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Sample records for acoustical engineering

  1. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  2. Acoustic engineering and technology '90

    Acoustic monitoring, testing and diagnosis in machines, production processes and products enhance the uptimes and profitability of machinery and plants. 18 papers discuss the current state of the art of acoustic monitoring systems including integrated factory planning as well as industrial health, and noise protection. (DG)

  3. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-17

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  4. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D.

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  5. Engineering acoustics: A pioneer undergraduate program at Rio de Janeiro

    Tenenbaum, Roberto A.; Zindeluk, Moyses

    2002-11-01

    Acoustics, essentially a multidisciplinary subject, still has in Brazil a small but increasing number of professionals with a solid background to deal with various aspects of this area. Since 1970 the faculty of the Acoustics and Vibration Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, offers graduate (M.Sc and D.Sc) programs, and some undergraduate courses in acoustics, vibration, and signal processing. In January 2000, this group launched a formal undergraduate engineering acoustics program in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. After three years of mechanical engineering, with a firm foundation in physics, applied mathematics, and engineering basics, the undergraduate student may elect to take the engineering acoustics program for the remaining two years. In this program, a wide number of courses are offered, including basic acoustics, room acoustics, signal processing, musical acoustics, machine diagnosis, etc. Approximately 30 different courses may be chosen from. However, the student is not completely free, since the courses selected must fit within a subject concentration profile, e.g., noise control or musical acoustics. In this paper the programs curriculum are presented and its impact on the students is discussed. A first evaluation of the qualifications achieved by the graduate students in the area is also presented.

  6. Viscothermal acoustics using finite elements : analysis tools for engineers

    Kampinga, Wim Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Hearing aids contain miniature loudspeakers and microphones. Following the trend of miniaturization, hearing aids and the acoustic transducers inside become smaller and smaller. This presents new challenges for engineers who develop such transducers. Because of the small geometries, the viscothermal

  7. Studies of flow duct acoustics with applications to turbocharged engines

    Rämmal, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A number of experimental and theoretical studies, performed in the field of technical flow duct acoustics are presented in this thesis. The acoustical methods treated are implemented on turbocharged IC-engines and engine gas exchange system components. A new method based on the well-known two-load technique has been developed. The method was applied to characterise the source data of various piston-engines with non-linear behaviour including a 6 cylinder turbo-charged truck diesel engine. The...

  8. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  9. Acoustic engineering at Universidad de las Americas, Ecuador

    Bravo, Luis A.; Naranjo, Jaime O.; Tassara, Alberto

    2001-05-01

    Acoustics, like science, an instrument to develop new technologies, comfortable atmospheres, and pleasant sounds, has not had a sufficient push in Ecuador. The shortage of professionals in the area, and the social ignorance of the advances and benefits of acoustics have been part of the problem. The University of the Americas has taken the initiative to develop an undergraduate program-only in the country-of sound and acoustics engineering, to contribute to the formation of professional futures that fortify the recent labor market in the areas of audio, professional, and acoustic engineering. This work presents/displays the results of the studies made for the creation of the race, the curricular mesh, and its projections.

  10. Thermo-acoustic engineering of silicon microresonators via evanescent waves

    A temperature-compensated silicon micromechanical resonator with a quadratic temperature characteristic is realized by acoustic engineering. Energy-trapped resonance modes are synthesized by acoustic coupling of propagating and evanescent extensional waves in waveguides with rectangular cross section. Highly different temperature sensitivity of propagating and evanescent waves is used to engineer the linear temperature coefficient of frequency. The resulted quadratic temperature characteristic has a well-defined turn-over temperature that can be tailored by relative energy distribution between propagating and evanescent acoustic fields. A 76 MHz prototype is implemented in single crystal silicon. Two high quality factor and closely spaced resonance modes, created from efficient energy trapping of extensional waves, are excited through thin aluminum nitride film. Having different evanescent wave constituents and energy distribution across the device, these modes show different turn over points of 67 °C and 87 °C for their quadratic temperature characteristic

  11. Thermo-acoustic engineering of silicon microresonators via evanescent waves

    Tabrizian, R., E-mail: rtabrizi@umich.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ayazi, F. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30308 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    A temperature-compensated silicon micromechanical resonator with a quadratic temperature characteristic is realized by acoustic engineering. Energy-trapped resonance modes are synthesized by acoustic coupling of propagating and evanescent extensional waves in waveguides with rectangular cross section. Highly different temperature sensitivity of propagating and evanescent waves is used to engineer the linear temperature coefficient of frequency. The resulted quadratic temperature characteristic has a well-defined turn-over temperature that can be tailored by relative energy distribution between propagating and evanescent acoustic fields. A 76 MHz prototype is implemented in single crystal silicon. Two high quality factor and closely spaced resonance modes, created from efficient energy trapping of extensional waves, are excited through thin aluminum nitride film. Having different evanescent wave constituents and energy distribution across the device, these modes show different turn over points of 67 °C and 87 °C for their quadratic temperature characteristic.

  12. Acoustical monitoring of diesel engines in reverberant environment

    The feed-back knowledge of emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants shows that some malfunctions, mainly affecting fuel-injection or distribution system of the engine can be heard and detected by experienced maintenance agents. This study consists in the feasibility,v of acoustical monitoring of those diesel engines, taking into account the reverberant environment of the machine. The operating cycle of the diesel is composed of transient events (injection, combustion, valve closure...) which generate highly non stationary acoustical signals. The detection of a malfunction appearing on such transients requires the use of adapted signal processing techniques. Visual analysis of the phenomena is first proceeded using time-frequency and time-scale representations. The second step will be parametric modeling of acoustical signatures for the extraction of characteristic parameters, in order to characterize the fault and to use an automatic classification system. The lest part of the study will concern the evaluation of the robustness of the detection methods in regard to acoustical reverberation. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs

  13. Physics of Acoustic Radiation from Jet Engine Inlets

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Envia, Edmane; Chien, Eugene W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of acoustic radiation from a jet engine inlet are performed using advanced computational aeroacoustics (CAA) algorithms and high-quality numerical boundary treatments. As a model of modern commercial jet engine inlets, the inlet geometry of the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) is used. Fan noise consists of tones and broadband sound. This investigation considers the radiation of tones associated with upstream propagating duct modes. The primary objective is to identify the dominant physical processes that determine the directivity of the radiated sound. Two such processes have been identified. They are acoustic diffraction and refraction. Diffraction is the natural tendency for an acoustic wave to follow a curved solid surface as it propagates. Refraction is the turning of the direction of propagation of sound waves by mean flow gradients. Parametric studies on the changes in the directivity of radiated sound due to variations in forward flight Mach number and duct mode frequency, azimuthal mode number, and radial mode number are carried out. It is found there is a significant difference in directivity for the radiation of the same duct mode from an engine inlet when operating in static condition and in forward flight. It will be shown that the large change in directivity is the result of the combined effects of diffraction and refraction.

  14. Acoustic Characterization of Compact Jet Engine Simulator Units

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    Two dual-stream, heated jet, Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units are designed for wind tunnel acoustic experiments involving a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) vehicle. The newly fabricated CJES units are characterized with a series of acoustic and flowfield investigations to ensure successful operation with minimal rig noise. To limit simulator size, consistent with a 5.8% HWB model, the CJES units adapt Ultra Compact Combustor (UCC) technology developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Stable and controllable operation of the combustor is demonstrated using passive swirl air injection and backpressuring of the combustion chamber. Combustion instability tones are eliminated using nonuniform flow conditioners in conjunction with upstream screens. Through proper flow conditioning, rig noise is reduced by more than 20 dB over a broad spectral range, but it is not completely eliminated at high frequencies. The low-noise chevron nozzle concept designed for the HWB test shows expected acoustic benefits when installed on the CJES unit, and consistency between CJES units is shown to be within 0.5 dB OASPL.

  15. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  16. Development of a Tunable Electromechanical Acoustic Liner for Engine Nacelles

    Liu, Fei; Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a tunable electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) for engine nacelles using smart materials technology. This effort addresses both near-term and long-term goals for tunable electromechanical acoustic liner technology for the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program. Analytical models, i.e. lumped element model (LEM) and transfer matrix (TM) representation of the EMHR, have been developed to predict the acoustic behavior of the EMHR. The models have been implemented in a MATLAB program and used to compare with measurement results. Moreover, the prediction performance of models is further improved with the aid of parameter extraction of the piezoelectric backplate. The EMHR has been experimentally investigated using standard two-microphone method (TMM). The measurement results validated both the LEM and TM models of the EMHR. Good agreement between predicted and measured impedance is obtained. Short- and open circuit loads define the limits of the tuning range using resistive and capacitive loads. There is approximately a 9% tuning limit under these conditions for the non-optimized resonator configuration studied. Inductive shunt loads result in a 3 degree-of-freedom DOF) system and an enhanced tuning range of over 20% that is not restricted by the short- and open-circuit limits. Damping coefficient ' measurements for piezoelectric backplates in a vacuum chamber are also performed and indicate that the damping is dominated by the structural damping losses, such as compliant boundaries, and other intrinsic loss mechanisms. Based on models of the EMHR, a Pareto optimization design of the EMHR has been performed for the EMHR with non-inductive loads. The EMHR with non-inductive loads is a 2DOF system with two resonant fiequencies. The tuning ranges of the two resonant frequencies of the EMHR with non-inductive loads cannot be optimized simultaneously; a trade-off (i.e., a Pareto solution) must be reached. The Pareto solution

  17. An investigation of the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition engine operating with biodiesel blends

    In this paper, an experimental investigation has been carried out on the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The experiment was conducted on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine which runs with biodiesel (B50 and B100) and pure diesel. The signals of acoustic, vibration and in-cylinder pressure were measured during the experiment. To correlate the combustion process and the acoustic characteristics, both phenomena have been investigated. The acoustic analysis resulted in the sound level being increased with increasing of engine loads and speeds as well as the sound characteristics being closely correlated to the combustion process. However, acoustic signals are highly sensitive to the ambient conditions and intrusive background noise. Therefore, the spectral subtraction was employed to minimize the effects of background noise in order to enhance the signal to noise ratio. In addition, the acoustic characteristics of CI engine running with different fuels (biodiesel blends and diesel) was analysed for comparison. The results show that the sound energy level of acoustic signals is slightly higher when the engine fuelled by biodiesel and its blends than that of fuelled by normal diesel. Hence, the acoustic characteristics of the CI engine will have useful information for engine condition monitoring and fuel content estimation.

  18. Acoustic Pyrometry Applied to Gas Turbines and Jet Engines

    Fralick, Gustave C.

    1999-01-01

    Internal gas temperature is one of the most fundamental parameters related to engine efficiency and emissions production. The most common methods for measuring gas temperature are physical probes, such as thermocouples and thermistors, and optical methods, such as Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) or Rayleigh scattering. Probes are relatively easy to use, but they are intrusive, their output must be corrected for errors due to radiation and conduction, and their upper use temperature is limited. Optical methods are nonintrusive, and they measure some intrinsic property of the gas that is directly related to its temperature (e.g., lifetime or the ratio of line strengths). However, optical methods are usually difficult to use, and optical access is not always available. Lately, acoustic techniques have been receiving some interest as a way to overcome these limitations.

  19. Vibro-acoustics of automobile engines; Vibro-acoustique des moteurs d'automobile

    Leclere, Q.; Laulagnet, B.; Guyader, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Polac, L. [Renault DM, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2006-04-15

    This article treats of the vibro-acoustics of automobile engines. A presentation of the phenomena leading to noise emission is performed: internal sources, dynamical behaviour of the structure, acoustic radiation of the external engine envelope. The complexness of engines leads to multiple noise sources which are described, analyzed and quantified. The technical solutions for their abatement are presented. The following points are successively described: dynamical behaviour of the engine-propulsion system, acoustic radiation, inertia stresses, combustion noise, common rail diesel injection system noise, piston slap, distribution drive noise, turbo-charger whistle, gearbox noise. (J.S.)

  20. Material and Phonon Engineering for Next Generation Acoustic Devices

    Kuo, Nai-Kuei

    This thesis presents the theoretical and experimental work related to micromachining of low intrinsic loss sapphire and phononic crystals for engineering new classes of electroacoustic devices for frequency control applications. For the first time, a low loss sapphire suspended membrane was fabricated and utilized to form the main body of a piezoelectric lateral overtone bulk acoustic resonator (LOBAR). Since the metalized piezoelectric transducer area in a LOBAR is only a small fraction of the overall resonant cavity (made out of sapphire), high quality factor (Q) overtones are attained. The experiment confirms the low intrinsic mechanical loss of the transferred sapphire thin film, and the resonators exhibit the highest Q of 5,440 at 2.8 GHz ( f·Q of 1.53.1013 Hz). This is also the highest f·Q demonstrated for aluminum-nitride-(AIN)-based Lamb wave devices to date. Beyond demonstrating a low loss device, this experimental work has laid the foundation for the future development of new micromechanical devices based on a high Q, high hardness and chemically resilient material. The search for alternative ways to more efficiently perform frequency control functionalities lead to the exploration of Phononic Crystal (PnC) structures in AIN thin films. Four unit cell designs were theoretically and experimentally investigated to explore the behavior of phononic bandgaps (PBGs) in the ultra high frequency (UHF) range: (i) the conventional square lattice with circular air scatterer, (ii) the inverse acoustic bandgap (IABG) structure, (iii) the fractal PnC, and (iv) the X-shaped PnC. Each unit cell has its unique frequency characteristic that was exploited to synthesize either cavity resonators or improve the performance of acoustic delay lines. The PBGs operate in the range of 770 MHz to 1 GHz and exhibit a maximum acoustic rejection of 40 dB. AIN Lamb wave transducers (LWTs) were employed for the experimental demonstration of the PBGs and cavity resonances. Ultra

  1. Predictive Acoustic Modelling Applied to the Control of Intake/exhaust Noise of Internal Combustion Engines

    Davies, P. O. A. L.; Harrison, M. F.

    1997-05-01

    The application of validated acoustic models to intake/exhaust system acoustic design is described with reference to a sequence of specific practical examples. These include large turbocharged diesel generating sets, truck engines and high performance petrol engines. The discussion includes a comparison of frequency domain, time domain and hybrid modelling approaches to design methodology. The calculation of sound emission from open terminations is summarized in an appendix.

  2. Acoustic Performance of Drive Rig Mufflers for Model Scale Engine Testing

    Stephens, David, B.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft engine component testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) includes acoustic testing of scale model fans and propellers in the 9- by15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). This testing utilizes air driven turbines to deliver power to the article being studied. These air turbines exhaust directly downstream of the model in the wind tunnel test section and have been found to produce significant unwanted noise that reduces the quality of the acoustic measurements of the engine model being tested. This report describes an acoustic test of a muffler designed to mitigate the extraneous turbine noise. The muffler was found to provide acoustic attenuation of at least 8 dB between 700 Hz and 20 kHz which significantly improves the quality of acoustic measurements in the facility.

  3. The Frequency Characteristics Simulation of Traveling Wave Thermo-Acoustic Engine

    Ma Lili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency characteristics of thermo-acoustic engine mainly depend on the internal working medium and device structure. The linear resonant system is consisted of ironless permanent magnet linear synchronous motor and the resonant spring. Through the analysis of thermo-acoustic power generation system model, the parameters of linear resonant system are determined by building a mathematical model of linear resonant system. Combined with modern control theory and robust control theory, a robust position controller was design. The theoretical analysis and simulation proved that the controller can make the linear resonance system obtain higher frequency response and displacement accuracy. Controller response time and output is more stable, the controller meets the necessary optimal control. The controller is suitable for thermal acoustic generator control system with high reliable and robust quantitative. The designed linear resonance system can well simulate the frequency characteristics of thermo-acoustic engine.

  4. The Frequency Characteristics Simulation of Traveling Wave Thermo-Acoustic Engine

    Ma Lili; Xia Jiakuan; Guo Tie

    2013-01-01

    The frequency characteristics of thermo-acoustic engine mainly depend on the internal working medium and device structure. The linear resonant system is consisted of ironless permanent magnet linear synchronous motor and the resonant spring. Through the analysis of thermo-acoustic power generation system model, the parameters of linear resonant system are determined by building a mathematical model of linear resonant system. Combined with modern control theory and robust control theory, a rob...

  5. Lift-Off Acoustics Prediction of Clustered Rocket Engines in the Near Field

    Vu, Bruce; Plotkin, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation presents a method of predicting acoustics during lift-off of the clustered rocket engines in the near field. Included is a definition of the near field, and the use of deflectors and shielding. There is discussion about the use of PAD, a software system designed to calculate the acoustic levels from the lift of of clustered rocket enginee, including updates to extend the calculation to directivity, water suppression, and clustered nozzles.

  6. Acoustic measurements for the combustion diagnosis of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesels

    Zhen, Dong; Wang, Tie; Gu, Fengshou; Tesfa, Belachew; Ball, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out on the combustion process of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The effects of biodiesel on the combustion process and engine dynamics were analysed for non-intrusive combustion diagnosis based on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine. The signals of vibration, acoustic and in-cylinder pressure were measured simultaneously to find their inter-connection for diagnostic feature extraction. It was found that the sound energy level increases with the increase of engine load and speed, and the sound characteristics are closely correlated with the variation of in-cylinder pressure and combustion process. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to analyse the non-stationary nature of engine noise in a higher frequency range. Before the wavelet analysis, time synchronous average (TSA) was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic signal by suppressing the components which are asynchronous. Based on the root mean square (RMS) values of CWT coefficients, the effects of biodiesel fractions and operating conditions (speed and load) on combustion process and engine dynamics were investigated. The result leads to the potential of airborne acoustic measurements and analysis for engine condition monitoring and fuel quality evaluation.

  7. Acoustic measurements for the combustion diagnosis of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesels

    In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out on the combustion process of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The effects of biodiesel on the combustion process and engine dynamics were analysed for non-intrusive combustion diagnosis based on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine. The signals of vibration, acoustic and in-cylinder pressure were measured simultaneously to find their inter-connection for diagnostic feature extraction. It was found that the sound energy level increases with the increase of engine load and speed, and the sound characteristics are closely correlated with the variation of in-cylinder pressure and combustion process. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to analyse the non-stationary nature of engine noise in a higher frequency range. Before the wavelet analysis, time synchronous average (TSA) was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic signal by suppressing the components which are asynchronous. Based on the root mean square (RMS) values of CWT coefficients, the effects of biodiesel fractions and operating conditions (speed and load) on combustion process and engine dynamics were investigated. The result leads to the potential of airborne acoustic measurements and analysis for engine condition monitoring and fuel quality evaluation. (paper)

  8. Structural damage claims resulting from acoustic environments developed during static test firing of rocket engines

    Guest, S. H.; Slone, R. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    During static testing of multi-million pound thrust rocket engines areas adjacent to the test site have been subjected to the noise generated by rocket engines. Structural damage claims and subjective complaints were filed by those who alleged that the noise levels were excessive. The statistical analysis of these claims and complaints which were filed during these rocket engine development programs led to the determination of a relationship between claims and overall sound pressure level. Community exposure criteria are then assessed based on what can be considered allowable acoustic environments from large rocket engines.

  9. Evaluation of the implant type tissue-engineered cartilage by scanning acoustic microscopy.

    Tanaka, Yoko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Yuko; Yamaoka, Hisayo; Nishizawa, Satoru; Nagata, Satoru; Ogasawara, Toru; Asawa, Yukiyo; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Hoshi, Kazuto

    2012-02-01

    The tissue-engineered cartilages after implantation were nonuniform tissues which were mingling with biodegradable polymers, regeneration cartilage and others. It is a hard task to evaluate the biodegradation of polymers or the maturation of regenerated tissues in the transplants by the conventional examination. Otherwise, scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) system specially developed to measure the tissue acoustic properties at a microscopic level. In this study, we examined acoustic properties of the tissue-engineered cartilage using SAM, and discuss the usefulness of this devise in the field of tissue engineering. We administered chondrocytes/atelocollagen mixture into the scaffolds of various polymers, and transplanted the constructs in the subcutaneous areas of nude mice for 2 months. We harvested them and examined the sound speed and the attenuation in the section of each construct by the SAM. As the results, images mapping the sound speed exhibited homogenous patterns mainly colored in blue, in all the tissue-engineered cartilage constructs. Contrarily, the images of the attenuation by SAM showed the variation of color ranged between blue and red. The low attenuation area colored in red, which meant hard materials, were corresponding to the polymer remnant in the toluidine blue images. The localizations of blue were almost similar with the metachromatic areas in the histology. In conclusion, the SAM is regarded as a useful tool to provide the information on acoustic properties and their localizations in the transplants that consist of heterogeneous tissues with various components. PMID:22138383

  10. Acoustics

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  11. A First Look at the DGEN380 Engine Acoustic Data from a Core-Noise Perspective

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    This work is a first look at acoustic data acquired in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory using the Price Induction DGEN380 small turbofan engine, with particular emphasis on broadband combustor (core) noise. Combustor noise is detected by using a two-signal source separation technique employing one engine-internal sensor and one semi-far-field microphone. Combustor noise is an important core-noise component and is likely to become a more prominent contributor to overall airport community noise due to turbofan design trends, expected aircraft configuration changes, and advances in fan-noise-mitigation techniques. This work was carried out under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Fixed Wing Project, Quiet Performance Subproject

  12. High Frequency Acoustic Response Characterization and Analysis of the Deep Throttling Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine

    Casiano, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Common Extensive Cryogenic Engine program demonstrated the operation of a deep throttling engine design. The program, spanning five years from August 2005 to July 2010, funded testing through four separate engine demonstration test series. Along with successful completion of multiple objectives, a discrete response of approximately 4000 Hz was discovered and explored throughout the program. The typical low-amplitude acoustic response was evident in the chamber measurement through almost every operating condition; however, at certain off-nominal operating conditions, the response became discrete with higher amplitude. This paper summarizes the data reduction, characterization, and analysis of the 4,000 Hz response for the entire program duration, using the large amount of data collected. Upon first encountering the response, new objectives and instrumentation were incorporated in future test series to specifically collect 4,000 Hz data. The 4,000 Hz response was identified as being related to the first tangential acoustic mode by means of frequency estimation and spatial decomposition. The latter approach showed that the effective node line of the mode was aligned with the manifold propellant inlets with standing waves and quasi-standing waves present at various times. Contour maps that contain instantaneous frequency and amplitude trackings of the response were generated as a significant improvement to historical manual approaches of data reduction presentation. Signal analysis and dynamic data reduction also uncovered several other features of the response including a stable limit cycle, the progressive engagement of subsequent harmonics, the U-shaped time history, an intermittent response near the test-based neutral stability region, other acoustic modes, and indications of modulation with a separate subsynchronous response. Although no engine damage related to the acoustic mode was noted, the peak-to-peak fluctuating pressure amplitude achieved 12.1% of the

  13. The Effect of Acoustic Disturbances on the Operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Fuel Flowmeter

    Marcu, Bogdan; Szabo, Roland; Dorney, Dan; Zoladz, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) uses a turbine fuel flowmeter (FFM) in its Low Pressure Fuel Duct (LPFD) to measure liquid hydrogen flowrates during engine operation. The flowmeter is required to provide accurate and robust measurements of flow rates ranging from 10000 to 18000 GPM in an environment contaminated by duct vibration and duct internal acoustic disturbances. Errors exceeding 0.5% can have a significant impact on engine operation and mission completion. The accuracy of each sensor is monitored during hot-fire engine tests on the ground. Flow meters which do not meet requirements are not flown. Among other parameters, the device is screened for a specific behavior in which a small shift in the flow rate reading is registered during a period in which the actual fuel flow as measured by a facility meter does not change. Such behavior has been observed over the years for specific builds of the FFM and must be avoided or limited in magnitude in flight. Various analyses of the recorded data have been made prior to this report in an effort to understand the cause of the phenomenon; however, no conclusive cause for the shift in the instrument behavior has been found. The present report proposes an explanation of the phenomenon based on interactions between acoustic pressure disturbances in the duct and the wakes produced by the FFM flow straightener. Physical insight into the effects of acoustic plane wave disturbances was obtained using a simple analytical model. Based on that model, a series of three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the MSFC PHANTOM turbomachinery code. The code was customized to allow the FFM rotor speed to change at every time step according to the instantaneous fluid forces on the rotor, that, in turn, are affected by acoustic plane pressure waves propagating through the device. The results of the simulations show the variation in the rotation rate of the flowmeter

  14. Acoustic-Physical Properties of Calcareous Seafloor Soils and Their Significance in Engineering Geology

    LU Bo; LI Ganxian; HUANG Shaojian

    2000-01-01

    The basic features and acoustic-physical properties of calcareous seafloor soils in the tropicsea area are obviously different fiom those of sediments mainly composed of terrigenons materials in the Sonth China Sea. Generally, calcareous soils, composed of carbonate particles of marine organism reimains, have the characteristics of high water content, high porosity, low wet density, high sound velocity and greatly varied compressive strength. Recognizing the differences between calcareons soils and terrigenous sedimeuts and engineering geologic significance of calcareous soils is crucial for seafloor geologic research and geotechnical survey for pile-jacket plattorm foundation design.

  15. Extraction of fault component from abnormal sound in diesel engines using acoustic signals

    Dayong, Ning; Changle, Sun; Yongjun, Gong; Zengmeng, Zhang; Jiaoyi, Hou

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a method for extracting fault components from abnormal acoustic signals and automatically diagnosing diesel engine faults is presented. The method named dislocation superimposed method (DSM) is based on the improved random decrement technique (IRDT), differential function (DF) and correlation analysis (CA). The aim of DSM is to linearly superpose multiple segments of abnormal acoustic signals because of the waveform similarity of faulty components. The method uses sample points at the beginning of time when abnormal sound appears as the starting position for each segment. In this study, the abnormal sound belonged to shocking faulty type; thus, the starting position searching method based on gradient variance was adopted. The coefficient of similar degree between two same sized signals is presented. By comparing with a similar degree, the extracted fault component could be judged automatically. The results show that this method is capable of accurately extracting the fault component from abnormal acoustic signals induced by faulty shocking type and the extracted component can be used to identify the fault type.

  16. Development of Acoustic Emission Technology for Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Rotating Machines; Bearings, Pumps, Gearboxes, Engines and Rotating Structures.

    Mba, David; Rao, Raj B. K. N.

    2006-01-01

    One of the earliest documented applications of Acoustic Emission Technology (AET) to rotating machinery monitoring was in the late 1960s. Since then there has been an explosion in research and application based studies covering bearings, pumps, gearboxes, engines and rotating structures. This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review to date on the application of Acoustic Emission Technology to condition monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery.

  17. Grid Effects on LES Thermo-Acoustic Limit-Cycle of a Full Annular Aeronautical Engine

    Wolf, Pierre; Gicquel, Laurent Y. M.; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Poinsot, Thierry

    Recent developments in large scale computer architectures allow Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to be considered for the prediction of turbulent reacting flows in geometries encountered in industry. To do so, various difficulties must be overcome and the first one is to ensure that proper meshes can be used for LES. Indeed, the quality of meshes is known to be a critical factor in LES of reacting flows. This issue becomes even more crucial when LES is used to compute large configurations such as full annular combustion chambers. Various analysis of mesh effects on LES results have been published before but all are limited to single-sector computational domains. However, real annular gas-turbine engines contain ten to twenty of such sectors and LES must also be used in such full chambers for the study of ignition or azimuthal thermo-acoustic interactions. Instabilities (mostly azimuthal modes involving the full annular geometry) remain a critical issue to aeronautical or power-generation industries and LES seems to be a promising path to properly apprehend such complex unsteady couplings. Based on these observations, mesh effects on LES in a full annular gas-turbine combustion chamber (including its casing) is studied here in the context of its azimuthal thermo-acoustic response. To do so, a fully compressible, multi-species reacting LES is used on two meshes yielding two fully unsteady turbulent reacting predictions of the same configuration. The two tetrahedra meshes contain respectively 38 and 93 millions cells. Limit-cycles as obtained by the two LES are gauged against each other for various flow quantities such as mean velocity profiles, flame position and temperature fields. The thermo-acoustic limit-cycles are observed to be relatively indepedent of the grid resolution which comforts the use of LES tools to provide insights and understanding of the mechanisms triggering the coupling between the system acoustic eigenmodes and combustion.

  18. Modern common rail systems and their influence on engine acoustics; Moderne Common Rail Systeme und deren Einfluss auf die Motorakustik

    Kienzle, B. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart-Feuerbach (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Due to emission laws getting harder and harder and due to growing customer demands regarding comport and power, the requirements towards modern Diesel engines are growing. Modern Common Rail Systems from BOSCH meet these requirements, because they are able to control the combustion very precisely. In the past time, engine acoustics get more and more in focus of our customers. The strategies to optimize the engine acoustics conflicts with the standard application process for optimizing emissions, fuel consumption and engine power. Several noise formation effects and also several measurement techniques will be shown in the paper. The influence of application parameters to the noise radiation of the diesel engine will be shown. Noise reduction concepts which are based on Electronic Control Unit- software as well as passive damping measures also will be discussed.

  19. Application of dual reciprocity boundary element method to predict acoustic attenuation characteristics of marine engine exhaust silencers

    JI Zhen-lin; WANG Xue-ren

    2008-01-01

    In marine engine exhaust silencing systems,the presence of exhaust gas flow influences the sound propagation inside the systems and the acoustic attenuation performance of silencers.In order to investigate the effects of three-dimensional gas flow and acoustic damping on the acoustic attenuation characteristics of marine engine exhaust silencers,a dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM)was developed.The acoustic governing equation in three-dimensional potential flow was derived first,and then the DRBEM numerical procedure is given.Compared to the conventional boundary elementmethod (CBEM),the DRBEM considers the second order terms of flow Mach number in the acoustic governing equation,so it is suitable for the cases with higher Mach number subsonic flow.For complex exhaust silencers,it is difficult to apply the single-domain boundary element method,so a substructure approach based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method is presented.The experiments for measuring transmission loss of silencers are conducted,and the experimental setup and measurements are explained.The transmission loss of a single expansion chamber silencer with extended inlet and outlet were predicted by DRBEM and compared with the measurements.The good agreements between predictions and measurements are observed,which demonstrated that the derived acoustic governing equation and the DRBEM numerical procedure in the present study are correct.

  20. Acoustic interactions between an altitude test facility and jet engine plumes: Theory and experiments

    Ahuja, K. K.; Jones, R. R., III; Tam, C. K.; Massey, K. C.; Fleming, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the described effort was to develop an understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in the flow/acoustic interactions experienced in full-scale altitude engine test facilities. This is done by conducting subscale experiments and through development of a theoretical model. Model cold jet experiments with an axisymmetric convergent nozzle are performed in a test setup that stimulates a supersonic jet exhausting into a cylindrical diffuser. The measured data consist of detailed flow visualization data and acoustic spectra for a free and a ducted plume. It is shown that duct resonance is most likely responsible by theoretical calculations. Theoretical calculations also indicate that the higher discrete tones observed in the measurements are related to the screech phenomena. Limited experiments on the sensitivity of a free 2-D, C-D nozzle to externally imposed sound are also presented. It is shown that a 2-D, C-D nozzle with a cutback is less excitable than a 2-D C-D nozzle with no cutback. At a pressure ratio of 1.5 unsteady separation from the diverging walls of the nozzle is noticed. This separation switches from one wall to the opposite wall thus providing an unsteady deflection of the plume. It is shown that this phenomenon is related to the venting provided by the cutback section.

  1. Characterization of acoustically engineered polymer nanocomposite metamaterials using x-ray microcomputed tomography.

    Mitri, F G; Garzon, F H; Sinha, D N

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of acoustically engineered diamond nanoparticles-based metamaterials and their internal microstructure characterization using x-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT). The state-of-the-art technique based on the radiation force of ultrasound standing (or stationary) waves in a rectangular chamber is utilized to pattern clusters of 5-nm-diameter diamond nanoparticles in parallel planes within a three-dimensional (3D) matrix of epoxy before solidification. Gradually, the periodic pattern becomes permanent with full cure of the epoxy matrix so as to form a 3D metamaterial structure. We also show that the periodicity of the pattern can be changed by selecting a different ultrasound frequency. Furthermore, XμCT is used as a quality control tool to map the internal structure and characterize each metamaterial. The ultimate application is to use the results as a base for the development of finite-element models which take into account all the structural features to study the various metamaterial (optical, acoustical, thermal, etc.) functional properties. PMID:21456780

  2. Synechococcus as a "singing" bacterium: biology inspired by micro-engineered acoustic streaming devices

    Ehlers, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Certain cyanobacteria, such as open ocean strains of Synechococcus, are able to swim at speeds up to 25 diameters per second, without flagella or visible changes in shape. The means by which Synechococcus generates thrust for self-propulsion is unknown. The only mechanism that has not been ruled out employs tangential waves of surface deformations. In Ehlers et al, the average swimming velocity for this mechanism was estimated using the methods inaugurated by Taylor and Lighthill in the 1950's and revisited in differential geometric language by Shapere and Wilczek in 1989. In this article we propose an entirely different physical principle self propulsion based on acoustic streaming (AS). Micro-pumps in silicon chips, based on AS, have been constructed by engineers since the 1990's, but to the best of our knowledge acoustic streaming as a means of microorganisms locomotion has not been proposed before. Our hypothesis is supported by two recent discoveries: (1) In Samuel, et al, deep-freeze electron microscopy...

  3. A portable pulmonary delivery system for nano engineered DNA vaccines driven by surface acoustic wave devices

    Full text: The increase in the need for effective delivery of potelll vaccines against infectious diseases, require robust yet straightforward pro duction of encapsulated DNA-laden aerosols. Aerosol delivery of drugs represents the next generation of vaccine delivery where the drug is deposited into the lung, which provides an ideal, non-invasive route. Moreover, several features of D A vaccines make them more attractive than conventional vaccines; thus, DNA vaccines have gained global interest for a variety of applications. However, several limitations such as ineffective cellular uptake and intracellular delivery, and degradation of DNA need to be overcome before clin ical applications. In this study, a novel and scalable engineered technique has been developed to create a biodegradable polymer system, which enables controlled delivery of a well designed DNA vaccine for immuno-therapeutics. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) atomisation has been found as useful mechanism for atomising fluid samples for medical and industrial devices. It is a straightforward method for synthesising un-agglomerated biodegradable nanoparti cles (<250 nm) in the absence of organic solvents which would represent a major breakthrough for biopharmaceutical encapsulation and delivery. Nano-scale polymer particles for DNA vaccines deliv ery were obtained through an evaporative process of the initial aerosol created by surface acoustic waves at 8-150 MHz, the final size of which could be controlled by modifying the initial polymer concen tration and solid contents. Thus, SAW atomiser represents a promising alternative for the development of a low power device for producing nano-engineered vaccines with a controlled and narrow size distribution as delivery system for genetic immuno-therapeutics.

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF A SCORE™ DEMO2.1 THERMO-ACOUSTIC ENGINE

    BAIMAN CHEN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The early low-cost, wood burning Thermo-Acoustic Engine (TAE known as Demo2.0-build-1 was developed by SCORE™ at the UK Centre and was capable of achieving 22.7 Watts of electricity. This prototype was limited to an operating temperature of about 300oC and due to excessive leaks could not operate continuously above ambient pressure. To absorb a thermal heat input of 4.4 kW from the burning wood so as to fulfil the required acoustic power, the Hot Heat Exchanger (HHX requires heating to the highest possible temperature. Therefore, a corrugated stainless steel plate HHX design that maximises heating surface area was adopted to the current Demo2 TAE design. In addition, the system is often pressurised to achieve higher acoustic intensity. Rigorous sealing of the system at high temperature is also required. A Demo2.1 TAE design based on the Demo2 TAE design and its prototype which is developed recently by the SCORE™ Centre in Malaysia was successfully constructed and well integrated with the stove. During the early construction and assembly process, fabrication difficulties and serious leak problems around the HHX’s edges were found when the apparatus operated at high temperatures. This is because the uneven geometrical HHX (convolution profile makes it difficult and relatively costly to be sealed. The Demo2.1 TAE is focused on the sealing efficiency and effective manufacturing cost by meantime to allow further modification variation. The design was made to adopt the local manufacturing technologies and materials available or easy to access in Malaysia. It also aims to minimise the parasitic heat losses to lower the system onset temperature. By removing the Linear Alternator and Tuning Volume from the system, preliminary measurements shown that the apparatus was oscillating at the frequency of 70 Hz. A much lower onset temperature was observed at around 144oC for the new configuration when the apparatus was oscillating at approximately 200 Pa

  5. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  6. Acoustic Database for Turbofan Engine Core-Noise Sources. I; Volume

    Gordon, Grant

    2015-01-01

    In this program, a database of dynamic temperature and dynamic pressure measurements were acquired inside the core of a TECH977 turbofan engine to support investigations of indirect combustion noise. Dynamic temperature and pressure measurements were recorded for engine gas dynamics up to temperatures of 3100 degrees Fahrenheit and transient responses as high as 1000 hertz. These measurements were made at the entrance of the high pressure turbine (HPT) and at the entrance and exit of the low pressure turbine (LPT). Measurements were made at two circumferential clocking positions. In the combustor and inter-turbine duct (ITD), measurements were made at two axial locations to enable the exploration of time delays. The dynamic temperature measurements were made using dual thin-wire thermocouple probes. The dynamic pressure measurements were made using semi-infinite probes. Prior to the engine test, a series of bench, oven, and combustor rig tests were conducted to characterize the performance of the dual wire temperature probes and to define and characterize the data acquisition systems. A measurement solution for acquiring dynamic temperature and pressure data on the engine was defined. A suite of hardware modifications were designed to incorporate the dynamic temperature and pressure instrumentation into the TECH977 engine. In particular, a probe actuation system was developed to protect the delicate temperature probes during engine startup and transients in order to maximize sensor life. A set of temperature probes was procured and the TECH977 engine was assembled with the suite of new and modified hardware. The engine was tested at four steady state operating speeds, with repeats. Dynamic pressure and temperature data were acquired at each condition for at least one minute. At the two highest power settings, temperature data could not be obtained at the forward probe locations since the mean temperatures exceeded the capability of the probes. The temperature data

  7. Generation of desired signals from acoustic drivers. [for aircraft engine internal noise propagation experiment

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Salikuddin, M.; Ahuja, K. K.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure to control transient signal generation is developed for the study of internal noise propagation from aircraft engines. A simple algorithm incorporating transform techniques is used to produce signals of any desired waveform from acoustic drivers. The accurate driver response is then calculated, and from this the limiting frequency characteristics are determined and the undesirable frequencies where the driver response is poor are eliminated from the analysis. A synthesized signal is then produced by convolving the inverse of the response function with the desired signal. Although the shape of the synthesized signal is in general quite awkward, the driver generates the desired signal when the distorted signal is fed into the driver. The results of operating the driver in two environments, in a free field and in a duct, are presented in order to show the impedance matching effect of the driver. In addition, results using a high frequency cut-off value as a parameter is presented in order to demonstrate the extent of the applicability of the synthesis procedure. It is concluded that the desired signals can be generated through the signal synthesis procedure.

  8. Acoustic holography (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for 1970--May 1976

    Worldwide research on acoustic holography is covered. Theory, uses, equipment design, and imaging techniques are presented. Most of the studies are general and not applied to a specific use of acoustic holography. However, there are citations which do discuss its use in medicine, nuclear reactors, and nondestructive testing. (Contains 161 abstracts)

  9. Advanced numerical techniques for the acoustic modelling of materials and noise control devices in the exhaust system of internal combustion engines

    Sánchez Orgaz, Eva María

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This Thesis is focused on the development and implementation of efficient numerical methods for the acoustic modelling and design of noise control devices in the exhaust system of combustion engines. Special attention is paid to automotive perforated dissipative silencers, in which significant differences are likely to appear in their acoustic behaviour, depending on the temperature variations within the absorbent material. Also, material heterogeneities can alter the silencer attenuatio...

  10. Springer Handbook of Acoustics

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ACOUSTIC MODELS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY RESONATORS FOR TURBOCHARGED IC-ENGINES

    Wang, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the work reported is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of realistic mean flow on losses and possibly 3D effects are consid...

  12. STUDY ON STABILITY OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING BY ACOUSTIC EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEM

    来兴平; 张冰川; 蔡美峰

    2000-01-01

    A simulation acoustic emission (AE) signal was processed. And an effective algorithm was presented to obtain the useful signal about the place information from the simulation signal. This paper introduces the artificial monitoring system, its application at underground roadway and its monitoring results, and tries to explore theoretically analyzing method of stability of underground concrete roadway by AE parameters. A simulation AE signal was processed. And an effective algorithm was presented to obtain the useful signal about the place information from the simulation signal It shows the nice future of the application in the active damage detection of composite material.

  13. Finite element-integral acoustic simulation of JT15D turbofan engine

    Baumeister, K. J.; Horowitz, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    An iterative finite element integral technique is used to predict the sound field radiated from the JT15D turbofan inlet. The sound field is divided into two regions: the sound field within and near the inlet which is computed using the finite element method and the radiation field beyond the inlet which is calculated using an integral solution technique. The velocity potential formulation of the acoustic wave equation was employed in the program. For some single mode JT15D data, the theory and experiment are in good agreement for the far field radiation pattern as well as suppressor attenuation. Also, the computer program is used to simulate flight effects that cannot be performed on a ground static test stand.

  14. Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials

    Ming-Hui Lu; Liang Feng; Yan-Feng Chen

    2009-01-01

    Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surf...

  15. Acoustic characteristics of a large-scale wind tunnel model of an upper-surface blown flap transport having two engines

    Falarski, M. D.; Aoyagi, K.; Koenig, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The upper-surface blown (USB) flap as a powered-lift concept has evolved because of the potential acoustic shielding provided when turbofan engines are installed on a wing upper surface. The results from a wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale USB model powered by two JT15D-1 turbofan engines are-presented. The effects of coanda flap extent and deflection, forward speed, and exhaust nozzle configuration were investigated. To determine the wing shielding the acoustics of a single engine nacelle removed from the model were also measured. Effective shielding occurred in the aft underwing quadrant. In the forward quadrant the shielding of the high frequency noise was counteracted by an increase in the lower frequency wing-exhaust interaction noise. The fuselage provided shielding of the opposite engine noise such that the difference between single and double engine operation was 1.5 PNdB under the wing. The effects of coanda flap deflection and extent, angle of attack, and forward speed were small. Forward speed reduced the perceived noise level (PNL) by reducing the wing-exhaust interaction noise.

  16. Acoustic holography. 1970-June, 1980 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970-Jun 80

    Worldwide research on acoustic holography is covered. Theory, uses, equipment design, and imaging techniques are presented. Most of the studies are general and not applied to a specific use of acoustic holography. However, there are citations which do discuss its use in medicine, nuclear reactors, and nondestructive testing

  17. Influence of different sealing-systems on engine acoustics. Acoustical optimised sealing-systems. Final report; Entwicklung eines rechnergestuetzten Verfahrens zur akustischen Optimierung von Dichtungen zwischen Motorstruktur und Anbauteilen. Akustisch optimierte Dichtsysteme. Abschlussbericht

    Pischinger, S.; Pilath, C. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen; Joerres, M. [Ford-Werke, Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The subject of this project is to analyze and optimize the acoustical behaviour of the sealing between cylinderhead and valve cover. The investigations will be done by experiment and calculation using the commercial software code MSC Nastran. The Powertrain used for these investigations is a 4 cylinder inline spark ignition engine. The expected results will be a detailed knowledge of the noise transmission via elastomer sealings between the base engine structure and covers. A Matrix of the most influencing parameter will be provided and a calculation approach will be shown to predict the acoustical relevant vibrations of an elastomer sealing system typically used on valve covers The simulation method developed in this project which is based on MSC Nastran shows accurate results compared to measurements. The calculation results were significantly better than those which were conducted using the state-of-the-art modal calculation approach. The key for getting good simulation results is to include the frequency dependent shear modulus of the sealing material in the calculation. A second step was to optimize the sealing regarding to its' NVH behaviour. Using design of experiments (DoE) the geometry and the material parameters were optimized. One result of the optimization is that it is not possible to give a general statement about the best sealing geometry. The optimised sealing geometry is dependent of the utilized material; for one a material the best geometry is a compact square geometry while for other materials it is more like a T-profile. (orig.)

  18. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  19. Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials

    Ming-Hui Lu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surface evanescent waves have also been recognized to play key roles to reach acoustic subwavelength imaging and enhanced transmission.

  20. Springer handbook of acoustics

    2014-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays  and acoustic emission.  Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...

  1. Acoustic vector sensor signal processing

    SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.

  2. Monitoring the viscosity of diesel engine lubricating oil by using acoustic emission technique, the selection of measurement parameters

    Acoustic emission technique has been developed through years of monitoring and diagnosis of bearing, but it is still new in the diagnosis and monitoring of lubrication oil to bearings drive. The propagation of acoustic emission signal is generated when the signal piston on the cylinder liner lubricating oil which is a par. The signal is analyzed in time domain to obtain the parameters of root mean squared, amplitude, energy and courtesy. Lubricant viscosity will undergo changes due to temperature, pressure and useful. This study focuses on the appropriate parameters for the diagnosis and monitoring of lubricating oil viscosity. Studies were conducted at a constant rotational speed and temperature, but use a different age. The results showed that the energy parameter is the best parameter used in this monitoring. However, this parameter cannot be used directly and it should be analyzed using mathematical formulas. This mathematical formula is a relationship between acoustic emission energy with the viscosity of lubricating oil. (author)

  3. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  4. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will...... present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  5. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  6. Development of a wood-fired cooking stove to incorporate a thermo-acoustic engine-generator unit

    Dennis, R; Pullen, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    The provision of affordable electrical power in off-grid rural areas of developing countries is a major challenge but a vital element in the battle to reduce poverty. In response to this need, the SCORE project objective was to integrate a novel technology, thermo-acoustics, into a domestic cooking stove in order to produce an adequate level of electricity supply for families in developing countries whilst also providing efficient cooking. The unit is aimed at the majority of poorer families ...

  7. Communication Acoustics

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  8. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  9. Acoustic Neuroma

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. The tumor ... press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms ...

  10. Acoustic Neuroma

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  11. Truck acoustic data analyzer system

    Haynes, Howard D.; Akerman, Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2006-07-04

    A passive vehicle acoustic data analyzer system having at least one microphone disposed in the acoustic field of a moving vehicle and a computer in electronic communication the microphone(s). The computer detects and measures the frequency shift in the acoustic signature emitted by the vehicle as it approaches and passes the microphone(s). The acoustic signature of a truck driving by a microphone can provide enough information to estimate the truck speed in miles-per-hour (mph), engine speed in rotations-per-minute (RPM), turbocharger speed in RPM, and vehicle weight.

  12. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  13. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  14. Active electroacoustic resonators with negative acoustic properties

    Lissek, Hervé; Boulandet, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials constitute a new class of acoustic structures, composed of periodic arrangements of engineered unit-cells, that exhibit macroscopic acoustic properties not readily available in nature. These properties can either be a negative mass density or a negative bulk modulus. However, these artificial behaviours derive from the engineered arrangement of the unit-cells, which do not present individual ''meta-properties'', rather than from their intrinsic nature. It is although po...

  15. Anisotropic and Negative Acoustic Index Metamaterials

    Fok, Lee Ren

    2010-01-01

    Microstructured materials are used in material science and engineering to attain desired material properties. Acoustic metamaterials are a rapidly growing area in this field of engineered materials that use deep subwavelength microstructures to attain exotic acoustic properties unavailable in nature. These properties, such as negative acoustic index, allow unprecedented capabilities such as sub-diffraction limit resolution, which have the potential to greatly improve existing technologies l...

  16. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-24

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  17. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  18. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This structural chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  19. Acoustical Imaging

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  20. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  1. Radiation acoustics

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  2. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  3. Battlefield acoustics

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  4. Acoustical Imaging

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  5. Acoustic telemetry

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine movements of green turtles in the nearshore foraging areas, we deployed acoustic tags and determined their movements through active and passive...

  6. Acoustics Research

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  7. Thermo-acoustic instabilities of high-frequency combustion in rocket engines; Instabilites thermo-acoustiques de combustion haute-frequence dans les moteurs fusees

    Cheuret, F.

    2005-10-15

    Rocket motors are confined environments where combustion occurs in extreme conditions. Combustion instabilities can occur at high frequencies; they are tied to the acoustic modes of the combustion chamber. A common research chamber, CRC, allows us to study the response of a turbulent two-phase flame to acoustic oscillations of low or high amplitudes. The chamber is characterised under cold conditions to obtain, in particular, the relative damping coefficient of acoustic oscillations. The structure and frequency of the modes are determined in the case where the chamber is coupled to a lateral cavity. We have used a powder gun to study the response to a forced acoustic excitation at high amplitude. The results guide us towards shorter flames. The injectors were then modified to study the combustion noise level as a function of injection conditions. The speed of the gas determines whether the flames are attached or lifted. The noise level of lifted flames is higher. That of attached flames is proportional to the Weber number. The shorter flames whose length is less than the radius of the CRC, necessary condition to obtain an effective coupling, are the most sensitive to acoustic perturbations. The use of a toothed wheel at different positions in the chamber allowed us to obtain informations on the origin of the thermo-acoustic coupling, main objective of this thesis. The flame is sensitive to pressure acoustic oscillations, with a quasi-zero response time. These observations suggest that under the conditions of the CRC, we observe essentially the response of chemical kinetics to pressure oscillations. (author)

  8. Prediction and Control on Vibro-acoustic Environment of Marine Engine Room Model%船舶机舱模型振声环境预报与控制

    梁炳南; 于洪亮; 蔡延年

    2014-01-01

    以某航海教学实习船机舱为原型,将此振动—声辐射耦合系统简化为箱形多腔结构,建立多腔结构及其单元腔室有限元模型,考虑液舱布置与充液、激励源处设置隔振器等情况,对结构进行频率响应分析,运用声学边界元法对舱室噪声进行预报,通过对舱室中心场点声学贡献较大的板件进行约束阻尼处理,有效降低舱室噪声。并进行船舶机舱模型振动—声辐射实验。分析表明:研究三舱段船舶机舱模型振声性能时,充液及增加充液舱数,对模型固有频率影响明显,通过设置隔振器能有效降低舱室振声等级,在非激励源舱室敷设约束阻尼材料,也可起到较好降噪作用。%The engine room of a training ship for navigation teaching was taken as a prototype, and the finite element model of multi-tanks structure and its unit chamber was built when the vibro-acoustic coupling system was simplified. Fre-quency response analysis was carried out in the consideration of filling liquid, arrangements of the liquid tanks, and loca-tions of excitation source with vibration isolator. The noise of ship cabin was predicted by means of acoustic boundary ele-ment method and the noise level was reduced effectively by using constrainted damping treatment on plates of a large amount of acoustic contribution to the center field. And the vibro-acoustic radiation experiment of the marine engine room model was conducted. Analysis indicates that the natural frequency is influenced obviously with different conditions of fill-ing liquid and increasing the number of tanks filled with liquid. Vibration isolator can reduce the vibro-acoustic level. Con-straint damping materials laid in the cabin with non-excitation source can also reduce noise effectively.

  9. Acoustic methodology review

    Schlegel, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    It is important for industry and NASA to assess the status of acoustic design technology for predicting and controlling helicopter external noise in order for a meaningful research program to be formulated which will address this problem. The prediction methodologies available to the designer and the acoustic engineer are three-fold. First is what has been described as a first principle analysis. This analysis approach attempts to remove any empiricism from the analysis process and deals with a theoretical mechanism approach to predicting the noise. The second approach attempts to combine first principle methodology (when available) with empirical data to formulate source predictors which can be combined to predict vehicle levels. The third is an empirical analysis, which attempts to generalize measured trends into a vehicle noise prediction method. This paper will briefly address each.

  10. Acoustic emission

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  11. Vibro-acoustics of lightweight sandwich structures

    Lu, Tianjian

    2014-01-01

    Vibro-Acoustics of Lightweight Sandwich Structures introduces the study of the coupled vibration and acoustic behavior of lightweight sandwich structures in response to harmonic force and sound pressure. This book focuses on the theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of lightweight sandwich structures in order to provide a predictive framework for vibro-acoustic characteristics of typical engineering structures. Furthermore, by developing solution tools, it concentrates on the influence of key systematic parameters leading to effective guidance for optimal structure design toward lightweight, high-stiffness and superior sound insulation capability. This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and graduate students in mechanical engineering especially in structural mechanics, mechanics and acoustics. Fengxian Xin and Tianjian Lu both work at the School of Aerospace, Xi’an Jiaotong University.

  12. Acoustic lenses

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  13. Physical foundations of technical acoustics

    Malecki, I

    1969-01-01

    Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics discusses theoretical foundations of acoustical engineering. It is not so much a technical compendium as a systematic statement of physical laws so conceived that technologists might find in it all the information they need to become acquainted with the physical meaning and mathematical expression of phenomena they encounter in their work. To facilitate the acquirement of notions, which lie beyond a layman's grasp, the plan of narration adopted consists in beginning with the simplest idealized cases and then gradually moving on to the truest possibl

  14. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  15. Development of a CAE-based procedure for the acoustic optimization of gaskets between engine structure and add-on parts; Entwicklung eines rechnergestuetzten Verfahrens zur akustischen Optimierung von Dichtungen zwischen Motorstruktur und Anbauteilen

    Pischinger, S.; Pilath, Ch. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    2005-07-01

    The current status for calculation of structure born noise flow via elastomer gaskets is not sufficient. A simulation method developed in this project which is based on MSC Nastran shows accurate results compared to measurements. The calculation results were significantly better than those which were conducted using the state-of-the-art modal calculation approach. The key for getting good simulation results is to include the frequency dependent shear modulus of the sealing material in the calculation. The optimisation of the sealing geometry regarding to it's NVH behaviour showed that no general statement concerning the best geometry is possible. The best geometry for acoustics strongly depends on the given boundaries. Depending on the utilized sealing material different physical effects like damping or insulation come into operation. The improved acoustic behaviour of the optimised geometry was verified in an experimental analysis. In order to confirm the methodology the calculation approach was transferred to a second engine structure and verified with experimental results. (orig.)

  16. Noise shielding using active acoustic metamaterials with electronically tunable acoustic impedance

    Mokrý, P.; Steiger, Kateřina; Václavík, J.; Psota, Pavel; Doleček, Roman; Márton, P.; Kodejška, M.; Černík, M.

    Toowong DC QLD 4066: The Australian Acoustical Society, 2014 - (Davy, J.; Don, C.; McMinn, T.; Dowsett, L.; Broner, N.; Burgess, M.), s. 1-9 ISBN 978-0-909882-04-4. [Internoise 2014 Conference. Melbourne (AU), 16.11.2014-19.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Active Acoustic Metamaterial * Noise Shielding * Electronic Control of Acoustic Impedance Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://www.acoustics.asn.au/conference_proceedings/INTERNOISE2014/papers/p834.pdf

  17. Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM

    Rosenhave, P.E. [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.

  18. Airflow Test of Acoustic Board Samples

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Lise Mellergaard

    In the laboratory of Indoor Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University an airflow test on 2x10 samples of acoustic board were carried out the 2nd of June 2012. The tests were carried out for Rambøll and STO AG. The test includes connected values of volume flow...

  19. Design and Experimental Applications of Acoustic Metamaterials

    Zigoneanu, Lucian

    Acoustic metamaterials are engineered materials that were extensively investigated over the last years mainly because they promise properties otherwise hard or impossible to find in nature. Consequently, they open the door for improved or completely new applications (e.g. acoustic superlens that can exceed the diffraction limit in imaging or acoustic absorbing panels with higher transmission loss and smaller thickness than regular absorbers). Our objective is to surpass the limited frequency operating range imposed by the resonant mechanism that s1ome of these materials have. In addition, we want acoustic metamaterials that could be experimentally demonstrated and used to build devices with overall performances better than the previous ones reported in the literature. Here, we start by focusing on the need of engineered metamaterials in general and acoustic metamaterials in particular. Also, the similarities between electromagnetic metamaterials and acoustic metamaterials and possible ways to realize broadband acoustic metamaterials are briefly discussed. Then, we present the experimental realization and characterization of a two-dimensional (2D) broadband acoustic metamaterial with strongly anisotropic effective mass density. We use this metamaterial to realize a 2D broadband gradient index acoustic lens in air. Furthermore, we optimize the lens design by improving each unit cell's performance and we also realize a 2D acoustic ground cloak in air. In addition, we explore the performance of some novel applications (a 2D acoustic black hole and a three-dimensional acoustic cloak) using the currently available acoustic metamaterials. In order to overcome the limitations of our designs, we approach the active acoustic metamaterials path, which offers a broader range for the material parameters values and a better control over them. We propose two structures which contain a sensing element (microphone) and an acoustic driver (piezoelectric membrane or speaker). The

  20. Acoustic cloaking by a superlens with single-negative materials.

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Liang, Bin; Kan, Weiwei; Zou, Xinye; Cheng, Jianchun

    2011-01-01

    We propose a specific transformation in cloaking to make an acoustic sensor undetectable, in which the cloaking shell consists of complementary media with single-negative acoustic parameters instead of double-negative ones, and is proved to be a magnifying superlens. Moreover, the acoustical parameters of the cloak are completely independent of those of the host material as well as the cloaked object. This may significantly facilitate the experimental realization of acoustic cloaks and is of fundamental importance in a wide range of acoustics, optics, and engineering applications. PMID:21231745

  1. My 65 years in acoustics

    Beranek, Leo L.

    2001-05-01

    My entry into acoustics began as research assistant to Professor F. V. Hunt at Harvard University. I received my doctorate in 1940 and directed the Electro-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard from October 1940 until September 1945. In 1947, I became a tenured associate professor at MIT, and, with Richard H. Bolt, formed the consulting firm Bolt and Beranek, that later included Robert B. Newman, becoming BBN. My most significant contributions before 1970 were design of wedge-lined anechoic chambers, systemization of noise reduction in ventilation systems, design of the world's largest muffler for the testing of supersonic jet engines at NASA's Lewis Laboratory in Cleveland, speech interference level, NC noise criterion curves, heading New York Port Authority's noise study that resulted in mufflers on jet aircraft, and steep aircraft climb procedures, and publishing books titled, Acoustical Measurements, Acoustics, Noise Reduction, Noise and Vibration Control, and Music, Acoustics and Architecture. As President of BBN, I supervised the formation of the group that built and operated the ARPANET (1969), which, when split in two (using TCP/IP protocol) became the INTERNET (1984). Since then, I have written two books on Concert Halls and Opera Houses and have consulted on four concert halls and an opera house.

  2. Applied acoustics concepts, absorbers, and silencers for acoustical comfort and noise control alternative solutions, innovative tools, practical examples

    Fuchs, Helmut V

    2013-01-01

    The author gives a comprehensive overview of materials and components for noise control and acoustical comfort. Sound absorbers must meet acoustical and architectural requirements, which fibrous or porous material alone can meet. Basics and applications are demonstrated, with representative examples for spatial acoustics, free-field test facilities and canal linings. Acoustic engineers and construction professionals will find some new basic concepts and tools for developments in order to improve acoustical comfort. Interference absorbers, active resonators and micro-perforated absorbers of different materials and designs complete the list of applications.

  3. Sustainable Acoustic Metasurfaces for Sound Control

    Paola Gori; Claudia Guattari; Francesco Asdrubali; Roberto de Lieto Vollaro; Alessio Monti; Davide Ramaccia; Filiberto Bilotti; Alessandro Toscano

    2016-01-01

    Sound attenuation with conventional acoustic materials is subject to the mass law and requires massive and bulky structures at low frequencies. A possible alternative solution is provided by the use of metamaterials, which are artificial materials properly engineered to obtain properties and characteristics that it is not possible to find in natural materials. Theory and applications of metamaterials, already consolidated in electromagnetism, can be extended to acoustics; in particular, they ...

  4. Transmission Line Based Metamaterials for Acoustic Waves

    Bongard, Frédéric; Lissek, Hervé; Mosig, Juan Ramon

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent work on a one-dimensional acoustic negative refractive index metamaterial based on the concept of dual transmission line extensively investigated in microwave engineering. The proposed structure consists of an acoustic waveguide periodically loaded with membranes realizing the function of series “capacitances” and transversally connected open channels realizing shunt “inductances”. It exhibits a negative refractive index band over almost one octave, from 0.6 to 1 kHz. Us...

  5. World Conference on Acoustic Emission 2013

    Wu, Zhanwen; Zhang, Junjiao

    2015-01-01

    This volume collects the papers from the 2013 World Conference on Acoustic Emission in Shanghai. The latest research and applications of Acoustic Emission (AE) are explored, with particular emphasis on detecting and processing of AE signals, development of AE instrument and testing standards, AE of materials, engineering structures and systems, including the processing of collected data and analytical techniques as well as experimental case studies.

  6. Limitations of acoustic vector sensor in engineering application%矢量水听器工程局限性剖析

    陈晓昭; 陈建峰; 王绪虎; 张群飞

    2012-01-01

    The features and limitations of the acoustic vector sensor (AVS) in practical application are discussed. The measurement model of acoustic vector sensor is introduced, and then its performance is further analyzed. The detection capability and array gain of the AVS array are compared with those of the pressure sensor array when they work in the buoy-submerged buoy system, the towed array sonar system and autonomous underwater vehicles. The results show that the AVS suits to detect targets of low frequency owing to the isotropic ambient noise being suppressed by the unit vector sensor's directivity, which decreases the array aperture. Due to the influence of flow noise and radiation noise of underwater vehicles, the superiority of AVS performance is limited when it works in towed array and autonomous underwater vehicles.%重点研究了矢量水听器在工程应用方面的特点和局限性.首先给出了矢量水听器及其阵列的数学模型和它的性能特点;接着对矢量水听器和传统声压水听器在浮标/潜标平台、拖曳式平台以及水下航行器平台等应用情况下的性能进行了比较分析.结果表明,在浮标/潜标平台上,使用矢量水听器有利于低频时的目标探测,可以显著降低阵列孔径;而在拖曳阵及航行器等移动平台上,由于受流噪声、运动平台辐射噪声等因素的影响,矢量水听器的性能优势不易发挥.

  7. Acoustic hemostasis

    Crum, L.; Andrew, M.; Bailey, M.; Beach, K.; Brayman, A.; Curra, F.; Kaczkowski, P.; Kargl, S.; Martin, R.; Vaezy, S.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past several years, the Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound (CIMU) at the Applied Physics Laboratory in the University of Washington has undertaken a broad research program in the general area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Our principal emphasis has been on the use of HIFU to induce hemostasis; in particular, CIMU has sought to develop a small, lightweight, portable device that would use ultrasound for both imaging and therapy. Such a technology is needed because nearly 50% of combat casualty mortality results from exsanguinations, or uncontrolled bleeding. A similar percentage occurs for civilian death due to trauma. In this general review, a presentation of the general problem will be given, as well as our recent approaches to the development of an image-guided, transcutaneous, acoustic hemostasis device. [Work supported in part by the USAMRMC, ONR and the NIH.

  8. Acoustic telemetry.

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  9. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available Educational Video Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video ... for pre- and post-treatment acoustic neuroma patients. Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic ...

  10. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...

  11. Sonification of acoustic emission data

    Raith, Manuel; Große, Christian

    2014-05-01

    purposes (students, co-workers). On goal is to establish a real-time frequency transformation into the audio range to avoid time consuming visual data processing during the experiments. It is also the intention to analyze the signals using psycho-acoustic methods with the help of specialists from electrical engineering. Reference: Raith, Manuel (2013). "Schallemissionsanalyse bei Pulloutexperimenten an Verbunddübeln" Masterarbeit. Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung. Malm, Fabian (2012). "Schallemissionsanalyse am humanen Femur" Masterarbeit. Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung. Richter R. (2009): Einsatz der Schallemissionsanalyse zur Detektion des Riss und Abplatzungsverhaltens von Beton unter Brandeinwirkung. Diplomarbeit. Materialprüfungsanstalt Universität Stuttgart Keywords: Acoustic emission, bonded anchors, femur, pullout test, fire-spalling

  12. Acoustic dispersive prism

    Hussein Esfahlani; Sami Karkar; Herve Lissek; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic ...

  13. Acoustic Wavefront Manipulation: Impedance Inhomogeneity and Extraordinary Reflection

    Zhao, Jiajun; Chen, Zhining; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    Optical wavefront can be manipulated by interfering elementary beams with phase inhomogeneity. Therefore a surface allowing huge, abrupt and position-variant phase change would enable all possibilities of wavefront engineering. However, one may not have the luxury of efficient abrupt-phase-changing materials in acoustics. This motivates us to establish a counterpart mechanism for acoustics, in order to empower the wide spectrum of novel acoustic applications. Remarkably, the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law (IGSL) of reflection is distinguished from that in optics. Via the manipulation of inhomogeneous acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be tailored for unprecedented wavefront manipulation while ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. Our results may power the acoustic-wave manipulation and engineering. We demonstrate novel acoustic applications by planar surfaces designed with IGSL.

  14. Acoustic emission testing

    Grosse, Christian U

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques have been studied in civil engineering for a long time. The techniques are recently going to be more and more applied to practical applications and to be standardized in the codes. This is because the increase of aging structures and disastrous damages due to recent earthquakes urgently demand for maintenance and retrofit of civil structures in service for example. It results in the need for the development of advanced and effective inspection techniques. Thus, AE techniques draw a great attention to diagnostic applications and in material testing. The book covers all levels from the description of AE basics for AE beginners (level of a student) to sophisticated AE algorithms and applications to real large-scale structures as well as the observation of the cracking process in laboratory specimen to study fracture processes.

  15. Acoustic Neurinomas

    Mohammad Faraji Rad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic neuromas (AN are schwann cell-derived tumors that commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve also known as vestibular schwannoma(VS causes unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and unsteadiness. In many cases, the tumor size may remain unchanged for many years following diagnosis, which is typically made by MRI. In the majority of cases the tumor is small, leaving the clinician and patient with the options of either serial scanning or active treatment by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR or microneurosurgery. Despite the vast number of published treatment reports, comparative studies are few. The predominant clinical endpoints of AN treatment include tumor control, facial nerve function and hearing preservation. Less focus has been put on symptom relief and health-related quality of life (QOL. It is uncertain if treating a small tumor leaves the patient with a better chance of obtaining relief from future hearing loss, vertigo or tinnitus than by observing it without treatment.   In this paper we review the literature for the natural course, the treatment alternatives and the results of AN. Finally, we present our experience with a management strategy applied for more than 30 years.

  16. Acoustic Spatiality

    Brandon LaBelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of listening can be appreciated as intensely relational, bringing us into contact with surrounding events, bodies and things. Given that sound propagates and expands outwardly, as a set of oscillations from a particular source, listening carries with it a sensual intensity, whereby auditory phenomena deliver intrusive and disruptive as well as soothing and assuring experiences. The physicality characteristic of sound suggests a deeply impressionistic, locational "knowledge structure" – that is, the ways in which listening affords processes of exchange, of being in the world, and from which we extend ourselves. Sound, as physical energy reflecting and absorbing into the materiality around us, and even one's self, provides a rich platform for understanding place and emplacement. Sound is always already a trace of location.Such features of auditory experience give suggestion for what I may call an acoustical paradigm – how sound sets in motion not only the material world but also the flows of the imagination, lending to forces of signification and social structure, and figuring us in relation to each other. The relationality of sound brings us into a steady web of interferences, each of which announces the promise or problematic of being somewhere.

  17. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton;

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design for the...... acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design was...... simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  18. The Effect of Resistance on Rocket Injector Acoustics

    Morgan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability, where unsteady heat release couples with acoustic modes, has long been an area of concern in liquid rocket engines. Accurate modeling of the acoustic normal modes of the combustion chamber is important to understanding and preventing combustion instability. The injector resistance can have a significant influence on the chamber normal mode shape, and hence on the system stability.

  19. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  20. Modern methods in analytical acoustics lecture notes

    Crighton, D G; Williams, J E Ffowcs; Heckl, M; Leppington, F G

    1992-01-01

    Modern Methods in Analytical Acoustics considers topics fundamental to the understanding of noise, vibration and fluid mechanisms. The series of lectures on which this material is based began by some twenty five years ago and has been developed and expanded ever since. Acknowledged experts in the field have given this course many times in Europe and the USA. Although the scope of the course has widened considerably, the primary aim of teaching analytical techniques of acoustics alongside specific areas of wave motion and unsteady fluid mechanisms remains. The distinguished authors of this volume are drawn from Departments of Acoustics, Engineering of Applied Mathematics in Berlin, Cambridge and London. Their intention is to reach a wider audience of all those concerned with acoustic analysis than has been able to attend the course.

  1. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to demonstrate feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners....

  2. Adaptive Drainage Slots for Acoustic Noise Attenuation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) demonstrated feasibility in the reduction of noise attributed to drainage slots in jet engine acoustic liners. This was...

  3. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and...

  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... is ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic ... is ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic ...

  6. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Join/Renew Ways to Give ANA Discussion Forum ... ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Educational Video ...

  7. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... Resources Patient Surveys Related Links Clinical Trials.gov Health Care Insurance Toolkit Additional Resources ANA Public Webinars © 2016 Acoustic Neuroma Association Acoustic Neuroma Association ® • ...

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask ... Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask ...

  9. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Join/Renew ... ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Search ANAUSA. ...

  10. Cystic acoustic neuromas

    Chitkara, Naveen; Chanda, Rakesh; Yadav, S. P. S.; N.K. Sharma

    2002-01-01

    Predominantly cystic acoustic neuromas are rare and they usually present with clinical and radiological features different from their more common solid counterparts. Two cases of cystic acoustic neuromas are reported here.

  11. Student design projects in applied acoustics.

    Bös, Joachim; Moritz, Karsten; Skowronek, Adam; Thyes, Christian; Tschesche, Johannes; Hanselka, Holger

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a series of student projects which are intended to complement theoretical education in acoustics and engineering noise control with practical experience. The projects are also intended to enhance the students' ability to work in a team, to manage a project, and to present their results. The projects are carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners so that the students can get a taste of the professional life of noise control engineers. The organization of such a project, its execution, and some of the results from the most recent student project are presented as a demonstrative example. This latest project involved the creation of noise maps of a production hall, the acoustic analysis of a packaging machine, and the acoustic analysis of a spiral vibratory conveyor. Upon completion of the analysis, students then designed, applied, and verified some simple preliminary noise reduction measures to demonstrate the potential of these techniques. PMID:22423803

  12. Integrating acoustic analysis in the architectural design process using parametric modelling

    Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how parametric modeling techniques can be used to provide architectural designers with a better understanding of the acoustic performance of their designs and provide acoustic engineers with models that can be analyzed using computational acoustic analysis software. Architects...... parametric modeling, acoustic performance can inform the geometry and material logic of the design. In this way, the architectural design and the acoustic analysis model become linked........ This can provide a method by which architects and engineers can work together more efficiently and communicate better. This research is illustrated through the design of an architectural project, a new school in Copenhagen, Denmark by JJW Architects, where parametric modeling techniques have been used...

  13. Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach

    This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication

  14. Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2008-06-01

    This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication.

  15. Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de vera s.n., E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2008-06-15

    This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication.

  16. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    Blaeser, Susan B; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27036268

  17. OFDM for Underwater Acoustic Communication

    Thottappilly, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Communicating wirelessly underwater has been an area of interest for researchers, engineers, and practitioners alike. One of the main reasons for the slow rate of progress in this area is that the underwater acoustic channel is in general much more hostile â in terms of multipath, frequency selectivity, noise, and the Doppler effect â than the over-the-air radio frequency channel. In this work a time warp based technique which can be used to model time-varying wideband Doppler shifts (as ...

  18. Sustainable Acoustic Metasurfaces for Sound Control

    Paola Gori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound attenuation with conventional acoustic materials is subject to the mass law and requires massive and bulky structures at low frequencies. A possible alternative solution is provided by the use of metamaterials, which are artificial materials properly engineered to obtain properties and characteristics that it is not possible to find in natural materials. Theory and applications of metamaterials, already consolidated in electromagnetism, can be extended to acoustics; in particular, they can be applied to improve the properties of acoustical panels. The design of acoustic metasurfaces that could effectively control transmitted sound in unconventional ways appears a significant subject to be investigated, given its wide-ranging possible applications. In this contribution, we investigate the application of a metasurface-inspired technique to achieve the acoustical insulation of an environment. The designed surface has subwavelength thickness and structuring and could be realized with cheap, lightweight and sustainable materials. We present a few examples of such structures and analyze their acoustical behavior by means of full-wave simulations.

  19. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  20. Engineering physics

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  1. Adaptive structural vibration control of acoustic deflector

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Dagys, Donatas; Janusas, Giedrius

    2004-06-01

    Vehicle interior acoustics became an important design criterion. Both legal restrictions and the growing demand for comfort, force car manufacturers to optimize the vibro-acoustic behavior of their products. The main source of noise is, of course, the engine, but sometimes some ill-designed cover or other shell structure inside the car resonates and makes unpredicted noise. To avoid this, we must learn the genesis mechanism of such vibrations, having as subject complex 3D shells. The swift development of computer technologies opens the possibility to numerically predict and optimize the vibrations and noises.

  2. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues in...... Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  3. Acoustic streaming in microchannels

    Tribler, Peter Muller

    , and experimental results for the streaming-induced drag force dominated motion of particles suspended in a water-filled microchannel supporting a transverse half-wavelength resonance. The experimental and theoretical results agree within a mean relative dierence of approximately 20%, a low deviation given state......This thesis presents studies of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic channels, which is a steady flow of the fluid initiated by the interactions of an oscillating acoustic standing wave and the rigid walls of the microchannel. The studies present analysis of the acoustic resonance......, the acoustic streaming flow, and the forces on suspended microparticles. The work is motivated by the application of particle focusing by acoustic radiation forces in medical, environmental and food sciences. Here acoustic streaming is most often unwanted, because it limits the focusability of particles...

  4. Vibro-acoustics

    Nilsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  5. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  6. Acoustic dispersive prism

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.

  7. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    ... org Connect with us! What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Each heading slides to reveal information. Important Points ... Neuroma Important Points To Know About an Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, ...

  8. On three-dimensional spherical acoustic cloaking

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia, E-mail: ligia_munteanu@hotmail.com, E-mail: veturiachiroiu@yahoo.com [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Romanian Academy, 15 Constantin Mille, PO Box 1-863, 010141 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-08-15

    Transformation acoustics opens a new avenue towards the design of acoustic metamaterials, which are materials engineered at the subwavelength scale in order to mimic the parameters in wave equations. The design of the acoustic cloaking is based on the property of equations being invariant under a coordinate transformation, i.e. a specific spatial compression is equivalent to a variation of the material parameters in the original space. In this paper, the sound invisibility performance is discussed for spherical cloaks. The original domain consists of alternating concentric layers made from piezoelectric ceramics and epoxy resin, following a triadic Cantor sequence. The spatial compression, obtained by applying the concave-down transformation, leads to an equivalent domain with an inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the material parameters.

  9. On three-dimensional spherical acoustic cloaking

    Transformation acoustics opens a new avenue towards the design of acoustic metamaterials, which are materials engineered at the subwavelength scale in order to mimic the parameters in wave equations. The design of the acoustic cloaking is based on the property of equations being invariant under a coordinate transformation, i.e. a specific spatial compression is equivalent to a variation of the material parameters in the original space. In this paper, the sound invisibility performance is discussed for spherical cloaks. The original domain consists of alternating concentric layers made from piezoelectric ceramics and epoxy resin, following a triadic Cantor sequence. The spatial compression, obtained by applying the concave-down transformation, leads to an equivalent domain with an inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the material parameters.

  10. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  11. Acoustic metamaterial design and applications

    Zhang, Shu

    The explosion of interest in metamaterials is due to the dramatically increased manipulation ability over light as well as sound waves. This material research was stimulated by the opportunity to develop an artificial media with negative refractive index and the application in superlens which allows super-resolution imaging. High-resolution acoustic imaging techniques are the essential tools for nondestructive testing and medical screening. However, the spatial resolution of the conventional acoustic imaging methods is restricted by the incident wavelength of ultrasound. This is due to the quickly fading evanescent fields which carry the subwavelength features of objects. By focusing the propagating wave and recovering the evanescent field, a flat lens with negative-index can potentially overcome the diffraction limit. We present the first experimental demonstration of focusing ultrasound waves through a flat acoustic metamaterial lens composed of a planar network of subwavelength Helmholtz resonators. We observed a tight focus of half-wavelength in width at 60.5 KHz by imaging a point source. This result is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulation by transmission line model in which we derived the effective mass density and compressibility. This metamaterial lens also displays variable focal length at different frequencies. Our experiment shows the promise of designing compact and light-weight ultrasound imaging elements. Moreover, the concept of metamaterial extends far beyond negative refraction, rather giving enormous choice of material parameters for different applications. One of the most interesting examples these years is the invisible cloak. Such a device is proposed to render the hidden object undetectable under the flow of light or sound, by guiding and controlling the wave path through an engineered space surrounding the object. However, the cloak designed by transformation optics usually calls for a highly anisotropic metamaterial, which

  12. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-36. ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission source * wave propagation * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself Post-treatment Post-treatment ... Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself Post-treatment Post-treatment ...

  14. Soft 3D acoustic metamaterial with negative index.

    Brunet, Thomas; Merlin, Aurore; Mascaro, Benoit; Zimny, Kevin; Leng, Jacques; Poncelet, Olivier; Aristégui, Christophe; Mondain-Monval, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to the design and achievement of negative-refractive-index metamaterials since the 2000s. One of the challenges at present is to extend that field beyond electromagnetism by realizing three-dimensional (3D) media with negative acoustic indices. We report a new class of locally resonant ultrasonic metafluids consisting of a concentrated suspension of macroporous microbeads engineered using soft-matter techniques. The propagation of Gaussian pulses within these random distributions of 'ultra-slow' Mie resonators is investigated through in situ ultrasonic experiments. The real part of the acoustic index is shown to be negative (up to almost - 1) over broad frequency bandwidths, depending on the volume fraction of the microbeads as predicted by multiple-scattering calculations. These soft 3D acoustic metamaterials open the way for key applications such as sub-wavelength imaging and transformation acoustics, which require the production of acoustic devices with negative or zero-valued indices. PMID:25502100

  15. Soft 3D acoustic metamaterial with negative index

    Brunet, Thomas; Merlin, Aurore; Mascaro, Benoit; Zimny, Kevin; Leng, Jacques; Poncelet, Olivier; Aristégui, Christophe; Mondain-Monval, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to the design and achievement of negative-refractive-index metamaterials since the 2000s. One of the challenges at present is to extend that field beyond electromagnetism by realizing three-dimensional (3D) media with negative acoustic indices. We report a new class of locally resonant ultrasonic metafluids consisting of a concentrated suspension of macroporous microbeads engineered using soft-matter techniques. The propagation of Gaussian pulses within these random distributions of ‘ultra-slow’ Mie resonators is investigated through in situ ultrasonic experiments. The real part of the acoustic index is shown to be negative (up to almost - 1) over broad frequency bandwidths, depending on the volume fraction of the microbeads as predicted by multiple-scattering calculations. These soft 3D acoustic metamaterials open the way for key applications such as sub-wavelength imaging and transformation acoustics, which require the production of acoustic devices with negative or zero-valued indices.

  16. Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.

    Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274

  17. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  18. Attenuation Analysis and Acoustic Pressure Levels for Combined Absorptive Mufflers

    Ovidiu Vasile

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the pressure-wave propagation in a muffler for an internal combustion engine in case of two combined mufflers geometry. The approach is generally applicable to analyzing the damping of propagation of harmonic pressure waves. The paper purpose is to show finite elements analysis of both inductive and resistive damping in pressure acoustics. The main output is the attenuation and acoustic pressure levels for the frequency range 50 Hz–3000 Hz.

  19. National Television of Chile--New headquarters building acoustic projects

    Huaquin, Mario

    2002-11-01

    In the last 15 years TV stations in Chile have been incorporating in their facilities architectural acoustic and noise control approaches. This has been necessary as much for the technological advance, as for the necessity to achieve a better quality of sound that the listeners receive. In 1998, the National Television of Chile, with the sponsorship of the College of Architects of Chile, requested preliminary architectural designs in order to enlarge and to renovate its headquarters buildings in Santiago, Chile in stages. The Acoustic Project has been developed in an integral way, with three fundamental disciplines: noise and noise control; Machine rooms; vibrations and vibration control; Buildings, engines; architectural acoustics and acoustic comfort; TV studios and technical rooms. This presentation describes the Acoustic Project, phases I (1999), and II (2002), how it was possible to establish a common language with architects and engineers and the different specialties, to apply acoustic criteria and standards, the theoretical development and the projected acoustic solutions. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  20. Design and demonstration of broadband thin planar diffractive acoustic lenses

    Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A., E-mail: cummer@ee.duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    We present here two diffractive acoustic lenses with subwavelength thickness, planar profile, and broad operation bandwidth. Tapered labyrinthine unit cells with their inherently broadband effective material properties are exploited in our design. Both the measured and the simulated results are showcased to demonstrate the lensing effect over more than 40% of the central frequency. The focusing of a propagating Gaussian modulated sinusoidal pulse is also demonstrated. This work paves the way for designing diffractive acoustic lenses and more generalized phase engineering diffractive elements with labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials.

  1. Design and demonstration of broadband thin planar diffractive acoustic lenses

    We present here two diffractive acoustic lenses with subwavelength thickness, planar profile, and broad operation bandwidth. Tapered labyrinthine unit cells with their inherently broadband effective material properties are exploited in our design. Both the measured and the simulated results are showcased to demonstrate the lensing effect over more than 40% of the central frequency. The focusing of a propagating Gaussian modulated sinusoidal pulse is also demonstrated. This work paves the way for designing diffractive acoustic lenses and more generalized phase engineering diffractive elements with labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials.

  2. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry–Perot resonance. - Highlights: • Expression of transmission coefficient of an acoustic grating with curled slits. • Non-dispersive and tunable effective medium parameters for the acoustic grating. • A flat acoustic focusing lens with gradient index by using the acoustic grating

  3. Identifying subsurface detachment defects by acoustic tracing

    Sklodowski, R.; Drdácký, Miloš; Sklodowski, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, June (2013), s. 56-64. ISSN 0963-8695 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : acoustic excitation * plaster detachment defects * frequency response * inspection systems * signal processing Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.717, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963869513000303

  4. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    Shen, Chen; Xie, Yangbo; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A.; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negat...

  5. Artificial Seismic Shadow Zone by Acoustic Metamaterials

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new method of earthquakeproof engineering to create an artificial seismic shadow zone using acoustic metamaterials. By designing huge empty boxes with a few side-holes corresponding to the resonance frequencies of seismic waves and burying them around the buildings that we want to protect, the velocity of the seismic wave becomes imaginary. The meta-barrier composed of many meta-boxes attenuates the seismic waves, which reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially by dissipa...

  6. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; KIRKEGAARD, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to inve...

  7. Underwater Applications of Acoustical Holography

    P. C. Mehta

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the basic technique of acoustical holography. Requirements for recording the acoustical hologram are discussed with its ability for underwater imaging in view. Some practical systems for short-range and medium-range imaging are described. The advantages of acoustical holography over optical imaging, acoustical imaging and sonars are outlined.

  8. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be...

  9. Tunable acoustic metamaterials

    Babaee, Sahab; Viard, Nicolas; Fang, Nicholas; Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    We report a new class of active and switchable acoustic metamaterials composed of three-dimensional stretchable chiral helices arranged on a two-dimensional square lattice. We investigate the propagation of sounds through the proposed structure both numerically and experimentally and find that the deformation of the helices can be exploited as a novel and effective approach to control the propagation of acoustic waves. The proposed concept expands the ability of existing acoustic metamaterials since we demonstrate that the deformation can be exploited to turn on or off the band gap, opening avenues for the design of adaptive noise-cancelling devices.

  10. Condition Monitoring and Management from Acoustic Emissions

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik Bohl

    2005-01-01

    In the following, I will use technical terms without explanation as it gives the freedom to describe the project in a shorter form for those who already know. The thesis is about condition monitoring of large diesel engines from acoustic emission signals. The experiments have been focused on a...... this work is the analysis of the angular position changes of the engine related events such as fuel injection and valve openings, caused by operational load changes. With inspiration from speech recognition and voice effects the angular timing changes have been inverted with the event alignment...

  11. Acoustic integrated extinction

    Norris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross-section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. [1] derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency.

  12. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  13. Principles of musical acoustics

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  14. Acoustic Igniter Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  15. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  16. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... treatment Summary Types Of Post-treatment Issues Resources Medical Resources Considerations When Selecting a Healthcare Professional Healthcare ... ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma ...

  17. Acoustic coherent perfect absorbers

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of achieving acoustic coherent perfect absorbers. Through numerical simulations in two dimensions, we demonstrate that the energy of coherent acoustic waves can be totally absorbed by a fluid absorber with specific complex mass density or bulk modulus. The robustness of such absorbing systems is investigated under small perturbations of the absorber parameters. We find that when the resonance order is the lowest and the size of the absorber is comparable to the wavelength in the background, the phenomenon of perfect absorption is most stable. When the wavelength inside both the background and the absorber is much larger than the size of the absorber, perfect absorption is possible when the mass density of the absorber approaches the negative value of the background mass density. Finally, we show that by using suitable dispersive acoustic metamaterials, broadband acoustic perfect absorption may be achieved. (papers)

  18. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  19. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  20. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Nowlin, Scott R.; Hahn, Ila L.; Eaton, Frank D.; McCrae, Kim A.

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence.

  1. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga

    Plzeň : University of West Bohemia, 2009 - (Adámek, V.; Zajíček, M.). s. 1-2 ISBN 978-80-7043-824-4. [Výpočtová mechanika 2009. 09.11.2009-11.11.2009, Nečtiny] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission source * wave propagation * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  2. The autonomous acoustic buoy

    Pellicer, Francisco; Reitsma, Robert; Agüera, Joaquín; Marinas, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The Acoustic Buoy is a project between the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics (LAB) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). In areas that the human activities produce high noise levels, such as oil exploration or construction, there is a need to monitor the environment for the presence of cetaceans. Another need is for fishing, to prevent endangered species from being killed. This can be done with an Autonomous Acoustic Buoy (AAB). Mooring or anchoring at to the seaflo...

  3. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  4. Wavefront modulation and subwavelength diffractive acoustics with an acoustic metasurface.

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront-shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality to their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of an acoustic metasurface based on tapered labyrinthine metamaterials. The demonstrated metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law, but also exhibits various unique properties such as conversion from propagating wave to surface mode, extraordinary beam-steering and apparent negative refraction through higher-order diffraction. Such designer acoustic metasurfaces provide a new design methodology for acoustic signal modulation devices and may be useful for applications such as acoustic imaging, beam steering, ultrasound lens design and acoustic surface wave-based applications. PMID:25418084

  5. Design of embedded acoustic lenses in plate-like structures based on periodic acoustic black holes

    Zhu, Hongfei; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    We use a recently developed class of metamaterials based on geometric inhomogeneities to design acoustic lenses embedded in thin-walled structural element. The geometric inhomogeneity is based on the concept of Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) that is an exponential taper fully integrated in the supporting structure. The ABH is an element able to bend and, eventually, trap acoustic waves by creating areas with carefully engineered phase velocity gradients. Periodic lattices of ABHs are first studied in terms of their dispersion characteristics and then embedded in thin-plate structures to create lenses for ultrasonic focusing and collimation. Numerical simulations show the ability of the ABH lens to create focusing and collimation effects in an extended operating range that goes from the metamaterial to the phononic regime.

  6. Broadband Acoustic Liner Optimization Study Using Novel Poro-elastic Materials

    Mitchell, Kelsey Ryan

    2015-01-01

    With the continual challenges associated with reducing aircraft engine noise, there is need for acoustic liner configurations that target broadband performance. This thesis experimentally and analytically investigates passive noise control methods to improve broadband frequency attenuation through various acoustic liner designs. The inclusion of acoustic metamaterials within these liners is examined and optimized. The metamaterials studied consist of resonant and non-resonant materials which ...

  7. On-chip manipulation of single microparticles, cells, and organisms using surface acoustic waves

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Kiraly, Brian; Yue, Hongjun; Li, Sixing; Chiang, I-Kao; Shi, Jinjie; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    Techniques that can dexterously manipulate single particles, cells, and organisms are invaluable for many applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and physics. Here, we demonstrate standing surface acoustic wave based “acoustic tweezers” that can trap and manipulate single microparticles, cells, and entire organisms (i.e., Caenorhabditis elegans) in a single-layer microfluidic chip. Our acoustic tweezers utilize the wide resonance band of chirped interdigital transducers to achieve re...

  8. Acoustically enhanced remediation, Phase 2: Technology scaling

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Hill, D.G. [Weiss Associates, Emeryville, CA (United States); Rynne, T.M.; Spadaro, J.F.; Hutchinson, W. [Scientific Applications and Research Associates, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Illangasakere, T. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Weiss Associates is conducting the following three phase program investigating the in-situ application of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) of contaminated unconsolidated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I-- laboratory scale parametric investigation; Phase II--technology Scaling; and Phase III--large scale field tests. AER addresses the need for NAPL (either lighter or denser than water: LNAPL or DNAPL, respectively) in high and low permeability sediments, and the remediation of other types of subsurface contaminants (e.g., metals, radionuclides) in low permeability soils. This program has been placed in the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) DNAPL product. Phase I indicated that AER could be used to effectively remediate NAPL in high permeability soil, and that removal of NAPL from low permeability soil could be increased since the water flux through these soils was significantly increased. Phase II, Technology Scaling, the subject of this paper, focused on (1) evaluating the characteristics of an AER field deployment system, (2) developing DNAPL flow and transport performance data under acoustic excitation, (3) predicting the effect of acoustic remediation in three-dimensional unconsolidated hydrogeologic conditions, (4) conducting an engineering analysis of acoustical sources, and (5) identifying candidate field site(s) for large-scale field testing of the technology.

  9. Acoustics of automotive catalytic converter assemblies

    Dickey, Nolan S.; Selamet, Ahmet; Parks, Steve J.; Tallio, Kevin V.; Miazgowicz, Keith D.; Radavich, Paul M.

    2003-10-01

    In an automotive exhaust system, the purpose of the catalytic converter is to reduce pollutant emissions. However, catalytic converters also affect the engine and exhaust system breathing characteristics; they increase backpressure, affect exhaust system acoustic characteristics, and contribute to exhaust manifold tuning. Thus, radiated sound models should include catalytic converters since they can affect both the source characteristics and the exhaust system acoustic behavior. A typical catalytic converter assembly employs a ceramic substrate to carry the catalytically active noble metals. The substrate has numerous parallel tubes and is mounted in a housing with swelling mat or wire mesh around its periphery. Seals at the ends of the substrate can be used to help force flow through the substrate and/or protect the mat material. Typically, catalytic converter studies only consider sound propagation in the small capillary tubes of the substrate. Investigations of the acoustic characteristics of entire catalytic converter assemblies (housing, substrate, seals, and mat) do not appear to be available. This work experimentally investigates the acoustic behavior of catalytic converter assemblies and the contributions of the separate components to sound attenuation. Experimental findings are interpreted with respect to available techniques for modeling sound propagation in ceramic substrates.

  10. Finite elements modeling of mechanical and acoustic properties of a ceramic metamaterial assembled by robocasting

    Kruisová, Alena; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Landa, Michal; Román-Manso, B.; Miranzo, P.; Belmonte, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 821, č. 2016 (2016), s. 364-371. ISSN 1662-7482. [Engineering Mechanics 2015. Svratka, 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : finite elelment method * metamaterials * acoustic waves * band gaps Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  11. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating...

  12. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic...... properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of application that an acoustic simulation programme can have during an architectural...... the first phases in the architectural process and set out a reverse strategy for simulation programmes to do so - from developing acoustics from given spaces to developing spaces from given acoustics...

  13. Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices

    Jiménez, Noé; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band-gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g. cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be cancelled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime.

  14. Wavefront Modulation and Subwavelength Diffractive Acoustics with an Acoustic Metasurface

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality as their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a desig...

  15. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  16. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2014 acoustic trawl survey Bogoslof DY1402

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) Program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) regularly conduct acoustic-trawl...

  17. Shelikof Strait Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1203, ME70)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) conducted an acoustic-trawl (AT) stock assessment...

  18. Shumagin Islands Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1201, ME70)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) conducted an acoustic-trawl (AT) stock assessment...

  19. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  20. Seamount acoustic scattering

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  1. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  2. Practical acoustic emission testing

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Study on the Acoustic Wave Energy After the Nonlinear Interaction of Acoustic Waves in Aqueous Media

    兰朝凤; 李凤臣; 陈欢; 卢迪; 杨德森; 张梦

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Burgers equation and Manley-Rowe equation, the derivation about nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves has been done in this paper. After nonlinear interaction among the low-frequency weak waves and the pump wave, the analytical solutions of acoustic waves’ amplitude in the field are deduced. The relationship between normalized energy of high-frequency and the change of acoustic energy before and after the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves is analyzed. The experimental results about the changes of the acoustic energy are presented. The study shows that new frequencies are generated and the energies of the low-frequency are modulated in a long term by the pump waves, which leads the energies of the low-frequency acoustic waves to change in the pulse trend in the process of the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves. The increase and decrease of the energies of the low-frequency are observed under certain typical conditions, which lays a foundation for practical engineering applications.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF AN ACOUSTIC LEAKY-WAVE ANTENNA BASED ON ACOUSTIC METAMATERIAL

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of pioneering studies have been carried out in the field of acoustic metamaterials, following the path of electromagnetic metamaterials. These artificial engineered materials are designed in such a way so as to achieve new macroscopic properties, like negative refraction, that are not readily present in nature. While the design and the fabrication of these artificial materials is a hot topic among scientists in different fields of physics such as photonic...

  5. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  6. A New Wave of Acoustics.

    Beyer, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)

  7. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    Rasmussen, Knud

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  8. Strong acoustic wave action

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  9. Acoustic black holes

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  10. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  11. Minimizing vehicle noise and weight using panel acoustic contribution analysis

    Brown, Gordon M.

    1998-05-01

    Panel acoustic contribution analysis (PACA) is an advanced engineering tool to improve noise, vibration, and harshness quality and minimize weight of vehicles. It is a technique to categorize areas of vehicle body panels as positive (sound level increases as vibration amplitude increases), negative or neutral according to their contribution to the total sound. PACA is a hybrid of computer aided engineering and experimental methods. Computer aided holometry, scanning laser velocimetry, or an accelerometer net is used to experimentally measure structure vibration complex velocities. These velocities are the boundary conditions for a boundary element model of the acoustic cavity. Boundary element analysis is then used to predict the vehicle interior sound and calculate panel acoustic contributions. Experimental results for a welded steel box (validation) and vehicle application are presented.

  12. Three-dimensional broadband omnidirectional acoustic ground cloak.

    Zigoneanu, Lucian; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    The control of sound propagation and reflection has always been the goal of engineers involved in the design of acoustic systems. A recent design approach based on coordinate transformations, which is applicable to many physical systems, together with the development of a new class of engineered materials called metamaterials, has opened the road to the unconstrained control of sound. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by this methodology are complex and challenging to obtain experimentally, even using metamaterial design approaches. Not surprisingly, experimental demonstration of devices obtained using transformation acoustics is difficult, and has been implemented only in two-dimensional configurations. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of an almost perfect three-dimensional, broadband, and, most importantly, omnidirectional acoustic device that renders a region of space three wavelengths in diameter invisible to sound. PMID:24608143

  13. Validation and application of Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry

    Baranya, Sandor; Muste, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel methodology to estimate bedload transport in rivers based on an improved bedform tracking procedure. The measurement technique combines components and processing protocols from two contemporary nonintrusive instruments: acoustic and image-based. The bedform mapping is conducted with acoustic surveys while the estimation of the velocity of the bedforms is obtained with processing techniques pertaining to image-based velocimetry. The technique is therefore called Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The implementation of this technique produces a whole-field velocity map associated with the multi-directional bedform movement. Based on the calculated two-dimensional bedform migration velocity field, the bedload transport estimation is done using the Exner equation. A proof-of-concept experiment was performed to validate the AMV based bedload estimation in a laboratory flume at IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR). The bedform migration was analysed at three different flow discharges. Repeated bed geometry mapping, using a multiple transducer array (MTA), provided acoustic maps, which were post-processed with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Bedload transport rates were calculated along longitudinal sections using the streamwise components of the bedform velocity vectors and the measured bedform heights. The bulk transport rates were compared with the results from concurrent direct physical samplings and acceptable agreement was found. As a first field implementation of the AMV an attempt was made to estimate bedload transport for a section of the Ohio river in the United States, where bed geometry maps, resulted by repeated multibeam echo sounder (MBES) surveys, served as input data. Cross-sectional distributions of bedload transport rates from the AMV based method were compared with the ones obtained from another non-intrusive technique (due to the lack of direct samplings), ISSDOTv2, developed by the US Army

  14. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-11-25

    Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.

  15. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens

    Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution

  16. Acoustic measurements of models of military style supersonic nozzle jets

    Kuo, C.W.; Veltin, J.; McLaughlin, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Modern military aircraft jet engines are designed with variable-geometry nozzles to provide optimal thrust in different operating conditions, depending on the flight envelope. However, acoustic measurements for such nozzles are scarce, due to the cost involved in making full-scale measurements and t

  17. ATK Launch Vehicle (ALV-X1) Liftoff Acoustic Environments: Prediction vs. Measurement

    Houston, J.; Counter, Douglas; Kenny, Jeremy; Murphy, John

    2010-01-01

    Launched from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) Pad 01B on August 22, 2008, the ATK Launch Vehicle (ALV-X1) provided an opportunity to measure liftoff acoustic noise data. Predicted lift-off acoustic environments were developed by both NASA MSFC and ATK engineers. ATK engineers developed predictions for use in determining vibro-acoustic loads using the method described in the monograph NASA SP-8072. The MSFC ALV-X1 lift-off acoustic prediction was made with the Vehicle Acoustic Environment Prediction Program (VAEPP). The VAEPP and SP-8072 methods predict acoustic pressures of rocket systems generally scaled to existing rocket motor data based upon designed motor or engine characteristics. The predicted acoustic pressures are sound-pressure spectra at specific positions on the vehicle. This paper presents the measured liftoff acoustics on the vehicle and tower. This data is useful for the ALV-X1 in validating the pre-launch environments and loads predictions.

  18. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  19. COMBUSTION ACOUSTICS DIAGNOSTICS

    This is an Exploratory Research Project that was awarded by APPCD for research on developing an acoustic flame condition monitor. It will involve a bench scale experiment of 4-6 weeks duration to record adjacent audible energy of a Bunsen burner. The experiment will require a d...

  20. Acoustic black holes: recent developments in the theory and applications.

    Krylov, Victor

    2014-08-01

    Acoustic black holes are relatively new physical objects that have been introduced and investigated mainly during the last decade. They can absorb almost 100% of the incident wave energy, and this makes them very attractive for such traditional engineering applications as vibration damping in different engineering structures and sound absorption in gases and liquids. They also could be useful for some ultrasonic devices using Lamb wave propagation to provide anechoic termination for such waves. So far, acoustic black holes have been investigated mainly for flexural waves in thin plates, for which the required gradual changes in local wave velocity with distance can be easily achieved by changing the plates' local thickness. The present paper provides a brief review of the theory of acoustic black holes, including their comparison with optic black holes introduced about five years ago. Review is also given of the recent experimental work carried out at Loughborough University on damping structural vibrations using the acoustic black hole effect. This is followed by the discussion on potential applications of the acoustic black hole effect for sound absorption in air. PMID:25073137

  1. Study of a thermoacoustic Stirling engine

    Spoelstra, S.; Tijani, M.E.H.; Poignand, G.A. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    A Stirling cycle thennoacoustic engine is developed and performance measurements are performed. The engine uses thermal power to generate acoustic power. It consists mainly of three parts: a thermodynamic part consisting of a regenerator, two heat exchangers, and a thermal buffer tube; an acoustic network consisting of an acoustic compliance and an inertance; and a resonator. The thermodynamic part and the acoustic network are placed in a torus configuration. The hot heat exchanger is placed on the top of the torus so that the shape and size of the hot heat exchanger can be designed or chosen independently of the regenerator dimensions. Two different resonators types of about a 1/4-wave length have been tested during the study of the engine. The first resonator forms a too heavy load for the engine and could not be loaded with an RC-acoustic load. A second resonator is designed and built that has less loss than the first one. The performance measurements with the second resonator show that the engine at its most efficient operating point generates 190 watt of acoustic power with an efficiency of 22.5%, corresponding to 36% of Carnot.

  2. High-temperature acoustic test facilities and methods

    Pearson, Jerome

    1994-09-01

    The Wright Laboratory is the Air Force center for air vehicles, responsible for developing advanced technology and incorporating it into new flight vehicles and for continuous technological improvement of operational air vehicles. Part of that responsibility is the problem of acoustic fatigue. With the advent of jet aircraft in the 1950's, acoustic fatigue of aircraft structure became a significant problem. In the 1960's the Wright Laboratory constructed the first large acoustic fatigue test facilities in the United States, and the laboratory has been a dominant factor in high-intensity acoustic testing since that time. This paper discusses some of the intense environments encountered by new and planned Air Force flight vehicles, and describes three new acoustic test facilities of the Wright Laboratory designed for testing structures in these dynamic environments. These new test facilities represent the state of the art in high-temperature, high-intensity acoustic testing and random fatigue testing. They will allow the laboratory scientists and engineers to test the new structures and materials required to withstand the severe environments of captive-carry missiles, augmented lift wings and flaps, exhaust structures of stealth aircraft, and hypersonic vehicle structures well into the twenty-first century.

  3. Study of engine noise based on independent component analysis

    HAO Zhi-yong; JIN Yan; YANG Chen

    2007-01-01

    Independent component analysis was applied to analyze the acoustic signals from diesel engine. First the basic principle of independent component analysis (ICA) was reviewed. Diesel engine acoustic signal was decomposed into several independent components (Ics); Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were applied to analyze the independent components. Different noise sources of the diesel engine were separated, based on the characteristics of different component in time-frequency domain.

  4. Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  5. Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet (AEAA) Software

    Nichols, Charles T.; Roth, Don J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research and NASA White Sands Test Facility have developed software supporting an automated pressure vessel structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on acoustic emissions (AE). The software, referred to as the Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet (AEAA), provides analysts with a tool that can interrogate data collected on Digital Wave Corp. and Physical Acoustics Corp. software using a wide spectrum of powerful filters and charts. This software can be made to work with any data once the data format is known. The applet will compute basic AE statistics, and statistics as a function of time and pressure (see figure). AEAA provides value added beyond the analysis provided by the respective vendors' analysis software. The software can handle data sets of unlimited size. A wide variety of government and commercial applications could benefit from this technology, notably requalification and usage tests for compressed gas and hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Future enhancements will add features similar to a "check engine" light on a vehicle. Once installed, the system will ultimately be used to alert International Space Station crewmembers to critical structural instabilities, but will have little impact to missions otherwise. Diagnostic information could then be transmitted to experienced technicians on the ground in a timely manner to determine whether pressure vessels have been impacted, are structurally unsound, or can be safely used to complete the mission.

  6. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  7. Broadband Acoustic Cloak for Ultrasound Waves

    Zhang, Shu; Fang, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. Such a device is proposed to render the hidden object undetectable under the flow of light or sound, by guiding and controlling the wave path through an engineered space surrounding the object. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Due to the non-resonant nature of the building elements, this low loss (~6dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits excellent invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz in the measurements. The low visibility of the cloaked object for underwater ultrasound shed a light on the fundamental understanding of ma...

  8. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  9. Acoustics Discipline Overview

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Annual Review, a summary of the progress made in 2007 in acoustics research under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes highlights from in-house and external activities including partnerships and NRA-funded research with industry and academia. Brief progress reports from all acoustics Phase 1 NRAs are also included as are outlines of the planned activities for 2008 and all Phase 2 NRAs. N+1 and N+2 technology paths outlined for Subsonic Fixed Wing noise targets. NRA Round 1 progressing with focus on prediction method advancement. NRA Round 2 initiating work focused on N+2 technology, prediction methods, and validation. Excellent partnerships in progress supporting N+1 technology targets and providing key data sets.

  10. Acoustic Tractor Beam

    Démoré, Christine E. M.; Dahl, Patrick M.; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P.; Spalding, Gabriel C.

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system.

  11. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms of...... descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  12. Characterizing premixed laminar flame–acoustics nonlinear interaction

    Highlights: • Premixed flame–acoustics interaction is studied. • Premixed flame is found to respond strongly to lower-frequency perturbations. • Higher-frequency flow disturbances pass through the flame smoothly. • Linear and nonlinear transfer functions are determined. • Hammerstein–Wiener model can provide a better agreement. - Abstract: Self-excited thermoacoustic oscillations, also known as combustion instability is generated by the coupling between unsteady combustion and acoustic perturbations. If such combustion instability occurs, then pressure fluctuations may become so intense that they can cause overheating and/or engine structural damage. Thus it is necessary to understand the dynamic coupling physics between acoustic perturbations and unsteady combustion, and to identify a measure to characterize the interaction between a heat source and oncoming acoustic perturbations. The present work investigates linear and nonlinear responses of a conical premixed laminar flame to oncoming acoustic disturbances. Unsteady heat release from the premixed flame is assumed to be caused by its surface area variation. And the area variation results from the fluctuations of the oncoming acoustic flow velocity. In order to track the flame front variation in real-time, the classical G-equation is applied. Second-order finite difference (FD) method is then used to expand the dynamic flame model. Time evolution of the flame surface under the periodic acoustics forcing is successfully captured. Finally, system identification is then conducted to estimate the linear and nonlinear flame transfer function to quantify the dynamic response of the flame to oncoming acoustic disturbances. Good agreement is obtained

  13. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Hora P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the acoustic emission (AE source modeling by means of FEM system COMSOL Multiphysics. The following types of sources are used: the spatially concentrated force and the double forces (dipole. The pulse excitation is studied in both cases. As a material is used steel. The computed displacements are compared with the exact analytical solution of point sources under consideration.

  14. The acoustics of snoring.

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of

  15. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  16. The Ultrasonic Testing of the Yangtze River Terraces Bridge Foundation Engineering Analysis of Packet of Sand Case in Acoustic Pipe%长江阶地桥梁桩基工程超声波检测声测管包沙案例分析

    王俊丽; 徐军

    2012-01-01

      Yangtze River Bridge construction is often located in the Yangtze River terraces, and the Yangtze River terraces with the characteristics of thick sand.Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge Pile Foundation Engineering uses ultrasonic nondes-tructive testing technology to detect al pile foundation, and as wel as uses ultrasonic testing, coring and borehole excavation in a comprehensive way, and then makes detailed identification of individual pile foundation shal ow acoustic tube wrapped Sand Mission , clod phenomenon, to ensure the quality of the pile foundation engineering,which has a good reference for similar projects.%  长江大桥的施工往往位于长江阶地,长江阶地具有砂层厚的特点。武汉某长江大桥桥梁桩基工程采用超声波无损检测技术,对所有桩基进行检测,并采用超声波检测、钻芯和凿洞开挖等综合手段,详细查明个别桩基浅部声测管包裹沙团、泥块的现象,保证了桩基工程质量,对类似工程具有很好的借鉴性。

  17. Horizontal cloaking and vertical reflection by transformation acoustics

    Min Kyung Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation shows that if an acoustic metamaterial bounded by an external rectangle and an internal circular cavity is properly engineered by a set of transformation equations that satisfy certain requirements, it can virtually cloak an object against incoming acoustic waves in one direction and make an incoming wave along the orthogonal direction reflected by an object located inside its inner cavity. The specific transformation equations realizing the metamaterial are suggested and an analysis is carried out to investigate the wave phenomena taking place along the cavity boundary.

  18. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    Sun Daming [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Qiu Limin [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: limin.qiu@zju.edu.cn; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong; Zhao Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE.

  19. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    Sun, Daming; Qiu, Limin; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE. (author)

  20. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE

  1. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  2. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  3. Magneto-photo-acoustic imaging

    Qu, Min; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Truby, Ryan; Homan, Kimberly; Joshi, Pratixa; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Sokolov, Konstantin; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Magneto-photo-acoustic imaging, a technique based on the synergy of magneto-motive ultrasound, photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging, is introduced. Hybrid nanoconstructs, liposomes encapsulating gold nanorods and iron oxide nanoparticles, were used as a dual-contrast agent for magneto-photo-acoustic imaging. Tissue-mimicking phantom and macrophage cells embedded in ex vivo porcine tissue were used to demonstrate that magneto-photo-acoustic imaging is capable of visualizing the location of cel...

  4. Room acoustic auralization with Ambisonics

    Polack, Jean-Dominique; Leão Figueiredo, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    International audience During the year of 2009, the room acoustics group of the LAM (Équipe Lutheries, Acoustique, Musique de l’Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert - Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris) performed a series of acoustical measurements in music halls in Paris. The halls were chosen in regarding their importance to the historic, architectural or acoustic domains. The measured ensemble of fourteen rooms includes quite different architectural designs. The measurements were carri...

  5. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  6. Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map based on acoustic resonance frequency of suction muffler in compressor

    Highlights: • Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Experimental validation of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Suggestion regarding the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis of the Energy Efficiency Ratio with respect to acoustic pressure. • Suggestion regarding the hybrid coupling method for acoustic analysis in compressor. - Abstract: The volumetric efficiency of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine and compressor can be increased by properly adjusting the acoustic resonance frequency of the suction muffler or the suction valve timing without any additional equipment or power source. This effect is known as acoustic supercharging. However, the energy efficiency has become more important than the volumetric efficiency because of the energy shortage issue and factors influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Therefore, methods for increasing the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of IC engine and compressor should be considered. In this study, a systematic method for improving the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of the compressor used in refrigerators and air conditioners was developed for the first time. This effect is named as the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency (ASEE). For the ASEE, first, a hybrid coupling method was suggested for the acoustical analysis in the suction part of the compressor. Next, an Energy Efficiency Design Map (EEDM) was proposed. This can serve as a design guide for suction mufflers in terms of the energy efficiency. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and total massflow rate with respect to the acoustic pressure were conducted to identify the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the suction valve motion. This provides the physical background for the EEDM

  7. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  8. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Lift-Off Acoustics

    Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janie D.

    2011-01-01

    The lift-off acoustic (LOA) environment is an important design factor for any launch vehicle. For the Ares I vehicle, the LOA environments were derived by scaling flight data from other launch vehicles. The Ares I LOA predicted environments are compared to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) preliminary results.

  9. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  10. Taming Acoustic Cavitation

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Enriquez, Oscar R; Versluis, Michel; Prosperetti, Andrea; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show acoustic cavitation occurring from pits etched on a silicon surface. By immersing the surface in a liquid, gas pockets are entrapped in the pits which upon ultrasonic insonation, are observed to shed cavitation bubbles. Modulating the driving pressure it is possible to induce different behaviours based on the force balance that determines the interaction among bubbles and the silicon surface. This system can be used for several applications like sonochemical water treatment, cleaning of surfaces with deposited materials such as biofilms.

  11. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  12. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology – ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  13. Lecture Notes On Acoustics

    This book mentions string vibration and wave, one-dimension wave and wave equation, characteristic impedance, governing equation of string, and wave energy from string, wave equation of wave and basic physical quantity like one-dimension wave equation, sound unit, sound intensity and energy, sound movement in a surface of discontinuity with transmission loss of sound by partition, and Snell's law, radiation, scatter and diffraction and sound in closed space with Sabine's theory, sound characteristic of closed space and duct acoustics.

  14. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  15. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  16. Acoustic Metamaterials and Phononic Crystals

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive book presents all aspects of acoustic metamaterials and phononic crystals. The emphasis is on acoustic wave propagation phenomena at interfaces such as refraction, especially unusual refractive properties and negative refraction. A thorough discussion of the mechanisms leading to such refractive phenomena includes local resonances in metamaterials and scattering in phononic crystals.

  17. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    Tarver, D. Kent

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  18. Sound insulation and energy harvesting based on acoustic metamaterial plate

    Assouar, Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of artificially designed sub-wavelength acoustic materials, denoted acoustic metamaterials (AMM), has significantly broadened the range of materials responses found in nature. These engineered materials can indeed manipulate sound/vibration in surprising ways, which include vibration/sound insulation, focusing, cloaking, acoustic energy harvesting …. In this work, we report both on the analysis of the airborne sound transmission loss (STL) through a thin metamaterial plate and on the possibility of acoustic energy harvesting. We first provide a theoretical study of the airborne STL and confronted them to the structure-borne dispersion of a metamaterial plate. Second, we propose to investigate the acoustic energy harvesting capability of the plate-type AMM. We have developed semi-analytical and numerical methods to investigate the STL performances of a plate-type AMM with an airborne sound excitation having different incident angles. The AMM is made of silicone rubber stubs squarely arranged in a thin aluminum plate, and the STL is calculated at low-frequency range [100Hz to 3kHz] for an incoming incident sound pressure wave. The obtained analytical and numerical STL present a very good agreement confirming the reliability of developed approaches. A comparison between computed STL and the band structure of the considered AMM shows an excellent agreement and gives a physical understanding of the observed behavior. On another hand, the acoustic energy confinement in AMM with created defects with suitable geometry was investigated. The first results give a general view for assessing the acoustic energy harvesting performances making use of AMM.

  19. Experimental Study of Rock Drill-ability Anisotropy by Acoustic Velocity

    2006-01-01

    Rock drill-ability anisotropy has significant effects on directional drilling and deviation control. Its evaluation is an important but difficult research subject. Definitions of drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy of rock are given in this paper. The acoustic velocities and the drill-ability parameters of several rock samples from the Engineering Center for Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) are respectively measured with the device for testing the rock drill-ability and the ultrasonic testing system in laboratory, so that their drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy are respectively calculated and discussed in detail by using the experimental data. On the basis of these experimental results and calculations, correlations between drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy of the rock samples are illustrated through regression analyses. Thus, a mathematical model developed may be used to evaluate the rock drill-ability anisotropy with the acoustic logging or seismic data to a certain extent.

  20. Parametric Analysis of Acoustical Requirements for Lateral Reflections: Melbourne Recital Hall Case Study

    Erica Claustro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of the Melbourne Recital Centre as a case study to define the parameters necessary for good acoustical quality as it relates to the Binaural Quality Index and determining the intimacy of the hall by its initial time delay gap. The Melbourne Recital Centre, designed by Ashton Raggatt McDougall Architects, is a significant case study, as its design was driven by the acoustic requirements of reflection and diffusion through Odeon Acoustical Software. It achieves the same acoustical quality of older, ornately designed shoebox concert halls, from the perspective of contemporary design and fabrication tools and techniques. The sleek design of the Melbourne Recital Centre successfully reflects sound waves in low, mid, and high frequencies due to corresponding wall panel differentiation in the corresponding scales, as engineered by Arup Acoustics.

  1. MEMS Based Acoustic Array

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikaza (Inventor); Humphreys, William M. (Inventor); Arnold, David P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention described and shown in the specification aid drawings include a combination responsive to an acoustic wave that can be utilized as a dynamic pressure sensor. In one embodiment of the present invention, the combination has a substrate having a first surface and an opposite second surface, a microphone positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having an input and a first output and a second output, wherein the input receives a biased voltage, and the microphone generates an output signal responsive to the acoustic wave between the first output and the second output. The combination further has an amplifier positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having a first input and a second input and an output, wherein the first input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the first output of the microphone and the second input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the second output of the microphone for receiving the output sinual from the microphone. The amplifier is spaced from the microphone with a separation smaller than 0.5 mm.

  2. Acoustics and Hearing

    Damaske, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  3. Musical acoustics demonstrations

    Hoekje, P. L.

    2003-10-01

    The ASA Musical Acoustics Demonstrations website (trial version at http://www.bw.edu/~phoekje) includes sound files, video clips, program code listings, and other material for demonstrations related to musical acoustics. Many of the sound demonstrations may be experienced either as expositions, in which the phenomena are explained before they are presented, or as experiments, in which the explanation comes after listeners have had the opportunity to draw their own conclusions. Suggestions are provided for apparatus construction and classroom experiments, as well as for building simple musical instruments. Software is recommended if it is available free and compatible with multiple personal computer operating systems. For example, Audacity (http://audacity.sourceforce.net) is a sound file editor and analyzer that can be used to visually represent sounds and manipulate them. Source files are included for the synthesized sound examples, which were created in Csound (http://csounds.com), so that interested users may create their own variations. Source code is also included for visual demonstrations created in Visual Python and Python (http://www.python.org), an efficient, high level programming language. Suggestions, criticisms, and contributions are always welcome! [Work supported by ASA and Baldwin-Wallace College.

  4. Time-reversal acoustics

    Fink, Mathias [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle de la Ville de Paris, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR CNRS 7587, 10 Rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: mathias.fink@espci.fr

    2008-10-15

    Time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) refocus an incident acoustic field to the position of the original source regardless of the complexity of the propagation medium. TRM's have now been implemented in a variety of physical scenarios from MHz ultrasonics with order centimeter aperture size to hundreds/thousands of Hz in ocean acoustics with order hundred meter aperture size. Common to this broad range of scales is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations at all scales that the more complex the medium between the probe source and the TRM, the sharper the focus. The relation between the medium complexity and the size of the focal spot is studied in this paper. It is certainly the most exciting property of TRM compared to standard focusing devices. A TRM acts as an antenna that uses complex environments to appears wider than it is, resulting for a broadband pulse in a refocusing quality that does not depend of the TRM aperture. In this paper, we investigate the time-reversal approach in various media of increasing complexity and we discuss the link existing between time-reversal approach and local helioseismology where Green's functions can be extracted from diffusive noise.

  5. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  6. Acoustic monitoring method and device

    The present invention provides a method of eliminating resonance noises upon acoustically monitoring the operation state of power plants and plant equipments whether they are normal or not, to improve sensitivity for detecting abnormalities. Namely, a microphone detects acoustic signals including leaking sounds and converts them into electric signals. An amplifier amplifies the electric signals to an appropriate level. A noise eliminating section eliminates resonance noises other than the leaking sounds. An abnormality judging section judges presence of abnormality based on the level of the acoustic signals of the leaking sounds. With such a constitution, a plurality of resonance noises generated also during normal plant operation are automatically eliminated. Since resonance noises as a factor of lowering the sensitivity for abnormal sound detection are not included in the acoustic signals, the sensitivity for the abnormal sound detection is improved. Accordingly, the performance of the acoustic monitoring device is improved. (I.S.)

  7. Auralization fundamentals of acoustics, modelling, simulation, algorithms and acoustic virtual reality

    Vorlander, Michael

    2007-01-01

    "Auralization" is the technique of creation and reproduction of sound on the basis of computer data. With this tool is it possible to predict the character of sound signals which are generated at the source and modified by reinforcement, propagation and transmission in systems such as rooms, buildings, vehicles or other technical devices. This book is organized as a comprehensive collection of the basics of sound and vibration, acoustic modelling, simulation, signal processing and audio reproduction. Implementations of the auralization technique are described using examples drawn from various fields in acoustic’s research and engineering, architecture, sound design and virtual reality.

  8. The possibilities of tuning and optimisation of acoustic resonance properties of the human vocal tract

    Radolf, Vojtěch; Vampola, T.

    Praha: Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, v. v. i., 2007 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 237-238 ISBN 978-80-87012-06-2. [Engineering Mechanics 2007: national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2007-17.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/1025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustics * optimisation * formant tuning Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  9. Acoustic Issues in Human Spaceflight

    Clark, Jonathan B.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is concerned about acute effect of sound on crew performance on International Space Station (ISS), and is developing strategies to assess and reduce acute, chronic, and delayed effects of sound. High noise levels can cause headaches, irritation, fatigue, impaired sleep, headache, and tinnitus and have resulted in an inability to hear alarms. Speech intelligibility may be more impaired for crew understanding non-native language in a noisy environment. No hearing loss occurred, but significant effects on crew performance and communication occurred. Permanent Threshold Shifts (PTS) have not been observed in the US shuttle program. Russian specification for noise in spacecraft is 60 dBA (awake) and 50 dBA (asleep) while the U.S. noise specification on ISS is NC 50 (awake) and NC 40 (asleep) with a 85 dBA hazard limit. Background noise levels of ISS modules have measured 56-69 dBA. Treadmill exercise operations measure 77 dBA. Alarms are required to be 20 dBA above ambient. Hearing protection is recommended when noise exceeds 60 dB 24 hour Leq. Countermeasures include hearing protection and design/ engineering controls. Advanced composite materials with excellent low frequency attenuation properties could be applied as a barrier protection around noisy equipment, or used on personal protective equipment worn by the crew. Hearing protection countermeasures include foam ear inserts, passive muff headsets, and active noise reduction headsets. Oto-acoustic emissions (OAE) could be used to monitor effectiveness of hearing protection countermeasures and tailor hearing protection countermeasures to individual crewmembers. Micro-gravity, vibration, toxic fumes, air quality/composition, stress, temperature, physical exertion or some combination of the above factors may have interacted with moderate long-term noise exposure to cause significant hearing loss. Longitudinal studies will need to address what co-morbidity factors, such as radiation, toxicology, microgravity

  10. Engine Test Stand Design Constraints Expert System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion test stands are designed for thermal and pressure loads for certain classes of engines. These plume induced loads are: radiative heating, acoustics and...

  11. Synthetic gauge flux and Weyl points in acoustic systems

    Xiao, Meng; Chen, Wen-Jie; He, Wen-Yu; Chan, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    Following the discovery of the quantum Hall effect and topological insulators, the topological properties of classical waves began to draw attention. Topologically non-trivial bands characterized by non-zero Chern numbers are realized through either the breaking of time-reversal symmetry using an external magnetic field or dynamic modulation. Owing to the absence of a Faraday-like effect, the breaking of time-reversal symmetry in an acoustic system is commonly realized with moving background fluids, which drastically increases the engineering complexity. Here we show that we can realize effective inversion symmetry breaking and create an effective gauge flux in a reduced two-dimensional system by engineering interlayer couplings, achieving an acoustic analogue of the topological Haldane model. We show that the synthetic gauge flux is closely related to Weyl points in the three-dimensional band structure and the system supports chiral edge states for fixed values of kz.

  12. Grazing incidence modeling of a metamaterial-inspired dual-resonance acoustic liner

    Beck, Benjamin S.

    2014-03-01

    To reduce the noise emitted by commercial aircraft turbofan engines, the inlet and aft nacelle ducts are lined with acoustic absorbing structures called acoustic liners. Traditionally, these structures consist of a perforated facesheet bonded on top of a honeycomb core. These traditional perforate over honeycomb core (POHC) liners create an absorption spectra where the maximum absorption occurs at a frequency that is dictated by the depth of the honeycomb core; which acts as a quarter-wave resonator. Recent advances in turbofan engine design have increased the need for thin acoustic liners that are effective at low frequencies. One design that has been developed uses an acoustic metamaterial architecture to improve the low frequency absorption. Specifically, the liner consists of an array of Helmholtz resonators separated by quarter-wave volumes to create a dual-resonance acoustic liner. While previous work investigated the acoustic behavior under normal incidence, this paper outlines the modeling and predicted transmission loss and absorption of a dual-resonance acoustic metamaterial when subjected to grazing incidence sound.

  13. Assessment of Microphone Phased Array for Measuring Launch Vehicle Lift-off Acoustics

    Garcia, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The specific purpose of the present work was to demonstrate the suitability of a microphone phased array for launch acoustics applications via participation in selected firings of the Ares I Scale Model Acoustics Test. The Ares I Scale Model Acoustics Test is a part of the discontinued Constellation Program Ares I Project, but the basic understanding gained from this test is expected to help development of the Space Launch System vehicles. Correct identification of sources not only improves the predictive ability, but provides guidance for a quieter design of the launch pad and optimization of the water suppression system. This document contains the results of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center assessment.

  14. Generation of thermo-acoustic waves from pulsed solar/IR radiation

    Rahman, Aowabin

    Acoustic waves could potentially be used in a wide range of engineering applications; however, the high energy consumption in generating acoustic waves from electrical energy and the cost associated with the process limit the use of acoustic waves in industrial processes. Acoustic waves converted from solar radiation provide a feasible way of obtaining acoustic energy, without relying on conventional nonrenewable energy sources. One of the goals of this thesis project was to experimentally study the conversion of thermal to acoustic energy using pulsed radiation. The experiments were categorized into "indoor" and "outdoor" experiments, each with a separate experimental setup. The indoor experiments used an IR heater to power the thermo-acoustic lasers and were primarily aimed at studying the effect of various experimental parameters on the amplitude of sound waves in the low frequency range (below 130 Hz). The IR radiation was modulated externally using a chopper wheel and then impinged on a porous solid, which was housed inside a thermo-acoustic (TA) converter. A microphone located at a certain distance from the porous solid inside the TA converter detected the acoustic signals. The "outdoor" experiments, which were targeted at TA conversion at comparatively higher frequencies (in 200 Hz-3 kHz range) used solar energy to power the thermo-acoustic laser. The amplitudes (in RMS) of thermo-acoustic signals obtained in experiments using IR heater as radiation source were in the 80-100 dB range. The frequency of acoustic waves corresponded to the frequency of interceptions of the radiation beam by the chopper. The amplitudes of acoustic waves were influenced by several factors, including the chopping frequency, magnitude of radiation flux, type of porous material, length of porous material, external heating of the TA converter housing, location of microphone within the air column, and design of the TA converter. The time-dependent profile of the thermo-acoustic signals

  15. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-07-20

    The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor the acoustic signal in natural gas transmission lines. In particular the three acoustic signals associated with a line leak. The system is portable ({approx}30 lbs) and is designed for line pressures up to 1000 psi. It has become apparent that cataloging of the various background acoustic signals in natural gas transmission line is very important if a system to identify leak signals is to be developed. The low-pressure (0-200 psig) laboratory test phase has been completed and a number of field trials have been conducted. Before the cataloging phase could begin, a few problems identified in field trials identified had to be corrected such as: (1) Decreased microphone sensitivity at line pressures above 250 psig. (2) The inability to deal with large data sets collected when cataloging the variety of signals in a transmission line. (3) The lack of an available online acoustic calibration system. These problems have been solved and the WVU PAMP is now fully functional over the entire pressure range found in the Natural Gas transmission lines in this region. Field portability and reliability have been greatly improved. Data collection and storage have also improved to the point were the full acoustic spectrum of acoustic signals can be accurately cataloged, recorded and described.

  16. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  17. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...... application is modulation of optical waves in waveguides. This presentation elaborates on how a SAW is generated by interdigital transducers using a 2D model of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material implemented in the high-level programming language Comsol Multiphysics. The SAW is send through a model of a...... output waveguide and the MZI can thus be used as an optical switch. It is explained how the mechanical model of the SAW is coupled to a model of the optical waves such that the change in effective refractive index introduced in the MZI arms by the SAW can be calculated. Results of a parameter study of...

  18. Evoked acoustic emission

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J;

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...... a minor effect on the power spectra, i.e. the maximum jumps from one spectral peak to another. Experiments with deconvolution demonstrate that the emission generating system at least at a fixed intensity can be regarded as being linear and characterized by its impulse response which is similar to...... the emission evoked by click stimuli. It is concluded that significant information is obtained by the click rather than by the tonal stimuli. The click-evoked emissions were also recorded from both ears in a consecutive series of 100 full-term and otherwise normal babies 2-4 days after birth. The...

  19. Acoustic fault injection tool (AFIT)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.

    1999-05-01

    On September 18, 1997, Honeywell Technology Center (HTC) successfully completed a three-week flight test of its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS) at Patuxent River Flight Test Center. This flight test was the culmination of an ambitious 38-month proof-of-concept effort directed at demonstrating the feasibility of detecting crack propagation in helicopter rotor components. The program was funded as part of the U.S. Navy's Air Vehicle Diagnostic Systems (AVDS) program. Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. The application of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults has proven the feasibility of the technology. The flight-test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. During the RAMS flight test, 12 test flights were flown from which 25 Gbyte of digital acoustic data and about 15 hours of analog flight data recorder (FDR) data were collected from the eight on-rotor acoustic sensors. The focus of this paper is to describe the CH-46 flight-test configuration and present design details about a new innovative machinery diagnostic technology called acoustic fault injection. This technology involves the injection of acoustic sound into machinery to assess health and characterize operational status. The paper will also address the development of the Acoustic Fault Injection Tool (AFIT), which was successfully demonstrated during the CH-46 flight tests.

  20. Silence Amenity Engineering

    Fujita, Hajime

    Engineering civilization brought convenient and comfortable life to us. However, some environmental problems such as various pollutions have also been developed with it. Acoustical noise is one of the major problems in modern life. Noise is generated from a noise source and propagates through transmitting medium such as the air and eventually reaches a receiver, usually a human being. The noise problem can be avoided, therefore, if one of those three elements in the noise problem is removed completely. In actual case, engineers are looking for most efficient way combining the controls for these three elements. In this article, basic characteristics of noise is reviewed briefly at first, then sound field analysis to predict sound transmission is discussed Aerodynamic noise is one of the major problems in silence amenity engineering today. Basic concept of the aerodynamic noise generation mechanism is discussed in detail with applications to turbo-machinery and high speed train noise control technology.

  1. Mathematical methods in engineering

    Machado, José

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a careful selection of the contributions presented at the Mathematical Methods in Engineering (MME10) International Symposium, held at the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra- Engineering Institute of Coimbra (IPC/ISEC), Portugal, October 21-24, 2010. The volume discusses recent developments about theoretical and applied mathematics toward the solution of engineering problems, thus covering a wide range of topics, such as:  Automatic Control, Autonomous Systems, Computer Science, Dynamical Systems and Control,  Electronics, Finance and Economics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fractional Mathematics, Fractional Transforms and Their Applications,  Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Image and Signal Analysis, Image Processing, Mechanics, Mechatronics, Motor Control and Human Movement Analysis, Nonlinear Dynamics, Partial Differential Equations, Robotics, Acoustics, Vibration and Control, and Wavelets.

  2. An asymptotic model in acoustics:acoustic drift equations

    Vladimirov, Vladimir; Ilin, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    A rigorous asymptotic procedure with the Mach number as a small parameter is used to derive the equations of mean flows which coexist and are affected by the background acoustic waves in the limit of very high Reynolds number.

  3. Anisotropic spectra of acoustic turbulence

    We found universal anizopropic spectra of acoustic turbulence with the linear dispersion law ω(k)=ck within the framework of generalized kinetic equation which takes into account the finite time of three-wave interactions. This anisotropic spectra can assume both scale-invariant and non-scale-invariant form. The implications for the evolution of the acoustic turbulence with nonisotropic pumping are discussed. The main result of the article is that the spectra of acoustic turbulence tend to become more isotropic. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Theoretical acoustics of underwater structures

    Skelton, EA

    1997-01-01

    This important book provides an account of the linear acoustics of basic isotropic/anisotropic structures excited by time-harmonic and transient mechanical forces and acoustic sources. Many numerical examples are given to aid physical insight and to provide benchmark computations of sound radiation and sound scattering. The theoretical methods, developed originally for naval noise control problems, should find civil application in the acoustic modelling of structures fabricated from both fibre-reinforced and isotropic materials. Such an endeavour is increasingly desirable and necessary in this

  5. Acoustic metamaterial with negative density

    We fabricated a one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with negative effective density using an array of very thin elastic membranes. We observed acoustic equivalence of the plasma oscillation at ωc=735 Hz. The metamaterial was opaque in the frequency range from 0 to 735 Hz, and was transparent above 735 Hz. We report direct observation of negative acceleration in this acoustic medium below 735 Hz. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial have the same form as that of metals with negative permittivity. We also provide a simple theory to explain the experimental results.

  6. Noise Shielding Using Acoustic Metamaterials

    We exploit theoretically a class of rectangular cylindrical devices for noise shielding by using acoustic metamaterials. The function of noise shielding is justified by both the far-field and near-field full-wave simulations based on the finite element method. The enlargement of equivalent acoustic scattering cross sections is revealed to be the physical mechanism for this function. This work makes it possible to design a window with both noise shielding and air flow. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus

    We present experimental and theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits a negative effective modulus in a frequency range from 0 to 450 Hz. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with an array of side holes on a tube was fabricated. We observed that acoustic waves above 450 Hz propagated well in this structure, but no sound below 450 Hz passed through. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial has the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the experimental results.

  8. Acoustic-optic investigations of acoustic gyrotropy in crystals

    For the experimental investigation of the acoustic activity the Bragg light diffraction method on transverse acoustic waves was used in the frequency range 0.4-1.8 GHz. It is shown that the oscillation period of the intensity of the diffracted light is defined by the specific rotator power of the crystal. On the basis of experimental data the specific rotation of the polarization plane in a number of gyrotropic crystals was determined. (authors)

  9. Effects of subsampling of passive acoustic recordings on acoustic metrics.

    Thomisch, Karolin; Boebel, Olaf; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Samaran, Flore; Van Parijs, Sofie; Van Opzeeland, Ilse

    2015-07-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an important tool in marine mammal studies. However, logistics and finances frequently constrain the number and servicing schedules of acoustic recorders, requiring a trade-off between deployment periods and sampling continuity, i.e., the implementation of a subsampling scheme. Optimizing such schemes to each project's specific research questions is desirable. This study investigates the impact of subsampling on the accuracy of two common metrics, acoustic presence and call rate, for different vocalization patterns (regimes) of baleen whales: (1) variable vocal activity, (2) vocalizations organized in song bouts, and (3) vocal activity with diel patterns. To this end, above metrics are compared for continuous and subsampled data subject to different sampling strategies, covering duty cycles between 50% and 2%. The results show that a reduction of the duty cycle impacts negatively on the accuracy of both acoustic presence and call rate estimates. For a given duty cycle, frequent short listening periods improve accuracy of daily acoustic presence estimates over few long listening periods. Overall, subsampling effects are most pronounced for low and/or temporally clustered vocal activity. These findings illustrate the importance of informed decisions when applying subsampling strategies to passive acoustic recordings or analyses for a given target species. PMID:26233026

  10. The Experimental Study of Bubble Formation: Acoustics and CCD Camera

    Bunganič, Radovan; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    - : -, 2005. 7.5.. [Conference on Gas-Liquid and Gas-Liquid-Solid Reactor Engineering /7./. 21.08.2005-24.08.2005, Strasbourg] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0826; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/2566 Grant ostatní: BEMUSAC(XE) G1MA/CT/2002/04019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble formation * acoustic emissions * high-speed camera Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  12. A review of acoustic dampers applied to combustion chambers in aerospace industry

    Zhao, Dan; Li, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    In engine combustion systems such as rockets, aero-engines and gas turbines, pressure fluctuations are always present, even during normal operation. One of design prerequisites for the engine combustors is stable operation, since large-amplitude self-sustained pressure fluctuations (also known as combustion instability) have the potential to cause serious structural damage and catastrophic engine failure. To dampen pressure fluctuations and to reduce noise, acoustic dampers are widely applied as a passive control means to stabilize combustion/engine systems. However, they cannot respond to the dynamic changes of operating conditions and tend to be effective over certain narrow range of frequencies. To maintain their optimum damping performance over a broad frequency range, extensive researches have been conducted during the past four decades. The present work is to summarize the status, challenges and progress of implementing such acoustic dampers on engine systems. The damping effect and mechanism of various acoustic dampers, such as Helmholtz resonators, perforated liners, baffles, half- and quarter-wave tube are introduced first. A summary of numerical, experimental and theoretical studies are then presented to review the progress made so far. Finally, as an alternative means, ';tunable acoustic dampers' are discussed. Potential, challenges and issues associated with the dampers practical implementation are highlighted.

  13. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop, fabricate, and characterize a novel frequency steered acoustic transducer (FSAT) for the...

  14. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project is to fabricate, characterize, and verify performance of a new type of frequency steered acoustic...

  15. Airborne synthetic aperture acoustic imaging.

    Soumekh, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a system model and inversion for airborne synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) imaging. The system model accurately represents the intercation of the acoustic source and the target region at near range values. Moreover, the model incorporates the fact that the relative speed of the vehicle's (transmitter/receiver) with respect to the target region is comparable to the acoustic wave propagation speed. The inversion utilizes the principle of spectral decomposition of spherical phase functions to develop a wavefront reconstruction method from SAA data. Processing issues and selection of appropriate acoustic FM-CW sources are discussed. Results are provided that exhibit the superior accuracy of the proposed SAA system model and inversion over their synthetic aperture radar (SAR) counterpart in which the vehicle's speed is assumed to be much smaller than the wave propagation speed. PMID:18282912

  16. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will explore and test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) to facilitate acoustic suppression in a...

  17. Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The very large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Plum Brook Station, is currently under construction and is due to...

  18. Acoustic Invisibility in Turbulent Fluids

    Huang, Xun; Zhong, Siyang

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic invisibility of a cloaking system in turbulent uids has been poorly understood. Here we show that evident scattering would appear in turbulent wakes owing to the submergence of a classical cloaking device. The inherent mechanism is explained using our theoretical model, which eventually inspires us to develop an optimized cloaking approach. Both the near- and far-?eld scatted ?elds are examined using high order computational acoustic methods. The remarkably low scattering demonstrate...

  19. Passive/Active Acoustic metamaterials

    Lissek, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Within the last years, an increasing number of studies have been carried out in the field of acoustic metamaterials. These artificial composite materials aim at achieving new macroscopic properties, like negative refraction, that are not readily present in nature. In analogy to electromagnetics, where such concepts are already more mature, a novel concept of artificial acoustic transmission line has recently been reported, which presents such artificial behavior. In this presentation, the des...

  20. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  1. Simplified Rotation In Acoustic Levitation

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Trinh, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    New technique based on old discovery used to control orientation of object levitated acoustically in axisymmetric chamber. Method does not require expensive equipment like additional acoustic drivers of precisely adjustable amplitude, phase, and frequency. Reflecting object acts as second source of sound. If reflecting object large enough, close enough to levitated object, or focuses reflected sound sufficiently, Rayleigh torque exerted on levitated object by reflected sound controls orientation of object.

  2. Computational Modeling of Airway Acoustic

    Horáček, Jaromír

    Salt Lake City: National Center for Voice and Speech, University of Utah, 2014. s. 14-14. [International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics /9./. 10.04.2014-12.04.2014, Salt Lake City] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : biomechanics of voice * finite element method * acoustic waves propagation Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Acoustic control in enclosures using optimally designed Helmholtz resonators

    Driesch, Patricia Lynne

    A virtual design methodology is developed to minimize the noise in enclosures with optimally designed, passive, acoustic absorbers (Helmholtz resonators). A series expansion of eigen functions is used to represent the acoustic absorbers as external volume velocities, eliminating the need for a solution of large matrix eigen value problems. A determination of this type (efficient model/reevaluation approach) significantly increases the design possibilities when optimization techniques are implemented. As a benchmarking exercise, this novel methodology was experimentally validated for a narrowband acoustic assessment of two optimally designed Helmholtz resonators coupled to a 2D enclosure. The resonators were tuned to the two lowest resonance frequencies of a 30.5 by 40.6 by 2.5 cm (12 x 16 x 1 inch) cavity with the resonator volume occupying only 2% of the enclosure volume. A maximum potential energy reduction of 12.4 dB was obtained at the second resonance of the cavity. As a full-scale demonstration of the efficacy of the proposed design method, the acoustic response from 90--190 Hz of a John Deere 7000 Ten series tractor cabin was investigated. The lowest cabin mode, referred to as a "boom" mode, proposes a significant challenge to a noise control engineer since its anti-node is located near the head of the operator and often generates unacceptable sound pressure levels. Exploiting the low frequency capability of Helmholtz resonators, lumped parameter models of these resonators were coupled to the enclosure via an experimentally determined acoustic model of the tractor cabin. The virtual design methodology uses gradient optimization techniques as a post processor for the modeling and analysis of the unmodified acoustic interior to determine optimal resonator characteristics. Using two optimally designed Helmholtz resonators; potential energy was experimentally reduced by 3.4 and 10.3 dB at 117 and 167 Hz, respectively.

  4. Aero-acoustics of Drag Generating Swirling Exhaust Flows

    Shah, P. N.; Mobed, D.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft on approach in high-drag and high-lift configuration create unsteady flow structures which inherently generate noise. For devices such as flaps, spoilers and the undercarriage there is a strong correlation between overall noise and drag such that, in the quest for quieter aircraft, one challenge is to generate drag at low noise levels. This paper presents a rigorous aero-acoustic assessment of a novel drag concept. The idea is that a swirling exhaust flow can yield a steady, and thus relatively quiet, streamwise vortex which is supported by a radial pressure gradient responsible for pressure drag. Flows with swirl are naturally limited by instabilities such as vortex breakdown. The paper presents a first aero-acoustic assessment of ram pressure driven swirling exhaust flows and their associated instabilities. The technical approach combines an in-depth aerodynamic analysis, plausibility arguments to qualitatively describe the nature of acoustic sources, and detailed, quantitative acoustic measurements using a medium aperture directional microphone array in combination with a previously established Deconvolution Approach for Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS). A model scale engine nacelle with stationary swirl vanes was designed and tested in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility at a full-scale approach Mach number of 0.17. The analysis shows that the acoustic signature is comprised of quadrupole-type turbulent mixing noise of the swirling core flow and scattering noise from vane boundary layers and turbulent eddies of the burst vortex structure near sharp edges. The exposed edges are the nacelle and pylon trailing edge and the centerbody supporting the vanes. For the highest stable swirl angle setting a nacelle area based drag coefficient of 0.8 was achieved with a full-scale Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of about 40dBA at the ICAO approach certification point.

  5. Opto-acoustic cell permeation

    Visuri, S R; Heredia, N

    2000-03-09

    Optically generated acoustic waves have been used to temporarily permeate biological cells. This technique may be useful for enhancing transfection of DNA into cells or enhancing the absorption of locally delivered drugs. A diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at kHz repetition rates was used to produce a series of acoustic pulses. An acoustic wave was formed via thermoelastic expansion by depositing laser radiation into an absorbing dye. Generated pressures were measured with a PVDF hydrophone. The acoustic waves were transmitted to cultured and plated cells. The cell media contained a selection of normally- impermeable fluorescent-labeled dextran dyes. Following treatment with the opto-acoustic technique, cellular incorporation of dyes, up to 40,000 Molecular Weight, was noted. Control cells that did not receive opto-acoustic treatment had unremarkable dye incorporation. Uptake of dye was quantified via fluorescent microscopic analysis. Trypan Blue membrane exclusion assays and fluorescent labeling assays confirmed the vitality of cells following treatment. This method of enhanced drug delivery has the potential to dramatically reduce required drug dosages and associated side effects and enable revolutionary therapies.

  6. Initial Assessment of Acoustic Source Visibility with a 24-Element Microphone Array in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center

    Horne, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of background noise were recently obtained with a 24-element phased microphone array in the test section of the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by120-Foot Wind Tunnel at speeds of 50 to 100 knots (27.5 to 51.4 m/s). The array was mounted in an aerodynamic fairing positioned with array center 1.2m from the floor and 16 m from the tunnel centerline, The array plate was mounted flush with the fairing surface as well as recessed in. (1.27 cm) behind a porous Kevlar screen. Wind-off speaker measurements were also acquired every 15 on a 10 m semicircular arc to assess directional resolution of the array with various processing algorithms, and to estimate minimum detectable source strengths for future wind tunnel aeroacoustic studies. The dominant background noise of the facility is from the six drive fans downstream of the test section and first set of turning vanes. Directional array response and processing methods such as background-noise cross-spectral-matrix subtraction suggest that sources 10-15 dB weaker than the background can be detected.

  7. Prediction of acoustic comfort and acoustic silence in Goan Catholic churches

    Menino A. S. M. P. Tavares; S. Rajagopalan; Satish J. Sharma; António P. O. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic Comfort and Acoustic Silence are determinants of tranquility in a worship space. The results presented here are part of a study that investigates the behaviour of acoustically constituted worship parameters in six Catholic churches (Goa, India). Acoustic comfort is quantified through an Acoustic Comfort Impression Index which measures the net comfort induced through the optimization of the desired subjective acoustic impressions for different types of music and different music source...

  8. Optimized multisectioned acoustic liners

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    A critical examination is presented of the use of optimized axially segmented acoustic liners to increase the attenuation of a liner. New calculations show that segmenting is most efficient at high frequencies with relatively long duct lengths where the attenuation is low for both uniform and segmented liners. Statistical considerations indicate little advantage in using optimized liners with more than two segments while the bandwidth of an optimized two-segment liner is shown to be nearly equal to that of a uniform liner. Multielement liner calculations show a large degradation in performance due to changes in assumed input modal structure. Finally, in order to substantiate previous and future analytical results, in-house (finite difference) and contractor (mode matching) programs are used to generate theoretical attenuations for a number of liner configurations for liners in a rectangular duct with no mean flow. Overall, the use of optimized multisectioned liners (sometimes called phased liners) fails to offer sufficient advantage over a uniform liner to warrant their use except in low frequency single mode application.

  9. The performance of a high-frequency thermoacoustic-Stirling engine

    Bastyr, Kevin J.; Keolian, Robert M.

    2003-10-01

    A thermoacoustic-Stirling engine that operates at 400 Hz with a working fluid of 1-MPa helium is constructed. For proper acoustic phasing in this engine's regenerator, an acoustic power feedback path exists in the form of an annulus surrounding the regenerator. This feedback path is obtained by suspending an insulated, stainless steel sleeve containing a wire mesh regenerator, which is flanked by two heat exchangers, a short distance from one end of the larger diameter resonator. The ambient heat exchanger is a shell and tube exchanger, while the hot heater consists of nichrome ribbon wound on an aluminum silicate frame. Gedeon streaming is prevented by a diaphragm covering the end of the stainless steel sleeve adjacent to the ambient heat exchanger. A variable acoustic load provides a convenient means of testing this engine at various hot heater temperatures, while operating at different acoustic pressure amplitudes effects the acoustic power generated by the engine. [Work supported by ONR.

  10. Acoustics of solids

    Beltzer, Abraham I

    1988-01-01

    Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...

  11. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    Xiao, Bingmu

    2013-05-01

    In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.

  12. Robustness of Acoustic Scattering Cancellation to Parameter Variations

    Claudia Guattari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at investigating the possibility to cloak a spherical object from an acoustic wave by applying the scattering cancellation approach. In electromagnetism, the scattering problem is treated using the Mie expansion technique, through which the scattered field by a spherical object can be represented as a superposition of TE and TM spherical harmonics. It is possible to extend this concept to the acoustic field by defining an analogous approach; the pressure field, generated by an elastic wave impinging on a spherical object, can be expressed applying the Mie expansion technique, as well. In acoustics, to achieve scattering suppression at a given frequency, the constitutive parameters to control are density and compressibility. By varying these parameter values, it is possible to define an engineered material with anomalous properties, which cannot be found in nature, able to reduce the scattering cross-section (SCS from a spherical object. We propose a study about the effectiveness of the SCS reduction from an elastic sphere coated with a properly-designed acoustic metamaterial. The sensitivity of the SCS to parameter variations is analyzed for different coating thicknesses and sphere dimensions. Our analysis is supported by both the analytical modelling of the structure and numerical simulations.

  13. Development of an advanced undergraduate course in acoustics

    Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Sommerfeldt, Scott D.

    2016-03-01

    Within many physics undergraduate programs, acoustics is given only a cursory treatment, usually within an introductory course. Because acoustics is a natural vehicle for students to develop intuition about wave phenomena, an advanced undergraduate acoustics course has been developed at Brigham Young University. Although it remains an elective course, enrollment has increased steadily since its inception. The course has been taken by students in physics, applied physics, physics teaching, and mechanical and electrical engineering. In addition to providing training for students motivated by interest in undergraduate research, internship, employment, and graduate schooling opportunities in acoustics, the course facilitates connections between various areas of physics. Explicit connections are made to mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamics, optics, quantum mechanics, and experimental and computational laboratory courses. Active learning is emphasized through Just-in-Time-Teaching and course structure. Homework exercises are both theoretical and practical and often require making and interpreting of graphs. For example, students may model traffic noise as a series of uncorrelated monopoles or examine highway barrier effectiveness using Fresnel diffraction techniques. Additionally, students participate in resumé-building measurements and learn to report their results in the form of technical memoranda. Course evaluations and post-graduation student surveys rate it among the most valuable undergraduate student courses offered.

  14. Prediction of Acoustic Environments from Horizontal Rocket Firings

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Giacomoni, Clothilde

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, advances in research and engineering have led to more powerful launch vehicles which yield acoustic environments potentially destructive to the vehicle or surrounding structures. Therefore, it has become increasingly important to be able to predict the acoustic environments created by these vehicles in order to avoid structural and/or component failure. The current industry standard technique for predicting launch-induced acoustic environments was developed by Eldred in the early 1970's. Recent work has shown Eldred's technique to be inaccurate for current state-of-the-art launch vehicles. Due to the high cost of full-scale and even sub-scale rocket experiments, very little rocket noise data is available. Much of the work thought to be applicable to rocket noise has been done with heated jets. A model to predict the acoustic environment due to a launch vehicle in the far-field was created. This was done using five sets of horizontally fired rocket data, obtained between 2008 and 2012. Through scaling analysis, it is shown that liquid and solid rocket motors exhibit similar spectra at similar amplitudes. This model is accurate for these five data sets within 5 dB of the measured data.

  15. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  16. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  17. Spin Start Line Effects on the J2X Gas Generator Chamber Acoustics

    Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The J2X Gas Generator engine design has a spin start line connected near to the turbine inlet vanes. This line provides helium during engine startup to begin turbomachinery operation. The spin start line also acts as an acoustic side branch which alters the chamber's acoustic modes. The side branch effectively creates 'split modes' in the chamber longitudinal modes, in particular below the first longitudinal mode and within the frequency range associated with the injection-coupled response of the Gas Generator. Interaction between the spin start-modified chamber acoustics and the injection-driven response can create a higher system response than without the spin start attached to the chamber. This work reviews the acoustic effects of the spin start line as seen throughout the workhorse gas generator test program. A simple impedance model of the spin start line is reviewed. Tests were run with no initial spin start gas existing in the line, as well as being initially filled with nitrogen gas. Tests were also run with varying spin start line lengths from 0" to 40". Acoustic impedance changes due to different spin start gas constituents and line lengths are shown. Collected thermocouple and static pressure data in the spin start line was used to help estimate the fluid properties along the line length. The side branch impedance model was coupled to a chamber impedance model to show the effects on the overall chamber response. Predictions of the spin start acoustic behavior for helium operation are shown and compared against available data.

  18. On-chip manipulation of single microparticles, cells, and organisms using surface acoustic waves

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Kiraly, Brian; Yue, Hongjun; Li, Sixing; Chiang, I-Kao; Shi, Jinjie; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    Techniques that can dexterously manipulate single particles, cells, and organisms are invaluable for many applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and physics. Here, we demonstrate standing surface acoustic wave based “acoustic tweezers” that can trap and manipulate single microparticles, cells, and entire organisms (i.e., Caenorhabditis elegans) in a single-layer microfluidic chip. Our acoustic tweezers utilize the wide resonance band of chirped interdigital transducers to achieve real-time control of a standing surface acoustic wave field, which enables flexible manipulation of most known microparticles. The power density required by our acoustic device is significantly lower than its optical counterparts (10,000,000 times less than optical tweezers and 100 times less than optoelectronic tweezers), which renders the technique more biocompatible and amenable to miniaturization. Cell-viability tests were conducted to verify the tweezers’ compatibility with biological objects. With its advantages in biocompatibility, miniaturization, and versatility, the acoustic tweezers presented here will become a powerful tool for many disciplines of science and engineering. PMID:22733731

  19. CALCULATION OF ACOUSTIC EFFICIENCY OF PORTABLE ACOUSTIC SCREEN

    Aleksandr Skvortsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of influence of life environment adverse factors on physical development and health of population is an actual problem of ecology. The aspects of the most actual problems of the modern world, namely environmental industrial noise pollution are considered in the article. Industrial facilities everywhere have noisy equipment. Noise is a significant factors of negative influenceon people and environment. Combined effects of noise and of other physical pollutions on people may cause amplification of their negative impact. If the noise pollution level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (MPL, noise protection measures can be initiated. Today, the most common design decisions for noise protection are sound absorbing construction, noise screens and barriers, acousting housings, soundproff cabins. Many of them are popular, others are less known. The article deals with one of the most wide spread means of noise protection – a portable acoustic screen. The aim of the research is to determine the efficiency of portable acoustic screens. It is shown that the installation of such structures can reduce the average value of the sound level. The authors analyzed acoustic screens as device to reduce noise pollution. The authors offer a potable acoustic screen differing from the used easyness, mobility, minimum price and good sound protective properties. Effectiveness, a sound absorption coefficient and sound conductivity coefficient of a portable acoustic screen are evaluated. The descriptions of the algorithm calculations and the combination of technical solutions have practical originality. The results of the research demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in the agro-industrial complex.

  20. NASA Glenn Research Center Acoustical Testing Laboratory: Five year retrospective

    Cooper, Beth A.; Akers, James C.; Passe, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    In the five years since the NASA Glenn Research Center Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) opened its doors in September, 2000, it has developed a comprehensive array of services and products that support hearing conservation goals within NASA and industry. The ATL provides acoustic emission testing and noise control engineering services for a variety of specialized customers, particularly developers of equipment and science experiments manifested for NASA's manned space missions. The ATL aggressively supports the vision of a low-noise on-orbit environment, which facilitates mission success as well as crew health, safety, and comfort. In concert with these goals, the ATL also produces and distributes free educational resources and low-noise advocacy tools for hearing conservation education and awareness. Among these are two compact discs of auditory demonstrations (of phenomena in acoustics, hearing conservation, and communication), and presentations, software packages, and other educational materials for use by engineers, audiologists, and other hearing conservation stakeholders. This presentation will highlight ATL's construction, history, technical capabilities, and current projects and will feature demonstrations of some of the unique educational resource materials that are distributed by the ATL.

  1. Longitudinal acoustic properties of poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Acoustics offers rich possibilities for characterizing and monitoring the biopolymer structures being employed in the field of biomedical engineering. Here we explore the rudimentary acoustic properties of two common biodegradable polymers: poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). A pulse-echo technique is developed to reveal the bulk speed of sound, acoustic impedance and acoustic attenuation of small samples of the polymer across a pertinent temperature range of 0-70 0C. The glass transition appears markedly as both a discontinuity in the first derivative of the speed of sound and a sharp increase in the acoustic attenuation. We further extend our analysis to consider the role of ethanol, whose presence is observed to dramatically modify the acoustic properties and reduce the glass transition temperature of the polymers. Our results highlight the sensitivity of acoustic properties to a range of bulk properties, including visco-elasticity, molecular weight, co-polymer ratio, crystallinity and the presence of plasticizers.

  2. Acoustic metasurface with hybrid resonances.

    Ma, Guancong; Yang, Min; Xiao, Songwen; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2014-09-01

    An impedance-matched surface has the property that an incident wave generates no reflection. Here we demonstrate that by using a simple construction, an acoustically reflecting surface can acquire hybrid resonances and becomes impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies, such that no reflection is generated. Each resonant cell of the metasurface is deep-subwavelength in all its spatial dimensions, with its thickness less than the peak absorption wavelength by two orders of magnitude. As there can be no transmission, the impedance-matched acoustic wave is hence either completely absorbed at one or multiple frequencies, or converted into other form(s) of energy, such as an electrical current. A high acoustic-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 23% is achieved. PMID:24880731

  3. Prototype acoustic resonance spectroscopy monitor

    This report reports on work performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Program Office for Technical Assistance (POTAS). In this work, we investigate possible applications of nondestructive acoustics measurements to facilitate IAEA safeguards at bulk processing facilities. Two different acoustic techniques for verifying the internal structure of a processing tank were investigated. During this effort we also examined two acoustic techniques for assessing the fill level within a processing tank. The fill-level measurements could be made highly portable and have an added safeguards advantage that they can also detect stratification of fill material. This later application may be particularly useful in confirming the absence of stratification in plutonium processing tanks before accountability samples are withdrawn

  4. Acoustic Communication for Medical Nanorobots

    Hogg, Tad

    2012-01-01

    Communication among microscopic robots (nanorobots) can coordinate their activities for biomedical tasks. The feasibility of in vivo ultrasonic communication is evaluated for micron-size robots broadcasting into various types of tissues. Frequencies between 10MHz and 300MHz give the best tradeoff between efficient acoustic generation and attenuation for communication over distances of about 100 microns. Based on these results, we find power available from ambient oxygen and glucose in the bloodstream can readily support communication rates up to 10,000 bits/second between micron-sized robots. We discuss techniques, such as directional acoustic beams, that can increase this rate. The acoustic pressure fields enabling this communication are unlikely to damage nearby tissue, and short bursts at considerably higher power could be of therapeutic use.

  5. Acoustics of a broadcast center

    Beristain, Sergio

    2003-04-01

    A broadcast system in Mexico City had to change facilities in order to concentrate in a single site all related broadcast stations and production studios in order to facilitate its normal operation. This led to a design which included the acoustic noise isolation and the interior acoustics of every studio and control room, together with the audio interconection, the electricity layout, the air conditioning system, the office building, etc. This paper presents the acoustics profile of the center, including final results of the construction as they were measured on completion of the installation. The complex has seven AM and FM broadcast stations, plus seven production studios for news, commercials and radio-novels plus an audio master control room, and everything was completed within four months.

  6. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies

    Smaldino, Joseph J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  7. Acoustic metamaterials for sound mitigation

    Assouar, Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    We provide theoretical and numerical analyses of the behavior of a plate-type acoustic metamaterial considered in an air-borne sound environment in view of sound mitigation application. Two configurations of plate are studied, a spring-mass one and a pillar system-based one. The acoustic performances of the considered systems are investigated with different approaches and show that a high sound transmission loss (STL) up to 82 dB is reached with a metamaterial plate with a thickness of 0.5 mm. The physical understanding of the acoustic behavior of the metamaterial partition is discussed based on both air-borne and structure-borne approaches. Confrontation between the STL, the band structure, the displacement fields and the effective mass density of the plate metamaterial is made to have a complete physical understanding of the different mechanisms involved. xml:lang="fr"

  8. Phoneme Recognition Using Acoustic Events

    Huebener, K; Huebener, Kai; Carson-Berndsen, Julie

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to phoneme recognition using nonsequential sub--phoneme units. These units are called acoustic events and are phonologically meaningful as well as recognizable from speech signals. Acoustic events form a phonologically incomplete representation as compared to distinctive features. This problem may partly be overcome by incorporating phonological constraints. Currently, 24 binary events describing manner and place of articulation, vowel quality and voicing are used to recognize all German phonemes. Phoneme recognition in this paradigm consists of two steps: After the acoustic events have been determined from the speech signal, a phonological parser is used to generate syllable and phoneme hypotheses from the event lattice. Results obtained on a speaker--dependent corpus are presented.

  9. Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis On this page: ... more information about vestibular schwannomas? What is a vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma)? Inner ear with vestibular schwannoma ( ...

  10. On the Synchronization of Acoustic Gravity Waves

    Lonngren, Karl E.; Bai, Er-Wei

    Using the model proposed by Stenflo, we demonstrate that acoustic gravity waves found in one region of space can be synchronized with acoustic gravity waves found in another region of space using techniques from modern control theory.

  11. Acoustojet: acoustic analogue of photonic jet phenomenon

    Minin, Igor V

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated for the first time that an existence of acoustic analogue of photonic jet phenomenon, called acoustojet, providing for subwavelength localization of acoustic field in the shadow area of arbitrary 3D penetrable mesoscale particle, is possible.

  12. Golden Gate and Pt. Reyes Acoustic Detections

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detections of acoustic tagged fish from two general locations: Golden Gate (east and west line) and Pt. Reyes. Several Vemco 69khz acoustic...

  13. Acoustic remote sensing of ocean flows

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.

    Acoustic techniques have become powerful tools for measurement of ocean circulation mainly because of the ability of acoustic signals to travel long distances in water, and the inherently non-invasive nature of measurement. The satellite remote...

  14. Engineer Ethics

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  15. Engineer Ethics

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  16. CT findings of acoustic neuroma

    Sim, Do Choul; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Computed Tomography (CT) is very accurate in evaluating the location, size, shape and extension of acoustic neuroma. We analysed CT findings of 23 acoustic neuromas seen at Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College during the period of from January 1981 to June 1987. 1. Five (22%) were men and 18 (78%) were women with the high incidence occurring in the 4th and 5th decades. 2. Twenty two cases were diagnosed satisfactorily by CT examinations which included axial, coronal and reconstruction images. One with the smallest dimension of 8 mm in diameter could not be detected by the conventional CT scan. But is could be seen after metrizamide cisternography. mean size of the tumor masses was estimated 3.6 cm in diameter. 3. The shape of the tumor was oval in 50%, round in 27% and lobulated in 23%. The masses were presented as hypodense in 50%, isodense in 32% and hyperdense in 18%. All tumors were extended from the internal acoustic and toward the cerebellopontine angle. The internal acoustic canal was widened in 77%. Hydrocephalus was associated in 45%. Widening of cerebellopontine angle cistern was noted in 50%. 4. After contrast infusion the tumors were enhanced markedly in 45%, moderately in 32% and mildly in 23%. The enhanced pattern was homogeneous in 41%, mixed in 41% and rim in 18%. The margin of the tumors was sharply defined in 82%. The tumors were attached to the petrous bone with acute angle in 73%. Cystic change within the tumor was found in 27%. The peritumoral edema was noted in 45%. In conclusion, CT is of most effective modalities to evaluate size, shape, extent and internal architecture of acoustic neuroma as well as relationship with adjacent anatomic structures including the internal acoustic canal.

  17. Acoustically-Induced Electrical Signals

    Brown, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have observed electrical signals excited by and moving along with an acoustic pulse propagating in a sandstone sample. Using resonance we are now studying the characteristics of this acousto-electric signal and determining its origin and the controlling physical parameters. Four rock samples with a range of porosities, permeabilities, and mineralogies were chosen: Berea, Boise, and Colton sandstones and Austin Chalk. Pore water salinity was varied from deionized water to sea water. Ag-AgCl electrodes were attached to the sample and were interfaced to a 4-wire electrical resistivity system. Under computer control, the acoustic signals were excited and the electrical response was recorded. We see strong acoustically-induced electrical signals in all samples, with the magnitude of the effect for each rock getting stronger as we move from the 1st to the 3rd harmonics in resonance. Given a particular fluid salinity, each rock has its own distinct sensitivity in the induced electrical effect. For example at the 2nd harmonic, Berea Sandstone produces the largest electrical signal per acoustic power input even though Austin Chalk and Boise Sandstone tend to resonate with much larger amplitudes at the same harmonic. Two effects are potentially responsible for this acoustically-induced electrical response: one the co-seismic seismo-electric effect and the other a strain-induced resistivity change known as the acousto-electric effect. We have designed experimental tests to separate these mechanisms. The tests show that the seismo-electric effect is dominant in our studies. We note that these experiments are in a fluid viscosity dominated seismo-electric regime, leading to a simple interpretation of the signals where the electric potential developed is proportional to the local acceleration of the rock. Toward a test of this theory we have measured the local time-varying acoustic strain in our samples using a laser vibrometer.

  18. Acoustic control study of turbofan nozzles with triangular chevrons

    Grigore CICAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has a small part dealing with the notion of chevron and the process that helps reducing the noise pollution. Based on the gas dynamics and the geometrical parameters of the turbofan jet engine a model of CFD data processing is created. In this process the influence of chevrons on acoustic wave intensity produced by the jet is observed by analyzing this process. A series of tests have been made on 10 si 20 lobed chevrons. The combination between them and the 7 resulting cases have been studied, namely the triangular chevrons in order to settle the influence of the geometrical parameters on the flow and on the jet acoustics. Finally the contribution of the chevrons in noise pollution reduction has been highlighted.

  19. Reflection and Transmission of Acoustic Waves at Semiconductor - Liquid Interface

    J. N. Sharma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace underlying an inviscid liquid has been carried out. The reflection and transmission coefficients of reflected and transmitted waves have been obtained for quasi-longitudinal (qP wave incident at the interface from fluid to semiconductor. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients have been carried out with the help of Gauss elimination method by using MATLAB programming for silicon (Si, germanium (Ge and silicon nitride (Si3N4 semiconductors. In order to interpret and compare, the computer simulated results are plotted graphically. The study may be useful in semiconductors, seismology and surface acoustic wave (SAW devices in addition to engines of the space shuttles.

  20. Acoustic characterization of rehabilitated cloisters

    A. P. O. Carvalho; S. R. C. Vilela

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of field measurements in eight rehabilitated cloisters of old monasteries in Portugal (length: 20 to 35 m and height: 3.3 to 6.3 m) regarding their acoustic behavior to two objective parameters: RT and RASTI. The goal is to characterize the acoustic effect of the rehabilitation done on theses spaces to adapt them to new uses. All these cloisters had recently their galleries#8217; openings to the central yard closed with glass panels. Simple formulas were obtain...

  1. Acoustic concerns related to multi cultural societies

    Gade, Anders Christian

    2001-01-01

    Immigration has increased cultural diversity in western societies. The process of integrating immigrants into their host countries can be smoothed if acousticians learn to recognize (1) the acoustic traditions of immigrant cultures and (2) the specific acoustic needs of the new society members. Two related projects are discussed. The ``Cahrisma'' project (Conservation of Acoustical Heritage by the Revival and Identification of the Sinan's Mosque Acoustics) is sponsored by the European Commiss...

  2. Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....

  3. Calculating room acoustic parameters from pseudo-impulsive acoustic sources

    San Martin, Maria L.; Vela, Antonio; San Martin, Ricardo; Arana, Miguel A.

    2002-11-01

    The impulse response function provides complete information to predict the acoustic response of a room to an acoustic input of arbitrary characteristics. At this job study, small explosions of firecrackers are proposed to be used as pseudo-impulsive acoustics sources to determine some acoustic parameters of a room such as reverberation time, definition, and clarity, comparing these results to those obtained with other techniques. A previous characterization of these sources allows us to state that they can be used for this purpose because they are, in practice, omnidirectional, their temporary pattern is highly repetitive and their spectral power is, as well, repetitive and with enough power in octave bands from 125 Hz to 8 kHz. If the linear time-invariant system impulse response h(t) is known, output signal s(t) regarding any arbitrary signal s(t) can be obtained. For our pseudo-impulsive sources, the output signal s(t) has been taken as impulse response h(t). Using the integrated impulse response method suggested by Schroeder, it has been stated that both the mean values and standard deviations for some parameters are practically identical to results obtained with other usual techniques. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  4. The Helmholtz equation least squares method for reconstructing and predicting acoustic radiation

    Wu, Sean F

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive introduction to the Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) method and its use in diagnosing noise and vibration problems. In contrast to the traditional NAH technologies, the HELS method does not seek an exact solution to the acoustic field produced by an arbitrarily shaped structure. Rather, it attempts to obtain the best approximation of an acoustic field through the expansion of certain basis functions. Therefore, it significantly simplifies the complexities of the reconstruction process, yet still enables one to acquire an understanding of the root causes of different noise and vibration problems that involve arbitrarily shaped surfaces in non-free space using far fewer measurement points than either Fourier acoustics or BEM based NAH. The examples given in this book illustrate that the HELS method may potentially become a practical and versatile tool for engineers to tackle a variety of complex noise and vibration issues in engineering applications.

  5. Acoustic Test Characterization of Melamine Foam for Usage in NASA's Payload Fairing Acoustic Attenuation Systems

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The external acoustic liftoff levels predicted for NASA's future heavy lift launch vehicles are expected to be significantly higher than the environment created by today's commercial launch vehicles. This creates a need to develop an improved acoustic attenuation system for future NASA payload fairings. NASA Glenn Research Center initiated an acoustic test series to characterize the acoustic performance of melamine foam, with and without various acoustic enhancements. This testing was denoted as NEMFAT, which stands for NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test, and is the subject of this paper. Both absorption and transmission loss testing of numerous foam configurations were performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratory in July 2013. The NEMFAT test data provides an initial acoustic characterization and database of melamine foam for NASA. Because of its acoustic performance and lighter mass relative to fiberglass blankets, melamine foam is being strongly considered for use in the acoustic attenuation systems of NASA's future launch vehicles.

  6. Using Simulation to Analyze Acoustic Environments

    Wood, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    including push-to-talk buttons and volume control. With this project, an existing design was modified based on prior feedback that had been received. With the modified design, I created a 3D printed prototype, shown in Figure 4, which was then used in suited evaluations performed by crew members. The feedback received from those evaluations will be utilized to help create the best possible Orion AIU. As a whole, a number of different interesting engineering projects were worked on over the course of this semester. For many of these projects, acoustic simulations provided valuable insight into how different environments would respond to sound. While work is still underway to verify the results of these simulations, the results are fascinating because of the interesting ways that sound waves interact with the environment. Going forward, it will be interesting to see how closely these results can be matched by real-world test data.

  7. Acoustically swept rotor. [helicopter noise reduction

    Schmitz, F. H.; Boxwell, D. A.; Vause, R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Impulsive noise reduction is provided in a rotor blade by acoustically sweeping the chord line from root to tip so that the acoustic radiation resulting from the summation of potential singularities used to model the flow about the blade tend to cancel for all times at an observation point in the acoustic far field.

  8. Predicting and auralizing acoustics in classrooms

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    2005-01-01

    Although classrooms have fairly simple geometries, this type of room is known to cause problems when trying to predict their acoustics using room acoustics computer modeling. Some typical features from a room acoustics point of view are: Parallel walls, low ceilings (the rooms are flat), uneven...

  9. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...

  10. Design of acoustic devices by topology optimization

    Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    The goal of this study is to design and optimize structures and devices that are subjected to acoustic waves. Examples are acoustic lenses, sound walls, waveguides and loud speakers. We formulate the design problem as a topology optimization problem, i.e. distribute material in a design domain such...... that the acoustic response is optimized....

  11. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  12. Four Engineers...

    2000-01-01

    There are four engineers traveling in a car;a mechanical engineer,a chemical engi-neer,an electrical engineer and a comput-er engineer.The car breaks down.“Sounds to me as if the pistons have seized.We ll have to strip down the engine before we canget the car working again,”says the mechanical

  13. Optical measurement of acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation through transparent object

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Sasao, Yasuhiro; Katsura, Kogure; Naoki, Kondo

    2013-01-01

    It is known that macroscopic objects can be levitated for few to several hundred micrometers by near-field acoustic field and this phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). Although there are various experiments conducted to measure integrated acoustic pressure on the object surface, up to now there was no direct method to measure pressure distribution. In this study we measured the acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation via pressure-sensitive paint.

  14. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  15. EDP-assisted system solutions in machine monitoring and quality assurance based on acoustic signals

    In many fields of engineering and technology, experienced staff are able to assess the condition of machines, plants and production processes by changes in both noise and vibrations ('old hand's touch'). Similar to these subjective methods based on mental expertise, complete EDP-assisted system solutions are needed to implement reliable and objective monitoring based on acoustic signals. The author describes such a system including its mature hardware components, problem-oriented software and engineering people ware. (orig./DG)

  16. Numerical prediction of combustion induced vibro-acoustical instabilities in a gas turbine combustor

    Pozarlik, Artur; Kok, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of lean premixed combustion to gas turbine technology reduced the emission of harmful exhaust gas species, but due to the high sensitivity of lean flames to acoustic perturbations, the average life time of gas turbine engines was decreased significantly. Very dangerous to the integrity

  17. Experimental investigation of air pressure and acoustic characteristics of human voice. Part 1: Measurement in vivo

    Horáček, Jaromír; Radolf, Vojtěch; Bula, Vítězslav; Veselý, Jan; Laukkanen, A. M.

    Prague : ITAM AS CR, v. v. i., 2012 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.). s. 104-105 ISBN 978-80-86246-39-0. [Engineering Mechanics 2012 /18./. 14.05.2012-17.05.2012, Svratka] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biomechanics of voice * measurement of oral pressure * voice exercises * phonation into tubes Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  18. Nonlinear acoustic-gravity waves

    Stenflo, Lennart; Shukla, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Previous results on nonlinear acoustic-gravity waves are reconsidered. It turns out that the mathematical techniques used are somewhat similar to those already adopted by the plasma physics community. Consequently, a future interaction between physicists On different fields, e.g in meteorology and plasma physics, can be very fruitful.

  19. Acoustics in the Martian Atmosphere

    Williams, J.-P.

    2000-10-01

    With the advent of the first attempt to deliver an acoustic microphone to the Martian surface aboard the failed Mars Polar Lander, there has been growing interests in the development of acoustic sensors to compliment scientific payloads on future spacecraft. Terrestrial scientist have been very successful in using infrasound (sound at frequencies below human detection, detect and monitor atmospheric phenomena related to weather, tornadoes, mountain waves, microbaroms, ionospheric and auroral disturbances, and meteror/fireballs, as well as anthropogenic sources such as aircraft and nuclear explosions. Sounds on Mars at the audible frequencies (20 Hz to 20 kHz) will be severely attenuated due to viscous relaxation and thermal diffusion (collectively referred to as classical attenuation) which will be much more severe in the colder, less dense Martian atmosphere. Molecular relaxation of carbon dioxide will also contribute to the sound absorption in the lower audible frequencies. Since classical attenuation increases as a function of the frequency squared, at low infrasonic frequencies ( < 10 Hz), classical attenuation becomes less significant and sound absorption in the Martian atmosphere becomes more similar to that of the terrestrial atmosphere for the same frequencies. At these longer wavelengths, geometric spreading will dominate as the source of attenuation as the acoustic energy is spread out over an ever increasing spherical wave front. This implies that infrasound (10 to 0.01 Hz) will be a useful frequency range for future acoustic sensors developed for scientific payloads delivered to the Martian surface.

  20. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-02-20

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  1. Digitization of acoustic sounder data

    A method of archiving acoustic sounder data in a format compatible with a computer is used development. The collected data will be used to compile a climatology of the atmospheric surface boundary layer to predict the transport and diffusion of atmospheric pollutants

  2. SES and Acoustics at GSFC

    Hogue, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents air and surface cleanliness characterization of the acoustics test facility and large (SES) thermal vacuum chamber at Goddard Space flight Center in Greenbelt, MD during the New Horizons Pluto probe program. It is shown that slow back-fill of the SES chamber is necessary to prevent excessive particle redistribution.

  3. Topology optimization for acoustic problems

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    In this paper a method to control acoustic properties in a room with topology optimization is presented. It is shown how the squared sound pressure amplitude in a certain part of a room can be minimized by distribution of material in a design domain along the ceiling in 2D and 3D. Nice 0-1 designs...

  4. Acoustic optic hybrid (AOH) sensor

    Matthews; Arrieta

    2000-09-01

    The ability of laser vibrometers to receive and process acoustic echoes from the water surface above a submerged target is established and evaluated. Sonar echoes from a submerged target are collected from the water surface by a laser vibrometer. Feasibility of this approach to sensing underwater sound is demonstrated. If the acoustic excitation at an otherwise undisturbed water surface is 195 to 168 dB re: 1 microPa, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), at the vibrometer output, is shown to range from about 46 to 6 dB. Capillary waves and gravity waves at the water surface are expected and shown to have some destructive effect on the process of echo retrieval. A series of experiments to quantify the surface wave effects is described. The wave experiment results are reported. A successful attempt to acquire echoes from a submerged target over a grid of points for further processing into a three-dimensional image is made and described. The data acquisition and beamforming techniques constitute a three-dimensional, acoustic optic, synthetic aperture sonar (SAS). Beamformed images are included. For an aircraft towing acoustic sensors through the water with a mechanical link, this technique holds the promise of increased safety and improved fuel efficiency. PMID:11008811

  5. Acoustics SIMOPS: managing the unnecessary

    Hanton, Samuel John [Nautronix Marine Technology Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Time is money, and offshore operations are expensive. The desire therefore, is to increase efficiency through the condensing of schedules. This inevitably leads to SIMOPS of some degree, and this paper discusses SIMOPS along with, more specifically, the challenges they provide to acoustic positioning. (author)

  6. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  7. Engineering Special

    Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Smart phones, supersonic planes, Formula 1 cars, green cities, the Internet; engineers built them all. Engineers are everywhere. The world needs them and so do you. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/engineering-special-feature-editorial/

  8. Aerosol behaviour in an acoustic field

    The average size of an aerosol submitted to acoustic waves is increased. This results from coagulation of the finest particles on the largest ones. The mechanisms responsible for acoustic agglomeration are mentioned. An experimental apparatus was developed in order to control the evolution of aerosol distribution in an acoustic field. Important deposition on the walls of the agglomeration chamber was observed as a consequence of the acoustically induced turbulent flow. Finally, a dimensionless relationship was established between deposition rates and particle diameters as a function of experimental parameters (aeraulic and acoustic conditions, etc...)

  9. Determining Equilibrium Position For Acoustical Levitation

    Barmatz, M. B.; Aveni, G.; Putterman, S.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium position and orientation of acoustically-levitated weightless object determined by calibration technique on Earth. From calibration data, possible to calculate equilibrium position and orientation in presence of Earth gravitation. Sample not levitated acoustically during calibration. Technique relies on Boltzmann-Ehrenfest adiabatic-invariance principle. One converts resonant-frequency-shift data into data on normalized acoustical potential energy. Minimum of energy occurs at equilibrium point. From gradients of acoustical potential energy, one calculates acoustical restoring force or torque on objects as function of deviation from equilibrium position or orientation.

  10. Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics

    Havelock, David; Vorländer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics presents signal processing as it is practiced in the field of acoustics. The Handbook is organized by areas of acoustics, with recognized leaders coordinating the self-contained chapters of each section. It brings together a wide range of perspectives from over 100 authors to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Success in acoustic applications often requires juggling both the acoustic and the signal processing parameters of the problem. This handbook brings the key issues from both into perspective and is complementary to other reference material on the two subjects. It is a unique resource for experts and practitioners alike to find new ideas and techniques within the diversity of signal processing in acoustics.

  11. Engineering and Software Engineering

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  12. A thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine

    Backhaus, S.; Swift, G. W.

    1999-05-01

    Electrical and mechanical power, together with other forms of useful work, are generated worldwide at a rate of about 1012 watts, mostly using heat engines. The efficiency of such engines is limited by the laws of thermodynamics and by practical considerations such as the cost of building and operating them. Engines with high efficiency help to conserve fossil fuels and other natural resources, reducing global-warming emissions and pollutants. In practice, the highest efficiencies are obtained only in the most expensive, sophisticated engines, such as the turbines in central utility electrical plants. Here we demonstrate an inexpensive thermoacoustic engine that employs the inherently efficient Stirling cycle. The design is based on a simple acoustic apparatus with no moving parts. Our first small laboratory prototype, constructed using inexpensive hardware (steel pipes), achieves an efficiency of 0.30, which exceeds the values of 0.10-0.25 attained in other heat engines, with no moving parts. Moreover, the efficiency of our prototype is comparable to that of the common internal combustion engine (0.25-0.40) and piston-driven Stirling engines, (0.20-0.38).

  13. METHODS OF IMPROVEMENT OF ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCES OF TURBOFAN ENGINE

    Peleshok, I.; National Aviation University, Kyiv

    2012-01-01

     Nowadays the problem of decreasing of noise of environment is a global problem. The solution of this problem depends on different countries and the culture, economics and policy of it. Nowadays there is no single system of checking of sequences of acting of noise on environment on population and cost of damages. 

  14. Engineering ceramics

    Bengisu, Murat

    2001-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  15. Free jet feasibility study of a thermal acoustic shield concept for AST/VCE application-dual flow. Comprehensive data report. Volume 1: Test nozzles and acoustic data

    Janardan, B. A.; Brausch, J. F.; Price, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic and diagnostic data that were obtained to determine the influence of selected geometric and aerodynamic flow variables of coannular nozzles with thermal acoustic shields are summarized in this comprehensive data report. A total of 136 static and simulated flight acoustic test points were conducted with 9 scale-model nozzles The tested nozzles included baseline (unshielded), 180 deg shielded, and 360 deg shielded dual flow coannular plug configurations. The baseline configurations include a high radius ratio unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle and a coanuular plug nozzle and a coannular plug nozzle with a 20-chute outer stream suppressor. The tests were conducted at nozzle temperatures and pressure typical of operating conditions of variable cycle engine.

  16. USE OF SCALE MODELING FOR ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS

    ERÖZ, Ferhat

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic science and hearing has become important. Acoustic design used in tests of acoustic devices is crucial. Sound propagation is a complex subject, especially inside enclosed spaces. From the 19th century on, the acoustic measurements and tests were carried out using modeling techniques that are based on room acoustic measurement parameters.In this study, the effects of architectural acoustic design of modeling techniques and acoustic parameters were studied. In this con...

  17. Limitations of the acoustic approximation for seismic crosshole tomography

    Marelli, Stefano; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2010-05-01

    implemented by setting the shear wave velocity to almost zero (Vs ~ 0). This approach was checked against a purely acoustic 2D pseudo-spectral time-domain modelling code and found to yield very similar results. In a variety of numerical 2D and 3D experiments, we propagated both acoustic only and full elastic waves through models of increasing complexity. We first investigated three basic simple-shaped anomalies embedded in a homogeneous background, including i) a vertical layer ii) a horizontal layer and iii) two-rectangular blocks. Maximum velocity contrast in these models is about 50% We then tested a more complex model representing a realistic-scale, engineered-nuclear waste repository-like structure, embedded in a granite host rock. Velocity contrasts were chosen to be much higher in this model. Our results indicate that for the simplest models (horizontal and vertical layers) the acoustic approximation is reasonable for the early portions of the seismograms, but for even only moderately complex subsurface models involving several interfaces (e.g. the two block anomalies), the acoustic approximation breaks down and fails to account for the synthesised wavefields. We attribute this failure to the presence of significant P-to-S mode conversions at each interface. Comparable observations were found for both the 2D and the 3D simulations. The main advantage of seismic waveform inversion is that subtle changes in amplitude and phase of the waveforms can be exploited for constructing subsurface models at sub-wavelength resolution. The significant deficiencies of the acoustic approximation for crosshole problems, even in the presence of relatively minor anomalies, therefore strongly question the usefulness of acoustic waveform transmission tomography. Consequently, efforts have to be made to implement the computationally much more challenging elastic waveform inversion scheme.

  18. Acoustic Streaming, The “Small Invention” of Cianobacteria?

    Koiller, Jair; Ehlers, Kurt M.; Chalub, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Micro-engineering pumping devices without mechanical parts appeared “way back” in the early 1990’s. The working principle is acoustic streaming. Has Nature “rediscovered” this invention 2.7 Gyr ago? Strands of marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus swim 25 diameters per second without any visible means of propulsion. We show that nanoscale amplitude vibrations on the S-layer (a crystalline shell outside the outer membrane present in motile strands) and frequencies of the order of 0.5-1.5 MHz (ach...

  19. APPLICATION OF DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION IN ACOUSTIC AND STRUCTURAL ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS

    2007-01-01

    Conventional element based methods for modeling acoustic problems are limited to low-frequency applications due to the huge computational efforts. For high-frequency applications, probabilistic techniques, such as statistical energy analysis (SEA), are used. For mid-frequency range, currently no adequate and mature simulation methods exist. Recently, wave based method has been developed which is based on the indirect TREFFTZ approach and has shown to be able to tackle problems in the mid-frequency range. In contrast with the element based methods, no discretization is required. A sufficient, but not necessary, condition for convergence of this method is that the acoustic problem domain is convex. Non-convex domains have to be partitioned into a number of (convex) subdomains. At the interfaces between subdomains, specific coupling conditions have to be imposed. The considered two-dimensional coupled vibro-acoustic problem illustrates the beneficial convergence rate of the proposed wave based prediction technique with high accuracy. The results show the new technique can be applied up to much higher frequencies.

  20. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  1. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    N. I. Polzikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator (HBAR formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  2. Phonon Bandgap Engineering of Strained Monolayer MoS2

    Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2014-01-01

    The phonon band structure of monolayer MoS2 is characteristic for a large energy gap between acoustic and optical branches, which protects the vibration of acoustic modes from being scattered by optical phonon modes. Therefore, the phonon bandgap engineering is of practical significance for the manipulation of phonon-related mechanical or thermal properties in monolayer MoS2. We perform both phonon analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the tension effect on the phonon ban...

  3. Design of materials for noise reduction in aircraft engines

    Paun, F.; Gasser, St. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. of Metallic Materials and Processing, 92 - Chatillon (France); Leylekian, L. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. of Composite Systems and Materials, 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2003-01-01

    We would like to present in this paper, research that ONERA teams are making in the field of acoustic absorption materials at high temperatures. Some significant results are shown as well as some important findings for future investigation. Research performed in understanding the acoustic and mechanical behaviour of different classes of porous materials and developed processing methods will be described. Our interest was to demonstrate the feasibility of reducing noise produced by aeronautical turbo engines by means of appropriate passive acoustic treatments applied directly to the exhausters. (authors)

  4. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    arrays intersect would comprise an ice cap monitoring system. The third subsystem is the energy and telemetry required to run the systems. The geophones are low energy compared to the combustive sound source and might be supplied by batteries and a solar panel (at least for half the year). The combustive sound source needs a large continuously energy supply. Two energy harvesting ideas, which need further investigation, are a wind turbine, and a Stirling engine that runs off the temperature difference between the ocean and the atmosphere. Analysis It is expected that the recording of the acoustics energy, as it travels through the ice and is detected by the geophones, will provide estimates of ice anisotropy and coherence. These give estimates of the ice roughness and thickness, respectively, and are key parameters for modeling the changes in the ice cap cover in the Artic. Reference: P. S. Wilson, T. G. Muir, J. A. Behrens, and J. L. Elizey, "Applications of the combustive sound source," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 3298(A) (1995).

  5. Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of inertant acoustic metamaterials

    Kulkarni, Prateek P.; Manimala, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of acoustic metamaterials with various inerter configurations are investigated using their representative one-dimensional discrete element lattice models. Inerters are dynamic mass-amplifying mechanical elements that are activated by a difference in acceleration across them. They have a small device mass but can provide a relatively large dynamic mass presence depending on accelerations in systems that employ them. The effect of introducing inerters both in local attachments and in the lattice was examined vis-à-vis the propagation characteristics of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. A simple effective model based on mass, stiffness, or their combined equivalent was used to establish dispersion behavior and quantify attenuation within bandgaps. Depending on inerter configurations in local attachments or in the lattice, both up-shift and down-shift in the bandgap frequency range and their extent are shown to be possible while retaining static mass addition to the host structure to a minimum. Further, frequency-dependent negative and even extreme effective-stiffness regimes are encountered. The feasibility of employing tuned combinations of such mass-delimited inertant configurations to engineer acoustic metamaterials that act as high-pass filters without the use of grounded elements or even as complete longitudinal wave inhibitors is shown. Potential device implications and strategies for practical applications are also discussed.

  6. Acoustic Signal based Traffic Density State Estimation using SVM

    Prashant Borkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information present in cumulative acoustic signal acquired from a roadside-installed single microphone, this paper considers the problem of vehicular traffic density state estimation. The occurrence and mixture weightings of traffic noise signals (Tyre, Engine, Air Turbulence, Exhaust, and Honks etc are determined by the prevalent traffic density conditions on the road segment. In this work, we extract the short-term spectral envelope features of the cumulative acoustic signals using MFCC (Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients. Support Vector Machines (SVM is used as classifier is used to model the traffic density state as Low (40 Km/h and above, Medium (20-40 Km/h, and Heavy (0-20 Km/h. For the developing geographies where the traffic is non-lane driven and chaotic, other techniques (magnetic loop detectors are inapplicable. SVM classifier with different kernels are used to classify the acoustic signal segments spanning duration of 20–40 s, which results in average classification accuracy of 96.67% for Quadratic kernel function and 98.33% for polynomial kernel function, when entire frames are considered for classification.

  7. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  8. Cooperative OFDM underwater acoustic communications

    Cheng, Xilin; Cheng, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical enginee...

  9. Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector (SHAD)

    Arlowe, H. D.

    1982-05-01

    The Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector was developed to provide a low cost alternative to radar for countering the helicopter threat at new DOE facilities. The main buildings of these new designs are generally hardened to provide significant delay to a helicopter borne adversary team. Under these circumstances the sensor is only required to detect helicopters that are in their final landing phase and at close range (less than 75 m). This short detection range allows the use of a fairly simple acoustic detection algorithm without making the system overly sensitive to wind noise, motor vehicles, and ventilation/heat exchange blowers. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program.

  10. Neural Engineering

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  11. Mechanical engineering

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  12. NASA GSFC Mechanical Engineering Latest Inputs for Verification Standards (GEVS) Updates

    Kaufman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on quality control standards in mechanical engineering. The presentation addresses safety, structural loads, nonmetallic composite structural elements, bonded structural joints, externally induced shock, random vibration, acoustic tests, and mechanical function.

  13. Evaluation of thermal efficiency and energy conversion of thermoacoustic Stirling engines

    Thermodynamic cycle transferring heat and work was executed in thermoacoustic engines, when the acoustic resonators substituted the moving mechanical components of the traditional heat engines. Based on the traveling-wave phasing and reversible heat transfer, thermoacoustic Stirling engines could achieve 70% of the Carnot efficiency theoretically, if the inevitable viscous dissipation in resonators was also counted as exported power. It should be pointed out an error on this efficiency evaluation in the previous literatures. More than 70% of the acoustic power production was often consumed by the side-branch resonator that was the essential configuration to build up a thermoacoustic Stirling engine. According to the simulation results and some experimental data, the actual available acoustic power consumed by the acoustic loads was restricted by the operating peak-to-mean pressure ratio, i.e. |p1/pm|. When the peak-to-mean pressure ratio operated on 4-6.5%, the thermal efficiency and power density of the available acoustic power reached higher levels. But the available acoustic power would approach zero when |p1/pm| attained 10%. It was approved that the turbulence oscillation occurred on the higher |p1/pm| (usually >4%) was the main reason of the excess dissipation in the side-branch resonator. This character of the available power limited the wide application of thermoacoustic Stirling engines. The evaluation of thermal efficiency and energy conversion also indicated the improving direction of thermoacoustic Stirling engines. Generators driven by the thermoacoustic Stirling engines were an effective way, due to the elimination of the side-branch resonator. To achieve a high power density and a high pressure ratio on the higher available power efficiency level, the standing-wave thermoacoustic engines might outvie the traveling-wave thermoacoustic engines. To enjoy the best features of standing-wave engines and traveling-wave engines simultaneously, exploiting

  14. : FMRI in acoustic trauma sequelae

    Job, Agnès; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    International audience The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory "oddball" attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related...

  15. Virtual Reality for Architectural Acoustics

    Vorländer, Michael; Schröder, Dirk; PELZER, Sönke; Wefers, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, powerful prediction models have been developed in architectural acoustics, which are used for the calculation of sound propagation in indoor and/or outdoor scenarios. Sound insulation is predicted rather precisely by using direct and flanking transmission models of sound and vibration propagation. These prediction tools are already in use in architectural design and consulting. For the extension towards virtual reality (VR) systems, it is required to accelerate the pred...

  16. Acoustic streaming in superfluid helium

    Quantitative measurements of acoustic streaming velocity in liquid helium as a function of sound intensity (up to the cavitation threshold), frequency (1, 3, and 10 MHz), and temperature (1.43 K< or =T< or =2.19 K) are reported. A transition to superfluid turbulence, several flow regions and flow fluctuations are observed. Comparison with the predictions of the second-order Khalatnikov two- fluid hydrodynamic equations indicates good functional and quantitative agreement

  17. Tunable acoustic double negativity metamaterial

    Z. Liang; Willatzen, M.; Li, J.; Christensen, J

    2012-01-01

    Man-made composite materials called “metamaterials” allow for the creation of unusual wave propagation behavior. Acoustic and elastic metamaterials in particular, can pave the way for the full control of sound in realizing cloaks of invisibility, perfect lenses and much more. In this work we design acousto-elastic surface modes that are similar to surface plasmons in metals and on highly conducting surfaces perforated by holes. We combine a structure hosting these modes together with a gap ma...

  18. Acoustic radiation stress in solids

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the radiation-induced static strains associated with acoustic waves propagating in solids are obtained directly from the virial theorem for an elastic continuum and that the radiation stresses result from combining the virial theorem with the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle of adiabatic invariance. The experimental confirmation of critical theoretical predictions in solids is reported. The implications of the results for the fundamental thermal properties of crystals are addressed.

  19. Software defined acoustic underwater modem

    Lindgren, Jakob

    2011-01-01

      Today many types of communication are employed on seagoing vessels, such as radio, satellite and Wi-Fi but only one type of communication is practical for submerged vessels, the acoustic underwater modem. The "off-the-shelf" modems are sometimes difficult to update and replace, especially on a large submarine. But by separating the hardware from the signal processing and making the software modular more versatility can be achieved.   The questions that this thesis are asking are: is it poss...

  20. Acoustical coupling of lizard eardrums.

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Manley, Geoffrey A

    2008-12-01

    Lizard ears are clear examples of two-input pressure-difference receivers, with up to 40-dB differences in eardrum vibration amplitude in response to ipsi- and contralateral stimulus directions. The directionality is created by acoustical coupling of the eardrums and interaction of the direct and indirect sound components on the eardrum. The ensuing pressure-difference characteristics generate the highest directionality of any similar-sized terrestrial vertebrate ear. The aim of the present study was to measure the gain of the direct and indirect sound components in three lizard species: Anolis sagrei and Basiliscus vittatus (iguanids) and Hemidactylus frenatus (gekkonid) by laser vibrometry, using either free-field sound or a headphone and coupler for stimulation. The directivity of the ear of these lizards is pronounced in the frequency range from 2 to 5 kHz. The directivity is ovoidal, asymmetrical across the midline, but largely symmetrical across the interaural axis (i.e., front-back). Occlusion of the contralateral ear abolishes the directionality. We stimulated the two eardrums with a coupler close to the eardrum to measure the gain of the sound pathways. Within the frequency range of maximal directionality, the interaural transmission gain (compared to sound arriving directly) is close to or even exceeds unity, indicating a pronounced acoustical transparency of the lizard head and resonances in the interaural cavities. Our results show that the directionality of the lizard ear is caused by the acoustic interaction of the two eardrums. The results can be largely explained by a simple acoustical model based on an electrical analog circuit. PMID:18648878

  1. Acoustic streaming in pulsating flows through porous media

    When a body immersed in a viscous fluid is subjected to a sound wave (or, equivalently, the body oscillates in the fluid otherwise at rest) a rotational fluid stream develops across a boundary layer nearby the fluid-body interphase. This so-called acoustic streaming phenomenon is responsible for a notable enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer and takes place in any process involving two phases subjected to relative oscillations. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing acoustic streaming in two-phase flows is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as sonoprocessed fluidized bed reactors, thermoacoustic refrigerators/engines, pulsatile flows through veins/arteries, hemodialysis devices, pipes in off-shore platforms, offshore piers, vibrating structures in the power-generating industry, lab-on-a-chip microfluidics and microgravity acoustic levitation, and solar thermal collectors to name a few. The aim of engineering studies on this vast diversity of systems is oriented towards maximizing the efficiency of each particular process. Even though practical problems are usually approached from disparate disciplines without any apparent linkage, the behavior of these systems is influenced by the same underlying physics. In general, acoustic streaming occurs within the interstices of porous media and usually in the presence of externally imposed steady fluid flows, which gives rise to important effects arising from the interference between viscous boundary layers developed around nearby solid surfaces and the nonlinear coupling between the oscillating and steady flows. This paper is mainly devoted to highlighting the fundamental physics behind acoustic streaming in porous media in order to provide a simple instrument to assess the relevance of this phenomenon in each particular application. The exact microscopic Navier-Stokes equations will be numerically solved for a simplified 2D system consisting of a regular array of oscillating

  2. Military jet noise source imaging using multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography.

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; McKinley, Richard L; James, Michael M

    2016-04-01

    The identification of acoustic sources is critical to targeted noise reduction efforts for jets on high-performance tactical aircraft. This paper describes the imaging of acoustic sources from a tactical jet using near-field acoustical holography techniques. The measurement consists of a series of scans over the hologram with a dense microphone array. Partial field decomposition methods are performed to generate coherent holograms. Numerical extrapolation of data beyond the measurement aperture mitigates artifacts near the aperture edges. A multisource equivalent wave model is used that includes the effects of the ground reflection on the measurement. Multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography (M-SONAH) is used to reconstruct apparent source distributions between 20 and 1250 Hz at four engine powers. It is shown that M-SONAH produces accurate field reconstructions for both inward and outward propagation in the region spanned by the physical hologram measurement. Reconstructions across the set of engine powers and frequencies suggests that directivity depends mainly on estimated source location; sources farther downstream radiate at a higher angle relative to the inlet axis. At some frequencies and engine powers, reconstructed fields exhibit multiple radiation lobes originating from overlapped source regions, which is a phenomenon relatively recently reported for full-scale jets. PMID:27106340

  3. A high performance thermoacoustic Stirling-engine

    Tijani, M.E.H.; Spoelstra, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-10

    In thermoacoustic systems heat is converted into acoustic energy and vice versa. These systems use inert gases as working medium and have no moving parts which makes the thermoacoustic technology a serious alternative to produce mechanical or electrical power, cooling power, and heating in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. A thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine is designed and built which achieves a record performance of 49% of the Carnot efficiency. The design and performance of the engine is presented. The engine has no moving parts and is made up of few simple components.

  4. Fast acoustic tweezers for the two-dimensional manipulation of individual particles in microfluidic channels

    Tran, S B Q; Thibault, Pierre; 10.1063/1.4751348

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device that implements standing surface acoustic waves in order to handle single cells, droplets, and generally particles. The particles are moved in a very controlled manner by the two-dimensional drifting of a standing wave array, using a slight frequency modulation of two ultrasound emitters around their resonance. These acoustic tweezers allow any type of motion at velocities up to few 10mm/s, while the device transparency is adapted for optical studies. The possibility of automation provides a critical step in the development of lab-on-a-chip cell sorters and it should find applications in biology, chemistry, and engineering domains.

  5. Acoustic investigation on nozzles with different types of six lobed chevrons

    Grigore CICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a few aspects of the notion of chevron and the process that helps reducing the noise pollution. Based on the gas dynamic and geometrical parameters of a single flow jet engine a model of CFD data processing is made. In this process the influence of chevrons on acoustic wave intensity produced by the jet can be observed. A series of tests on six lobed triangular chevrons are discussed in order to settle the influence of the geometrical parameters on the flow and on the jet acoustics. Finally the paper presents the contribution of chevrons in noise pollution reduction.

  6. Study on acoustic emission characteristics of Beishan granite under triaxial compression conditions

    Beishan granite is the candidate host rock of China's high-level radioactive waste repository. Compression tests with different confining stresses in combination with acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique are used to study the strength and failure mechanism of granite in the depth of Xinchang pluton of Beishan area, Gansu province. The variation characteristics of the acoustic emission parameters during rock failure were investigated. The characteristic stress thresholds associated with crack initiation, crack damage and peak strength envelops at different fracturing stages of rocks were obtained. The presented study has provided preconditions and mechanical parameters for establishing the failure criterion and further stability analysis of underground engineering. (authors)

  7. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    mechanical and acoustic response of the flesh tissue to compression, using a texture analyzer coupled with an acoustic device. The methodology was applied to a 86 different apple cultivars, measured after two months postharvest cold storage and characterised by 16 acoustic and mechanical parameters. The results demonstrate the good performance of our combined acoustic-mechanical strategy in measuring apple crispness as it is perceived by human senses (costa et al, 2011. Hence, present study was about postharvest durability evaluation of this apple in cold storage and effect of methylcellulose coating on durability of this sensitive apple for both intact and damaged ones. Materials and Methods: After obtaining Golab apples, from one of the gardens of Karaj (Alborz province, Iran, 240 of them were selected. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the firmness of apples with two methods: penetration (destructive and acoustic (non destructive. The tests were performed in Agricultural Engineering Research Institute in Karaj. Firmness is one of the fruit characteristics that changes during storage. In present study, this characteristic of the apple fruit was assessed by two mentioned methods. Half of the apples were damaged with identified and controlled impact. In the next stage, another half of apples in both groups (the intact apples and the bruised apples were coated with methylcellulose. Effect storage on apple in four groups, including: Intact and uncoated apples, intact and coated (with methylcellulose apples, bruised and uncoated apples and bruised and coated apples during about ten weeks of cold storage at 2˚C and 85% RH was studied by the acoustic and the penetration tests. Acoustic parameters including: natural frequency, firmness index, elasticity coefficient were measured by recording audio signals resulting from non destructive impacts of a pendulum using a sound analyzer microphone and then the conversion of those parameters were performed from the time domain to the

  8. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Structures

    Corrosion is a substantial problem in numerous structures and in particular corrosion is very serious in reinforced and prestressed concrete and must, in certain applications, be given special consideration because failure may result in loss of life and high financial cost. Furthermore corrosion cannot only be considered a long term problem with many studies reporting failure of bridges and concrete pipes due to corrosion within a short period after they were constructed. The concrete pipes which transport water are examples of structures that have suffered from corrosion; for example, the pipes of The Great Man-Made River Project of Libya. Five pipe failures due to corrosion have occurred since their installation. The main reason for the damage is corrosion of prestressed wires in the pipes due to the attack of chloride ions from the surrounding soil. Detection of the corrosion in initial stages has been very important to avoid other failures and the interruption of water flow. Even though most non-destructive methods which are used in the project are able to detect wire breaks, they cannot detect the presence of corrosion. Hence in areas where no excavation has been completed, areas of serious damage can go undetected. Therefore, the major problem which faces engineers is to find the best way to detect the corrosion and prevent the pipes from deteriorating. This paper reports on the use of the Acoustic Emission (AE) technique to detect the early stages of corrosion prior to deterioration of concrete structures.

  9. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Phase 2

    Clark, L. (Technical Monitor); Parrott, T. (Technical Monitor); Jones, M. (Technical Monitor); Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.; Kwan, H. W.; Beer, B.; Seybert, A. F.; Tathavadekar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to design, build and test miniaturized acoustic treatment panels on scale model fan rigs representative of full scale engines provides not only cost-savings, but also an opportunity to optimize the treatment by allowing multiple tests. To use scale model treatment as a design tool, the impedance of the sub-scale liner must be known with confidence. This study was aimed at developing impedance measurement methods for high frequencies. A normal incidence impedance tube method that extends the upper frequency range to 25,000 Hz. without grazing flow effects was evaluated. The free field method was investigated as a potential high frequency technique. The potential of the two-microphone in-situ impedance measurement method was evaluated in the presence of grazing flow. Difficulties in achieving the high frequency goals were encountered in all methods. Results of developing a time-domain finite difference resonator impedance model indicated that a re-interpretation of the empirical fluid mechanical models used in the frequency domain model for nonlinear resistance and mass reactance may be required. A scale model treatment design that could be tested on the Universal Propulsion Simulator vehicle was proposed.

  10. Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications

    Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren

    2016-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  11. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Structures

    Elfergani, H. A.; Pullin, R.; Holford, K. M.

    2011-07-01

    Corrosion is a substantial problem in numerous structures and in particular corrosion is very serious in reinforced and prestressed concrete and must, in certain applications, be given special consideration because failure may result in loss of life and high financial cost. Furthermore corrosion cannot only be considered a long term problem with many studies reporting failure of bridges and concrete pipes due to corrosion within a short period after they were constructed. The concrete pipes which transport water are examples of structures that have suffered from corrosion; for example, the pipes of The Great Man-Made River Project of Libya. Five pipe failures due to corrosion have occurred since their installation. The main reason for the damage is corrosion of prestressed wires in the pipes due to the attack of chloride ions from the surrounding soil. Detection of the corrosion in initial stages has been very important to avoid other failures and the interruption of water flow. Even though most non-destructive methods which are used in the project are able to detect wire breaks, they cannot detect the presence of corrosion. Hence in areas where no excavation has been completed, areas of serious damage can go undetected. Therefore, the major problem which faces engineers is to find the best way to detect the corrosion and prevent the pipes from deteriorating. This paper reports on the use of the Acoustic Emission (AE) technique to detect the early stages of corrosion prior to deterioration of concrete structures.

  12. Acoustic Measurements of Small Solid Rocket Motor

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Rocket acoustic noise can induce loads and vibration on the vehicle as well as the surrounding structures. Models have been developed to predict these acoustic loads based on scaling existing solid rocket motor data. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center acoustics team has measured several small solid rocket motors (thrust below 150,000 lbf) to anchor prediction models. This data will provide NASA the capability to predict the acoustic environments and consequent vibro-acoustic response of larger rockets (thrust above 1,000,000 lbf) such as those planned for the NASA Constellation program. This paper presents the methods used to measure acoustic data during the static firing of small solid rocket motors and the trends found in the data.

  13. Acoustic effects of single electrostatic discharges

    Orzech, Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Electric discharges, depending on their character, can emit different types of energy, resulting in different effects. Single electrostatic discharges besides generation of electromagnetic pulses are also the source of N acoustic waves. Their specified parameters depending on amount of discharging charge enable determination of value of released charge in a function of acoustic descriptor (e.g. acoustic pressure). Presented approach is the basics of acoustic method for measurement of single electrostatic discharges, enabling direct and contactless measurement of value of charge released during ESD. Method for measurement of acoustic effect of impact of a single electrostatic discharge on the environment in a form of pressure shock wave and examples of acoustic descriptors in a form of equation Q=f(pa) are described. The properties of measuring system as well as the results of regression static analyses used to determine the described relationships are analysed in details.

  14. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  15. Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1992-01-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far-field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far-field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.

  16. Integration of Acoustic Detection Equipment into ANTARES

    Lahmann, R; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Naumann, C; Salomon, K

    2005-01-01

    The ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen is working towards the integration of a set of acoustic sensors into the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope. With this setup, tests of acoustic particle detection methods and background studies shall be performed. The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope, which is currently being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea, will be equipped with the infrastructure to accommodate a 3-dimensional array of photomultipliers for the detection of Cherenkov light. Within this infrastructure, the required resources for acoustic sensors are available: Bandwidth for the transmission of the acoustic data to the shore, electrical power for the off-shore electronics and physical space to install the acoustic sensors and to route the connecting cables (transmitting signals and power) into the electronics containers. It will be explained how the integration will be performed with minimal modifications of the existing ANTARES design and which setup is foreseen for the acquisition of the acoustic data.

  17. Acoustic concerns related to multi cultural societies

    Gade, Anders Christian

    2001-01-01

    Denmark. Its purpose is to combine visual and acoustical concerns in the identification, conservation, and restoration of architectural heritage. It focuses on the famous Turkish mosques of the Osmannic architect Sinan. Some of the acoustic features of these large domed buildings and of muslim liturgy......Immigration has increased cultural diversity in western societies. The process of integrating immigrants into their host countries can be smoothed if acousticians learn to recognize (1) the acoustic traditions of immigrant cultures and (2) the specific acoustic needs of the new society members. Two...... related projects are discussed. The ``Cahrisma'' project (Conservation of Acoustical Heritage by the Revival and Identification of the Sinan's Mosque Acoustics) is sponsored by the European Commission and carried out in cooperation among researchers in Turkey, Malta, Italy, France, Switzerland, and...

  18. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    Ardid, Miguel; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to...

  19. Measuring Acoustic Wave Transit Time in Furnace Based on Active Acoustic Source Signal

    Zhen Luo; Feng Tian; Xiao-Ping Sun

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of transit time for acoustic wave between two sensors installed on two sides of a furnace is a key to implementing the temperature field measurement technique based on acoustical method. A new method for measuring transit time of acoustic wave based on active acoustic source signal is proposed in this paper, which includes the followings: the time when the acoustic source signal arrives at the two sensors is measured first; then, the difference of two arriving time arguments is computed, thereby we get the transit time of the acoustic wave between two sensors installed on the two sides of the furnace. Avoiding the restriction on acoustic source signal and background noise, the new method can get the transit time of acoustic wave with higher precision and stronger ability of resisting noise interference.

  20. Acoustic communication for Maya Autonomous Underwater Vehicle - performance evaluation of acoustic modem

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Maurya, P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Madhan, R.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    traffic. This necessitates monitoring the AUV status and data quality through an acoustic link which needs to perform reliably under such conditions, at long range. To address these situations partially, acoustic communication capability is planned...

  1. Violins characterization through vibro-acoustic experiments

    RAVINA, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    International audience An approach of integrated vibratory and acoustic experiments oriented to identify the specific characteristics and peculiarities of violins is presented in the paper. Today the up-level luthery handicraft needs a scientific and methodical supports specifically oriented to underline the acoustic peculiarities of each musical instrument, able to define the “signature” of a specific instrument. The proposed approach integrates vibration and acoustic non destructive anal...

  2. Acoustic emission leak monitoring system LMS-96

    On-line acoustic emission leak monitoring under industrial conditions of nuclear power plants is a problem with specific features setting specific demands on the leak monitoring system. The paper briefly reviews those problems (attenuation pattern of a real structure, acoustic background, alarm system, etc.) and the solution of some of them is discussed. Information is presented on the Acoustic Emission Leak Monitoring System LMS-96 by SKODA NUCLEAR MACHINERY and the system's function is briefly described. (author)

  3. Ultrasound contrast agents : optical and acoustical characterization

    Sijl, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of the dynamics and the acoustic responses of single BR14 (Bracco Research S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) ultra- sound contrast agent microbubbles under the in°uence of ultrasound. In Ch. 2 of this thesis we investigate the small amplitude behavior of isolated microbubbles acoustically. To ensure that the measured acoustic response orig- inates from one bubble only, it requires the isolation of a single microbubble within an ultrasound beam. Furthermore ...

  4. Fado’s Voice: Acoustic Features

    Mendes, Ana; Ibrahim, Soraia; Vaz, Inês

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado na 12th Western Pacific Acoustics Conference, Singapura, 6-9 de Dezembro 2015 Fado is a popular Portuguese singing style acoustically characterized by reduced fundamental frequency, jitter as well as shimmer and perceptually by a low pitch, hoarse and strained voice. This study aims to scientifically contribute to the acoustic understanding of Fado singer’s voice profile. 104 Fado singers participated on this study: 47 males, 57 females; 90 amateur and 14 prof...

  5. All-optical scanning acoustic microscope

    Sharples, Steve David

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis a new instrument, the all-optical scanning acoustic microscope (O-SAM) is presented, it is a non contact scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) which uses lasers to both generate and detect surface acoustics waves (SAWs) The non contact nature of the O-SAM overcomes some difficulties associated with conventional SAMs because of the couplant and surface contact involved. This O-SAM also overcomes many of the problems associated with conventional laser ultrasound systems including th...

  6. Acoustic Casimir Pressure for Arbitrary Media

    Barcenas, J.; Reyes, L.; Esquivel-Sirvent, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we derive a general expression for the acoustic Casimir pressure between two parallel slabs made of arbitrary materials and whose acoustic reflection coefficients are not equal. The formalism is based on the calculation of the local density of modes using a Green's function approach. The results for the Casimir acoustic pressure are generalized to a sphere/plate configuration using the proximity theorem

  7. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    Lewis, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hume, W.R. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Douglass, G.D. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  8. Memory-Effect on Acoustic Cavitation

    Yavaṣ, Oğuz; Leiderer, Paul; Park, Hee K.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poon, Chie C.; Tam, Andrew C.

    1994-01-01

    The formation of bubbles at a liquid-solid interface due to acoustic cavitation depends particularly on the preconditions of the interface. Here, it wiIl be shown that following laser-induced bubble formation at the interface the acoustic cavitation efficiency is strongly enhanced. Optical reflectance measurements reveal that this observed enhancement of acoustic cavitation due to preceding laser-induced bubble formation, which could be termed as memory effect, decays in a few hundred microse...

  9. Transformational acoustic metamaterials based on pressure gradients

    García Meca, Carlos; Carloni, S; Barceló, Carlos; Sánchez-Dehesa Moreno-Cid, José; Martínez Abietar, Alejandro José

    2014-01-01

    We apply a homogenization process to the acoustic velocity potential wave equation. The study of various examples shows that the resulting effective properties are different from those of the homogenized pressure wave equation for the same underlying acoustic parameters. A careful analysis reveals that a given set of inhomogeneous parameters represents an entirely different physical system depending on the considered equation. Our findings unveil a different way of tailoring acoustic properti...

  10. Active elastic metamaterials with applications in acoustics

    POPE, Simon; Laalej, Hatim; Daley, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Elastic metamaterials provide a new approach to solving existing problems in acoustics. They have also been associated with novel concepts such as acoustic invisibility and subwavelength imaging. To be applied to many of the proposed applications a metamaterial would need to have the desired mass density and elastic moduli over a wide frequency band. To minimise scatter in acoustics applications the impedance of solid elastic metamaterials also need to be matched to the impedance of the surro...

  11. Acoustic scattering from a submerged cylindrical shell coated with locally resonant acoustic metamaterials

    Using the multilayered cylinder model, we study acoustic scattering from a submerged cylindrical shell coated with locally resonant acoustic metamaterials, which exhibit locally negative effective mass densities. A spring model is introduced to replace the traditional transfer matrix, which may be singular in the negative mass region. The backscattering form function and the scattering cross section are calculated to discuss the acoustic properties of the coated submerged cylindrical shell. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. A thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine: Detailed study

    A new type of thermoacoustic engine based on traveling waves and ideally reversible heat transfer is described. Measurements and analysis of its performance are presented. This new engine outperforms previous thermoacoustic engines, which are based on standing waves and intrinsically irreversible heat transfer, by more than 50%. At its most efficient operating point, it delivers 710 W of acoustic power to its resonator with a thermal efficiency of 0.30, corresponding to 41% of the Carnot efficiency. At its most powerful operating point, it delivers 890 W to its resonator with a thermal efficiency of 0.22. The efficiency of this engine can be degraded by two types of acoustic streaming. These are suppressed by appropriate tapering of crucial surfaces in the engine and by using additional nonlinearity to induce an opposing time-averaged pressure difference. Data are presented which show the nearly complete elimination of the streaming convective heat loads. Analysis of these and other irreversibilities show which components of the engine require further research to achieve higher efficiency. Additionally, these data show that the dynamics and acoustic power flows are well understood, but the details of the streaming suppression and associated heat convection are only qualitatively understood. (c) 2000 Acoustical Society of America

  13. Acoustic transducer for nuclear reactor monitoring

    Disclosed is a transducer to monitor a parameter and produce an acoustic signal from which the monitored parameter can be recovered. The transducer comprises a modified Galton whistle which emits a narrow band acoustic signal having a frequency dependent upon the parameter being monitored, such as the temperature of the cooling media of a nuclear reactor. Multiple locations within a reactor are monitored simultaneously by a remote acoustic receiver by providing a plurality of transducers each designed so that the acoustic signal it emits has a frequency distinct from the frequencies of signals emitted by the other transducers, whereby each signal can be unambiguously related to a particular transducer. 8 claims, 1 figure

  14. Microfluidic device for acoustic cell lysis

    Branch, Darren W.; Cooley, Erika Jane; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe; James, Conrad D.; McClain, Jaime L.

    2015-08-04

    A microfluidic acoustic-based cell lysing device that can be integrated with on-chip nucleic acid extraction. Using a bulk acoustic wave (BAW) transducer array, acoustic waves can be coupled into microfluidic cartridges resulting in the lysis of cells contained therein by localized acoustic pressure. Cellular materials can then be extracted from the lysed cells. For example, nucleic acids can be extracted from the lysate using silica-based sol-gel filled microchannels, nucleic acid binding magnetic beads, or Nafion-coated electrodes. Integration of cell lysis and nucleic acid extraction on-chip enables a small, portable system that allows for rapid analysis in the field.

  15. ACOUSTIC EMISSION DURING STRETCHING OF POLYMERS

    QIAN Renyuan; WANG Tiangui; SHEN Jingshu

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic emission has been studied for a wide range of polymers including amorphous glasses,semi-crystalline polymers, copolymers, polymer blends and a crosslinked rubber during the course of uni-axial stretching at room temperature. For non-crystalline polymers acoustic emission occurred in rather small number of events accompanied by crazing and micro-crack formation. Strong acoustic activity appeared during yielding and necking of crystalline polymers. Rather small number or none of acoustic bursts occurred during the initial stage of neck drawing but numerous strong bursts appeared when drawing proceeded approaching specimen break. Specimens of the same polymer but of different fabrication history may be reflected in their acoustic emission behavior. Acoustic emission during stretching crosslinked polybutadiene rubber was very weak but observable when the force-elongation curve started to deviate from the linear region. No Kaiser effect was observed for the rubber. Very strong and numerous acoustic emission was observed during stretching specimens of polymer blends.High impact resistant polymer modifications showed no sharp increase of acoustic activity before specimen break. So long as the polymer and conditions of specimen fabrication are the same quite reproducible acoustic emission behavior could be observed.

  16. ELECTRODYNAMIC LOUDSPEAKER-DRIVEN ACOUSTIC COMPRESSOR

    Martin Šoltés; Milan Červenka

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic compressor is  built  using the acoustic resonator which shape was optimized for a maximum acoustic pressure amplitude and a low-cost compression driver.  Acoustic compressor is built  by installing  a suction port in the resonator wall where the standing wave has its pressure node and a delivery port with a valve in the resonator wall where the standing wave has its pressure anti-node. Different reeds, serving  as delivery valves, are tested and their performance is investigated....

  17. Propagation behavior of acoustic wave in wood

    Huadong Xu; Guoqi Xu; Lihai Wang; Lei Yu

    2014-01-01

    We used acoustic tests on a quarter-sawn poplar timbers to study the effects of wood anisotropy and cavity defects on acoustic wave velocity and travel path, and we investigated acoustic wave propagation behavior in wood. The timber specimens were first tested in unmodified condition and then tested after introduction of cavity defects of varying sizes to quantify the transmitting time of acoustic waves in laboratory conditions. Two-dimensional acoustic wave contour maps on the radial section of specimens were then simulated and analyzed based on the experimental data. We tested the relationship between wood grain and acoustic wave velocity as waves passed in various directions through wood. Wood anisotropy has significant effects on both velocity and travel path of acoustic waves, and the velocity of waves passing longitudinally through timbers exceeded the radial velocity. Moreover, cavity defects altered acoustic wave time contours on radial sections of timbers. Acous-tic wave transits from an excitation point to the region behind a cavity in defective wood more slowly than in intact wood.

  18. Integrated Optical, Acoustically Tunable Wavelength Filter

    Frangen, J.; Herrmann, Harald; Ricken, Raimund; Seibert, Holger; Sohler, Wolfgang; Strake, E.

    1989-12-01

    An integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter, consisting of a combination of TM-TE converter and integrated polarizer in LiNbO3, is demonstrated. The filter bandwidth is 2.8 nm; the center wavelength can be tuned from λ = 1.45 pm to λ = 1.57 pm by adjusting the driving acoustic frequency. Due to the combined acoustical/optical strip guide structure, used in the mode converter, a very low acoustic drive power of only 9 mW is required.

  19. A new definition for acoustic dose

    This paper discusses a recent proposal for definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate. Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Its time-derivative, acoustic dose-rate, Qm, in W kg-1 is central to the prediction of both rate of temperature rise and radiation force. These quantities have spatial and temporal dependency, depending on the local field parameters (acoustic pressure, particle velocity, intensity) and local material properties (absorption coefficient, αa, and mass density, ρ0). Spatial and/or temporal averaging can be applied where appropriate. For plane-wave monochromatic conditions in a homogeneous medium, Qm=2αaI/ρ0, (I is the time-averaged intensity), a simple expression which may also incorporate frequency dependencies of energy deposition. Acoustic dose and acoustic does-rate are exact analogues for Specific Absorption and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), quantities central to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave dosimetry. Acoustic dosimetry in the presence of tissue/gas interfaces remains a considerable challenge.

  20. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  1. A short history of bad acoustics.

    Wright, M C M

    2006-10-01

    Every branch of science attracts its share of cranks and pseudoscientists, and acoustics has been no exception. A brief survey of those who touched on acoustics is given with quotations from the more interesting or egregious examples. A contrast is drawn between the nineteenth century contrarian's quarrel with particular theories and the modern new age wholesale rejection of theory. This world-view is traced back to the later scientific writings of Goethe. Examples of pseudoscience applied to biomedical acoustics, architectural acoustics, and audio reproduction are given. PMID:17069279

  2. Application of acoustic diagnosis for rotating machines

    This report describes the effectiveness of the application of acoustic diagnosis using vibration data for inspecting rotating machines. We usually apply the vibration diagnosis for the inspection of rotating machines on CBM (Condition Based Maintenance). However, with the vibration diagnosis, sometimes we cannot discover the cause of abnormal sounds from rotating machines. Therefore, we tried another diagnosis. We converted the vibration data to the acoustic data and then inspected the abnormal sounds. We used the frequency filters in the acoustic analyzer for the diagnosis. This acoustic diagnosis method is helpful in transmitting the inspection techniques of rotating machines to the next generation. (author)

  3. Acoustic resonance for nonmetallic mine detection

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of acoustic resonance for detection of plastic mines was investigated by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Instrumentation and Controls Division under an internally funded program. The data reported in this paper suggest that acoustic resonance is not a practical method for mine detection. Representative small plastic anti-personnel mines were tested, and were found to not exhibit detectable acoustic resonances. Also, non-metal objects known to have strong acoustic resonances were tested with a variety of excitation techniques, and no practical non-contact method of exciting a consistently detectable resonance in a buried object was discovered. Some of the experimental data developed in this work may be useful to other researchers seeking a method to detect buried plastic mines. A number of excitation methods and their pitfalls are discussed. Excitation methods that were investigated include swept acoustic, chopped acoustic, wavelet acoustic, and mechanical shaking. Under very contrived conditions, a weak response that could be attributed to acoustic resonance was observed, but it does not appear to be practical as a mine detection feature. Transfer properties of soil were investigated. Impulse responses of several representative plastic mines were investigated. Acoustic leakage coupling, and its implications as a disruptive mechanism were investigated.

  4. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  5. Spectral analysis methods for vehicle interior vibro-acoustics identification

    Hosseini Fouladi, Mohammad; Nor, Mohd. Jailani Mohd.; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Noise has various effects on comfort, performance and health of human. Sound are analysed by human brain based on the frequencies and amplitudes. In a dynamic system, transmission of sound and vibrations depend on frequency and direction of the input motion and characteristics of the output. It is imperative that automotive manufacturers invest a lot of effort and money to improve and enhance the vibro-acoustics performance of their products. The enhancement effort may be very difficult and time-consuming if one relies only on 'trial and error' method without prior knowledge about the sources itself. Complex noise inside a vehicle cabin originated from various sources and travel through many pathways. First stage of sound quality refinement is to find the source. It is vital for automotive engineers to identify the dominant noise sources such as engine noise, exhaust noise and noise due to vibration transmission inside of vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to find the vibro-acoustical sources of noise in a passenger vehicle compartment. The implementation of spectral analysis method is much faster than the 'trial and error' methods in which, parts should be separated to measure the transfer functions. Also by using spectral analysis method, signals can be recorded in real operational conditions which conduce to more consistent results. A multi-channel analyser is utilised to measure and record the vibro-acoustical signals. Computational algorithms are also employed to identify contribution of various sources towards the measured interior signal. These achievements can be utilised to detect, control and optimise interior noise performance of road transport vehicles.

  6. Acoustic measurements of models of military style supersonic nozzle jets

    Ching-Wen Kuo; Jérémy Veltin; Dennis K. McLaughlin

    2014-01-01

    Modern military aircraft jet engines are designed with variable-geometry nozzles to provide optimal thrust in different operating conditions, depending on the flight envelope. How-ever, acoustic measurements for such nozzles are scarce, due to the cost involved in making full-scale measurements and the lack of details about the exact geometries of these nozzles. Thus the present effort at Pennsylvania State University (PSU) in partnership with GE Aviation and the NASA Glenn Research Center is aiming to study and characterize the acoustic field produced by supersonic jets issuing from converging-diverging military style nozzles, and to identify and test promising noise reduction techniques. An equally important objective is to develop methodology for using data obtained from small-and moderate-scale experiments to reliably predict the full-scale engine noise. The experimental results presented show reasonable agreement between small-scale and medium-scale jets, as well as between heated jets and heat-simulated ones.

  7. Acoustic measurements of models of military style supersonic nozzle jets

    Ching-Wen Kuo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern military aircraft jet engines are designed with variable-geometry nozzles to provide optimal thrust in different operating conditions, depending on the flight envelope. However, acoustic measurements for such nozzles are scarce, due to the cost involved in making full-scale measurements and the lack of details about the exact geometries of these nozzles. Thus the present effort at Pennsylvania State University (PSU in partnership with GE Aviation and the NASA Glenn Research Center is aiming to study and characterize the acoustic field produced by supersonic jets issuing from converging-diverging military style nozzles, and to identify and test promising noise reduction techniques. An equally important objective is to develop methodology for using data obtained from small- and moderate-scale experiments to reliably predict the full-scale engine noise. The experimental results presented show reasonable agreement between small-scale and medium-scale jets, as well as between heated jets and heat-simulated ones.

  8. Engineering Cartilage

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  9. Governing Engineering

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of...... engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  10. Prosthetic Engineering

    ... Overview CoE for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering Menu Menu VA Center of Excellence for Limb ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Prosthetic Engineering - Overview Our aim is to improve prosthetic prescription ...

  11. Industrial Engineering

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  12. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  13. THE APPLICATION OF ACOUSTIC LOGGING METHOD IN THE MODEL AND PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION OF ROCK MASS

    于师建

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the new method that is introduced into prediction of subsidence using system engineering method with acoustic logging and density logging. According to the result of acoustic logging, the real and complex rock beds are divided into a set of different bed groups and the equivalent mechanical model is to be built. Based on the modern control theory, according to the input data (convergence or settlement of the roof) and the output data (surface movement and deformation) of the system, the static parameters of equivalent rock beds can be derived from back calculation using the optimum method. Then the regression relationship between the dynamic and static parameters can be built. So the prediction of rock and ground movements for other areas in the same district can be done, when using this relationship with the acoustic logging data and density logging data in situ.

  14. The application of acoustic logging method in the model and parameters identification of rock mass

    Yu, S. [Shandong Mining Institute, Tai' an (China)

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes a new method that is introduced into prediction of subsidence; it uses a system engineering method with acoustic logging and density logging. According to the result of acoustic logging, the real and complex rock beds are divided into a set of different bed groups and the equivalent mechanical model is built. Based on the modern control theory, according to the input data (convergence or settlement of the roof) and the output data (surface movement and deformation) of the system, the static parameters of equivalent rock beds can be derived from back calculation using the optimum method. Then the regression relationship between the dynamic and static parameters can be built. So the prediction of rock and ground movements for other areas in the same district can be done, when using this relationship with the acoustic logging data and density logging data in situ. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Acoustic impulse response method as a source of undergraduate research projects and advanced laboratory experiments.

    Robertson, W M; Parker, J M

    2012-03-01

    A straightforward and inexpensive implementation of acoustic impulse response measurement is described utilizing the signal processing technique of coherent averaging. The technique is capable of high signal-to-noise measurements with personal computer data acquisition equipment, an amplifier/speaker, and a high quality microphone. When coupled with simple waveguide test systems fabricated from commercial PVC plumbing pipe, impulse response measurement has proven to be ideal for undergraduate research projects-often of publishable quality-or for advanced laboratory experiments. The technique provides important learning objectives for science or engineering students in areas such as interfacing and computer control of experiments; analog-to-digital conversion and sampling; time and frequency analysis using Fourier transforms; signal processing; and insight into a variety of current research areas such as acoustic bandgap materials, acoustic metamaterials, and fast and slow wave manipulation. PMID:22423798

  16. Analytical models for use in fan inflow control structure design. Inflow distortion and acoustic transmission models

    Gedge, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical models were developed to study the effect of flow contraction and screening on inflow distortions to identify qualitative design criteria. Results of the study are that: (1) static testing distortions are due to atmospheric turbulence, nacelle boundary layer, exhaust flow reingestion, flow over stand, ground plane, and engine casing; (2) flow contraction suppresses, initially, turbulent axial velocity distortions and magnifies turbulent transverse velocity distortions; (3) perforated plate and gauze screens suppress axial components of velocity distortions to a degree determined by the screen pressure loss coefficient; (4) honeycomb screen suppress transverse components of velocity distortions to a degree determined by the length to diameter ratio of the honeycomb; (5) acoustic transmission loss of perforated plate is controlled by the reactance of its acoustic impedance; (6) acoustic transmission loss of honeycomb screens is negligible; and (7) a model for the direction change due to a corner between honeycomb panels compares favorably with measured data.

  17. Engineering economy

    This book is written for engineer and manager who is working for analysis of propriety of project. It gives descriptions of basic of engineering economy, compare principle of engineering economy, application of compare principle, evaluation of capital project, value of time of funds and evaluation of investment, engineering economy analysis of an alternative idea, depreciation, determination and principle analysis of uncertain prospect, analysis of propriety of project, profitable plan in product progress, quality, cost and profit and analysis of complex investment project.

  18. Acoustic treatments for building curved surfaces: practical applications

    BEILLARD, Ghislain; Ramauge, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    International audience Curved walls are not rare in building architectures. Acoustic reflections by these surfaces may create sound focusing issues damaging the room acoustic qualities [Martijn L.S. Vercammen, Reflection of sound by concave surfaces, Proceedings of 20th International Congress on Acoustics, August 2010, Sydney, Australia]. With the increasing number of building acoustic norms, acoustic treatments have to be found out and settled in order to guaranty the best acoustic comfor...

  19. Liquid rocket combustion chamber acoustic characterization

    Cândido Magno de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, many solid and liquid rocket motors have experienced combustion instabilities. Among other causes, there is the interaction of acoustic modes with the combustion and/or fluid dynamic processes inside the combustion chamber. Studies have been showing that, even if less than 1% of the available energy is diverted to an acoustic mode, combustion instability can be generated. On one hand, this instability can lead to ballistic pressure changes, couple with other propulsion systems such as guidance or thrust vector control, and in the worst case, cause motor structural failure. In this case, measures, applying acoustic techniques, must be taken to correct/minimize these influences on the combustion. The combustion chamber acoustic behavior in operating conditions can be estimated by considering its behavior in room conditions. In this way, acoustic tests can be easily performed, thus identifying the cavity modes. This paper describes the procedures to characterize the acoustic behavior in the inner cavity of four different configurations of a combustion chamber. Simple analytical models are used to calculate the acoustic resonance frequencies and these results are compared with acoustic natural frequencies measured at room conditions. Some comments about the measurement procedures are done, as well as the next steps for the continuity of this research. The analytical and experimental procedures results showed good agreement. However, limitations on high frequency band as well as in the identification of specific kinds of modes indicate that numerical methods able to model the real cavity geometry and an acoustic experimental modal analysis may be necessary for a more complete analysis. Future works shall also consider the presence of passive acoustic devices such as baffles and resonators capable of introducing damping and avoiding or limiting acoustic instabilities.

  20. Observations of potential acoustic cues that attract sperm whales to longline fishing in the Gulf of Alaska.

    Thode, Aaron; Straley, Janice; Tiemann, Christopher O; Folkert, Kendall; O'Connell, Victoria

    2007-08-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) have learned to remove fish from demersal longline gear deployments off the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and are often observed to arrive at a site after a haul begins, suggesting a response to potential acoustic cues like fishing-gear strum, hydraulic winch tones, and propeller cavitation. Passive acoustic recorders attached to anchorlines have permitted continuous monitoring of the ambient noise environment before and during fishing hauls. Timing and tracking analyses of sperm whale acoustic activity during three encounters indicate that cavitation arising from changes in ship propeller speeds is associated with interruptions in nearby sperm whale dive cycles and changes in acoustically derived positions. This conclusion has been tested by cycling a vessel engine and noting the arrival of whales by the vessel, even when the vessel is not next to fishing gear. No evidence of response from activation of ship hydraulics or fishing gear strum has been found to date. PMID:17672672

  1. An overview of acoustic telemetry

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quire low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested; existing field test data need to be analyzed for transmission bandwidth and attenuation; and the new and less expensive methods of collecting data on transmission path quality need to be incorporated into this effort. 11 refs.

  2. Introducing acoustics to classical musicians

    ZEPIDOU, GEORGIA; DANCE, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Since the enforcement of the UK Control of Noise at Work Regulations in 2006 and over the last five years, the Acoustics Group of London South Bank University has been collaborating with the musicians and management of the Royal Academy of Music (RAM). The aim of the RAM noise project was to protect musicians from excessive sound exposure and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss and has been, from the very start, focused on the education of young and professional musicians. A series of semi...

  3. Acoustic design by topology optimization

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    To bring down noise levels in human surroundings is an important issue and a method to reduce noise by means of topology optimization is presented here. The acoustic field is modeled by Helmholtz equation and the topology optimization method is based on continuous material interpolation functions...... outdoor sound barriers and reduce the sound level in the shadow zone behind the barrier up to 10 dB for a single barrier and almost 30 dB when using 2 barriers compared to utilizing conventional sound barriers....

  4. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  5. Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble

    Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p

  6. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    Mason, Warren P

    1964-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume l-Part A focuses on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as powerful tools in analyzing the molecular, defect, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first tackles wave propagation in fluids and normal solids and guided wave propagation in elongated cylinders and plates. Discussions focus on fundamentals of continuum mechanics; small-amplitude waves in a linear viscoelastic medium; representation of oscillations and waves; and special effects associated with guided elastic waves in plat

  7. Energy analysis in acoustic cavitation

    Vichare, N.P.; Senthilkumar, P.; Moholkar, V.S.; Gogate, P.R.; Pandit, A.B.

    2000-05-01

    In sonochemical processes, the physical and chemical effects are attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation, which is the formation, growth, and collapse of the cavities termed as activity of cavities. Energy analysis of a single cavity has been considered in order to explain, qualitatively, the effects of acoustic parameters such as intensity and frequency of ultrasonic equipment on sonochemical reactions. The experimental observations of the sonochemical reactions available in the literature are found to be consistent with the simulation results. Energy analysis of the cavity gives the possible reasons for the various sonochemical effects observed, and also the optimum equipment operating parameters can be predicted.

  8. Tunable acoustic double negativity metamaterial.

    Liang, Z; Willatzen, M; Li, J; Christensen, J

    2012-01-01

    Man-made composite materials called "metamaterials" allow for the creation of unusual wave propagation behavior. Acoustic and elastic metamaterials in particular, can pave the way for the full control of sound in realizing cloaks of invisibility, perfect lenses and much more. In this work we design acousto-elastic surface modes that are similar to surface plasmons in metals and on highly conducting surfaces perforated by holes. We combine a structure hosting these modes together with a gap material supporting negative modulus and collectively producing negative dispersion. By analytical techniques and full-wave simulations we attribute the observed behavior to the mass density and bulk modulus being simultaneously negative. PMID:23152948

  9. OFDM for underwater acoustic communications

    Zhou, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    A blend of introductory material and advanced signal processing and communication techniques, of critical importance to underwater system and network development This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver des

  10. A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine

    Zhou Gang [Cryogenics Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Qing [Cryogenics Laboratory, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: liqing@cl.cryo.ac.cn; Li Zhengyu; Li Qiang [Cryogenics Laboratory, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-06-15

    A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine was simulated and designed, having overall size of length 0.65 m and height of 0.22 m. The acoustic field generated in this miniature system has been described and analyzed. Some efforts had been paid to coupling and matching, and a miniature thermoacoustic engine and some extra experimental components have been constructed. Analysis and experimental results showed that to obtain better performance of the engine, the diameter of the resonance tube must be chosen appropriately according to the looped tube dimension and the input heating power. It provided an effective way to miniaturize the thermoacoustic stirling heat engine. The experimental results showed that the engine had low onset temperature and high pressure amplitude and ratio. With the filling helium gas of 2 MPa and heating power of 637 W, the maximal peak to peak pressure amplitude and pressure ratio reached 2.2 bar and 1.116, respectively, which was able to drive a refrigerator, a heat pump or a linear electrical generator. The operating frequency of the engine was steady at 282 Hz.

  11. A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine

    A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine was simulated and designed, having overall size of length 0.65 m and height of 0.22 m. The acoustic field generated in this miniature system has been described and analyzed. Some efforts had been paid to coupling and matching, and a miniature thermoacoustic engine and some extra experimental components have been constructed. Analysis and experimental results showed that to obtain better performance of the engine, the diameter of the resonance tube must be chosen appropriately according to the looped tube dimension and the input heating power. It provided an effective way to miniaturize the thermoacoustic stirling heat engine. The experimental results showed that the engine had low onset temperature and high pressure amplitude and ratio. With the filling helium gas of 2 MPa and heating power of 637 W, the maximal peak to peak pressure amplitude and pressure ratio reached 2.2 bar and 1.116, respectively, which was able to drive a refrigerator, a heat pump or a linear electrical generator. The operating frequency of the engine was steady at 282 Hz

  12. A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine

    Zhou, Gang [Cryogenics Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Qing; Li, Zheng Yu.; Li, Qiang [Cryogenics Laboratory, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-06-15

    A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine was simulated and designed, having overall size of length 0.65 m and height of 0.22 m. The acoustic field generated in this miniature system has been described and analyzed. Some efforts had been paid to coupling and matching, and a miniature thermoacoustic engine and some extra experimental components have been constructed. Analysis and experimental results showed that to obtain better performance of the engine, the diameter of the resonance tube must be chosen appropriately according to the looped tube dimension and the input heating power. It provided an effective way to miniaturize the thermoacoustic stirling heat engine. The experimental results showed that the engine had low onset temperature and high pressure amplitude and ratio. With the filling helium gas of 2 MPa and heating power of 637 W, the maximal peak to peak pressure amplitude and pressure ratio reached 2.2 bar and 1.116, respectively, which was able to drive a refrigerator, a heat pump or a linear electrical generator. The operating frequency of the engine was steady at 282 Hz. (author)

  13. Rocket Engine Altitude Simulation Technologies

    Woods, Jody L.; Lansaw, John

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center is embarking on a very ambitious era in its rocket engine propulsion test history. The first new large rocket engine test stand to be built at Stennis Space Center in over 40 years is under construction. The new A3 Test Stand is designed to test very large (294,000 Ibf thrust) cryogenic propellant rocket engines at a simulated altitude of 100,000 feet. A3 Test Stand will have an engine testing chamber where the engine will be fired after the air in the chamber has been evacuated to a pressure at the simulated altitude of less than 0.16 PSIA. This will result in a very unique environment with extremely low pressures inside a very large chamber and ambient pressures outside this chamber. The test chamber is evacuated of air using a 2-stage diffuser / ejector system powered by 5000 lb/sec of steam produced by 27 chemical steam generators. This large amount of power and flow during an engine test will result in a significant acoustic and vibrational environment in and around A3 Test Stand.

  14. Acoustic Emission Stethoscope - Measurements with Acoustic Emission on Wind Turbines

    Krystof Kryniski [AaF Infrastructure, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    A remote ultrasonic stethoscope, designed on mobile devices to help a maintenance team in diagnosing drive train problems, has been demonstrated. By implementing an acoustic emission technology, the operating conditions of wind turbines have been assessed by trending techniques and ultrasonic acoustic emission converted into audible sound. The new approach has been developed and tested and compared to other monitoring techniques. Acoustic emission has generally been shown to provide a number of advantages over vibration and shock pulse methods because the system is operating in a substantially higher frequency range (100 kHz) and therefore it is more immune to operation of surrounding machines and components. Quick attenuation of ultrasonic propagation waves in the drive-train structure helps to pin-point the origin of any fault as the signals are sharper and more pronounced. Further, with the intensity measurements a direction of the source of ultrasonic energy can be identified. Using a high frequency thus makes the method suitable for measuring local effects and to determine local defects since the disturbing signals from other parts are damped. Recently developed programmable sensors capable of processing signals onboard, producing quality outputs with extremely low noise-to-signal ratio, have been used. It is discussed how the new approach can lower the cost of a wind-turbine monitoring system, while at the same time making it simple and more reliable, see Appendix A. The method has been tested on rotating parts of wind-turbines, including traditionally difficult areas such as low speed main bearings and planetary gearboxes. The method developed in the project was designed to see physical processes such as friction, impacts and metal removal, occurring when machinery degrades, can be detected and notified with the developed notification system. Apart from reporting the status and displaying the changes of the pre-defined parameters or symptoms, the system has

  15. On waves in gases. Part I: Acoustics of jets, turbulence, and ducts

    Campos, L. M. B. C.

    1986-01-01

    This review on some aspects of waves in gases concentrates first (Part I) on modern research in the acoustics of fluids at rest or in steady or turbulent motion, in free space, in the presence of obstacles, or in ducts. The study of sound, for which the sole restoring force is pressure, will be extended in a later paper (Part II) to include the other three restoring forces, namely, gravity, electromagnetic, and Coriolis forces, leading to current research on internal, magnetic, and inertial waves and their couplings. The Introduction at the beginning of Part I, and the discussion at the end of Part II, concern all four types of waves in gases, and their relevance in physics and engineering. In Part I, the following areas of acoustics are addressed: the generation of noise by turbulence, inhomogeneities or bubbles, in natural and engineering flows, e.g., wind or jets; the scattering of sound by interfaces and diffraction by turbulence, and their effects on spectral and directional redistribution of energy; propagation in ducts, without or with mean flow, e.g., the horns of musical instruments and loudspeakers, and inlets and exhausts of engines; the effects of dissipation and nonlinearity on waves, e.g., in laboratory and engineering shock tubes, and in geophysical and astrophysical conditions. Underlying these topics is the interaction of acoustics with manking, ranging from the processes of human hearing and speech to the reproduction of desirable sounds (music) and reduction of undesirable sounds (noise).

  16. Identification of Turbomachinery Noise Sources Using Acoustical Holography Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evaluation and enhancement of the acoustical performance of turbomachinery requires knowledge of the acoustic sources. However, the noise generation mechanisms...

  17. Subcutaneous growth of human acoustic schwannomas in athymic nude mice

    Charabi, S.; Rygaard, J.; Klinken, Leif; Tos, M.; Thomsen, J.

    Neuropathology, acoustic schwannomas, subcutaneous implantation, nude mouse, growth, pcna, ki-67......Neuropathology, acoustic schwannomas, subcutaneous implantation, nude mouse, growth, pcna, ki-67...

  18. Acoustic response variability in automotive vehicles

    Hills, E.; Mace, B. R.; Ferguson, N. S.

    2009-03-01

    A statistical analysis of a series of measurements of the audio-frequency response of a large set of automotive vehicles is presented: a small hatchback model with both a three-door (411 vehicles) and five-door (403 vehicles) derivative and a mid-sized family five-door car (316 vehicles). The sets included vehicles of various specifications, engines, gearboxes, interior trim, wheels and tyres. The tests were performed in a hemianechoic chamber with the temperature and humidity recorded. Two tests were performed on each vehicle and the interior cabin noise measured. In the first, the excitation was acoustically induced by sets of external loudspeakers. In the second test, predominantly structure-borne noise was induced by running the vehicle at a steady speed on a rough roller. For both types of excitation, it is seen that the effects of temperature are small, indicating that manufacturing variability is larger than that due to temperature for the tests conducted. It is also observed that there are no significant outlying vehicles, i.e. there are at most only a few vehicles that consistently have the lowest or highest noise levels over the whole spectrum. For the acoustically excited tests, measured 1/3-octave noise reduction levels typically have a spread of 5 dB or so and the normalised standard deviation of the linear data is typically 0.1 or higher. Regarding the statistical distribution of the linear data, a lognormal distribution is a somewhat better fit than a Gaussian distribution for lower 1/3-octave bands, while the reverse is true at higher frequencies. For the distribution of the overall linear levels, a Gaussian distribution is generally the most representative. As a simple description of the response variability, it is sufficient for this series of measurements to assume that the acoustically induced airborne cabin noise is best described by a Gaussian distribution with a normalised standard deviation between 0.09 and 0.145. There is generally

  19. Computational engineering

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  20. On architectural acoustic design using computer simulation

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2004-01-01

    discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the programme in each phase compared to the works of architects not using acoustic simulation programmes. The conclusion of the paper is that the application of acoustic simulation programs is most beneficial in the last of three phases but an application of the...

  1. On Collisionless Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves

    Jensen, Vagn Orla; Petersen, P.I.

    1973-01-01

    Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero.......Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero....

  2. In situ calibration of acoustic emission sensors

    Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    Brno: University of Technology, Brno, 2015 - (Mazal, P.), s. 93-97 ISBN 978-80-214-5262-6. [International Workshop NDT in Progress /8./. Praha (CZ), 12.10.2015-14.10.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : standardisation * Acoustic Emission (AE) * time reversal * calibration * requency response Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Pattern recognition methods for acoustic emission analysis

    Models have been developed that relate the rate of acoustic emissions to structural integrity. The implementation of these techniques in the field has been hindered by the noisy environment in which the data must be taken. Acoustic emissions from noncritical sources are recorded in addition to those produced by critical sources, such as flaws. A technique is discussed for prescreening acoustic events and filtering out those that are produced by noncritical sources. The methodology that was investigated is pattern recognition. Three different pattern recognition techniques were applied to a data set that consisted of acoustic emissions caused by crack growth and acoustic signals caused by extraneous noise sources. Examination of the acoustic emission data presented has uncovered several features of the data that can provide a reasonable filter. Two of the most valuable features are the frequency of maximum response and the autocorrelation coefficient at Lag 13. When these two features and several others were combined with a least squares decision algorithm, 90% of the acoustic emissions in the data set were correctly classified. It appears possible to design filters that eliminate extraneous noise sources from flaw-growth acoustic emissions using pattern recognition techniques

  4. Acoustic Pattern Recognition on Android Devices

    Møller, Maiken Bjerg; Gaarsdal, Jesper; Steen, Kim Arild;

    2013-01-01

    an Android application developed for acoustic pattern recognition of bird species. The acoustic data is recorded using a built-in microphone, and pattern recognition is performed on the device, requiring no network connection. The algorithm is implemented in C++ as a native Android module and the OpenCV...

  5. An Optimisation Approach for Room Acoustics Design

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss on a conceptual level the value of optimisation techniques in architectural acoustics room design from a practical point of view. It is chosen to optimise one objective room acoustics design criterium estimated from the sound field inside the room. The sound field is modeled...

  6. Acoustic emission in uranium under thermal stimulus

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was carried out during heating and cooling of uranium through alpha-to-beta phase transformation temperature. Intense AE activity was observed during heating as well as cooling of uranium in the alpha phase. During alpha ↔ beta phase transformation also, distinct AE activity was observed. The mechanisms of acoustic emission from uranium during thermal stimulus are explained. (author)

  7. Acoustic Analysis of Vowels Following Glossectomy

    Whitehill, Tara L.; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Judy C-T.; Samman, Nabil

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the acoustic characteristics of vowels produced by speakers with partial glossectomy. Acoustic variables investigated included first formant (F1) frequency, second formant (F2) frequency, F1 range, F2 range and vowel space area. Data from the speakers with partial glossectomy were compared with age- and gender-matched controls.…

  8. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    Carlos D. Llorens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars, high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters.

  9. An acoustical model based monitoring network

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the approach for an acoustical model based monitoring network is demonstrated. This network is capable of reconstructing a noise map, based on the combination of measured sound levels and an acoustic model of the area. By pre-calculating the sound attenuation within the network the noi

  10. Acoustic scattering properties of freshwater invertebrates

    Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan; Matěna, Josef

    Netherlands : Delft University of Technology, 2004 - (Simons, D.), s. 319-324 ISBN 90-5986-079-9. [European Conference on Underwater Acoustic /7./. Delft (NL), 05.07.2004-08.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017201 Keywords : invertebrates * target strength Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  11. Acoustic Emphasis in Four Year Olds

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Watson, Duane G.

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic emphasis may convey a range of subtle discourse distinctions, yet little is known about how this complex ability develops in children. This paper presents a first investigation of the factors which influence the production of acoustic prominence in young children's spontaneous speech. In a production experiment, SVO sentences were…

  12. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues in...

  13. Applications of acoustics in insect pest management

    Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

  14. NPS Ocean Acoustics Laboratory Marine Mammal Research

    Chiu, Ching-Sang; Collins, Curtis; Joseph, John; Margolina, Tetyana; Stimpert, Alison; Miller, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Marine Mammal Group within the Ocean Acoustics Laboratory at NPS is involved with a range of research studying marine mammal acoustics , both sound production and effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals. A sampling of our research is described below.

  15. Characterization of anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs

    Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    In an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial, the off-diagonal components of its effective mass density tensor should be considered in order to describe the anisotropic behavior produced by arbitrarily shaped inclusions. However, few studies have been carried out to characterize anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. In this paper, we propose a method that uses the non-diagonal effective mass density tensor to determine the behavior of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. Our method accurately evaluates the effective properties of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials by separately dealing with slabs made of single and multiple unit cells along the thickness direction. To determine the effective properties, the reflection and transmission coefficients of an acoustic metamaterial slab are calculated, and then the wave vectors inside of the slab are determined using these coefficients. The effective material properties are finally determined by utilizing the spatial dispersion relation of the anisotropic acoustic metamaterial. Since the dispersion relation of an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial is explicitly used, its effective properties can be easily determined by only using a limited number of normal and oblique plane wave incidences into a metamaterial slab, unlike existing approaches requiring a large number of wave incidences. The validity of the proposed method is verified by conducting wave simulations for anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs with Z-shaped elastic inclusions of tilted principal material axes.

  16. A two step viscothermal acoustic FE method

    Kampinga, Ronald; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Boer, de André

    2009-01-01

    Previously, the authors presented a finite element for viscothermal acoustics. This element has the velocity vector, the temperature and the pressure as degrees of freedom. It can be used, for example, to model sound propagation in miniature acoustical transducers. Unfortunately, the large number of

  17. Acoustic detection of electron spin resonance

    Coufal, H.

    1981-07-01

    The ESR-signal of DPPH was recorded by detecting the modulation of the absorbed microwave power with a gas-coupled microphone. This photo-acoustic detection scheme is compared with conventional ESR-detection. Applications of the acoustical detection method to other modulation spectroscopic techniques, particularly NMR, are discussed.

  18. Architectural Engineers

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged. The...... paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where the...... role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped with...

  19. A theoretical study of the feasibility of acoustical tweezers: Ray acoustics approach

    Lee, Jungwoo; Ha, Kanglyeol; Shung, K. Kirk

    2005-05-01

    The optical tweezer has been found to have many biomedical applications in trapping macromolecules and cells. For the trapping mechanism, there has to be a sharp spatial change in axial optical intensity and the particle size must be much greater than the wavelength. Similar phenomenon may exist in acoustics. This work was undertaken to demonstrate theoretically that it is possible to acoustically trap particles near the focal point where most of the acoustic energy is concentrated if certain conditions are met. Acoustic force exerted on a fluid particle in ultrasonic fields is analyzed in a ray acoustics regime where the wavelength of acoustic beam is much smaller than the size of the particle. In order to apply the acoustical tweezer to manipulating macromolecules and cells whose size is in the order of a few microns or less, a prerequisite is that the ultrasound wavelength has to be much smaller than a few microns. In this paper, the analysis is therefore based on the field pattern produced by a strongly focused 100 MHz ultrasonic transducer with Gaussian intensity distribution. For the realization of acoustic trapping, negative axial radiation force has to be generated to pull a particle towards a focus. The fat particle considered for acoustic trapping in this paper has an acoustic impedance of 1.4 MRayls. The magnitude of the acoustic axial radiation force that has been calculated as the size of the fat particle is varied from 8λ to 14λ. In addition, both Fresnel coefficients at various positions are also calculated to assess the interaction of reflection and refraction and their relative contribution to the effect of the acoustical tweezer. The simulation results show that the feasibility of the acoustical tweezer depends on both the degree of acoustic impedance mismatch and the degree of focusing relative to the particle size. .

  20. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective