WorldWideScience

Sample records for acquired behaviour adaptations

  1. Inheritance of Acquired Behaviour Adaptions and Brain Gene Expression in Chickens

    Daniel Nätt; Niclas Lindqvist; Henrik Stranneheim; Joakim Lundeberg; Torjesen, Peter A.; Per Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Environmental challenges may affect both the exposed individuals and their offspring. We investigated possible adaptive aspects of such cross-generation transmissions, and hypothesized that chronic unpredictable food access would cause chickens to show a more conservative feeding strategy and to be more dominant, and that these adaptations would be transmitted to the offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings: Parents were raised in an unpredictable (UL) or in predictable diurnal l...

  2. Inheritance of acquired behaviour adaptations and brain gene expression in chickens.

    Daniel Nätt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges may affect both the exposed individuals and their offspring. We investigated possible adaptive aspects of such cross-generation transmissions, and hypothesized that chronic unpredictable food access would cause chickens to show a more conservative feeding strategy and to be more dominant, and that these adaptations would be transmitted to the offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parents were raised in an unpredictable (UL or in predictable diurnal light rhythm (PL, 12:12 h light:dark. In a foraging test, UL birds pecked more at freely available, rather than at hidden and more attractive food, compared to birds from the PL group. Female offspring of UL birds, raised in predictable light conditions without parental contact, showed a similar foraging behavior, differing from offspring of PL birds. Furthermore, adult offspring of UL birds performed more food pecks in a dominance test, showed a higher preference for high energy food, survived better, and were heavier than offspring of PL parents. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that the differential brain gene expression caused by the challenge was mirrored in the offspring. In particular, several immunoglobulin genes seemed to be affected similarly in both UL parents and their offspring. Estradiol levels were significantly higher in egg yolk from UL birds, suggesting one possible mechanism for these effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that unpredictable food access caused seemingly adaptive responses in feeding behavior, which may have been transmitted to the offspring by means of epigenetic mechanisms, including regulation of immune genes. This may have prepared the offspring for coping with an unpredictable environment.

  3. Behavioural adaptation and acceptance

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  4. Adaptive behavioural syndromes due to strategic niche specialization

    Bergmüller Ralph; Taborsky Michael

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Behavioural syndromes, i.e. consistent individual differences in behaviours that are correlated across different functional contexts, are a challenge to evolutionary reasoning because individuals should adapt their behaviour to the requirements of each situation. Behavioural syndromes are often interpreted as a result of constraints resulting in limited plasticity and inflexible behaviour. Alternatively, they may be adaptive if correlated ecological or social challenges fu...

  5. Risk, resources and state-dependent adaptive behavioural syndromes

    Luttbeg, Barney; Sih, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Many animals exhibit behavioural syndromes—consistent individual differences in behaviour across two or more contexts or situations. Here, we present adaptive, state-dependent mathematical models for analysing issues about behavioural syndromes. We find that asset protection (where individuals with more ‘assets’ tend be more cautious) and starvation avoidance, two state-dependent mechanisms, can explain short-term behavioural consistency, but not long-term stable behavioural types (BTs). Thes...

  6. Plant adaptive behaviour in hydrological models (Invited)

    van der Ploeg, M. J.; Teuling, R.

    2013-12-01

    Models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evaporation regimes need a solid base that describes the essence of the processes involved [1]. Micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system may have a large impact on patterns emerging at larger scales. A complicating factor in the micro-behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, but such environmental changes may also trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [2-6]. Gene expression as a result of different environmental conditions may profoundly impact drought responses across the same plant species. Differences in response to an environmental stress, has consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant functional type. Assigning plant functional types does not allow for local plant adaptation to be reflected in the model parameters, nor does it allow for correlations that might exist between root parameters and soil type. Models potentially provide a means to link root water uptake and transport to large scale processes (e.g. Rosnay and Polcher 1998, Feddes et al. 2001, Jung 2010), especially when powered with an integrated hydrological, ecological and physiological base. We explore the experimental evidence from natural vegetation to formulate possible alternative modeling concepts. [1] Seibert, J. 2000. Multi-criteria calibration of a conceptual runoff model using a genetic algorithm. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 4(2): 215

  7. Adaptive behavioural syndromes due to strategic niche specialization

    Bergmüller Ralph

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural syndromes, i.e. consistent individual differences in behaviours that are correlated across different functional contexts, are a challenge to evolutionary reasoning because individuals should adapt their behaviour to the requirements of each situation. Behavioural syndromes are often interpreted as a result of constraints resulting in limited plasticity and inflexible behaviour. Alternatively, they may be adaptive if correlated ecological or social challenges functionally integrate apparently independent behaviours. To test the latter hypothesis we repeatedly tested helpers in the cooperative breeder Neolamprologus pulcher for exploration and two types of helping behaviour. In case of adaptive behavioural syndromes we predicted a positive relationship between exploration and aggressive helping (territory defence and a negative relationship between these behaviours and non-aggressive helping (territory maintenance. Results As expected, helpers engaging more in territory defence were consistently more explorative and engaged less in territory maintenance, the latter only when dominant breeders were present. Contrary to our prediction, there was no negative relationship between exploration and territory maintenance. Conclusion Our results suggest that the three behaviours we measured are part of behavioural syndromes. These may be adaptive, in that they reflect strategic specialization of helpers into one of two different life history strategies, namely (a to stay and help in the home territory in order to inherit the breeding position or (b to disperse early in order to breed independently.

  8. Behavioural adaptation to in-vehicle navigation systems

    Forbes, Nicholas Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    This PhD investigates driver behavioural adaptation to in-vehicle navigation systems (IVNS). Behavioural adaptation is receiving an increasing amount of research attention in traffic psychology, but few studies have directly considered the concept in relation to IVNS. The thesis aims were addressed using a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Using two online surveys, over 1300 drivers (including over 1000 IVNS users) were sampled, to identify a range of positive, neutral ...

  9. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    Pezzulo, G; Rigoli, F.; Friston, K.

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a...

  10. The Influence of Learning Behaviour on Team Adaptability

    Murray, Peter A.; Millett, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Multiple contexts shape team activities and how they learn, and group learning is a dynamic construct that reflects a repertoire of potential behaviour. The purpose of this developmental paper is to examine how better learning behaviours in semi-autonomous teams improves the level of team adaptability and performance. The discussion suggests that…

  11. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and...

  12. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  13. Improving the quality of manually acquired data: Applying the theory of planned behaviour to data quality

    Murphy, Glen D. [Cooperative Research Centre for Integrated Engineering Asset Management (CIEAM), School of Management, Queensland University of Technology, PO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)], E-mail: gd.murphy@qut.edu.au

    2009-12-15

    The continued reliance of manual data capture in engineering asset intensive organisations highlights the critical role played by those responsible for recording raw data. The potential for data quality variance across individual operators also exposes the need to better manage this particular group. This paper evaluates the relative importance of the human factors associated with data quality. Using the theory of planned behaviour this paper considers the impact of attitudes, perceptions and behavioural intentions on the data collection process in an engineering asset context. Two additional variables are included, those of time pressure and operator feedback. Time pressure is argued to act as a moderator between intention and data collection behaviour, while perceived behavioural control will moderate the relationship between feedback and data collection behaviour. Overall the paper argues that the presence of best practice procedures or threats of disciplinary sanction are insufficient controls to determine data quality. Instead those concerned with improving the data collection performance of operators should consider the operator's perceptions of group attitude towards data quality, the level of feedback provided to data collectors and the impact of time pressures on procedure compliance. A range of practical recommendations are provided to those wishing to improve the quality of their manually acquired data.

  14. Improving the quality of manually acquired data: Applying the theory of planned behaviour to data quality

    The continued reliance of manual data capture in engineering asset intensive organisations highlights the critical role played by those responsible for recording raw data. The potential for data quality variance across individual operators also exposes the need to better manage this particular group. This paper evaluates the relative importance of the human factors associated with data quality. Using the theory of planned behaviour this paper considers the impact of attitudes, perceptions and behavioural intentions on the data collection process in an engineering asset context. Two additional variables are included, those of time pressure and operator feedback. Time pressure is argued to act as a moderator between intention and data collection behaviour, while perceived behavioural control will moderate the relationship between feedback and data collection behaviour. Overall the paper argues that the presence of best practice procedures or threats of disciplinary sanction are insufficient controls to determine data quality. Instead those concerned with improving the data collection performance of operators should consider the operator's perceptions of group attitude towards data quality, the level of feedback provided to data collectors and the impact of time pressures on procedure compliance. A range of practical recommendations are provided to those wishing to improve the quality of their manually acquired data.

  15. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  16. Distributed Behavioural Adaptation for the Automatic Composition of Semantic Services

    Melliti, Tarek; Poizat, Pascal; Ben Mokhtar, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    International audience Services are developed separately and without knowledge of all possible use contexts. They often mismatch or do not correspond exactly to the end-user needs, making direct composition without mediation impossible. In such a case, software adaptation can support composition by producing semi-automatically new software pieces called adaptors. Adaptation proposals have addressed the signature and behavioural service interface levels. Yet, taking also into account the se...

  17. Yeasts acquire resistance secondary to antifungal drug treatment by adaptive mutagenesis.

    David Quinto-Alemany

    Full Text Available Acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment both by microorganisms and by tumor cells is a major public health concern. Several species of bacteria acquire resistance to various antibiotics through stress-induced responses that have an adaptive mutagenesis effect. So far, adaptive mutagenesis in yeast has only been described when the stress is nutrient deprivation. Here, we hypothesized that adaptive mutagenesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans as model organisms would also take place in response to antifungal agents (5-fluorocytosine or flucytosine, 5-FC, and caspofungin, CSP, giving rise to resistance secondary to treatment with these agents. We have developed a clinically relevant model where both yeasts acquire resistance when exposed to these agents. Stressful lifestyle associated mutation (SLAM experiments show that the adaptive mutation frequencies are 20 (S. cerevisiae -5-FC, 600 (C. albicans -5-FC or 1000 (S. cerevisiae--CSP fold higher than the spontaneous mutation frequency, the experimental data for C. albicans -5-FC being in agreement with the clinical data of acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment. The spectrum of mutations in the S. cerevisiae -5-FC model differs between spontaneous and acquired, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that generate them are different. Remarkably, in the acquired mutations, an ectopic intrachromosomal recombination with an 87% homologous gene takes place with a high frequency. In conclusion, we present here a clinically relevant adaptive mutation model that fulfils the conditions reported previously.

  18. Influence of Teachers' Behaviour on Students' Adaptation after School Transition

    Rupsiene, Liudmila; Kucinskiene, Ramute

    2005-01-01

    This research aimed to reveal how students' adaptation after a school transition is related to teachers' behaviour. The gross sample of the research consisted of 1078 students (from 159 schools, representing almost all municipalities of the country) and 999 of their parents. The main research instrument was questionnaires for both children and…

  19. Adaptation from interactions between metabolism and behaviour: self-sensitive behaviour in protocells

    Egbert, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers the relationship between adaptive behaviour and metabolism, using theoretical arguments supported by computational models to demonstrate mechanisms of adaptation that are uniquely available to systems based upon the metabolic organisation of self-production. It is argued how, by being sensitive to their metabolic viability, an organism can respond to the quality of its environment with respect to its metabolic well-being. This makes possible simple but powerful ‘self...

  20. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-06-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people’s adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics.

  1. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. PMID:26365173

  2. Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour.

    Curtis, Valerie; de Barra, Mícheál; Aunger, Robert

    2011-02-12

    Disgust is an evolved psychological system for protecting organisms from infection through disease avoidant behaviour. This 'behavioural immune system', present in a diverse array of species, exhibits universal features that orchestrate hygienic behaviour in response to cues of risk of contact with pathogens. However, disgust is also a dynamic adaptive system. Individuals show variation in pathogen avoidance associated with psychological traits like having a neurotic personality, as well as a consequence of being in certain physiological states such as pregnancy or infancy. Three specialized learning mechanisms modify the disgust response: the Garcia effect, evaluative conditioning and the law of contagion. Hygiene behaviour is influenced at the group level through social learning heuristics such as 'copy the frequent'. Finally, group hygiene is extended symbolically to cultural rules about purity and pollution, which create social separations and are enforced as manners. Cooperative hygiene endeavours such as sanitation also reduce pathogen prevalence. Our model allows us to integrate perspectives from psychology, ecology and cultural evolution with those of epidemiology and anthropology. Understanding the nature of disease avoidance psychology at all levels of human organization can inform the design of programmes to improve public health. PMID:21199843

  3. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the “Pay as You Speed” project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers with...... ABI were recruited as subjects and had ISA equipment installed in their private vehicle. Their speed was logged with ISA equipment for a total of 30 weeks of which 12 weeks were with an active ISA user interface (6 weeks = Baseline 1; 12 weeks = ISA period; 12 weeks = Baseline 2). The subjects...

  4. Adaptive behaviours of attacking futsal teams to opposition defensive formations.

    Travassos, B; Bourbousson, J; Esteves, P T; Marcelino, R; Pacheco, M; Davids, K

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated tendencies towards flexibility/stability of coordinated behaviours in international futsal teams, considered as complex collective systems, according to changes in opposition defensive formations. Six games of two international futsal teams (Spain and Portugal) were selected for Social Network Analysis to capture the coordination tendencies that emerge in the tactical behaviours of players when performing against different defensive formations. Ball trajectories in each offensive pattern of play were notated in an adjacency matrix where each entry accounted for the linkages between 12 spatial field areas. Each offensive play was coded according to the defensive formation of an opposing team (i.e. conservative or risky formation). Results revealed similar network properties between teams when competing against more risky defensive formations, while notable differences were observed against conservative defences. Effect of defensive formation of opponents on macro network properties was observed in both the Portuguese and Spanish teams. At a meso-level, only the Spanish national team exhibited notable changes, suggesting a greater level of adaptability to unfolding performance events. The observed flexibility in tactical behaviours of the Spanish team appeared to express their greater expertise levels. PMID:26918489

  5. MORPH: A Reference Architecture for Configuration and Behaviour Self-Adaptation

    Braberman, Victor; D'Ippolito, Nicolas; Kramer, Jeff; Sykes, Daniel; Uchitel, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    An architectural approach to self-adaptive systems involves runtime change of system configuration (i.e., the system's components, their bindings and operational parameters) and behaviour update (i.e., component orchestration). Thus, dynamic reconfiguration and discrete event control theory are at the heart of architectural adaptation. Although controlling configuration and behaviour at runtime has been discussed and applied to architectural adaptation, architectures for self-adaptive systems...

  6. Adaptive behaviour and paddle tennis: a case study of Down’s syndrome

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is one of the key elements to diagnose intellectual disability. In addition, these be-haviors are crucial in order to operate on the daily life. As a population with a high risk of developing a sedentary lifestyle, adapted physical activity programs for people and children with intellectual disability are needed. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the influence of adapted paddle tennis intervention program on the adaptive behaviour of a child with Down’s syndrome....

  7. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations.

    Egbert, Matthew D; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism's internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving "interoceptively," i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms. PMID:26743579

  8. Cognitive behavioural therapy skills in children who have sustained an acquired brain injury

    Ingham, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood brain injury can result in cognitive, behavioural, and psychological difficulties. It is reported that many children who have suffered a brain injury experience the same level of emotional distress as children seen in mental health services. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective intervention for a range of psychological disorders that arise during childhood, yet to date there is little evidence to suggest whether this is a beneficial therapy...

  9. Statistical behaviour of adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms in simple models

    Adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms have been introduced rather recently for estimating tail distributions in a fast and efficient way. In particular, they can be used for computing the so-called reactive trajectories corresponding to direct transitions from one metastable state to another. The algorithm is based on successive selection–mutation steps performed on the system in a controlled way. It has two intrinsic parameters, the number of particles/trajectories and the reaction coordinate used for discriminating good or bad trajectories. We investigate first the convergence in law of the algorithm as a function of the timestep for several simple stochastic models. Second, we consider the average duration of reactive trajectories for which no theoretical predictions exist. The most important aspect of this work concerns some systems with two degrees of freedom. They are studied in detail as a function of the reaction coordinate in the asymptotic regime where the number of trajectories goes to infinity. We show that during phase transitions, the statistics of the algorithm deviate significatively from known theoretical results when using non-optimal reaction coordinates. In this case, the variance of the algorithm is peaking at the transition and the convergence of the algorithm can be much slower than the usual expected central limit behaviour. The duration of trajectories is affected as well. Moreover, reactive trajectories do not correspond to the most probable ones. Such behaviour disappears when using the optimal reaction coordinate called committor as predicted by the theory. We finally investigate a three-state Markov chain which reproduces this phenomenon and show logarithmic convergence of the trajectory durations

  10. Behavioural and eye-movement outcomes in response to text-based reading treatment for acquired alexia.

    Kim, Esther S; Lemke, Shannon F

    2016-01-01

    Text-based reading treatments, such as Multiple Oral Rereading (MOR) and Oral Reading for Language in Aphasia (ORLA) have been used successfully to remediate reading impairments in individuals with acquired alexia, but the mechanisms underlying such improvements are not well understood. In this study, an individual with acquired alexia who demonstrated reliance on a sub-lexical reading strategy (i.e., presence of spelling regularity effect and phonologically plausible errors) underwent 12 weeks of text-based reading treatment combining MOR and ORLA procedures. Behavioural assessments of single-word and text reading, along with eye-tracking assessments were conducted pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 5 month follow-up. Improved reading fluency (rate, accuracy) was observed for both trained and untrained passages. Evidence from behavioural and eye-tracking assessment suggested text-based reading treatment facilitated use of a lexical-semantic reading strategy. Increased frequency and lexicality effects, as well as a shift in initial landing position towards the centre of the word (the "optimal viewing position") were observed at post-treatment and follow-up assessments. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using eye movements as a parameter of interest in addition to traditional behavioural outcomes when investigating response to reading treatment. PMID:25582781

  11. Distinct neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, behavioural and affective apathy sub-domains in acquired brain injury.

    Progress eNjomboro; Shoumitro eDeb

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder’s neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it’s also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is in spite of evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study inve...

  12. Estimating the limits of adaptation from historical behaviour: Insights from the American Climate Prospectus

    Jina, A.; Hsiang, S. M.; Kopp, R. E., III; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.

    2014-12-01

    The American Climate Prospectus (ACP), the technical analysis underlying the Risky Business project, quantitatively assessed the climate risks posed to the United States' economy in a number of economic sectors [1]. The main analysis presents projections of climate impacts with an assumption of "no adaptation". Yet, historically, when the climate imposed an economic cost upon society, adaptive responses were taken to minimise these costs. These adaptive behaviours, both autonomous and planned, can be expected to occur as climate impacts increase in the future. To understand the extent to which adaptation might decrease some of the worst impacts of climate change, we empirically estimate adaptive responses. We do this in three sectors considered in the analysis - crop yield, crime, and mortality - and estimate adaptive capacity in two steps. First, looking at changes in climate impacts through time, we identify a historical rate of adaptation. Second, spatial differences in climate impacts are then used to stratify regions into more adapted or less adapted based on climate averages. As these averages change across counties in the US, we allow each to become more adapted at the rate identified in step one. We are then able to estimate the residual damages, assuming that only the historical adaptive behaviours have taken place (fig 1). Importantly, we are unable to estimate any costs associated with these adaptations, nor are we able to estimate more novel (for example, new technological discoveries) or more disruptive (for example, migration) adaptive behaviours. However, an important insight is that historical adaptive behaviours may not be capable of reducing the worst impacts of climate change. The persistence of impacts in even the most exposed areas indicates that there are non-trivial costs associated with adaptation that will need to be met from other sources or through novel behavioural changes. References: [1] T. Houser et al. (2014), American Climate

  13. 75 FR 68669 - Loan Guaranty: Assistance to Eligible Individuals in Acquiring Specially Adapted Housing; Cost-of...

    2010-11-08

    ... AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Assistance to Eligible Individuals in Acquiring Specially Adapted Housing; Cost-of... Veterans Affairs (VA) announces that the aggregate amounts of assistance available under the Specially... annually based on a residential home cost-of-construction index. The Secretary uses the Turner...

  14. Adaptation and development of a Parenting Behaviours Inventory

    Pedro Costa

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the present study was to develop a Portuguese version of a Parenting Behaviour Inventory. This inventory aims to evaluate the frequency of different parenting practices and behaviours, classified into two dimensions of Positive Parenting and Oppressive Parenting. Method: Participants (253 mothers and 92 fathers responded to an online questionnaire which consisted of this inventory, a scale of depression stress and anxiety, and a questionnaire of health and mental health related problems in the household. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the inventory revealed evidence of a solid model of nine behavioural dimensions, as well as of a second-order model consisting of a positive and an oppressive parenting dimension. Significant positive associations were found between the adoption of ineffective or oppressive childrearing behaviours with health and mental health problems; and negative associations between these problems and positive childrearing behaviours. It was also found that fathers tended to use more disciplinary and inconsistent disciplinary behaviours when they had children of both genders. Conclusion: Considering the lack of instruments to evaluate parenting practices in Portugal, this can be an important measure to assess the relationship between parenting behaviours and child behaviour problems.

  15. The tale of the finch: adaptive radiation and behavioural flexibility

    Tebbich, Sabine; Sterelny, Kim; Teschke, Irmgard

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's finches are a classic example of adaptive radiation. The ecological diversity of the Galápagos in part explains that radiation, but the fact that other founder species did not radiate suggests that other factors are also important. One hypothesis attempting to identify the extra factor is the flexible stem hypothesis, connecting individual adaptability to species richness. According to this hypothesis, the ancestral finches were flexible and therefore able to adapt to the new and har...

  16. Tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) adapt their communicative behaviour to human's attentional states.

    Defolie, Charlotte; Malassis, Raphaëlle; Serre, Marion; Meunier, Hélène

    2015-05-01

    Animal communication has become a widely studied field of research, especially because of the associated debates on the origin of human language. Due to their phylogenetic proximity with humans, non-human primates represent a suitable model to investigate the precursors of language. This study focuses on the perception of the attentional states of others, an important prerequisite to intentional communication. We investigated whether capuchins (Cebus apella) produce a learnt pointing gesture towards a hidden and unreachable food reward as a function of the attentional status of the human experimenter. For that purpose, we tested five subjects that we first trained to indicate by a pointing gesture towards the human partner the position of a reward hidden by an assistant. Then, capuchins were tested in two experimental conditions randomly ordered. In the first condition-motivation trial-the experimenter was attentive to the subject gestures and rewarded him immediately when it pointed towards the baited cylinder. During the second condition-test trial-the experimenter adopted one of the following attention states and the subject was rewarded after 10 s has elapsed, regardless of the subject's behaviour. Five attentional states were tested: (1) experimenter absent, (2) experimenter back to the monkey, (3) experimenter's head away, (4) experimenter watching above the monkey, and (5) experimenter watching the monkey face. Our results reveal a variation in our subjects' communicative behaviours with a discrimination of the different postural clues (body and head orientation) available in our experimental conditions. This study suggests that capuchins can flexibly use a communicative gesture to adapt to the attentional state of their partner and provides evidence that acquired communicative gestures of monkeys might be used intentionally. PMID:25630371

  17. Behavioural adaptations of Rana temporaria to cold climates.

    Ludwig, Gerda; Sinsch, Ulrich; Pelster, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions at the edge of a species' ecological optimum can exert great ecological or evolutionary pressure at local populations. For ectotherms like amphibians temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors of their environment as it influences directly their metabolism and sets limits to their distribution. Amphibians have evolved three ways to cope with sub-zero temperatures: freeze tolerance, freeze protection, freeze avoidance. The aim of this study was to assess which strategy common frogs at mid and high elevation use to survive and thrive in cold climates. In particular we (1) tested for the presence of physiological freeze protection, (2) evaluated autumnal activity and overwintering behaviour with respect to freeze avoidance and (3) assessed the importance of different high-elevation microhabitats for behavioural thermoregulation. Common frogs did not exhibit any signs of freeze protection when experiencing temperatures around 0 °C. Instead they retreated to open water for protection and overwintering. High elevation common frogs remained active for around the same period of time than their conspecifics at lower elevation. Our results suggest that at mid and high elevation common frogs use freeze avoidance alone to survive temperatures below 0 °C. The availability of warm microhabitats, such as rock or pasture, provides high elevation frogs with the opportunity of behavioural thermoregulation and thus allows them to remain active at temperatures at which common frogs at lower elevation cease activity. PMID:25774030

  18. Intelligent speed adaptation: acceptance and driver behaviour on rural roads

    Rook, A.M.; Hogema, J.H.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2004-01-01

    The PROSPER (Project for Research On Speed adaptation Policies on European Roads) project, funded by the European Commission within the 5th framework program, was initiated to find answers concerning efficiency, public support, and implementation of road speed management methods, particularly Intell

  19. Occupants’ behavioural adaptation in workplaces with non-central heating and cooling systems

    Occupants’ behaviour when improving the indoor environment plays a significant role in saving energy in buildings. Therefore the key step to reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions from buildings is to understand how occupants interact with the environment they are exposed to in terms of achieving thermal comfort and well-being; though such interaction is complex. This paper presents a dynamic process of occupant behaviours involving technological, personal and psychological adaptations in response to varied thermal conditions based on the data covering four seasons gathered from the field study in Chongqing, China. It demonstrates that occupants are active players in environmental control and their adaptive responses are driven strongly by ambient thermal stimuli and vary from season to season and from time to time, even on the same day. Positive, dynamic, behavioural adaptation will help save energy used in heating and cooling buildings. However, when environmental parameters cannot fully satisfy occupants’ requirements, negative behaviours could conflict with energy saving. The survey revealed that about 23% of windows are partly open for fresh air when air-conditioners are in operation in summer. This paper addresses the issues how the building and environmental systems should be designed, operated and managed in a way that meets the requirements of energy efficiency without compromising wellbeing and productivity. - Highlights: ► A year-long field study of observing user behaviour in workplace. ► Occupants’ behavioural adaptation plays an important role in reducing energy from buildings. ► Occupants actively and dynamically respond to outdoor climate change. ► Positive behavioural adaptations will eliminate the use of heating/cooling facilities. ► The poor use of heating/cooling facilities will cause a significant waste of energy.

  20. Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities

    Gorzelak, Monika A.; Asay, Amanda K.; Pickles, Brian J.; Simard, Suzanne W

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular myco...

  1. Adaptive behaviour, tri-trophic food-web stability and damping of chaos

    Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio; Pigolotti, Simone

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of adaptive foraging behaviour within a tri-trophic food web with intra-guild predation. The intra-guild prey is allowed to adjust its foraging effort so as to achieve an optimal per capita growth rate in the face of realized feeding, predation risk and foraging cost. Adaptive...... fitness-seeking behaviour of the intra-guild prey has a stabilizing effect on the tri-trophic food-web dynamics provided that (i) a finite optimal foraging effort exists and (ii) the trophic transfer efficiency from resource to predator via the intra-guild prey is greater than that from the resource...

  2. Co-evolutionary behaviour selection in adaptive social networks predicts clustered marginalization of minorities

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Engemann, Denis A; Levermann, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Human behaviour is largely shaped by local social interactions and depends on the structure of connections between individuals in social networks. These two dimensions of behaviour selection are commonly studied in isolation by different disciplines and are often treated as independent processes. To the contrary, empirical findings on spread of behaviour in social networks suggest that local interactions between individuals and network evolution are interdependent. Empirical evidence, however, remains inconclusive as social network studies often suffer from limited sample sizes or are prohibitive on ethical grounds. Here we introduce a co-evolutionary adaptive network model of social behaviour selection that provides insights into generative mechanisms by resolving both these aspects through computer simulations. We considered four complementary models and evaluated them with regard to emulating empirical behaviour dynamics in social networks. For this purpose we modelled the prevalence of smoking and and the...

  3. Early Learning and Adaptive Behaviour in Toddlers with Down Syndrome: Evidence for an Emerging Behavioural Phenotype?

    Fidler, Deborah; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Background: Though the Down syndrome behavioural phenotype has been described as involving relative strengths in visuo-spatial processing and sociability, and relative weaknesses in verbal skills and motor planning, the early emergence of this phenotypic pattern of strengths and weaknesses has not yet been fully explored. Method: In this study, we…

  4. When we should worry more: using cognitive bias modification to drive adaptive health behaviour.

    Lies Notebaert

    Full Text Available A lack of behavioural engagement in health promotion or disease prevention is a problem across many health domains. In these cases where people face a genuine danger, a reduced focus on threat and low levels of anxiety or worry are maladaptive in terms of promoting protection or prevention behaviour. Therefore, it is possible that increasing the processing of threat will increase worry and thereby enhance engagement in adaptive behaviour. Laboratory studies have shown that cognitive bias modification (CBM can increase or decrease anxiety and worry when increased versus decreased processing of threat is encouraged. In the current study, CBM for interpretation (CBM-I is used to target engagement in sun protection behaviour. The goal was to investigate whether inducing a negative rather than a positive interpretation bias for physical threat information can enhance worry elicited when viewing a health campaign video (warning against melanoma skin cancer, and consequently lead to more adaptive behaviour (sun protection. Participants were successfully trained to either adopt a positive or negative interpretation bias using physical threat scenarios. However, contrary to expectations results showed that participants in the positive training condition reported higher levels of worry elicited by the melanoma video than participants in the negative training condition. Video elicited worry was, however, positively correlated with a measure of engagement in sun protection behaviour, suggesting that higher levels of worry do promote adaptive behaviour. These findings imply that more research is needed to determine under which conditions increased versus decreased processing of threat can drive adaptive worry. Various potential explanations for the current findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  5. Behavioural Precursors of Attachment Representations in Middle Childhood and Links with Child Social Adaptation

    Bureau, Jean-Francois; Moss, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Concordance between age-6 attachment behaviour and age-8 doll play attachment representations during the school-age period, and associations between these measures and child social adaptation at school were examined. One hundred and twenty-nine 6-year-olds and their mothers participated in a separation/reunion protocol. Two years later, 104…

  6. Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities

    Gorzelak, Monika A.; Asay, Amanda K.; Pickles, Brian J.; Simard, Suzanne W.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. We have found that the behavioural changes in ectomycorrhizal plants depend on environmental cues, the identity of the plant neighbour and the characteristics of the MN. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground ‘tree talk’ is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems. PMID:25979966

  7. Adaptive functioning and behaviour problems in relation to level of education in children and adolescents with intellectual disability

    de Bildt, A; Sytema, S; Kraijer, D; Sparrow, S; Minderaa, R

    2005-01-01

    Background The interrelationship between adaptive functioning, behaviour problems and level of special education was studied in 186 children with IQs ranging from 61 to 70. The objective was to increase the insight into the contribution of adaptive functioning and general and autistic behaviour prob

  8. Horizontally acquired oligopeptide transporters favour adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast to oenological environment.

    Marsit, Souhir; Sanchez, Isabelle; Galeote, Virginie; Dequin, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has emerged as a major evolutionary process that has shaped the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts. We recently showed that a large Torulaspora microellipsoides genomic island carrying two oligopeptide transporters encoded by FOT genes increases the fitness of wine yeast during fermentation of grape must. However, the impact of these genes on the metabolic network of S. cerevisiae remained uncharacterized. Here we show that Fot-mediated peptide uptake substantially affects the glutamate node and the NADPH/NADP(+) balance, resulting in the delayed uptake of free amino acids and altered profiles of metabolites and volatile compounds. Transcriptome analysis revealed that cells using a higher amount of oligopeptides from grape must are less stressed and display substantial variation in the expression of genes in the central pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, amino acid and protein biosynthesis, and the oxidative stress response. These regulations shed light on the molecular and metabolic mechanisms involved in the higher performance and fitness conferred by the HGT-acquired FOT genes, pinpointing metabolic effects that can positively affect the organoleptic balance of wines. PMID:26549518

  9. Comparison of two bacterial azoreductases acquired during adaptation to growth on azo dyes.

    Zimmermann, T; Gasser, F; Kulla, H G; Leisinger, T

    1984-05-01

    Selection for utilization of carboxy-Orange I [1-(4'-carboxyphenylazo)-4-naphthol] in the chemostat yielded Pseudomonas strain K24 which was unable to grow on carboxy-Orange II [1-(4'-carboxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol] while selection for growth on carboxy-Orange II had previously led to strain KF46 which did not utilize carboxy-Orange I. Orange I azoreductase of strain K24, the key enzyme of dye degradation, was purified 80-fold with 17% yield to electrophoretic homogeneity and compared to the previously purified Orange II azoreductase of strain KF46. Common properties of the two enzymes were their monomeric structure, their specificity for NADPH and NADH as cosubstrates, the range of their Km values for substrates and cosubstrates as well as their reactivity towards a series of substrate analogs. They differed from each other with respect to molecular weight (21,000 and 30,000) and in the absolute requirement of Orange I azoreductase for a hydroxy group in the 4'position of the naphthol ring of the substrate molecule as compared to the requirement for substrates with a 2-naphthol moiety by Orange II azoreductase. The pure enzymes did not exhibit immunological cross-reaction with each other. Crude extracts of strains K24 and KF46 and of azoreductase-negative strains isolated at different stages of the adaptation experiments, however, contained material which cross-reacted (CRM) with both anti Orange I azoreductase serum and anti Orange II azoreductase serum. The CRM may represent a common precursor protein of the azoreductases in strains K24 and KF46. PMID:6742955

  10. Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5

  11. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations

    Egbert, Matthew D.; Juan Pérez-Mercader

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism’s internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving “interoceptively,” i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetric...

  12. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion. PMID:26881743

  13. Behavioural adaptation and effectiveness of a Forward Collision Warning System depending on a secondary cognitive task

    BUENO, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been designed to enhance road safety by reducing the number of rear-end collisions. Nevertheless, little is known about how drivers adapt their behaviour over time when using this kind of system. In addition, these systems are expected to aid particularly distracted drivers. However, previous research has suggested that the effectiveness of the system could depend on the difficulty level of the secondary task. The objective of this study on dri...

  14. Behavioural distinction between strategic control and spatial realignment during visuomotor adaptation in a viewing window task.

    Jane M Lawrence-Dewar

    Full Text Available We must frequently adapt our movements in order to successfully perform motor tasks. These visuomotor adaptations can occur with or without our awareness and so, have generally been described by two mechanisms: strategic control and spatial realignment. Strategic control is a conscious modification used when discordance between an intended and actual movement is observed. Spatial realignment is an unconscious recalibration in response to subtle differences between an intended and efferent movement. Traditional methods of investigating visuomotor adaptation often involve simplistic, repetitive motor goals and so may be vulnerable to subject boredom or expectation. Our laboratory has recently developed a novel, engaging computer-based task, the Viewing Window, to investigate visuomotor adaptation to large, apparent distortions. Here, we contrast behavioural measures of visuomotor adaptation during the Viewing Window task when either gradual progressive rotations or large, sudden rotations are introduced in order to demonstrate that this paradigm can be utilized to investigate both strategic control and spatial realignment. The gradual rotation group demonstrated significantly faster mean velocities and spent significantly less time off the object compared to the sudden rotation group. These differences demonstrate adaptation to the distortion using spatial realignment. Scan paths revealed greater after-effects in the gradual rotation group reflected by greater time spent scanning areas off of the object. These results demonstrate the ability to investigate both strategic control and spatial realignment. Thus, the Viewing Window provides a powerful engaging tool for investigating the neural basis of visuomotor adaptation and impairment following injury and disease.

  15. Adaptive behaviour and multiple equilibrium states in a predator-prey model.

    Pimenov, Alexander; Kelly, Thomas C; Korobeinikov, Andrei; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2015-05-01

    There is evidence that multiple stable equilibrium states are possible in real-life ecological systems. Phenomenological mathematical models which exhibit such properties can be constructed rather straightforwardly. For instance, for a predator-prey system this result can be achieved through the use of non-monotonic functional response for the predator. However, while formal formulation of such a model is not a problem, the biological justification for such functional responses and models is usually inconclusive. In this note, we explore a conjecture that a multitude of equilibrium states can be caused by an adaptation of animal behaviour to changes of environmental conditions. In order to verify this hypothesis, we consider a simple predator-prey model, which is a straightforward extension of the classic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. In this model, we made an intuitively transparent assumption that the prey can change a mode of behaviour in response to the pressure of predation, choosing either "safe" of "risky" (or "business as usual") behaviour. In order to avoid a situation where one of the modes gives an absolute advantage, we introduce the concept of the "cost of a policy" into the model. A simple conceptual two-dimensional predator-prey model, which is minimal with this property, and is not relying on odd functional responses, higher dimensionality or behaviour change for the predator, exhibits two stable co-existing equilibrium states with basins of attraction separated by a separatrix of a saddle point. PMID:25732186

  16. Behavioural adaptations of two sympatric sandhoppers living on a mesotidal European Atlantic sandy beach

    Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.

  17. Correlates of emotional and behavioural problems in children with perinatally acquired HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Louw, Kerry-Ann; Ipser, Jonathan; Phillips, Nicole; Hoare, Jacqueline

    2016-07-01

    In the antiretroviral era, youth perinatally infected with HIV (PHIV+) are surviving into adulthood and are at risk for emotional and behavioural problems. Few studies of these problems have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries and even fewer in sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to provide a quantitative description of emotional and behavioural problems in a group of PHIV+ youth (n = 78) in South Africa compared with a group of demographically matched HIV-negative controls (n = 30) and to identify correlates of emotional and behavioural problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted employing participants from community and hospital-based clinics. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Several measures were used to assess demographic, biological, cognitive and contextual correlates of problem behaviours. Youth were compared by HIV status on demographic, cognitive and contextual variables as well as the Total Problems and subscale scores of the CBCL. Multivariate comparisons of the influence of contextual and cognitive variables on CBCL Total Problems scores were performed using a stepwise linear regression analytic procedure. In this study, there were no significant differences in between-group comparisons for the prevalence of Internalizing, Externalizing and Total Problems in the PHIV+ youth and control group at the clinical and borderline cut-off ranges of the CBCL. Caregiver depression was the only significant predictor of greater Total Problems scores in the full model, after controlling for age and gender (F = 8.57, df = 5.102, P < .01). An interaction between HIV status and caregiver depression was observed (t = -2.20, P = .03), with follow-up within-group analyses confirming that caregiver depression predicted greater Total Problems scores both in HIV-negative youth (β = 0.61, P < .001), and to a lesser extent, in HIV-positive youth (

  18. Core set of recommendations for patients with ankylosing spondylitis concerning behaviour and environmental adaptations.

    Feldtkeller, Ernst; Lind-Albrecht, Gudrun; Rudwaleit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Advice concerning behaviour and adaptations of living and working environment is considered an unmet need by patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to develop a core set of recommendations to be given to patients by their rheumatologists. A systematic literature research of scientific and patient-oriented literature revealed 70 raw recommendations. These recommendations were evaluated and ranked at a meeting of the Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation (ASIF, 26 participants including 19 patients with AS, 5 rheumatologists and 2 physiotherapists from 13 countries) in November 2011. Thereafter, the 59 remaining recommendations were extensively discussed, supplemented, reworded, condensed and voted on during a meeting of local branch leaders of the AS patient organisation in Germany (Deutsche Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, DVMB) with 80 participants (95 % of whom with AS), 2 rheumatologists and 1 occupational therapist in March 2012. The core set of final recommendations comprises (1) a general statement regarding living with AS which was considered highly important by patients and (2) the following domains: sitting position, walking, sleeping, at work, exercises, sports and recreational activities, diet and lifestyle, sexuality and pregnancy, fall prevention, car driving and advantages of membership in an AS-specific patient organisation. Most recommendations are relevant already in early disease, others concern advanced AS (e.g. fall prevention and car driving). The selected recommendations received high agreements (80-100 %). A first core set of recommendations for the behaviour and environmental adaptations of patients with AS was established under participation of many patients. PMID:23539272

  19. Cell-intrinsic adaptation of lipid composition to local crowding drives social behaviour.

    Frechin, Mathieu; Stoeger, Thomas; Daetwyler, Stephan; Gehin, Charlotte; Battich, Nico; Damm, Eva-Maria; Stergiou, Lilli; Riezman, Howard; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2015-07-01

    Cells sense the context in which they grow to adapt their phenotype and allow multicellular patterning by mechanisms of autocrine and paracrine signalling. However, patterns also form in cell populations exposed to the same signalling molecules and substratum, which often correlate with specific features of the population context of single cells, such as local cell crowding. Here we reveal a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism that allows multicellular patterning without requiring specific communication between cells. It acts by sensing the local crowding of a single cell through its ability to spread and activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), resulting in adaptation of genes controlling membrane homeostasis. In cells experiencing low crowding, FAK suppresses transcription of the ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) by inhibiting FOXO3 and TAL1. Agent-based computational modelling and experimental confirmation identified membrane-based signalling and feedback control as crucial for the emergence of population patterns of ABCA1 expression, which adapts membrane lipid composition to cell crowding and affects multiple signalling activities, including the suppression of ABCA1 expression itself. The simple design of this cell-intrinsic system and its broad impact on the signalling state of mammalian single cells suggests a fundamental role for a tunable membrane lipid composition in collective cell behaviour. PMID:26009010

  20. Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptation.

    Mathew, Sarah; Perreault, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The behavioural variation among human societies is vast and unmatched in the animal world. It is unclear whether this variation is due to variation in the ecological environment or to differences in cultural traditions. Underlying this debate is a more fundamental question: is the richness of humans' behavioural repertoire due to non-cultural mechanisms, such as causal reasoning, inventiveness, reaction norms, trial-and-error learning and evoked culture, or is it due to the population-level dynamics of cultural transmission? Here, we measure the relative contribution of environment and cultural history in explaining the behavioural variation of 172 Native American tribes at the time of European contact. We find that the effect of cultural history is typically larger than that of environment. Behaviours also persist over millennia within cultural lineages. This indicates that human behaviour is not predominantly determined by single-generation adaptive responses, contra theories that emphasize non-cultural mechanisms as determinants of human behaviour. Rather, the main mode of human adaptation is social learning mechanisms that operate over multiple generations. PMID:26085589

  1. No evidence for behavioural adaptations to nematode parasitism by the fly Drosophila putrida.

    Debban, C L; Dyer, K A

    2013-08-01

    Behavioural adaptations of hosts to their parasites form an important component of the evolutionary dynamics of host-parasite interactions. As mushroom-feeding Drosophila can tolerate deadly mycotoxins, but their Howardula nematode parasites cannot, we asked how consuming the potent mycotoxin α-amanitin has affected this host-parasite interaction. We used the fly D. putrida and its parasite H. aoronymphium, which is both highly virulent and at high prevalence in some populations, and investigated whether adult flies utilize food with toxin to prevent infection in the next generation or consume the toxin to reduce the virulence of an already established infection. First, we found that uninfected females did not prefer to eat or lay their eggs on toxic food, indicating that selection has not acted on the flies to alter their behaviour towards α-amanitin to prevent their offspring from becoming infected by Howardula. However, we cannot rule out that flies use an alternate cue that is associated with toxin presence in the wild. Second, we found that infected females did not prefer to eat food with α-amanitin and that consuming α-amanitin did not cure or reduce the virulence of the parasite in adults that were already infected. In sum, our results indicate there are no direct effects of eating α-amanitin on this host-parasite interaction, and we suggest that toxin tolerance is more likely maintained by selection due to competition for resources than as a mechanism to avoid parasite infection or to reduce the virulence of infection. PMID:23663194

  2. The Development of Adaptive Skills in Young People with Down Syndrome

    Van Duijn, G.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Scholte, E. M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To help children with Down syndrome reach optimum levels of adaptive behaviour, caretakers need to know how and to what extent children with Down syndrome acquire adaptive skills. Method: The adaptive levels of motor, daily living, communicative and social behavioural skills were determined in a group of 984 Dutch children with Down…

  3. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

  4. Italy: Delayed adaptation of social institutions to changes in family behaviour

    Anna Laura Zanatta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.

  5. Simulation of wireline sonic logging measurements acquired with Borehole-Eccentered tools using a high-order adaptive finite-element method

    Pardo, David

    2011-07-01

    The paper introduces a high-order, adaptive finite-element method for simulation of sonic measurements acquired with borehole-eccentered logging instruments. The resulting frequency-domain based algorithm combines a Fourier series expansion in one spatial dimension with a two-dimensional high-order adaptive finite-element method (FEM), and incorporates a perfectly matched layer (PML) for truncation of the computational domain. The simulation method was verified for various model problems, including a comparison to a semi-analytical solution developed specifically for this purpose. Numerical results indicate that for a wireline sonic tool operating in a fast formation, the main propagation modes are insensitive to the distance from the center of the tool to the center of the borehole (eccentricity distance). However, new flexural modes arise with an increase in eccentricity distance. In soft formations, we identify a new dipole tool mode which arises as a result of tool eccentricity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Adaptive behaviour of the spinal cord in the transition from quiet stance to walking

    Serrao Mariano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR excitability was evaluated during gait initiation in 10 healthy subjects to investigate how load- and movement-related joint inputs activate lower spinal centres in the transition from quiet stance to walking. A motion analysis system integrated with a surface EMG device was used to acquire kinematic, kinetic and EMG variables. Starting from a quiet stance, subjects were asked to walk forward, at their natural speed. The sural nerve was stimulated and EMG responses were recorded from major hip, knee and ankle muscles. Gait initiation was divided into four subphases based on centre of pressure and centre of mass behaviours, while joint displacements were used to categorise joint motion as flexion or extension. The reflex parameters were measured and compared between subphases and in relation to the joint kinematics. Results The NWR was found to be subphase-dependent. NWR excitability was increased in the hip and knee flexor muscles of the starting leg, just prior to the occurrence of any movement, and in the knee flexor muscles of the same leg as soon as it was unloaded. The NWR was hip joint kinematics-dependent in a crossed manner. The excitability of the reflex was enhanced in the extensor muscles of the standing leg during the hip flexion of the starting leg, and in the hip flexors of the standing leg during the hip extension of the starting leg. No notable reflex modulation was observed in the ankle muscles. Conclusions Our findings show that the NWR is modulated during the gait initiation phase. Leg unloading and hip joint motion are the main sources of the observed modulation and work in concert to prepare and assist the starting leg in the first step while supporting the contralateral leg, thereby possibly predisposing the lower limbs to the cyclical pattern of walking.

  7. Why Did the Meerkat Cross the Road? Flexible Adaptation of Phylogenetically-Old Behavioural Strategies to Modern-Day Threats

    Nicolas Perony; Simon W Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Risk-sensitive adaptive spatial organisation during group movement has been shown to efficiently minimise the risks associated with external ecological threats. Whether animals can draw on such behaviours when confronted with man-made threats is generally less clear. We studied road-crossing in a wild, but habituated, population of meerkats living in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa. We found that dominant females, the core member in meerkat social systems, led groups to the road significant...

  8. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated posi...

  9. Interaction-focused intervention for acquired language disorders: facilitating mutual adaptation in couples where one partner has aphasia.

    Wilkinson, Ray; Lock, Sarah; Bryan, Karen; Sage, Karen

    2011-02-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and evaluation of an interaction-focused intervention single case study for a couple where one partner has aphasia. Drawing on conversation analytic research, naturally occurring conversations of the couple at home pre- and post-intervention were collected and analysed. Analysis of the speaker with aphasia's topic initiating turns in the pre-intervention conversation showed that in each case a feature of the attempt was that the speaker had difficulty in getting the topic initiation accepted and established. Drawing on conversation analytic work on topic initiations in normal conversation, intervention focused on training the couple to co-produce these topic initiating turns of the speaker with aphasia in a collaborative and step-by-step manner. Post-intervention, there was evidence that the couple were now using this new method, albeit in a slightly different way to that worked on in the intervention sessions. Drawing on work into adaptation by speakers with aphasia and their conversation partners, these results are discussed in terms of a process of mutual adaptation by the couple. PMID:21329413

  10. The introduction of adaptive social decision-making in the mathematical modelling of egress behaviour

    Gwynne, Steve

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation represents an attempt at increasing the behavioural sophistication of evacuation simulations, through the study of evacuation modelling, the development of new behavioural algorithms, their implementation within an existing evacuation model and the testing of the resulting model. This aim is achieved through a number of steps. Firstly, the range of human behaviour that are exhibited by occupants during the evacuation process is studied. Next, the sophistication of the availa...

  11. MORBIDITY PROFILE, HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND HOME ENVIRONMENT SURVEY FOR ADAPTIVE MEASURES IN GERIATRIC POPULATION – URBAN COMMUNITY STUDY

    Warbhe Priya A, Warbhe Rupesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population ageing is a significant product of demographic transition. Declining fertility and improved health and longevity have generated rising proportions of the older population. Double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affects the geriatric segment of the population with variable health seeking behaviour. Objectives: To assess morbidity profile, health seeking behaviour and home environmental survey for adaptive measures in geriatric population from an urban community. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study stratified systematic random sampling was applied. Research tool was interviewer based closed ended questionnaire. Adaptive measures as part of environment survey were assessed. Proportions and Pearson’s chi-square test were calculated. Results: 64.1% participants were from 60-69 years age category, 9.1% current smokers. 94.1% had 1-3 morbidities, 4.1% had 4-6 morbidities .37.3% gave a history of fall and 31.4% history of fracture. 13.6% cataract operation, 16.8% procedure for fracture.10% had dental procedure. 54.2% went to UHC and GOVT/BMC hospitals for treatment and 78.6% received both allopathic and ayurvedic treatment. History of fall was not associated with adaptive measures in the house (p=0.952. Conclusions: Majority of the participants suffered from old age related morbidities, hypertension emerged as a major morbidity. Most of the participants relied on government hospitals for treatment. Adaptive measures were lacking in most of the houses.

  12. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Michie Susan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included

  13. Coping behaviour as an adaptation to stress: post-disturbance preening in colonial seabirds.

    Henson, Shandelle M; Weldon, Lynelle M; Hayward, James L; Greene, Daniel J; Megna, Libby C; Serem, Maureen C

    2012-01-01

    In humans, coping behaviour is an action taken to soothe oneself during or after a stressful or threatening situation. Some human behaviours with physiological functions also serve as coping behaviours, for example, comfort sucking in infants and comfort eating in adults. In birds, the behaviour of preening, which has important physiological functions, has been postulated to soothe individuals after stressful situations. We combine two existing modelling approaches - logistic regression and Darwinian dynamics - to explore theoretically how a behaviour with crucial physiological function might evolve into a coping behaviour. We apply the method to preening in colonial seabirds to investigate whether and how preening might be co-opted as a coping behaviour in the presence of predators. We conduct an in-depth study of the environmental correlates of preening in a large gull colony in Washington, USA, and we perform an independent field test for comfort preening by computing the change in frequency of preening in gulls that were alerted to a predator, but did not flee. PMID:22873521

  14. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players. PMID:27026887

  15. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    Bondar, M.L., E-mail: m.bondar@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus-MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus-MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ahmad, R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus-MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Programme of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus-MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix-uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix-uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% {+-} 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  16. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix–uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix–uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% ± 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  17. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    Pekár, S.; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 7 (2011), s. 593-603. ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prey specificity * stenophagy * predatory behaviour * trophic niche * spider Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011

  18. A Study on Characteristics and Relevant Factors of Adaptive Behaviours in Schizophrenic Children%精神分裂症儿童适应行为及影响因素的分析

    袁水平; 赖淑珍; 江礼华; 魏永超; 涂飞龙; 梁琛; 熊富先

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics and relevant factors of adaptive behaviours in childhood schizophrenia. Methods: The adaptive behaviors of schizophrenic children were rated by Child Adaptive Behavior Scale. Data on relevant factors were collected by a specifically developed scale. Results: Relationship with parents, schooling, family education, parental culture, and family configuration were related to development of adaptive behaviors in schizophrenic children. Conclusion: The study of adaptive behaviours and their relevant factors was valuable in predicting prognosis of childhood schizophrenia.

  19. Covariance of phenotypically plastic traits induces an adaptive shift in host selection behaviour

    Henry, Lee M; Roitberg, Bernard D.; Gillespie, David R

    2006-01-01

    Flexibility in adult body size allows generalist parasitoids to use many host species at a cost of producing a range of adult sizes. Consequently, host selection behaviour must also maintain a level of flexibility as adult size is related to capture efficiency. In the present study, we investigated covariance of two plastic traits—size at pupation and host size selection behaviour—using Aphidius ervi reared on either Acyrthosiphon pisum or Aulacorthum solani, generating females of disparate s...

  20. Adaptive learning in agents behaviour: A framework for electricity markets simulation

    Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Sousa, Tiago M.;

    2014-01-01

    decision support to MASCEM's negotiating agents so that they can properly achieve their goals. ALBidS uses artificial intelligence methodologies and data analysis algorithms to provide effective adaptive learning capabilities to such negotiating entities. The main contribution is provided by a methodology...

  1. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment

    Struijs, J.; van de Meent, D.; Schowanek, D.; Buchholz, H.; Patoux, R.; Wolf, T.; Austin, T.; Tolls, J.; van Leeuwen, K.; Galay-Burgos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for

  2. A Passive Dynamic Walking Model Based on Knee-Bend Behaviour: Stability and Adaptability for Walking Down Steep Slopes

    Kang An

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a passive dynamic walking model based on knee-bend behaviour, which is inspired by the way human beings walk. The length and mass parameters of human beings are used in the walking model. The knee-bend mechanism of the stance leg is designed in the phase between knee-strike and heel- strike. q* which is the angular difference of the stance leg between the two events, knee-strike and knee-bend, is adjusted in order to find a stable walking motion. The results show that the stable periodic walking motion on a slope of r <0.4 can be found by adjusting q*. Furthermore, with a particular q* in the range of 0.12adaptable than the conventional walking motion, especially for steep slopes.

  3. Adaptation of existing behaviour models to unsaturated states: Application to CJS model

    Pereira, Jean-Michel; Wong, Henry; Dubujet, Philippe; Dangla, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a general formulation of an elastoplastic model adapted to unsaturated soils. This formulation enters within the framework of two independent state variables descriptions. The choice of a particular effective stress combined with suction is made. The definition of this effective stress is based on the formulation of an equivalent pore pressure which is an essential point of this type of models. It will be discussed in this paper. This general formulation can be seen as a m...

  4. Avian responses to an extreme ice storm are determined by a combination of functional traits, behavioural adaptations and habitat modifications

    Zhang, Qiang; Hong, Yongmi; Zou, Fasheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Tien Ming; Song, Xiangjin; Rao, Jiteng

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which species’ traits, behavior and habitat synergistically determine their response to extreme weather events (EWE) remains poorly understood. By quantifying bird and vegetation assemblages before and after the 2008 ice storm in China, combined with interspecific interactions and foraging behaviours, we disentangled whether storm influences avian reassembly directly via functional traits (i.e. behavioral adaptations), or indirectly via habitat variations. We found that overall species richness decreased, with 20 species detected exclusively before the storm, and eight species detected exclusively after. These shifts in bird relative abundance were linked to habitat preferences, dietary guild and flocking behaviours. For instance, forest specialists at higher trophic levels (e.g. understory-insectivores, woodpeckers and kingfishers) were especially vulnerable, whereas open-habitat generalists (e.g. bulbuls) were set to benefit from potential habitat homogenization. Alongside population fluctuations, we found that community reassembly can be rapidly adjusted via foraging plasticity (i.e. increased flocking propensity and reduced perching height). And changes in preferred habitat corresponded to a variation in bird assemblages and traits, as represented by intact canopy cover and high density of large trees. Accurate predictions of community responses to EWE are crucial to understanding ecosystem disturbances, thus linking species-oriented traits to a coherent analytical framework. PMID:26929387

  5. Avian responses to an extreme ice storm are determined by a combination of functional traits, behavioural adaptations and habitat modifications.

    Zhang, Qiang; Hong, Yongmi; Zou, Fasheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Tien Ming; Song, Xiangjin; Rao, Jiteng

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which species' traits, behavior and habitat synergistically determine their response to extreme weather events (EWE) remains poorly understood. By quantifying bird and vegetation assemblages before and after the 2008 ice storm in China, combined with interspecific interactions and foraging behaviours, we disentangled whether storm influences avian reassembly directly via functional traits (i.e. behavioral adaptations), or indirectly via habitat variations. We found that overall species richness decreased, with 20 species detected exclusively before the storm, and eight species detected exclusively after. These shifts in bird relative abundance were linked to habitat preferences, dietary guild and flocking behaviours. For instance, forest specialists at higher trophic levels (e.g. understory-insectivores, woodpeckers and kingfishers) were especially vulnerable, whereas open-habitat generalists (e.g. bulbuls) were set to benefit from potential habitat homogenization. Alongside population fluctuations, we found that community reassembly can be rapidly adjusted via foraging plasticity (i.e. increased flocking propensity and reduced perching height). And changes in preferred habitat corresponded to a variation in bird assemblages and traits, as represented by intact canopy cover and high density of large trees. Accurate predictions of community responses to EWE are crucial to understanding ecosystem disturbances, thus linking species-oriented traits to a coherent analytical framework. PMID:26929387

  6. Acquired Techniques

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  7. Acquired blepharoptosis

    Oosterhuis, HJGH

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the aetiology and possible treatment of acquired (non-congenital) blepharoptosis, which is a common but not specific sign of neurological disease: The diagnostic categories of upper eyelid drooping are scheduled as (a) pseudo-ptosis due to a local process or overactivity of eye

  8. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment.

    Struijs, J; van de Meent, D; Schowanek, D; Buchholz, H; Patoux, R; Wolf, T; Austin, T; Tolls, J; van Leeuwen, K; Galay-Burgos, M

    2016-09-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for application to industrial sewage treatment plants (I-STP). The intended use of this re-parametrized model is focused on risk assessment during manufacture and subsequent uses of chemicals, also in the framework of REACH. The results of an inquiry on the operational characteristics of industrial sewage treatment installations were used to re-parameterize the model. It appeared that one property of industrial sewage, i.e. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in combination with one parameter of the activated sludge process, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) is satisfactory to define treatment of industrial wastewater by means of the activated sludge process. The adapted model was compared to the original municipal version, SimpleTreat 4.0, by means of a sensitivity analysis. The consistency of the model output was assessed by computing the emission to water from an I-STP of a set of fictitious chemicals. This set of chemicals exhibit a range of physico-chemical and biodegradability properties occurring in industrial wastewater. Predicted removal rates of a chemical from raw sewage are higher in industrial than in municipal STPs. The latter have typically shorter hydraulic retention times with diminished opportunity for elimination of the chemical due to volatilization and biodegradation. PMID:27344605

  9. Is It the Teaching or the Discipline? Influences of Disciplinary Epistemology and Pedagogy on Students Adapting Study Behaviour and Epistemological Beliefs

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie; Ho, Amaly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pace and degree of adaptation of study behaviour and personal epistemological beliefs between school and university through interviews with 110 final-year university students. The study took place in Hong Kong, where the highly competitive school system encourages remembering modelling answers for the public examinations;…

  10. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot...... uses observed information from a laser range finder to detect persons and their position relative to the robot. This information together with the motion of the robot itself is fed through a Kalman filter, which utilizes a model of the human kinematic movement to produce an estimate of the person......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...

  11. Behavioural and physiological effect of dental environment sensory adaptation on children's dental anxiety.

    Shapiro, Michele; Melmed, Raphael N; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Eli, Ilana; Parush, Shula

    2007-12-01

    Dental anxiety is a serious obstacle in conventional oral healthcare delivery. A sensory adapted dental environment (SDE) might be effective in reducing anxiety and inducing relaxation. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a Snoezelen SDE in reducing anxiety among children undergoing scaling and polishing by a dental hygienist. The Snoezelen environment consists of a partially dimmed room with lighting effects, vibroacoustic stimuli, and deep pressure. Nineteen children, aged 6-11 yr, participated in a cross-over intervention trial. Behavioral parameters included the mean number, duration, and magnitude of anxious behaviors, as monitored by videotaped recordings. Physiological parameters reflecting arousal were monitored by changes in dermal resistance. Results, by all measures, consistently indicated that both behavioral and psychophysiological measures of relaxation improved significantly in the SDE compared with a conventional dental environment. The findings support recommending the SDE as an effective and practical alternative in oral healthcare delivery to anxious children. PMID:18028056

  12. Pollutants leaching behaviour from solidified wastes: a selection of adapted various models.

    Moszkowicz, P; Sanchez, F; Barna, R; Méhu, J

    1998-07-01

    Leaching tests are essential in the environmental assessment of stabilized wastes. Research programmes were conducted on their interpretation in order to develop tools for the evaluation of long term release of pollutants contained in solidified wastes. Models for the leaching of porous materials are discussed in this paper according to the specificity of the chemical species (i.e. transport model with total dissolution of species-diffusional model; transport model with progressive dissolution of species due to limitation of solubility-shrinking core model; and the model coupling transport and chemical phenomena). The leaching behaviour of pollutants (i.e. lead) solidified in a cement matrix was studied under different chemical conditions. Results have shown that the release of species whose solubilities depend on the physico-chemical conditions, and especially the pH (e.g. amphoteric metals), is governed by the solubility of the species in the pore water at local conditions and by the pH evolution within the matrix. A coupled dissolution/diffusion model was developed to describe the release of chemically complex species contained in a porous medium in contact with water. Leaching tests of cement matrices and artificial porous matrices containing calcium hydroxide and pollutants were conducted in order to validate the coupled dissolution/diffusion model. A good assessment of the retention of some pollutants contained in cement matrices could then be obtained by the association of two tests: solubilization of the pollutants related to the chemical context (pH) under steady state conditions and monolithic long term dynamic leaching tests in order to characterize the evolution of the chemical context (pH) and consequently the release of pollutants. The objective is to integrate this approach in the standardization process (CEN TC 292- WG 6, in progress). PMID:18967159

  13. Autoradiographic studies of the adaptative behaviour of the oral flora to xylit

    Fasten saliva samples of 22 test persons were aerobically incubed with radio-labeled xylit and sorbit for 24 hours at 370C. It was determined by thin-layer chromatography and by the autoradiographic detection of the sugar alcohols, after what incubation time the sugar substitutes were completely metabolised. In order to provide intensive contact between the organisms of the oral cavity and the xylit the test persons rinsed their mouth three times per day with a xylit solution over a period of one month. Then a second saliva sample was examined. By adding the bacteriostaticum chloramphenicol to the cultures, it was proved that in the majority of the test persons the decompensation of xylit and sorbit is enzymatically induced when the organisms living in the oral cavity get into contact with sugar alcohol. Between the decompensation time before and after 30 days of xylit contact no significant difference could be found. These results permit the conclusion that after the contact over one month the organisms of the oral cavity do not adapt to xylit. (orig./MG)

  14. Leap of faith: voluntary emersion behaviour and physiological adaptations to aerial exposure in a non-aestivating freshwater fish in response to aquatic hypoxia.

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Forster, Malcolm E; Glover, Chris N

    2011-05-01

    Lowland stream fauna in areas of intensive agriculture are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. Survival of hypoxic episodes depends upon a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations. Responses of inanga (Galaxias maculatus: Galaxiidae) to aquatic hypoxia were investigated in the laboratory. Contrary to expectation inanga did not display behaviour that might reduce energy expenditure during oxygen limitation, with swimming activity slightly, but significantly elevated relative to normoxia. Instead, as dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased, the fish moved higher in the water column, increased their swimming speed and exhibited aquatic surface respiration. Physiological changes such as enhanced opercular frequency were also noted. As hypoxia deepened inanga started to leap out of the water, emersing themselves on a floating platform. Once emersed, fish exhibited an enhanced oxygen consumption rate compared to hypoxic fish. Thus inanga appear better adapted to escape hypoxia (a behavioural adaptation) rather than tolerate it (physiological adaptation). The emersion strategy used for inanga in response to severe hypoxia is in agreement with their ability to take up more oxygen from the air than from hypoxic water and therefore may justify the potentially increased risks of desiccation and predation associated with leaving the water. PMID:21316378

  15. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  16. Dilemmatic group memberships of hard-of-hearing employees during the process of acquiring and adapting to the use of hearing aids.

    Koskela, Inka; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Juvonen-Posti, Pirjo; Nevala, Nina; Husman, Päivi; Aaltonen, Tarja; Lonka, Eila; Laakso, Minna

    2016-09-01

    We describe how hard-of-hearing (HOH) employees renegotiate both their existing and new group memberships when they acquire and begin to use hearing aids (HAs). Our research setting was longitudinal and we carried out a theory-informed qualitative analysis of multiple qualitative data. When an individual discovers that they have a hearing problem and acquire a HA, their group memberships undergo change. First, HOH employees need to start negotiating their relationship with the HOH group. Second, they need to consider whether they see themselves as members of the disabled or the nondisabled employee group. This negotiation tends to be context-bound, situational, and nonlinear as a process, involving a back-and-forth movement in the way in which HOH employees value different group memberships. The dilemmatic negotiation of new group memberships and the other social aspects involved in HA rehabilitation tend to remain invisible to rehabilitation professionals, occupational healthcare, and employers. PMID:27128825

  17. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen......- erate cinematographic game experiences reducing, however, the player’s feeling of agency. We propose a methodology to integrate the player in the camera control loop that allows to design and generate personalised cinematographic expe- riences. Furthermore, we present an evaluation of the afore......- mentioned methodology showing that the generated camera movements are positively perceived by novice asnd intermediate players....

  18. Investigating Low Adaptive Behaviour and Presence of the Triad of Impairments Characteristic of Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Indicators of Risk for Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of…

  19. Comparative biology and reproductive behaviour of a laboratory-adapted Redco strain of Anopheles Gambiae Giles (Diptera; culicidae and wild populations of the same species

    The sterile insect technique involves mass rearing of male insects for sterility purpose. This heavily relies on male fitness and genetic compatibility of laboratory-adapted male insects and the wild to ensure successful competition with their male counterpart in the wild. Uniform environment in the laboratory as compared to the wild conditions might lead to genetic drift which might lead to reduced sexual competitiveness, fitness, morphological changes or changes in the sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. This work investigated the sexual compatibility, morphometry and sexual behaviour of laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory conditions. These measurements were done by observing swarm formation, genitalia rotation, percentage insemination, fecundity, fertility, wing length, wing width, thoracic width, body length, body size index and wing size index. Morphometric studies of laboratory-adapted and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae were carried out by observing the wing length, body length and thoracic length under Lecia 4D stereoscope in order to find out variations in the body size between the two strains. The results showed significant difference between thoracic width and wing length between the laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain. Indices such as body size index and wing length index also showed significant difference between the two strains; laboratory-adapted REDCO strain (BSI 4.45 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.92 ± 0.07, p = 0.026) and wild REDCO strain ( 4.08 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.73 ± 0.04, p = 0.026 ). Body length of laboratory-adapted male mosquitoes (4.24 ± 0.05, p = 0.462) was not significantly different from its thoracic width, wing length, and wing width. The wild strain on the other hand had significant difference between its body length (4.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.462), thoracic width (0.096 ± 0.02, p = 0.002 ) and wing length (2.99 ± 0.03, p = 0.050 ). In the mating experiment, egg production in each of

  20. Can Attribution of a Neutral Emotional State in Child Discipline Play an Adaptive Role in Child Internalising Behaviour?

    Alvarenga, Patricia; de Oliveira, Ebenezer A.; Dazzani, Maria Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Maternal rates of child internalising behaviour were compared across children's emotion attributions (neutral, fear, anger, sadness and happiness) to others in a discipline situation, after controlling for socio-demographic covariates. Sixty-five Brazilian mothers provided socio-demographic information and rated their preschool children's…

  1. Natural variation in memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasps : from genes to behaviour

    Hoedjes, K.M.

    2014-01-01

      The ability to learn and form memory has been demonstrated in various animal species, ranging from relatively simple invertebrates, such as snails and insects, to more complex vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. The opportunity to acquire new skills or to adapt behaviour through

  2. Developing a Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Based Intervention for British Pakistani Mothers with Persistent Postnatal Depression

    Khan, Sobia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract of thesisIntroduction. Recent reports indicate inequalities for ethnic minority women in maternal health and a need for tailored maternity services to improve access to care. High rates of postnatal depression among British Pakistani women have been reported. These women tend to suffer from persistent depression and have both, poorer access to and outcomes from evidence based psychosocial interventions, compared to the majority of the population. Trials for Cognitive Behaviour The...

  3. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Michie Susan; Lock Karen; Landon Jane; Free Caroline; Ferguson Elaine; Harris Jody; Felix Lambert; Edwards Phil; Miners Alec; Murray Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, ...

  4. Modelling of adaptation to climate change and decision-makers behaviours for the Veluwe forest area in the Netherlands

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Didion, Markus; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Meilby, Henrik; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2015-01-01

    We apply Bayesian updating theory to model how decision-makers may gradually learn about climate change and make use of this information in making adaptive forest management decisions. We develop modelling steps to i) simulate observation of a multi-dimensional climate system, ii) apply updating ...

  5. THE INTERRELATION OF INTOLERANT BEHAVIOUR AND NOT ADAPTIVE COPING STRATEGIES IN INTERETHNIC INTERACTION OF THE ELDER TEENAGERS

    Marina Sergeevna Igonina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research on the interrelation of coping strategies and ethnic tolerance of the elder teenagers. Particular attention is paid to consideration of interrelations of intolerant behavior of teenagers with not adaptive coping strategies. The question is actual for modern society taking into account constantly arising conflict situations of international character. Used in the article methodology of empirical research extend the learning experience of teenagers, allow teachers to differentiate educational process in development of cognitive independence. As a result of the correlation analysis were obtained direct interrelations of ethnic tolerance and coping strategies: the higher the indicators of the choice of not adaptive coping strategies, the higher the performance of the selection strategies of intolerant behavior. The obtained data can be of interest to experts of school level, graduate students, research associates.

  6. THE INTERRELATION OF INTOLERANT BEHAVIOUR AND NOT ADAPTIVE COPING STRATEGIES IN INTERETHNIC INTERACTION OF THE ELDER TEENAGERS

    Marina Sergeevna Igonina

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research on the interrelation of coping strategies and ethnic tolerance of the elder teenagers. Particular attention is paid to consideration of interrelations of intolerant behavior of teenagers with not adaptive coping strategies. The question is actual for modern society taking into account constantly arising conflict situations of international character. Used in the article methodology of empirical research extend the learning...

  7. Buffalo behaviour at milking parlor in relation to production rates and adaptability to the environment: a review

    Juliana Paula Felipe de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes have become an economically viable source of protein, due to its adaptability, precocity and longevity. The dogma that high productivity cannot be related with the animal welfare needs to be effectively broken down by making the producers aware, based on education and science, of the appropriate treatment to animals favors the productivity. To high milk production buffaloes and with ability for milking, this happens without suckling calves which are artificially suckled. This technique, when not properly performed, can provide negative consequences, like difficulties in animal adaptation to the milking environment, especially those who are facing this experience for the first time, like primiparous buffaloes. The development of methods for temperament evaluation added to management improvements in the productive unit is valuable to improve the welfare conditions for animals. The behavioral observation in the milking environment is a very important tool for the determination of the animal's temperamental score which, in turn, is substantial to determine the level of welfare and conditioning/performance in this activity, and thus minimizing problems and negative consequences for animal handlers, animals and producer

  8. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  9. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  10. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  11. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  12. Fundamental Theories on Consumer Behaviour: An Overview of the Influences Impacting Consumer Behaviour

    Moraru Andreea Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a component of the economic behaviour, which in its turn is a manifestation of human behaviour. As a consequence of the social and economic development of modern societies, the study of consumer behaviour has undergone a strong development process, during the past years consumer behaviour acquiring its own status among sciences. However scientists concern with the study of consumer behaviour covers a time span of many decades. Due to the multiple interdependences and par...

  13. Natural variation in memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasps : from genes to behaviour

    Hoedjes, K M

    2014-01-01

      The ability to learn and form memory has been demonstrated in various animal species, ranging from relatively simple invertebrates, such as snails and insects, to more complex vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. The opportunity to acquire new skills or to adapt behaviour through learning is an obvious benefit. However, memory formation is also costly: it can be maladaptive when unreliable associations are formed and the process of memory formation can be energetically cost...

  14. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    ... breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in persons who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility such as a ...

  15. Etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma

    Prabodh Karnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma has undergone numerous changes over the past 150 years. However, certain facts stand out with clarity. The presence of cytokeratins in acquired cholesteatoma, which are akin to those found in the tympanic membrane and external auditory canal, shows that these are probably the site of origin of acquired cholesteatoma. The cholesteatoma sac also shows its greatest growth at its tympanic membrane attachment into the middle ear. Implantations of squamous epithelium due to trauma or surgery could be another originating factor. The basic pathology is the formation of papillary cones from the tympanic membrane or external auditory canal, which progress from microcholesteatoma to frank cholesteatoma with keratin collections. There is an altered matrix metalloproteinase pathway. Tumor necrosis factor activation with altered wound healing process contributes to the collateral destruction of bone. Trisomy and aneuploidy of chromosome 8 predispose to cholesteatoma formation in affected individuals. In this article, we present the etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma as it stands today.

  16. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  17. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  18. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    Choyke, P.L. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2000-11-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  19. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  20. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Maricel Sucar Batista; Yanier Serrano García; Taimí Miranda Vergara

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology wa...

  1. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  2. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  3. Learning-By-Being-Acquired

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    -categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if acquired inventors have higher innovation ability relative to their acquiring peers but is...

  4. Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome

    郭涛

    2005-01-01

    @@ Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is kind of bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those in congenital yon Willebrand disease (vWD).AvWS doesn's have any personal or family history of bleeding, but is associated with certain diseases or abnormal conditions or drugs. Although AvWS is being stated as a rare disease, it has gained more and more attention during the past years. Not because of the severity of the disease, but it is more common than we thought and most patients don' t have a proper diagnosis.

  5. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  6. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  7. Behavioural therapy of suicidality.

    Schneider, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057

  8. The process of organisational adaptation through innovations, and organisational adaptability

    Tikka, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...

  9. The Power of Behavioural Approaches--We Need a Revival

    Buckley, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural approaches can be used effectively to teach new skills and to change behaviours that are challenging and not socially adaptive. The behaviour modification approach--now called applied behaviour analysis--is based on the assumption that all behaviours are learned, both the useful ones (new skills) and the ones that are not so useful…

  10. Acquired Blaschkoid dermatitis

    Mercy P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Blaschkoid dermatitis characterised by unilateral relapsing inflammatory disease along the lines of Blaschko. A 40-year-old Indian male presented with unilateral erythematous, itchy grouped papules on the left side of the chest, abdomen, back and left arm of 15 days duration. The eruption stopped abruptly at the midline of the torso, completely sparing the right side of the body. The lesions were arranged in whorls and streaks corresponding to the lines of Blaschko. Skin biopsy showed hyperkeratosis and features suggestive of sub-acute spongiotic dermatitis with lymphocytic infiltrate around the blood vessels in the dermis. Patient was diagnosed as a case of Blaschkoid dermatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of this condition being reported from India.

  11. Human Adaptation as a Behavioural Strategy: Preliminary Considerations for Web Interaction (COPE Project, Technical Report), available at 10.3927/170263

    Vigo, Markel; Harper, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In addition to explicit consequences such as learning or task completion, the interaction of individuals’ with the Web has some other implicit outcomes: the behavioural strategies adopted while interacting in the Web lead individuals to a better adjustment to Web environments. This means that individuals gain problem-solving skills and knowledge, their actions become automatic and they are able to better anticipate the effect of their actions. As a result, users interact with an increased eff...

  12. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  13. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  14. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication. PMID:26541597

  15. Adaptive ethnography

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  16. Perfectionism, health and preventive health behaviours.

    Williams, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    The perfectionism and health literature suggests that maladaptive perfectionism is associated with a plethora of negative health outcomes and adaptive perfectionism with both favourable and unfavourable health outcomes. Additionally, a small amount of research has proposed maladaptive perfectionists may refrain from engaging in preventive health behaviours whilst adaptive perfectionists may engage more readily. This thesis explored the differences between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionis...

  17. Suicidal behaviour

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  18. And the Winner is - Acquired

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    New entrants to a market tend to be superior to incumbents in originating radical innovations. We provide a new explanation for this phenomenon, based on markets for technology. It applies in industries where successful entrepreneurial firms, or their technologies, are acquired by incumbents that...... lower probability accompanies higher value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a prize in a contest. We identify an...

  19. An explanatory framework for adaptive personality differences

    Wolf, Max; Franz J Weissing

    2010-01-01

    We develop a conceptual framework for the understanding of animal personalities in terms of adaptive evolution. We focus on two basic questions. First, why do behavioural types exhibit limited behavioural plasticity, that is, behavioural correlations both across contexts and over time? Second, how can multiple behavioural types coexist within a single population? We emphasize differences in ‘state’ among individuals in combination with state-dependent behaviour. Some states are inherently sta...

  20. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: punishment or treatment?

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment. PMID:25725545

  1. Oxygen-induced social behaviours in Pristionchus pacificus have a distinct evolutionary history and genetic regulation from Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Moreno, Eduardo; McGaughran, Angela; Rödelsperger, Christian; Zimmer, Manuel; Sommer, Ralf J

    2016-02-24

    Wild isolates of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans perform social behaviours, namely clumping and bordering, to avoid hyperoxia under laboratory conditions. In contrast, the laboratory reference strain N2 has acquired a solitary behaviour in the laboratory, related to a gain-of-function variant in the neuropeptide Y-like receptor NPR-1. Here, we study the evolution and natural variation of clumping and bordering behaviours in Pristionchus pacificus nematodes in a natural context, using strains collected from 22 to 2400 metres above sea level on La Réunion Island. Through the analysis of 106 wild isolates, we show that the majority of strains display a solitary behaviour similar to C. elegans N2, whereas social behaviours are predominantly seen in strains that inhabit high-altitude locations. We show experimentally that P. pacificus social strains perform clumping and bordering to avoid hyperoxic conditions in the laboratory, suggesting that social strains may have adapted to or evolved a preference for the lower relative oxygen levels available at high altitude in nature. In contrast to C. elegans, clumping and bordering in P. pacificus do not correlate with locomotive behaviours in response to changes in oxygen conditions. Furthermore, QTL analysis indicates clumping and bordering to represent complex quantitative traits. Thus, clumping and bordering behaviours represent an example of phenotypic convergence with a different evolutionary history and distinct genetic control in both nematode species. PMID:26888028

  2. Opportunistic Adaptation Knowledge Discovery

    Badra, Fadi; Cordier, Amélie; Lieber, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com International audience Adaptation has long been considered as the Achilles' heel of case-based reasoning since it requires some domain-specific knowledge that is difficult to acquire. In this paper, two strategies are combined in order to reduce the knowledge engineering cost induced by the adaptation knowledge (CA) acquisition task: CA is learned from the case base by the means of knowledge discovery techniques, and the CA a...

  3. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    that the pupils were encouraged to use their senses: listen to things frying, touch the meat to check if it was done and taste the food in the process of seasoning it. But while some children learned what the teachers expected: to produce well tasting food, others learned to cook very salty and hot food...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  4. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by m...

  5. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  6. Emergent weak home-range behaviour without spatial memory.

    Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2016-06-01

    Space-use problems have been well investigated. Spatial memory capacity is assumed in many home-range algorithms; however, actual living things do not always exploit spatial memory, and living entities can exhibit adaptive and flexible behaviour using simple cognitive capacity. We have developed an agent-based model wherein the agent uses only detected local regions and compares global efficiencies for a habitat search within its local conditions based on memorized information. Here, memorized information was acquired by scanning locally perceived environments rather than remembering resource locations. When memorized information matched to its current environments, the agent changed resource selection rules. As a result, the agent revisited previous resource sites while exploring new sites, which was demonstrating a weak home-range property. PMID:27429778

  7. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own......Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected to...

  8. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder.

  9. Acquired anhidrosis a case report

    Nair Laxmi

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year -old man was seen for acquired anhidrosis. There was no systemic disease. Vasomotor functions were normal. Biopsy showed normal sweat glands and ducts. Intravenous injection of neostigmine could produce profuse sweating on the face, trunk and arms. The disorder is likely to be due to a peripheral dysautonomia selectively affecting the sudomotor function.

  10. Acquired anhidrosis a case report

    Nair Laxmi; Beena D; Manohar S

    1992-01-01

    A 30-year -old man was seen for acquired anhidrosis. There was no systemic disease. Vasomotor functions were normal. Biopsy showed normal sweat glands and ducts. Intravenous injection of neostigmine could produce profuse sweating on the face, trunk and arms. The disorder is likely to be due to a peripheral dysautonomia selectively affecting the sudomotor function.

  11. The sensory ecology of adaptive landscapes.

    Jordan, Lyndon A; Ryan, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    In complex environments, behavioural plasticity depends on the ability of an animal to integrate numerous sensory stimuli. The multidimensionality of factors interacting to shape plastic behaviour means it is difficult for both organisms and researchers to predict what constitutes an adaptive response to a given set of conditions. Although researchers may be able to map the fitness pay-offs of different behavioural strategies in changing environments, there is no guarantee that the study species will be able to perceive these pay-offs. We thus risk a disconnect between our own predictions about adaptive behaviour and what is behaviourally achievable given the umwelt of the animal being studied. This may lead to erroneous conclusions about maladaptive behaviour in circumstances when the behaviour exhibited is the most adaptive possible given sensory limitations. With advances in the computational resources available to behavioural ecologists, we can now measure vast numbers of interactions among behaviours and environments to create adaptive behavioural surfaces. These surfaces have massive heuristic, predictive and analytical potential in understanding adaptive animal behaviour, but researchers using them are destined to fail if they ignore the sensory ecology of the species they study. Here, we advocate the continued use of these approaches while directly linking them to perceptual space to ensure that the topology of the generated adaptive landscape matches the perceptual reality of the animal it intends to study. Doing so will allow predictive models of animal behaviour to reflect the reality faced by the agents on adaptive surfaces, vastly improving our ability to determine what constitutes an adaptive response for the animal in question. PMID:26018831

  12. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  13. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose a...

  14. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  15. CNOOC Acquires Oversea Assets Successfully

    Hu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    @@ After last year CNOOC's bidding for buy the US energy company Unocal Corp lost out to the Chevron Corporation, it conducted the crossing-border asset-acquirement again in the beginning of this year. On Jan. 9, 2006,CNOOC Ltd signed a definitive agreement with Nigeria South Atlantic Petroleum Limited (SAPETRO) to acquire a 45 % working interest in an offshore oil developing license OML 130 in Nigeria for US$2.268 billion cash. The purchase will be funded by the internal capital resources of CNOOC Ltd. In which, US$1.75 billion will pay for buying SAPETRO, and the remaining cash will be used to pay for the early operation cost.

  16. Cogema acquires TOTAL's uranium assets

    On April 28, France's nuclear fuel cycle conglomerate Cogema and petroleum group TOTAL announced a plan in which Cogema will assume ownership of TOTAL's uranium assets worldwide, and as part of the deal, each firm will acquire shares of the other. On June 2, the agreement will be submitted to shareholders and, assuming it is approved, will go into effect this year. The agreement calls for TOTAL to acquire a 10.8-percent share in Cogema, thus becoming its first private sector shareholder, by underwriting a reserve capital increase of FF1.5 billion (approximately US$283 million). In return, Cogema will pay FF2.52 billion for approximately 4.3 percent of TOTAL, as part of a reserve capital increase totalling FF4.07 billion

  17. Tradução, adaptação e avaliação da consistência interna do Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test para uso com crianças do sexo feminino Translation, adaptation and internal consistency evaluation of the Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test for female children

    Elizângela Moreira Careta Galindo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo traduzir, adaptar e validar o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test, para uso com crianças de uma cidade do interior do estado de São Paulo. Foram sujeitos do estudo 261 escolares do sexo feminino, na faixa etária de 9 a 12 anos. Por meio da análise fatorial, com rotação varimax avaliou-se a consistência interna do instrumento. Esta análise, realizada com o auxílio do programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences, versão 10.0, revelou dois fatores. Para o instrumento total a consistência interna foi adequada (coeficiente a de Cronbach: 0,89 e para os dois fatores (1 e 2 os valores de a também foram considerados satisfatórios (alfa=0,90 e alfa=0,80, respectivamente, mostrando, assim, que o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test é útil para uma avaliação precoce, rastreando atitudes indicadoras de possíveis distúrbios no comportamento alimentar. Foram mantidas as características psicométricas do instrumento original.This study aimed to translate, adapt and validate the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test, to be used with children in a city in upstate São Paulo. Study subjects were 261 female students aging from 9 to 12 years. The internal consistency of the instrument was evaluated by means of factorial analysis with varimax rotation. This analysis was accomplished through Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0, revealing two factors. The internal consistency was adequate for the total instrument (Cronbach's alpha=0.89 and a values were also considered satisfactory for the two factors (1 and 2 (alpha=0.90 and alpha=0.80, respectively, which demonstrated that the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test is useful for an initial evaluation, tracing symptoms that indicate possible eating behavior disorders. The psychometric characteristics of the original instrument were maintained.

  18. Inhibitors against the coagulation factors spontaneously acquired: Acquired B Hemophilia

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo; Sara Inés Jiménez Sanguino; Pilar Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneously acquired inhibitors to factor IX, are extremely rare. A 70-year-old male, presented with major continuous post-orthopedic surgery bleeding. His initial APTT was 77.4 s (normal range, 25-36) and normal PT. Expanded APTT corrects, results in favor of deficit of factor IX, confirming the level of dose of IX factor: 52% (NR 70–125%) with normal factor VIII. It was realized with fresh frozen plasma, and by the fifth day of treatment, he presents a bruise in the surgery bed with radic...

  19. Emotional perceptions in mice: studies on judgement bias and behavioural habituation

    Boleij, H.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aimed at developing a better understanding on how mice perceive their own emotional state. Next to extending on previous research on the adaptive capacities laboratory mice, we aimed at approaching the emotional perceptions of mice by establishing a behavioural test for the assessment of judgement bias. Adaptive behaviour translates into the waning of a behavioural response over time (i.e. behavioural habituation). Evaluation of behavioural habituation therefore offers a valuable ...

  20. On the coevolution of social responsiveness and behavioural consistency

    Wolf, Max; Van Doorn, G. Sander; Weissing, Franz J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research focuses on animal personalities, that is individual differences in behaviour that are consistent across contexts and over time. From an adaptive perspective, such limited behavioural plasticity is surprising, since a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective adv

  1. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    Ditye, T.; A.H Javadi; Carbon, C.C.; Walsh, V

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  2. Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge

    Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

  3. Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography

    Somak Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photomicrographs in Anatomic Pathology provide a means of quickly sharing information from a glass slide for consultation, education, documentation and publication. While static image acquisition historically involved the use of a permanently mounted camera unit on a microscope, such cameras may be expensive, need to be connected to a computer, and often require proprietary software to acquire and process images. Another novel approach for capturing digital microscopic images is to use smartphones coupled with the eyepiece of a microscope. Recently, several smartphone adapters have emerged that allow users to attach mobile phones to the microscope. The aim of this study was to test the utility of these various smartphone adapters. Materials and Methods: We surveyed the market for adapters to attach smartphones to the ocular lens of a conventional light microscope. Three adapters (Magnifi, Skylight and Snapzoom were tested. We assessed the designs of these adapters and their effectiveness at acquiring static microscopic digital images. Results: All adapters facilitated the acquisition of digital microscopic images with a smartphone. The optimal adapter was dependent on the type of phone used. The Magnifi adapters for iPhone were incompatible when using a protective case. The Snapzoom adapter was easiest to use with iPhones and other smartphones even with protective cases. Conclusions: Smartphone adapters are inexpensive and easy to use for acquiring digital microscopic images. However, they require some adjustment by the user in order to optimize focus and obtain good quality images. Smartphone microscope adapters provide an economically feasible method of acquiring and sharing digital pathology photomicrographs.

  4. Recent models for adaptive personality differences: a review

    Dingemanse, Niels J.; Wolf, Max

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review recent models that provide adaptive explanations for animal personalities: individual differences in behaviour (or suites of correlated behaviours) that are consistent over time or contexts. We start by briefly discussing patterns of variation in behaviour that have been documented in natural populations. In the main part of the paper we discuss models for personality differences that (i) explain animal personalities as adaptive behavioural responses to differences in ...

  5. The behaviour and welfare of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in modern dairy enterprises.

    Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G

    2013-10-01

    This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described

  6. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression

    McMahon, Taegan A.; Brittany F Sears; Venesky, Matthew D.; Bessler, Scott M.; Brown, Jenise M.; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T.; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J.; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J. Scott; Reinert, Laura K.; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group1, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians1–4. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens5. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians6. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance ...

  7. Infopreneurial Behaviour among University Graduates in the Information Science Faculty of a University in Zimbabwe

    Rodreck David

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infopreneurial behaviour amongst University graduates has the potential to guarantee employment and bridge the gap between job-security and the perceived insecurity of an information business. At present, the National University of Science and Technology in Zimbabwe offers infopreneurship and entrepreneurship courses to students in the faculty of Communication and Information Science. The course content and presentation are similar in nature as they all relate to the selling, marketing and promotion of information products and services. However, little research has been done to find out the impact of this course in creating an infopreneurial behaviour among graduating students. The researchers conducted a questionnaire-based survey to find out the infopreneurial behaviour among students who graduated from 2008 to 2012 in the faculty. The exploratory investigation reported by this paper presents the status of these graduates in utilizing their acquired knowledge in infopreneurship and entrepreneurship with regards to the selling and marketing of information products and services, especially through small physical or online/internet-based businesses. The major finding of this study was that the students between 2011 and 2012 have been making initiatives to establish internet-based information businesses but lack further business and technical skills necessary to translate these initiatives into ‘real’ businesses. These business and technical skills are lacking in the course content. The researchers conclude by making recommendations on possible adaptations that can be introduced to the courses to improve infopreneurial behaviour among graduating students in information science.

  8. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  9. Complement's participation in acquired immunity

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2002-01-01

    B cell receptor for antigen (BCR), a complex composed of the iC3b/C3d fragment-binding complement type 2 receptor (CR2, CD21) and its signaling element CD19 and the IgG-binding receptor FcgammaRIIb (CD32). The positive or negative outcome of signaling through this triad is determined by the context...... in which antigen is seen, be it alone or in association with natural or induced antibodies and/or C3-complement fragments. The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses.......The preliminary evidence for the involvement of complement in promoting primary humoral responses dates back over a quarter of a century. However, it is only in the course of the past decade or so that the detailed mechanisms underlying complement's influence have been characterized in depth. It is...

  10. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  11. Acquired vulval lymphangiectases mimicking genital warts

    Sharma Rajeev; Tomar Sudarshan; Chandra Mithilesh

    2002-01-01

    Acquired lymphangiectasia can sometimes occur on the vulva and cause diagnostic difficulties especially if they have a warty appearance. We report a case of acquired vulva I lymphangiectasia which mimicked genital warts.

  12. Acquired vulval lymphangiectases mimicking genital warts

    Sharma Rajeev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired lymphangiectasia can sometimes occur on the vulva and cause diagnostic difficulties especially if they have a warty appearance. We report a case of acquired vulva I lymphangiectasia which mimicked genital warts.

  13. Visual Analysis of Behaviour

    Gong, Shaogang

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatment of visual analysis of behaviour from computational-modelling and algorithm-design perspectives. This title: covers learning-group activity models, unsupervised behaviour profiling, hierarchical behaviour discovery, learning behavioural context, modelling rare behaviours, and 'man-in-the-loop' active learning; examines multi-camera behaviour correlation, person re-identification, and 'connecting-the-dots' for abnormal behaviour detection; discusses Bayesian information criterion, Bayesian networks, 'bag-of-words' representation, canonical correlation

  14. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation ...

  15. Behavioural finance perspectives on Malaysian stock market efficiency

    Jasman Tuyon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides historical, theoretical, and empirical syntheses in understanding the rationality of investors, stock prices, and stock market efficiency behaviour in the theoretical lenses of behavioural finance paradigm. The inquiry is guided by multidisciplinary behavioural-related theories. The analyses employed a long span of Bursa Malaysia stock market data from 1977 to 2014 along the different phases of economic development and market states. The tests confirmed the presence of asymmetric dynamic behaviour of prices predictability as well as risk and return relationships across different market states, risk states and quantiles data segments. The efficiency tests show trends of an adaptive pattern of weak market efficiency across various economic phases and market states. Collectively, these evidences lend support to bounded-adaptive rational of investors' behaviour, dynamic stock price behaviour, and accordingly forming bounded-adaptive market efficiency.

  16. Infections Acquired in the Garden.

    Cunha, Cheston B; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-10-01

    Gardening is a wonderful pastime, and the garden is a very peaceful place to enjoy one's vacation. However, the garden may be a treacherous place for very young or compromised hosts when one takes into account the infectious potential residing in the soil, as well as the insect vectors on plants and animals. Even normal hosts may acquire a variety of infections from the soil, animals, or animal-related insect bites. The location of the garden, its natural animal and insect inhabitants, and the characteristics of the soil play a part in determining its infectious potential. The most important factor making the garden an infectious and dangerous place is the number and interaction of animals, whether they are pets or wild, that temporarily use the garden for part of their daily activities. The clinician should always ask about garden exposure, which will help in eliminating the diagnostic possibilities for the patient. The diagnostic approach is to use epidemiological principles in concert with clinical clues, which together should suggest a reasonable list of diagnostic possibilities. Organ involvement and specific laboratory tests help further narrow the differential diagnosis and determine the specific tests necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26542044

  17. An Adaptive Geometry Game for Handheld Devices

    Harri Ketamo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of adaptive learning systems is only in the very beginning. In fact, the concept of adaptive learning systems range from different user interfaces to behaviour adaptive systems as well as from the place and time independent systems to terminal independent systems. When approaching the concept of adaptive learning materials, we must first have conceptual models of the behaviour of different learners within digital environments.The aim of this study was to develop a geometry learning game that adapts to user’s behaviour. The learners in this study were six years old Finnish pre-school pupils. The adaptive system was very limited and the observed behaviour was defined as very simple. However, the software developed achieves good learning results among the tested pupils. The study shows that the learning effect is very promising with this kind of handheld platform and simple adaptation system. This study gives good visions of what can be achieved with more complex behaviour adaptive systems in the field of eLearning.

  18. Surface Sampler Arm Acquiring Sample

    1976-01-01

    Operation of the surface sampler in obtaining Martian soil for Viking 2's molecular analysis experiment last Saturday (September 25) was closely monitored by one of the Lander cameras because of the precision required in trenching the small area--8 by 9 inches-surrounded by rocks. Dubbed 'Bonneville Salt Flats,' the exposure of thin crust appeared unique in contrast with surrounding materials and became a prime target for organic analysis in spite of potential hazards. Large rock in foreground is 8 inches high. At left, the sampler scoop has touched the surface, missing the rock at upper left by a comfortable 6 inches, and the backhoe has penetrated the surface about one-half inch. The scoop was then pulled back to sample the desired point and (second photo) the backhoe furrowed the surface pulling a piece of thin crust toward the spacecraft. The initial touchdown and retraction sequence was used to avoid a collision between a rock in the shadow of the arm and a plate joining the arm and scoop. The rock was cleared by 2 to 3 inches. The third picture was taken 8 minutes after the scoop touched the surface and shows that the collector head has acquired a quantity of soil. With surface sampler withdrawn (right), the foot-long trench is seen between the rocks. The trench is three inches wide and about 1 1/2 to 2 inches deep. The scoop reached to within 3 inches of the rock at far end of trench. Penetration appears to have left a cavernous opening roofed by the crust and only about one inch of undisturbed crust separates the deformed surface and the rock.

  19. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  20. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  1. The sensory ecology of adaptive landscapes

    Jordan, Lyndon A.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In complex environments, behavioural plasticity depends on the ability of an animal to integrate numerous sensory stimuli. The multidimensionality of factors interacting to shape plastic behaviour means it is difficult for both organisms and researchers to predict what constitutes an adaptive response to a given set of conditions. Although researchers may be able to map the fitness pay-offs of different behavioural strategies in changing environments, there is no guarantee that the study spec...

  2. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.;

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled ...

  3. Waddington's widget: Hsp90 and the inheritance of acquired characters.

    Ruden, Douglas M; Garfinkel, Mark D; Sollars, Vincent E; Lu, Xiangyi

    2003-10-01

    Conrad Waddington published an influential model for evolution in his 1942 paper, Canalization of Development and Inheritance of Acquired Characters. In this classic, albeit controversial, paper, he proposed that an unknown mechanism exists that conceals phenotypic variation until the organism is stressed. Recent studies have proposed that the highly conserved chaperone Hsp90 could function as a "capacitor," or an "adaptively inducible canalizer," that masks silent phenotypic variation of either genetic or epigenetic origin. This review will discuss evidence for, and arguments against, the role of Hsp90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution, and as a key component of what we call "Waddington's widget." PMID:14986860

  4. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik; Jana Kodrič

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with g...

  5. Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female

    Mohanan Saritha; Divya Gupta; Laxmisha Chandrashekar; Devinder M Thappa; Nachiappa G Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn′s disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient.

  6. And the Winner is – Acquired

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  7. Acquired intrathoracic kidney in thoracic kyphosis

    Two cases of acquired intrathoracic kidney associated with thoracic kyphosis are reported, with emphasis on the radiographic manifestations. A search of the scientific literature disclosed that the acquired type of this abnormality is rare. The importance of recognizing this entity from a differential diagnostic standpoint is underscored. (author)

  8. Adaptive behaviour and future time perspective: some evidence from education and health settings / Comportamento adaptativo e perspectivação do futuro: algumas evidências nos contextos da educação e da saúde

    Renato Gil Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of future in the current individual behavior, especially among youngsters, has been receiving considerable attention. It is important to underline the consistent effect of association between future plans construction and perspectives - as expressed by the Future Time Perspective (FTP concept and adaptive behavior expression. This aspect is considered as a contributor to higher adaptation. Two of the contexts where that relation is studied are education and health, the latter specifically at healthy behavior development and risk prevention levels. Having in mind these two dimensions, the present article intends, to discuss some data from several studies, which are considered relevant for giving emphasis on such relation.

  9. Coping styles and behavioural flexibility: towards underlying mechanisms

    Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2010-01-01

    A coping style (also termed behavioural syndrome or personality) is defined as a correlated set of individual behavioural and physiological characteristics that is consistent over time and across situations. This relatively stable trait is a fundamental and adaptively significant phenomenon in the biology of a broad range of species, i.e. it confers differential fitness consequences under divergent environmental conditions. Behavioural flexibility appears to be an important underlying attribu...

  10. Homo-psychologicus: Reactionary behavioural aspects of epidemics

    Alhaji Cherif; Kamal Barley; Marcel Hurtado

    2016-01-01

    We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation). In particular, we use SIR(B)S (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component) model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancin...

  11. On the coevolution of social responsiveness and behavioural consistency

    Wolf, Max; van Doorn, G. Sander; Weissing, Franz J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research focuses on animal personalities, that is individual differences in behaviour that are consistent across contexts and over time. From an adaptive perspective, such limited behavioural plasticity is surprising, since a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective advantage. Here, we argue that consistency can be advantageous because it makes individuals predictable. Predictability, however, can only be advantageous if at least some individuals in the populatio...

  12. AIDS awareness and VCT behaviour: An application of the integrated model of behaviour prediction

    Hilde Diteweg; Adinda van Oostwaard; Hugo Tempelman; Adri Vermeer; Melanie Appels; Marieke F. van der Schaaf; David J.F. Maree

    2013-01-01

    In order to limit the expansion of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is important to develop targeted prevention strategies. The voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) programme appears to be effective for preventing the spread of the HI virus. This study adapted guidelines of the integrated model of behaviour prediction (IMBP) into a questionnaire and examined the extent to which it predicts behaviour. A sample of 92 sports team members from Limpopo ranging from 14 to 30 yea...

  13. Physiology and behaviour of marine Thioploca

    Høgslund, Signe; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Kuenen, Gijs; Gallardo, Victor Ariel; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Holmkvist, Lars; Arning, Esther; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2009-01-01

    Among prokaryotes, the large vacuolated marine sulphur bacteria are unique in their ability to store, transport and metabolize significant quantities of sulphur, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon compounds. In this study, unresolved questions of metabolism, storage management and behaviour were add...... adaptation to infrequent high sulphate reduction rates in the seabed. The physiology and behaviour of Thioploca are summarized and the adaptations to an environment, dominated by infrequent oxygen availability and periods of high sulphide abundance, are discussed.......Among prokaryotes, the large vacuolated marine sulphur bacteria are unique in their ability to store, transport and metabolize significant quantities of sulphur, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon compounds. In this study, unresolved questions of metabolism, storage management and behaviour were...... reduce nitrate to ammonium and we found that dinitrogen was not produced, neither through denitrification nor through anammox activity. Unexpectedly, polyphosphate storage was not detectable by microautoradiography in physiological assays or by staining and microscopy. Carbon dioxide fixation increased...

  14. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  15. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-06-11

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  16. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  17. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  18. Typing Context-Dependent Behavioural Variation

    Pierpaolo Degano

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Oriented Programming (COP concerns the ability of programs to adapt to changes in their running environment. A number of programming languages endowed with COP constructs and features have been developed. However, some foundational issues remain unclear. This paper proposes adopting static analysis techniques to reason on and predict how programs adapt their behaviour. We introduce a core functional language, ContextML, equipped with COP primitives for manipulating contexts and for programming behavioural variations. In particular, we specify the dispatching mechanism, used to select the program fragments to be executed in the current active context. Besides the dynamic semantics we present an annotated type system. It guarantees that the well-typed programs adapt to any context, i.e. the dispatching mechanism always succeeds at run-time.

  19. Religious Affiliation and Ethics: Patterns Regarding Beliefs for Workplace Behaviours

    Joshua Fogel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethical decisions are made regarding day-to-day workplace behaviours. We surveyed 315 college students from 9 different religious categories: Catholic, Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Agnostic, Atheist, and Other. Individuals were asked whether “in the workplace, it is acceptable to do so” for 27 different behaviours. Those who were Hindu or Catholic consistently had scores indicating beliefs in performing more ethical behaviour. Those who were Buddhist or Atheist consistently had scores indicating beliefs in performing less ethical behaviour. In the analysis relating to 5 items regarding computer and Internet behaviours, those who were Jewish had scores indicating beliefs in performing less ethical behaviour. Managers who supervise young adults who recently graduated from college can be aware of possible ethical concerns facing those of different religions. They can mentor these individuals beginning their careers to adapt appropriate ethical behaviours for their job.

  20. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified...

  1. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  2. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination of the mu......Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination...... of the multifaceted nature of the integration process further enhances our understanding of which conditions will be more or less detrimental for corporate inventors. We focus on R&D teams which are the immediate organizational context in which inventors operate and drawing on insights from learning theory...

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  4. A proposed general model of information behaviour.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a critical description of Wilson's (1996 global model of information behaviour and proposes major modification on the basis of research into information behaviour of managers, conducted in Poland. The theoretical analysis and research results suggest that Wilson's model has certain imperfections, both in its conceptual content, and in graphical presentation. The model, for example, cannot be used to describe managers' information behaviour, since managers basically are not the end users of external from organization or computerized information services, and they acquire information mainly through various intermediaries. Therefore, the model cannot be considered as a general model, applicable to every category of information users. The proposed new model encompasses the main concepts of Wilson's model, such as: person-in-context, three categories of intervening variables (individual, social and environmental, activating mechanisms, cyclic character of information behaviours, and the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach to explain them. However, the new model introduces several changes. They include: 1. identification of 'context' with the intervening variables; 2. immersion of the chain of information behaviour in the 'context', to indicate that the context variables influence behaviour at all stages of the process (identification of needs, looking for information, processing and using it; 3. stress is put on the fact that the activating mechanisms also can occur at all stages of the information acquisition process; 4. introduction of two basic strategies of looking for information: personally and/or using various intermediaries.

  5. Infections acquired in clinical laboratories in Utah.

    Jacobson, J.T.; Orlob, R B; Clayton, J L

    1985-01-01

    We reviewed laboratory-acquired infections occurring in Utah from 1978 through 1982. Written and telephone interviews of supervisors of 1,191 laboratorians revealed an estimated annual incidence of 3 laboratory-acquired infections per 1,000 employees. Infections, in order of frequency, included hepatitis B (clinical cases), shigellosis, pharyngitis, cellulitis, tuberculosis (skin test conversion), conjunctivitis, and non-A, non-B hepatitis. One-half of large laboratories (over 25 employees), ...

  6. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: current status.

    Quagliarello, V.

    1982-01-01

    A recently recognized syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-AIDS) has arisen since June 1981. It has received international attention. The clinical spectrum consists of repeated opportunistic infections, rare malignancies, and autoimmune phenomena, occurring in previously healthy adults with no history of an immunologic disorder. The population subset at risk for this syndrome appears to be predominantly homosexual American males and intravenous drug abuser...

  7. Blissfully unaware: Anosognosia and anosodiaphoria after acquired brain injury.

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Historically, anosognosia referred to under-report of striking symptoms of acquired brain injury (e.g., hemiplegia) with debilitating functional consequences and was linked with anosodiaphoria, an emotional reaction of indifference. It was later extended to include under-report of all manner of symptoms of acquired brain injury by the patient compared to clinicians, family members, or functional performance. Anosognosia is related to time since onset of brain injury but not consistently to demographic variables, lesion location (except that it is more common after unilateral right than left hemispheric injury), or specific neuropsychological test scores. This review considers all manifestations of anosognosia as a unitary phenomenon with differing clinical characteristics dictated by variability in linked cognitive impairments. It is concluded that anosognosia has three chief contributing factors: (1) procedural: measurement differences across studies in terms of symptom selection and the designation of a "gold standard" of patient symptomatology; (2) psychological: a tendency towards positive self-evaluation and the avoidance of adverse information, that also occurs in neurologically intact individuals; and (3) neuropathological: an increased likelihood of error recognition failure from disconnections that disrupt feedback between injured brain regions governing specific behaviours (symptoms) and anterior cingulate/insular cortex. Anosodiaphoria is considered as an associated symptom, resulting from the same psychological and neuropathological factors. PMID:25686381

  8. Homo-psychologicus: Reactionary behavioural aspects of epidemics.

    Cherif, Alhaji; Barley, Kamal; Hurtado, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation). In particular, we use SIR(B)S (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component) model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancing and voluntary vaccination participations. Our analyses reveal complex relationships between spontaneous and uncoordinated behavioural changes, the emergence of its contagion properties, and mitigation of infectious diseases. We find that the presence of effective behavioural changes can impede the persistence of disease. Furthermore, it was found that under perfect effective behavioural change, there are three regions in the response factor (e.g., imitation and/or reactionary) and behavioural scale factor (e.g., global/local) factors ρ-α behavioural space. Mainly, (1) disease is always endemic even in the presence of behavioural change, (2) behavioural-prevalence plasticity is observed and disease can sometimes be eradication, and (3) elimination of endemic disease under permanence of permanent behavioural change is achieved. These results suggest that preventive behavioural changes (e.g., non-pharmaceutical prophylactic measures, social distancing and exclusion, crowd avoidance) are influenced by individual differences in perception of risks and are a salient feature of epidemics. Additionally, these findings indicates that care needs to be taken when considering the effect of adaptive behavioural change in predicting the course of epidemics, and as well as the interpretation and development of the public health measures that account for spontaneous behavioural changes. PMID:26972513

  9. Homo-psychologicus: Reactionary behavioural aspects of epidemics

    Alhaji Cherif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation. In particular, we use SIR(BS (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancing and voluntary vaccination participations. Our analyses reveal complex relationships between spontaneous and uncoordinated behavioural changes, the emergence of its contagion properties, and mitigation of infectious diseases. We find that the presence of effective behavioural changes can impede the persistence of disease. Furthermore, it was found that under perfect effective behavioural change, there are three regions in the response factor (e.g., imitation and/or reactionary and behavioural scale factor (e.g., global/local factors ρ–α behavioural space. Mainly, (1 disease is always endemic even in the presence of behavioural change, (2 behavioural-prevalence plasticity is observed and disease can sometimes be eradication, and (3 elimination of endemic disease under permanence of permanent behavioural change is achieved. These results suggest that preventive behavioural changes (e.g., non-pharmaceutical prophylactic measures, social distancing and exclusion, crowd avoidance are influenced by individual differences in perception of risks and are a salient feature of epidemics. Additionally, these findings indicates that care needs to be taken when considering the effect of adaptive behavioural change in predicting the course of epidemics, and as well as the interpretation and development of the public health measures that account for spontaneous behavioural changes.

  10. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  11. ADAPT Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  12. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  13. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  14. Association between prehospital vitamin D status and hospital-acquired bloodstream infections123

    Quraishi, Sadeq A.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Moromizato, Takuhiro; Gibbons, Fiona K; Camargo, Carlos A; Giovannucci, Edward; Christopher, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alterations in immune function can predispose patients to nosocomial infections. Few studies have explored potentially modifiable host factors that may improve immune function and decrease risk of hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI). Vitamin D is a key regulator of innate and adaptive immune systems that may influence host susceptibility to infections.

  15. Influence of unexpected events on driving behaviour at different hierarchical levels: a driving simulator experiment

    Schaap, T.W.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Computer based simulation models of human driving behaviour can be used effectively to model driving and behavioural adaptation to Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This can be a useful step in human centered design of ITS. To construct a comprehensive model of driving behaviour, the interaction b

  16. Syndrome Specificity and Behavioural Disorders in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Cultural Differences in Family Impact

    Blacher, J.; McIntyre, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour of low functioning young adults, and well-being of their families, varied by diagnostic syndrome intellectual disability (ID) only, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism, as well as by cultural group. Methods: Behaviour disorders in young adults with moderate to…

  17. On the sensitivity of the state of batteries on driver behaviour within the EV powertrain

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2012-01-01

    Driveability of BEVs is subject to the driver behaviour and in more extreme cases the powertrain is unable to adapt. The behaviour of drivers is categorized and presented here with comparison against more standard drive cycles. The extremes of the driver behaviour and this distribution is based on r

  18. Mental Health, Behaviour and Intellectual Abilities of People with Down Syndrome

    Maatta, Tuomo; Tervo-Maatta, Tuula; Taanila, Anja; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2006-01-01

    The mental health, adaptive behaviour and intellectual abilities of people with Down syndrome (n=129) were evaluated in a population-based survey of social and health care records. Females had better cognitive abilities and speech production compared with males. Males had more behavioural problems than females. Behaviour suggestive of attention…

  19. The Behavioural Profile of Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Kishore, M. T.; Nizamie, S. H.; Nizamie, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Problems associated with psychiatric diagnoses could be minimized by identifying behavioural clusters of specific psychiatric disorders. Methods: Sixty persons with intellectual disability (ID) and behavioural problems, aged 12?55 years, were assessed with standardized Indian tools for intelligence and adaptive behaviour. Clinical…

  20. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  1. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC ACQUIRED TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Kotsyna S.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that infects approximately one-third of the world’s population. Infection in human generally occurs through consuming food or drink contaminated with oocysts and tissue cysts from undercooked meat. Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions such as, number of parasite, virulence of the organism, genetic background, sex, and immunological status seem to affect the course of infection The demonstration that Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior, reproductive function in patients has led to a reconsideration of this assumption. During chronic acquired toxoplasmosis (САT identified the regularities of changes in the ratio of the immune system and the basal levels of sex hormones available informative methods, which made it possible to evaluate the severity of the flow chart and predict treatment outcome without resorting to complex research methods. Found that the host-parasite relationships and clinical manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis depend largely on protective and adaptive responses and compensatory abilities of the human body. Material & methods. 112 patients attended in the 6 Department of Kharkiv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital №22 (Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, in Kharkiv, Ukraine were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients (39,3±4,6% were male and sixty eight (60,7±4,6% were female. The age of the patients was 18 till 72 years. Results & discussion. All of 112 CAT patients had subjective clinical symptoms in various combinations: increased fatigue 99,1 ± 0,9%, headache and tiredness 95,5 ± 1,9%, pain in the liver 88,4 ± 3,1%, bitter taste in the mouth 93,8 ± 2,2%, muscle pain 81,3 ± 3,7% and joint pain

  2. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors

    Claudio Ricardo Lazzari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.

  3. Biofied room integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information

    Sakurai, Fumi; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Current smart buildings are based on scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events. We focus our attention on high adaptability of living matters to environmental changes. "Biofication of Living Spaces" is the concept of creating pleasant living environments using this high adaptability. Biofied room is integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information. In this research, we propose a highly adaptive algorithm to control the devices automatically. Based on physiological adaption, we can make the algorithm very flexible. As the first step in this research, a prototype of the sensor agent robot is built. Camera, microphone, proximity sensor, laser range-finder are mounted on the robot. As a sensor agent robot follows the residents, it acquires environmental information, and records the interaction between the robot and human. In a suggested control model, a resident is built in the control loop and his/her uncomfortable feeling plays a role of control signal. Following its signal, devices are controlled. Results obtained from the computer simulation show that models are able to maintain the human comfort feeling adaptively. This research suggests an adaptive, fault-tolerant, and energy-saving control models for building spaces, using simple algorithms based on physiological adaption.

  4. AIDS awareness and VCT behaviour: An application of the integrated model of behaviour prediction

    Hilde Diteweg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to limit the expansion of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is important to develop targeted prevention strategies. The voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT programme appears to be effective for preventing the spread of the HI virus. This study adapted guidelines of the integrated model of behaviour prediction (IMBP into a questionnaire and examined the extent to which it predicts behaviour. A sample of 92 sports team members from Limpopo ranging from 14 to 30 years of age completed the questionnaire. Results suggested that beliefs about the outcomes of behaviour and beliefs about the expectations of others had a direct influence on the intention to undergo HIV counselling and testing. Efficacy beliefs, namely beliefs that there are factors that can facilitate behaviour, can lead to actual testing behaviour if accompanied by self-efficacy. Knowledge, intention and stigma are not related to VCT behaviour. Findings show that some constructs influence intention and test behaviour, but in ways not predicted by the model. Thus, the adequacy of the IMBP to determine HIV and AIDS-preventative behavioural intentions is questioned.

  5. IMPLICATIONS OF THE SME OWNER-MANAGER'S BUSINESS VENTURING MODE: COMPARING FOUNDERS, ACQUIRERS AND SUCCESSORS

    LOUIS RAYMOND; LOUISE CADIEUX; JOSÉE ST-PIERRE

    2012-01-01

    The entrepreneurship literature teaches us that the aspirations and competence of SME owner-managers as well as their strategic management behaviour can influence both the development and performance of their firm. However the research issues that surround the owner-manager's business venturing mode, that is, whether he or she has created a new firm, acquired an already existing firm, or acceded to a family firm's leadership and ownership by succession and/or inheritance, have rarely been add...

  6. Do Acquirer Capabilities Affect Acquisition Performance? Examining Strategic and Effectiveness Capabilities in Acquirers

    Mudde, Paul A.; Brush, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines acquisition performance from the perspective of acquirer capabilities. It argues that the strategic capabilities underpinning a firm’s competitive strategy can be utilized to create economic value in acquisitions. Acquirers with strong cost leadership capabilities are expected to leverage these capabilities to reduce post-acquisition costs as they integrate acquisition targets. Acquirers with strong differentiation capabilities are expected to utilize their strategic capab...

  7. Acquired angioedema secondary to hormone replacement therapy

    Malani Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Angioedema is a potentially life threatening condition and may be either inherited or acquired. The latter is rare with only a handful of cases reported in the world literature. Presenting complaints are often vague. Those most commonly described include swelling in the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. Patients presenting with laryngeal edema have high mortality, and high clinical suspicion is necessary to avoid instrumentation, which can precipitate laryngeal spasm. We present a review of reported cases of hormonally induced hereditary angioedema, along with a report of a patient with acquired angioedema secondary to hormone replacement therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this case probably represents the first reported case of acquired angioedema secondary to hormone replacement therapy.

  8. Comportamento adaptativo e perspectivação do futuro: algumas evidências nos contextos da educação e da saúde Adaptive behaviour and future time perspective: some evidence from education and health settings

    Renato Gil Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O papel do futuro no comportamento actual dos indivíduos, em particular dos jovens, tem sido alvo de atenção ao longo do tempo, destacando-se aquele que tem vindo a ser um efeito consistente de associação entre, por um lado, a perspectivação e a construção de planos de futuro - expressados pelo conceito de perspectiva temporal de futuro (PTF - e, por outro, a expressão de comportamentos adaptativos, que contribuem para uma maior adaptação ao meio. Dois dos contextos de estudo em que essa relação é mais abordada são os da educação e da saúde, este último especificamente ao nível da promoção de comportamentos saudáveis e da prevenção de riscos. Tendo em conta estes dois contextos, o presente trabalho pretende sistematizar e discutir um conjunto de dados, resultantes de vários estudos, e que se consideram relevantes para a evidenciação dessa relação.The role of future in the current individual behavior, especially among youngsters, has been receiving considerable attention. It is important to underline the consistent effect of association between future plans construction and perspectives - as expressed by the Future Time Perspective (FTP concept and adaptive behavior expression. This aspect is considered as a contributor to higher adaptation. Two of the contexts where that relation is studied are education and health, the latter specifically at healthy behavior development and risk prevention levels. Having in mind these two dimensions, the present article intends, to discuss some data from several studies, which are considered relevant for giving emphasis on such relation.

  9. Three sided complex adaptative systems

    D'Hulst, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce two three sided adaptative systems as toy models to mimic the exchange of commodities between buyers and sellers. These models are simple extensions of the minority game, exhibiting similar behaviour as well as some new features. The main difference between our two models is that in the first the three sides are equivalent while in the second, one choice appears as a compromise between the two other sides. Both models are investigated numerically and compared with the original minority game.

  10. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible and...... reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  11. Strategic Adaptation

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  12. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory respon

  13. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinarySalmonella entericaserotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection. PMID:25953964

  14. Acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia: a case report

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition whose diagnosis is hardly achieved. The prevalence is higher in elderly men. The present case report describes the case of a male, 78-year-old patient who underwent pleural effusion drainage 17 years before presenting with clinical manifestations and tomographic findings compatible with acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia. (author)

  15. Prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia

    Lunøe, Mathilde; Overgaard-Steensen, C

    2015-01-01

    prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia is an understanding of what determines plasma sodium concentration (P-[Na(+) ]) in the individual patient. P-[Na(+) ] is determined by balances of water and cations according to Edelman. This paper discusses the mechanisms influencing water and cation balances...

  16. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  17. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  18. Monitoring Agitated Behavior After acquired Brain Injury

    Aadal, Lena; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbaek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the onset, duration, intensity, and nursing shift variation of agitated behavior in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) at a rehabilitation hospital. Design: Prospective descriptive study. Methods: A total of 11 patients with agitated behavior were included. Agitated...

  19. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de comportamento de cultivares de milho em treze ambientes nos tabuleiros costeiros do nordeste brasileiro Adaptability and behaviour stability of corn cultivars at thirteen environments of brazilian northeast coastal tableland

    Hélio Wilson Lemos de Carvalho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Dezesseis cultivares de milho foram avaliadas em treze ambientes dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro, no período de 1994/95, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, visando conhecer o potencial dessa região para a produção do milho e a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade desses materiais para recomendação. As produtividades médias alcançadas, especialmente com os híbridos, mostraram o grande potencial dessa faixa costeira do Nordeste para a produção do milho, sobressaindo os tabuleiros costeiros do Piauí, Sergipe e Bahia, onde o milho poderá se tornar uma grande alternativa para os produtores. A análise de variância conjunta mostrou diferenças entre os locais e as cultivares, e a inconsistência das cultivares em face das variações ambientais. Usou-se o método de Cruz et al. para atenuar o efeito da interação cultivares x ambientes, de modo a permitir uma recomendação com mais segurança. Os híbridos mostraram melhor adaptação que as variedades e populações, e são recomendados para exploração em ambientes mais tecnificados. O AG 510, por mostrar adaptação em ambiente desfavorável, é também recomendado para esta condição. As variedades BR 5011, BR 5028, BR 106 e BR 5033, de bons rendimentos, constituem alternativas importantes para pequenos e médios produtores de milho.The potential of the Brazilian Northeast coastal tablelands for corn production and the adaptability and stability of sixteen corn cultivars were evaluated at thirteen environments of this region in 1994/95 on a randomized block design experiment with three replications. The large potential of this coastal strip for corn production was evidenced by the obtained yield, highlighting the hybrids, on the coastal tablelands of Piauí, Sergipe and Bahia States, where corn would become a major crop option for the growers. Pooled variance analysis showed significant difference for environments and cultivars, and the interactions

  20. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  1. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking perspec...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  2. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possible relations between nutrients and behaviour were investigated. In the first study, levels of nutrients in blood samples of forensic psychiatric patients were measured. Low levels of omega-3 fatty a...

  3. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  4. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2008-01-01

    mean of 1.8 experiences of discrimination, and the prevalence of five indicators of positive social adaptation was 47–92%. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation were strongly mutually associated, without gender difference. Discrimination predicted internalizing behaviour. Improved...... externalizing behaviour. The direction of other pathways is ambiguous, suggesting a certain amount of recursive interaction between mental health, discrimination and social adaptation.......Background: Mental problems have been hypothesized to impede social adaptation and vice versa, and discrimination is assumed to interact with both. The available empirical documentation is, however, limited. The objective of this study is to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of...

  5. Behavioural and ecological consequences of limited attention.

    Dukas, Reuven

    2002-01-01

    Ecological research in the past few decades has shown that most animals acquire and respond adaptively to information that affects survival and reproduction. At the same time, neurobiological studies have established that the rate of information processing by the brain is much lower than the rate at which information is encountered in the environment, and that attentional mechanisms enable the brain to focus only on the most essential information at any given time. Recent integration of the e...

  6. The molecular evolution of the vertebrate behavioural repertoire.

    Grant, Seth G N

    2016-01-01

    How the sophisticated vertebrate behavioural repertoire evolved remains a major question in biology. The behavioural repertoire encompasses the set of individual behavioural components that an organism uses when adapting and responding to changes in its external world. Although unicellular organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates share simple reflex responses, the fundamental mechanisms that resulted in the complexity and sophistication that is characteristic of vertebrate behaviours have only recently been examined. A series of behavioural genetic experiments in mice and humans support a theory that posited the importance of synapse proteome expansion in generating complexity in the behavioural repertoire. Genome duplication events, approximately 550 Ma, produced expansion in the synapse proteome that resulted in increased complexity in synapse signalling mechanisms that regulate components of the behavioural repertoire. The experiments demonstrate the importance to behaviour of the gene duplication events, the diversification of paralogues and sequence constraint. They also confirm the significance of comparative proteomic and genomic studies that identified the molecular origins of synapses in unicellular eukaryotes and the vertebrate expansion in proteome complexity. These molecular mechanisms have general importance for understanding the repertoire of behaviours in different species and for human behavioural disorders arising from synapse gene mutations. PMID:26598730

  7. Disruption of locomotor adaptation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex

    Choi, Julia Tsok Lam; Bouyer, Laurent J; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent o...

  8. Fairness perceptions of work-life balance initiatives: effects on counterproductive work behaviour

    Beauregard, T. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of employees’ fairness perceptions regarding organizational work-life balance initiatives on their performance of counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). Moderating effects of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism were also explored. Quantitative data collected from 224 public sector employees demonstrated significant main and moderating effects of informational justice, adaptive perfectionism and maladaptive perfectionism on CWB. Adaptive perfectionism weakene...

  9. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development

    Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R; Tarpey, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotransp...

  10. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  11. Brucella abortus Infection Acquired in Microbiology Laboratories

    Fiori, Pier Luigi; Mastrandrea, Scilla; Rappelli, Paola; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2000-01-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated.

  12. Acquired resistance to immunotherapy and future challenges.

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Smyth, Mark J; Snyder, Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    Advances in immunotherapy have resulted in remarkable clinical responses in some patients. However, one of the biggest challenges in cancer therapeutics is the development of resistant disease and disease progression on or after therapy. Given that many patients have now received various types of immunotherapy, we asked three scientists to give their views on the current evidence for whether acquired resistance to immunotherapy exists in patients and the future challenges posed by immunotherapy. PMID:26822578

  13. Molecular biological aspects of acquired bullous diseases

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1998-01-01

    genes have been cloned. The antigens which react with autoantibodies from patients with bullous pemphigoid, cicatricial pemphigoid, acquired epidermolysis bullosa, and linear IgA disease are all proteins of the hemidesmosome basement membrane complex. Interestingly, most of the antigens also appear to...... be the target for mutations seen in patients with the inherited type of epidermolysis bullosa in which bullous lesions are a prominent clinical feature....

  14. Economics and Preventing Hospital-acquired Infection

    Graves, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    The economics of preventing hospital-acquired infections is most often described in general terms. The underlying concepts and mechanisms are rarely made explicit but should be understood for research and policy-making. We define the key economic concepts and specify an illustrative model that uses hypothetical data to identify how two related questions might be addressed: 1) how much should be invested for infection control, and 2) what are the most appropriate infection-control programs? We...

  15. Immunological memory and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis.

    Kaur, A; Rosenzweig, M; Johnson, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus results in profound perturbations in immunological memory, ultimately resulting in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We have used rhesus macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model to understand better the effects of AIDS virus infection on immunological memory. Acute infection with SIV resulted in significant deficits in CD4+ helper responses to cyto...

  16. A CMA position. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    1989-01-01

    The following general principles serve as guidelines for various bodies, health care professionals and the general public. Specific aspects of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that relate to physicians' ethical responsibilities as well as society's moral obligations are discussed. Such matters include the need for education, research and treatment resources; the patient's right to investigation and treatment and to refusal of eith...

  17. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hyperpigmentary disorders

    Anisha B Patel; Raj Kubba; Asha Kubba

    2013-01-01

    Acquired pigmentary disorders are group of heterogenous entities that share single, most significant, clinical feature, that is, dyspigmentation. Asians and Indians, in particular, are mostly affected. Although the classic morphologies and common treatment options of these conditions have been reviewed in the global dermatology literature, the value of histpathological evaluation has not been thoroughly explored. The importance of accurate diagnosis is emphasized here as the underlying diseas...

  18. Adaptive test

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  19. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  20. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  1. Acquired Factor VIII Inhibitors: Three Cases

    Tay Za Kyaw

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hemophilia A is a rare, but devastating bleeding disorder caused by spontaneous development of autoantibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII. In 40%-50% of patients it is associated with such conditions as the postpartum period, malignancy, use of medications, and autoimmune diseases; however, its cause is unknown in most cases. Acquired hemophilia A should be suspected in patients that present with a coagulation abnormality, and a negative personal and family history of bleeding. Herein we report 3 patients with acquired hemophilia A that had different underlying pathologies, clinical presentations, and therapeutic responses. Factor VIII inhibitor formation in case 1 occurred 6 months after giving birth; underlying disorders were not identified in cases 2 or 3. The bleeding phenotype in these patients’ ranged from no bleeding tendency with isolated prolongation of APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time to severe intramuscular hematoma and hemarthrosis necessitating recombinant activated factor VII infusion and blood components transfusion. Variable responses to immunosuppressive treatment were also observed.

  2. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  3. ASSO : Behavioural specialization modelling

    Andolina, Rosanna; Locuratolo, Elvira

    1996-01-01

    An approach of behavioural modelling based on the specialization concept is proposed within ASSO, a formal database design methodology which combines features from database design with formal methods. This approach preserves the semantics of the current behavioural modelling while producing benefits on the phases of the methodology.

  4. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    Esteve Manu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus obtusirostris (Heckel. Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus and lenok (Brachymystax. Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural characters based on the first reported observations of softmouth spawning. During spawning softmouth females present three important behaviours not found in the other Salmo members: they continually abandon their nests, rarely staying on them for periods over nine minutes; they expel different batches of eggs at the same nest at intervals of several minutes; and they do not cover their eggs immediately after spawning. These three behaviours are intriguing for two reasons: 1 they are possible homologous to behaviours found in grayling females; 2 when coupled to the nest digging behaviour-widespread in all the salmonines, including softmouths, they seem to be mal-adaptive.

  5. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  6. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  7. Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides

    The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li3PO4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

  8. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation

    Mace, R.; Jordan, F

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through c...

  9. Family Socioeconomic Status and Student Adaptation to School Life: Looking beyond Grades

    Carvalho, Renato G.; Novo, Rosa F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this quantitative, cross-sectional study we analyse the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and students' adaptation to school life, as expressed through several indicators of achievement, integration (adaptation to transitions, behaviour problems, risk behaviours, interpersonal difficulties, participation in…

  10. Spatial vision in insects is facilitated by shaping the dynamics of visual input through behavioural action

    Martin Egelhaaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects such as flies or bees, with their miniature brains, are able to control highly aerobatic flight manoeuvres and to solve spatial vision tasks, such as avoiding collisions with obstacles, landing on objects or even localizing a previously learnt inconspicuous goal on the basis of environmental cues. With regard to solving such spatial tasks, these insects still outperform man-made autonomous flying systems. To accomplish their extraordinary performance, flies and bees have been shown by their characteristic behavioural actions to actively shape the dynamics of the image flow on their eyes (optic flow. The neural processing of information about the spatial layout of the environment is greatly facilitated by segregating the rotational from the translational optic flow component through a saccadic flight and gaze strategy. This active vision strategy thus enables the nervous system to solve apparently complex spatial vision tasks in a particularly efficient and parsimonious way. The key idea of this review is that biological agents, such as flies or bees, acquire at least part of their strength as autonomous systems through active interactions with their environment and not by simply processing passively gained information about the world. These agent-environment interactions lead to adaptive behaviour in surroundings of a wide range of complexity. Animals with even tiny brains, such as insects, are capable of performing extraordinarily well in their behavioural contexts by making optimal use of the closed action–perception loop. Model simulations and robotic implementations show that the smart biological mechanisms of motion computation and visually-guided flight control might be helpful to find technical solutions, for example, when designing micro air vehicles carrying a miniaturized, low-weight on-board processor.

  11. Evaluation of Serratia and Pseudomonas in hospital acquired infection

    Etemadi H; Zahedani Sh

    1996-01-01

    Hospital acquired infection have 2 origins: 1) Infections acquired from the hospitalization. 2) Infections that transmit from hospital personnel and those who referred to a hospital. According to the studies approximately half of hospital acquired infection is under the first group. Gram-negative bacilli is of prime importance from all bacteries that caused hospital acquired infection. There are 3 main ways spreading hospital acquired infections include: 1) Auto infections 2) Transmit infecti...

  12. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  13. Group techniques as a methodological strategy in acquiring teamwork abilities by college students

    César Torres Martín; María Julia Gámez Montalvo

    2013-01-01

    From the frame of the European Higher Education Space an adaptation of teaching-learning process is being promoted by means of the pedagogical renewal, introducing into the class a major number of active or participative methodologies in order to provide students with a major autonomy in said process. This requires taking into account the incorporation of basic skills within university curriculum, especially “teamwork”. By means of group techniques students can acquire interpersonal and cogni...

  14. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  15. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  16. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  17. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty......, to repeated regrouping. Compared to horses in Stable groups, more agonistic behaviour was shown by horses in Unstable groups (i.e. non-contact agonistic; F1,65 = 5.60, P = 0.02), whereas there was no treatment effect on other variables. The level of play behaviour appeared, however, to be more variable...... in Unstable groups. There was a significant effect of week on the level of contact agonistic interactions as well as greeting behaviour, due to a high occurrence in weeks 4–6. Non-contact agonistic interactions constituted the major part of agonistic interactions (66%). Possibly as consequence, no serious...

  18. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia. PMID:2132469

  19. Acquired CNS lesions in fetal MRI

    Acquired central nervous system (CNS) lesions are often subtle; therefore, the prenatal diagnosis of these lesions is extremely important. The fetal ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two important imaging methods that give an insight into these types lesions. The method of choice during pregnancy is still fetal ultrasound; however, fetal MRI is important when there are certain pathologies, e.g. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or malformations of the vein of Galen. In this manner clinicians can plan further therapy after childbirth in advance (e.g. cerebral angiography or embolization). (orig.)

  20. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.)

  1. Expert games: means to acquire expert knowledge

    G. Ginkul

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the idea and use of non-traditional technique designed to acquire Expert's knowledge for Expert Systems. The procedures, called "Expert Games", look outwardly as well-known computer "playthings" and at the same time are strong means for Knowledge Acquisition. If Expert wants to succeed, he must to use his professional knowledge. After analyzing game operations of an Expert it is possible to resolve reverse problem - to define which what kind of knowledge have been used for making Expert's decision during the game.

  2. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one′s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

  3. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K.; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  4. Competitive coexistence caused by adaptive predators

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 1163-1182. ISSN 1522-0613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : adaptive foraging -competition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2003

  5. Gaps in agricultural climate adaptation research

    Davidson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The value of the social sciences to climate change research is well recognized, but notable gaps remain in the literature on adaptation in agriculture. Contributions focus on farmer behaviour, with important research regarding gender, social networks and institutions remaining under-represented.

  6. Adaptive foraging and flexible food web topology

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Schmitz, O.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 623-652. ISSN 1522-0613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : adaptive foraging * food chain * food web structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2003

  7. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  8. Cognitive science and behaviourism.

    Skinner, B F

    1985-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that cognitive scientists, claiming the support of brain science and computer simulation, have revived a traditional view that behaviour is initiated by an internal, autonomous mind. In doing so, they have misused the metaphor of storage and retrieval, given neurology a misleading assignment, frequently replaced controlled experimental conditions with mere descriptions of conditions and the assessment of behaviour with statements of expectations and intentions, given feelings and states of mind the status of causes of behaviour rather than the products of the causes, and failed to define many key terms in dimensions acceptable to science. PMID:4041702

  9. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  10. Adaptation Laboratory

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  11. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  12. Adaptable positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  13. Adaptive positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  14. Adaptive noise

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  15. Residual fMRI sensitivity for identity changes in acquired prosopagnosia

    Christopher J Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While a network of cortical regions contribute to face processing, the lesions in acquired prosopagnosia are highly variable, and likely result in different combinations of spared and affected regions of this network. To assess the residual functional sensitivities of spared regions in prosopagnosia, we designed a rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment that included pairs of faces with same or different identities and same or different expressions. By measuring the release from adaptation to these facial changes we determined the residual sensitivity of face-selective regions-of-interest. We tested three patients with acquired prosopagnosia, and all three of these patients demonstrated residual sensitivity for facial identity changes in surviving fusiform and occipital face areas of either the right or left hemisphere, but not in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The patients also showed some residual capabilities for facial discrimination with normal performance on the Benton Facial Recognition Test, but impaired performance on more complex tasks of facial discrimination. We conclude that fMRI can demonstrate residual processing of facial identity in acquired prosopagnosia, that this adaptation can occur in the same structures that show similar processing in healthy subjects, and further, that this adaptation may be related to behavioral indices of face perception.

  16. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hyperpigmentary disorders

    Anisha B Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired pigmentary disorders are group of heterogenous entities that share single, most significant, clinical feature, that is, dyspigmentation. Asians and Indians, in particular, are mostly affected. Although the classic morphologies and common treatment options of these conditions have been reviewed in the global dermatology literature, the value of histpathological evaluation has not been thoroughly explored. The importance of accurate diagnosis is emphasized here as the underlying diseases have varying etiologies that need to be addressed in order to effectively treat the dyspigmentation. In this review, we describe and discuss the utility of histology in the diagnostic work of hyperpigmentary disorders, and how, in many cases, it can lead to targeted and more effective therapy. We focus on the most common acquired pigmentary disorders seen in Indian patients as well as a few uncommon diseases with distinctive histological traits. Facial melanoses, including mimickers of melasma, are thoroughly explored. These diseases include lichen planus pigmentosus, discoid lupus erythematosus, drug-induced melanoses, hyperpigmentation due to exogenous substances, acanthosis nigricans, and macular amyloidosis.

  17. Tetracycline resistance genes acquired at birth.

    Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Contreras, Mónica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2013-06-01

    Newborns acquire their first microbiota at birth. Maternal vaginal or skin bacteria colonize newborns delivered vaginally or by C-section, respectively (Dominguez-Bello et al. 2010 #884). We aimed to determine differences in the presence of four tetracycline (tet) resistance genes, in the microbes of ten newborns and in the mouth and vagina of their mothers, at the time of birth. DNA was amplified by PCR with primers specific for [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)]. Maternal vaginas harbored all four tet resistance genes, but most commonly tet(M) and tet(O) (63 and 38 %, respectively). Genes coding for tet resistance differed by birth mode, with 50 % of vaginally delivered babies had tet(M) and tet(O) and 16 and 13 % of infants born by C-section had tet(O) and tet(W), respectively. Newborns acquire antibiotic resistance genes at birth, and the resistance gene profile varies by mode of delivery. PMID:23483141

  18. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hyperpigmentary disorders.

    Patel, Anisha B; Kubba, Raj; Kubba, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Acquired pigmentary disorders are group of heterogenous entities that share single, most significant, clinical feature, that is, dyspigmentation. Asians and Indians, in particular, are mostly affected. Although the classic morphologies and common treatment options of these conditions have been reviewed in the global dermatology literature, the value of histpathological evaluation has not been thoroughly explored. The importance of accurate diagnosis is emphasized here as the underlying diseases have varying etiologies that need to be addressed in order to effectively treat the dyspigmentation. In this review, we describe and discuss the utility of histology in the diagnostic work of hyperpigmentary disorders, and how, in many cases, it can lead to targeted and more effective therapy. We focus on the most common acquired pigmentary disorders seen in Indian patients as well as a few uncommon diseases with distinctive histological traits. Facial melanoses, including mimickers of melasma, are thoroughly explored. These diseases include lichen planus pigmentosus, discoid lupus erythematosus, drug-induced melanoses, hyperpigmentation due to exogenous substances, acanthosis nigricans, and macular amyloidosis. PMID:23619441

  19. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers-Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun-are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  20. Contrasting frames in policy debates on climate change adaptation

    Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    The process by which issues, decisions, or events acquire different meanings from different perspectives has been studied as framing. In policy debates about climate change adaptation, framing the adaptation issue is a challenge with potentially farreaching implications for the shape and success of

  1. Elementarity and quantum behaviour

    The notion of elementarity is considered as a concept on which a motivation of quantum behaviour may be founded. The definition of velocity of an elementary body, in particular, is examined in comparison with the classical situation. (author)

  2. Behavioural Biometrics in Biomedicine

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    Prague, 2013, nestr. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-19.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  3. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  4. Recycling as moral behaviour

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and...... the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for...

  5. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching...

  6. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  7. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

    Sorin Toma; Paul Marinesc; Niculae Sabin Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing withi...

  8. Investigating garment drape behaviour

    Sanad,, R; Cassidy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Drapeability is one of the most important visual properties affecting garment appearance. Even though there are many studies concerned with fabric drape, understanding about the drape behaviour of garments is very limited. This study analyzes the key properties affecting the drape behaviour of garments to provide prediction equations. Results are statistically analyzed. From multiple regression analysis, drape rank scores obtained from subjective analyses are predicted using weight, bending m...

  9. Protocol for the PACE trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy

    DeCesare Julia C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis/encephalopathy or ME is a debilitating condition with no known cause or cure. Improvement may occur with medical care and additional therapies of pacing, cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy. The latter two therapies have been found to be efficacious in small trials, but patient organisations' surveys have reported adverse effects. Although pacing has been advocated by patient organisations, it lacks empirical support. Specialist medical care is commonly provided but its efficacy when given alone is not established. This trial compares the efficacy of the additional therapies when added to specialist medical care against specialist medical care alone. Methods/Design 600 patients, who meet operationalised diagnostic criteria for CFS, will be recruited from secondary care into a randomised trial of four treatments, stratified by current comorbid depressive episode and different CFS/ME criteria. The four treatments are standardised specialist medical care either given alone, or with adaptive pacing therapy or cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy. Supplementary therapies will involve fourteen sessions over 23 weeks and a 'booster session' at 36 weeks. Outcome will be assessed at 12, 24, and 52 weeks after randomisation. Two primary outcomes of self-rated fatigue and physical function will assess differential effects of each treatment on these measures. Secondary outcomes include adverse events and reactions, subjective measures of symptoms, mood, sleep and function and objective measures of physical activity, fitness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The primary analysis will be based on intention to treat and will use logistic regression models to compare treatments. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a linear mixed model. All analyses will allow for stratification

  10. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  11. Precision grip in congenital and acquired hemiparesis: similarities in impairments and implications for neurorehabilitation - review

    Yannick eBleyenheuft

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with congenital and acquired hemiparesis incur long-term functional deficits, among which the loss of prehension that may impact their functional independence. Identifying, understanding and comparing the underlying mechanisms of prehension impairments represent an opportunity to better adapt neurorehabilitationObjective: The present review aims to provide a better understanding of precision grip deficits in congenital and acquired hemiparesis and to determine whether the severity and type of fine motor control impairments depend on whether or not the lesions are congenital or acquired in adulthood. Methods: Using combinations of the following key words: fingertip force, grip force, precision grip, cerebral palsy, stroke, pubmed and Scopus databases were used to search studies from 1984 to 2013. Results: Individuals with both congenital and acquired hemiparesis were able to some extent to use anticipatory motor control in precision grip tasks, even if this control was impaired in the paretic hand. In both congenital or acquired hemiparesis, the ability to plan efficient anticipatory motor control when the less-affected hand is used provides a possibility to remediate impairments in anticipatory motor control of the paretic hand. Conclusion: Surprisingly we observed very few differences between the results of studies in children with congenital hemiplegia and stroke patients. We suggest that the underlying specific strategies of neurorehabilitation developed for each one could benefit the other.

  12. Computational adaptive optics of the human retina

    South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that patient-specific ocular aberrations limit imaging resolution in the human retina. Previously, hardware adaptive optics (HAO) has been employed to measure and correct these aberrations to acquire high-resolution images of various retinal structures. While the resulting aberration-corrected images are of great clinical importance, clinical use of HAO has not been widespread due to the cost and complexity of these systems. We present a technique termed computational adaptive optics (CAO) for aberration correction in the living human retina without the use of hardware adaptive optics components. In CAO, complex interferometric data acquired using optical coherence tomography (OCT) is manipulated in post-processing to adjust the phase of the optical wavefront. In this way, the aberrated wavefront can be corrected. We summarize recent results in this technology for retinal imaging, including aberration-corrected imaging in multiple retinal layers and practical considerations such as phase stability and image optimization.

  13. Consumer behaviour towards organic food in porto alegre: an application of the theory of planned behaviour

    Alexia Hoppe; Luciana Marques Vieira; Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' decision-making process, attitudes and values towards organic food throughout the employment of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, adapting the methodology from a European project. 450 consumers were interviewed at supermarkets and farmers' markets in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results indicate a high penetration level and very positive attitude towards organic products. Organics are believed to be healthier, tastier, more natural and environmental...

  14. The behavioural economist and the social planner: To whom should behavioural welfare economics be addressed?

    SUGDEN, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares two alternative answers to the question, 'Who is the addressee of welfare economics?' These answers correspond with different understandings of the status of the normative conclusions of welfare economics, and have different implications for how welfare economics should be adapted in the light of the findings of behavioural economics. The conventional welfarist answer is that welfare economics is addressed to a 'social planner' whose objective is to maximise the overall we...

  15. Social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and associated factors.

    Ansari, S K; Nedjat, S; Jabbari, H; Saiepour, N; Heris, M J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the associated factors. In a cross-sectional study the Integrated Social Capital Questionnaire was filled by a sequential sample of 300 patients visiting a referral counselling centre in Tehran. The patients' social capital scores were around 50% in the trust, social cohesion, collective action and cooperation and political empowerment domains. The groups and networks membership domain scored the lowest (27.1%). In regression analysis, employment status was significantly associated with groups and networks membership; age, marital status and financial status were associated with collective action and cooperation; period of disease awareness and marital status affected social cohesion and inclusion; and having risky behaviour affected empowerment and political action. Efforts are needed to enhance the social capital of those patients living with AIDS who are younger, unemployed, divorced/widowed, with risky behaviours and shorter disease awareness. PMID:26750165

  16. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. PMID:25749197

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of climate adaptation

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-10-15

    As governments and other agencies spend more money on adaptation to climate change they want to know that their investments are effective — that adaptation will keep development on track, that there is a fair distribution of costs and benefits, and that climate resilience is being built. But monitoring and evaluating adaptation policy and practice is not easy. Some approaches are unhelpful because they fail to integrate adaptation and development, use purely quantitative methods and do not include the perspectives of climate-vulnerable groups in their assessments. Enabling countries and organisations to effectively evaluate adaptation requires an inclusive approach built on sharing knowledge among all stakeholders — one that can capture behavioural and institutional changes and that answers to the needs of the climate-vulnerable poor.

  18. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome. Pt. 2

    In the second part of this publication, we describe some additional findings in cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH). These include focal hyperostosis of the spine, in the pelvis and in the extremities and psoriatric skin lesions and severe forms of acne (acne conglobata, acne fulminans). An analysis of our 13 patients and of the relevant literature indicates that the hyperostosis is due to increased bone metabolism and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue and that these are the pathogenic bases of the changes in the axial skeleton, the pelvis and the bones of the extremities. We have suggested a scheme which would categorise the syndrom into complete, incomplete and possibly acquired forms. (orig./GDG)

  19. How to divest acquired physician practices.

    O'Hare, P K

    1999-02-01

    When an integrated delivery system (IDS) determines it must divest itself of a previously acquired physician practice, it must manage the transaction with care. The IDS most likely will want to maintain a positive ongoing relationship with the physician practice, while avoiding concessions to the practice that could be construed as violations of state and Federal laws. Before proceeding, the IDS should evaluate the reasons for divesting the practice, assess legal issues involved in terminating contracts with the practice, decide how to deal with the practice's assets and office facilities, consider whether covenants not to compete should be enforced, ensure continued access to essential medical records, consider whether to incorporate a "non-disparagement" clause in the termination agreement, and determine what mutual general releases may be necessary. PMID:10345614

  20. Human temporal bone findings in acquired hypothyroidism.

    Hald, J; Milroy, C M; Jensen, K D; Parving, A

    1991-11-01

    Histological studies of the auditory organ in patients with acquired hypothyroidism are scarce. Thus the aim of the present study was to examine the temporal bones and the brain in subjects with hypothyroidism. Four temporal bones and two brains from clinically and biochemically hypothyroid subjects were removed and evaluated by light microscopy determine to the morphological changes and deposition of neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans. An audiogram from one of the patients showed a sensorineural hearing loss, which could be ascribed to occupational noise exposure. The study revealed histological changes compatible with age and infectious disease. No accumulation of neutral or acid glycosaminoglycans could be demonstrated in the temporal bones, or in the brains. PMID:1761939

  1. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  2. Covalent targeting of acquired cysteines in cancer.

    Visscher, Marieke; Arkin, Michelle R; Dansen, Tobias B

    2016-02-01

    The thiolate side chain of cysteine has a unique functionality that drug hunters and chemical biologists have begun to exploit. For example, targeting cysteine residues in the ATP-binding pockets of kinases with thiol-reactive molecules has afforded increased selectivity and potency to drugs like imbrutinib, which inhibits the oncogene BTK, and CO-1686 and AZD9291 that target oncogenic mutant EGFR. Recently, disulfide libraries and targeted GDP-mimetics have been used to selectively label the G12C oncogenic mutation in KRAS. We reasoned that other oncogenes contain mutations to cysteine, and thus screened the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer for frequently acquired cysteines. Here, we describe the most common mutations and discuss how these mutations could be potential targets for cysteine-directed personalized therapeutics. PMID:26629855

  3. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion.

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population. PMID:22987905

  4. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

  5. In vivo mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance

    Chen, W; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Sayegh, M H; Khoury, S J

    1997-01-01

    Injection of antigen into the thymus of adult animals induces specific systemic tolerance, but the mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance are not well understood. To investigate these mechanisms we used a model of intrathymic injection of ovalbumin (OVA) in BALB/c mice. We show an antigen......-specific decrease in proliferative responses to OVA, as well as a significant decrease in antigen-specific IL-2 secretion and IFN-gamma production by splenocytes and lymph node cells of tolerant mice. Addition of recombinant IL-2 in vitro reversed the defect in IFN-gamma production by cells from OVA-tolerized...... expansion of transferred CD4+ TCR transgenic cells in tolerant mice in vivo. There was an increase in clonotype-positive T cells in the thymus after immunization, confirming that activated T cells circulate through the thymus. Furthermore, thymectomy after intrathymic injection abrogates the effect of...

  6. [Merits of acquiring ISO15189 accreditation].

    Kitagawa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, an ISO15189 accreditation system was started in 2005. To date, 47 hospitals have been accredited. In this session, I will present the merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189 based on our experience. Our hospital has 263 beds. The Clinical Examination Section consists of 12 staff (including 5 part-time workers): 7 in change of sample examination and 5 in charge of physiological examination. The annual number of samples is approximately 150,000. Samples collected on health checkups account for 90%. To improve the quality and service, assessment by third persons has been positively utilized in our hospital. Accreditation regarding ISO9001, ISO14001, ISO27001, privacy mark, hospital function assessment, the functional assessment of "ningen-dock"/health checkup hospitals, labor/hygiene service function assessment, and ISO15189 has been acquired. Patients may not recognize ISO. So, it must be utilized, considering that the acquisition of accreditation is not a goal but a starting point. Furthermore, cost-performance should be improved to achieve utilization-related merits. It is important to not only acquire accreditation but also help clinical staff and patients become aware of some changes/merits. Patients may consult a hospital for the following reasons: confidence in the hospital, and the staffs kind/polite attitudes. Long-term management strategies should be established without pursuing only short-term profits. I will introduce several merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189. Initially, incidental conditions for bids and appeal points include accreditation regarding ISO15189. Our corporation has participated in some competitive bids regarding health checkup business. In some companies, the bid conditions included ISO acquisition. In our hospital, clinical trials have been positively carried out. For participation in trials, hospitals must pass an institutional examination. However, ISO acquisition facilitates the preparation of

  7. Acquiring Correct Knowledge for Natural Language Generation

    Reiter, E; Sripada, S G; 10.1613/jair.1176

    2011-01-01

    Natural language generation (NLG) systems are computer software systems that produce texts in English and other human languages, often from non-linguistic input data. NLG systems, like most AI systems, need substantial amounts of knowledge. However, our experience in two NLG projects suggests that it is difficult to acquire correct knowledge for NLG systems; indeed, every knowledge acquisition (KA) technique we tried had significant problems. In general terms, these problems were due to the complexity, novelty, and poorly understood nature of the tasks our systems attempted, and were worsened by the fact that people write so differently. This meant in particular that corpus-based KA approaches suffered because it was impossible to assemble a sizable corpus of high-quality consistent manually written texts in our domains; and structured expert-oriented KA techniques suffered because experts disagreed and because we could not get enough information about special and unusual cases to build robust systems. We bel...

  8. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M; Lönnqvist, J K

    1994-01-01

    other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls for......Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger and...... recognition of depression and differentiation of the origin and content of fear....

  9. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections

    Yatin Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments.

  10. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  11. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  12. Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.

    Vuković, Mile; Vuković, Irena; Miller, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This study examined patterns of acquired dyslexia in Serbian aphasic speakers, comparing profiles of groups with Broca's versus Wernicke's aphasia. The study also looked at the relationship of reading and auditory comprehension and between reading comprehension and reading aloud in these groups. Participants were 20 people with Broca's and 20 with Wernicke's aphasia. They were asked to read aloud and to understand written material from the Serbian adaptation of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. A Serbian Word Reading Aloud Test was also used. The people with Broca's aphasia achieved better results in reading aloud and in reading comprehension than those with Wernicke's aphasia. Those with Wernicke's aphasia showed significantly more semantic errors than those with Broca's aphasia who had significantly more morphological and phonological errors. From the data we inferred that lesion sites accorded with previous work on networks associated with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia and with a posterior-anterior axis for reading processes centred on (left) parietal-temporal-frontal lobes. PMID:27135368

  13. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  14. The Economics of New Technology Adaptation and Adoption

    Anderson, Jock R.

    1993-01-01

    Adaptation is a critical aspect of applied agricultural research but is one that should be better understood. Accordingly, its dimensions are explored here through analogies with the adaptive behaviour of a person seeking a change in employment. A similar process is then used to illustrate the sequential phases of the adoption of a new technique by farmer-in this case through analogy with the purchase of an automobile. Although adaptation and adoption are quite different phases of the impleme...

  15. On the coevolution of social responsiveness and behavioural consistency.

    Wolf, Max; Van Doorn, G Sander; Weissing, Franz J

    2011-02-01

    Recent research focuses on animal personalities, that is individual differences in behaviour that are consistent across contexts and over time. From an adaptive perspective, such limited behavioural plasticity is surprising, since a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective advantage. Here, we argue that consistency can be advantageous because it makes individuals predictable. Predictability, however, can only be advantageous if at least some individuals in the population respond to individual differences. Consequently, the evolution of consistency and responsiveness are mutually dependent. We present a general analysis of this coevolutionary feedback for scenarios that can be represented as matrix games with two pure strategies (e.g. hawk-dove game, snowdrift game). We first show that responsive strategies are favoured whenever some individual differences are present in the population (e.g. due to mutation and drift). We then show that the presence of responsive individuals can trigger a coevolutionary process between responsiveness and consistency that gives rise to populations in which responsive individuals coexist with unresponsive individuals who show high levels of adaptive consistency in their behaviour. Next to providing an adaptive explanation for consistency, our results also link two key features associated with personalities, individual differences in responsiveness and behavioural consistency. PMID:20739321

  16. Animal personality and state–behaviour feedbacks: a review and guide for empiricists

    Sih, A.; Mathot, K.J.; Moirón, M.; Montiglio, P.-O.; Wolf, M.; Dingemanse, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    An exciting area in behavioural ecology focuses on understanding why animals exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behaviour (animal personalities). Animal personality has been proposed to emerge as an adaptation to individual differences in state variables, leading to the question of why individuals differ consistently in state. Recent theory emphasizes the role that positive feedbacks between state and behaviour can play in producing consistent among-individual covariance betwe...

  17. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Proenvironmental Behaviour: The Case of Energy Conservation

    Octav-Ionuţ Macovei

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to propose and validate a model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in order to explain consumers’ pro-environmental behaviour regarding energy conservation. The model was constructed using the five variables from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (behaviour, intention, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and attitude) to which a variable adapted from Schwartz’s Norm Activation Theory (NAT) was added (“awareness of the consequences and the need”) in orde...

  18. Acquiring Control in Emerging Markets: Evidence from the Stock Market

    Anusha Chari; Paige P. Ouimet; Tesar, Linda L.

    2004-01-01

    When firms from developed markets acquire firms in emerging markets, market-capitalization-weighted monthly joint returns show a statistically significant increase of 1.8%. Panel data estimations suggest that the value gains from cross-border M&A transactions stem from the transfer of majority control from emerging-market targets to developed market acquirers' joint returns range from 5.8% to 7.8% when majority control is acquired. Announcement returns for acquirer and target firms estimate t...

  19. Epicutaneous Model of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections

    Prabhakara, Ranjani; Foreman, Oded; De Pascalis, Roberto; Lee, Gloria M.; Plaut, Roger D.; Kim, Stanley Y.; Stibitz, Scott; Elkins, Karen L.; Merkel, Tod J.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Although the majority of S. aureus community-acquired SSTIs are uncomplicated and self-clearing in nature, some percentage of these cases progress into life-threatening invasive infections. Current animal models of S. aureus SSTI suffer from two drawbacks: these models are a better representation of hospital-acquired SSTI than community-acquired SSTI, and they involv...

  20. Complex adaptive systems: a tool for interpreting responses and behaviours

    Beverley Ellis

    2011-05-01

    Conclusions Primary care informatics enables information symmetry among those operating quality improvement programmes by making some aspects of care explicit, allowing consensus about quality improvement priorities and implementable solutions.

  1. Tackling Behaviour in Your Primary School: A Practical Handbook for Teachers

    Reid, Ken; Morgan, Nicola S.

    2012-01-01

    "Tackling Behaviour in the Primary School" provides ready-made advice and support for classroom professionals and can be used, read and adapted to suit the busy everyday lives of teachers working in primary schools today. This valuable text sets the scene for managing behaviour in the primary classroom in the context of the Children Act 2004…

  2. True-slime-mould-inspired hydrostatically coupled oscillator system exhibiting versatile behaviours

    Behavioural diversity is an indispensable attribute of living systems, which makes them intrinsically adaptive and responsive to the demands of a dynamically changing environment. In contrast, conventional engineering approaches struggle to suppress behavioural diversity in artificial systems to reach optimal performance in given environments for desired tasks. The goals of this research include understanding the essential mechanism that endows living systems with behavioural diversity and implementing the mechanism in robots to exhibit adaptive behaviours. For this purpose, we have focused on an amoeba-like unicellular organism: the plasmodium of true slime mould. Despite the absence of a central nervous system, the plasmodium exhibits versatile spatiotemporal oscillatory patterns and switches spontaneously among these patterns. By exploiting this behavioural diversity, it is able to exhibit adaptive behaviour according to the situation encountered. Inspired by this organism, we built a real physical robot using hydrostatically coupled oscillators that produce versatile oscillatory patterns and spontaneous transitions among the patterns. The experimental results show that exploiting physical hydrostatic interplay—the physical dynamics of the robot—allows simple phase oscillators to promote versatile behaviours. The results can contribute to an understanding of how a living system generates versatile and adaptive behaviours with physical interplays among body parts. (paper)

  3. Peer Preference: A Way of Evaluating Social Competence and Behavioural Well-Being in Early Childhood

    Öneren Sendil, Çagla; Tantekin Erden, Feyza

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in peer preference, gender and temperamental characteristics of children aged five to six in relation to their social competence (SC) and behavioural adaptation. The data were collected through the use of "Picture Sociometry Scale", "SC and Behaviour Evaluation Scale" and "Short…

  4. Motivational factors influencing behavioural responses to charging measures in freight operator sector

    Rößger, Lars; Schade, Jens; Tretvik, Terje

    2009-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide insights into freight operators’ attitudes with differentiated charges and their opinions about charges’ effectiveness and future behavioural responses. Thereby, we investigate whether motivational factors, particularly acceptability towards road charges, play an important role on future behavioural adaptations according to charging schemes. Interview surveys have been conducted and have focused on freight operators and road hauliers’ perception a...

  5. Accidents, aberrant behaviours, and speeding of young moped riders

    Steg, L.; Van Brussel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moped riders, particularly youngsters, are amongst the highest risk group in traffic. We used an adapted version of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire to examine why moped riders are often involved in traffic accidents. We conducted a questionnaire study among 146 young moped riders in the Netherlan

  6. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study

    Somenath Sarkar; Modhuchanda Mondal; Kapildev Das; Arpit Shrimal

    2012-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To eva...

  7. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    2010-07-01

    ... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired under this part may be used for any lawful purpose that is... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...

  8. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  9. Individual differences in cocaine addiction: maladaptive behavioural traits.

    Homberg, Judith R; Karel, Peter; Verheij, Michel M M

    2014-07-01

    Cocaine use leads to addiction in only a subset of individuals. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these individual differences in the transition from cocaine use to cocaine abuse is important to develop treatment strategies. There is agreement that specific behavioural traits increase the risk for addiction. As such, both high impulsivity and high anxiety have been reported to predict (compulsive) cocaine self-administration behaviour. Here, we set out a new view explaining how these two behavioural traits may affect addictive behaviour. According to psychological and psychiatric evolutionary views, organisms flourish well when they fit (match) their environment by trait and genotype. However, under non-fit conditions, the need to compensate the failure to deal with this environment increases, and, as a consequence, the functional use of rewarding drugs like cocaine may also increase. It suggests that neither impulsivity nor anxiety are bad per se, but that the increased risk to develop cocaine addiction is dependent on whether behavioural traits are adaptive or maladaptive in the environment to which the animals are exposed. This 'behavioural (mal)adaptation view' on individual differences in vulnerability to cocaine addiction may help to improve therapies for addiction. PMID:24835358

  10. Adaptive management

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...

  11. Risky behaviours among university students in Italy

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of psychoactive substances is one of the most important public health issues. Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs are among the top risk factors for ill-health defined by World Health Organisation. The risky behaviours acquired in teenage can be magnified or decreased during university when a person starts having more awareness about the importance of own wellness. This paper describes the results of the project "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk" with respect to risky behaviours in a large sample of Italian university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 questions of the survey "Sportello Salute Giovani" dealing with risky behaviors, the use of psychoactive substances such as tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs were included. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Besides, chi square test were used to test the differences in sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: About 24% of the interviewed students currently smokes. 89% and 42.2% respectively drinks at least rarely or weekly beer, wine or spirits. About 40% of students smoked at least a joint and about 2% used other drugs (mostly cocaine. CONCLUSION: The "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey suggests that the frequency of risky behaviours in Italian university students is not reassuring, although they should be aware about the negative consequences on their and others health because of their educational level.

  12. Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila

    Punita Nanda; Bashisth Narayan Singh

    2012-06-01

    The origin of premating reproductive isolation continues to help elucidate the process of speciation and is the central event in the evolution of biological species. Therefore, during the process of species formation the diverging populations must acquire some means of reproductive isolation so that the genes from one gene pool are prevented from dispersing freely into a foreign gene pool. In the genus Drosophila, the phenomenon of behavioural reproductive isolation, which is an important type of premating (prezygotic) reproductive isolating mechanisms, has been extensively studied and interesting data have been documented. In many cases incomplete sexual isolation has been observed and the pattern and degree of isolation within and between the species have often been used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships. The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural incompatibility in different species groups of Drosophila with particular reference to the models proposed on the basis of one-sided ethological isolation to predict the direction of evolution. This study is crucial for understanding the mechanism of speciation through behavioural incompatibility and also for an understanding of speciation genetics in future prospects.

  13. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  14. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  15. Robots that can adapt like animals.

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-28

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot 'think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  16. Robots that can adapt like animals

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-01

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot `think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  17. Tax Compliance Behaviour

    ªtefura Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    To every state it is essential to ensure that the public budget copes with the public expenditure, in other words, to make sure that it collects sufficient revenues in order to have a stable economy. These revenues come especially from the collecting of taxes and fees. In order to have a functional fiscal system, it is important to understand both the fiscal component and the behaviour of its contributors. That is why the taxpayer behaviour has grown as a subject of research, in many fields b...

  18. Values and behaviour model

    Occupational injuries, accidents, trips of equipment, emergencies, and idle times represent a loss from each megawatt hour which we could have supplied to the network, or other costs related to settlement or compensation for damages. All of it can be caused by short lack of attention while doing a routine job, ignoring safety indicators, and rules. Such behaviour would not be a characteristic of a professional. People working at the nuclear power plants are the first ones to learn about the Values and Behaviour Model. (author)

  19. Information behaviour and practice

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  20. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  1. Acquired Hemophilia A successfully treated with rituximab

    Giovanni D'Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hemophilia A (AHA is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in  obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA,  besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with  a normalization of clotting  parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm. , but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation  parameters  induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days.  This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs remains to be established and warrants further investigation.

  2. Recent legal problems in acquiring nuclear fuel

    This paper surveys problems encountered by Southern California Edison Company in acquiring U concentrates to meet the needs of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2, and 3. References are made to San Onofre, Edison, and San Diego Gas and Electric Company in order to illustrate certain legal problems. The San Onofre Units are owned 80% by Edison and 20% by San Diego. Questions are posed about the traditional fuel procurement practices. A subsidiary of Edison, Mono Power Company, locates and delivers energy resources for Edison. Mono and Rocky Mountain Energy Company are jointing developing the Bear Creek urnaium mining and milling complex. The risk involved in converting a joint venture to a partnership is pointed out. The purchasing arrangement in the Palo Verde participants is discussed. Market value is used as a basis for pricing future U deliveries, but there is no really satisfactory method for determining future market value. It is concluded that the purchaser of nuclear fuel is faced with legal problems that transcend conventional problems of contracts and the commercial code

  3. Radio-adaptive survival response in mice: Hematological studies on the acquired radio-resistance

    We have reported that X-ray pre-irradiation induced two types of radio-resistance (improved 30-day survival rate after mid-lethal irradiation) in C57BL and ICR strains of mice. The dose- effects were distinguished into the following 4 dose ranges in ICR mice: (1) below 2.5 cGy: no radio-resistance is induced 2 months later, (2) 5 to 10 cGy: significant radio-resistance 2 to 2.5 months later by whole-body pre-irradiation, (3) 15 to 20 cGy: no radio-resistance at any time between 2 weeks to 2 months later, and (4) 30 to 50 cGy: significant radio-resistance 2 weeks later by partial-body pre-irradiation of the trunk as well as whole-body pre-irradiation. We previously reported that the recovery of blood cell counts of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes was enhanced by the pre-irradiation in C57BL, but not in ICR mice. In the present study, hematological changes were examined on blood coagulation time and hemorrhaging tendency in case of pre-irradiation with 45 cGy in ICR mice. Blood coagulation time prolonged on day 12 after sub-lethal irradiation, but it was not restored by the pre- irradiation, while occult blood appearance in feces collected on days 10 to 12 after sub-lethal irradiation was decreased by the pre-irradiation in ICR mice. (author)

  4. Behaviourism and the mechanization of the mind.

    Lecas, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    The significance of Behaviourism is examined in relation to its far conceptual roots, i.e. comparative animal studies initiated by Darwin, mechanistic physiological thinking initiated by Descartes and empiricist associationism. The Behaviourist anti-mentalist position induced neuromechanistic interpretations based on Pavlovian reflexes, stimulus-response connectionism and the very first hypotheses on synaptic plasticity. As a result, the evolutionary tradition was dropped and the two other trends were combined into a new adaptive version of Cartesian automaton, with persisting influences in modern reductionist thinking, from robotics and cognitive science to the neuroscience of learning and memory. PMID:16731496

  5. On the nature of cultural transmission networks: evidence from Fijian villages for adaptive learning biases

    Henrich, Joseph; Broesch, James

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other animals, humans are heavily dependent on cumulative bodies of culturally learned information. Selective processes operating on this socially learned information can produce complex, functionally integrated, behavioural repertoires—cultural adaptations. To understand such non-genetic adaptations, evolutionary theorists propose that (i) natural selection has favoured the emergence of psychological biases for learning from those individuals most likely to possess adaptive informatio...

  6. Occupant Behaviour with regard to Control of the Indoor Environment

    Andersen, Rune Vinther

    on measurements in offices, and they only take thermal comfort into account. The work described in this thesis mainly focused on the window opening and heating behaviour of occupants in Danish dwellings. Also the use of solar shading and artificial lighting has received some attention. The control...... related behaviour of occupants was found to have a substantial impact on the energy performance of a building. This becomes increasingly important in buildings designed using the adaptive model of thermal comfort, where occupants are encouraged to interact with building controls. It was found that...... occupants was driven by a variety of variables, including thermal comfort, perception of air quality and other IEQ variables, weather and physical aspects of the dwelling. Based on observation of real behaviour, a definition of occupant behaviour patterns in building simulation programs was proposed. The...

  7. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  8. Management of developmental speech and language disorders. Part 2: acquired conditions.

    O'Hare, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Many children who present with these acquired impairments of communication have a clear preceding event such as an acquired brain injury from a road traffic accident. Children often respond differently in this situation to adult presentations. They may have a period of mutism when the prognosis might look poor and yet they subsequently make rapid progress and recover speech. They have greater potential for neural plasticity and language recovery, although they often have persisting difficulties in oral and written language. Alternatively, there may be a presentation with a paroxysmal event such as a seizure or a period of depressed consciousness, and the unusual behaviour that may accompany dysphasia and dysarthria may be misinterpreted in the child, whereas for the adult with the more common 'stroke-like' presentation, it would be immediately considered. Rarely the aphasia/dysphasia may itself be the paroxysmal event where actually recognising that the child's disrupted communication is the basis of any observed behaviours can be the greater challenge. PMID:25990500

  9. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  10. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    J. de Jong; D. den Hartog

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  11. Observing behaviour categorically

    Nielsen, Mogens; Cheng, Allan

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the relationships and differences between the extensive amount of research within the field of bisimulation equivalences, Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel recently proposed an abstract category-theoretic definition of bisimulation. They identify spans of morphisms satisfyin......, in fact, captures not only bisimulations but many other behavioural equivalences. We also briefly present presheaf models as an abstract model of computation....

  12. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  13. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  14. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    邹柯

    2008-01-01

    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  15. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  16. Seeing the eyes in acquired prosopagnosia.

    Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Sekunova, Alla; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Case reports have suggested that perception of the eye region may be impaired more than that of other facial regions in acquired prosopagnosia. However, it is unclear how frequently this occurs, whether such impairments are specific to a certain anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, and whether these impairments are related to changes in the scanning of faces. We studied a large cohort of 11 subjects with this rare disorder, who had a variety of occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions, both unilateral and bilateral. Lesions were characterized by functional and structural imaging. Subjects performed a perceptual discrimination test in which they had to discriminate changes in feature position, shape, or external contour. Test conditions were manipulated to stress focused or divided attention across the whole face. In a second experiment we recorded eye movements while subjects performed a face memory task. We found that greater impairment for eye processing was more typical of subjects with occipitotemporal lesions than those with anterior temporal lesions. This eye selectivity was evident for both eye position and shape, with no evidence of an upper/lower difference for external contour. A greater impairment for eye processing was more apparent under attentionally more demanding conditions. Despite these perceptual deficits, most subjects showed a normal tendency to scan the eyes more than the mouth. We conclude that occipitotemporal lesions are associated with a partially selective processing loss for eye information and that this deficit may be linked to loss of the right fusiform face area, which has been shown to have activity patterns that emphasize the eye region. PMID:27288649

  17. Cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    GENG Shuang; YE Jun-jie; ZHAO Jia-liang; LI Tai-sheng; HAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most severe intraocular complication that results in total retinal destruction and loss of visual acuity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to investigate the fundus characteristics, systemic manifestations and therapeutic outcomes of CMV retinitis associated with AIDS.Methods It was a retrospective case series. CMV retinitis was present in 39 eyes (25 patients). Best corrected visual acuities, anterior segment, fundus features, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of the patients with CMV retinitis associated with AIDS were analyzed. Intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (400 μg) were performed in 4 eyes (2 patients).Results Retinal vasculitis, dense, full-thickness, yellow-white lesions along vascular distribution with irregular granules at the border, and hemorrhage on the retinal surface were present in 28 eyes. The vitreous was clear or mildly opaque.Late stage of the retinopathy was demonstrated in 8 eyes characterized as atrophic retina, sclerotic and attenuated vessels, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy, and optic nerve atrophy. Retinal detachment was found in 3 eyes. The average CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood of the patients with CMV retinitis was (30.6±25.3) ×106/L (range,(0-85) × 106/L). After intravitreal injections of ganciclovir, visual acuity was improved and fundus lesions regressed.Conclusions CMV retinitis is the most severe and the most common intraocular complication in patients with AIDS. For the patients with yellow-white retinal lesions, hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis without clear cause, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology should be performed. Routine eye examination is also indicated in HIV positive patients.

  18. ‘Nudging’ behaviours in healthcare: insights from behavioural economics

    Benjamin G. Voyer

    2015-01-01

    Since the creation of the Behavioural Insight Team in 2010, the word ‘nudge’ has become a popular one in social and public policy. According to policymakers and managers, applications of behavioural economics to public sector management results in increased policy efficiency and savings. This article offers a critical perspective on the topic, and discusses how the application of behavioural economics can foster innovative healthcare management. It first reviews behavioural economics principl...

  19. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  20. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  1. Molecular evolution and thermal adaptation

    Chen, Peiqiu

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis, we address problems in molecular evolution, thermal adaptation, and the kinetics of adaptation of bacteria and viruses to elevated environmental temperatures. We use a nearly neutral fitness model where the replication speed of an organism is proportional to the copy number of folded proteins. Our model reproduces the distribution of stabilities of natural proteins in excellent agreement with experiment. We find that species with high mutation rates tend to have less stable proteins compared to species with low mutation rate. We found that a broad distribution of protein stabilities observed in the model and in experiment is the key determinant of thermal response for viruses and bacteria. Our results explain most of the earlier experimental observations: striking asymmetry of thermal response curves, the absence of evolutionary trade-off which was expected but not found in experiments, correlation between denaturation temperature for several protein families and the Optimal Growth Temperature (OGT) of their carrier organisms, and proximity of bacterial or viral OGTs to their evolutionary temperatures. Our theory quantitatively and with high accuracy described thermal response curves for 35 bacterial species. The model also addresses the key to adaptation is in weak-link genes (WLG), which encode least thermodynamically stable essential proteins in the proteome. We observe, as in experiment, a two-stage adaptation process. The first stage is a Luria-Delbruck type of selection, whereby rare WLG alleles, whose proteins are more stable than WLG proteins of the majority of the population (either due to standing genetic variation or due to an early acquired mutation), rapidly rise to fixation. The second stage constitutes subsequent slow accumulation of mutations in an adapted population. As adaptation progresses, selection regime changes from positive to neutral: Selection coefficient of beneficial mutations scales as a negative power of number of

  2. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  3. Hesitation behaviour of hoverflies Sphaerophoria spp. to avoid ambush by crab spiders

    Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Pollinators possess several antipredator adaptations that minimise predation risk during foraging. In addition to morphological adaptations, hoverflies might have behavioural antipredator adaptations. We conducted three field experiments to investigate whether the “hesitation behaviour” of hoverflies Sphaerophoria spp., moving backwards and forwards in front of a flower, is effective in avoiding ambush predators on flowers. First, we compared the behaviour of different flower visitors, including several bees and other hoverflies, with Sphaerophoria spp. behaviour. Only Sphaerophoria spp. exhibited the hesitation behaviour in front of flowers. The flight behaviour was observed more frequently before landing on flowers than on leaves. Second, we investigated rejection by Sphaerophoria spp. to artificially placed corpses of the crab spider Thomisus labefactus. The rejection rate of flowers with a crab spider placed on or under it was significantly higher than that of non-treated flowers. Moreover, the presence of a spider on the flower decreased the number of hesitation displays, compared with non-treated flowers. Finally, to determine whether hesitation behaviour could be a consequence of floral assessment, we investigated hoverfly rejection of previously foraged flowers. Sphaerophoria spp. did not reject flowers that had been visited by the same individual or conspecifics within 3 min. We suggest that hesitation behaviour may be adaptive, enabling assessment of predation risk and hence avoiding ambush predators on flowers.

  4. Behavioural and demographic characteristics of attenders at two genitourinary medicine clinics in England.

    Catchpole, M; Connor, N; Brady, A.; Kinghorn, G.; Mercey, D; Band, B; Thin, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate how attenders with sexually transmitted disease (STD) differ from the general population with respect to sexual behaviour, and to identify which attenders at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics are at particular behavioural risk for acquiring STD. DESIGN: Multicentre cross sectional survey. SETTING: Two genitourinary medicine clinics, one in London and one in Sheffield SUBJECTS: 20,516 patients attending the two clinics over an 18 month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE...

  5. The Effect of Brand Equity on Consumer Buying Behaviour In the Laptop Market of China

    Liu, Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the laptop market is teemed with increasingly competition and more sophisticated customers, effective branding strategies are a key tool for firms to acquire and maintain customers. However, consumer buying behaviour is complicated concept. Therefore, precisely understanding the consumer buying behaviour and how the brand elements affect the consumer's buy decision can help firms to develop effective branding strategies. Based on the China's laptop market, the purpose of this...

  6. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  7. Exploration behaviour and behavioural flexibility in orb-web spiders: A review

    Thomas HESSELBERG

    2015-01-01

    Orb-web spiders and their webs constitute an ideal model system in which to study behavioural flexibility and spatial cognition in invertebrates due to the easily quantifiable nature of the orb web.A large number of studies demonstrate how spiders are able to modify the geometry of their webs in response to a range of different conditions including the ability to adapt their webs to spatial constraints.However,the mechanisms behind this impressive web-building flexibility in these cognitively limited animals remain poorly explored.One possible mechanism though may be spatial learning during the spiders' exploration of their immediate surroundings.This review discusses the importance of exploration behaviour,the reliance on simple behavioural rules,and the use of already laid threads as guidelines for web-building in orb-web spiders.The focus is on the spiders' ability to detect and adapt their webs to space limitations and other spatial disruptions.I will also review the few published studies on how spatial information is gathered during the exploration phase and discuss the possibility of the use of ‘cognitive map’-like processes in spiders.Finally,the review provides suggestions for designing experimental studies to shed light on whether spiders gather metric information during the site exploration (cognitive map hypothesis) or rely on more simple binary information in combination with previously laid threads to build their webs (stigmergy hypothesis) [Current Zoology 61 (2):313-327,2015].

  8. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated. PMID:25462876

  9. Migration and adaptation to climate change

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2007-11-15

    Climate change is having an undeniable impact on many human systems and behaviours, including population mobility. This is hardly surprising: migration is an adaptive response to changes in people's circumstances. Yet environmental factors are not the whole story. Socio-economic, political and cultural factors are also closely linked to population movement, and heavily influence vulnerability to both direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Shifts in migration patterns are a strategy of adaptation to complex transformations, and recognising and accommodating this is key in policies for sustainable development and poverty reduction in the context of growing environmental stress.

  10. Learning and altering behaviours by reinforcement: Neurocognitive differences between children and adults

    E. Shephard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined neurocognitive differences between children and adults in the ability to learn and adapt simple stimulus–response associations through feedback. Fourteen typically developing children (mean age = 10.2 and 15 healthy adults (mean age = 25.5 completed a simple task in which they learned to associate visually presented stimuli with manual responses based on performance feedback (acquisition phase, and then reversed and re-learned those associations following an unexpected change in reinforcement contingencies (reversal phase. Electrophysiological activity was recorded throughout task performance. We found no group differences in learning-related changes in performance (reaction time, accuracy or in the amplitude of event-related potentials (ERPs associated with stimulus processing (P3 ERP or feedback processing (feedback-related negativity; FRN during the acquisition phase. However, children's performance was significantly more disrupted by the reversal than adults and FRN amplitudes were significantly modulated by the reversal phase in children but not adults. These findings indicate that children have specific difficulties with reinforcement learning when acquired behaviours must be altered. This may be caused by the added demands on immature executive functioning, specifically response monitoring, created by the requirement to reverse the associations, or a developmental difference in the way in which children and adults approach reinforcement learning.

  11. Use Case Design for AdaptIVe

    Wolter, Stefan; Kelsch, Johann

    2014-01-01

    AdaptIVe is a large scale European project on vehicle automation and the pertaining human-machine interaction. The use case design process is a crucial part of the system design process and a part of the human-vehicle integration subproject. This paper explains the methodology for describing use cases in AdaptIVe. They are primarily based on sequence diagrams with main and alternative flows.

  12. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input....... It can be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the...... evaluations are used to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for...

  13. Acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to hydatid cyst operation.

    Gezer, S; Turut, H; Oz, G; Demirag, F; Tastepe, I

    2007-10-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal communications between pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. The majority of the cases are congenital in origin, and acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are very rare. We present a case here, which - to the best of our knowledge - is the first acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to a hydatid cyst operation in the literature, and we discuss the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities and treatment of acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. PMID:17902072

  14. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  15. Corporate Social Behaviour

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions......, human rights and environmental protection. Without a common point of reference in national regulation, managers in multinational enterprises now have to develop their own codes of corporate social behaviour. This has created a growing market for private standards within the field of environmental...... management systems, social accountability, corporate citizenship, occupational health and safety and so forth. However, both the idea of government regulation and the literature acclaiming corporate self-regulation should be met with some scepticism. This paper offers a short assessment of the potentials and...

  16. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi

    2006-01-01

    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  17. Essays on Economic Behaviour

    Hudík, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The main thesis of these essays is that social phenomena are different from psychological phenomena and thus social sciences do not belong to behavioural sciences. Chapter 1 introduces the fundamental problem of the rational choice theory ("Macaulay's problem"): either the theory is empirical and false or it is without empirical content and true. Various suggested solutions to this problem are reviewed and criticized. It is argued that the problem is evaded once it is admitted that rational c...

  18. e-Consumer Behaviour

    Dennis, C.; Merrilees, B; Jayawardhena, C; Wright, L T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The primary purpose of this article is to bring together apparently disparate and yet interconnected strands of research and present an integrated model of e-consumer behaviour. It has a secondary objective of stimulating more research in areas identified as still being underexplored. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is discursive, based on analysis and synthesis of econsumer literature. Findings – Despite a broad spectrum of disciplines that investigate e-cons...

  19. Modelling of soil behaviour

    Feda, Jaroslav

    Lisse: Balkema, 2003 - (Natau, O.; Fecker, E.; Pimentel, E.), s. 457-460 ISBN 90-5809-603-3. [Geotechnical measurements and modelling. Karlsruhe (DE), 23.09.2003-25.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2111301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : standard and nonstandard behaviour * silica gel * lime and mixture Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  20. Suicidal ideation and behaviour

    Korczak, Daphne J

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Canadian adolescents. The present practice point provides paediatricians and child health professionals with a framework for assessing the adolescent with suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours. The epidemiological context, general considerations and practical suggestions for how to approach the suicidal adolescent are reviewed. Paediatricians can and should screen youth for mental illness and significant psychosocial stressors. Early identification and ...

  1. Web seminar: Behaviour change

    Curtis, V

    2012-01-01

    The IDEAS project runs web seminars as part of its Technical Resource Centre. The IDEAS web seminar series aims to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. Seminar description: On 7 November 2012, join the IDEAS team for a varied presentation and discussion on behaviour change.This web seminar is part of a series IDEAS is running to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. There will be an opportunity for questions and comme...

  2. Internet user behaviour

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furt...

  3. Consumer choice behaviour

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  4. Essays on Behavioural Economics

    Manna, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Traditional economic theory assumes that individuals are self-interested. They only care about their own well-being and disregard the impact of their actions on the others. However, the assumption of selfish individuals is unable to explain a number of important phenomena and puzzles. Individuals frequently engage in actions that are costly to themselves with noapparent reward. Behavioural economics provides plausible explanations for these actions.Individuals can be “boundedly rational" (Sim...

  5. Adsorption behaviour of bulgur.

    Erbaş, Mustafa; Aykın, Elif; Arslan, Sultan; Durak, Atike N

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the adsorption behaviour of bulgur. Three different particle sizes (2dry matter and 4.96-16.57, respectively. Constant k was between 0.85 and 0.93, and GAB equation was determined to fit very well for bulgur adsorption, because of %E values lower than 10%. Bulgur must be stored below 70% relative humidity and with less than 10 g water per 100 g of dry mater. PMID:26575716

  6. Consumer choice behaviour

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  7. A trade-off between natural and acquired antibody production in a reptile: implications for long-term resistance to disease

    Franziska C. Sandmeier

    2012-08-01

    Vertebrate immune systems are understood to be complex and dynamic, with trade-offs among different physiological components (e.g., innate and adaptive immunity within individuals and among taxonomic lineages. Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii immunised with ovalbumin (OVA showed a clear trade-off between levels of natural antibodies (NAbs; innate immune function and the production of acquired antibodies (adaptive immune function. Once initiated, acquired antibody responses included a long-term elevation in antibodies persisting for more than one year. The occurrence of either (a high levels of NAbs or (b long-term elevations of acquired antibodies in individual tortoises suggests that long-term humoral resistance to pathogens may be especially important in this species, as well as in other vertebrates with slow metabolic rates, concomitantly slow primary adaptive immune responses, and long life-spans.

  8. Hemofilia A adquirida Acquired hemophilia A

    Delfina Almagro Vázquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La hemofilia A adquirida (HAA es un trastorno hemorrágico poco frecuente caracterizado por la presencia de autoanticuerpos contra el factor VIII (FVIII circulante. Aproximadamente en la mitad de los casos se ha observado un grupo heterogéneo de procesos patológicos que incluyen, entre otros, enfermedades autoinmunes y malignas y durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio. Las manifestaciones hemorrágicas son variables y fundamentalmente de tipo cutáneo mucoso. El diagnóstico se basa en el hallazgo en un paciente con manifestaciones hemorrágicas, prolongación del tiempo parcial de tromboplastina activado (TPTA, disminución de la actividad del FVIII y presencia de inhibidores del FVIII. El tratamiento de HAA incluye el control de las manifestaciones hemorrágicas y la supresión de la producción del anticuerpo. El concentrado de factor VIIa recombinante (FVIIar y el concentrado de complejo protrombínico (CCPA se consideran el tratamiento antihemorrágico de primera línea. Como terapéutica alternativa, en algunos casos puede utilizarse el concentrado de FVIII, la plasmaféresis y la inmunoadsorción extracorpórea. La prednisona sola o asociada con la ciclofosfamida, constituye el tratamiento inmunosupresor de primera línea. En pacientes refractarios puede administrarse como terapéutica de segunda línea, el rituximab (anti-CD20. Con la azatiopina, la ciclosporina, la vincristina y el micofenolato de mofetil, se han obtenido resultados variables.Acquired hemophilia A (AHA is an uncommon hemorrhagic disorder characterized by presence of autoantibodies to circulating factor VIII. Approximately in half of cases it is noted a heterogeneous group of pathological processes including among others, autoimmune and malignant diseases and during pregnancy, labor and puerperium. Hemorrhagic manifestations are variable and mainly of mucous cutaneous type. Diagnosis is based on the finding of a patient presenting with hemorrhagic manifestations

  9. CRISPR adaptation biases explain preference for acquisition of foreign DNA

    Levy, Asaf; Goren, Moran G.; Yosef, Ido; Auster, Oren; Manor, Miriam; Amitai, Gil; Edgar, Rotem; Qimron, Udi; Sorek, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    In the process of CRISPR adaptation, short pieces of DNA (“spacers”) are acquired from foreign elements and integrated into the CRISPR array. It so far remained a mystery how spacers are preferentially acquired from the foreign DNA while the self chromosome is avoided. Here we show that spacer acquisition is replication-dependent, and that DNA breaks formed at stalled replication forks promote spacer acquisition. Chromosomal hotspots of spacer acquisition were confined by Chi sites, which are...

  10. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. An Autonomous Adaptive Scheduling Agent for Period Searching

    Saunders, Eric S; Allan, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an autonomous adaptive software agent that addresses the practical problem of observing undersampled, periodic, time-varying phenomena using a network of HTN-compliant robotic telescopes. The algorithm governing the behaviour of the agent uses an optimal geometric sampling technique to cover the period range of interest, but additionally implements proactive behaviour that maximises the optimality of the dataset in the face of an uncertain and changing operating environment.

  12. Encoding attentional states during visuomotor adaptation

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that visuomotor adaptation acquired under attentional distraction is better recalled under a similar level of distraction compared to no distraction. This paradoxical effect suggests that attentional state (e.g., divided or undivided) is encoded as an internal context during visuomotor learning and should be reinstated for successful recall (Song & Bédard, 2015). To investigate if there is a critical temporal window for encoding attentional state in visuomotor memory, we ma...

  13. Reinforcement Learning Using Local Adaptive Models

    Borga, Magnus

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the theory of reinforcement learning is described and its relation to learning in biological systems is discussed. Some basic issues in reinforcement learning, the credit assignment problem and perceptual aliasing, are considered. The methods of temporal difference are described. Three important design issues are discussed: information representation and system architecture, rules for improving the behaviour and rules for the reward mechanisms. The use of local adaptive models...

  14. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  15. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  16. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  17. Modelling and controlling of behaviour for autonomous mobile robots

    Skubch, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    As research progresses, it enables multi-robot systems to be used in more and more complex and dynamic scenarios. Hence, the question arises how different modelling and reasoning paradigms can be utilised to describe the intended behaviour of a team and execute it in a robust and adaptive manner. Hendrik Skubch presents a solution, ALICA (A Language for Interactive Cooperative Agents) which combines modelling techniques drawn from different paradigms in an integrative fashion. Hierarchies of finite state machines are used to structure the behaviour of the team such that temporal and causal re

  18. CT and MR imaging of acquired abnormalities of the inner ear and cerebellopontine angle

    Introduction: Several entities of acquired lesions may affect the inner ear and cerebellopontine angle. The imaging of these lesions depends on the clinical history, and should be adapted to the lesion searched for and suspected by the otolaryngologist. In this paper, the modality of CT and MR imaging which is suited to delineate the acquired lesions of this region will be presented. Materials and methods: CT and/or MR imaging of the inner ear and cerebellopontine angle was performed in all cases in which an acquired lesion of this region was suspected by the otolaryngologist. CT was performed in the axial and coronal plane with the use of a high-resolution bone-window-level-setting. MRI was performed in the axial plane using high-resolution 3D T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences and 3D T1-weighted gradient echo sequences before and after the i.v. application of gadopentate dimeglumine. The obtained images were evaluated for the depiction of the acquired lesions. Results: CT best depicted osseous lesions such as traumatic affections or lesions leading to ossification of the inner ear. Tumorous lesions were delineated in those cases in which they yielded to bony changes. Inflammatory or tumorous lesions not yielding to bony changes or intralabyrintine calicifications were not depicted. MRI delineated very well all lesions leading to soft tissue changes, and moderately depicted traumatic changes yielding to less severe fractures affecting the investigated region. Conclusion: CT and MR imaging are suited differently to delineate the acquired lesions of the inner ear and cerebellopontine angle. CT is excellently suited to depict osseous lesions, while MRI is excellently suited to delineate lesions affecting the soft tissue structures. These two imaging modalities should be used depending on the clinical question, and are supposed to be complementary methods

  19. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  20. The case of Geely acquiring Volvo Car : A study on low brand equity acquiring high brand equity

    Zheng, Xiaoshu; Shi, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has studied high brand equity acquiring high brand equity or high brand equity acquiring low brand equity. However, very little research has been conducted to understand how that low brand equity acquiring high brand equity changes the low brand equity especially in China. This paper is on the case of Geely Group acquiring Volvo Car which was a typical acquisition of a high brand equity company by a low brand equity company. The aim of the paper is to verify whether thi...

  1. Towards Adaptive Virtual Camera Control In Computer Games

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2011-01-01

    Automatic camera control aims to define a framework to control virtual camera movements in dynamic and unpredictable virtual environments while ensuring a set of desired visual properties. We inves- tigate the relationship between camera placement and playing behaviour in games and build a user...... model of the camera behaviour that can be used to control camera movements based on player preferences. For this purpose, we collect eye gaze, camera and game-play data from subjects playing a 3D platform game, we cluster gaze and camera information to identify camera behaviour profiles and we employ...... machine learning to build predictive models of the virtual camera behaviour. The perfor- mance of the models on unseen data reveals accuracies above 70% for all the player behaviour types identified. The characteristics of the gener- ated models, their limits and their use for creating adaptive automatic...

  2. 26 CFR 1.472-7 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.472-7 Section 1.472-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.472-7 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  3. 26 CFR 1.471-9 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.471-9 Section 1.471-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-9 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  4. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section 5(d) of...

  5. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  6. Clinical aspects of acquired aphasia and dysarthria in childhood

    H.R. van Dongen (Hugo)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractFor the last decade, it has been a common clinical belief that the prognosis of acquired childhood aphasia is good. However, our own clinical experiences were rather conflicting on this point. As a consequence, we re-examined all the children (15) with an acquired aphasia who in a period

  7. Acquired Epiblepharon Treated by Lateral Orbital and fat Decompression

    Radwan Almousa; Gangadhara Sundar

    2011-01-01

    Conventional lid surgery of acquired epiblepharon secondary to increased orbital volume can be result of under correction of the epiblepharon, because the increased orbital volume remains unaddressed. In this case report, we present a case of acquired epiblepharon, secondary to increased orbital volume, treated with orbital decompression.

  8. Significance of acquired diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Hjorth, Sofie Vetli; Engel, Ulla;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms.......To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms....

  9. Hospital-acquired and Community-acquired Uropathogens; Modelling of Infection

    Aija ?ilevi?a

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are among the most common human infections. They may be community-acquired or nosocomial, and caused by a variety of microorganisms. In the present study, we analysed more than 4000 urine samples collected from in-patients and outpatients, and registered the differences in the etiological spectrum of agents. The most widespread uropathogens are gram-negative rods, from them E. coli, Klebsiella spp. and the non-fermentive genus Pseudomonas. Women are more intensively affected by E. coli. From gram-positive cocci, the leading agents are coagulase negative Staphylococci, followed by S. aureus. No differences were registered between the genders. Polyresistance among gram-negative uropathogens is high.

  10. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  11. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  12. Fuel thermal behaviour

    The interest in the thermal behaviour of the fuel mainly comes from the safety criterion which prohibit any fuel melting in the pins. Due to the gap lying between fuel and cladding, the highest temperatures are most probably occurring at Beginning Of Life (BOL) before completion of the central hole formation and before any substantial gap closure has taken place. However it cannot be ruled out that after some burn up the thermal transfer between fuel and cladding becomes worse than it was at BOL Then if the power does not decrease the maximum temperature might become higher than at (BOL). In order to get an overall experimental validation of our thermal calculations we need to cover the entire range of the pin life. Actually the method cannot be the same for BOL and end of life (EOL). For BOL it is possible to get a direct thermal measure through thermocouples, but this method is no longer practical after some days due to the failure of the thermocouples under neutrons flux at the temperatures of interest. This failure may happen before or after complete gap closure is reached and the rate of gap closure is especially meaningful for the BOL thermal behaviour. Another aspect of the thermal behaviour is the statistical one which may be obtained by the post-irradiation examination of the fuel microstructure, although it is not a proper way to get the absolute temperatures in the fuel, it is one of the most direct ones to have an insight in fuel thermal dispersion at BOL and over-heating at EOL

  13. Adaptive Modular Playware

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s...

  14. Extinction of Remotely Acquired Fear Depends on an Inhibitory NR2B/PKA Pathway in the Retrosplenial Cortex

    Corcoran, Kevin A.; Leaderbrand, Katherine; Radulovic, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    As memories age, their processing increasingly relies upon cortical rather than hippocampal circuits, but the adaptive significance and mechanisms of this shift are not fully understood. Here we investigated the behavioral features and cortical mechanisms underlying extinction of remotely versus recently acquired context fear in mice. Behaviorally, extinction and reinstatement were similar, but re-extinction of remote fear was significantly faster, suggesting time-dependent engagement of mech...

  15. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  16. Breeding strategies in poultry for genetic adaptation to the organic environment

    Sørensen, Poul

    2001-01-01

    Regarding access to breeding material for laying hens to organic egg production the following can be concluded: The breeding material available is genetically adapted to the cage systems. This cage adapted material has a shortcoming regarding behaviour in larger flocks that manifest in: too high tendency to feather pecking and cannibalism, and, independent of flock size, also to many mislaid eggs. Experiments has shown that feather pecking, cannibalism and nesting behaviour can be improved...

  17. Adaptive learning fuzzy control of a mobile robot

    In this report a problem is studied to construct a fuzzy controller for a mobile robot to move autonomously along a given reference direction curve, for which control rules are generated and acquired through an adaptive learning process. An adaptive learning fuzzy controller has been developed for a mobile robot. Good properties of the controller are shown through the travelling experiments of the mobile robot. (author)

  18. Efficient and Portable Middleware for Application-level Adaptation

    Rao, Deepak

    2001-01-01

    Software-intensive systems operating in a shared environment must utilize a â request, acquire and releaseâ protocol. In the popular client-server architecture resource-poor clients rely on servers for the needed capabilities. With mobile clients using wireless connectivity, the disparity in resource needs can force the consideration of adaptation by clients, leading to a strategy of self-reliance. Achieving self-reliance through adaptation becomes even more attractive in environments, ...

  19. The ADAPT design model: towards instructional control of transfer

    Jelsma, Otto; Merrienboer, van, Jeroen J.G.; Bijlstra, Jim P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the ADAPT (Apply Delayed Automatization for Positive Transfer) design model. ADAPT is based upon production system models of learning and provides guidelines for developing instructional systems that offer transfer of leamed skills. The model suggests that transfer of training can be attributed to procedure overlap between the original training task and the transfer task, as well as to analogy between new problem solving situations and acquired co...

  20. Predicting exercise behaviour : extending the theory of planned behaviour with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated exercise behaviour over a six-week period in a theory of planned behaviour context, extended with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour. Two waves of questionnaires were used to measure behavioural intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and three dispositional variables, that is optimism, self-efficacy and action-orientation, as well as actual performance of exercise behaviour. Implementation intentions were ma...

  1. Environmental (Green) Adaptations In Manufacturer-Distributor Relationships

    Canning, L; Hanmer-Lloyd, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on interaction in business markets and describes the contribution of firm behaviour and relationship atmosphere to adaptations processes followed by firms. The theme within which the adaptation process is explored is the integration of environmental (green) issues in the buyer-seller relationship, namely, a product take-back scheme. Findings show that whilst legislation stimulates the exploration of a suitable takeback scheme between the companies, market conditions and man...

  2. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Roger Newport

    2013-01-01

    Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy partici...

  3. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde; Peter Goldsmith

    2008-01-01

    The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the cont...

  4. Adaptive coordination in surgical teams: an interview study

    Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Perry, Juliana; Guggenheim, Merlin; Manser, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective teamwork has been recognised as a major contributor to safe patient care in surgery. Previous research has highlighted the importance of adaptive coordination for effective performance in acute care settings. Expanding this line of research this study explores the coordination behaviours and adaptive coordination strategies employed by surgical teams and identifies relevant situational characteristics influencing those coordination processes. Method We conducted a qualita...

  5. Adaptive Façades System Assessment: An initial review

    Attia, Shady; Favoino, Fabio; Loonen, Roel; Petrovski, Aleksandar; Monge-Barrio, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of adaptive facades presents a challenge because there is no established evaluation strategy to systematically reach this goal and many of the available building energy standards and codes have limited applicability for such advanced facades system. This paper reviews current evaluation methods for assessing adaptive facades system through a literature review. It also discusses occupant behaviour, post occupancy evaluation and commissioning issues and presents the procedures....

  6. Cognitive adaptation training combined with assertive community treatment

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Ostergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment (ACT). Our...... purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizophrenia....

  7. Dynamic Mental Representations of Habitual Behaviours: Food Choice on a Web-Based Environment

    Rui Gaspar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AimRather than being rigid, habitual behaviours may be determined by dynamic mental representations that can adapt to context changes. This adaptive potential may result from particular conditions dependent on the interaction between two sources of mental constructs activation: perceived context applicability and cognitive accessibility.MethodTwo web-shopping simulations offering the choice between habitually chosen and non-habitually chosen food products were presented to participants. This considered two choice contexts differing in the habitual behaviour perceived applicability (low vs. high and a measure of habitual behaviour chronicity.ResultsStudy 1 demonstrated a perceived applicability effect, with more habitual (non-organic than non-habitual (organic food products chosen in a high perceived applicability (familiar than in a low perceived applicability (new context. The adaptive potential of habitual behaviour was evident in the habitual products choice consistency across three successive choices, despite the decrease in perceived applicability. Study 2 evidenced the adaptive potential in strong habitual behaviour participants – high chronic accessibility – who chose a habitual product (milk more than a non-habitual product (orange juice, even when perceived applicability was reduced (new context.ConclusionResults portray consumers as adaptive decision makers that can flexibly cope with changes in their (inner and outer choice contexts.

  8. Stereoscopic motion analysis in densely packed clusters: 3D analysis of the shimmering behaviour in Giant honey bees

    Hoetzl Thomas; Ruether Matthias; Weihmann Frank; Maurer Michael; Kastberger Gerald; Kranner Ilse; Bischof Horst

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The detailed interpretation of mass phenomena such as human escape panic or swarm behaviour in birds, fish and insects requires detailed analysis of the 3D movements of individual participants. Here, we describe the adaptation of a 3D stereoscopic imaging method to measure the positional coordinates of individual agents in densely packed clusters. The method was applied to study behavioural aspects of shimmering in Giant honeybees, a collective defence behaviour that deter...

  9. Behavioural and neural plasticity of ocular motor control: changes in performance and fMRI activity following antisaccade training

    Sharna Jamadar; Beth P Johnson; Joanne Fielding

    2015-01-01

    The antisaccade task provides a model paradigm that sets the inhibition of a reflexively driven behaviour against the volitional control of a goal-directed behaviour. The stability and adaptability of antisaccade performance was investigated in 23 neurologically healthy individuals. Behaviour and brain function were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and immediately following two weeks of daily antisaccade training. Participants performed antisaccade trials f...

  10. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

    Sorin Toma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing within the crisis context for the retail sector.

  11. Nonsuicidal Self-injury as a Risk Factor for Purging Onset: Negatively Reinforced Behaviours that Reduce Emotional Distress.

    Riley, Elizabeth N; Davis, Heather A; Combs, Jessica L; Jordan, Carol E; Smith, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    Both nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and purging behaviour are thought to involve harm to the self. The acquired capability for self-harm model holds that engaging in one self-harming behaviour increases the capability to tolerate harm to the self, thus increasing risk for engaging on other such behaviours. In addition, both behaviours are thought to serve the similar function of relief from distress. We thus tested whether engagement in one of these behaviours predicts the subsequent onset of the other. In a longitudinal design, 1158 first-year college women were assessed for purging and NSSI at two time points. Engagement in NSSI at time 1 predicted the college onset of purging behaviour 9 months later (OR = 2.20, p < .04, CI = 1.07-4.19) beyond prediction from time 1 binge behaviour, and purging behaviour at time 1 predicted the subsequent onset of NSSI (OR = 6.54, p < .01, CI = 1.71-25.04). These findings are consistent with the acquired capability for harm model and with the possibility that the two behaviours serve a similar function. PMID:26373703

  12. Experimental test of host specificity in a behaviour-modifying trematode

    Hernandez, R.N.; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    examined for naturally acquired brain infections. Then we selected three species representing three levels of taxonomic relatedness to a known host to experimentally evaluate their susceptibility to infection, and the effect of infection status on behaviours presumably linked to increased trophic...

  13. Adaptive Sticky Generalized Metropolis

    Fabrizio Leisen; Roberto Casarin; David Luengo; Luca Martino

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new class of adaptive Metropolis algorithms called adaptive sticky algorithms for efficient general-purpose simulation from a target probability distribution. The transition of the Metropolis chain is based on a multiple-try scheme and the different proposals are generated by adaptive nonparametric distributions. Our adaptation strategy uses the interpolation of support points from the past history of the chain as in the adaptive rejection Metropolis. The algorithm efficiency i...

  14. Not in their genes: Phenotypic flexibility, behavioural traditions and cultural evolution in wild bonnet macaques

    Anindya Sinha

    2005-02-01

    Phenotypic flexibility, or the within-genotype, context-dependent, variation in behaviour expressed by single reproductively mature individuals during their lifetimes, often impart a selective advantage to organisms and profoundly influence their survival and reproduction. Another phenomenon apparently not under direct genetic control is behavioural inheritance whereby higher animals are able to acquire information from the behaviour of others by social learning, and, through their own modified behaviour, transmit such information between individuals and across generations. Behavioural information transfer of this nature thus represents another form of inheritance that operates in many animals in tandem with the more basic genetic system. This paper examines the impact that phenotypic flexibility, behavioural inheritance and socially transmitted cultural traditions may have in shaping the structure and dynamics of a primate society – that of the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata), a primate species endemic to peninsular India. Three principal issues are considered: the role of phenotypic flexibility in shaping social behaviour, the occurrence of individual behavioural traits leading to the establishment of social traditions, and the appearance of cultural evolution amidst such social traditions. Although more prolonged observations are required, these initial findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity, behavioural inheritance and cultural traditions may be much more widespread among primates than have previously been assumed but may have escaped attention due to a preoccupation with genetic inheritance in zoological thinking.

  15. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  16. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200

  17. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder.

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process. PMID:26427638

  18. From sensor data to animal behaviour: an oystercatcher example.

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bom, Roeland; van Loon, E Emiel; Ens, Bruno J; Oosterbeek, Kees; Bouten, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Animal-borne sensors enable researchers to remotely track animals, their physiological state and body movements. Accelerometers, for example, have been used in several studies to measure body movement, posture, and energy expenditure, although predominantly in marine animals. In many studies, behaviour is often inferred from expert interpretation of sensor data and not validated with direct observations of the animal. The aim of this study was to derive models that could be used to classify oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) behaviour based on sensor data. We measured the location, speed, and tri-axial acceleration of three oystercatchers using a flexible GPS tracking system and conducted simultaneous visual observations of the behaviour of these birds in their natural environment. We then used these data to develop three supervised classification trees of behaviour and finally applied one of the models to calculate time-activity budgets. The model based on accelerometer data developed to classify three behaviours (fly, terrestrial locomotion, and no movement) was much more accurate (cross-validation error = 0.14) than the model based on GPS-speed alone (cross-validation error = 0.35). The most parsimonious acceleration model designed to classify eight behaviours could distinguish five: fly, forage, body care, stand, and sit (cross-validation error = 0.28); other behaviours that were observed, such as aggression or handling of prey, could not be distinguished. Model limitations and potential improvements are discussed. The workflow design presented in this study can facilitate model development, be adapted to a wide range of species, and together with the appropriate measurements, can foster the study of behaviour and habitat use of free living animals throughout their annual routine. PMID:22693586

  19. From sensor data to animal behaviour: an oystercatcher example.

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    Full Text Available Animal-borne sensors enable researchers to remotely track animals, their physiological state and body movements. Accelerometers, for example, have been used in several studies to measure body movement, posture, and energy expenditure, although predominantly in marine animals. In many studies, behaviour is often inferred from expert interpretation of sensor data and not validated with direct observations of the animal. The aim of this study was to derive models that could be used to classify oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus behaviour based on sensor data. We measured the location, speed, and tri-axial acceleration of three oystercatchers using a flexible GPS tracking system and conducted simultaneous visual observations of the behaviour of these birds in their natural environment. We then used these data to develop three supervised classification trees of behaviour and finally applied one of the models to calculate time-activity budgets. The model based on accelerometer data developed to classify three behaviours (fly, terrestrial locomotion, and no movement was much more accurate (cross-validation error = 0.14 than the model based on GPS-speed alone (cross-validation error = 0.35. The most parsimonious acceleration model designed to classify eight behaviours could distinguish five: fly, forage, body care, stand, and sit (cross-validation error = 0.28; other behaviours that were observed, such as aggression or handling of prey, could not be distinguished. Model limitations and potential improvements are discussed. The workflow design presented in this study can facilitate model development, be adapted to a wide range of species, and together with the appropriate measurements, can foster the study of behaviour and habitat use of free living animals throughout their annual routine.

  20. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  1. Nonverbal elements of leadership behaviour

    Schyns, Birgit; Mohr, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, we investigate the importance of nonverbal behaviour in the context of leadership. Research on the decoding of social interactions has shown that the quality or type of relationship as well as relationally relevant emotional states are transmitted nonverbally. With this in mind, we review the existing literature on nonverbal leadership behaviour, such as research on Pygmalion leadership or political leadership. The nonverbal behaviours examined in these research are...

  2. Criminalising Anti-Social Behaviour

    Andrew CORNFORD

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the justifiability of criminalising anti-social behaviour through two-step prohibitions such as the Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO). The UK government has recently proposed to abolish and replace the ASBO; however, the proposed new orders would retain many of its most controversial features. The paper begins by criticising the definition of anti-social behaviour employed in both the current legislation and the new proposals. This definition is objectionable because it ...

  3. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    Träskman Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism...

  4. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotte...

  5. Behaviour Trees for Evolutionary Robotics

    Scheper, Kirk Y. W.; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Coen C.; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this paper we show the first application of the Behaviour Tree framework to a real robotic platform using the Evolutionary Robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behaviour as compared to the traditional Neural Network formulation. As a result, the behaviour is easier to comprehend and manually ad...

  6. Does trust influence consumer behaviour?

    Dierks, Leef H.

    2007-01-01

    Against the background of diverse food scandals this article investigates the role of trust as a determinant of consumer behaviour in Germany. As empirical analyses indicate, the impact of trust on consumer behaviour in a quotidian and presumably safe setting is to be neglected. In the environment of a food scandal, however, trust proves to be a crucial element with regard to a more in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour under uncertainty. Moreover, it is analysed whether different valu...

  7. A Neural Network for Generating Adaptive Lessons

    Hassina Seridi-Bouchelaghem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sequencing technology developed in the field of intelligent tutoring systems have not find an immediate place in large-scale Web-based education. This study investigates the use of computational intelligence for adaptive lesson generation in a distance learning environment over the Web. An approach for adaptive pedagogical hypermedia document generation is proposed and implemented in a prototype called KnowledgeClass. This approach is based on a specialized artificial neural network model. The system allows automatic generation of individualised courses according to the learner’s goal and previous knowledge and can dynamically adapt the course according to the learner’s success in acquiring knowledge. Several experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems a primer

    Gros, Claudius

    2007-01-01

    We are living in an ever more complex world, an epoch where human actions can accordingly acquire far-reaching potentialities. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems are ubiquitous in the world surrounding us and require us to adapt to new realities and the way of dealing with them. This primer has been developed with the aim of conveying a wide range of "commons-sense" knowledge in the field of quantitative complex system science at an introductory level, providing an entry point to this both fascinating and vitally important subject. The approach is modular and phenomenology driven. Examples of emerging phenomena of generic importance treated in this book are: -- The small world phenomenon in social and scale-free networks. -- Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in adaptive systems. -- Life at the edge of chaos and coevolutionary avalanches resulting from the unfolding of all living. -- The concept of living dynamical systems and emotional diffusive control within cognitive system theory. Techn...

  9. Complex and Adaptive Dynamical Systems A Primer

    Gros, Claudius

    2011-01-01

    We are living in an ever more complex world, an epoch where human actions can accordingly acquire far-reaching potentialities. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems are ubiquitous in the world surrounding us and require us to adapt to new realities and the way of dealing with them. This primer has been developed with the aim of conveying a wide range of "commons-sense" knowledge in the field of quantitative complex system science at an introductory level, providing an entry point to this both fascinating and vitally important subject. The approach is modular and phenomenology driven. Examples of emerging phenomena of generic importance treated in this book are: -- The small world phenomenon in social and scale-free networks. -- Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in adaptive systems. -- Life at the edge of chaos and coevolutionary avalanches resulting from the unfolding of all living. -- The concept of living dynamical systems and emotional diffusive control within cognitive system theory. Techn...

  10. A Driving Behaviour Model of Electrical Wheelchair Users

    S. O. Onyango

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the presence of powered wheelchairs, some of the users still experience steering challenges and manoeuvring difficulties that limit their capacity of navigating effectively. For such users, steering support and assistive systems may be very necessary. To appreciate the assistance, there is need that the assistive control is adaptable to the user’s steering behaviour. This paper contributes to wheelchair steering improvement by modelling the steering behaviour of powered wheelchair users, for integration into the control system. More precisely, the modelling is based on the improved Directed Potential Field (DPF method for trajectory planning. The method has facilitated the formulation of a simple behaviour model that is also linear in parameters. To obtain the steering data for parameter identification, seven individuals participated in driving the wheelchair in different virtual worlds on the augmented platform. The obtained data facilitated the estimation of user parameters, using the ordinary least square method, with satisfactory regression analysis results.

  11. Next-generation sequencing reveals a conserved haplotype controlling parallel adaptation in geographically distant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations

    Local adaptation is the process by which different individuals of the same species are exposed to distinct forces of natural selection and populations adapt or acquire traits that provide an advantage in their local environment. Salmonid fishes exhibit extensive local adaptations due to an abundant ...

  12. Haemoglobin C and S role in acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Federica Verra

    Full Text Available A recently proposed mechanism of protection for haemoglobin C (HbC; beta6Glu-->Lys links an abnormal display of PfEMP1, an antigen involved in malaria pathogenesis, on the surface of HbC infected erythrocytes together with the observation of reduced cytoadhesion of parasitized erythrocytes and impaired rosetting in vitro. We investigated the impact of this hypothesis on the development of acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA encoding PfEMP1 in HbC in comparison with HbA and HbS carriers of Burkina Faso. We measured: i total IgG against a single VSA, A4U, and against a panel of VSA from severe malaria cases in human sera from urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso of different haemoglobin genotypes (CC, AC, AS, SC, SS; ii total IgG against recombinant proteins of P. falciparum asexual sporozoite, blood stage antigens, and parasite schizont extract; iii total IgG against tetanus toxoid. Results showed that the reported abnormal cell-surface display of PfEMP1 on HbC infected erythrocytes observed in vitro is not associated to lower anti- PfEMP1 response in vivo. Higher immune response against the VSA panel and malaria antigens were observed in all adaptive genotypes containing at least one allelic variant HbC or HbS in the low transmission urban area whereas no differences were detected in the high transmission rural area. In both contexts the response against tetanus toxoid was not influenced by the beta-globin genotype. These findings suggest that both HbC and HbS affect the early development of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. The enhanced immune reactivity in both HbC and HbS carriers supports the hypothesis that the protection against malaria of these adaptive genotypes might be at least partially mediated by acquired immunity against malaria.

  13. Experimental study of aluminium honeycomb behaviour under dynamic multiaxial loading

    Markiewicz E.; Haugou G.; Chaari F.; Zouari B.; Tounsi R.; Dammak F.

    2012-01-01

    Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system (SHPB) with large-diameter and Nylon bars introducing a shear-compression loading device is used in order to investigate the dynamic behaviour of aluminium honeycomb under multiaxial loadings conditions. All shear-compression configurations including the loading angle variation from 0∘ to 60∘ are performed with an impact velocity of about 15m/s. The adapted SHPB system with the device are validated numerically and a phenomenon of separation between the inpu...

  14. Changes in pilot control behaviour across Stewart platform motion systems

    Nieuwenhuizen, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Flight simulators provide an effective, efficient, and safe environment for practising flight-critical manoeuvres without requiring a real aircraft. Most simulators are equipped with a Stewart-type motion system, which consists of six linear actuators in a hexapod configuration. The argument for use of motion systems in simulators is derived from the presence of motion cues during flight. It is hypothesised that if pilots would train in a fixed-base simulator, they would adapt their behaviour...

  15. Hypermutation and stress adaptation in bacteria

    R. Jayaraman

    2011-08-01

    Hypermutability is a phenotype characterized by a moderate to high elevation of spontaneous mutation rates and could result from DNA replication errors, defects in error correction mechanisms and many other causes. The elevated mutation rates are helpful to organisms to adapt to sudden and unforeseen threats to survival. At the same time hypermutability also leads to the generation of many deleterious mutations which offset its adaptive value and therefore disadvantageous. Nevertheless, it is very common in nature, especially among clinical isolates of pathogens. Hypermutability is inherited by indirect (second order) selection along with the beneficial mutations generated. At large population sizes and high mutation rates many cells in the population could concurrently acquire beneficial mutations of varying adaptive (fitness) values. These lineages compete with the ancestral cells and also among themselves for fixation. The one with the ‘fittest’ mutation gets fixed ultimately while the others are lost. This has been called ‘clonal interference’ which puts a speed limit on adaptation. The original clonal interference hypothesis has been modified recently. Nonheritable (transient) hypermtability conferring significant adaptive benefits also occur during stress response although its molecular basis remains controversial. The adaptive benefits of heritable hypermutability are discussed with emphasis on host–pathogen interactions.

  16. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in competitive sports: an analysis of related personal and environmental variables

    Antonia Pelegrín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an analysis of personal and environmental variables related to aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in a sample of Spanish sports competitors. We aim to: 1 ascertain how personality and expression variables relate to trait anger control and unsportsmanlike behaviors, in relation to men and women, age groups and type of sport, 2 identify and analyze the most maladjusted and the most adjusted profiles in a sample of sportsmen and women; 3 identify personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Differences in gender, age and type of sport were appreciated in personality variables and in aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Men have better emotional adjustment (more behaviours of emotional stability, better self-esteem, self-confidence and leadership, and have worse social adjustment (fewer behaviours of tolerance, social skills and responsibility; more aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Women have better social adjustment (more behaviours of tolerance, understanding, adaptation, responsibility, discipline and sociability, and have worse emotional adjustment (greater anxiety. More aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours and greater emotional maladjustment were found in the youngest sportsmen and women. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours were more frequent in team sports. This study highlights personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours.

  17. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  18. The economics of optimal adaptation to climate change

    Callaway, J.M.; Ringius, L.

    2002-07-01

    This paper has set out to provide a consistent theoretical framework for understanding how consumers, producers and factor agents respond to the impacts of climate change, with a primary focus on the production and consumption of, and investment in, market goods and services under competitive conditions. However, we have also pointed out that this theory can be extended to economies where individuals and groups pursue other well-defined objectives, and we have provided some examples that show the consistency in adaptation behaviour between economic terms and those who maximise the objective of household nutrition. We have defined adaptation as the changes that economic agents make in the allocation of resources to consumption, production and investment to offset the effects of weather variability or climate change on their welfare. This definition is broad enough to encompass almost every conceivable kind of adaptation behaviour. Further, we have followed the distinction between adaptation that is autonomous and adaptation actions that are undertaken by governments in the form of adaptation strategies. Autonomous adaptation is adaptation that economic agents will undertake to change, without the assistance of government, to improve their welfare due to incentives that are built into the political economy of a country. Adaptation strategies involve conscious decisions by governments to undertake actions and implement projects to avoid (or benefit from) weather variability and climate change. We show how the extent to which economic activities are adapted to existing climate variability will affect how much autonomous adaptation will need to occur once the pure effect of climate change is taken into account. In this paper we argue that the ability of economic activities to adapt once the pure effect of climate change can be accounted for by the following factors: Presence of well-developed markets for inputs and outputs; Ability and competitiveness to produce

  19. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  20. Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A new study, Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Stages, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  1. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  2. The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare..

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare Program Payments, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and...

  3. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Szyf Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  4. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  5. Acquired Dyslexia in Japanese: Implications for Reading Theory

    Sato, H

    2007-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia research has been conducted mainly on English neurological patients. A limited number of dyslexia studies on non-alphabetic orthographies are available. Classical case studies for acquired dyslexia in Japanese, which has two distinctive scripts (morphographic Kanji and phonographic Kana), reported 'script-dependent' dyslexia patterns. Although recent case studies showed 'script-independent' dyslexia patterns for surface and phonological dyslexia, a 'script-independent'...

  6. Empiric antibiotic choices for community-acquired biliary tract infections

    Kuo-Kuan Chang; Chin-Lu Chang; Fang-Ting Tai; Chun-Hsiang Wang; Ruey-Chang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to reveal the most appropriate empiric antibiotics for the treatment of community-acquired biliary tract infections (CA-BTI) at a regional hospital in Taiwan. Methods: The study was performed between October 1, 2010 and October 31, 2012. All positive bile culture results of presumptive community-acquired origins were collected. The associated etiologic microorganisms and their antimicrobial susceptibilities were analyzed. The appropriateness of empiric t...

  7. Communicative Language Teaching enable students to acquire communicative competence

    2011-01-01

    English is the language of international affairs, cultures and economic systems. It is a language of wider communication. The main aim of the learners is to acquire the target language but it can be acquired easily only if the language is made use of in our daily affairs. In order to achieve that target communicative language teaching, it focuses on the language competency of the target language .Knowledge of the structure of the language is equally important in order to learn the language.

  8. Hospital acquired diarrhea in a burn center of Tehran

    Faranak Alinejad; Mitra Barati; Mahbobe Satarzadeh Tabrisi; Mohsen Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea has increased rapidly and burn patients are at high risk of getting it. Infection with C. difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline characteristics and clinical presentation of hospital-acquired diarrhea and compare C. difficile and non-C. difficile diarrhea in burn patients treated at a burn center.Materials and Methods: During a 1-year study all ...

  9. Multinational Exploration of Acquired R&D Activities

    Gammelgård, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 54 Danish multinational corporations that have acquired activities abroad. The role of the acquired R&D units was the focus of the survey, particularly with respect to the schism between basic and applied R&D, and the schism between autonomous and network R&D. This paper establishes the connection between a multinational corporation that follows a capability-motivated acquisition strategy and the R&D role new subsidiaries should pl...

  10. The Acquired Preparedness Model of Risk for Bulimic Symptom Development

    Combs, Jessica L.; Smith, Gregory T.; Flory, Kate; Simmons, Jean R.; Hill, Kelly K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors applied person-environment transaction theory to test the acquired preparedness model of eating disorder risk. The model holds that (a) middle school girls high in the trait of ineffectiveness are differentially prepared to acquire high risk expectancies for reinforcement from dieting/thinness; (b) those expectancies predict subsequent binge eating and purging; and (c) the influence of the disposition of ineffectiveness on binge eating and purging is mediated by dieting/thinness e...

  11. A Search/Crawl Framework for Automatically Acquiring Scientific Documents

    Gollapalli, Sujatha Das; Patel, Krutarth; Caragea, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advancements in search engine features, ranking methods, technologies, and the availability of programmable APIs, current-day open-access digital libraries still rely on crawl-based approaches for acquiring their underlying document collections. In this paper, we propose a novel search-driven framework for acquiring documents for scientific portals. Within our framework, publicly-available research paper titles and author names are used as queries to a Web search engine. Next, res...

  12. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. PMID:26975787

  13. Food Packaging Permeability Behaviour: A Report

    Valentina Siracusa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymer materials in food packaging field is one of the largest growing market area. Actually the optimization behaviour of packaging permeability is of crucial importance, in order to extend the food shelf-life and to reach the best engineering solution. Studying the permeability characterization of the different polymer material (homogeneous and heterogeneous polymer system to the different packaging gases, in different environmental condition, is crucial to understand if the selected material is adapted to the chosen food contact field. Temperature and humidity parameters are of crucial importance for food quality preservation, especially in real life situations, like food market, and house long-life use. The aim of this report was to collect information about the state of the art on the permeability characteristics of the polymer packages used on food field.

  14. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

    R. Margalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychopathological and behavioral determinants of HIV-positive patients. We have found that behavioral risk pattern exists in both genders and predominantely sexual in nature. Men are more compliant than women regarding treatment, but exhibit high levels in the hostility dimension. Indeed, in HIV infection, there's a limited perception of control over disease, which contributes to an adaptation guided by feelings of inadequacy. We underline the vulnerability in the female gender, since women had a behavioral pattern of significant risk.

  15. The capacity of animals to acquire language: do species differences have anything to say to us?

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Sevcik, R A; Rumbaugh, D M; Rubert, E

    1985-02-13

    Following the Gardners' discovery that an ape named Washoe could learn to produce and combine a number of hand movements similar to those used by deaf human beings, a variety of 'ape-language projects' sprang up. Some projects used different symbol systems, others used different training techniques, and others used different species of apes. While debate still rages regarding the appropriate way to interpret the symbolic productions of apes, three species of great apes (gorilla, orangutan, and chimpanzee) have now been credited with this capacity while no lesser apes or monkeys have been reported, at present, to have acquired such communicative skills. Among all of the claims made for the various animal species, the philosophers have entered the fray attempting to define the essence of what it is about language that makes it 'human'. This paper will compare and contrast the above positions to arrive at behavioural definitions of symbolic usage that can be applied across species. It will then present new data on a fourth ape species Pan paniscus which is proving to be the first non-human species to acquire symbolic skills in a spontaneous manner. PMID:2858874

  16. Long-period creep behaviour

    With a view to dimensioning and reliable determination of the service life of high-temperature components the following subjects are discussed: Creep data as criteria for materials selection; weld behaviour under creep stress; influence of the test atmosphere; influence of production process and initial structure; studies on creep behaviour extrapolation procedure; estimation of permissible operating periods. (orig./IHOE)

  17. Candidate genes for behavioural ecology

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ben-Sahar, Y.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Sokolowski, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behavi

  18. Reconsidering the sedentary behaviour paradigm.

    Carol Maher

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.

  19. Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour

    Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the ne

  20. Integrating Learning Styles into Adaptive E-Learning System

    Truong, Huong May

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and update on my PhD research project which focuses on integrating learning styles into adaptive e-learning system. The project, firstly, aims to develop a system to classify students' learning styles through their online learning behaviour. This will be followed by a study on the complex relationship between…