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Sample records for acoustically levitated drop

  1. Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2010-05-10

    Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

  2. Electrochemistry in an acoustically levitated drop.

    Chainani, Edward T; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2013-02-19

    Levitated drops show potential as microreactors, especially when radicals are present as reactants or products. Solid/liquid interfaces are absent or minimized, avoiding adsorption and interfacial reaction of conventional microfluidics. We report amperometric detection in an acoustically levitated drop with simultaneous ballistic addition of reactant. A gold microelectrode sensor was fabricated with a lithographic process; active electrode area was defined by a photosensitive polyimide mask. The microdisk gold working electrode of radius 19 μm was characterized using ferrocenemethanol in aqueous buffer. Using cyclic voltammetry, the electrochemically active surface area was estimated by combining a recessed microdisk electrode model with the Randles-Sevcik equation. Computer-controlled ballistic introduction of reactant droplets into the levitated drop was developed. Chronoamperometric measurements of ferrocyanide added ballistically demonstrate electrochemical monitoring using the microfabricated electrode in a levitated drop. Although concentration increases with time due to drop evaporation, the extent of concentration is predictable with a linear evaporation model. Comparison of diffusion-limited currents in pendant and levitated drops show that convection arising from acoustic levitation causes an enhancement of diffusion-limited current on the order of 16%. PMID:23351154

  3. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy.

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-07-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RALS has been successfully applied in monitoring sample dilution and preconcentration, evaporation, crystallization, an acid-base reaction, and analytes in a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy colloidal suspension. PMID:19418043

  4. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-09-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  5. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  6. Generation and characterization of surface layers on acoustically levitated drops.

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Bauerecker, Sigurd; Cammenga, Heiko K

    2007-06-15

    Surface layers of natural and technical amphiphiles, e.g., octadecanol, stearic acid and related compounds as well as perfluorinated fatty alcohols (PFA), have been investigated on the surface of acoustically levitated drops. In contrast to Langmuir troughs, traditionally used in the research of surface layers at the air-water interface, acoustic levitation offers the advantages of a minimized and contact-less technique. Although the film pressure cannot be directly adjusted on acoustically levitated drops, it runs through a wide pressure range due to the shrinking surface of an evaporating drop. During this process, different states of the generated surface layer have been identified, in particular the phase transition from the gaseous or liquid-expanded to the liquid-condensed state of surface layers of octadecanol and other related amphiphiles. Characteristic parameters, such as the relative permeation resistance and the area per molecule in a condensed surface layer, have been quantified and were found comparable to results obtained from surface layers generated on Langmuir troughs. PMID:17376468

  7. Shape oscillation of a levitated drop in an acoustic field

    Ran, Weiyu; Fredericks, Steven; Saylor, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A `star drop' refers to the patterns created when a drop, flattened by some force, is excited into shape mode oscillations. These patterns are perhaps best understood as the two dimensional analog to the more common three dimensional shape mode oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video an ultrasonic standing wave was used to levitate a liquid drop. The drop was then flattened into a disk by increasing the field strength. This flattened drop was then excited to create star drop patterns by ex...

  8. Shape oscillation of a levitated drop in an acoustic field

    Ran, Weiyu

    2013-01-01

    A `star drop' refers to the patterns created when a drop, flattened by some force, is excited into shape mode oscillations. These patterns are perhaps best understood as the two dimensional analog to the more common three dimensional shape mode oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video an ultrasonic standing wave was used to levitate a liquid drop. The drop was then flattened into a disk by increasing the field strength. This flattened drop was then excited to create star drop patterns by exciting the drop at its resonance frequency. Different oscillatory modes were induced by varying the drop radius, fluid properties, and frequency at which the field strength was modulated.

  9. Design and implementation of an efficient acoustically levitated drop reactor for in stillo measurements.

    Field, Christopher R; Scheeline, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    We present the details necessary for building an efficient acoustic drop levitator with reduced electrical power consumption and greater drop stability compared to previous designs. The system is optimized so that the levitated drop may be used as a chemical reactor. By introducing a temperature, pressure, and relative humidity sensor for feedback control of a linear actuator for adjusting resonator length, we have built a completely automated system capable of continuous levitation for extended periods of time. The result is a system capable of portable operation and interfacing with a variety of detection instrumentation for in stillo (in drop) measurements. PMID:18163744

  10. Static shape and instability of an acoustically levitated liquid drop

    Lee, C. P.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Wang, T. G.

    1991-11-01

    There have been observations that an intense sound field can break up a liquid drop in levitation by flattening it drastically through radiation pressure. Using high-speed photography, it is observed that, for a low-viscosity liquid, at a high sound intensity, ripples appear on the central membrane of the drop. At a higher intensity, the membrane may atomize by emitting satellite drops from its unstable ripples. For a general viscosity, it might also buckle upward like an umbrella and shatter, or might simply expand horizontally like a sheet and shatter. Using a disklike model for the flattened drop, the phenomenon was studied and good qualitative agreement with the observations was found. It is believed that at low viscosity, the ripples are capillary waves generated by the parametric instability excited by the membrane vibration, which is driven by the sound pressure. Atomization occurs whenever the membrane becomes so thin that the vibration is sufficiently intense. For any viscosity, the vibration leads to a Bernoulli correction in the static pressure, which is destabilizing. Buckling occurs when an existent equilibrium is unstable to a radial oscillation of the membrane because of the Bernoulli effect. Besides, the radiation stress at the rim of the flattened drop, being a suction stress, is also destabilizing, leading to the horizontal expansion and the subsequent breakup.

  11. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  12. Thermal diffusivity coefficient of glycerin determined on an acoustically levitated drop.

    Ohsaka, K; Rednikov, A; Sadhal, S S

    2002-10-01

    We present a technique that can be used to determine the thermal diffusivity coefficient of undercooled liquids that exist at temperatures below their freezing points. The technique involves levitation of a small amount of liquid in the shape of a flattened drop using an acoustic levitator and heating it with a CO2 laser. The heated drop is then allowed to cool naturally by heat loss from the surface. Due to acoustic streaming, heat loss is highly non-uniform and appears to mainly occur at the drop circumference (equatorial region). This fact allows us to relate the heat loss rate with a heat transfer model to determine the thermal diffusion coefficient. We demonstrate the feasibility of the technique using glycerin drops as a model liquid. PMID:12446319

  13. Sample Handling and Chemical Kinetics in an Acoustically Levitated Drop Microreactor

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of enzyme kinetics is an essential part of understanding the mechanisms of biochemical reactions. The typical means of studying such systems use stirred cuvettes, stopped-flow apparatus, microfluidic systems, or other small sample containers. These methods may prove to be problematic if reactants or products adsorb to or react with the container’s surface. As an alternative approach, we have developed an acoustically-levitated drop reactor eventually intended to study enzyme-catalyzed reaction kinetics related to free radical and oxidative stress chemistry. Microliter-scale droplet generation, reactant introduction, maintenance, and fluid removal are all important aspects in conducting reactions in a levitated drop. A three capillary bundle system has been developed to address these needs. We report kinetic measurements for both luminol chemiluminescence and the reaction of pyruvate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase, to demonstrate the feasibility of using a levitated drop in conjunction with the developed capillary sample handling system as a microreactor. PMID:19769373

  14. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951

  15. Digital image processing of sectorial oscillations for acoustically levitated drops and surface tension measurement

    2010-01-01

    A type of non-axisymmetric oscillations of acoustically levitated drops is excited by modulating the ultrasound field at proper frequencies. These oscillations are recorded by a high speed camera and analyzed with a digital image processing method. They are demonstrated to be the third mode sectorial oscillations, and their frequencies are found to decrease with the increase of equatorial radius of the drops, which can be described by a modified Rayleigh equation. These oscillations decay exponentially after the cessation of ultrasound field modulation. The decaying rates agree reasonably with Lamb’s prediction. The rotating rate of the drops accompanying the shape oscillations is found to be less than 1.5 rounds per second. The surface tension of aqueous ethanol has been measured according to the modified Rayleigh equation. The results agree well with previous reports, which demonstrates the possible application of this kind of sectorial oscillations in noncontact measurement of liquid surface tension.

  16. Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.

    Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 μL of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time. PMID:24460103

  17. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  18. Electrostatic Liquid-Drop-Levitation System

    Rhim, Won Kyu; Chung, San Kun; Hyson, Michael T.; Elleman, Daniel D.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic levitator has levitated drops of liquid up to 4 mm in diameter while maintaining spherical drop shapes. Stable levitation of spherical drops valuable in experiments involving super-cooling, solidification, and crystal growth.

  19. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640

  20. Particle-area dependence of mineral dust in the immersion mode: investigations with freely suspended drops in an acoustic levitator

    Diehl, K.; Debertshäuser, M.; Eppers, O.; Schmithüsen, H.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of supercooled drops were measured by using an acoustic levitator. This technique allows to freely suspending single drops in air without electrical charges thereby avoiding any electrical influences which may affect the freezing process. Heterogeneous nucleation caused by several mineral dust particles (montmorillonite, two types of illite) was investigated in the immersion mode. Drops of 1 \\unit{mm} in radius were monitored by a video camera during cooling down to -28 °C to simulate the tropospheric temperature range. The surface temperature of the drops was remotely determined with an infra-red thermometer so that the onset of freezing was indicated. For comparisons, measurements with one particle type were additionally performed in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel with drops of 340 \\unit{{μ}m} radius freely suspended. The data were interpreted regarding the particle surfaces immersed in the drops. Immersion freezing was observed in a temperature range between -13 and -26 °C in dependence of particle type and surface area per drop. The results were evaluated by applying two descriptions of heterogeneous freezing, the stochastic and the singular model.

  1. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  2. Simplified Rotation In Acoustic Levitation

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Trinh, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    New technique based on old discovery used to control orientation of object levitated acoustically in axisymmetric chamber. Method does not require expensive equipment like additional acoustic drivers of precisely adjustable amplitude, phase, and frequency. Reflecting object acts as second source of sound. If reflecting object large enough, close enough to levitated object, or focuses reflected sound sufficiently, Rayleigh torque exerted on levitated object by reflected sound controls orientation of object.

  3. Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions.

    Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2002-12-01

    Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5 x 10(3) kg/m(3) are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites." This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface. PMID:12513291

  4. Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples.

    Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2004-10-01

    The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King's theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio gamma is larger than a critical value gamma(*) ( approximately 1.9 ) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a(*) (gamma) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples ( gammaacoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval H(n) . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis. PMID:15600551

  5. 声悬浮条件下环己烷液滴的蒸发凝固%Evaporation induced solidification of cyclohexane drops under acoustic levitation condition

    杜人君; 解文军

    2011-01-01

    采用单轴式声悬浮方法研究了环己烷液滴的蒸发过程,发现环己烷液滴的蒸发可以使自身温度降至熔点以下并发生凝固.高速摄像实时观测表明,环己烷晶核开始形成于液滴赤道附近,并以枝晶方式长大,平均生长速度为12.5—160.4mm/s.进一步研究发现,声悬浮条件下平均Sherwood数与平均Nusselt数的比值Sh/Nu是在自然对流条件下的1.3倍,这表明声流边界层有效提高了环己烷液滴的蒸发速率而对传热的促进作用相对较小,因而可以使液滴降至更低温度,进而发生凝固.据此,提出了挥发性液体在声悬浮条件下发生蒸发凝固的必要条件.%The evaporation process of a cyclohexane drop is investigated by single-axis acoustic levitation method.It is found that the evaporation of the cyclohexane drop results in the decrease of its temperature below the melting point,and leading to solidification.The real-time observation with a high speed camera shows that the cyclohexane nucleates near the equator of the drop surface and grows dendritically with an average velocity ranging from 12.5 to 160.4 mm/s.Further studies indicate that the ratio Sh/Nu of the average Sherwood number to Nusselt number under acoustic levitation condition is 1.3 times of that under natural convection condition.This suggests that the acoustic streaming boundary layer effectively strengthens the evaporation but has less promotion effect on the heat transfer.Therefore,the drop temperature declines to a lower value and the evaporation induced solidification occurs under acoustic levitation condition.Accordingly,a necessary condition for the occurrence of evaporation induced solidification of volatile liquids is proposed.

  6. Particle surface area dependence of mineral dust in immersion freezing mode: investigations with freely suspended drops in an acoustic levitator and a vertical wind tunnel

    Diehl, K.; Debertshäuser, M.; Eppers, O.; Schmithüsen, H.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-11-01

    The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of supercooled drops were measured using an acoustic levitator. This technique allows one to freely suspend single drops in the air without any wall contact. Heterogeneous nucleation by two types of illite (illite IMt1 and illite NX) and a montmorillonite sample was investigated in the immersion mode. Drops of 1 mm in radius were monitored by a video camera while cooled down to -28 °C to simulate freezing within the tropospheric temperature range. The surface temperature of the drops was contact-free, determined with an infrared thermometer; the onset of freezing was indicated by a sudden increase of the drop surface temperature. For comparison, measurements with one particle type (illite NX) were additionally performed in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel with drops of 340 μm radius freely suspended. Immersion freezing was observed in a temperature range between -13 and -26 °C as a function of particle type and particle surface area immersed in the drops. Isothermal experiments in the wind tunnel indicated that after the cooling stage freezing still proceeds, at least during the investigated time period of 30 s. The results were evaluated by applying two descriptions of heterogeneous freezing, the stochastic and the singular model. Although the wind tunnel results do not support the time-independence of the freezing process both models are applicable for comparing the results from the two experimental techniques.

  7. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    Tarver, D. Kent

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  8. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...

  9. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  10. Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates

    Field, Christopher Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

  11. Sectorial oscillation of acoustically levitated viscous drops%声悬浮条件下黏性液滴的扇谐振荡规律研究

    邵学鹏; 解文军

    2012-01-01

    The sectorial oscillation of acoustically levitated viscous drops is investigated by applying a series of aqueous glycerol solutions (viscosity μ = 0.94-75.65 mPa.s). It is found that there exists a critical viscosity μc for a definite mode of sectorial oscillation, and that mode can be excited only when μ 〈 μc. The critical viscosities for the l = 2--9th mode sectorial oscillation are experimentally determined with a modulation amplitude to the acoustic field reaching r/= 0.23. It is found that in μc decreases approximately linearly with I. Analysis based on the parametric resonance theory indicates that in order to excite the sectorial oscillation, the equatorial radius of the drop must be perturbed over a threshold he, which is proportional to the viscosity/~ and increases with I. Therefore, the sectorial oscillations can hardly be excited to those drops with high viscosity and large oscillation modes. Both the amplitude and resonant modulating frequency width decrease with the enlargement of viscosity. No obvious effect of viscosity is found on the eigenfrequency of sectorial oscillation.%采用单轴式声悬浮方法研究了黏度μ=0.94—75.65 mPa·s的甘油-水溶液液滴的扇谐振荡规律.发现一定阶数的振荡模式存在一定的临界黏度μ_c,只有当μ〈μ_c时,该阶扇谐振荡才能被激发.实验测定了声场调制幅度η=0.23时,l=2—9阶扇谐振荡的临界黏度,发现lnμ_c与l近似呈线性递减关系.采用参数共振理论分析了黏性液滴的扇谐振荡过程,发现激发扇谐振荡的液滴赤道半径扰动阈值h_c正比于液滴黏度μ,并随l增大而增大,因此扇谐振荡难以在高黏度和高阶模式下发生.实验还发现,各阶扇谐振荡的振幅和共振频率宽度随液滴黏度增大而减小,黏度对液滴本征频率无明显影响.

  12. Acoustical-Levitation Chamber for Metallurgy

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sample moved to different positions for heating and quenching. Acoustical levitation chamber selectively excited in fundamental and second-harmonic longitudinal modes to hold sample at one of three stable postions: A, B, or C. Levitated object quickly moved from one of these positions to another by changing modes. Object rapidly quenched at A or C after heating in furnace region at B.

  13. Determining Equilibrium Position For Acoustical Levitation

    Barmatz, M. B.; Aveni, G.; Putterman, S.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium position and orientation of acoustically-levitated weightless object determined by calibration technique on Earth. From calibration data, possible to calculate equilibrium position and orientation in presence of Earth gravitation. Sample not levitated acoustically during calibration. Technique relies on Boltzmann-Ehrenfest adiabatic-invariance principle. One converts resonant-frequency-shift data into data on normalized acoustical potential energy. Minimum of energy occurs at equilibrium point. From gradients of acoustical potential energy, one calculates acoustical restoring force or torque on objects as function of deviation from equilibrium position or orientation.

  14. Acoustic levitator for containerless measurements on low temperature liquids

    Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Rey, Charles A A [Charles Ray, Inc.

    2009-01-01

    A single-axis acoustic levitator was constructed and used to levitate liquid and solid drops at temperatures from -40 to +40 C. The levitator consisted of: (i) two acoustic transducers mounted on a rigid vertical support that was bolted to an optical breadboard, (ii) a acoustic power supply that controlled acoustic intensity, relative phase of the drive to the transducers, and could modulate the acoustic forces at frequencies up to 1kHz, (iii) a video camera, and (iv) a system for providing a stream of controlled temperature gas flow over the sample. The acoustic transducers were operated at their resonant frequency of ~ 22 kHz and could produce sound pressure levels up to 160 dB. The force applied by the acoustic field could be modulated using a frequency generator to excite oscillations in the sample. Sample temperature was controlled using a modified Cryostream Plus and measured using thermocouples and an infrared thermal imager. The levitator was installed at x-ray beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source and used to investigate the structure of supercooled liquids.

  15. Acoustic levitation in the presence of gravity

    Collas, P.; Barmatz, M.; Shipley, C.

    1989-01-01

    The method of Gor'kov (1961) has been applied to derive general expressions for the total potential and force on a small spherical object in a resonant chamber in the presence of both acoustic and gravitational force fields. The levitation position is also determined in rectangular resonators for the simultaneous excitation of up to three acoustic modes, and the results are applied to the triple-axis acoustic levitator. The analysis is applied to rectangular, spherical, and cylindrical single-mode levitators that are arbitrarily oriented relative to the gravitational force field. Criteria are determined for isotropic force fields in rectangular and cylindrical resonators. It is demonstrated that an object will be situated within a volume of possible levitation positions at a point determined by the relative strength of the acoustic and gravitational fields and the orientation of the chamber relative to gravity.

  16. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  17. Matrix method for acoustic levitation simulation.

    Andrade, Marco A B; Perez, Nicolas; Buiochi, Flavio; Adamowski, Julio C

    2011-08-01

    A matrix method is presented for simulating acoustic levitators. A typical acoustic levitator consists of an ultrasonic transducer and a reflector. The matrix method is used to determine the potential for acoustic radiation force that acts on a small sphere in the standing wave field produced by the levitator. The method is based on the Rayleigh integral and it takes into account the multiple reflections that occur between the transducer and the reflector. The potential for acoustic radiation force obtained by the matrix method is validated by comparing the matrix method results with those obtained by the finite element method when using an axisymmetric model of a single-axis acoustic levitator. After validation, the method is applied in the simulation of a noncontact manipulation system consisting of two 37.9-kHz Langevin-type transducers and a plane reflector. The manipulation system allows control of the horizontal position of a small levitated sphere from -6 mm to 6 mm, which is done by changing the phase difference between the two transducers. The horizontal position of the sphere predicted by the matrix method agrees with the horizontal positions measured experimentally with a charge-coupled device camera. The main advantage of the matrix method is that it allows simulation of non-symmetric acoustic levitators without requiring much computational effort. PMID:21859587

  18. Inverse Leidenfrost Effect: Levitating Drops on Liquid Nitrogen.

    Adda-Bedia, M; Kumar, S; Lechenault, F; Moulinet, S; Schillaci, M; Vella, D

    2016-05-01

    We explore the interaction between a liquid drop (initially at room temperature) and a bath of liquid nitrogen. In this scenario, heat transfer occurs through film-boiling: a nitrogen vapor layer develops that may cause the drop to levitate at the bath surface. We report the phenomenology of this inverse Leidenfrost effect, investigating the effect of the drop size and density by using an aqueous solution of a tungsten salt to vary the drop density. We find that (depending on its size and density) a drop either levitates or instantaneously sinks into the bulk nitrogen. We begin by measuring the duration of the levitation as a function of the radius R and density ρd of the liquid drop. We find that the levitation time increases roughly linearly with drop radius but depends weakly on the drop density. However, for sufficiently large drops, R ≥ Rc(ρd), the drop sinks instantaneously; levitation does not occur. This sinking of a (relatively) hot droplet induces film-boiling, releasing a stream of vapor bubbles for a well-defined length of time. We study the duration of this immersed-drop bubbling finding similar scalings (but with different prefactors) to the levitating drop case. With these observations, we study the physical factors limiting the levitation and immersed-film-boiling times, proposing a simple model that explains the scalings observed for the duration of these phenomena, as well as the boundary of (R,ρd) parameter space that separates them. PMID:27054550

  19. Measurement of Aqueous Foam Rheology by Acoustic Levitation

    McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn; Rogers, Rich (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An experimental technique is demonstrated for acoustically levitating aqueous foam drops and exciting their spheroidal modes. This allows fundamental studies of foam-drop dynamics that provide an alternative means of estimating the viscoelastic properties of the foam. One unique advantage of the technique is the lack of interactions between the foam and container surfaces, which must be accounted for in other techniques. Results are presented in which a foam drop with gas volume fraction phi = 0.77 is levitated at 30 kHz and excited into its first quadrupole resonance at 63 +/- 3 Hz. By modeling the drop as an elastic sphere, the shear modulus of the foam was estimated at 75 +/- 3 Pa.

  20. 声悬浮液滴的表面毛细波及八阶扇谐振荡%Surface capillary wave and the eighth mode sectorial oscillation of acoustically levitated drop

    鄢振麟; 解文军; 沈昌乐; 魏炳波

    2011-01-01

    采用声悬浮方法研究了自由液滴表面的毛细波形成机理,并利用主动调制声场技术激发了液滴的八阶扇谐振荡.实验结果表明,当声场调制频率接近液滴本征频率的两倍时,液滴将由轴对称受迫振荡向非轴对称扇谐振荡模态转变.实验与理论分析证实,参数共振是毛细波与扇谐振荡的形成原因.扇谐振荡的本征频率随液滴赤道半径的增大而减小,可通过修正的Rayleigh方程来描述.%The suspension of liquid drops provides a preferable boundary condition for investigating various free surface phenomena. Here we report the observation of concentric capillary wave formed on the surface of drastically flattened water drops levitated in ultrasound. The measured wavelength of capillary wave accords well with that from the classic dispersion relation equation. The eighth mode sectorial oscillation of acoustically levitated drop is excited by the active modulation of sound pressure. It is found that these phenomena are due to parametric excitation. The capillary wave is induced when the parametric instability arises and ultrasound pressure exceeds a threshold pressure. The sectorial oscillations take place when the equatorial radius varies at twice the natural sectorial frequency of the levitated drop. The frequency of the eighth mode sectorial oscillation decreases with the increase of equatorial radius and can be well described by modifying the Rayleigh equation. Further analysis reveals the parametric excitation mechanism for this kind of oscillations.

  1. Rapid crystallization from acoustically levitated droplets.

    Cao, Hui-Ling; Yin, Da-Chuan; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Ma, Xiao-Liang; He, Jin; Guo, Wei-Hong; Xie, Xu-Zhuo; Zhou, Bo-Ru

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on an ultrasonic levitation system developed for crystallization from solution in a containerless condition. The system has been proven to be able to levitate droplets stably and grow crystals rapidly and freely from a levitated droplet. Crystals of four samples, including NaCl, NH(4)Cl, lysozyme, and proteinase K, were obtained successfully utilizing the system. The studies showed that the crystals obtained from the acoustically levitated droplets all exhibited higher growth rates, larger sizes, better shapes, fewer crystals, as well as fewer twins and shards, compared with the control on a vessel wall. The results indicated that containerless ultrasonic levitation could play a key role in improving the crystallization of both inorganic salts and proteins. The ultrasonic levitation system could be used as a ground-based microgravity simulation platform, which could swiftly perform crystallization and screening of crystallization conditions for space crystallization and other ground-based containerless techniques. Moreover, the approach could also be conveniently applied to researching the dynamics and mechanism of crystallization. In addition, the device could be used for the preparation of high-purity materials, analysis of minute or poisonous samples, study of living cells, environmental monitoring, and so on. PMID:22501088

  2. Heterogeneous Nucleation Induced by Capillary Wave During Acoustic Levitation

    吕勇军; 解文军; 魏炳波

    2003-01-01

    The rapid solidification of acoustically levitated drops of Pb-61.9 wt. %Sn eutectic alloy is accomplished. A surface morphology of spreading ripples is observed on a sample undercooled by 15 K. The ripples originate from the centre of sample surface, which is also the heterogeneous nucleation site for eutectic growth. The Faraday instability excited by forced surface vibration has brought about these ripples. They are retained in the solidified sample if the sound pressure level exceeds the threshold pressure required for the appearance of capillary waves.Theoretical calculations indicate that both the pressure and displacement maxima exist in the central part of a levitated drop. The pressure near the sample centre can promote heterogeneous nucleation, which is in agreement qualitatively with the experimental results.

  3. Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets

    Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-10-01

    The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters.

  4. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position

  5. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Pérez, Nicolás [Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Ruta 3 km 363, 60000 Paysandú (Uruguay); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, Av. Mello Moraes, 2231, 05508-030 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-01-05

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  6. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  7. Internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops during sectorial oscillations%声悬浮条件下扇谐振荡液滴的内部流动规律

    鄢振麟; 解文军; 魏炳波

    2011-01-01

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops undergoing the second and third mode sectorial oscillations has been investigated by using laser sheet illumination and high speed video techniques. Polystyrene microspheres are employed as tracer particles for visualizing flow field patterns. A numerical computation based on the Level Set method is accomplished to simulate drop shape evolution and internal flow field by solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for two phase flow. The calculated flow fields are in good agreement with experimental observations. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the region around drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of levitated drop. It is found that the fluid velocity increases as linear and quadratic functions in the radial direction for the second and third mode sectorial oscillations respectively. The calculated fluid velocity distribution is consistent with theoretical prediction.%采用激光片光源照明和高速摄影技术,并使用聚苯乙烯微球作为示踪颗粒,研究了声悬浮条件下二阶和三阶扇谐振荡液滴的内部流场.耦合Level Set方法和标记网格法数值求解了不可压两相流的Navier-Stokes方程,模拟了液滴的扇谐振荡过程中的形态演化及其内部流动状态.数值计算的流场与实验结果吻合很好.对液滴扇谐振荡过程中的内部流速分布进行定量分析,发现流速在液滴中心区域几乎为零并沿液滴自由表面方向逐渐增大.二阶和三阶扇谐振荡的内部流速沿径向分别呈线性和二次函数分布并与理论预测结果相一致.

  8. On the horizontal wobbling of an object levitated by near-field acoustic levitation.

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2007-11-01

    A circular planar object can be levitated with several hundreds of microns by ultrasonic near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). However, when both the sound source and the levitated object are circularly shaped and the center of the levitated object does not coincide with the source center, instability problem often occurs. When this happens, it becomes difficult to pick up or transport the object for the next process. In this study, when the center of the levitated object was offset from the source center, the moving direction of the levitated object was predicted by using the time averaged potential around the levitated object. The wobbling frequency of the levitated object was calculated by analyzing the nonlinear wobbling motion of the object. It was shown that the predicted wobbling frequencies agreed with measured ones well. Finally, a safe zone was suggested to avoid the unstable movement of an object. PMID:17590402

  9. Non-contact transportation using near-field acoustic levitation

    Ueha; Hashimoto; Koike

    2000-03-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation, where planar objects 10 kg in weight can levitate stably near the vibrating plate, is successfully applied both to non-contact transportation of objects and to a non-contact ultrasonic motor. Transporting apparatuses and an ultrasonic motor have been fabricated and their characteristics measured. The theory of near-field acoustic levitation both for a piston-like sound source and a flexural vibration source is also briefly described. PMID:10829622

  10. Levitation of a drop over a moving surface

    Lhuissier, Henri; Tran, Tuan; Sun, Chao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the levitation of a drop gently deposited onto the inner wall of a rotating hollow cylinder. For a sufficient velocity of the wall, the drop steadily levitates over a thin air film and reaches a stable angular position in the cylinder, where the drag and lift balance the weight of the drop. Interferometric measurement yields the three-dimensional (3D) air film thickness under the drop and reveals the asymmetry of the profile along the direction of the wall motion. A two-dimensional (2D) model is presented which explains the levitation mechanism, captures the main characteristics of the air film shape and predicts two asymptotic regimes for the film thickness $h_0$: For large drops $h_0\\sim\\ca^{2/3}\\kappa_b^{-1}$, as in the Bretherton problem, where $\\ca$ is the capillary number based on the air viscosity and $\\kappa_b$ is the curvature at the bottom of the drop. For small drops $h_0\\sim\\ca^{4/5}(a\\kappa_b)^{4/5}\\kappa_b^{-1}$, where $a$ is the capillary length.

  11. Optical measurement of acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation through transparent object

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Sasao, Yasuhiro; Katsura, Kogure; Naoki, Kondo

    2013-01-01

    It is known that macroscopic objects can be levitated for few to several hundred micrometers by near-field acoustic field and this phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). Although there are various experiments conducted to measure integrated acoustic pressure on the object surface, up to now there was no direct method to measure pressure distribution. In this study we measured the acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation via pressure-sensitive paint.

  12. Experimental studies in fluid mechanics and materials science using acoustic levitation

    Trinh, E. H.; Robey, J.; Arce, A.; Gaspar, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based and short-duration low gravity experiments have been carried out with the use of ultrasonic levitators to study the dynamics of freely suspended liquid drops under the influence of predominantly capillary and acoustic radiation forces. Some of the effects of the levitating field on the shape as well as the fluid flow fields within the drop have been determined. The development and refinement of measurement techniques using levitated drops with size on the order of 2 mm in diameter have yielded methods having direct application to experiments in microgravity. In addition, containerless melting, undercooling, and freezing of organic materials as well as low melting metals have provided experimental data and observations on the application of acoustic positioning techniques to materials studies.

  13. Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow

    Bouwhuis, Wilco; Peters, Ivo R; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of `star drops'. This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results...

  14. Theoretical and experimental examination of near-field acoustic levitation.

    Nomura, Hideyuki; Kamakura, Tomoo; Matsuda, Kazuhisa

    2002-04-01

    A planar object can be levitated stably close to a piston sound source by making use of acoustic radiation pressure. This phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation [Y. Hashimoto et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2057-2061 (1996)]. In the present article, the levitation distance is predicted theoretically by numerically solving basic equations in a compressible viscous fluid subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Additionally, experiments are carried out using a 19.5-kHz piston source with a 40-mm aperture and various aluminum disks of different sizes. The measured levitation distance agrees well with the theory, which is different from a conventional theory, and the levitation distance is not inversely proportional to the square root of the surface density of the levitated disk in a strict sense. PMID:12002842

  15. Holographic acoustic elements for manipulation of levitated objects

    Marzo, Asier; Seah, Sue Ann; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Sahoo, Deepak Ranjan; Long, Benjamin; Subramanian, Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Sound can levitate objects of different sizes and materials through air, water and tissue. This allows us to manipulate cells, liquids, compounds or living things without touching or contaminating them. However, acoustic levitation has required the targets to be enclosed with acoustic elements or had limited manoeuvrability. Here we optimize the phases used to drive an ultrasonic phased array and show that acoustic levitation can be employed to translate, rotate and manipulate particles using even a single-sided emitter. Furthermore, we introduce the holographic acoustic elements framework that permits the rapid generation of traps and provides a bridge between optical and acoustical trapping. Acoustic structures shaped as tweezers, twisters or bottles emerge as the optimum mechanisms for tractor beams or containerless transportation. Single-beam levitation could manipulate particles inside our body for applications in targeted drug delivery or acoustically controlled micro-machines that do not interfere with magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Acoustic levitation for high temperature containerless processing in space

    Rey, C. A.; Sisler, R.; Merkley, D. R.; Danley, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    New facilities for high-temperature containerless processing in space are described, including the acoustic levitation furnace (ALF), the high-temperature acoustic levitator (HAL), and the high-pressure acoustic levitator (HPAL). In the current ALF development, the maximum temperature capabilities of the levitation furnaces are 1750 C, and in the HAL development with a cold wall furnace they will exceed 2000-2500 C. The HPAL demonstrated feasibility of precursor space flight experiments on the ground in a 1 g pressurized-gas environment. Testing of lower density materials up to 1300 C has also been accomplished. It is suggested that advances in acoustic levitation techniques will result in the production of new materials such as ceramics, alloys, and optical and electronic materials.

  17. Mass spectrometry of acoustically levitated droplets.

    Westphall, Michael S; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Smith, Lloyd M

    2008-08-01

    Containerless sample handling techniques such as acoustic levitation offer potential advantages for mass spectrometry, by eliminating surfaces where undesired adsorption/desorption processes can occur. In addition, they provide a unique opportunity to study fundamental aspects of the ionization process as well as phenomena occurring at the air-droplet interface. Realizing these advantages is contingent, however, upon being able to effectively interface levitated droplets with a mass spectrometer, a challenging task that is addressed in this report. We have employed a newly developed charge and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI) technique to obtain mass spectra from a 5-microL acoustically levitated droplet containing peptides and an ionic matrix. A four-ring electrostatic lens is used in conjunction with a corona needle to produce bursts of corona ions and to direct those ions toward the droplet, resulting in droplet charging. Analyte ions are produced from the droplet by a 337-nm laser pulse and detected by an atmospheric sampling mass spectrometer. The ion generation and extraction cycle is repeated at 20 Hz, the maximum operating frequency of the laser employed. It is shown in delayed ion extraction experiments that both positive and negative ions are produced, behavior similar to that observed for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser absorption/ionization. No ion signal is observed in the absence of droplet charging. It is likely, although not yet proven, that the role of the droplet charging is to increase the strength of the electric field at the surface of the droplet, reducing charge recombination after ion desorption. PMID:18582090

  18. Resonance Shift of Single-Axis Acoustic Levitation

    XIE Wen-Jun; WEI Bing-Bo

    2007-01-01

    @@ The resonance shift due to the presence and movement of a rigid spherical sample in a single-axis acoustic levitator is studied with the boundary element method on the basis of a two-cylinder model of the levitator.The introduction of a sample into the sound pressure nodes, where it is usually levitated, reduces the resonant interval Hn (n is the mode number) between the reflector and emitter.

  19. High undercooling of bulk water during acoustic levitation

    吕勇军; 曹崇德; 魏炳波

    2003-01-01

    The experiments on undercooling of acoustically levitated water drops with the radius of 5-8 mm are carried out, and the maximum undercooling of 24 K is obtained in such a containerless state. Various factors influencing the undercoolability of water under acoustic levitation are synthetically analyzed. The experimental results indicate that impurities tend to decrease the undercooling level, whereas the dominant factor is the effect of ultrasound. The stirring and cavitation effects of ultrasound tend to stimulate the nucleation of water and prevent further bulk undercooling in experiments. The stirring effect provides some extra energy fluctuation to overcome the thermodynamic barrier for nucleation. The local high pressure caused by cavitation effect increases the local undercooling in water and stimulates nucleation before the achievement of a large bulk undercooling. According to the cooling curves, the dendrite growth velocity of ice is estimated, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction at the lower undercooling. The theoretical calculation predicts a dendrite growth velocity of 0.23 m/s corresponding to the maximum undercooling of 24 K, at which the rapid solidification of ice occurs.

  20. Dependence of acoustic levitation capabilities on geometric parameters.

    Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2002-08-01

    A two-cylinder model incorporating boundary element method simulations is developed, which builds up the relationship between the levitation capabilities and the geometric parameters of a single-axis acoustic levitator with reference to wavelength. This model proves to be successful in predicting resonant modes of the acoustic field and explaining axial symmetry deviation of the levitated samples near the reflector and emitter. Concave reflecting surfaces of a spherical cap, a paraboloid, and a hyperboloid of revolution are investigated systematically with regard to the dependence of the levitation force on the section radius R(b) and curvature radius R (or depth D) of the reflector. It is found that the levitation force can be remarkably enhanced by choosing an optimum value of R or D, and the possible degree of this enhancement for spherically curved reflectors is the largest. The degree of levitation force enhancement by this means can also be facilitated by enlarging R(b) and employing a lower resonant mode. The deviation of the sample near the reflector is found likely to occur in case of smaller R(b), larger D, and a higher resonant mode. The calculated dependence of levitation force on R, R(b), and the resonant mode is also verified by experiment and finally demonstrated to be in good agreement with experimental results, in which considerably a strong levitation force is achieved to levitate an iridium sphere which has the largest density of 22.6 g/cm(3). PMID:12241309

  1. Parametric study of single-axis acoustic levitation

    Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2001-08-06

    Remarkable enhancement of the single-axis acoustic levitation force is achieved by properly curving the surface and enlarging the section of the reflector so as to levitate high density material like tungsten ({rho}{sub s}=18.92g/cm{sup 3}). A two-cylinder model incorporating the boundary element method simulations is presented for systematic study of the relationship between levitation capabilities and geometric parameters. The model proves to be successful in predicting resonant modes and explaining deviation of the levitated samples near the reflector and driver. The dependence of levitation force on resonant mode, reflector section radius R{sub b} and curvature radius R is revealed and summarized, which agrees with the experiment in principle and suggests that a reflector with large R{sub b} and small R (when R{sub b}/{lambda}{>=}0.982) working under mode 1 assures better levitation capabilities. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Containerless solidification of acoustically levitated Ni-Sn eutectic alloy

    Geng, D.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B. [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an (China)

    2012-10-15

    Containerless solidification of Ni-18.7at%Sn eutectic alloy has been achieved with a single-axis acoustic levitator. The temperature, motion, and oscillation of the sample were monitored by a high speed camera. The temperature of the sample can be determined from its image brightness, although the sample moves vertically and horizontally during levitation. The experimentally observed frequency of vertical motion is in good agreement with theoretical prediction. The sample undergoes shape oscillation before solidification finishes. The solidification microstructure of this alloy consists of a mixture of anomalous eutectic plus regular lamellar eutectic. This indicates the achievement of rapid solidification under acoustic levitation condition. (orig.)

  3. Containerless solidification of acoustically levitated Ni-Sn eutectic alloy

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2012-10-01

    Containerless solidification of Ni-18.7at%Sn eutectic alloy has been achieved with a single-axis acoustic levitator. The temperature, motion, and oscillation of the sample were monitored by a high speed camera. The temperature of the sample can be determined from its image brightness, although the sample moves vertically and horizontally during levitation. The experimentally observed frequency of vertical motion is in good agreement with theoretical prediction. The sample undergoes shape oscillation before solidification finishes. The solidification microstructure of this alloy consists of a mixture of anomalous eutectic plus regular lamellar eutectic. This indicates the achievement of rapid solidification under acoustic levitation condition.

  4. Acoustic levitation: recent developments and emerging opportunities in biomaterials research.

    Weber, Richard J K; Benmore, Chris J; Tumber, Sonia K; Tailor, Amit N; Rey, Charles A; Taylor, Lynne S; Byrn, Stephen R

    2012-04-01

    Containerless sample environments (levitation) are useful for study of nucleation, supercooling, and vitrification and for synthesis of new materials, often with non-equilibrium structures. Elimination of extrinsic nucleation by container walls extends access to supercooled and supersaturated liquids under high-purity conditions. Acoustic levitation is well suited to the study of liquids including aqueous solutions, organics, soft materials, polymers, and pharmaceuticals at around room temperature. This article briefly reviews recent developments and applications of acoustic levitation in materials R&D. Examples of experiments yielding amorphous pharmaceutical materials are presented. The implementation and results of experiments on supercooled and supersaturated liquids using an acoustic levitator at a high-energy X-ray beamline are described. PMID:22038123

  5. (abstract) Production and Levitation of Free Drops of Liquid Helium

    Paine, C. G.; Petrac, D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    We are interested in the nucleation and behavior of quantized vorticies and surface excitations in free drops of superfluid helium. We have constructed an apparatus to maintain liquid helium drops isolated from any material container in the Earth's gravitational field, and have investigated two techniques for generating and introducing liquid drops into the region of confinement. The levitation apparatus utilizes the electrostatic force acting upon a charged liquid drop to counteract the gravitational force, with drop position stability provided by a static magnetic field acting upon the helium diamagnetic moment. Electrically neutral superfluid drops have been produced with a miniature thermomechanical pump; for a given configuration the liquid initial velocity has been varied up to several centimeters per second. Liquid drops carrying either net positive or negative charge are produced by an electrode which generates a flow of ionized liquid from the bulk liquid surface. Potentials of less than one thousand volts to several thousand volts are required. The mass flow is controlled by varying duration of the ionizing voltage pulse; drops as small as 30 micrometers diameter, charged to near the Rayleigh limit, have been observed.

  6. Green chemistry and nanofabrication in a levitated Leidenfrost drop

    Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Disci-Zayed, Duygu; Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Pöhls, Jan-Hendrik; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Erkartal, Burak; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz; Elbahri, Mady

    2013-10-01

    Green nanotechnology focuses on the development of new and sustainable methods of creating nanoparticles, their localized assembly and integration into useful systems and devices in a cost-effective, simple and eco-friendly manner. Here we present our experimental findings on the use of the Leidenfrost drop as an overheated and charged green chemical reactor. Employing a droplet of aqueous solution on hot substrates, this method is capable of fabricating nanoparticles, creating nanoscale coatings on complex objects and designing porous metal in suspension and foam form, all in a levitated Leidenfrost drop. As examples of the potential applications of the Leidenfrost drop, fabrication of nanoporous black gold as a plasmonic wideband superabsorber, and synthesis of superhydrophilic and thermal resistive metal-polymer hybrid foams are demonstrated. We believe that the presented nanofabrication method may be a promising strategy towards the sustainable production of functional nanomaterials.

  7. Space Environment Simulation for Material Processing by Acoustic Levitation

    解文军; 魏炳波

    2001-01-01

    Single-axis acoustic levitation of four polymer samples has been realized in air under the ground-based laboratory conditions for the purpose of space environment simulation of containerless processing. The levitation capabilities are investigated by numerical calculations based on a model of the boundary element method corresponding to our levitator and following Gor'kov and Barmatz's method. The calculated results, such as the resonant distance between the reflector and the vibrating source and the positions of levitated samples, agree well with experimental observation, and the effect of gravity on the time-averaged potential for levitation force is also revealed. As an application, the containerless melting and solidification of a liquid crystal, 4-Pentylphenyl-4'-methybenzoate, is successfully accomplished, in which undercooling up to 16 K is obtained and the rotation and oscillation of the sample during solidification may result in fragmentation of the usual radiating surface growth morphology.

  8. Structure analysis using acoustically levitated droplets.

    Leiterer, J; Delissen, F; Emmerling, F; Thünemann, A F; Panne, U

    2008-06-01

    Synchrotron diffraction with a micrometer-sized X-ray beam permits the efficient characterization of micrometer-sized samples, even in time-resolved experiments, which is important because often the amount of sample available is small and/or the sample is expensive. In this context, we will present acoustic levitation as a useful sample handling method for small solid and liquid samples, which are suspended in a gaseous environment (air) by means of a stationary ultrasonic field. A study of agglomeration and crystallization processes in situ was performed by continuously increasing the concentration of the samples by evaporating the solvent. Absorption and contamination processes on the sample container walls were suppressed strongly by this procedure, and parasitic scattering such as that observed when using glass capillaries was also absent. The samples investigated were either dissolved or dispersed in water droplets with diameters in the range of 1 micrometer to 2 millimeters. Initial results from time-resolved synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements of ascorbic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, apoferritin, and colloidal gold are presented. PMID:18373085

  9. Experimental determination of the dynamics of an acoustically levitated sphere

    Pérez, Nicolás; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Canetti, Rafael; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2014-11-01

    Levitation of solids and liquids by ultrasonic standing waves is a promising technique to manipulate materials without contact. When a small particle is introduced in certain areas of a standing wave field, the acoustic radiation force pushes the particle to the pressure node. This movement is followed by oscillations of the levitated particle. Aiming to investigate the particle oscillations in acoustic levitation, this paper presents the experimental and numerical characterization of the dynamic behavior of a levitated sphere. To obtain the experimental response, a small sphere is lifted by the acoustic radiation force. After the sphere lift, it presents a damped oscillatory behavior, which is recorded by a high speed camera. To model this behavior, a mass-spring-damper system is proposed. In this model, the acoustic radiation force that acts on the sphere is theoretically predicted by the Gor'kov theory and the viscous forces are modeled by two damping terms, one term proportional to the square of the velocity and another term proportional to the particle velocity. The proposed model was experimentally verified by using different values of sound pressure amplitude. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows that the model can accurately describe the oscillatory behavior of the sphere in an acoustic levitator.

  10. Experimental determination of the dynamics of an acoustically levitated sphere

    Pérez, Nicolás, E-mail: nico@fisica.edu.uy [Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Paysandú (Uruguay); Andrade, Marco A. B. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Canetti, Rafael [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-14

    Levitation of solids and liquids by ultrasonic standing waves is a promising technique to manipulate materials without contact. When a small particle is introduced in certain areas of a standing wave field, the acoustic radiation force pushes the particle to the pressure node. This movement is followed by oscillations of the levitated particle. Aiming to investigate the particle oscillations in acoustic levitation, this paper presents the experimental and numerical characterization of the dynamic behavior of a levitated sphere. To obtain the experimental response, a small sphere is lifted by the acoustic radiation force. After the sphere lift, it presents a damped oscillatory behavior, which is recorded by a high speed camera. To model this behavior, a mass-spring-damper system is proposed. In this model, the acoustic radiation force that acts on the sphere is theoretically predicted by the Gor'kov theory and the viscous forces are modeled by two damping terms, one term proportional to the square of the velocity and another term proportional to the particle velocity. The proposed model was experimentally verified by using different values of sound pressure amplitude. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows that the model can accurately describe the oscillatory behavior of the sphere in an acoustic levitator.

  11. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    贾兵; 陈超; 赵淳生

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to severa/velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange--Euler (ALE) form are numericaJly solved by using streamline upwind petrov gaJerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed a/gebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object.

  12. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    Jia, Bing; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Chun-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange—Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object.

  13. Anomalous water drop bouncing on a nanotextured surface by the Leidenfrost levitation

    Lee, Doo Jin; Song, Young Seok

    2016-05-01

    We report an anomalous liquid drop bouncing phenomenon that is generated by the Leidenfrost levitation due to a vapor layer reducing energy dissipation during the collision. The Leidenfrost levitation of water drops on both a hydrophobic surface and nanotextured Cassie surface is investigated. When the water drop is positioned onto the hydrophobic surface, a superhydrophobic feature is observed by the levitation effect due to the vapor film, which results in a slow evaporation of the drop due to the low thermal conductivity of the vapor layer that inhibits heat transfer between the heated surface and the water drop. In contrast, for the nanotextured surface, the water drop can bounce off after impact on the surface when it overcomes gravitational and adhesion forces. The spontaneous water drop bouncing on the nanotextured surface is powered by the combination effect of the Leidenfrost levitation and the non-wetting Cassie state.

  14. Acoustic levitation with self-adaptive flexible reflectors.

    Hong, Z Y; Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2011-07-01

    Two kinds of flexible reflectors are proposed and examined in this paper to improve the stability of single-axis acoustic levitator, especially in the case of levitating high-density and high-temperature samples. One kind is those with a deformable reflecting surface, and the other kind is those with an elastic support, both of which are self-adaptive to the change of acoustic radiation pressure. High-density materials such as iridium (density 22.6 gcm(-3)) are stably levitated at room temperature with a soft reflector made of colloid as well as a rigid reflector supported by a spring. In addition, the containerless melting and solidification of binary In-Bi eutectic alloy (melting point 345.8 K) and ternary Ag-Cu-Ge eutectic alloy (melting point 812 K) are successfully achieved by applying the elastically supported reflector with the assistance of a laser beam. PMID:21806218

  15. Acoustically levitated droplets: a contactless sampling method for fluorescence studies.

    Leiterer, Jork; Grabolle, Markus; Rurack, Knut; Resch-Genger, Ute; Ziegler, Jan; Nann, Thomas; Panne, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic levitation is used as a new tool to study concentration-dependent processes in fluorescence spectroscopy. With this technique, small amounts of liquid and solid samples can be measured without the need for sample supports or containers, which often limits signal acquisition and can even alter sample properties due to interactions with the support material. We demonstrate that, because of the small sample volume, fluorescence measurements at high concentrations of an organic dye are possible without the limitation of inner-filter effects, which hamper such experiments in conventional, cuvette-based measurements. Furthermore, we show that acoustic levitation of liquid samples provides an experimentally simple way to study distance-dependent fluorescence modulations in semiconductor nanocrystals. The evaporation of the solvent during levitation leads to a continuous increase of solute concentration and can easily be monitored by laser-induced fluorescence. PMID:18596335

  16. Nonlinear characterization of a single-axis acoustic levitator

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Ramos, Tiago S.; Okina, Fábio T. A.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear behavior of a 20.3 kHz single-axis acoustic levitator formed by a Langevin transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector is experimentally investigated. In this study, a laser Doppler vibrometer is applied to measure the nonlinear sound field in the air gap between the transducer and the reflector. Additionally, an electronic balance is used in the measurement of the acoustic radiation force on the reflector as a function of the distance between the transducer and the reflector. The experimental results show some effects that cannot be described by the linear acoustic theory, such as the jump phenomenon, harmonic generation, and the hysteresis effect. The influence of these nonlinear effects on the acoustic levitation of small particles is discussed.

  17. Nonlinear characterization of a single-axis acoustic levitator

    Andrade, Marco A. B. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Ramos, Tiago S.; Okina, Fábio T. A.; Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The nonlinear behavior of a 20.3 kHz single-axis acoustic levitator formed by a Langevin transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector is experimentally investigated. In this study, a laser Doppler vibrometer is applied to measure the nonlinear sound field in the air gap between the transducer and the reflector. Additionally, an electronic balance is used in the measurement of the acoustic radiation force on the reflector as a function of the distance between the transducer and the reflector. The experimental results show some effects that cannot be described by the linear acoustic theory, such as the jump phenomenon, harmonic generation, and the hysteresis effect. The influence of these nonlinear effects on the acoustic levitation of small particles is discussed.

  18. Surface wave patterns on acoustically levitated viscous liquid alloys

    Hong, Z. Y.; Yan, N.; Geng, D. L.; Wei, B.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate two different kinds of surface wave patterns on viscous liquid alloys, which are melted and solidified under acoustic levitation condition. These patterns are consistent with the morphologies of standing capillary waves and ensembles of oscillons, respectively. The rapid solidification of two-dimensional liquid alloy surfaces may hold them down.

  19. A wall-free climate unit for acoustic levitators

    Schlegel, M. C.; Wenzel, K.-J.; Sarfraz, A.; Panne, U.; Emmerling, F.

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic levitation represents the physical background of trapping a sample in a standing acoustic wave with no contact to the wave generating device. For the last three decades, sample holders based on this effect have been commonly used for contact free handling of samples coupled with a number of analytical techniques. In this study, a wall-free climate unit is presented, which allows the control of the environmental conditions of suspended samples. The insulation is based on a continuous cold/hot gas flow around the sample and thus does not require any additional isolation material. This provides a direct access to the levitated sample and circumvents any influence of the climate unit material to the running analyses.

  20. Acoustic levitation and the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle

    Putterman, S.; Rudnick, Joseph; Barmatz, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle of adiabatic invariance relates the acoustic potential acting on a sample positioned in a single-mode cavity to the shift in resonant frequency caused by the presence of this sample. This general and simple relation applies to samples and cavities of arbitrary shape, dimension, and compressibility. Positioning forces and torques can, therefore, be determined from straightforward measurements of frequency shifts. Applications to the Rayleigh disk phenomenon and levitated cylinders are presented.

  1. Acoustic levitator for contactless motion and merging of large droplets in air

    Bjelobrk, Nada; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-09-01

    Large droplet transport in a line-focussed acoustic manipulator in terms of maximum droplet size is achieved by employing a driving voltage control mechanism. The maximum volume of the transported droplets in the order of few microliters is thereby increased by three orders of magnitude compared to the constant voltage case, widening the application field of this method significantly. A drop-on-demand droplet generator is used to supply the liquid droplets into the system. The ejected sequence of picoliter-size droplets is guided along trajectories by the acoustic field and accumulates at the selected pressure node, merging into a single large droplet. Droplet movement is achieved by varying the reflector height. This also changes the intensity of the radiation pressure during droplet movement, which in turn could atomise the droplet. The acoustic force is adjusted by regulating the driving voltage of the actuator to keep the liquid droplet suspended in air and to prevent atomisation. In the herein presented levitation concept, liquids with a wide range of surface tension (water and tetradecane were tested) can be transported over distances of several mm. The aspect ratio of the droplet in the acoustic field is shown to be a good indicator for radiation pressure intensity and is kept between 1.1 and 1.4 during droplet transport. Despite certain limitations with volatile liquids, the presented acoustic levitator concept has the potential to expand the range of analytical characterisation and manipulation methods in applications ranging from chemistry and biology.

  2. Sectorial oscillation of acoustically levitated nanoparticle-coated droplet

    Zang, Duyang; Chen, Zhen; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of a third mode sectorial oscillation of nanoparticle-coated droplets using acoustic levitation in combination with active modulation. The presence of nanoparticles at the droplet surface changes its oscillation amplitude and frequency. A model linking the interfacial rheology and oscillation dynamics has been proposed in which the compression modulus ɛ of the particle layer is introduced into the analysis. The ɛ obtained with the model is in good agreement with that obtained by the Wilhelmy plate approach, highlighting the important role of interfacial rheological properties in the sectorial oscillation of droplets.

  3. Effects of acoustic levitation on the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos

    Maria Sundvik; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Ari Salmi; Pertti Panula; Edward Hæggström

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic levitation provides potential to characterize and manipulate material such as solid particles and fluid in a wall-less environment. While attempts to levitate small animals have been made, the biological effects of such levitation have been scarcely documented. Here, our goal was to explore if zebrafish embryos can be levitated (peak pressures at the pressure node and anti-node: 135 dB and 144 dB, respectively) with no effects on early development. We levitated the embryos (n = 94) a...

  4. Holding characteristics of planar objects suspended by near-field acoustic levitation

    Matsuo; Koike; Nakamura; Ueha; Hashimoto

    2000-03-01

    The authors have found the acoustic levitation phenomenon where planar objects of 10 kg weight can be levitated near a vibration surface. This phenomenon has been studied for non-contact transportation. A circular planar object can be suspended without contacting a circular vibration plate. We have studied the holding force which acts horizontally on the levitated objects. The horizontal position of the object is stabilized by this force. In this paper, we discuss the effect of the radius of a levitated object, levitation distance, displacement amplitude of the vibration plate and the vibration mode on the suspending force. PMID:10829629

  5. The liquid phase separation of Bi-Ga hypermonotectic alloy under acoustic levitation condition

    HONG ZhenYu; L(U) YongJun; XIE WenJun; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    Containerless treatment of Bi-58.5at%Ga hypermonotectic alloy is successfully performed with acoustic levitation technique. Under acoustic levitation condition, the second phase (Ga) distributes almost homogeneously in solidification sample, opposite to macrosegregation in solidification sample under conventional condition. Stokes motion of the second liquid droplet (Ga) is significantly restrained under acoustic levitation condition. The analyses indicate that the melt vibration in the gravity direction forced by acoustic field can induce steady flow around the second liquid droplet, which influences droplet shape during its moving upward and consequently restrains Stokes motion velocity of the second liquid droplet.

  6. Single-droplet evaporation kinetics and particle formation in an acoustic levitator. Part 1: evaporation of water microdroplets assessed using boundary-layer and acoustic levitation theories.

    Schiffter, Heiko; Lee, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    The suitability of a single droplet drying acoustic levitator as a model for the spray drying of aqueous, pharmaceutically-relevant solutes used to produce protein-loaded particles has been examined. The acoustic levitator was initially evaluated by measuring the drying rates of droplets of pure water in dependence of drying-air temperature and flow rate. The measured drying rates were higher than those predicted by boundary layer theory because of the effects of primary acoustic streaming. Sherwood numbers of 2.6, 3.6, and 4.4 at drying-air temperatures of 25 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 60 degrees C were determined, respectively. Acoustic levitation theory could predict the measured drying rates and Sherwood numbers only when a forced-convection drying-air stream was used to neuralize the retarding effect of secondary acoustic streaming on evaporation rate. At still higher drying-air flow rates, the Ranz-Marshall correlation accurately predicts Sherwood number, provided a stable droplet position in the standing acoustic wave is maintained. The measured Sherwood numbers and droplet Reynolds numbers show that experiments performed in the levitator in still air are taking place effectively under conditions of substantial forced convection. The similitude of these values to those occurring in spray dryers is fortuitous for the suitability of the acoustic levitator as a droplet evaporation model for spray drying. PMID:17582811

  7. Enzyme kinetics in acoustically levitated droplets of supercooled water: a novel approach to cryoenzymology.

    Weis, David D; Nardozzi, Jonathan D

    2005-04-15

    The rate of the alkaline phosphatase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferone phosphate was measured in acoustically levitated droplets of aqueous tris (50 mM) at pH 8.5 at 22 +/- 2 degrees C and in supercooled solution at -6 +/- 2 degrees C. At 22 degrees C, the rate of product formation was in excellent agreement with the rate observed in bulk solution in a cuvette, indicating that the acoustic levitation process does not alter the enzyme activity. The rate of the reaction decreased 6-fold in supercooled solution at -6 +/- 2 degrees C. The acoustic levitator apparatus is described in detail. PMID:15828793

  8. Use of near field acoustic levitation sliding contact

    Stolarski, TA; Woolliscroft, CI

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into producing self-levitation effect using piezo-electric actuators (PZT). Self-levitation has been demonstrated and results are presented and discussed. A relationship between the levitation distance and weight of the levitating sample has been found. In addition the orientation and position of the PZTs has been found to affect the levitation distance. Modal shapes of the vibration plates used have been produced through modelling annd found to accurately...

  9. Containerless processing at high temperatures using acoustic levitation

    Rey, C. A.; Merkley, D. R.; Hampton, S.; Devos, J.; Mapes-Riordan, D.; Zatarski, M.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced techniques are presented which facilitate the development of inert or reducing atmospheres in excess of 2000 K in order to improve processing of containerless capabilities at higher temperatures and to provide more contamination-free environments. Recent testing, in the laboratory and aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft, of a high-temperature acoustic positioner demonstrated the effectiveness of a specimen motion damping system and of specimen spin control. It is found that stable positioning can be achieved under ambient and heated conditions, including the transient states of heat-up and cool-down. An incorporated high-temperature levitator was found capable of processing specimens of up to 6-mm diameter in a high-purity environment without the contaminating effects of a container at high temperatures and with relative quiescence.

  10. Effects of acoustic levitation on the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos.

    Sundvik, Maria; Nieminen, Heikki J; Salmi, Ari; Panula, Pertti; Hæggström, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic levitation provides potential to characterize and manipulate material such as solid particles and fluid in a wall-less environment. While attempts to levitate small animals have been made, the biological effects of such levitation have been scarcely documented. Here, our goal was to explore if zebrafish embryos can be levitated (peak pressures at the pressure node and anti-node: 135 dB and 144 dB, respectively) with no effects on early development. We levitated the embryos (n = 94) at 2-14 hours post fertilization (hpf) for 1000 (n = 47) or 2000 seconds (n = 47). We compared the size and number of trunk neuromasts and otoliths in sonicated samples to controls (n = 94), and found no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). While mortality rate was lower in the control group (22.3%) compared to that in the 1000 s (34.0%) and 2000 s (42.6%) levitation groups, the differences were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The results suggest that acoustic levitation for less than 2000 sec does not interfere with the development of zebrafish embryos, but may affect mortality rate. Acoustic levitation could potentially be used as a non-contacting wall-less platform for characterizing and manipulating vertebrae embryos without causing major adverse effects to their development. PMID:26337364

  11. Rapid Growth of Ice Dendrite in Acoustically Levitated and Highly Undercooled Water

    吕勇军; 解文军; 魏炳波

    2002-01-01

    Water drops with diameters ranging from 2.5 to 4 mm are highly undercooled by up to 24 K with the acousticlevitation technique. Compared to the case of water contained in a tube, acoustic levitation has efficientlyavoided the heterogeneous nucleation from container walls and consequently increased the undercooling level.However, the cavitation effect induced by ultrasound may prematurely catalyse nucleation, which hinders thefurther achievement of bulk undercooling. The growth velocity of ice dendrite determined experimentally inhighly undercooled water is characteristic of rapid dendritic growth, which reaches 0.17m/s at the undercoolingof 24 K. The Lipton-Kurz-Trivedi dendritic growth model is used to predict the kinetic characteristics of rapidgrowth of ice dendrite under high undercooling conditions, which shows good agreement with the experimentalresults.

  12. Real Time Monitoring of Containerless Microreactions in Acoustically Levitated Droplets via Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Crawford, Elizabeth A; Esen, Cemal; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2016-09-01

    Direct in-droplet (in stillo) microreaction monitoring using acoustically levitated micro droplets has been achieved by combining acoustic (ultrasonic) levitation for the first time with real time ambient tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The acoustic levitation and inherent mixing of microliter volumes of reactants (3 μL droplets), yielding total reaction volumes of 6 μL, supported monitoring the acid-catalyzed degradation reaction of erythromycin A. This reaction was chosen to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of directly monitoring in stillo microreactions via hyphenated acoustic levitation and ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The microreactions took place completely in stillo over 30, 60, and 120 s within the containerless stable central pressure node of an acoustic levitator, thus readily promoting reaction miniaturization. For the evaluation of the miniaturized in stillo reactions, the degradation reactions were also carried out in vials (in vitro) with a total reaction volume of 400 μL. The reacted in vitro mixtures (6 μL total) were similarly introduced into the acoustic levitator prior to ambient ionization MS/MS analysis. The in stillo miniaturized reactions provided immediate real-time snap-shots of the degradation process for more accurate reaction monitoring and used a fraction of the reactants, while the larger scale in vitro reactions only yielded general reaction information. PMID:27505037

  13. Green chemistry and nanofabrication in a levitated Leidenfrost drop

    Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Disci-Zayed, Duygu; Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Pöhls, Jan-Hendrik; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Erkartal, Burak; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz; Elbahri, Mady

    2013-01-01

    Green nanotechnology focuses on the development of new and sustainable methods of creating nanoparticles, their localized assembly and integration into useful systems and devices in a cost-effective, simple and eco-friendly manner. Here we present our experimental findings on the use of the Leidenfrost drop as an overheated and charged green chemical reactor. Employing a droplet of aqueous solution on hot substrates, this method is capable of fabricating nanoparticles, creating nanoscale coat...

  14. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors.

    Hong, Z Y; Lü, P; Geng, D L; Zhai, W; Yan, N; Wei, B

    2014-10-01

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope. PMID:25362441

  15. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors

    Hong, Z. Y.; Lü, P.; Geng, D. L.; Zhai, W.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-10-01

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  16. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors

    Hong, Z. Y.; Lü, P.; Geng, D. L.; Zhai, W.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  17. Modeling and experimental study on near-field acoustic levitation by flexural mode.

    Liu, Pinkuan; Li, Jin; Ding, Han; Cao, Wenwu

    2009-12-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) has been used in noncontact handling and transportation of small objects to avoid contamination. We have performed a theoretical analysis based on nonuniform vibrating surface to quantify the levitation force produced by the air film and also conducted experimental tests to verify our model. Modal analysis was performed using ANSYS on the flexural plate radiator to obtain its natural frequency of desired mode, which is used to design the measurement system. Then, the levitation force was calculated as a function of levitation distance based on squeeze gas film theory using measured amplitude and phase distributions on the vibrator surface. Compared with previous fluid-structural analyses using a uniform piston motion, our model based on the nonuniform radiating surface of the vibrator is more realistic and fits better with experimentally measured levitation force. PMID:20040404

  18. Dependence of oscillational instabilities on the amplitude of the acoustic wave in single-axis levitators

    Orozco-Santillán, Arturo; Ruiz-Boullosa, Ricardo; Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente;

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that acoustic waves exert forces on a boundary with which they interact; these forces can be so intense that they can compensate for the weight of small objects up to a few grams. In this way, it is possible to maintain solid or liquid samples levitating in a fluid, avoiding...... the use of containers, which may be undesirable for certain applications. Moreover, small samples can be manipulated by means of acoustic waves. In this paper, we report a study on the oscillational instabilities that can appear on a levitated solid sphere in single-axis acoustic devices. A theory...... proportional to the oscillation frequency of the levitated sample. We also present experimental results that show that the oscillational instabilities can be reduced if the amplitude of the acoustic wave is increased; as a result, stable conditions can be obtained where the oscillations of the sphere...

  19. Axisymmetric analysis of a tube-type acoustic levitator by a finite element method.

    Hatano, H

    1994-01-01

    A finite element approach was taken for the study of the sound field and positioning force in a tube-type acoustic levitator. An axisymmetric model, where a rigid sphere is suspended on the tube axis, was introduced to model a cylindrical chamber of a levitation tube furnace. Distributions of velocity potential, magnitudes of positioning force, and resonance frequency shifts of the chamber due to the presence of the sphere were numerically estimated in relation to the sphere's position and diameter. Experiments were additionally made to compare with the simulation. The finite element method proved to be a useful tool for analyzing and designing the tube-type levitator. PMID:18263265

  20. Schlieren imaging of the standing wave field in an ultrasonic acoustic levitator

    Rendon, Pablo Luis; Boullosa, Ricardo R.; Echeverria, Carlos; Porta, David

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model of a single axis acoustic levitator consisting of two cylinders immersed in air and directed along the same axis. The first cylinder has a flat termination and functions as a sound emitter, and the second cylinder, which is simply a refector, has the side facing the first cylinder cut out by a spherical surface. By making the first cylinder vibrate at ultrasonic frequencies a standing wave is produced in the air between the cylinders which makes it possible, by means of the acoustic radiation pressure, to levitate one or several small objects of different shapes, such as spheres or disks. We use schlieren imaging to observe the acoustic field resulting from the levitation of one or several objects, and compare these results to previous numerical approximations of the field obtained using a finite element method. The authors acknowledge financial support from DGAPA-UNAM through project PAPIIT IN109214.

  1. Modelling and closed loop control of near-field acoustically levitated objects

    Ilssar, Dotan; Flashner, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The present paper introduces a novel approach for modelling the governing, slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. This model is sufficiently simple and concise to enable designing a closed-loop controller, capable of accurate vertical positioning of a carried object. The near-field acoustic levitation phenomenon exploits the compressibility, the nonlinearity and the viscosity of the gas trapped between a rapidly oscillating surface and a freely suspended planar object, to elevate its time averaged pressure above the ambient pressure. By these means, the vertical position of loads weighing up to several kilograms can be varied between dozens and hundreds of micrometers. The simplified model developed in this paper is a second order ordinary differential equation where the height-dependent stiffness and damping terms of the gas layer are derived explicitly. This simplified model replaces a traditional model consisting of the equation of motion of the levitated object, coupled to a nonlinear...

  2. Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy of red blood cells and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites.

    Puskar, Ljiljana; Tuckermann, Rudolf; Frosch, Torsten; Popp, Jürgen; Ly, Vanalysa; McNaughton, Don; Wood, Bayden R

    2007-09-01

    Methods to probe the molecular structure of living cells are of paramount importance in understanding drug interactions and environmental influences in these complex dynamical systems. The coupling of an acoustic levitation device with a micro-Raman spectrometer provides a direct molecular probe of cellular chemistry in a containerless environment minimizing signal attenuation and eliminating the affects of adhesion to walls and interfaces. We show that the Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopic (RALS) approach can be used to monitor the heme dynamics of a levitated 5 microL suspension of red blood cells and to detect hemozoin in malaria infected cells. The spectra obtained have an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and demonstrate for the first time the utility of the technique as a diagnostic and monitoring tool for minute sample volumes of living animal cells. PMID:17713610

  3. The behavior of a liquid drop levitated and drastically flattened by an intense sound field

    Lee, C. P.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1992-01-01

    The deformation and break-up are studied of a liquid drop in levitation through the radiation pressure. Using high-speed photography ripples are observed on the central membrane of the drop, atomization of the membrane by emission of satellite drops from its unstable ripples, and shattering of the drop after upward buckling like an umbrella, or after horizontal expansion like a sheet. These effects are captured on video. The ripples are theorized to be capillary waves generated by the Faraday instability excited by the sound vibration. Atomization occurs whenever the membrane becomes so thin that the vibration is sufficiently intense. The vibration leads to a destabilizing Bernoulli correction in the static pressure. Buckling occurs when an existent equilibrium is unstable to a radial (i.e., tangential) motion of the membrane because of the Bernoulli effect. Besides, the radiation stress at the rim of the drop is a suction stress which can make equilibrium impossible, leading to the horizontal expansion and the subsequent break-up.

  4. Equilibrium shape and location of a liquid drop acoustically positioned in a resonant rectangular chamber

    Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.; Shipley, C.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a standing wave field in a rectangular chamber on the shape and location of an acoustically positioned drop or bubble is calculated. The sample deformation and equilibrium position are obtained from an analysis of the spherical harmonic projections of the total surface stress tensor. The method of calculation relies on the assumed condition that the sample is only slightly distorted from a spherical form. The equilibrium location of a levitated drop is combined with a formula introduced by Hasegawa (1979) to calcualte the ka dependence of the radiation force function. The present theory is valid for large as well as small ka values. Calculations in the small ka limit agree with previous theories and experimental results. Examples are presented for nonplane-wave modes as well as plane-wave rectangular modes.

  5. On the slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects under High excitation frequencies

    Ilssar, Dotan; Bucher, Izhak

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a simplified analytical model describing the governing dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. The simplification converts the equation of motion coupled with the partial differential equation of a compressible fluid, into a compact, second order ordinary differential equation, where the local stiffness and damping are transparent. The simplified model allows one to more easily analyse and design near-field acoustic levitation based systems, and it also helps to devise closed-loop controller algorithms for such systems. Near-field acoustic levitation employs fast ultrasonic vibrations of a driving surface and exploits the viscosity and the compressibility of a gaseous medium to achieve average, load carrying pressure. It is demonstrated that the slow dynamics dominates the transient behaviour, while the time-scale associated with the fast, ultrasonic excitation has a small presence in the oscillations of the levitated object. Indeed, the present paper formulates the slow dynamics under an ultrasonic excitation without the need to explicitly consider the latter. The simplified model is compared with a numerical scheme based on Reynolds equation and with experiments, both showing reasonably good results.

  6. A novel ultrasonic clutch using near-field acoustic levitation.

    Chang, Kuo-Tsi

    2004-10-01

    This paper investigates design, fabrication and drive of an ultrasonic clutch with two transducers. For the two transducers, one serving as a driving element of the clutch is connected to a driving shaft via a coupling, and the other serving as a slave element of the clutch is connected to a slave shaft via another coupling. The principle of ultrasonic levitation is first expressed. Then, a series-resonant inverter is used to generate AC voltages at input terminals of each transducer, and a speed measuring system with optic sensors is used to find the relationship between rotational speed of the slave shaft and applied voltage of each transducer. Moreover, contact surfaces of the two transducers are coupled by the frictional force when both the two transducers are not energized, and separated using the ultrasonic levitation when at least one of the two transducers is energized at high voltages at resonance. PMID:15358528

  7. Levitation, aggregation and separation of micro-sized particles in a Hydrodynamic Acoustic Sorter, HAS

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angelica; Bazou, Despina; Separation Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Levitation, aggregation and separation of micron-sized particulate materials can be generated in a fluidic resonator by an ultrasonic standing wave field force. A piezoelectric transducer generates standing waves between the two walls of a parallel plate channel composing the resonator. The number of pressure nodes n is given by the relationship: w = nλ / 2 with λ the wavelength. The primary radiation force generated by the standing wave generates levitation of micron-sized particles driving them toward the nodal planes. An equilibrium position is reached in the channel thickness where the acoustic force balances the gravity force. The equilibrium position is independent on particle size but it depends on the acoustic properties. Once particles reach the equilibrium position, transversal secondary forces generate aggregation. We shall present the levitation and aggregation process of latex particles and cancer cells in a 2MHz resonator. We demonstrate the possibility of separating particles under flow in a Hydrodynamic Acoustic Sorter HAS, in function of their acoustic impedance and in function of their size using a programming field force.

  8. A portable Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopic system for the identification and environmental monitoring of algal cells.

    Wood, Bayden R; Heraud, Philip; Stojkovic, Slobodanka; Morrison, Danielle; Beardall, John; McNaughton, Don

    2005-08-01

    We report the coupling of a portable Raman spectrometer to an acoustic levitation device to enable environmental monitoring and the potential taxonomic identification of microalgae. Spectra of living cells were recorded at 785 nm using a fiber-optic probe coupled to a portable Raman spectrometer. The spectra exhibit an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and clearly show bands from chlorophyll a and beta-carotene. Spectra of levitated photobleached microalgae clearly show a reduction in chlorophyll a concentration relative to beta-carotene after 10 min of exposure to a quartz halogen lamp. Spectra recorded from levitated nitrogen-limited cells also show a significant reduction in bands associated with chlorophyll a, as compared to nitrogen-replete cells. To investigate the diagnostic capability of the technique, four species of microalgae were analyzed. Good quality spectra of all four species were obtained showing varying ratios of beta-carotene to chlorophyll. The combination of an acoustic levitation device and a portable Raman spectrometer shows potential as a taxonomic and environmental monitoring tool with direct application to field studies in remote environments. PMID:16053309

  9. Acoustic levitation technique for containerless processing at high temperatures in space

    Rey, Charles A.; Merkley, Dennis R.; Hammarlund, Gregory R.; Danley, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    High temperature processing of a small specimen without a container has been demonstrated in a set of experiments using an acoustic levitation furnace in the microgravity of space. This processing technique includes the positioning, heating, melting, cooling, and solidification of a material supported without physical contact with container or other surface. The specimen is supported in a potential energy well, created by an acoustic field, which is sufficiently strong to position the specimen in the microgravity environment of space. This containerless processing apparatus has been successfully tested on the Space Shuttle during the STS-61A mission. In that experiment, three samples wer successfully levitated and processed at temperatures from 600 to 1500 C. Experiment data and results are presented.

  10. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature

    Soichiro Tsujino; Takashi Tomizaki

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinn...

  11. Experimental and numerical characterization of the sound pressure in standing wave acoustic levitators

    Stindt, A.; Andrade, M. A. B.; Albrecht, M.; Adamowski, J. C.; Panne, U.; Riedel, J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for predictions of the sound pressure distribution in acoustic levitators is based on a matrix representation of the Rayleigh integral. This method allows for a fast calculation of the acoustic field within the resonator. To make sure that the underlying assumptions and simplifications are justified, this approach was tested by a direct comparison to experimental data. The experimental sound pressure distributions were recorded by high spatially resolved frequency selective microphone scanning. To emphasize the general applicability of the two approaches, the comparative studies were conducted for four different resonator geometries. In all cases, the results show an excellent agreement, demonstrating the accuracy of the matrix method.

  12. Cavitation-induced fragmentation of an acoustically-levitated droplet

    Gonzalez Avila, Silvestre Roberto; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigate the initial sequence of events that lead to the fragmentation of a millimetre sized water droplets when interacting with a focused ns-laser pulse. The experimental results show complex processes that result from the reflection of an initial shock wave from plasma generation with the soft boundary of the levitating droplet; furthermore, when the reflected waves from the walls of the droplet refocus they leave behind a trail of microbubbles that later act as cavitation inception regions. Numerical simulations of a shock wave impacting and reflecting from a soft boundary are also reported; the simulated results show that the lowest pressure inside the droplet occurs at the equatorial plane. The results of the numerical model display good agreement with the experimental results both in time and in space.

  13. High-Pressure Transport Properties Of Fluids: Theory And Data From Levitated Drops At Combustion-Relevant Temperatures

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth; Ohsaka, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Although the high pressure multicomponent fluid conservation equations have already been derived and approximately validated for binary mixtures by this PI, the validation of the multicomponent theory is hampered by the lack of existing mixing rules for property calculations. Classical gas dynamics theory can provide property mixing-rules at low pressures exclusively. While thermal conductivity and viscosity high-pressure mixing rules have been documented in the literature, there is no such equivalent for the diffusion coefficients and the thermal diffusion factors. The primary goal of this investigation is to extend the low pressure mixing rule theory to high pressures and validate the new theory with experimental data from levitated single drops. The two properties that will be addressed are the diffusion coefficients and the thermal diffusion factors. To validate/determine the property calculations, ground-based experiments from levitated drops are being conducted.

  14. Deformation pathways and breakup modes in acoustically levitated bicomponent droplets under external heating

    Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-03-01

    Controlled breakup of droplets using heat or acoustics is pivotal in applications such as pharmaceutics, nanoparticle production, and combustion. In the current work we have identified distinct thermal acoustics-induced deformation regimes (ligaments and bubbles) and breakup dynamics in externally heated acoustically levitated bicomponent (benzene-dodecane) droplets with a wide variation in volatility of the two components (benzene is significantly more volatile than dodecane). We showcase the physical mechanism and universal behavior of droplet surface caving in leading to the inception and growth of ligaments. The caving of the top surface is governed by a balance between the acoustic pressure field and the restrictive surface tension of the droplet. The universal collapse of caving profiles for different benzene concentration (70 % by volume). The findings are portable to any similar bicomponent systems with differential volatility.

  15. Time-averaged acoustic forces acting on a rigid sphere within a wide range of radii in an axisymmetric levitator

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic levitation is a physical phenomenon that arises when the acoustic radiation pressure is strong enough to overcome gravitational force. It is a nonlinear phenomenon which can be predicted only if higher order terms are included in the acoustic field calculation. The study of acoustic levitation is usually conducted by solving the linear acoustic equation and bridging the gap with an analytical solution. Only recently, the scientific community has shown interest in the full solution of the Navier-Stokes' equation with the aim of deeply investigating the acoustic radiation pressure. We present herein a numerical model based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) and Dynamic Mesh (DM) for the calculation of the acoustic radiation pressure acting on a rigid sphere inside an axisymmetric levitator which is the most widely used and investigated type of levitators. In this work, we focus on the third resonance mode. The use of DM is new in the field of acoustic levitation, allowing a more realistic simulation of the phenomenon, since no standing wave has to be necessarily imposed as boundary condition. The radiating plate is modeled as a rigid cylinder moving sinusoidally along the central axis. The time-averaged acoustic force exerting on the sphere is calculated for different radii Rs of the sphere (0.025 to 0.5 wavelengths). It is shown that the acoustic force increases proportional to Rs3 for small radii, then decreases when the standing wave condition is violated and finally rises again in the travelling wave radiation pressure configuration. The numerical model is validated for the inviscid case with a Finite Element Method model of the linear acoustic model based on King's approximation.

  16. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature

    Tsujino, Soichiro; Tomizaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinning of the crystal within a levitating droplet ensured an efficient sampling of the reciprocal space. The datasets were processed with a program suite developed for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX). The structure, which was solved by molecular replacement, was found to be identical to the structure obtained by the conventional oscillation method for up to a 1.8-Å resolution limit. In particular, the absence of protein crystal damage resulting from the acoustic levitation was carefully established. These results represent a key step towards a fully automated sample handling and measurement pipeline, which has promising prospects for a high acquisition rate and high sample efficiency for room temperature X-ray crystallography. PMID:27150272

  17. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature.

    Tsujino, Soichiro; Tomizaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinning of the crystal within a levitating droplet ensured an efficient sampling of the reciprocal space. The datasets were processed with a program suite developed for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX). The structure, which was solved by molecular replacement, was found to be identical to the structure obtained by the conventional oscillation method for up to a 1.8-Å resolution limit. In particular, the absence of protein crystal damage resulting from the acoustic levitation was carefully established. These results represent a key step towards a fully automated sample handling and measurement pipeline, which has promising prospects for a high acquisition rate and high sample efficiency for room temperature X-ray crystallography. PMID:27150272

  18. Particle scavenging in a cylindrical ultrasonic standing wave field using levitated drops

    Merrell, Tyler; Saylor, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    A cylindrical ultrasonic standing wave field was generated in a tube containing a flow of particles and fog. Both the particles and fog drops were concentrated in the nodes of the standing wave field where they combined and then grew large enough to fall out of the system. In this way particles were scavenged from the system, cleaning the air. While this approach has been attempted using a standing wave field established between disc-shaped transducers, a cylindrical resonator has not been used for this purpose heretofore. The resonator was constructed by bolting three Langevin transducers to an aluminum tube. The benefit of the cylindrical geometry is that the acoustic energy is focused. Furthermore, the residence time of the particle in the field can be increased by increasing the length of the resonator. An additional benefit of this approach is that tubes located downstream of the resonator were acoustically excited, acting as passive resonators that enhanced the scavenging process. The performance of this system on scavenging particles is presented as a function of particle diameter and volumetric flow rate. It is noted that, when operated without particles, the setup can be used to remove drops and shows promise for liquid aerosol retention from systems where these losses can be financially disadvantageous and/or hazardous.

  19. Crystal Growth in Al72.9Ge27.1 Alloy Melt under Acoustic Levitation Conditions

    YAN Na; DAI Fu-Ping; WANG Wei-Li; WEI Bing-Bo

    2011-01-01

    The nonequilibrium solidification of liquid Al72.9Ge27.1 hypoeutectic alloy is accomplished by using single-axis acoustic levitation.A maximum undercooling of 112K (0.16TL) is obtained for the alloy melt at a coofing rate of 50 K/s. The primary (Al) phase displays a morphological transition from coarse dendrite under a normal conditions to equiaxed grain under acoustic levitation.In the (Al)+(Ge) eutectic,the (Ge) phase exhibits a conspicuous branched growth morphology.Both the primary (Al) dendrites and (Al)+(Ge) eutectics are well refined and the solute content of the primary (Al) phase is extended under acoustic levitation.The calculated and experimental results indicate that the solute trapping effect becomes more intensive with the enhancement of bulk undercooling.

  20. Supercooling of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions under acoustic levitation.

    Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2006-10-14

    The supercooling capability of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions is investigated at containerless state by using acoustic levitation method. The supercooling of water is obviously enhanced by the alkali metal ions and increases linearly with the augmentation of concentrations. Furthermore, the supercooling depends on the nature of ions and is 2-3 K larger for NaCl solution than that for KCl solution in the present concentration range: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to reveal the intrinsic correlation between supercoolability and microstructure. The translational and orientational order parameters are applied to quantitatively demonstrate the effect of ionic concentration on the hydrogen-bond network and ice melting point. The disrupted hydrogen-bond structure determines essentially the concentration dependence of supercooling. On the other hand, the introduced acoustic pressure suppresses the increase of supercooling by promoting the growth and coalescence of microbubbles, the effective nucleation catalysts, in water. However, the dissolved ions can weaken this effect, and moreover the degree varies with the ion type. This results in the different supercoolability for NaCl and KCl solutions under the acoustic levitation conditions. PMID:17042605

  1. Analysis of oscillational instabilities in acoustic levitation using the finite-difference time-domain method

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this paper has been to investigate the use of the finite-difference time-domain method to describe the interactions between a moving object and a sound field. The main objective was to simulate oscillational instabilities that appear in single-axis acoustic...... levitation devices and to describe their evolution in time to further understand the physical mechanism involved. The study shows that the method gives accurate results for steady state conditions, and that it is a promising tool for simulations with a moving object....

  2. Anomalous redispersibility behavior of glycerophosphate deyhydrogenase microparticles dried in an acoustic levitator or bench-top spray dryer.

    Lorenzen, Elke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2016-02-10

    The enzyme glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) behaves differently when dried either as single droplets in an acoustic levitator or spray dried on a bench-top machine. The GPDH in particles dried in the levitator at a drying gas temperature of 60°C could not be redispersed in water, whereas spray drying at an outlet temperature of 92°C produced denaturation but the particles were redissolvable. One difference between the two processes is that the larger levitated droplets take longer to dry than the small spray dried droplets. The slow drying process of the levitated droplet/particle apparently causes denaturation that is sufficient to make the particles non-redispersible. This does not happen on spray drying. PMID:26707244

  3. Nanoparticle agglomeration in an evaporating levitated droplet for different acoustic amplitudes

    Tijerino, Erick; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2013-01-01

    Radiatively heated levitated functional droplets with nanosilica suspensions exhibit three distinct stages namely pure evaporation, agglomeration, and finally structure formation. The temporal history of the droplet surface temperature shows two inflection points. One inflection point corresponds to a local maximum and demarcates the end of transient heating of the droplet and domination of vaporization. The second inflection point is a local minimum and indicates slowing down of the evaporation rate due to surface accumulation of nanoparticles. Morphology and final precipitation structures of levitated droplets are due to competing mechanisms of particle agglomeration, evaporation, and shape deformation. In this work, we provide a detailed analysis for each process and propose two important timescales for evaporation and agglomeration that determine the final diameter of the structure formed. It is seen that both agglomeration and evaporation timescales are similar functions of acoustic amplitude (sound pressure level), droplet size, viscosity, and density. However, we show that while the agglomeration timescale decreases with initial particle concentration, the evaporation timescale shows the opposite trend. The final normalized diameter can be shown to be dependent solely on the ratio of agglomeration to evaporation timescales for all concentrations and acoustic amplitudes. The structures also exhibit various aspect ratios (bowls, rings, spheroids) which depend on the ratio of the deformation timescale (tdef) and the agglomeration timescale (tg). For tdef

  4. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator having non-circular cross-section

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2003-11-11

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow piezoelectric crystal which has been formed with a cylindrical cross-section to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. By deforming the circular cross-section of the transducer, the acoustic force is concentrated along axial regions parallel to the axis of the transducer. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. The concentrated regions of acoustic force cause particles in the fluid to concentrate within the regions of acoustic force for separation from the fluid.

  5. Deformation pathways and breakup modes in acoustically levitated bicomponent droplets under external heating

    Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-03-01

    Controlled breakup of droplets using heat or acoustics is pivotal in applications such as pharmaceutics, nanoparticle production, and combustion. In the current work we have identified distinct thermal acoustics-induced deformation regimes (ligaments and bubbles) and breakup dynamics in externally heated acoustically levitated bicomponent (benzene-dodecane) droplets with a wide variation in volatility of the two components (benzene is significantly more volatile than dodecane). We showcase the physical mechanism and universal behavior of droplet surface caving in leading to the inception and growth of ligaments. The caving of the top surface is governed by a balance between the acoustic pressure field and the restrictive surface tension of the droplet. The universal collapse of caving profiles for different benzene concentration (force balance. Continuous caving leads to the formation of a liquid membrane-type structure which undergoes radial extension due to inertia gained during the precursor phase. The membrane subsequently closes at the rim and the kinetic energy leads to ligament formation and growth. Subsequent ligament breakup is primarily Rayleigh-Plateau type. The breakup mode shifts to diffusional entrapment-induced boiling with an increase in concentration of the volatile component (benzene >70 % by volume). The findings are portable to any similar bicomponent systems with differential volatility.

  6. Raman Spectroscopic Study Of The Dehydration Of Sulfates Using An Acoustic Levitator

    Brotton, Stephen; Kaiser, R.

    2012-10-01

    The martian orbiters, landers, and rovers identified water-bearing sulfates on the martian surface. Furthermore, the Galileo mission suggests that hydrated salts such as magnesium sulfate are present on the surface of Europa and Ganymede. To understand the hydrologic history of Mars and some of Jupiter’s and Saturn’s moons, future missions need to identify in situ the hydration states of sulfates including magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 • nH2O n = 7, 6, . . ., 0), gypsum (CaSO4 • 2H2O), bassanite (CaSO4 • 0.5H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4). Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited for this purpose, since the Raman spectrum for each different degree of hydration is unique. To obtain laboratory Raman spectra for comparison with the in situ measurements, we have developed a novel apparatus combining an acoustic levitator and a pressure-compatible process chamber. Particles with diameters between 10 µm and a few mm can be levitated at the pressure nodes of the ultrasonic standing wave. The chamber is interfaced to complimentary FTIR and Raman spectroscopic probes to characterize any chemical and physical modifications of the levitated particles. The particles can be heated to well-defined temperatures between 300 K and 1000 K using a carbon dioxide laser; the temperature of the particle will be probed via its black-body spectrum. The present apparatus enables (i) the production of high particle temperatures, (ii) precise measurement of the temperature, and (iii) accurate control of the environmental conditions (gas pressure and composition) within the chamber. Using this apparatus, we have studied the dehydration of sulfates including gypsum and epsomite (MgSO4 • 7H2O) in an anhydrous nitrogen atmosphere. We will present spectra showing the variation of the Raman spectra as gypsum, for example, is dehydrated to form anhydrite.

  7. A comparison of acoustic levitation with microgravity processing for containerless solidification of ternary Al-Cu-Sn alloy

    Yan, N.; Hong, Z. Y.; Geng, D. L.; Wei, B.

    2015-07-01

    The containerless rapid solidification of liquid ternary Al-5 %Cu-65 %Sn immiscible alloy was accomplished at both ultrasonic levitation and free fall conditions. A maximum undercooling of 185 K (0.22 T L) was obtained for the ultrasonically levitated alloy melt at a cooling rate of about 122 K s-1. Meanwhile, the cooling rate of alloy droplets in drop tube varied from 102 to 104 K s-1. The macrosegregation was effectively suppressed through the complex melt flow under ultrasonic levitation condition. In contrast, macrosegregation became conspicuous and core-shell structures with different layers were formed during free fall. The microstructure formation mechanisms during rapid solidification at containerless states were investigated in comparison with the conventional static solidification process. It was found that the liquid phase separation and structural growth kinetics may be modulated by controlling both alloy undercooling and cooling rate.

  8. Physical characteristics of single-axis acoustic levitation%单轴式声悬浮的物理特性

    解文军; 魏炳波

    2001-01-01

    Single-axis acoustic levitation was investigated by a BEM model corresponding to our levitator and the levitation characteristics were revealed.The calculated results show that strong vibrating source,low gravitational level and sound medium with large density and small sound speed will enhance the levitation ability.Meanwhile,a concave reflector with suitable curvature radius and large section radius improves the levitation capabilities of the potential well near the reflector under mode 4.%采用边界元方法对单轴式声悬浮过程中的入射声场计算,揭示了样品在声悬浮过程中的受力特性。结果表明,提高声源强度、降低重力水平或者采用密度大声速小的气体介质有利于提高声悬浮能力。另外,采用适当曲率半径和较大截面半径的凹球面反射端能够提高模式4下靠近反射面的一个悬浮位置的悬浮性能。

  9. The breakup of levitating water drops observed with a high speed camera

    C. Emersic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Collision-induced water drop breakup in a vertical wind tunnel was observed using a high speed camera for interactions between larger drop sizes (up to 7 mm diameter than have previously been experimentally observed. Three distinct collisional breakup types were observed and the drop size distributions from each were analysed for comparison with predictions of fragment distributions from larger drops by two sets of established breakup parameterisations. The observations showed some similarities with both parameterisations but also some marked differences for the breakup types that could be compared, particularly for fragments 1 mm and smaller. Modifications to the parameterisations are suggested and examined. Presented is also currently the largest dataset of bag breakup distributions observed. Differences between this and other experimental research studies and modelling parameterisations, and the associated implications for interpreting results are discussed. Additionally, the stochastic coalescence and breakup equation was solved computationally using a breakup parameterisation, and the evolving drop-size distribution for a range of initial conditions was examined. Initial cloud liquid water content was found to have the greatest influence on the resulting distribution, whereas initial drop number was found to have relatively little influence. This may have implications when considering the effect of aerosol on cloud evolution, raindrop formation and resulting drop size distributions. Calculations presented show that, using an ideal initial cloud drop-size distribution, ~1–3% of the total fragments are contributed from collisional breakup between drops of 4 and 6 mm.

  10. Structural characterization and aging of glassy pharmaceuticals made using acoustic levitation.

    Benmore, Chris J; Weber, J K R; Tailor, Amit N; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Mou, Qiushi; Weber, Warner; Neuefeind, Joerg; Byrn, Stephen R

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report the structural characterization of several amorphous drugs made using the method of quenching molten droplets suspended in an acoustic levitator. (13) C NMR, X-ray, and neutron diffraction results are discussed for glassy cinnarizine, carbamazepine, miconazole nitrate, probucol, and clotrimazole. The (13) C NMR results did not find any change in chemical bonding induced by the amorphization process. High-energy X-ray diffraction results were used to characterize the ratio of crystalline to amorphous material present in the glasses over a period of 8 months. All the glasses were stable for at least 6 months except carbamazepine, which has a strong tendency to crystallize within a few months. Neutron and X-ray pair distribution function analyses were applied to the glassy materials, and the results were compared with their crystalline counterparts. The two diffraction techniques yielded similar results in most cases and identified distinct intramolecular and intermolecular correlations. The intramolecular scattering was calculated based on the crystal structure and fit to the measured X-ray structure factor. The resulting intermolecular pair distribution functions revealed broad-nearest and next-nearest neighbor molecule-molecule correlations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1290-1300, 2013. PMID:23381910

  11. A case study of real-time monitoring of solid-state phase transformations in acoustically levitated particles using near infrared and Raman spectroscopy

    Rehder, Sönke; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Laackmann, Julian;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the amorphous-to-crystalline solid-state phase transformation kinetics of the model drug ibuprofen with spectroscopic methods during acoustic levitation. Chemical and physical information was obtained by real-time near infrared (NIRS) and Raman...... spectroscopy measurements. The recrystallisation kinetic parameters (overall recrystallisation rate constant ß and the time needed to reach 50% of the equilibrated level t(50)), were determined using a multivariate curve resolution approach. The acoustic levitation device coupled with non-invasive spectroscopy....... This observation was explained by the high energy density of the Raman laser beam, which might have led to local heating effects of the sample and thus reduced the recrystallisation onset time. It was concluded that acoustic levitation with NIR and Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate curve resolution...

  12. A new method for the estimation of high temperature radiant heat emittance by means of aero-acoustic levitation

    Greffrath, Fabian; Prieler, Robert; Telle, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    A new method for the experimental estimation of radiant heat emittance at high temperatures has been developed which involves aero-acoustic levitation of samples, laser heating and contactless temperature measurement. Radiant heat emittance values are determined from the time dependent development of the sample temperature which requires analysis of both the radiant and convective heat transfer towards the surroundings by means of fluid dynamics calculations. First results for the emittance of a corundum sample obtained with this method are presented in this article and found in good agreement with literature values.

  13. Single mode levitation and translation

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A single frequency resonance mode is applied by a transducer to acoustically levitate an object within a chamber. This process allows smooth movement of the object and suppression of unwanted levitation modes that would urge the object to a different levitation position. A plunger forms one end of the chamber, and the frequency changes as the plunger moves. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the chamber, with the acoustic energy on opposite sides being substantially 180 degrees out of phase.

  14. Three-axis acoustic device for levitation of droplets in an open gas stream and its application to examine sulfur dioxide absorption by water droplets.

    Stephens, Terrance L; Budwig, Ralph S

    2007-01-01

    Two acoustic devices to stabilize a droplet in an open gas stream (single-axis and three-axis levitators) have been designed and tested. The gas stream was provided by a jet apparatus with a 64 mm exit diameter and a uniform velocity profile. The acoustic source used was a Langevin vibrator with a concave reflector. The single-axis levitator relied primarily on the radial force from the acoustic field and was shown to be limited because of significant droplet wandering. The three-axis levitator relied on a combination of the axial and radial forces. The three-axis levitator was applied to examine droplet deformation and circulation and to investigate the uptake of SO(2) from the gas stream to the droplet. Droplets ranging in diameters from 2 to 5 mm were levitated in gas streams with velocities up to 9 ms. Droplet wandering was on the order of a half droplet diameter for a 3 mm diameter droplet. Droplet circulation ranged from the predicted Hadamard-Rybczynski pattern to a rotating droplet pattern. Droplet pH over a central volume of the droplet was measured by planar laser induced fluorescence. The results for the decay of droplet pH versus time are in general agreement with published theory and experiments. PMID:17503939

  15. Investigation of Surface-Potential Controlled Nucleation Using an Acoustic Levitation Apparatus

    Draper, Neil Donald

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was to investigate the effect that droplet surface potential has upon nucleation of a solute from levitated solution droplets; there being virtually no such investigations thereof in the current literature. An increase in droplet surface potential resulted in significant promotion to solute nucleation, as determined by the number of crystals observed, for sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone monohydrate s...

  16. Direct and indirect measurement of rain drop size distributions using an acoustic water tank disdrometer

    Several rain drop size distribution (DSD) point measurement technologies exist, but all are unable to sample either short timescales or the large drop tail of the DSD due to inherent instrumental limitations. The development of an acoustic water tank disdrometer (AWTD) is described, which improves the sampling statistics by increasing the catchment area. This is achieved by distinguishing individual drops, locating them on the surface of the tank then converting the impact pressure into a drop size. Wavelet decomposition is used to distinguish the broadband, short duration impact events and a fast multilateration method is used to position the drop. Issues relating to the different types of noise are also investigated and mitigated. Also, further work on inverting the measured acoustic intensity into a DSD, by fitting sampling distributions, is presented. Six months of data were collected in the Eastern UK. The AWTD then converted the data into DSDs and the results were compared to a commercially available co-located laser precipitation monitor. The sampling errors are far lower due to the increased catchment size, and hence the large drop sized tail of the DSD is greatly improved. DSD results compare favourably to other disdrometers for drop diameters greater than 1.8 mm. Below this size individual drops become increasingly difficult to detect and are underestimated. (paper)

  17. Acoustic microfluidics: Capillary waves and vortex currents in a spherical fluid drop

    Lebedev-Stepanov, P. V.; Rudenko, O. V.

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the radiation forces in a spherical drop lying on a solid substrate. The forces form as a result of the action of a capillary wave on a fluid as it propagates along the free spherical surface. We study the structure of acoustic currents excited by the radiation forces.

  18. A case study of real-time monitoring of solid-state phase transformations in acoustically levitated particles using near infrared and Raman spectroscopy.

    Rehder, Sönke; Wu, Jian X; Laackmann, Julian; Moritz, Hans-Ulrich; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2013-01-23

    The objective of this study was to monitor the amorphous-to-crystalline solid-state phase transformation kinetics of the model drug ibuprofen with spectroscopic methods during acoustic levitation. Chemical and physical information was obtained by real-time near infrared (NIRS) and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The recrystallisation kinetic parameters (overall recrystallisation rate constant β and the time needed to reach 50% of the equilibrated level t(50)), were determined using a multivariate curve resolution approach. The acoustic levitation device coupled with non-invasive spectroscopy enabled monitoring of the recrystallisation process of the difficult-to-handle (adhesive) amorphous sample. The application of multivariate curve resolution enabled isolation of the underlying pure spectra, which corresponded well with the reference spectra of amorphous and crystalline ibuprofen. The recrystallisation kinetic parameters were estimated from the recrystallisation profiles. While the empirical recrystallisation rate constant determined by NIR and Raman spectroscopy were comparable, the lag time for recrystallisation was significantly lower with Raman spectroscopy as compared to NIRS. This observation was explained by the high energy density of the Raman laser beam, which might have led to local heating effects of the sample and thus reduced the recrystallisation onset time. It was concluded that acoustic levitation with NIR and Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate curve resolution allowed direct determination of the recrystallisation kinetics of amorphous drugs and thus is a promising technique for monitoring solid-state phase transformations of adhesive small-sized samples during the early phase of drug development. PMID:23069619

  19. Numerical analysis of the transportation characteristics of a self-running sliding stage based on near-field acoustic levitation.

    Feng, Kai; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Miaomiao

    2015-12-01

    Owing to its distinct non-contact and oil-free characteristics, a self-running sliding stage based on near-field acoustic levitation can be used in an environment, which demands clean rooms and zero noise. This paper presents a numerical analysis on the lifting and transportation capacity of a non-contact transportation system. Two simplified structure models, namely, free vibration and force vibration models, are proposed for the study of the displacement amplitude distribution of two cases using the finite element method. After coupling the stage displacement into the film thickness, the Reynolds equation is solved by the finite difference method to obtain the lifting and thrusting forces. Parametric analyses of the effects of amplitude, frequency, and standing wave ratio (SWR) on the sliding stage dynamic performance are investigated. Numerical results show good agreement with published experimental values. The predictions also reveal that greater transportation capacity of the self-running sliding stage is generally achieved at less SWR and at higher amplitude. PMID:26723328

  20. 声悬浮及声速测定实验仪的设计%Acoustic levitation and design of sound velocity measurement instrument

    马国利

    2012-01-01

    《声速测定》是大学物理实验中比较普遍的一个综合性实验.在声速测定实验仪的基础上,改进了信号源,并制作了声悬浮配件,使其实现既可以用多种方式测量声速,又可演示声悬浮实验现象.声悬浮及声速测定实验仪悬浮稳定性强,声速测定准确,仪器造价低,使用方便,这样设计节省了实验室资源和空间.%The measurement of sound velocity is a commonly comprehensive experiment among university physics experiments. Our design idea is to, based on the original equipment, improve the signal source and make acoustic levitation parts so as to measure sound velocity in different ways; and demonstrate the experimental phenomena of acoustic levitation. The sound velocity measurement experiment instrument has strong levitation stability, accurate sound velocity measurement, low cost and convenient applications. This design saves laboratory resources and space.

  1. Magnetic Levitation.

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hull, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the principles of magnetic levitation presented in the physics classroom and applied to transportation systems. Topics discussed include three classroom demonstrations to illustrate magnetic levitation, the concept of eddy currents, lift and drag forces on a moving magnet, magnetic levitation vehicles, levitation with permanent magnets…

  2. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drop excited by surface acoustic waves: gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    Bussonière, Adrien; Brunet, Philippe; Matar, Olivier Bou

    2016-01-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or more generally by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In...

  3. Acoustic Levitation Transportation of Small Objects Using a Ring-type Vibrator

    Thomas, Gilles P. L.; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Adamowski, Julio C.; Silva, Eḿílio C. N.

    A new device for noncontact transportation of small solid objects is presented here. Ultrasonic flexural vibrations are generated along the ring shaped vibrator using two Langevin transducers and by using a reflector parallel to the vibrator, small particles are trapped at the nodal points of the resulting acoustic standing wave. The particles are then moved by generating a traveling wave along the vibrator, which can be done by modulating the vibration amplitude of the transducers. The working principle of the traveling wave along the vibrator has been modeled by the superposition of two orthogonal standing waves, and the position of the particles can be predicted by using finite element analysis of the vibrator and the resulting acoustic field. A prototype consisting of a 3 mm thick, 220 mm long, 50 mm wide and 52 mm radius aluminum ring-type vibrator and a reflector of the same length and width was built and small polystyrene spheres have been successfully transported along the straight parts of the vibrator.

  4. Fine structure of acoustic signals caused by a drop falling onto the surface of water

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Prokhorov, V. E.

    2015-08-01

    The temporal structure of sound radiation upon a drop falling onto a free liquid surface is investigated experimentally by high-resolution high-speed videorecording synchronized with a broad-band measurement of the acoustic pressure. Groups of short and relatively prolonged sound packets with frequency filling from 2 to 50 kHz and the corresponding flow patterns including the simultaneous formation of resonating bubbles and their interaction processes with an originating cavern are isolated. The temporal dependence of the determining parameter, i.e., the Weber number, which is stably reproduced in a series of experiments by a power function with a fractional index, is constructed.

  5. 声悬浮过程的格子Boltzmann方法研究%Study of acoustic levitation by lattice Boltzmann metho d

    解文军; 滕鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    采用轴对称多弛豫时间格子Boltzmann (LB)方法,研究了圆柱形封闭谐振腔中圆盘形样品的声悬浮过程.模拟结果表明,(001)模式下谐振腔的共振长度L =0.499λ,在谐振腔中心引入样品后共振漂移量δL≈-0.9,这与线性声学理论计算结果基本相符.声悬浮力的LB模拟过程包含了黏滞性效应和共振漂移效应,所获得的模拟结果与理论公式计算值在量值上一致,而且其在细节上更符合实验现象.此外, LB模拟还揭示出了声悬浮过程中的声压波形畸变、声流和声辐射压等非线性声学效应.%The axisymmetric multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is used to study the acoustic levitation of a rigid disk sample in a closed cylindrical resonant chamber. The simulation results show that the resonant cavity length L is equal to 0.499λfor (001) mode, and the resonance shiftδL is approximately equal to-0.9 with a disk sample located in the chamber center, which accord with the analytical results derived from linear acoustics. The LB method naturally includes the viscosity and resonance shift during the simulation of acoustic levitation force on the disk sample, which gives the results not only consistent with the theory in magnitude, but also coherent with the experiments in more details. Some of the nonlinear effects associated with acoustic levitation, such as waveform distortion, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure, are also revealed by the LB simulation.

  6. Isolation of crystallizing droplets by electrostatic levitation

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang K.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of electrostatic levitation where the positioning and stabilization of a sample are accomplished by applying appropriate electrostatic forces to a charged sample are outlined, and attention is focused on a feedback control algorithm, drop-launching method, and four-drop levitator. Drop levitation in 1-g is discussed, and crystal-growth experiments are presented. An experiment in which the protein concentration of a levitated drop is controlled by a feedback system is described. During levitation, the drop evaporation rate is controlled in a programmed way in order to acquire proper protein concentration levels for both nucleation and growth. The containerless approach of protein crystal growth when applied in the space environment is assessed.

  7. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by surface acoustic waves: Gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    Bussonnière, A.; Baudoin, M.; Brunet, P.; Matar, O. Bou

    2016-05-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed, the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or, more generally, by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In turn, we elucidate the origin of the resonance frequency shift, as well as the origin of the strong correlation between oscillatory and translational motion. We show that for sessile drops, the velocity is mainly determined by the amplitude of oscillation and that the saturation observed is due to the nonlinear dependence of the drop response frequency on the dynamically induced stretching.

  8. "Bernoulli" Levitation

    Waltham, Chris; Bendall, Sarah; Kotlicki, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    "Bernoulli" levitation is the basis of many popular counter-intuitive physics demonstrations. However, few of these lend themselves to a quantitative description without recourse to computational fluid dynamics. Levitation of a flat plate is the exception, and we present here a straightforward analysis which illustrates several principles of fluid mechanics in a pedagogically useful way.

  9. Analysis and Experiment Investigation of Ultrasonic Near Field Acoustic Levitation Stiffness%基于超声近场作用的悬浮特性分析与试验

    宗遐龄; 赵群; 傅星菊; 孙运涛; 贾兵

    2012-01-01

    超声近场的悬浮现象和动力学机理,提出圆形振子薄板与悬浮物之间的耦合数学模型,给定圆盘在特定弯振模态下的边界条件,推导了基于挤压膜模型的悬浮压力近似解析式.同时为了试验研究超声近场的悬浮特性,在兰杰文振子顶端设计了利于产生超声辐射近场效应的圆盘式装置并试制了样机,通过激励出圆盘的弯曲振动模态诱发出声场辐射力,实现了物体在圆盘表面的近距离悬浮.搭建了基于虚拟仪器平台的测试系统,通过试验获得其悬浮特性参数,分析了悬浮的距离随着重物质量的增大而减少的规律,验证了理论分析结果,为采用近声场来悬浮和实现悬浮力的有效控制奠定了基础.%This paper analyzes the special phenomenon and dynamic mechanism of ultrasonic near-field acoustic levitation and presents the mathematical model of coupling the vibration plate with levitation object based on the boundary condition of the special vibration mode. In order to measure the characteristic parameters of ultrasonic near-field acoustic levitation, the annular plate is designed and installed on top of Lanngevin vibrator, which is able to produce ultrasonic radiation effect. The prototype is manufactured, ultrasonic near-field acoustic levitation is observed by inducing flexural vibration mode of annular plate. The virtual instrument technology Is used in the testing system to measure the levitation characteristic parameter It is experimentally found that levitation distance decreases with the heavier object, and the theoretical results are validated. The theoretical and experimental investigations in this paper lay the foundation for the control of ultrasonic near-field acoustic levitation.

  10. Some fundamental aspects of self-levitating sliding contact bearings and their practical implementations

    Atherton, MA; Mares, C; Stolarski, TA

    2014-01-01

    In this study, fundamental aspects and mechanisms of acoustic levitation together with governing equations are presented first. Then, the acoustic levitation phenomenon is considered as a new way to design air suspension systems capable of self-levitation. A particular emphasis is laid on journal bearings and their specific geometrical configuration. A practical feasibility of using acoustic levitation to separate contacting surfaces is supported and illustrated by results of experimental tes...

  11. Analysis of the particle stability in a new designed ultrasonic levitation device.

    Baer, Sebastian; Andrade, Marco A B; Esen, Cemal; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The use of acoustic levitation in the fields of analytical chemistry and in the containerless processing of materials requires a good stability of the levitated particle. However, spontaneous oscillations and rotation of the levitated particle have been reported in literature, which can reduce the applicability of the acoustic levitation technique. Aiming to reduce the particle oscillations, this paper presents the analysis of the particle stability in a new acoustic levitator device. The new acoustic levitator consists of a piezoelectric transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector. The analysis is conducted by determining numerically the axial and lateral forces that act on the levitated object and by measuring the oscillations of a sphere particle by a laser Doppler vibrometer. It is shown that the new levitator design allows to increase the lateral forces and reduce significantly the lateral oscillations of the levitated object. PMID:22047333

  12. Aerodynamic levitator furnace for measuring thermophysical properties of refractory liquids

    Langstaff, D.; Gunn, M.; Greaves, G. N.; Marsing, A.; Kargl, F.

    2013-12-01

    The development of novel contactless aerodynamic laser heated levitation techniques is reported that enable thermophysical properties of refractory liquids to be measured in situ in the solid, liquid, and supercooled liquid state and demonstrated here for alumina. Starting with polished crystalline ruby spheres, we show how, by accurately measuring the changing radius, the known density in the solid state can be reproduced from room temperature to the melting point at 2323 K. Once molten, by coupling the floating liquid drop to acoustic oscillations via the levitating gas, the mechanical resonance and damping of the liquid can be measured precisely with high-speed high-resolution shadow cast imaging. The resonance frequency relates to the surface tension, the decay constant to the viscosity, and the ellipsoidal size and shape of the levitating drop to the density. This unique instrumentation enables these related thermophysical properties to be recorded in situ over the entire liquid and supercooled range of alumina, from the boiling point at 3240 K, until spontaneous crystallization occurs around 1860 K, almost 500 below the melting point. We believe that the utility that this unique instrumentation provides will be applicable to studying these important properties in many other high temperature liquids.

  13. Rheological properties, shape oscillations, and coalescence of liquid drops with surfactants

    Apfel, R. E.; Holt, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed to deduce dynamic interfacial properties of liquid drops. The method involves measuring the frequency and damping of free quadrupole oscillations of an acoustically levitated drop. Experimental results from pure liquid-liquid systems agree well with theoretical predictions. Additionally, the effects of surfactants is considered. Extension of these results to a proposed microgravity experiment on the drop physics module (DPM) in USML-1 are discussed. Efforts are also underway to model the time history of the thickness of the fluid layer between two pre-coalescence drops, and to measure the film thickness experimentally. Preliminary results will be reported, along with plans for coalescence experiments proposed for USML-1.

  14. Parametrically excited sectorial oscillation of liquid drops floating in ultrasound.

    Shen, C L; Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2010-04-01

    We report experiments in which the nonaxisymmetric sectorial oscillations of water drops have been excited using acoustic levitation and an active modulation method. The observed stable sectorial oscillations are up to the seventh mode. These oscillations are excited by parametric resonance. The oblate initial shape of the water drops is essential to this kind of excitations. The oscillation frequency increases with mode number but decreases with equatorial radius for each mode number. The data can be well described by a modified Rayleigh equation, without the use of additional parameters. PMID:20481825

  15. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  16. Improved Position Sensor for Feedback Control of Levitation

    Hyers, Robert; Savage, Larry; Rogers, Jan

    2004-01-01

    An improved optoelectronic apparatus has been developed to provide the position feedback needed for controlling the levitation subsystem of a containerless-processing system. As explained, the advantage of this apparatus over prior optoelectronic apparatuses that have served this purpose stems from the use of an incandescent lamp, instead of a laser, to illuminate the levitated object. In containerless processing, a small object to be processed is levitated (e.g., by use of a microwave, low-frequency electromagnetic, electrostatic, or acoustic field) so that it is not in contact with the wall of the processing chamber or with any other solid object during processing. In the case of electrostatic or low-frequency electromagnetic levitation, real-time measurement of the displacement of the levitated object from its nominal levitation position along the vertical axis (and, in some cases, along one or two horizontal axes) is needed for feedback control of the levitating field.

  17. Inertial levitation

    Ockendon, J. R.; Fitt, A.D.; Kozyreff, G. K.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the steady levitation of a rigid plate on a thin air cushion with prescribed injection velocity. This injection velocity is assumed to be much larger than that in a conventional Prandtl boundary layer, so that inertial effects dominate. After applying the classical 'blowhard' theory of Cole and Aroesty (1968) to the two-dimensional version of the problem, it is shown that in three dimensions the flow may be foliated into streamline surfaces using Lagrangian variables. An example i...

  18. Leidenfrost levitated liquid tori

    Perrard, Stéphane; Labousse, Matthieu; Fort, Emmanuel; Bush, John; Couder, Yves; Limat, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    A drop of water deposited on a surface hotter than 150°C can levitate without any contact with a solid container. Indeed the evaporation of the fluid generates a thin vapour film, which supports the drop's weight by lubrication forces (Leidenfrost effect). This effect was until now limited to droplets. We propose here an original substrate geometry, a circular brass through, that allows us to maintain in levitation any quantity of fluid. It could be a good tool to study wave propagation without solid boundary condition and thus very low friction. We report here one possible application, and our most striking observation : when the substrate temperature is high enough, convective motion appears in the liquid torus and its inner side becomes polygonal. This periodic deformation of large amplitude propagates along the azimuthal direction. The geometry, the flow and the shape appear very similar to the polygonal destabilization of an hydraulic jump. We propose here an experimental and theorical characterization of these rotating polygons having from three to twelve sides. Moreover, we have found a model describing the shape for any number of sides. It appears closely related to the Korteweg de Vries equation describing the propagation of solitonic waves in shallow water.

  19. Analysis of a Non-resonant Ultrasonic Levitation Device

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    In this study, a non-resonant configuration of ultrasonic levitation device is presented, which is formed by a small diameter ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. The influence of different levitator parameters on the levitation performance is investigated by using a numerical model that combines the Gor'kov theory with a matrix method based on the Rayleigh integral. In contrast with traditional acoustic levitators, the non-resonant ultrasonic levitation device allows the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be adjusted continually, without requiring the separation distance to be set to a multiple of half-wavelength. It is also demonstrated, both numerically and experimentally, that the levitating particle can be manipulated by maintaining the transducer in a fixed position in space and moving the reflector in respect to the transducer.

  20. Solution on Near-Field Acoustic Levitation Force in Flexural Mode Based on ALE Methods%弯曲振动模态下近场悬浮力问题

    贾兵; 陈超; 赵淳生

    2013-01-01

    为解决弯曲振动模态下求解近场悬浮力问题时表面振幅不一致的情况及忽略惯性力影响的问题,该文提出对在任意拉格朗日-欧拉法(ALE)坐标描述下求解挤压膜中的流体控制方程的方法.利用该方法得出悬浮高度与辐射压力的关系,之后对不同质量的悬浮重物进行悬浮实验,将数据结果与理论曲线进行对比,验证了该文中理论和数值分析方法的合理性.%In order to solving the question of neglecting inertia force and the inconformity of vibration amplitudes in solving near-field acoustic levitation in the flexural mode, a new method to solve the fluid control equations of squeezing film in Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) coordinate is presented in this paper. Using this method,the relationship between levitatied amplitude and radiation pressure is calculated. After that, the levitation experiment is carried out with several different weights,and a comparison between the obtained data and the theoretic curves has been performed. The result shows that the mathematical formula is reasonable for calculating the force of ultrasonic levitation.

  1. Noncontact surface tension measurement by drop rotation

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Ishikawa, Takehiko

    2001-01-01

    Validity of the surface tension measurement technique that was proposed by Elleman et al. was experimentally verified. The technique was based on Brown and Scriven's work on the shape evolution of rotating drops. Molten tin and aluminum drops were levitated in high vacuum by the electrostatic levitator and rotated by applying a rotating magnetic field. This technique offers an alternative technique for those liquids where the drop oscillation technique cannot be used. As a demonstration, the ...

  2. A levitation instrument for containerless study of molten materials

    Nordine, Paul C.; Merkley, Dennis; Sickel, Jeffrey; Finkelman, Steve; Telle, Rainer; Kaiser, Arno; Prieler, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A new aero-acoustic levitation instrument (AAL) has been installed at the Institute for Mineral Engineering at RWTH University in Aachen, Germany. The AAL employs acoustically stabilized gas jet levitation with laser-beam heating and melting to create a contact-free containerless environment for high temperature materials research. Contamination-free study of liquids is possible at temperatures in excess of 3000 °C and of undercooled liquids at temperatures far below the melting point. Digital control technology advances the art of containerless experiments to obtain long-term levitation stability, allowing new experiments in extreme temperature materials research and to study operation of the levitation instrument itself. Experiments with liquid Al2O3 at temperatures more than 3200 °C, 1200 °C above the melting point, and with liquid Y3Al5O12 far below the melting point are reported. Fast pyrometry and video recording instruments yield crystallization rates in undercooled liquid Al2O3 as a function of temperature. Levitation of dense liquid HfO2 at temperatures above 2900 °C is demonstrated. Capabilities are described for resonant frequency matching in the three-axis acoustic positioning system, acoustic control of sample spin, and position control of standing wave nodes to stabilize levitation under changing experimental conditions. Further development and application of the levitation technology is discussed based on the results of experiments and modeling of instrument operations.

  3. Formation of Y{sub x}Nd{sub 1-x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (0{<=}x{<=}0.9) superconductors from an undercooled melt via aero-acoustic levitation

    Gustafson, D.E.; Hofmeister, W.H.; Bayuzick, R.J.; Nagashio, K.; Kuribayashi, K

    2003-01-20

    This paper presents the results of rapid solidification experiments performed on the copper oxide superconductors Y{sub x}Nd{sub 1-x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (0{<=}x{<=}0.9). Spherical rare earth (RE) 123 specimens were levitated in O{sub 2} using aero-acoustic levitation (AAL), melted with a laser, undercooled, and solidified. The peritectic transformation temperature for the reaction RE{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5}+liquid{yields}REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} corresponding to the maximum recalescence temperature during solidification was determined. RE123 was formed directly from the melt for Y-Nd binary alloy compositions with Nd concentration greater than 20% (Y concentration less than 80%). A minimum in the peritectic transformation temperature for the Nd/Y123 system corresponding to a composition Y{sub 0.3}Nd{sub 0.7}123 was determined at 66 deg. C below the peritectic of pure Nd123.

  4. The Wonders of Levitation

    French, M. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    I discuss some interesting classroom demonstrations of diamagnetism and how this effect can produce levitation. The possibilities for hands-on demonstrations of diamagnetic and superconducting levitation are discussed. To conclude I discuss some practical uses for levitation in daily life. (Contains 6 figures.)

  5. The Wonders of Levitation

    French, M. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    I discuss some interesting classroom demonstrations of diamagnetism and how this effect can produce levitation. The possibilities for hands-on demonstrations of diamagnetic and superconducting levitation are discussed. To conclude I discuss some practical uses for levitation in daily life.

  6. Apparatus and method for aerodynamic levitation

    Williamson, John W. (Inventor); al-Darwish, Mohamad M. (Inventor); Cashen, Grant E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for the levitation of a liquid drop by a fluid flow comprising a profile generator, a fluid flow supply means operatively connected to the profile generator. The profile generator includes an elongate cylindrical shell in which is contained a profiling means for configuring the velocity profile of the fluid flow exiting the profile generator.

  7. Containerless solidification of Ag-Cu eutectic alloy under acoustic levitation condition%声悬浮条件下Ag-CU共晶合金的无容器凝固研究

    耿德路; 解文军; 洪振宇; 魏炳波

    2011-01-01

    采用声悬浮技术结合激光加热,实现了Ag-Cu共晶合金的无容器熔化与凝固,并通过CMOS图像分析与数值计算,研究了声悬浮过程中合金熔体的温度场分布特性.由于声辐射压作用,合金熔体在声悬浮条件下呈现扁球或圆饼形,表面温度沿赤道点到极点方向升高.凝固样品表面出现涟漪状波纹,统计分析发现,该表面波纹出现在大变形(a/b>2.1)的样品上.波纹中心为共晶形核点,且波纹传播方向与共晶生长方向相同.分析表明,表面形核以及形核后辐射推移的固液界面是形成表面波纹的先决条件.声场的增强能够促进悬浮样品在表面形核.%The containerless melting and solidification of Ag-Cu eutectic alloy were accomplished by acoustic levitation together with laser heating. The temperature field of levitated alloy droplet was investigated through CMOS image processing and numerical calculation. Due to the effect of acoustic radiation pressure, the alloy droplets deform from spherical to oblate or disklike shapes. Their surface temperature rises along the meridian line from the equator to the poles during cooling process. Surface ripples are observed on those samples with greater deformation (a/b>2.1). And it is found that eutectic grains nucleate at the center of these ripples, and grow in the direction parallel to the propagation of ripples. The surface nucleation and the radial advance of solid-liquid interface are revealed to be the two key factors for the formation of surface ripples. The enhancement of sound pressure can induce the surface nucleation of levitated Ag-Cu eutectic alloy.

  8. Development of a single-axis ultrasonic levitator and the study of the radial particle oscillations

    Baer, Sebastian; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Esen, Cemal; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    This work describes the development and analysis of a new single-axis acoustic levitator, which consists of a 38 kHz Langevin-type piezoelectric transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector. The new levitator design allows to significantly reducing the electric power necessary to levitate particles and to stabilize the levitated sample in both radial and axial directions. In this investigation the lateral oscillations of a levitated particle were measured with a single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and an image evaluation technique. The lateral oscillations were measured for different values of particle diameter, particle density and applied electrical power.

  9. Electric Levitation Using Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.; Vakil, Ashkan; Engheta, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Levitation of objects with action at a distance has always been intriguing to humans. Several ways to achieve this, such as aerodynamic, acoustic, or electromagnetic methods, including radiation pressure, stable potential wells, and quantum Casimir-Lifshitz forces, exist. A fascinating approach for levitation is that of magnets over superconductors based on the Meissner effect -the expulsion of the magnetic field by a superconductor. With the advent of metamaterials -designed structures with ...

  10. Photopolymerization Of Levitated Droplets

    Rembaum, Alan; Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Experimental containerless process combines two established techniques to make variety of polymeric microspheres. In single step, electrostatically-levitated monomer droplets polymerized by ultraviolet light. Faster than multiple-step emulsion polymerization process used to make microspheres. Droplets suspended in cylindrical quadrupole electrostatic levitator. Alternating electrostatic field produces dynamic potential along axis. Process enables tailoring of microspheres for medical, scientific, and industrial applications.

  11. Star-shaped Oscillations of Leidenfrost Drops

    Ma, Xiaolei; Burton, Justin C

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the self-organized, star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops. The drops levitate on a cushion of evaporated vapor over a heated, curved surface. We observe modes with $n = 2-13$ lobes around the drop periphery. We find that both the wavelength and frequency of the oscillations depend only on the capillary length of the liquid, and are independent of the drop radius and substrate temperature. However, the number of observed modes depend sensitively on the liquid viscosity. The dominant frequency of pressure variations under the drop is approximately twice that the drop oscillation frequency, consistent with a parametric forcing mechanism. Our results suggest that the star-shaped oscillations are hydrodynamic in origin, and are driven by capillary waves beneath the drop. The exact mechanism by which the vapor flow initiates the capillary waves is likely related to static "brim waves" in levitated, viscous drops.

  12. Dynamics of Vapor Layer Under a Leidenfrost Drop

    Thomas A. Caswell

    2014-01-01

    In the Leidenfrost effect a small drop of fluid is levitated above a sufficiently hot surface, on a persistent vapor layer generated by evaporation from the drop. The vapor layer thermally insulates the drop from the surface leading to extraordinarily long drop lifetimes. The top-view shape of the levitated drops can exhibit persistent star-like vibrations. I extend recent work [Burton et al. PRL 2012] to study the bottom surface of the drop using interference-imaging. In this work I use a hi...

  13. Aerodynamic levitation and laser heating: Applications at synchrotron and neutron sources

    Hennet, L.; Pozdnyakova, I.; Drewitt, J.W.E.; Leydier, M.; Brassamin, S.; Zanghi, D.; Magazu, S.; Price, D.L. [CEMHTI and University of Orleans, 45071 Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Cristiglio, V.; Kozaily, J.; Fischer, H.E.; Cuello, G.J.; Koza, M. [ILL, BP. 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bytchkov, A. [ESRF, BP. 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Thiaudiere, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gruner, S. [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz UT, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Greaves, G.N. [IMAPS, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Aerodynamic levitation is an effective way to suspend samples which can be heated with CO{sub 2} lasers. The advantages of this container-less technique are the simplicity and compactness of the device, making it possible to integrate it easily in different kinds of experiments. In addition, all types of materials can be used, including metals and oxides. The integration of aerodynamic levitation at synchrotron and neutron sources provides powerful tools to study the structure and dynamics of molten materials. We present here an overview of the existing techniques (electromagnetic levitation, electrostatic levitation, single-axis acoustic levitation, and aerodynamic levitation) and of the developments made at the CEMHTI in Orleans, as well as a few examples of experimental results already obtained. (authors)

  14. ORNL Levitated Toroidal Multipole Program

    We are studying confinement of gun-injected and microwave-produced plasmas in a levitated toroidal quadrupole in which internal hoop supports are not present to limit plasma confinement. Electromagnetic levitation is made possible by reducing the 60 Hz skin depth in the copper walls with liquid nitrogen cooling. The cooling also increases the magnetic field lifetime so that an e-folding time of 17 ms was measured after crowbarring. Computations indicate that in a properly designed, larger device, an e-folding time of 100 ms can be reached. Washer-gun hydrogen plasmas and Bostick-type lithium gun plasmas were injected into the levitated quadrupole with typical parameters: B ≥ 3 kG, Te ≈ 3 eV, ni ≈ 109 cm-3, and 1 i i ≈ 1010 cm-3, Te ≈ 30 eV, and τ/τBohm ≈ 30. Density fluctuations (Δn/n) in the region of good field curvature were less than 0.05 and in the region of bad curvature 0.10-0.25. With the removal of the magnetic well (by removing the inner hoop), τ/τBohm and ni each dropped a factor of 4 and Δn/n became greater than 0.25. Recent experiments using 200 W at λ = 3 cm have produced plasmas with higher densities (n > 1011 cm-3 assuming Te ≈ 100 eV), higher temperatures (Te ≈ 100 eV) and longer lifetimes (τ ≈ 80 μs ≈ 40 τBohm) than in the λ = 12 cm experiments. Detailed probe measurements of density and temperature are consistent with models for plasma behaviour based on computed magnetic field plots. Probe data show clear evidence of the changes in heating zones during the variation of the sinusoidal magnetic field and a large obstacle intercepting all flux lines effectively prevents the formation of the plasma. We are also studying a levitated helical hexapole, whose advantages over the quadrupole are a better ratio of connection length to radius of bad curvature and more confinement volume. (author)

  15. The Tibetan singing bowl : an acoustics and fluid dynamics investigation

    Terwagne, Denis

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behavior is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface.

  16. Paramagnetic Leidenfrost Drops

    Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2010-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video showing the behavior of drops of liquid oxygen, at room temperature. Due to their low boiling point, these drops levitate on a cushion of their own vapour. This property gives them a high mobility, as known more generally in such Leidenfrost situations. But liquid oxygen is also paramagnetic, and thus likely to be manipulated using a magnet. It is first shown that the shape of the drop can be modified by changing the drop/magnet distance; approaching the magnet acts as reinforcing gravity, so that the drops get flattened by this action. The transformation is of course reversible: as the magnet is withdrawn, the liquid recovers its quasi-spherical shape. Magnets can also be used to trap the oxygen drops. As they pass above a magnet, they slow down significantly, a consequence of their deformation: despite a very low friction, the vibrations induced by the drop deformations represent an important source of dissipation: below a well-defined velocity, drops can even be stopped in...

  17. Dexterous ultrasonic levitation of millimeter-sized objects in air.

    Seah, Sue Ann; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Carter, Tom; Malkin, Rob; Subramanian, Sriram

    2014-07-01

    Acoustic levitation in air has applications in contactless handling and processing. Here a first-order Bessel function-shaped acoustic field, generated using an 8-element circular array operating at 40 kHz, traps millimeter-sized objects against gravity. The device can manipulate objects in a vertical plane over a few millimeters with an accuracy of ± 0.09 mm. PMID:24960712

  18. Magnetic levitation of single cells

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tekin, H. Cumhur; Guven, Sinan; Sridhar, Kaushik; Arslan Yildiz, Ahu; Calibasi, Gizem; Ghiran, Ionita; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    Cells consist of micro- and nanoscale components and materials that contribute to their fundamental magnetic and density signatures. Previous studies have claimed that magnetic levitation can only be used to measure density signatures of nonliving materials. Here, we demonstrate that both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can be levitated and that each cell has a unique levitation profile. Furthermore, our levitation platform uniquely enables ultrasensitive density measurements, imaging, and p...

  19. High-Temperature Electrostatic Levitator

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang K.

    1994-01-01

    High-temperature electrostatic levitator provides independent control of levitation and heating of sample in vacuum. Does not cause electromagnetic stirring in molten sample (such stirring causes early nucleation in undercooling). Maintenance of levitating force entails control of electrostatic field and electrical charge on sample.

  20. Research on levitation coupled with standing wave levitation and electromagnetic levitation

    Jiao, Xiao Yang; Liu, Guojun; Liu, Jianfang; Li, Xinbo; Liu, XiaoLun; Lu, Song

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem caused by metal materials' inability to be cooled without contact with other materials after being heated by electromagnetic levitation, a new method is proposed: using a standing wave levitator to levitate the melted metal. The standing wave levitator adopts a concave spherical surface on the emitter and the reflector. Using ANSYS software, the transducer and the standing wave fields were simulated. Based on the simulation, the distribution and the maximum acous...

  1. Acoustics

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  2. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  3. Levitation of superconducting composites

    Chiang, C. K.; Turchinskaya, M.; Swartzendruber, L. J.; Shull, R. D.; Bennett, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse levitation of a high temperature superconductor polymer composite consisting of powdered quench melt growth Ba2YCu3O(7-delta) and cyanoacrylate is reported. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements for the composite are compared to those measured for the bulk material prior to powdering. Differences in the flux pining capability between the two material forms are small but significant.

  4. Levitation of superconducting composites

    The inverse levitation of a high temperature superconductor polymer composite consisting of powdered quench melt growth Ba2YCu3O(7-delta) and cyanoacrylate is reported. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements for the composite are compared to those measured for the bulk material prior to powdering. Differences in the flux pining capability between the two material forms are small but significant

  5. Studying Electrostatic Levitator Specimen

    2000-01-01

    Prof. Kerneth Kelton of Washington University in St. Lous, MO, (L) and Dr. Michael Robinson of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) examine a titanium-iron silicate (TiFeSiO)sample processed in MSFC's Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Facility (background). Kelton is investigating undercooling of polytetrahedral phase-forming liquids.

  6. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  7. Particle-size dependence of immersion freezing: Investigation of INUIT test aerosol particles with freely suspended water drops.

    Diehl, Karoline; Debertshäuser, Michael; Eppers, Oliver; Jantsch, Evelyn; Mitra, Subir K.

    2014-05-01

    One goal of the research group INUIT (Ice Nuclei research UnIT) is to investigate the efficiencies of several test ice nuclei under comparable conditions but with different experimental techniques. In the present studies, two methods are used: the Mainz vertical wind tunnel and an acoustic levitator placed inside a cold chamber. In both cases drops are freely levitated, either at their terminal velocity in the wind tunnel updraft or around the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave in the acoustic levitator. Thus, heat transfer conditions are well approximated, and wall contact effects on freezing as well as electrical charges of the drops are avoided. Drop radii are 370 μm and 1 mm, respectively. In the wind tunnel, drops are investigated at constant temperatures within a certain time period and the onset of freezing is observed directly. In the acoustic levitator, the drop temperature decreases during the experiments and is measured by an in-situ calibrated Infrared thermometer. The onset of freezing is indicated by a rapid rise of the drop surface temperature because of the release of latent heat. Investigated test ice nuclei are Snomax® as a proxy of biological particles and illite NX as well as K-feldspar as represents of mineral dust. The particle concentrations are 1 × 10-12 to 3 × 10-6 g Snomax® per drop and 5 × 10-9 to 5 × 10-5 g mineral dust per drop. Freezing temperatures are between -2 and -18° C in case of Snomax® and between -14 and -26° C in case of mineral dust. The lower the particle masses per drop the lower are the freezing temperatures. For similar particle concentrations in the drops, the median freezing temperatures determined by the two techniques agree well within the measurement errors. With the knowledge of the specific particle surface area of the mineral dusts, the results are interpreted also in terms of particle surface area per drop. Results from the wind tunnel experiments which are performed at constant temperatures indicate

  8. Structure formation by nanosilica particles suspended in levitated droplet

    Saha, Abhishek; Kumar, Ranganathan; Basu, Saptarshi

    2010-01-01

    Vaporization of liquid droplets containing particles has been studied extensively for its applications in combustion, thermal coating, ink-jet printing, spray cooling, drug delivery, and surface patterning. Droplets containing solid particles show a preferential solute-migration during drying process. Recently we carried out experiments with vaporizing droplet suspended in an acoustic levitator. In this work, we present detailed study of a laser irradiated droplet containing nanosilica particles. Infrared and High speed imaging of the heating process for different concentrations of nanosilica revealed an interesting solute migration pattern. Further investigation with Particle Image Velocimetry shows presence of strong recirculation within the levitated droplet. It also reveals that with increasing viscosity of the liquid the strength of this recirculation decreases. Due to the droplets rotation about the levitator axis, a centrifugal force also dominated the flow field within the droplet. High speed imaging ...

  9. Advanced Measurement Devices for the Microgravity Electromagnetic Levitation Facility EML

    Brillo, Jurgen; Fritze, Holger; Lohofer, Georg; Schulz, Michal; Stenzel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two advanced measurement devices for the microgravity electromagnetic levitation facility (EML), which is currently under construction for the use onboard the "International Space Station (ISS)": the "Sample Coupling Electronics (SCE)" and the "Oxygen Sensing and Control Unit (OSC)". The SCE measures by a contactless, inductive method the electrical resistivity and the diameter of a spherical levitated metallic droplet by evaluating the voltage and electrical current applied to the levitation coil. The necessity of the OSC comes from the insight that properties like surface tension or, eventually, viscosity cannot seriously be determined by the oscillating drop method in the EML facility without knowing the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere. In the following both measurement devices are explained and laboratory test results are presented.

  10. Study on interfacial stability and internal flow of a droplet levitated by ultrasonic wave.

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yuji; Hyuga, Daisuke; Awazu, Shigeru; Aoki, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    For a microgravity environment, new and high-quality material is expected to be manufactured. However, the effect of surface instability and the internal flow become significant when the droplet becomes large. Elucidation of internal flow and surface instability on a levitated droplet is required for the quality improvement of new material manufacturing in a microgravity environment. The objectives of this study are to clarify the interfacial stability and internal flow of a levitated droplet. Surface instability and internal flow are investigated with a large droplet levitated by the ultrasonic acoustic standing wave. The experiment with a large droplet is conducted both under normal gravity and microgravity environments. In the experiment, at first, the characteristics of the levitated droplet are investigated; that is, the relationships among the levitated droplet diameter, the droplet aspect ratio, the displacement of the antinode of the standing wave, and the sound pressure are experimentally measured. As a result, it is clarified that the levitated droplet tends to be located at an optimal position with an optimal shape and diameter. Second, the border condition between the stable and the unstable levitation of the droplet is evaluated by using the existing stability theory. The experimental results qualitatively agree with the theory. It is suggested that the stability of the droplet can be evaluated with the stability theory. Finally, multidimensional visual measurement is conducted to investigate the internal flow structure in a levitated droplet. It is suggested that complex flow with the vortex is generated in the levitated droplet. Moreover, the effect of physical properties of the test fluid on the internal flow structure of the levitated droplet is investigated. As a result, the internal flow structure of the levitated droplet is affected by the surface tension and viscosity. PMID:19426319

  11. Differential force balances during levitation

    Todd, Paul

    The simplest arithmetic of inertial, buoyant, magnetic and electrokinetic levitation is explored in the context of a model living system with “acceleration-sensitive structures” in which motion, if allowed, produces a biological effect. The simple model is a finite-sized object enclosed within another finite-sized object suspended in an outer fluid (liquid or vapor) medium. The inner object has density and electrical and magnetic properties quantitatively different from those of the outer object and the medium. In inertial levitation (“weightlessness”) inertial accelerations are balanced, and the forces due to them are canceled in accordance with Newton’s third law. In the presence of inertial acceleration (gravity, centrifugal) motionlessness depends on a balance between the levitating force and the inertial force. If the inner and outer objects differ in density one or the other will be subjected to an unbalanced force when one object is levitated by any other force (buoyant, magnetic, electrokinetic). The requirements for motionlessness of the internal object in the presence of a levitating force are equality of density in the case of buoyant levitation, equality of magnetic susceptibility in the case of magnetic levitation, and equality of zeta potential and dielectric constant in the case of electrokinetic levitation. Examples of internal “acceleration-sensitive structures” are cellular organelles and the organs of advanced plants and animals. For these structures fundamental physical data are important in the interpretation of the effects of forces used for levitation.

  12. Acoustical radiation torque and force for spheres and Bessel beam extinction efficiency

    Marston, Philip L.; Zhang, Likun

    2014-11-01

    The scattering of optical and acoustical beams is relevant to the levitation and manipulation of drops. Here we examine theoretical developments in the acoustical case. We previously showed how the optical theorem for extinction can be extended to invariant beams. The example of a sphere in a Bessel beam facilitates the direct comparison with a circular disc computed using Babinet's principle and the Kirchhoff approximation. In related work, by considering traveling or standing wave first-order vortex beams we previously showed that the radiation torque is the ratio of the absorbed power and the radian acoustic frequency. By modifying the scattering to account for the viscosity of the surrounding fluid in the analysis of the absorbed power, approximations for radiation torque and force are obtained at long wavelengths in special cases and these can be compared with results published elsewhere.

  13. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  14. Control of Nanomaterial Self-Assembly in Ultrasonically Levitated Droplets

    Seddon, Annela M.; Richardson, Sam J.; Rastogi, Kunal; Plivelic, Tomás S.; Squires, Adam M.; Pfrang, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic trapping can be used to levitate andmanipulate droplets of soft matter, in particular, lyotropic mesophases formed from selfassembly of different surfactants and lipids, which can be analyzed in a contact-less manner by X-ray scattering in a controlled gas-phase environment. On the macroscopic length scale, the dimensions and the orientation of the particle are shaped by the ultrasonic field, while on the microscopic length scale the nanostructure can be controlle...

  15. Foot Drop

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Foot Drop Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Foot Drop? Foot drop describes the inability to raise ...

  16. Magnetic levitation of single cells.

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tekin, H Cumhur; Guven, Sinan; Sridhar, Kaushik; Arslan Yildiz, Ahu; Calibasi, Gizem; Ghiran, Ionita; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-07-14

    Several cellular events cause permanent or transient changes in inherent magnetic and density properties of cells. Characterizing these changes in cell populations is crucial to understand cellular heterogeneity in cancer, immune response, infectious diseases, drug resistance, and evolution. Although magnetic levitation has previously been used for macroscale objects, its use in life sciences has been hindered by the inability to levitate microscale objects and by the toxicity of metal salts previously applied for levitation. Here, we use magnetic levitation principles for biological characterization and monitoring of cells and cellular events. We demonstrate that each cell type (i.e., cancer, blood, bacteria, and yeast) has a characteristic levitation profile, which we distinguish at an unprecedented resolution of 1 × 10(-4) g ⋅ mL(-1). We have identified unique differences in levitation and density blueprints between breast, esophageal, colorectal, and nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines, as well as heterogeneity within these seemingly homogenous cell populations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that changes in cellular density and levitation profiles can be monitored in real time at single-cell resolution, allowing quantification of heterogeneous temporal responses of each cell to environmental stressors. These data establish density as a powerful biomarker for investigating living systems and their responses. Thereby, our method enables rapid, density-based imaging and profiling of single cells with intriguing applications, such as label-free identification and monitoring of heterogeneous biological changes under various physiological conditions, including antibiotic or cancer treatment in personalized medicine. PMID:26124131

  17. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  18. Microwave Dielectrophoretic Levitation In Microgravity

    Watkins, John L.; Jackson, Henry W.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1993-01-01

    Two reports propose use of dielectrophoresis in microwave resonant cavities to levitate samples of materials for containerless processing in microgravity in vacuum or in any suitable atmosphere. Also describe experiments undertaken to verify feasibility of proposal.

  19. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    Tixador, Pascal

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried out in Japan since 1970. The constr...

  20. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  1. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  2. A self-running standing wave-type bidirectional slider for the ultrasonically levitated thin linear stage.

    Koyama, Daisuke; Takei, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2008-08-01

    A slider for a self-running standing wave-type, ultrasonically levitated, thin linear stage is discussed. The slider can be levitated and moved using acoustic radiation force and acoustic streaming. The slider has a simple configuration and consists of an aluminum vibrating plate and a piezoelectric zirconate titanate (PZT) element. The large asymmetric vibration distribution for the high thrust and levitation performance was obtained by adjusting the configuration determined by finite elemental analysis (FEA). As a preliminary step, the computed results of the sound pressure distribution in the 1-mm air gap by FEA was com pared with experimental results obtained using a fiber optic probe. The direction of the total driving force for the acoustic streaming in the small air gap was estimated by the sound pressure distribution calculated by FEA, and it was found that the direction of the acoustic streaming could be altered by controlling the vibration mode of the slider. The flexural standing wave could be generated along the vibrating plate near the frequencies predicted based on the FEA results. The slider could be levitated by the acoustic radiation force radiated from its own vibrating plate at several frequencies. The slider could be moved in the negative and positive directions at 68 kHz and 69 kHz, which correspond to the results computed by FEA, with the asymmetric vibration distribution of the slider's vibrating plate. Larger thrust could be obtained with the smaller levitation distance, and the maximum thrust was 19 mN. PMID:18986924

  3. Control of Nanomaterial Self-Assembly in Ultrasonically Levitated Droplets.

    Seddon, Annela M; Richardson, Sam J; Rastogi, Kunal; Plivelic, Tomás S; Squires, Adam M; Pfrang, Christian

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic trapping can be used to levitate and manipulate droplets of soft matter, in particular, lyotropic mesophases formed from self-assembly of different surfactants and lipids, which can be analyzed in a contact-less manner by X-ray scattering in a controlled gas-phase environment. On the macroscopic length scale, the dimensions and the orientation of the particle are shaped by the ultrasonic field, while on the microscopic length scale the nanostructure can be controlled by varying the humidity of the atmosphere around the droplet. We demonstrate levitation and in situ phase transitions of micellar, hexagonal, bicontinuous cubic, and lamellar phases. The technique opens up a wide range of new experimental approaches of fundamental importance for environmental, biological, and chemical research. PMID:26979408

  4. Electric Levitation Using Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials

    Fortuño, Francisco J Rodríguez; Engheta, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Levitation of objects with action at a distance has always been intriguing to humans. Several ways to achieve this, such as aerodynamic, acoustic, or electromagnetic methods, including radiation pressure, stable potential wells, and quantum Casimir-Lifshitz forces, exist. A fascinating approach for levitation is that of magnets over superconductors based on the Meissner effect -the expulsion of the magnetic field by a superconductor. With the advent of metamaterials -designed structures with electromagnetic properties that may not be found in nature- we ask whether a material may be conceived exhibiting similar field expulsion, but involving the electric field. We show how a special subcategory of metamaterials, called epsilon-near-zero materials, exhibits such electric classic analog to the Meissner effect, exerting a repulsion on nearby sources. Repulsive forces using anisotropic and chiral metamaterials have been investigated, but our proposal uses a different mechanism based on field expulsion, and is ver...

  5. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    Coffey, H.T.

    1993-10-19

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.

  6. An ultrasonically levitated noncontact stage using traveling vibrations on precision ceramic guide rails.

    Koyama, Daisuke; Ide, Takeshi; Friend, James R; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a noncontact sliding table design and measurements of its performance via ultrasonic levitation. A slider placed atop two vibrating guide rails is levitated by an acoustic radiation force emitted from the rails. A flexural traveling wave propagating along the guide rails allows noncontact transportation of the slider. Permitting a transport mechanism that reduces abrasion and dust generation with an inexpensive and simple structure. The profile of the sliding table was designed using the finite-element analysis (FEA) for high levitation and transportation efficiency. The prototype sliding table was made of alumina ceramic (Al2O3) to increase machining accuracy and rigidity using a structure composed of a pair of guide rails with a triangular cross section and piezoelectric transducers. Two types of transducers were used: bolt-clamped Langevin transducers and bimorph transducers. A 40-mm long slider was designed to fit atop the two rail guides. Flexural standing waves and torsional standing waves were observed along the guide rails at resonance, and the levitation of the slider was obtained using the flexural mode even while the levitation distance was less than 10 microm. The levitation distance of the slider was measured while increasing the slider's weight. The levitation pressure, rigidity, and vertical displacement amplitude of the levitating slider thus were measured to be 6.7 kN/m2, 3.0 kN/microm/m2, and less than 1 microm, respectively. Noncontact transport of the slider was achieved using phased drive of the two transducers at either end of the vibrating guide rail. By controlling the phase difference, the slider transportation direction could be switched, and a maximum thrust of 13 mN was obtained. PMID:17375828

  7. Containerless processing using electromagnetic levitation

    Gokhale, A. B.; Abbaschian, R.

    1990-01-01

    The theory and practice of containerless processing via electromagnetic (EM) levitation is reviewed briefly. The use of EM levitation for the processing of alloys is described with particular emphasis on the bulk melt supercooling phenomenon in a containerless environment. The various effects associated with rapid solidification via bulk melt supercooling are discussed with examples of Nb-Si alloys. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of such effects can be utilized to select the potentially most promising alloys for future space-based processing.

  8. Switchable Opening and Closing of a Liquid Marble via Ultrasonic Levitation.

    Zang, Duyang; Li, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Zhai, Zhicong; Geng, Xingguo; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-10-27

    Liquid marbles have promising applications in the field of microreactors, where the opening and closing of their surfaces plays a central role. We have levitated liquid water marbles using an acoustic levitator and, thereby, achieved the manipulation of the particle shell in a controlled manner. Upon increasing the sound intensity, the stable levitated liquid marble changes from a quasi-sphere to a flattened ellipsoid. Interestingly, a cavity on the particle shell can be produced on the polar areas, which can be completely healed when decreasing the sound intensity, allowing it to serve as a microreactor. The integral of the acoustic radiation pressure on the part of the particle surface protruding into air is responsible for particle migration from the center of the liquid marble to the edge. Our results demonstrate that the opening and closing of the liquid marble particle shell can be conveniently achieved via acoustic levitation, opening up a new possibility to manipulate liquid marbles coated with non-ferromagnetic particles. PMID:26439701

  9. Gene expression analysis of mouse embryonic stem cells following levitation in an ultrasound standing wave trap.

    Bazou, Despina; Kearney, Roisin; Mansergh, Fiona; Bourdon, Celine; Farrar, Jane; Wride, Michael

    2011-02-01

    In the present paper, gene expression analysis of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells levitated in a novel ultrasound standing wave trap (USWT) (Bazou et al. 2005a) at variable acoustic pressures (0.08-0.85 MPa) and times (5-60 min) was performed. Our results showed that levitation of ES cells at the highest employed acoustic pressure for 60 min does not modify gene expression and cells maintain their pluripotency. Embryoid bodies (EBs) also expressed the early and late neural differentiation markers, which were also unaffected by the acoustic field. Our results suggest that the ultrasound trap microenvironment is minimally invasive as the biologic consequences of ES cell replication and EB differentiation proceed without significantly affecting gene expression. The technique holds great promise in safe cell manipulation techniques for a variety of applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21208732

  10. A rotational traveling wave based levitation device - Modeling, design, and control

    Gabai, Ran; Shaham, Ran; Cohen, Nadav; Bucher, Izhak

    2016-01-01

    Described is a device acting on an acoustically levitated object by manipulating the pressure and flow of a thin layer of air such that its rotation can be precisely controlled without mechanical contact. Virtual work analysis assists in simplifying the multi-actuator control problem into a problem governed by a controllable parameter. Actuation is done with a vibrating ring capable of producing ultrasonic standing and traveling waves, creating the acoustic excitation that affects the pressure in a thin, intermediate layer of gas. A distinctive vibration pattern is required to generate the temporal and spatial pressure field of the squeezed air layer that gives rise to both acoustic levitation force and rotational torque. Described are the physical and design development stages leading to an optimized structure, all followed by verifying and dynamics-calibration experiments. Moreover, by precisely controlling the ratio of standing and traveling waves in a closed-loop, one can affect the shear forces applied b...

  11. Magnetic levitation of condensed hydrogen

    Paine, C. G.; Seidel, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid and solid molecular hydrogen has been levitated using a pair of small superconducting solenoids. The hydrogen samples, up to 3 mm in dimension, were trapped in a magnetic potential having either a discrete minimum or a minimum in the form of a ring 1 cm in diameter. The hydrogen could be moved about in the magnetic trap by applying an electric field.

  12. Microwave Levitation Of Small Objects

    Watkins, John L.; Jackson, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave radiation in resonant cavities used to levitate small objects, according to proposal. Feedback control and atmosphere not needed. Technique conceived for use in experiments on processing of materials in low gravitation of outer space, also used in normal Earth gravitation, albeit under some limitations.

  13. Dynamics of Vapor Layer Under a Leidenfrost Drop

    Caswell, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    In the Leidenfrost effect a small drop of fluid is levitated above a sufficiently hot surface, on a persistent vapor layer generated by evaporation from the drop. The vapor layer thermally insulates the drop from the surface leading to extraordinarily long drop lifetimes. The top-view shape of the levitated drops can exhibit persistent star-like vibrations. I extend recent work [Burton et al. PRL 2012] to study the bottom surface of the drop using interference-imaging. In this work I use a high-speed camera and automated image analysis to image, locate and classify the interference fringes. From the interference fringes I reconstruct the shape and height profile of the rim where the drop is closest to the surface. I measure the drop-size dependence of the planar vibrational mode frequencies, which agree well with previous work. I observe a distinct breathing mode in the average radius of the drop, the frequency of which scales differently with drop size than the other modes. This breathing mode can be tightly...

  14. Pressure Drop

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  15. Dust levitation about Itokawa's equator

    Hartzell, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Electrostatic dust motion has been hypothesized to occur on the asteroids, due to the observations of the Eros dust ponds [1] and the potential presence of such a phenomenon on the Moon [2]. There are two phases of electrostatic dust motion: lofting and the subsequent trajectories. The feasibility of electrostatic dust lofting can be assessed by comparing the strength of the electrostatic force to the gravity and cohesion which hold the grain on to the surface [3--5]. The motion of the dust grains after they detach from the surface can be described as either ballistic, escaping, or levitating. We are interested in dust levitation because it could potentially redistribute grains on the surface of an asteroid (for instance, producing the Eros dust ponds) and it could also be hazardous to spacecraft. Specifically, levitating dust could obscure the observations of surface-based spacecraft or possibly trigger obstacle avoidance routines during landing. Dust Levitation: Dust levitation is defined as the altitude oscillation of grains prior to their redeposition on the surface of an asteroid. Levitation occurs about equilibria where the electrostatic and gravity forces on the grain are equal and opposite. An equilibrium state is defined as a position and charge for a specific grain size. We have previously identified equilibria using a 1D plasma model and a simple gravity model for Itokawa [6]. In this simple model, the largest grain that was capable of stable levitation above Itokawa was 3 microns (in radius) [6]. Additionally, we have shown that levitating dust grains follow the variation in the equilibria for a rotating asteroid (i.e., the grain continues to oscillate about an equilibrium state that approaches the surface) [7]. Due to the nonspherical shape of Itokawa, both the gravity and plasma environments are much more complicated than the 1D approximations made in our previous work. Thus, in order to accurately assess the feasibility of dust

  16. Determination of the levitation limits of dust particles within the sheath in complex plasma experiments

    Douglass, Angela; Qiao, Ke; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2011-01-01

    Experiments are performed in which dust particles are levitated at varying heights above the powered electrode in a RF plasma discharge by changing the discharge power. The trajectories of particles dropped from the top of the discharge chamber are used to reconstruct the vertical electric force acting on the particles. The resulting data, together with the results from a selfconsistent fluid model, are used to determine the lower levitation limit for dust particles in the discharge and the approximate height above the lower electrode where quasineutrality is attained, locating the sheath edge. These results are then compared with current sheath models. It is also shown that particles levitated within a few electron Debye lengths of the sheath edge are located outside the linearly increasing portion of the electric field.

  17. Levitation in an "almost" electrostatic field

    Miranda, E N

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that a charged particle cannot be in stable equilibrium in a purely electrostatic field. The situation is different in a magnetostatic field; consequently, magnetic levitation is possible while electrostatic levitation is not. In this paper, motivated by an analogy with a mechanical system, we show that the addition of a small oscillating electrical field to an otherwise electrostatic configuration leads to the stabilisation of unstable equilibrium points. Therefore, levitation becomes possible in an "almost electrostatic" field.

  18. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.)

  19. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Romero, Louis; Christenson, Todd; Aronson, Eugene A.

    2009-06-16

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  20. Magnetic levitation induced by negative permeability

    Rangelov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the interaction between a point magnetic dipole and a semi-infinite metamaterial using the method of images. We obtain analytical expressions for the levitation force for an arbitrarily oriented dipole. Surprisingly the maximal levitation force for negative permeability is found to be stronger compared to the case when the dipole is above a superconductor.

  1. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Romero, Louis; Christenson, Todd; Aronson, Eugene A.

    2010-09-14

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  2. How can acoustic resonance reduce the average velocity in a falling body?

    V. Torres-Zúñiga

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a simple experiment is described to overcome the misconception that acoustic pressure and levitation effects are difficult to observe in school laboratories. Analysis of the free fall velocity of a toy parachute inside a vertical tube, driven by sound in a range of frequencies around the resonant condition, exhibits the resonance frequency, the node pressure zones, and the optimal conditions to obtain acoustical levitation of a light body.

  3. Contactless Calorimetry for Levitated Samples

    Lee, M. C.; Dokko, W.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature and specific heat of hot sample measured with pyrometer in proposed experimental technique. Technique intended expecially for contactless calorimetry of such materials as undercooled molten alloys, samples of which must be levitated to prevent contamination and premature crystallization. Contactless calorimetry technique enables data to be taken over entire undercooling temperature range with only one sample. Technique proves valuable in study of undercooling because difference in specific heat between undercooled-liquid and crystalline phases at same temperature provides driving force to convert metastable undercooled phase to stable crystalline phase.

  4. Dropped Ceiling

    Tabet, Rayyane

    2012-01-01

    On December 2nd 1950 the first drop of Saudi oil arrived to Lebanon via the newly constructed Trans-Arabian Pipeline, the world's longest pipeline and the largest American private investment in a foreign land. The 30inch wide structure which spanned 1213 kilometers passing through Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria to end in Lebanon had required 3 years of planning and surveying, 2 years of installation, the fabrication of 256,000 tons of steel tubes, the employment of 30,000 workers, the ratifi...

  5. Formation and Levitation of Unconfined Droplet Clusters

    Liu, S.; Ruff, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the confounding effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. The overall objective of this research is to study the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would fill a large gap in our current understanding of droplet and spray combustion and provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. This paper describes current work on the design and performance of an apparatus to generate and stabilize droplet clusters using acoustic and electrostatic forces.

  6. Leidenfrost drops on liquid baths: theory

    Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexei; Maquet, Laurent; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste; Duchesne, Alexis; Brandenbourger, Martin; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that a liquid drop released over a very hot surface generally does not contact the surface nor boils but rather levitates over a thin vapor film generated by its own evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). In particular, the case of a hot (and flat) solid substrate has been extensively studied in recent years. In contrast, we here focus on Leidenfrost drops over a superheated liquid bath, addressing the problem theoretically and comparing our predictions with experimental results, detailed in a separate talk. We predict the geometry of the drop and of the liquid bath, based on the hydrostatic Young-Laplace and lubrication equations. A good agreement is observed with the available experimental data concerning the deformation of the liquid bath. The modeling also yields a rather complete insight into the shape of the drop. As in the case of a solid substrate, the vapor layer generally appears to be composed of a vapor pocket surrounded by a circular neck. The influences of the superheat and of the drop size are parametrically investigated. A number of scaling laws are established. Unlike the case of a solid substrate, no chimney instability was found in the range of drop size studied.

  7. Effect of sample radius on stability of electromagnetic levitation melting

    马伟增; 郑红星; 季诚昌; 李建国

    2004-01-01

    Based on the power dissipating model of spherical sample in free convection gas medium and the expression of input power, the model of temperature calculation for electromagnetic levitation melting sample was established. Considering the limitation of levitation force and levitation sample temperature,the principle of stability levitation zone computation was determined. A spherical sample (ThDy)Fe2 under the protection of argon gas was examined, and the effect of radius of levitation sample and perturbation on the stable levitation zone was investigated.The results show that longitudinal perturbation and transverse perturbation can shorten the length of stable levitation zone and the range of levitation sample radius. By increasing the sample radius and weakening the perturbation the electromagnetic levitation melting stability of sample can be improved.

  8. Plate actuator vibration modes for levitation

    Almurshedi, A; Atherton, M; C. Mares; Stolarski, T; Wei, B.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The design of an aluminium or steel plate of various thicknesses for achieving levitation of a small aluminum disk is investigated by simulation using ANSYS. Each plate design is excited by an arrangement of four hard piezoelectric actuators driven with an AC voltage, which produces a centre displacement for generating a squeeze-film in the gap between the vibrating plate and the disk. Physical experiments show levitation conditions for one of the designs.

  9. Levitation in an "almost" electrostatic field

    Miranda, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that a charged particle cannot be in stable equilibrium in a purely electrostatic field. The situation is different in a magnetostatic field; consequently, magnetic levitation is possible while electrostatic levitation is not. In this paper, motivated by an analogy with a mechanical system, we show that the addition of a small oscillating electrical field to an otherwise electrostatic configuration leads to the stabilisation of unstable equilibrium points. Therefore, levitati...

  10. SWISSMETRO: Combined Propulsion with Levitation and Guidance

    Cassat, A.; Espanet, C.

    2004-01-01

    Swissmetro is a MAGLEV Project between the main cities of Switzerland, designed for a speed up to 500 [km/h] in two tunnels under partial vacuum. Two propulsion variants are considered: - the short stators of the linear homopolar motors are fixed with the tunnel tracks; - the stator of the motors is on board of the vehicles. The levitation, the guidance and the transfer of energy are independent. The authors investigate the possibilities to combine the propulsion with the levitation and the g...

  11. Magnetic Levitation Technique for Active Vibration Control

    Hoque, Emdadul; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    A zero-power controlled magnetic levitation system has been presented in this chapter. The unique characteristic of the zero-power control system is that it can generate negative stiffness with zero control current in the steady-state which is realized in this chapter. The detail characteristics of the levitation system are investigated. Moreover, two major contributions, the stiffness adjustment and nonlinear compensation of the suspension system have been introduced elaborately. Often, ther...

  12. Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ma, Yue; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Robicheaux, F.; Yin, Zhang-qi; Li, Tongcang

    2016-01-01

    An optically levitated nanoparticle in vacuum is a paradigm optomechanical system for sensing and studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. While its center-of-mass motion has been investigated intensively, its torsional vibration has only been studied theoretically in limited cases. Here we report the first experimental observation of the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum. We achieve this by utilizing the coupling between the spin angular momentu...

  13. New directions for gravitational wave physics via "Millikan oil drops"

    Chiao, Raymond Y

    2009-01-01

    "Millikan oil drops" are drops of superfluid helium coated with electrons, and levitated in a strong, inhomogeneous magnetic field. When the temperature of the system becomes very low compared to the cyclotron gap energy, the system remains in its quantum ground state. Two such levitated charged drops can have their charge-to-mass ratio critically adjusted so that the forces of gravity and electricity between the drops are in balance. Then it is predicted that the amount of scattered electromagnetic and gravitational radiation from the drops are equalized, along with these two kinds of forces. The cross sections for the scattering of the two kinds of radiation can become large, hard-sphere cross-sections at the first Mie resonance, due to the hard-wall boundary conditions on the surfaces of the spheres for both kinds of radiations. An efficient quantum transduction process between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation by such a pair of drops is predicted at microwave frequencies, and a Hertz-like experi...

  14. Vibration converter with magnetic levitation

    Gladilin, A. V.; Pirogov, V. A.; Golyamina, I. P.; Kulaev, U. V.; Kurbatov, P. A.; Kurbatova, E. P.

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model, the results of computational and theoretical research, and the feasibility of creating a vibration converter with full magnetic levitation in the suspension of a high-temperature superconductor (HTSC). The axial and radial stability of the active part of the converter is provided by the interaction of the magnetic field of ring-shaped permanent magnets and a hollow cylinder made of the ceramic HTSC material. The force is created by a system of current-carrying coils whose magnetic field is polarized by permanent magnets and interacts with induced currents in the superconducting cylinder. The case of transition to the superconducting state of HTSC material in the field of the permanent magnets (FC mode) is considered. The data confirm the outlook for the proposed technical solutions.

  15. Titanium-Zirconium-Nickel Alloy Inside Marshall's Electrostatic Levitator (ESL)

    2003-01-01

    This Photo, which appeared on the July cover of `Physics Today', is of the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 3-4 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber allowing scientists to record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contracting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. Once inside the chamber, a laser heats the sample until it melts. The laser is then turned off and the sample cools, changing from a liquid drop to a solid sphere. In this particular shot, the ESL contains a solid metal sample of titanium-zirconium-nickel alloy. Since 1977, the ESL has been used at MSFC to study the characteristics of new metals, ceramics, and glass compounds. Materials created as a result of these tests include new optical materials, special metallic glasses, and spacecraft components.

  16. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  17. Thermophysical Property Measurement and Materials Research in the NASA/MSFC Electrostatic Levitator

    Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Hyers, R. W.; Savage, L.; Rathz, T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Containerless processing is an important tool for materials research. The freedom from a crucible allows processing of liquid materials in a metastable undercooled state, as well as allowing processing of high temperature and highly reactive melts. Electrostatic levitation (ESL) is a containerless method which provides a number of unique advantages, including the decoupling of positioning force from sample heating, the ability to operate in ultra-high vacuum or at moderate gas pressure (approx. 3 atm), and the ability to process non-conducting materials. ESL also has the potential to reduce internal flow velocities below those possible with electromagnetic, acoustic, or aero-acoustic techniques. In electrostatic levitation, the acceleration of gravity (or residual acceleration in reduced gravity) is opposed by the action of an applied electric field on a charged sample. Microgravity allows electrostatic levitation to work even more effectively. In microgravity, ESL can position larger samples than is possible on the ground, or it can position samples which maintain their charge poorly. Microgravity also reduces the effects of buoyant convection and sedimentation. The ESL facility at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is in use for thermophysical property measurements and materials research by a number of different internal and external investigators. The methods for obtaining access to the facility, as well as a summary of current capabilities and some future directions will be discussed.

  18. Novel high-temperature and pressure-compatible ultrasonic levitator apparatus coupled to Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers

    Brotton, Stephen J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2013-05-01

    We describe an original apparatus comprising of an acoustic levitator enclosed within a pressure-compatible process chamber. To characterize any chemical and physical modifications of the levitated particle, the chamber is interfaced to complimentary, high-sensitivity Raman (4390-170 cm-1), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) (10 000-500 cm-1) spectroscopic probes. The temperature of the levitated particle can be accurately controlled by heating using a carbon dioxide laser emitting at 10.6 μm. The advantages of levitating a small particle combined with the two spectroscopic probes, process chamber, and infrared laser heating makes novel experiments possible relevant to the fields of, for example, planetary science, astrobiology, and combustion chemistry. We demonstrate that this apparatus is well suited to study the dehydration of a variety of particles including minerals and biological samples; and offers the possibility of investigating combustion processes involving micrometer-sized particles such as graphite. Furthermore, we show that the FTIR spectrometer enables the study of chemical reactions on the surfaces of porous samples and scientifically and technologically relevant, micrometer-thick levitated sheets. The FTIR spectrometer can also be used to investigate non-resonant and resonant scattering from small, irregularly-shaped particles across the mid-infrared range from 2.5 μm to 25 μm, which is relevant to scattering from interplanetary dust and biological, micrometer-sized samples but cannot be accurately modelled using Mie theory.

  19. Effective method to control the levitation force and levitation height in a superconducting maglev system

    杨芃焘; 杨万民; 王妙; 李佳伟; 郭玉霞

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the width of the middle magnet in the permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) on the levitation force and the levitation height of single-domain yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) bulks has been investigated at 77 K under the zero field cooled (ZFC) state. It is found that the largest levitation force can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG equal to the size of the YBCO bulk when the gap between the YBCO bulk and PMG is small. Both larger levitation force and higher levitation height can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG larger than the size of the YBCO bulk. The stiffness of the levitation force between the PMG and the YBCO bulk is higher in the system with a smaller width of the middle magnet in the PMG. These results provide an effective way to control the levitation force and the levitation height for the superconducting maglev design and applications.

  20. A stator for a self-running, ultrasonically-levitated sliding stage.

    Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2007-11-01

    Here we propose a self-running, ultrasonically-levitated sliding stage and investigate the levitation and propulsion characteristics of its stator. The stator consists of two aluminum beams and four PZT plates, which have two-paired bimorph configurations. A flexural standing wave was generated along the beam by applying an input voltage to the PZTs, and the stator could be levitated from a flat substrate by the acoustic radiation force generated by its own vibrating beam. The size of the stator was optimized using finite-element analysis (FEA) to maximize the vibration displacement amplitude of the beam. The flexural vibration modes at 24.3 and 102 kHz were the most prominent vibration modes having large displacement amplitudes. The stator was levitated at 23.2 and 96.1 kHz, which are close to the frequencies predicted by the FEA results. A standing wave was observed along the beam. The experimental and the simulated results showed good agreement. The levitation distance h was measured by varying the vibration displacement amplitude of the beam u, and was found to be proportional to u. When a traveling wave was excited along the beam by controlling the temporal phase difference of the two transducers, the stator could be made to hover and to move in the opposite direction to the traveling wave. The stator moved in the positive direction when the phase difference was in the ranges 0 degrees to 200 degrees and 310 degrees to 360 degrees, and in the negative direction when the phase difference was between 220 degrees and 260 degrees. PMID:18051168

  1. Electrostatic levitation under the single-axis feedback control condition

    2010-01-01

    An electrostatic levitator with a single-axis feedback control system was developed on the basis of electric field analysis and optimum design for levitation electrodes. In order to realize the stable levitation of various types of materials such as metals, inorganic materials and polymers, we made both experimental and theoretical investigations to solve the four key problems of electric field optimization, sample position detecting, sample charging control and levitation voltage minimization. Under the capacitive induction charging condition, a sample with the size of 2.6–4.5 mm usually bears positive charges amounting to 10-9 Coulomb. Because the single-axis feedback control system responds quickly, it takes the levitated sample only 0.1 s from leaving the bottom electrode until attaining a stable levitation in the upright direction. The levitated sample displays satisfactory levitation stability in both the upright and the horizontal directions owing to the constraining force produced by spherical electrodes.

  2. How to Simply Demonstrate Diamagnetic Levitation with Pencil Lead

    Koudelkova, Vera

    2016-01-01

    A new simple arrangement how to demonstrate diamagnetic levitation is presented. It uses pencil lead levitating in a track built from neodymium magnets. This arrangement can also be used as a classroom experiment.

  3. DIAMAGNETIC LEVITATION ABOVE MICROMAGNETS: APPLICATIONS TO DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS AND BIOLOGY

    Kauffmann, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Diamagnetic levitation is one of the rare way to compensate action of gravity. This kind of repulsion is negligible at our scale. However, at microscale, this effect becomes significant and can achieve levitation of diamagnetic objects. Through the development of micromagnets, analytical and numerical models, and experiments, applications of diamagnetic levitation of microdroplets and trapping of cells in paramagnetic media is explored. It is shown that diamagnetic levitation allows quantifyi...

  4. Laser Induced Rotation of a Levitated Sample in Vacuum

    Rhim, W. K.; Paradis, P. F.

    1999-01-01

    A method of systematically controlling the rotational state of a sample levitated in a high vacuum using the photon pressure is described. A zirconium sphere was levitated in the high-temperature electrostatic levitator and it was rotated by irradiating it with a narrow beam of a high power laser on a spot off the center of mass.

  5. Levitation Technology in International Space Station Research

    Guinart-Ramirez, Y.; Cooley, V. M.; Love, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique multidisciplinary orbiting laboratory for science and technology research, enabling discoveries that benefit life on Earth and exploration of the universe. ISS facilities for containerless sample processing in Materials Science experiments include levitation devices with specimen positioning control while reducing containment vessel contamination. For example, ESA's EML (ElectroMagnetic Levitator), is used for melting and solidification of conductive metals, alloys, or semiconductors in ultra-high vacuum, or in high-purity gaseous atmospheres. Sample heating and positioning are accomplished through electromagnetic fields generated by a coil system. EML applications cover investigation of solidification and microstructural formation, evaluation of thermophysical properties of highly reactive metals (whose properties can be very sensitive to contamination), and examination of undercooled liquid metals to understand metastable phase convection and influence convection on structural changes. MSL utilization includes development of novel light-weight, high-performance materials. Another facility, JAXA's ELF (Electrostatic Levitation Furnace), is used to perform high temperature melting while avoiding chemical reactions with crucibles by levitating a sample through Coulomb force. ELF is capable of measuring density, surface tension, and viscosity of samples at high temperatures. One of the initial ELF investigations, Interfacial Energy-1, is aimed at clarification of interfacial phenomena between molten steels and oxide melts with industrial applications in control processes for liquid mixing. In addition to these Materials Science facilities, other ISS investigations that involve levitation employ it for biological research. For example, NASA's "Magnetic 3D Culturing and Bioprinting" investigation uses magnetic levitation for three-dimensional culturing and positioning of magnetized cells to generate spheroid assemblies

  6. AB Levitator and Electricity Storage

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    The author researched this new idea - support of flight by any aerial vehicles at significant altitude solely by the magnetic field of the planet. It is shown that current technology allows humans to create a light propulsion (AB engine) which does not depend on air, water or ground terrain. Simultaniosly, this revolutionary thruster is a device for the storage of electricity which is extracted and is replenished (during braking) from/into the storage with 100 percent efficiency. The relative weight ratio of this engine is 0.01 - 0.1 (from thrust). For some types of AB engine (toroidal form) the thrust easily may be changed in any direction without turning of engine. The author computed many projects using different versions of offered AB engine: small device for levitation-flight of a human (including flight from Earth to Outer Space), fly VTOL car (track), big VTOL aircrat, suspended low altitude stationary satellite, powerful Space Shuttle-like booster for travel to the Moon and Mars without spending energ...

  7. Torsional optomechanics of a levitated nonspherical nanoparticle

    Hoang, Thai M; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Robicheaux, F; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Li, Tongcang

    2016-01-01

    An optically levitated nanoparticle in vacuum is a paradigm optomechanical system for sensing and studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. While its center-of-mass motion has been investigated intensively, its torsional vibration has only been studied theoretically in limited cases. Here we report the first experimental observation of the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum. We achieve this by utilizing the coupling between the spin angular momentum of photons and the torsional vibration of a nonspherical nanoparticle whose polarizability is a tensor. The torsional vibration frequency can be one order of magnitude higher than its center-of-mass motion frequency, which is promising for ground state cooling. With an ellipsoidal model, we propose a simple yet novel scheme to achieve ground state cooling of its torsional vibration with a linearly-polarized Gaussian cavity mode. A levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum will also be an ultrasensitive nanoscale tor...

  8. Vibrations in Magnet/Superconductor Levitation Systems

    F. Y. Alzoubi; H. M. Al-khateeb; M. K. Alqadi; N. Y. Ayoub

    2006-01-01

    The problem of a small magnet levitating above a very thin superconducting disc in the Meissner state is analysed. The dipole-dipole interaction model is employed to derive analytical expressions for the interaction energy, levitation force, magnetic stiffness and frequency of small vibrations about the equilibrium position in two different configurations, i.e. with the magnetic moment parallel and perpendicular to the superconductor. The results show that the frequency of small vibrations decreases with the increasing levitation height for a particular radius of the superconducting disc, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. However, the frequency increases monotomcally up to saturation by increasing the radius of the disc for a particular height of the magnet. In addition, the frequency of vibrations is higher when the system is in the vertical configuration than that when the system is in the horizontal configuration.

  9. Dilating Eye Drops

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  10. Low Complex System for Levitating Ferromagnetic Materials

    Dahiru Sani Shu'aibu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper primarily presents detailed design and implementation of a low complex magnetic levitation system which can be used in laboratory for levitation experiments. The system transfer function was derived from the coenergy and the mathematical model of the state space representation was obtained. The mathematical model showed that, the system is highly non-linear and inherently unstable. Based on simulation, a low complex circuit was designed and implemented to stabilize the system, using MATLAB control tool-box. The developed controller was simple, cheap and effective, capable of controlling weights of different masses at various distances as compared to some controllers in literature.