect changes in BAT over the time course of a longitudinal experiment, BAT needs to first be reliably differentiated from surrounding tissue. Although the uptake of the radiotracer 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in adipose tissue on positron emission tomography (PET) scans following cold exposure is accepted as an indication of BAT, it is not a definitive indicator, and to date there exists no standardized method for segmenting BAT. Consequently, there is a strong need for robust automatic classification of BAT based on properties measured with biomedical imaging. In this study we begin the process of developing an automated segmentation method based on properties obtained from fat-water MRI and PET-CT scans acquired on ten healthy adult subjects.

  17. Epidemiological Characteristics of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Zhoukou, He′nan Province From 1995 to 2014%1995-2014年河南省周口市 AIDS 流行特征分析

    张林

    2015-01-01

    势=1419.0, P<0.01),配偶/固定性伴传播占当年累计报告病例的构成比呈下降趋势(χ2趋势=43.6, P<0.01)。男男同性传播自2007年报告首例后,其占当年累计报告病例的构成比呈上升趋势(χ2趋势=132.1, P<0.01)。结论周口市AIDS疫情近年有所抬头,分布范围广,呈聚集性分布。临床相关检测是HIV感染和AIDS患者的重要来源之一,感染途径已由经血传播向性传播转变,非婚异性传播和男男同性传播上升趋势明显,阻断性传播是当前控制AIDS疫情的重要任务。%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Zhoukou and to provide scientific evidence for the formulation of prevention and control strategies .Methods We collected the data of HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients in Zhoukou from the Information System for AIDS Prevention and Control of China′s Information System for Disease Prevention and Control , with a time range of 1995 to 2014.Results From 1995 to 2014, the total reported number of HIV -infected people and AIDS patients in Zhoukou was 9 187, among which 8 215 (89.42%) were AIDS patents and 3 254 (35.42%) died.After the exclusion of deceased patients , there were 5 933 HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients surviving , accounted for 67.37/105 in all permanent residents of Zhoukou and of which 5 164 were AIDS patients.From 1995 to 2003, with the HIV/AIDS monitoring strengthened , the detected HIV -infected and AIDS patients had been increasing year by year; 2004 witnessed more reported cases than other years , for HIV census was carried out on FPDs this year; from 2005 to 2012, the number of reported cases was in a decreasing trend; from 2013 to 2014, the disease showed a slight rebound .From 2006, death cases began to decrease year by year .HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients of Zhoukou distributed in 204 villages or towns in 10 districts or

  18. Time to initial antibiotic administration, and short-term mortality among patients admitted with community-acquired severe infections with and without the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Laursen, Christian B; Hallas, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    2011 with a first-time admission of community-acquired severe infection (infection with evidence of organ dysfunction), with and without SIRS at arrival. The presence of SIRS was defined as two or more of the criteria according to the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care...... Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) definitions. Cases were identified by manual chart review using predefined criteria of infection. Data on vital signs, laboratory values and antibiotic treatment were obtained electronically. RESULTS: We included 1169 patients with infection and organ dysfunction, treated...

  19. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  20. Related progress of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy in the thoracic complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and occupational exposure prevention%CT引导下经皮穿刺活检术在获得性免疫缺陷综合征胸部并发症中的应用及职业暴露防护相关进展

    王青

    2011-01-01

    CT-guided percutaneous biopsy in the thoracic complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)is the main clear diagnosis method.The application of technical solutions, complications and prevention, occupational exposure protection principles and methods of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy in thoracic complications of AIDS were reviewed in this article.%CT引导下经皮穿刺活检术是确诊获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)胸部并发症的主要方法.本文对CT引导下经皮穿刺活检术在AIDS胸部并发症中应用的技术方案、并发症及预防,职业暴露防护原则及方法进行综述.

  1. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  2. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  3. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  4. Translocations (5;17) and (7;17) in patients with de novo or therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. A possible association with acquired pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly and small vacuolated granulocytes

    Twelve patients [two with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), four with secondary MDS, five with de novo acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), one with secondary ANLL] showed a 17p deletion resulting from translocations involving 17p: t(5;17)(p11;p11) in four cases, t(7;17)(p11;p11) in six cases, complex (5;17)(q23;p12) translocation with dicentric chromosome in one case, and t(17;?)(p11-12;?) in the remaining patient. All these structural anomalies were observed in hypodiploid clones associated with total or partial monosomy of chromosomes 5 and 7 (12 cases), monosomy 12 (five cases), monosomy 3 (four cases), and monosomy 4 (three cases). Median survival was only 3.3 months (range 3 days to 8 months). Striking features were observed in bone marrow mature granulocytes: all but one case had a pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly in a significant number of granulocytes, and eight patients had granulocytes with reduced size and clear cytoplasmic vacuoles. Careful cytological review of 51 patients with MDS or ANLL and various cytogenetic anomalies was performed for comparison: vacuolated granulocytes were a very uncommon finding. On the other hand, eight patients had a pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly, which correlated significantly with total monosomy 17 in these patients. A possible correlation between cytological anomalies and cytogenetic data is discussed, and the role of 17p in the nuclear segmentation of granulocytes is stressed

  5. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  9. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  10. And the Winner is - Acquired

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    New entrants to a market tend to be superior to incumbents in originating radical innovations. We provide a new explanation for this phenomenon, based on markets for technology. It applies in industries where successful entrepreneurial firms, or their technologies, are acquired by incumbents that...... lower probability accompanies higher value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a prize in a contest. We identify an...