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Sample records for acoustic neutrino detection

  1. Software for neutrino acoustic detection and localization

    The evidence of the existing of UHE (E>1019eV) cosmic rays and its possible connection to UHE neutrino suggests the building of an acoustic telescope for neutrino, exploiting thermo-acoustic effect. We present software for neutrino acoustic signal detection and localization. The main points discussed here are the sea noise model, the determination of time differences of arrival (TDOA) between hydrophones signals, the source localization algorithm, and the telescope geometry effect. The effect of TDOAs errors and telescope geometry on the localization accuracy is also discussed.

  2. Software for neutrino acoustic detection and localization

    Bouhadef, B. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, ' E. Fermi' University of Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: bouhadef@df.unipi.it

    2009-06-01

    The evidence of the existing of UHE (E>10{sup 19}eV) cosmic rays and its possible connection to UHE neutrino suggests the building of an acoustic telescope for neutrino, exploiting thermo-acoustic effect. We present software for neutrino acoustic signal detection and localization. The main points discussed here are the sea noise model, the determination of time differences of arrival (TDOA) between hydrophones signals, the source localization algorithm, and the telescope geometry effect. The effect of TDOAs errors and telescope geometry on the localization accuracy is also discussed.

  3. Software for neutrino acoustic detection and localization

    Bouhadef, B.

    2009-06-01

    The evidence of the existing of UHE (E>10eV) cosmic rays and its possible connection to UHE neutrino suggests the building of an acoustic telescope for neutrino, exploiting thermo-acoustic effect. We present software for neutrino acoustic signal detection and localization. The main points discussed here are the sea noise model, the determination of time differences of arrival (TDOA) between hydrophones signals, the source localization algorithm, and the telescope geometry effect. The effect of TDOAs errors and telescope geometry on the localization accuracy is also discussed.

  4. Signal Classification for Acoustic Neutrino Detection

    Neff, M; Enzenhöfer, A; Graf, K; Hößl, J; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Richardt, C

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on signal classification for deep-sea acoustic neutrino detection. In the deep sea, the background of transient signals is very diverse. Approaches like matched filtering are not sufficient to distinguish between neutrino-like signals and other transient signals with similar signature, which are forming the acoustic background for neutrino detection in the deep-sea environment. A classification system based on machine learning algorithms is analysed with the goal to find a robust and effective way to perform this task. For a well-trained model, a testing error on the level of one percent is achieved for strong classifiers like Random Forest and Boosting Trees using the extracted features of the signal as input and utilising dense clusters of sensors instead of single sensors.

  5. Fiber optic hydrophones for acoustic neutrino detection

    Buis, E. J.; Doppenberg, E. J. J.; Lahmann, R.; Toet, P. M.; de Vreugd, J.

    2016-04-01

    Cosmic neutrinos with ultra high energies can be detected acoustically using hydrophones. The detection of these neutrinos may provide crucial information about then GZK mechanism. The flux of these neutrinos, however, is expected to be low, so that a detection volume is required more than a order of magnitude larger than what has presently been realized. With a large detection volume and a large number of hydrophones, there is a need for technology that is cheap and easy to deploy. Fiber optics provide a natural way for distributed sensing. In addition, a sensor has been designed and manufactured that can be produced cost-effectively on an industrial scale. Sensitivity measurements show that the sensor is able to reach the required sea-state zero level. For a proper interpretation of the expected bipolar signals, filtering techniques should be applied to remove the effects of the unwanted resonance peaks.

  6. Sensor development and calibration for acoustic neutrino detection in ice

    Karg, Timo; Bissok, Martin; Laihem, Karim; Semburg, Benjamin; Tosi, Delia; Collaboration, for the IceCube

    2009-01-01

    A promising approach to measure the expected low flux of cosmic neutrinos at the highest energies (E > 1 EeV) is acoustic detection. There are different in-situ test installations worldwide in water and ice to measure the acoustic properties of the medium with regard to the feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection. The parameters of interest include attenuation length, sound speed profile, background noise level and transient backgrounds. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been ...

  7. Integration of Acoustic Neutrino Detection Methods into ANTARES

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope is a water Cherenkov detector currently under construction in the Mediterranean Sea. It is also designed to serve as a platform for investigations of the deep-sea environment. In this context, the ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen will integrate acoustic sensors within the infrastructure of the experiment. With this dedicated setup, tests of acoustic particle detection methods and deep-sea acoustic background studies shall be performed. The aim of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of a future acoustic neutrino telescope in the deep sea operating in the ultra-high energy regime. In these proceedings, the implementation of the project is described in the context of the premises and challenges set by the physics of acoustic particle detection and the integration into an existing infrastructure

  8. Integration of Acoustic Neutrino Detection Methods into ANTARES

    Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Lahmann, R; Naumann, C; Salomon, K

    2007-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope is a water Cherenkov detector currently under construction in the Mediterranean Sea. It is also designed to serve as a platform for investigations of the deep-sea environment. In this context, the ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen will integrate acoustic sensors within the infrastructure of the experiment. With this dedicated setup, tests of acoustic particle detection methods and deep-sea acoustic background studies shall be performed. The aim of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of a future acoustic neutrino telescope in the deep sea operating in the ultra-high energy regime. In these proceedings, the implementation of the project is described in the context of the premises and challenges set by the physics of acoustic particle detection and the integration into an existing infrastructure.

  9. Sensor development and calibration for acoustic neutrino detection in ice

    Karg, Timo; Laihem, Karim; Semburg, Benjamin; Tosi, Delia

    2009-01-01

    A promising approach to measure the expected low flux of cosmic neutrinos at the highest energies (E > 1 EeV) is acoustic detection. There are different in-situ test installations worldwide in water and ice to measure the acoustic properties of the medium with regard to the feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection. The parameters of interest include attenuation length, sound speed profile, background noise level and transient backgrounds. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been deployed in the upper 500 m of drill holes for the IceCube neutrino observatory at the geographic South Pole. In-situ calibration of sensors under the combined influence of low temperature, high ambient pressure, and ice-sensor acoustic coupling is difficult. We discuss laboratory calibrations in water and ice. Two new laboratory facilities, the Aachen Acoustic Laboratory (AAL) and the Wuppertal Water Tank Test Facility, have been set up. They offer large volumes of bubble free ice (3 m^3) and water (11 m^3) for the devel...

  10. Background studies for acoustic neutrino detection at the South Pole

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdrmann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Denger, T; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülß, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K -H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stössl, A; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Stür, M; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-01-01

    The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method to measure the tiny flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed. Lacking an in-situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10 to 50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger, sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic pulse-like events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to localize acoustic e...

  11. Understanding Piezo Based Sensors for Acoustic Neutrino Detection

    The ANTARES collaboration is currently installing a neutrino telescope off the French Mediterranean coast to measure diffuse fluxes and point sources of high energy cosmic neutrinos. The complete detector will consist of 900 photomultipliers on 12 detector lines, using 0.01km3 of sea water as target material. As part of the ANTARES deep-sea research infrastructure, the Erlangen group is planning to modify several ANTARES storeys by fitting them with acoustic receivers to study the feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection in the deep sea. In this paper, studies of the electromechanical properties of piezoelectric sensors are presented, based on an equivalent circuit diagram for the coupled mechanical and electrical oscillations of a piezoelectric element. A method for obtaining the system parameters as well as derivations of sensor properties like pressure sensitivity and intrinsic noise are treated and results compared to measurements. Finally, a possible application of these results for simulating system response and optimising reconstruction algorithms is discussed

  12. Underwater acoustic detection of ultra high energy neutrinos in Antares

    We investigate the possibility to detect ultra high energy neutrinos (UHE, 1018+ eV) by the mean of underwater acoustic methods. This study is based on experimental measurements and, when none of those are available, on numerical simulations. The sea water acts as a target for neutrinos of cosmic origin. The electroweak interaction of high energy neutrinos with water molecules leads to a cascade of secondary particles resulting in the emission of an ultra-sonic impulse by a thermo-acoustic coupling mechanism. This mechanism is little efficient, however the generated signal has good propagation properties. Ambient sea noise, as well as the self noise of the ceramic transducers used for the detection, restrict the method to UHE. In addition, the strong directivity of the signal implies that location methods, by the detection in coincidence on multiple detectors, are little efficient. At extremely high energies (1020+ eV) and for a single detector we estimate the sensitivity limit of this acoustic method to be of the order of E2*φ 106 GeV cm-2 sr-1*s-1, for an astrophysical flux 0 falling as 1/E2. (author)

  13. Acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos in South Pole ice

    Vandenbroucke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    When high-energy particles interact in dense media to produce a particle shower, most of the shower energy is deposited in the medium as heat. This causes the medium to expand locally and emit a shock wave with a medium-dependent peak frequency on the order of 10 kHz. In South Pole ice in particular, the elastic properties of the medium have been theorized to provide good coupling of particle energy to acoustic energy. The acoustic attenuation length has been theorized to be several km, which could enable a sparsely instrumented large-volume detector to search for rare signals from high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. We simulated a hybrid optical/radio/acoustic extension to the IceCube array, specifically intended to detect cosmogenic (GZK) neutrinos with multiple methods simultaneously in order to achieve high confidence in a discovered signal and to measure angular, temporal, and spectral distributions of GZK neutrinos. This work motivated the design, deployment, and operation of the South Pole Acoustic Te...

  14. Development of a compact transmitter array for the acoustic neutrino detection calibration

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Bou-Cabo, M; Larosa, G; Llorens, C D; Martínez-Mora, J A

    2011-01-01

    Parametric acoustic sources technique has been widely used in several fields of acoustics, especially in underwater acoustics with the aim to obtain very directive transducers. In this paper we present different studies and developments done during last years to develop a compact acoustic calibrator that allows emitting acoustic neutrino like signal with the goal to calibrate arrays of acoustic receiver sensors to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  15. A prototype device for acoustic neutrino detection in Lake Baikal

    Budnev, N M

    2007-01-01

    In April 2006, a 4-channel acoustic antenna has been put in long-term operation on Lake Baikal. The detector was installed at a depth of about 100 m on the instrumentation string of Baikal Neutrino Telescope NT200+. This detector may be regarded as a prototype of a subunit for a future underwater acoustic neutrino telescope. We describe the design of acoustic detector and present first results obtained from data analysis.

  16. AMADEUS - The Acoustic Neutrino Detection Test System of the ANTARES Deep-Sea Neutrino Telescope

    Aguilar, J A; Albert, A; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Jesus, A C Assis; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J-J; Auer, R; Barbarito, E; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bazzotti, M; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigongiari, C; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Brown, A; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Cârloganu, C; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Cassano, B; Castorina, E; Cavasinni, V; Cecchini, S; Ceres, A; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Sen, N Chon; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Cottini, N; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; De Bonis, G; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S; Fehr, F; Fiorello, C; Flaminio, V; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J-L; Gay, P; Giacomelli, G; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Heine, E; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hößl, J; de Jong, M; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Keller, P; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kretschmer, W; Lahmann, R; Lamare, P; Lambard, G; Larosa, G; Laschinsky, H; Le Provost, H; Lefèvre, D; Lelaizant, G; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Louis, F; Lucarelli, F; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martinez-Mora, J A; Mazure, A; Mongelli, M; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Naumann, C; Neff, M; Ostasch, R; Palioselitis, D; Pavalas, G E; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Picot-Clemente, N; Picq, C; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Radu, A; Reed, C; Riccobene, G; Richardt, C; Rujoiu, M; Ruppi, M; Russo, G V; Salesa, F; Sapienza, P; Schöck, F; Schuller, J-P; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Tasca, L; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vannoni, G; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Wijnker, G; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.09.053

    2010-01-01

    The AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for the Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system which is described in this article aims at the investigation of techniques for acoustic detection of neutrinos in the deep sea. It is integrated into the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Its acoustic sensors, installed at water depths between 2050 and 2300 m, employ piezo-electric elements for the broad-band recording of signals with frequencies ranging up to 125 kHz. The typical sensitivity of the sensors is around -145 dB re 1V/muPa (including preamplifier). Completed in May 2008, AMADEUS consists of six "acoustic clusters", each comprising six acoustic sensors that are arranged at distances of roughly 1 m from each other. Two vertical mechanical structures (so-called lines) of the ANTARES detector host three acoustic clusters each. Spacings between the clusters range from 14.5 to 340 m. Each cluster contains custom-designed electronics boards to amplify and digitise the acoustic signals from the sensors. An on...

  17. AMADEUS-The acoustic neutrino detection test system of the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope

    The AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for the Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system which is described in this article aims at the investigation of techniques for acoustic detection of neutrinos in the deep sea. It is integrated into the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Its acoustic sensors, installed at water depths between 2050 and 2300 m, employ piezo-electric elements for the broad-band recording of signals with frequencies ranging up to 125 kHz. The typical sensitivity of the sensors is around -145 dB re 1 V/μPa (including preamplifier). Completed in May 2008, AMADEUS consists of six 'acoustic clusters', each comprising six acoustic sensors that are arranged at distances of roughly 1 m from each other. Two vertical mechanical structures (so-called lines) of the ANTARES detector host three acoustic clusters each. Spacings between the clusters range from 14.5 to 340 m. Each cluster contains custom-designed electronics boards to amplify and digitise the acoustic signals from the sensors. An on-shore computer cluster is used to process and filter the data stream and store the selected events. The daily volume of recorded data is about 10 GB. The system is operating continuously and automatically, requiring only little human intervention. AMADEUS allows for extensive studies of both transient signals and ambient noise in the deep sea, as well as signal correlations on several length scales and localisation of acoustic point sources. Thus the system is excellently suited to assess the background conditions for the measurement of the bipolar pulses expected to originate from neutrino interactions.

  18. AMADEUS-The acoustic neutrino detection test system of the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC - Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Al Samarai, I. [CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Albert, A. [GRPHE - Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568, 68008 Colmar (France); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN - Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere - Institut de Recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers - Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC) - Universitat Politecnica de Valencia. C/ Paranimf 1., 46730 Gandia (Spain); Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T. [FOM Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aubert, J.-J. [CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Auer, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barbarito, E. [INFN - Sezione di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Baret, B. [APC - Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie, UMR 7164 (CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, CEA, Observatoire de Paris) 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Basa, S. [LAM - Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2011-01-21

    The AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for the Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system which is described in this article aims at the investigation of techniques for acoustic detection of neutrinos in the deep sea. It is integrated into the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Its acoustic sensors, installed at water depths between 2050 and 2300 m, employ piezo-electric elements for the broad-band recording of signals with frequencies ranging up to 125 kHz. The typical sensitivity of the sensors is around -145 dB re 1 V/{mu}Pa (including preamplifier). Completed in May 2008, AMADEUS consists of six 'acoustic clusters', each comprising six acoustic sensors that are arranged at distances of roughly 1 m from each other. Two vertical mechanical structures (so-called lines) of the ANTARES detector host three acoustic clusters each. Spacings between the clusters range from 14.5 to 340 m. Each cluster contains custom-designed electronics boards to amplify and digitise the acoustic signals from the sensors. An on-shore computer cluster is used to process and filter the data stream and store the selected events. The daily volume of recorded data is about 10 GB. The system is operating continuously and automatically, requiring only little human intervention. AMADEUS allows for extensive studies of both transient signals and ambient noise in the deep sea, as well as signal correlations on several length scales and localisation of acoustic point sources. Thus the system is excellently suited to assess the background conditions for the measurement of the bipolar pulses expected to originate from neutrino interactions.

  19. Towards Acoustic Detection of UHE Neutrinos in the Mediterranean Sea - The AMADEUS Project in ANTARES

    Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Lahmann, R; Naumann, C; Salomon, K

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic detection method is a promising option for future neutrino telescopes operating in the ultra-high energy regime. It utilises the effect that a cascade evolving from a neutrino interaction generates a sound wave, and is applicable in different target materials like water, ice and salt. Described here are the developments in and the plans for the research on acoustic particle detection in water performed by the ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen within the framework of the ANTARES experiment in the Mediterranean Sea. A set of acoustic sensors will be integrated into this optical neutrino telescope to test acoustic particle detection methods and perform background studies.

  20. Underwater acoustic detection of UHE neutrinos with the ANTARES experiment

    Simeone, Francesco; collaboration, for the ANTARES

    2009-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope is a water Cherenkov detector composed of an array of approximately 900 photomultiplier tubes in 12 vertical strings, spread over an area of about 0.1 km^2 with an instrumented height of about 350 metres. ANTARES, built in the Mediterranean Sea, is the biggest neutrino Telescope operating in the northern hemisphere. Acoustic sensors (AMADEUS project) have been integrated into the infrastructure of ANTARES, grouped in small arrays, to evaluate the feasibility of ...

  1. Acoustic neutrino detection investigations within ANTARES and prospects for KM3NeT

    Lahmann Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic neutrino detection technique is a promising approach for future large-scale detectors with the aim of measuring the small expected flux of cosmogenic neutrinos at energies exceeding 1 EeV. It suggests itself to investigate this technique in the context of underwater Cherenkov neutrino telescopes, in particular KM3NeT, because acoustic sensors are present by design to allow for the calibration of the positions of the optical sensors. For the future, the KM3NeT detector in the Mediterranean Sea will provide an ideal infrastructure for a dedicated array of acoustic sensors. In this presentation results from the acoustic array AMADEUS of the ANTARES detector will be discussed with respect to the potential and implications for acoustic neutrino detection with KM3NeT and beyond.

  2. Neutrino detection, position calibration and marine science with acoustic arrays in the deep sea

    Lahmann, R., E-mail: robert.lahmann@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-11

    Arrays of acoustic receivers are an integral part of present and potential future Cherenkov neutrino telescopes in the deep sea. They measure the positions of individual detector elements which vary with time as an effect of undersea currents. At the same time, the acoustic receivers can be employed for marine science purposes, in particular for monitoring the ambient noise environment and the signals emitted by the fauna of the sea. And last but not least, they can be used for studies towards acoustic detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos. Measuring acoustic pressure pulses in huge underwater acoustic arrays with an instrumented volume of the order of 100 km{sup 3} is a promising approach for the detection of cosmic neutrinos with energies exceeding 1 EeV. Pressure signals are produced by the particle cascades that evolve when neutrinos interact with nuclei in water, and can be detected over large distances in the kilometre range. In this article, the status of acoustic detection will be reviewed and plans for the future – most notably in the context of KM3NeT – will be discussed. The connection between neutrino detection, position calibration and marine science will be illustrated.

  3. Neutrino Detection, Position Calibration and Marine Science with Acoustic Arrays in the Deep Sea

    Lahmann, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Arrays of acoustic receivers are an integral part of present and potential future Cherenkov neutrino telescopes in the deep sea. They measure the positions of individual detector elements which vary with time as an effect of undersea currents. At the same time, the acoustic receivers can be employed for marine science purposes, in particular for monitoring the ambient noise environment and the signals emitted by the fauna of the sea. And last but not least, they can be used for studies towards acoustic detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos. Measuring acoustic pressure pulses in huge underwater acoustic arrays with an instrumented volume of the order of 100 km^3 is a promising approach for the detection of cosmic neutrinos with energies exceeding 1 EeV. Pressure signals are produced by the particle cascades that evolve when neutrinos interact with nuclei in water, and can be detected over large distances in the kilometre range. In this article, the status of acoustic detection will be reviewed and plans for...

  4. A First Detection of the Acoustic Oscillation Phase Shift Expected from the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Follin, Brent; Millea, Marius; Pan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The freestreaming of cosmological neutrinos prior to recombination of the baryon-photon plasma alters gravitational potentials and therefore the details of the time-dependent gravitational driving of acoustic oscillations. We report here a first detection of the resulting shifts in the temporal phase of the oscillations, which we infer from their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature power spectrum. The magnitude of the shift is proportional to the fraction of the total radiation density in neutrinos. Parameterizing the shift via an effective number of neutrino species we find $1.9 < N_\

  5. Detection of ultra high energy neutrinos with an underwater very large volume array of acoustic sensors: A simulation study

    Karg, Timo

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates a new approach towards the detection of ultra high energy (E > 1 EeV) cosmic neutrinos using acoustic sensors immersed in water. The method is based on the thermoacoustic model describing the production of microsecond acoustic pulses from neutrino-induced particle cascades. These cascades locally heat the medium which leads to rapid expansion and a short sonic pulse detectable in water with hydrophones over distances of several kilometres. This makes acoustic detectio...

  6. First Detection of the Acoustic Oscillation Phase Shift Expected from the Cosmic Neutrino Background.

    Follin, Brent; Knox, Lloyd; Millea, Marius; Pan, Zhen

    2015-08-28

    The unimpeded relativistic propagation of cosmological neutrinos prior to recombination of the baryon-photon plasma alters gravitational potentials and therefore the details of the time-dependent gravitational driving of acoustic oscillations. We report here a first detection of the resulting shifts in the temporal phase of the oscillations, which we infer from their signature in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum. PMID:26371637

  7. Detection of ultra high energy neutrinos with an underwater very large volume array of acoustic sensors: A simulation study

    Karg, T

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates the detection of ultra high energy (E > 1 EeV) cosmic neutrinos using acoustic sensors immersed in water. The method is based on the thermoacoustic model describing the production of microsecond bipolar acoustic pulses by neutrino-induced particle cascades. These cascades locally heat the medium which leads to rapid expansion and a short sonic pulse detectable in water with hydrophones over distances of several kilometres. This makes acoustic detection an approach complementary to todays optical Cerenkov and radio Cerenkov detectors, and could help to reduce the respective systematic uncertainties. In this work a complete simulation / reconstruction chain for a submarine acoustic neutrino telescope is developed, and the sensitivity of such a detector to a diffuse flux of ultra highenergy cosmic neutrinos is estimated.

  8. A compact array calibrator to study the feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection

    Ardid, M.; Camarena, F.; Felis, I.; Herrero, A.; Llorens, C. D.; Martínez-Mora, J.; Saldaña, M.

    2016-04-01

    Underwater acoustic detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos was proposed already in 1950s: when a neutrino interacts with a nucleus in water, the resulting particle cascade produces a pressure pulse that has a bipolar temporal structure and propagates within a flat disk-like volume. A telescope that consists of thousands of acoustic sensors deployed in the deep sea can monitor hundreds of cubic kilometres of water looking for these signals and discriminating them from acoustic noise. To study the feasibility of the technique it is critical to have a calibrator able to mimic the neutrino "signature" that can be operated from a vessel. Due to the axial-symmetry of the signal, their very directive short bipolar shape and the constraints of operating at sea, the development of such a calibrator is very challenging. Once the possibility of using the acoustic parametric technique for this aim was validated with the first compact array calibrator prototype, in this paper we describe the new design for such a calibrator composed of an array of piezo ceramic tube transducers emitting in axial direction.

  9. A compact array calibrator to study the feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection

    Ardid M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos was proposed already in 1950s: when a neutrino interacts with a nucleus in water, the resulting particle cascade produces a pressure pulse that has a bipolar temporal structure and propagates within a flat disk-like volume. A telescope that consists of thousands of acoustic sensors deployed in the deep sea can monitor hundreds of cubic kilometres of water looking for these signals and discriminating them from acoustic noise. To study the feasibility of the technique it is critical to have a calibrator able to mimic the neutrino “signature” that can be operated from a vessel. Due to the axial-symmetry of the signal, their very directive short bipolar shape and the constraints of operating at sea, the development of such a calibrator is very challenging. Once the possibility of using the acoustic parametric technique for this aim was validated with the first compact array calibrator prototype, in this paper we describe the new design for such a calibrator composed of an array of piezo ceramic tube transducers emitting in axial direction.

  10. Acoustic properties of glacial ice for neutrino detection and the Enceladus Explorer

    Helbing, K; Naumann, U; Eliseev, D; Heinen, D; Scholz, F; Wiebusch, C; Zierke, S

    2016-01-01

    Ultra high energy neutrinos may be observed in ice by the emission of acoustic signals. The SPATS detector has investigated the possibility of observing GZK-neutrinos in the clear ice near the South Pole at the IceCube detector site. To explore other potential detection sites glacial ice in the Alps and in Antarctica has been surveyed for its acoustical properties. The purpose of the Enceladus Explorer (EnEx), on the other hand, is the search for extraterrestrial life on the Saturn moon Enceladus. Here acoustics is used to maneuver a subsurface probe inside the ice by trilateration of signals. A system of acoustic transducers has been developed to study both applications. In the south polar region of the moon Enceladus there are secluded crevasses. These are filled with liquid water, probably heated by tidal forces due to the short distance to Saturn. We intend to take a sample of water from these crevasses by using a combination of a melt down and steering probe called IceMole (IM). Maneuvering IM requires a...

  11. On the measurement of high-energetic neutrinos with the IceCube neutrino telescope and with acoustic detection methods

    In this thesis, two subjects have been addressed to enhance the detection of astrophysical neutrinos with the existing IceCube neutrino telescope as well as to explore new detection methods, namely the acoustic detection. In the first part of this thesis, the determination of the acoustic attenuation length in South-Pole ice is presented. This is part of a feasibility study to investigate the acoustic neutrino detection as a possibility to enhance the detection of the highest-energy neutrinos. For this, the acoustic properties of the ice have to be known, and the South-Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been built to determine these. The attenuation length is determined using in-situ measurements with SPATS and a retrievable transmitter (pinger), which was deployed in a depth between 190 and 500 m into the water-filled drilling holes. Even though, the unknown angular-dependent sensitivities of the SPATS sensor channels cannot be avoided and are considered as the dominant systematic effect for these measurements. In this thesis, the acoustic attenuation length is calculated by comparing the energy contents of the pinger pulses recorded by the various SPATS sensor channels for different distances between the pinger and the respective channel. The energy was calculated from the Fourier spectra of the pinger pulses for a frequency range between 5 and 35 kHz. The attenuation coefficient is calculated for each channel individually and the weighted mean over the distribution of all considered channels leads to an attenuation length of 264+52-37 m. The dependence of the attenuation on both depth and frequency has been investigated, showing no indications for either. In the second part, a new event reconstruction method based on a Top-Down approach is presented. The method has been implemented for the IC40 detector and applied to the muon energy reconstruction. The Top-Down method is based on the direct comparison of single measured events with a large sample of simulated

  12. On the measurement of high-energetic neutrinos with the IceCube neutrino telescope and with acoustic detection methods

    Schunck, Matthias

    2011-10-07

    In this thesis, two subjects have been addressed to enhance the detection of astrophysical neutrinos with the existing IceCube neutrino telescope as well as to explore new detection methods, namely the acoustic detection. In the first part of this thesis, the determination of the acoustic attenuation length in South-Pole ice is presented. This is part of a feasibility study to investigate the acoustic neutrino detection as a possibility to enhance the detection of the highest-energy neutrinos. For this, the acoustic properties of the ice have to be known, and the South-Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been built to determine these. The attenuation length is determined using in-situ measurements with SPATS and a retrievable transmitter (pinger), which was deployed in a depth between 190 and 500 m into the water-filled drilling holes. Even though, the unknown angular-dependent sensitivities of the SPATS sensor channels cannot be avoided and are considered as the dominant systematic effect for these measurements. In this thesis, the acoustic attenuation length is calculated by comparing the energy contents of the pinger pulses recorded by the various SPATS sensor channels for different distances between the pinger and the respective channel. The energy was calculated from the Fourier spectra of the pinger pulses for a frequency range between 5 and 35 kHz. The attenuation coefficient is calculated for each channel individually and the weighted mean over the distribution of all considered channels leads to an attenuation length of 264{sup +52} {sub -37} m. The dependence of the attenuation on both depth and frequency has been investigated, showing no indications for either. In the second part, a new event reconstruction method based on a Top-Down approach is presented. The method has been implemented for the IC40 detector and applied to the muon energy reconstruction. The Top-Down method is based on the direct comparison of single measured events with a large sample

  13. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    Ardid, Miguel; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to...

  14. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    Carlos D. Llorens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars, high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters.

  15. Simulation of a Hybrid Optical/Radio/Acoustic Extension to IceCube for EeV Neutrino Detection

    Besson, D; Ahrens, J; Atlee, D W; Bahcall, J N; Bai, X; Baret, B; Bartelt, M; Bay, R; Barwick, S W; Beattie, K; Becka, T; Becker, K H; Becker, J K; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Braun, J; Burgess, C; Burgess, T; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Clem, J; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Davour, A; Day, C T; De Clercq, C; Desiati, P; De Young, T R; Dreyer, J; Duvoort, M R; Edwards, W R; Ehrlich, R; Ekstrom, P; Ellsworth, R W; Evenson, P A; Fazely, A R; Feser, T; Filimonov, K; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Greene, M G; Grullon, S; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J; Gro, A; Gunasingha, R M; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, D; Hardtke, R; Harenberg, T; Hart, J E; Hauschildt, T; Hays, D; Heise, J; Helbing, K; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hodges, J; Hoffman, K D; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jones, A; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K H; Karle, A; Kawai, H; Kelley, J L; Kestel, M; Kitamura, N; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Krasberg, M; Kühn, K; Kujawski, E; Landsman, H; Lang, R; Leich, H; Liubarsky, I; Lundberg, J; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McCauley, T; McParland, C P; Meli, A; Messarius, T; Mészáros, P; Minor, R H; Miocinovic, P; Miyamoto, H; Mokhtarani, A; Montaruli, T; Morey, A; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Munich, K; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olbrechts, P; Olivas, A; Patton, S; Peña-Garay, C; Perez de los Heros, C; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Pretz, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Razzaque, S; Refflinghaus, F; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Rizzo, A; Robbins, S; Rott, C; Rutledge, D; Sander, H G; Schlenstedt, S; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Silvestri, A; Smith, A J; Solarz, M; Song, C; Sopher, J E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Steffen, P; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoufer, M; Stoyanov, S; Sulanke, K H; Sullivan, G W; Sumner, T J; Taboada, I; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Voigt, B; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Waldmann, H; Walter, M; Wang, Y R; Wendt, C; Wiebusch, C; Wikström, G; Williams, D; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, X W; Yoshida, S; Yodh, G; Böser, S; Vandenbroucke, J A

    2005-01-01

    Astrophysical neutrinos at $\\sim$EeV energies promise to be an interesting source for astrophysics and particle physics. Detecting the predicted cosmogenic ("GZK") neutrinos at 10$^{16}$ - 10$^{20}$ eV would test models of cosmic ray production at these energies and probe particle physics at $\\sim$100 TeV center-of-mass energy. While IceCube could detect $\\sim$1 GZK event per year, it is necessary to detect 10 or more events per year in order to study temporal, angular, and spectral distributions. The IceCube observatory may be able to achieve such event rates with an extension including optical, radio, and acoustic receivers. We present results from simulating such a hybrid detector.

  16. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    The International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Activities, ARENA 2006 was jointly hosted by the Universities of Northumbria and Sheffield at the City of Newcastle Campus of the University of Northumbria in June 2006. ARENA 2006 was the latest in a series of meetings which have addressed, either separately or jointly, the use of radio and acoustic sensors for the detection of highly relativistic particles. Previous successful meetings have taken place in Los Angeles (RADHEP, 2000), Stanford (2003) and DESY Zeuthen (ARENA 2005). A total of 50 scientists from across Europe, the US and Japan attended the conference presenting status reports and results from a number of projects and initiatives spread as far afield as the Sweden and the South Pole. The talks presented at the meeting and the proceedings contained herein represent a `snapshot' of the status of the fields of acoustic and radio detection at the time of the conference. The three day meeting also included two invited talks by Dr Paula Chadwick and Dr Johannes Knapp who gave excellent summaries of the related astroparticle physics fields of high energy gamma ray detection and high energy cosmic ray detection respectively. As well as a full academic agenda there were social events including a Medieval themed conference banquet at Lumley Castle and a civic reception kindly provided by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle and hosted at the Mansion House. Thanks must go to the International Advisory Board members for their input and guidance, the Local Organising Committee for their hard work in bringing everything together and finally the delegates for the stimulating, enthusiastic and enjoyable spirit in which ARENA 2006 took place. Lee Thompson International Advisory Board G. Anton, ErlangenD. Besson, Kansas J. Blümer, KarlsruheA. Capone, Rome H. Falcke, BonnP. Gorham, Hawaii G. Gratta, StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L

  17. Hydrophone calibration based on microcontrollers for acoustic detection of UHE neutrinos

    Ooppakaew, W., E-mail: wichian.ooppakaew@unn.ac.uk [Northumbria University, Newcastle (United Kingdom); Danaher, S., E-mail: sean.danaher@unn.ac.uk [Northumbria University, Newcastle (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-11

    This paper discusses hydrophone calibration for generation of artificial Ultra High Energy (UHE) neutrino-induced pulses. Signal processing techniques are applied to hydrophone modelling. A bipolar acoustic generation module is built using PIC microcontrollers for processing and control. The NI-USB6211 commercial module is used for comparison. The modelling is compared to experimental data generated in a laboratory water tank. The result from simulation and experiment are compared, showing excellent agreement. This opens the way to excite steerable hydrophone arrays, which was not possible with previous hardware.

  18. Hydrophone calibration based on microcontrollers for acoustic detection of UHE neutrinos

    This paper discusses hydrophone calibration for generation of artificial Ultra High Energy (UHE) neutrino-induced pulses. Signal processing techniques are applied to hydrophone modelling. A bipolar acoustic generation module is built using PIC microcontrollers for processing and control. The NI-USB6211 commercial module is used for comparison. The modelling is compared to experimental data generated in a laboratory water tank. The result from simulation and experiment are compared, showing excellent agreement. This opens the way to excite steerable hydrophone arrays, which was not possible with previous hardware.

  19. Hydrophone calibration based on microcontrollers for acoustic detection of UHE neutrinos

    Ooppakaew, W.; Danaher, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses hydrophone calibration for generation of artificial Ultra High Energy (UHE) neutrino-induced pulses. Signal processing techniques are applied to hydrophone modelling. A bipolar acoustic generation module is built using PIC microcontrollers for processing and control. The NI-USB6211 commercial module is used for comparison. The modelling is compared to experimental data generated in a laboratory water tank. The result from simulation and experiment are compared, showing excellent agreement. This opens the way to excite steerable hydrophone arrays, which was not possible with previous hardware.

  20. Development of sensors for the acoustic detection of ultra high energy neutrinos in the deep sea

    In addition to the optical detection system used by the ANTARES detector, a proposal was made to include an acoustic system consisting of several modified ANTARES storeys to investigate the feasibility of building and operating an acoustic particle detection system in the deep sea and at the same time perform an extensive study of the acoustic properties of the deep sea environment. The directional characteristics of the sensors and their placement within the ANTARES detector had to be optimised for the study of the correlation properties of the acoustic noise at different length scales - from below a metre to above 100 metres. The so-called ''equivalent circuit diagram (=ECD) model'' - was applied to predict the acoustic properties of piezo elements, such as sensitivity and intrinsic noise, and was extended by including effects resulting from the geometrical shape of the sensors. A procedure was devised to gain the relevant ECD parameters from electrical impedance measurements of the piezo elements, both free and coupled to a surrounding medium. Based on the findings of this ECD model, intensive design studies were performed with prototype hydrophones using piezo elements as active sensors. The design best suited for the construction of acoustic sensors for ANTARES was determined, and a total of twelve hydrophones were built with a sensitivity of -145 to -140 dB re 1V/μPa between 5 and 50 kHz and an intrinsic noise power density around -90 dB re 1 V/√(Hz), giving a total noise rms of 7 mV in this frequency range. The hydrophones were pressure tested and calibrated for integration into the ANTARES acoustic system. In addition, three so-called Acoustic Modules, sensors in pressure resistant glass spheres with a sensitive bandwidth of about 80 kHz, were developed and built. The calibration procedure employed during the sensor design studies as well as for the final sensors to be installed in the ANTARES framework is presented, together with exemplary results for

  1. Development of sensors for the acoustic detection of ultra high energy neutrinos in the deep sea

    Naumann, C.L.

    2007-09-17

    In addition to the optical detection system used by the ANTARES detector, a proposal was made to include an acoustic system consisting of several modified ANTARES storeys to investigate the feasibility of building and operating an acoustic particle detection system in the deep sea and at the same time perform an extensive study of the acoustic properties of the deep sea environment. The directional characteristics of the sensors and their placement within the ANTARES detector had to be optimised for the study of the correlation properties of the acoustic noise at different length scales - from below a metre to above 100 metres. The so-called 'equivalent circuit diagram (=ECD) model' - was applied to predict the acoustic properties of piezo elements, such as sensitivity and intrinsic noise, and was extended by including effects resulting from the geometrical shape of the sensors. A procedure was devised to gain the relevant ECD parameters from electrical impedance measurements of the piezo elements, both free and coupled to a surrounding medium. Based on the findings of this ECD model, intensive design studies were performed with prototype hydrophones using piezo elements as active sensors. The design best suited for the construction of acoustic sensors for ANTARES was determined, and a total of twelve hydrophones were built with a sensitivity of -145 to -140 dB re 1V/{mu}Pa between 5 and 50 kHz and an intrinsic noise power density around -90 dB re 1 V/{radical}(Hz), giving a total noise rms of 7 mV in this frequency range. The hydrophones were pressure tested and calibrated for integration into the ANTARES acoustic system. In addition, three so-called Acoustic Modules, sensors in pressure resistant glass spheres with a sensitive bandwidth of about 80 kHz, were developed and built. The calibration procedure employed during the sensor design studies as well as for the final sensors to be installed in the ANTARES framework is presented, together with

  2. Design considerations and sensitivity estimates for an acoustic neutrino detector

    Karg, T; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Naumann, C; Salomon, K; Karg, Timo; Anton, Gisela; Graf, Kay; Hoessl, Juergen; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Lahmann, Robert; Naumann, Christopher; Salomon, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo study of an underwater neutrino telescope based on the detection of acoustic signals generated by neutrino induced cascades. This provides a promising approach to instrument large detector volumes needed to detect the small flux of cosmic neutrinos at ultra-high energies (E > 1 EeV). Acoustic signals are calculated based on the thermo-acoustic model. The signal is propagated to the sensors taking frequency dependent attenuation into account, and detected using a threshold trigger, where acoustic background is included as an effective detection threshold. A simple reconstruction algorithm allows for the determination of the cascade direction and energy. Various detector setups are compared regarding their effective volumes. Sensitivity estimates for the diffuse neutrino flux are presented.

  3. Detection of Supernova Neutrinos

    Gil-Botella, Inés

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino burst from a core-collapse supernova can provide information about the star explosion mechanism and the mechanisms of proto neutron star cooling but also about the intrinsic properties of the neutrino such as flavor oscillations. One important question is to understand to which extent can the supernova and the neutrino physics be decoupled in the observation of a single supernova. The capabilities of present and future large underground neutrino detectors to yield information about the time and flavor dependent neutrino signal from a future galactic supernova are described in this paper. Neutrinos from past cosmic supernovae are also observable and their detection will improve our knowledge of the core-collapse rates and average neutrino emission. A comparison between the different experimental techniques is included.

  4. Solar neutrino detection

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-01-01

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  5. Supernova neutrino detection

    World-wide, several detectors currently running or nearing completion are sensitive to a core collapse supernova neutrino signal in the Galaxy. I will briefly describe the nature of the neutrino signal and then survey current and future detection techniques. I will also explore what physics and astrophysics we can learn from the next Galactic core collapse

  6. Acoustic search for high-energy neutrinos in Lake Baikal: status and perspectives

    Aynutdinov, V; Balkanov, V; Belolaptikov, I; Bogorodsky, D; Budnev, N; Danilchenk, I; Domogatsky, G; Doroshenko, A; Dyachok, A; Dzhilkibaev, Zh -A; Fialkovskyk, S; Gaponenko, O; Golubkov, K; Gress, O; Gress, T; Grishin, O; Klabukov, A; Klimov, A; Kochanov, A; Konischev, K; Koshechkin, A; Kulepovk, V; Kuleshov, D; Kuzmichev, L; Lyashuk, V; Middell, E; Mikheyev, S; Milenink, M; Mirgazov, R; Osipova, E; Pan'kov, G; Pan'kov, L; Panfilov, A; Petukhov, D; Pliskovsky, E; Pokhil, P; Poleschuk, V; Popova, E; Prosin, V; Rozanov, M; Rubtzov, V; Sheifler, A; Suvorova, O; Shirokov, A; Shoibonov, B; Spiering, Ch; Tarashansky, B; Wischnewski, R; Yashin, I; Zhukov, V

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental results of on-going feasibility studies to detect cosmic neutrinos acoustically in Lake Baikal. In order to examine ambient noise conditions and to develop respective pulse detection techniques a prototype device was created. The device is operating at a depth of 150 m at the site of the Baikal Neutrino Telescope and is capable to detect and classify acoustic signals with different shapes, as well as signals from neutrino-induced showers.

  7. Simulation Chain for Acoustic Ultra-high Energy Neutrino Detectors

    Neff, M; Enzenhöfer, A; Graf, K; Hößl, J; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; 10.1016/j.nima.2012.11.147

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic neutrino detection is a promising approach for large-scale ultra-high energy neutrino detectors in water. In this article, a Monte Carlo simulation chain for acoustic neutrino detection devices in water is presented. It is designed within the SeaTray/IceTray software framework. Its modular architecture is highly flexible and makes it easy to adapt to different environmental conditions, detector geometries, and hardware. The simulation chain covers the generation of the acoustic pulse produced by a neutrino interaction and the propagation to the sensors within the detector. In this phase of the development, ambient and transient noise models for the Mediterranean Sea and simulations of the data acquisition hardware, similar to the one used in ANTARES/AMADEUS, are implemented. A pre-selection scheme for neutrino-like signals based on matched filtering is employed, as it can be used for on-line filtering. To simulate the whole processing chain for experimental data, signal classification and acoustic so...

  8. Simulation chain for acoustic ultra-high energy neutrino detectors

    Neff, M.; Anton, G.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Graf, K.; Hößl, J.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.

    2013-10-01

    Acoustic neutrino detection is a promising approach for large-scale ultra-high energy neutrino detectors in water. In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation chain for acoustic neutrino detection devices in water is presented. It is designed within the SeaTray/IceTray software framework. Its modular architecture is highly flexible and makes it easy to adapt to different environmental conditions, detector geometries, and hardware. The simulation chain covers the generation of the acoustic pulse produced by a neutrino interaction and the propagation to the sensors within the detector. In this phase of the development, ambient and transient noise models for the Mediterranean Sea and simulations of the data acquisition hardware, similar to the one used in ANTARES/AMADEUS, are implemented. A pre-selection scheme for neutrino-like signals based on matched filtering is employed, as it can be used for on-line filtering. To simulate the whole processing chain for experimental data, signal classification and acoustic source reconstruction algorithms are integrated. In this contribution, an overview of the design and capabilities of the simulation chain will be given, and some applications and preliminary studies will be presented.

  9. Alternative Detection Methods for Highest Energy Neutrinos

    Nahnhauer, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Several experimental techniques are currently under development, to measure the expected tiny fluxes of highest energy neutrinos above 10**18 eV. Projects in different stages of realisation are discussed here, which are based on optical and radio as well as acoustic detectors. For the detection of neutrino events in this energy range a combination of different detector concepts in one experiment seems to be most promising.

  10. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  11. Supernova Neutrinos Detection On Earth

    Guo, Xin-Heng; Huang, Ming-Yang; Young, Bing-Lin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the detection of supernova neutrino on Earth. Then we propose a possible method to acquire information about $\\theta_{13}$ smaller than $1.5^\\circ$ by detecting the ratio of the event numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos. Such an sensitivity cannot yet be achieved by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment.

  12. Integration of Acoustic Detection Equipment into ANTARES

    Lahmann, R; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Naumann, C; Salomon, K

    2005-01-01

    The ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen is working towards the integration of a set of acoustic sensors into the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope. With this setup, tests of acoustic particle detection methods and background studies shall be performed. The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope, which is currently being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea, will be equipped with the infrastructure to accommodate a 3-dimensional array of photomultipliers for the detection of Cherenkov light. Within this infrastructure, the required resources for acoustic sensors are available: Bandwidth for the transmission of the acoustic data to the shore, electrical power for the off-shore electronics and physical space to install the acoustic sensors and to route the connecting cables (transmitting signals and power) into the electronics containers. It will be explained how the integration will be performed with minimal modifications of the existing ANTARES design and which setup is foreseen for the acquisition of the acoustic data.

  13. Acquire information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2010-01-01

    We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about $\\theta_{13}$ and neutrino masses ...

  14. Detection of Supernova Neutrinos

    Bekman, B.; Holeczek, J.; Kisiel, J.

    2004-01-01

    Matter effects on neutrino oscillations in both, a supernova and the Earth, change the observed supernova neutrino spectra. We calculate the expected number of supernova neutrino interactions for ICARUS, SK and SNO detectors as a function of the distance which they traveled in the Earth. Calculations are performed for supernova type II at 10kpc from the Earth, using standard supernova neutrino fluxes described by thermal Fermi--Dirac distributions and the PREM I Earth matter density profile.

  15. Development of acoustic devices for ultra-high energy neutrino detectors

    Karg, T; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Naumann, C; Salomon, K; Schwemmer, S

    2005-01-01

    Acoustic neutrino detection is a promising approach to instrument the large detector volumes needed for the detection of the small neutrino fluxes expected at ultra-high energies (E > 1 EeV). We report on several studies investigating the feasibility of such an acoustic detector. High-precision lab measurements using laser and proton beams aiming at the verification of the thermo-acoustic model have been performed. Different types of acoustic sensors have been developed and characterized. An autonomous acoustic system, attached to the ANTARES prototype string "Line0", has been deployed and operated successfully at 2400 m depth, allowing for in-situ studies of the acoustic background in the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The best probe of neutrino lifetime

    Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2007-01-01

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as ~0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-ou...

  17. Neutrino detection at a spallation source

    Huang, Ming-Yang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the detection of accelerator neutrinos and supernova (SN) neutrinos at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). Firstly, by using the code FLUKA, the processes of accelerator neutrinos production during the proton beam hitting on the tungsten target can be simulated, and the yield efficiency, numerical flux, average energy of different flavor neutrinos are given. Secondly, the detection of accelerator neutrinos through two reaction channels: the neutrino-electron reactions and the neutrino-carbon reactions, is studied, and the neutrino event numbers can be calculated. Finally, while considering the SN shock effects, the MSW effects, the neutrino collective effects, and the Earth matter effects, the detection of SN neutrinos on the Earth is studied. Then, the event numbers of SN neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are given.

  18. Measurements and Simulation Studies of Piezoceramics for Acoustic Particle Detection

    Salomon, K; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Naumann, C

    2005-01-01

    Calibration sources are an indispensable tool for all detectors. In acoustic particle detection the goal of a calibration source is to mimic neutrino signatures as expected from hadronic cascades. A simple and promising method for the emulation of neutrino signals are piezo ceramics. We will present results of measruements and simulations on these piezo ceramics.

  19. Towards a cosmological neutrino mass detection

    Allison, R.; Caucal, P.; Calabrese, E.; Dunkley, J.; Louis, T.

    2015-12-01

    Future cosmological measurements should enable the sum of neutrino masses to be determined indirectly through their effects on the expansion rate of the Universe and the clustering of matter. We consider prospects for the gravitationally lensed cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in the galaxy distribution, examining how the projected uncertainty of ≈15 meV on the neutrino mass sum (a 4 σ detection of the minimal mass) might be reached over the next decade. The current 1 σ uncertainty of ≈103 meV (Planck-2015 +BAO -15 ) will be improved by upcoming "Stage-3" (S3) CMB experiments (S 3 +BAO -15 : 44 meV ), then upcoming BAO measurements (S 3 +DESI : 22 meV ), and planned next-generation "Stage 4" (S4) CMB experiments (S 4 +DESI : 15 - 19 meV , depending on angular range). An improved optical depth measurement is important: the projected neutrino mass uncertainty increases to 26 meV if S4 is limited to ℓ>20 and combined with current large-scale polarization data. Looking beyond Λ CDM , including curvature uncertainty increases the forecast mass error by ≈50 % for S 4 +DESI , and more than doubles the error with a two-parameter dark-energy equation of state. Complementary low-redshift probes including galaxy lensing will play a role in distinguishing between massive neutrinos and a departure from a w =-1 , flat geometry.

  20. Simulation and Analysis Chain for Acoustic Ultra-high Energy Neutrino Detectors in Water

    Neff, M; Enzenhöfer, A; Graf, K; Hößl, J; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Sieger, C

    2013-01-01

    Acousticneutrinodetectionisapromisingapproachforlarge-scaleultra-highenergyneutrinodetectorsinwater.In this article, a Monte Carlo simulation chain for acoustic neutrino detection devices in water will be presented. The simulation chain covers the generation of the acoustic pulse produced by a neutrino interaction and its propagation to the sensors within the detector. Currently, ambient and transient noise models for the Mediterranean Sea and simulations of the data acquisition hardware, equivalent to the one used in ANTARES/AMADEUS, are implemented. A pre-selection scheme for neutrino-like signals based on matched filtering is employed, as it is used for on-line filtering. To simulate the whole processing chain for experimental data, signal classification and acoustic source reconstruction algorithms are integrated in an analysis chain. An overview of design and capabilities of the simulation and analysis chain will be presented and preliminary studies will be discussed.

  1. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  2. Towards a cosmological neutrino mass detection

    Allison, Rupert; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Louis, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    Future cosmological measurements should enable the sum of neutrino masses to be determined indirectly through their effects on the expansion rate of the Universe and the clustering of matter. We consider prospects for the gravitationally lensed Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, examining how the projected uncertainty of $\\approx15$ meV on the neutrino mass sum (a 4$\\sigma$ detection of the minimal mass) might be reached over the next decade. The current 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty of $\\approx 103$ meV (Planck-2015+BAO-15) will be improved by upcoming 'Stage-3' CMB experiments (S3+BAO-15: 44 meV), then upcoming BAO measurements (S3+DESI: 22 meV), and planned next-generation 'Stage 4' CMB experiments (S4+DESI: 15-19 meV, depending on angular range). An improved optical depth measurement is important: the projected neutrino mass uncertainty increases to $26$ meV if S4 is limited to $\\ell>20$ and combined with current large-scale polarization data. Loo...

  3. New ideas in neutrino detection

    M R Vagins

    2006-10-01

    What is new in the field of neutrino detection? In addition to new projects probing both the low and high ends of the neutrino energy scale, an inexpensive, effective technique is being developed to allow tagging of antineutrinos in water Cherenkov (WC) detectors via the addition to water of a solute with a large neutron cross-section and energetic daughters. Gadolinium is an excellent candidate since in recent years it has become very inexpensive, now less than 8 per kilogram in the form of commercially available gadolinium trichloride. This non-toxic, non-reactive substance is highly soluble in water. Neutron capture on gadolinium yields an 8.0 MeV gamma cascade easily seen in detectors like Super-Kamiokande. The uses of GdCl3 as a possible upgrade for the Super-Kamiokande detector - with a view toward improving its performance as an antineutrino detector for supernova neutrinos and reactor neutrinos - are discussed, as are the ongoing R & D efforts which aim to make this dream a reality within the next two years.

  4. Detecting sterile neutrinos with KATRIN like experiments

    Riis, Anna Sejersen; Hannestad, Steen

    2011-01-01

    A sterile neutrino with mass in the eV range, mixing with bar nue, is allowed and possibly even preferred by cosmology and oscillation experiments. If such eV-mass neutrinos exist they provide a much better target for direct detection in beta decay experiments than the active neutrinos which...

  5. Detection of neutrinos

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2016-05-10

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  6. Prospects for Detecting Supernova Neutrino Flavor Oscillations

    Fuller, G M; McLaughlin, G C

    1999-01-01

    The neutrinos from a Type II supernova provide perhaps our best opportunity to probe cosmologically interesting muon and/or tauon neutrino masses. This is because matter enhanced neutrino oscillations can lead to an anomalously hot nu_e spectrum, and thus to enhanced charged current cross sections in terrestrial detectors. Two recently proposed supernova neutrino observatories, OMNIS and LAND, will detect neutrons spalled from target nuclei by neutral and charged current neutrino interactions. As this signal is not flavor specific, it is not immediately clear whether a convincing neutrino oscillation signal can be extracted from such experiments. To address this issue we examine the responses of a series of possible light and heavy mass targets, 9Be, 23Na, 35Cl, and 208Pb. We find that strategies for detecting oscillations which use only neutron count rates are problematic at best, even if cross sections are determined by ancillary experiments. Plausible uncertainties in supernova neutrino spectra tend to obs...

  7. 3D acoustic imaging applied to the Baikal neutrino telescope

    Kebkal, K.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Blumenstrasse 49, 10243 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kebkal@evologics.de; Bannasch, R.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Blumenstrasse 49, 10243 Berlin (Germany); Panfilov, A.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Wischnewski, R. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15735 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-04-11

    A hydro-acoustic imaging system was tested in a pilot study on distant localization of elements of the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope. For this innovative approach, based on broad band acoustic echo signals and strictly avoiding any active acoustic elements on the telescope, the imaging system was temporarily installed just below the ice surface, while the telescope stayed in its standard position at 1100 m depth. The system comprised an antenna with four acoustic projectors positioned at the corners of a 50 m square; acoustic pulses were 'linear sweep-spread signals'-multiple-modulated wide-band signals (10{yields}22 kHz) of 51.2 s duration. Three large objects (two string buoys and the central electronics module) were localized by the 3D acoustic imaging, with an accuracy of {approx}0.2 m (along the beam) and {approx}1.0 m (transverse). We discuss signal forms and parameters necessary for improved 3D acoustic imaging of the telescope, and suggest a layout of a possible stationary bottom based 3D imaging setup. The presented technique may be of interest for neutrino telescopes of km{sup 3}-scale and beyond, as a flexible temporary or as a stationary tool to localize basic telescope elements, while these are completely passive.

  8. 3D acoustic imaging applied to the Baikal neutrino telescope

    A hydro-acoustic imaging system was tested in a pilot study on distant localization of elements of the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope. For this innovative approach, based on broad band acoustic echo signals and strictly avoiding any active acoustic elements on the telescope, the imaging system was temporarily installed just below the ice surface, while the telescope stayed in its standard position at 1100 m depth. The system comprised an antenna with four acoustic projectors positioned at the corners of a 50 m square; acoustic pulses were 'linear sweep-spread signals'-multiple-modulated wide-band signals (10→22 kHz) of 51.2 s duration. Three large objects (two string buoys and the central electronics module) were localized by the 3D acoustic imaging, with an accuracy of ∼0.2 m (along the beam) and ∼1.0 m (transverse). We discuss signal forms and parameters necessary for improved 3D acoustic imaging of the telescope, and suggest a layout of a possible stationary bottom based 3D imaging setup. The presented technique may be of interest for neutrino telescopes of km3-scale and beyond, as a flexible temporary or as a stationary tool to localize basic telescope elements, while these are completely passive.

  9. Project DUMAND and the tradeoffs between acoustic and optical detection

    The Deep Underseas Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) Project is briefly described, with emphasis upon the trade-offs between optical and acoustic detection in the proposed cubic kilometer detector. The status of the program, which is nearing the detector design study and testing stage, is discussed

  10. A Novel Approach In The Detection Of Muon Neutrino To Tau Neutrino Oscillation From Extragalactic Neutrinos

    Iyer, S R

    2001-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for studying the νμ → ν τ oscillation and detection of extragalactic neutrinos. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB) and Topological Defects are believed to be sources of ultrahigh energy νμ and ντ. These astrophysical sources provide a long baseline of 100Mpc, or more, for possible detection of νμ → ντ oscillation with mixing parameter Δm2 down to 10 −17 eV2, many orders of magnitude below the current accelerator experiments. The propagation characteristics of upward going muon and tau neutrinos is studied to show that high energy tau neutrinos cascade down in energy as they propagate through the Earth, producing an enhancement of the incoming tau neutrino flux in the low energy region. By contrast, high energy muon neutrinos get attenuated as they traverse the Earth. It is observed that the relative steepness of the incoming neutrino flux...

  11. GRB neutrino detection via time profile stacking

    van Eijndhoven, Nick

    2007-01-01

    A method is presented for the identification of high-energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts by means of a large-scale neutrino telescope. The procedure makes use of a time profile stacking technique of observed neutrino induced signals in correlation with satellite observations. By selecting a rather wide time window, a possible difference between the arrival times of the gamma and neutrino signals may also be identified. This might provide insight in the particle production processes at the source. By means of a toy model it will be demonstrated that a statistically significant signal can be obtained with a km$^{3}$-scale neutrino telescope on a sample of 500 gamma ray bursts for a signal rate as low as 1 detectable neutrino for 3% of the bursts.

  12. Relic Right-handed Dirac Neutrinos and Implications for Detection of Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Zhang, Jue

    2015-01-01

    It remains to be determined experimentally if massive neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac particles. In this connection, it has been recently suggested that the detection of cosmic neutrino background of left-handed neutrinos $\

  13. Detecting supernovae neutrino with Earth matter effect

    Liao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We study Earth matter effect in oscillation of supernovae neutrinos. We show that detecting Earth matter effect gives an independent measurement of spectra of supernovae neutrinos, i.e. the flavor difference of the spectra of supernovae neutrinos. We study the effect of energy resolution and angular resolution of final electron or positron on detecting the signal of Earth matter effect. We show that varying the widths of energy bins in analysis can change the signal strength of Earth matter effect and the statistical fluctuation. A reasonable choice of energy bins can both suppress the statistical fluctuation and make out a good signal strength relative to the statistical fluctuation. Neutrino detectors with good energy resolution and good angular resolution are therefore preferred so that there are more freedom to vary energy bins and to optimize the signal of Earth matter effect in analyzing events of supernovae neutrinos.

  14. Detection of supernova neutrinos with neutrino-iron scattering

    The νe-56Fe cross section is evaluated in the projected quasiparticle random phase approximation (PQRPA). This model solves the puzzle observed in RPA for nuclei with mass around 12C, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. The cross sections as a function of the incident neutrino energy are compared with recent theoretical calculations of similar models. The average cross section weighted with the flux spectrum yields a good agreement with the experimental data. The expected number of events in the detection of supernova neutrinos is calculated for the LVD detector, leading to an upper limit for the electron neutrino energy of particular importance in this experiment

  15. Acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cascades in ice

    Boeser, S.

    2006-12-08

    Current underwater optical neutrino telescopes are designed to detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources with energies in the TeV range. Due to the low fluxes and small cross sections, no high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin have been observed so far. Only the Cherenkov neutrino detectors on the km{sup 3} scale that are currently under construction will have the necessary volume to observe these rare interactions. For the guaranteed source of neutrinos from interactions of the ultra-high energy cosmic at EeV energies rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background, event rates of only one per year are expected in these experiments. To measure the flux and verify the predicted cross sections of these cosmogenic neutrinos, an observed volume of the order of 100 km{sup 3} will be necessary, that will not be feasible with existing detection techniques. Alternative methods are required to build a detector on these scales. One promising idea is to record the acoustic waves generated in hadronic or electromagnetic cascades following the neutrino interaction. The higher amplitudes of the sonic signal and the large expected absorption length of sound favour South Polar ice instead of sea water as a medium. The prerequisites for an estimate of the potential of such a detector are suitable acoustic sensors, a verification of the model of thermo-acoustic sound generation and a determination of the acoustic properties of the ice. In a theoretical derivation the mechanism of thermo-elastic excitation of acoustic waves was shown to be equivalent for isotropic solids and liquids. Following a detailed analysis of the existing knowledge a simulation study of a hybrid optical-radio-acoustic detector has been performed. Ultrasonic sensors dedicated to in-ice application were developed and have been used to record acoustic signals from intense proton and laser beams in water and ice. With the obtained experience, the hitherto largest array of acoustic sensors and

  16. Acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cascades in ice

    Current underwater optical neutrino telescopes are designed to detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources with energies in the TeV range. Due to the low fluxes and small cross sections, no high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin have been observed so far. Only the Cherenkov neutrino detectors on the km3 scale that are currently under construction will have the necessary volume to observe these rare interactions. For the guaranteed source of neutrinos from interactions of the ultra-high energy cosmic at EeV energies rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background, event rates of only one per year are expected in these experiments. To measure the flux and verify the predicted cross sections of these cosmogenic neutrinos, an observed volume of the order of 100 km3 will be necessary, that will not be feasible with existing detection techniques. Alternative methods are required to build a detector on these scales. One promising idea is to record the acoustic waves generated in hadronic or electromagnetic cascades following the neutrino interaction. The higher amplitudes of the sonic signal and the large expected absorption length of sound favour South Polar ice instead of sea water as a medium. The prerequisites for an estimate of the potential of such a detector are suitable acoustic sensors, a verification of the model of thermo-acoustic sound generation and a determination of the acoustic properties of the ice. In a theoretical derivation the mechanism of thermo-elastic excitation of acoustic waves was shown to be equivalent for isotropic solids and liquids. Following a detailed analysis of the existing knowledge a simulation study of a hybrid optical-radio-acoustic detector has been performed. Ultrasonic sensors dedicated to in-ice application were developed and have been used to record acoustic signals from intense proton and laser beams in water and ice. With the obtained experience, the hitherto largest array of acoustic sensors and transmitters was

  17. Proposal for resonant detection of relic massive neutrinos

    Birrell, Jeremiah; Rafelski, Johann [University of Arizona, Department of Physics, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present a novel method for detecting the relic neutrino background that takes advantage of structured quantum degeneracy to amplify the drag force from neutrinos scattering off a detector. Developing this idea, we present a characterization of the present day relic neutrino distribution in an arbitrary frame, including the influence of neutrino mass and neutrino reheating by e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. We present explicitly the neutrino velocity and de Broglie wavelength distributions for the case of an Earthbound observer. Considering that relic neutrinos could exhibit quantum liquid features at the present day temperature and density, we discuss the impact of neutrino fluid correlations on the possibility of resonant detection. (orig.)

  18. Prospects for cryogenic detection of solar neutrinos

    Several projects are underway aimed at developing techniques to detect low energy (Eν < 1 keV) neutrinos. They are based on cryogenic methods. The reasons why the study of solar neutrinos requires such techniques, the principles on which they are based and their present status are discussed. Especially, the crystal technique and the superfluid helium technique is considered. (author) 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. HADES - Hydrophone for Acoustic Detection at South Pole

    Semburg, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) is located in the upper part of the optical neutrino observatory IceCube, currently under construction. SPATS consists of four strings at depths between 80 m and 500 m below the surface of the ice with seven stages per string. Each stage is equipped with an acoustic sensor and a transmitter. Three strings (string A-C) were deployed in the austral summer 2006/07. SPATS was extended by a fourth string (string D) with second generation sensors and transmitters in 2007/08. One second generation sensor type HADES (Hydrophone for Acoustic Detection at South Pole) consists of a ring-shaped piezo-electric element coated with polyurethane. The development of the sensor, optimization of acoustic transmission by acoustic impedance matching and first in-situ results will be discussed.

  20. Detection Prospects of the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CnuB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CnuB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CnuB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHEC\

  1. Supernova Neutrino Detection with IceCube

    IceCube was completed in December 2010. It forms a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes that monitor a volume of ∼ 1 km3 in the deep Antarctic ice for particle induced photons. The telescope was designed to detect neutrinos with energies greater than 100 GeV. Owing to subfreezing ice temperatures, the photomultiplier dark noise rates are particularly low. Hence IceCube can also detect large numbers of MeV neutrinos by observing a collective rise in all photomultiplier rates on top of the dark noise. With 2 ms timing resolution, IceCube can track subtle features in the temporal development of the supernova neutrino burst. For a supernova at the galactic center, its sensitivity matches that of a background-free megaton-scale supernova search experiment. The sensitivity decreases to 20 standard deviations at the galactic edge (30 kpc) and 6 standard deviations at the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc). IceCube is sending triggers from potential supernovae to the Supernova Early Warning System. The sensitivity to neutrino properties such as the neutrino hierarchy is discussed and simulations of tantalizing signatures, such as the formation of a quark star or a black hole as well as the characteristics of shock waves are presented. All results are preliminary.

  2. Precision Detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    In the standard big bang cosmology the canonical value for the ratio of relic neutrinos to cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons is 9/11. Within the framework of the standard model of particle physics there are small corrections, in sum about 1% , due to slight heating of neutrinos by electron-positron annihilations and finite-temperature QED effects. We show that this leads to changes in the predicted CMB anisotropies that will bias determination of the other cosmological parameters if not correctly taken into account. These changes might be detected by future satellite experiments. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  3. Detection of supernova neutrinos at spallation neutron sources

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2016-07-01

    After considering supernova shock effects, Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, neutrino collective effects, and Earth matter effects, the detection of supernova neutrinos at the China Spallation Neutron Source is studied and the expected numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are calculated with the neutrino energy spectra described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution and the “beta fit” distribution respectively. Furthermore, the numerical calculation method of supernova neutrino detection on Earth is applied to some other spallation neutron sources, and the total expected numbers of supernova neutrinos observed through different reactions channels are given. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205185, 11175020, 11275025, 11575023)

  4. Golden Gate and Pt. Reyes Acoustic Detections

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detections of acoustic tagged fish from two general locations: Golden Gate (east and west line) and Pt. Reyes. Several Vemco 69khz acoustic...

  5. Detection of supernova neutrinos at spallation neutron sources

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2015-01-01

    After considering the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the neutrino collective effects, and the Earth matter effects, the detection of supernova neutrinos at China Spallation Neutron Sources is studied and the event numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are calculated with the neutrino energy spectra described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution and "beta fit" distribution respectively. Furthermore, the numeric...

  6. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  7. Supernova Neutrino Detection with IceCube

    ,

    2011-01-01

    IceCube was completed in December 2010. It forms a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes that monitor a volume of ~ 1 cubic km in the deep Antarctic ice for particle induced photons. The telescope was designed to detect neutrinos with energies greater than 100 GeV. Owing to subfreezing ice temperatures, the photomultiplier dark noise rates are particularly low. Hence IceCube can also detect large numbers of MeV neutrinos by observing a collective rise in all photomultiplier rates on top of the dark noise. With 2 ms timing resolution, IceCube can track subtle features in the temporal development of the supernova neutrino burst. For a supernova at the galactic center, its sensitivity matches that of a background-free megaton-scale supernova search experiment. The sensitivity decreases to 20 standard deviations at the galactic edge (30 kpc) and 6 standard deviations at the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc). IceCube is sending triggers from potential supernovae to the Supernova Early Warning System. The sensitivity...

  8. Acoustic detection of electron spin resonance

    Coufal, H.

    1981-07-01

    The ESR-signal of DPPH was recorded by detecting the modulation of the absorbed microwave power with a gas-coupled microphone. This photo-acoustic detection scheme is compared with conventional ESR-detection. Applications of the acoustical detection method to other modulation spectroscopic techniques, particularly NMR, are discussed.

  9. Relic right-handed Dirac neutrinos and implications for detection of cosmic neutrino background

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-02-01

    It remains to be determined experimentally if massive neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac particles. In this connection, it has been recently suggested that the detection of cosmic neutrino background of left-handed neutrinos νL and right-handed antineutrinos ν‾R in future experiments of neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (e.g., νe +3H →3He +e- for the PTOLEMY experiment) is likely to distinguish between Majorana and Dirac neutrinos, since the capture rate is twice larger in the former case. In this paper, we investigate the possible impact of right-handed neutrinos on the capture rate, assuming that massive neutrinos are Dirac particles and both right-handed neutrinos νR and left-handed antineutrinos ν‾L can be efficiently produced in the early Universe. It turns out that the capture rate can be enhanced at most by 28% due to the presence of relic νR and ν‾L with a total number density of 95 cm-3, which should be compared to the number density 336 cm-3 of cosmic neutrino background. The enhancement has actually been limited by the latest cosmological and astrophysical bounds on the effective number of neutrino generations Neff =3.14-0.43+0.44 at the 95% confidence level. For illustration, two possible scenarios have been proposed for thermal production of right-handed neutrinos in the early Universe.

  10. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    David G. Cerdeño; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Boehm, Céline

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos...

  11. Acoustic resonance for nonmetallic mine detection

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of acoustic resonance for detection of plastic mines was investigated by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Instrumentation and Controls Division under an internally funded program. The data reported in this paper suggest that acoustic resonance is not a practical method for mine detection. Representative small plastic anti-personnel mines were tested, and were found to not exhibit detectable acoustic resonances. Also, non-metal objects known to have strong acoustic resonances were tested with a variety of excitation techniques, and no practical non-contact method of exciting a consistently detectable resonance in a buried object was discovered. Some of the experimental data developed in this work may be useful to other researchers seeking a method to detect buried plastic mines. A number of excitation methods and their pitfalls are discussed. Excitation methods that were investigated include swept acoustic, chopped acoustic, wavelet acoustic, and mechanical shaking. Under very contrived conditions, a weak response that could be attributed to acoustic resonance was observed, but it does not appear to be practical as a mine detection feature. Transfer properties of soil were investigated. Impulse responses of several representative plastic mines were investigated. Acoustic leakage coupling, and its implications as a disruptive mechanism were investigated.

  12. Progress on a spherical TPC for low energy neutrino detection

    The new concept of the spherical TPC aims at relatively large target masses with low threshold and background, keeping an extremely simple and robust operation. Such a device would open the way to detect the neutrino-nucleus interaction, which, although a standard process, remains undetected due to the low energy of the neutrino-induced nuclear recoils. The progress in the development of the first 1 m3 prototype at Saclay is presented. Other physics goals of such a device could include supernova detection, low energy neutrino oscillations and study of non-standard properties of the neutrino, among others

  13. Gravitational clustering of relic neutrinos and implications for their detection

    Ringwald, Andreas; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.(School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia)

    2004-01-01

    We study the gravitational clustering of big bang relic neutrinos onto existing cold dark matter (CDM) and baryonic structures within the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model, using both numerical simulations and a semi-analytical linear technique, with the aim of understanding the neutrinos' clustering properties for direct detection purposes. In a comparative analysis, we find that the linear technique systematically underestimates the amount of clustering for a wide range of CDM halo and neutrino masse...

  14. Supernova Neutrinos: Production, Oscillations and Detection

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Saviano, Ninetta; Scholberg, Kate; Bollig, Robert; Hudepohl, Lorenz; Chakraborty, Sovan

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos play a crucial role in the collapse and explosion of massive stars, governing the infall dynamics of the stellar core, triggering and fueling the explosion and driving the cooling and deleptonization of the newly formed neutron star. Due to their role neutrinos carry information from the heart of the explosion and, due to their weakly interacting nature, offer the only direct probe of the dynamics and thermodynamics at the center of a supernova. In this paper, we review the present status of modelling the neutrino physics and signal formation in collapsing and exploding stars. We assess the capability of current and planned large underground neutrino detectors to yield faithful information of the time and flavor dependent neutrino signal from a future Galactic supernova. We show how the observable neutrino burst would provide a benchmark for fundamental supernova physics with unprecedented richness of detail. Exploiting the treasure of the measured neutrino events requires a careful discrimination o...

  15. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-05-26

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν}<(0.83±0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν}<(0.94±0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  16. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses mν via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be mν<(0.83±0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is mν<(0.94±0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted

  17. Galactic abundances as a relic neutrino detection scheme

    Riis, Anna Sejersen; Thomas Zinner, Nikolaj; Hannestad, Steen

    2011-01-01

    We propose to use the threshold-free process of neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (NCB) using all available candidate nuclei in the Milky Way as target material in order to detect the presence of the Cosmic neutrino background. By integrating over the lifetime of the galaxy one might be able...... decays. Secondly, relic neutrinos have so low energy that their de Broglie wavelengths are macroscopic and they may therefore scatter coherently on the electronic cloud of the candidate atoms. One must therefore compare the cross sections for the two processes (induced beta-decay by neutrino capture, and...... coherent scattering of the neutrinos on atomic nuclei) before drawing any conclusions. Finally, the density of target nuclei in the galaxy must be calculated. We assume supernovae as the only production source and approximate the neutrino density as a homogenous background. Here we perform the full...

  18. Radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos

    Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino astronomy constitutes a new window of observation onto the UHE universe. The detection and characterization of astrophysical neutrinos at the highest energies (E> 1018 eV) would reveal the sources of high-energy cosmic rays, the highest energy particles ever seen, and would constrain the evolution of such sources over time. UHE neutrino astrophysics also allows us to probe weak interaction couplings at energies much greater than those available at particle colliders. One promising way of detecting the highest energy neutrinos is through the radio emission created when they interact in a large volume of dielectric, such as ice. Here I discuss current results and future efforts to instrument large volumes of detector material with radio antennas to detect, point back, and characterize the energy of UHE astrophysical neutrinos

  19. Probing pseudo-Dirac neutrino through detection of neutrino-induced muons from gamma ray burst neutrinos

    Debasish Majumdar

    2008-01-01

    The possibility to verify the pseudo-Dirac nature of neutrinos is investigated here via the detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos from distant cosmological objects like -ray bursts (GRBs). The very long baseline and the energy range from ∼TeV to ∼EeV for such neutrinos invoke the likelihood to probe very small pseudo-Dirac splittings. The expected secondary muons from such neutrinos that can be detected by a kilometer scale detector such as ICECUBE is calculated and compared with the same in the case of mass-flavour oscillations and for no oscillation cases. The calculated muon yields indicate that to probe such small pseudo-Dirac splittings one needs to look for a nearby GRB (red shift ∼ 0:03 or less) whereas for a distant GRB ( ∼ 1) the flux will be much depleted and such phenomenon cannot be distinguished. Also calculated are the muon-to-shower ratios.

  20. Supernove Neutrinos: Production, Flavor Conversions and Detection

    A. Mirizzi; I. Tamborra; H.T. Janka; N. Saviano; K. Scholberg; R. Bollig; L. Hüdepohl; S. Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos play a crucial role in the collapse and explosion of massive stars, governing the infall dynamics of the stellar core, triggering and fueling the explosion and driving the cooling and deleptonization of the newly formed neutron star. Due to their role neutrinos carry information from the h

  1. Indirect detection of dark matter with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    The ANTANARES telescope is composed of an array of 900 photomultipliers (12 lines) that will be immersed in the Mediterranean sea at a depth of 2500 m. The photomultipliers are sensitive to the Cherenkov light emitted by high energy muons produced in the interactions of neutrinos with matter. My work consisted in the calibration of the detector, in time and charge in order to extract the crucial data for the reconstruction of the particle tracks and the ability of the detector to distinguish the atmospheric neutrinos from astrophysical neutrinos. The first part of this work is dedicated to the today understanding of the universe and of its models and of the importance of the neutrinos as the messengers of what occurs in the remote parts of the universe. The detection of neutrinos through the Cerenkov effect is detailed and the ANTANARES detector is presented. The second part deals with the study of the background radiation due to atmospheric muons and neutrinos. A simulation is the only tool to assess the background radiation level and to be able to extract the signal due to solar neutrinos. The third part shows how the solar neutrino flux might be influenced by the interaction of dark matter with baryonic matter. A Monte-Carlo simulation has allowed us to quantify this interaction and measure its impact on the number of events detected by ANTANARES. (A.C.)

  2. A Feasibility Study for the Detection of Supernova Explosions with an Undersea Neutrino Telescope

    Leisos, A; Tzamarias, S E

    2012-01-01

    We study the potential of a very large volume underwater Mediterranean neutrino telescope to observe neutrinos from supernova (SN) explosions within our galaxy. The intense neutrino burst emitted in a SN explosion results in a large number of MeV neutrinos inside the instrumented volume of the neutrino telescope that can be detected (mainly) via the reaction \

  3. How difficult it would be to detect cosmic neutrino background?

    Possible ways of detecting the cosmic neutrino background are described and their difficulties discussed. Among them, the capture on the radioactive tritium nuclei is challenging, but perhaps doable. The principal difficulty is the need for the combination of a very strong source and very good detector resolution. It is argued that if it turns out that the neutrino masses follow the degenerate scenario, i.e. if mν ≥ 0.1 eV for all three massive neutrinos, then it is important to devote a substantial effort to develop a realistic detection experiment

  4. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2θWto date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neu...

  5. Can cosmology detect hierarchical neutrino masses?

    Hannestad, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We have carefully analysed the potential of future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Large Scale Structure (LSS) measurements to probe neutrino masses. We perform a Fisher matrix analysis on a 9-dimensional cosmological parameter space and find that data from the Planck CMB experiment combined with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) can measure a neutrino mass of 0.12 eV at 95% conf. This is almost at the level of the 0.06 eV mass suggested by current neutrino oscillation data. A future ...

  6. Detecting Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun with Neutrinos

    Murase, Kohta; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) may have a relic density that is in part determined by a particle/antiparticle asymmetry, much like baryons. If this is the case, it can accumulate in stars like the Sun to sizable number densities and annihilate to Standard Model (SM) particles including neutrinos. We show that the combination of neutrino telescope and direct detection data can be used in conjunction to determine or constrain the DM asymmetry from data. Depending on the DM mass, the current neutrino data fro...

  7. Detection of tau neutrinos by Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes

    Gora, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential to detect tau neutrinos in the energy range of 1-1000 PeV searching for very inclined showers with imaging Cherenkov telescopes. A neutrino induced tau lepton escaping from the Earth may decay and initiate an air shower which can be detected by a fluorescence or Cherenkov telescope. We present here a study of the detection potential of Earth-skimming neutrinos taking into account neutrino interactions in the Earth crust, local matter distributions at various detector sites, the development of tau-induced showers in air and the detection of Cherenkov photons with IACTs. We analysed simulated shower images on the camera focal plane and implemented generic reconstruction chains based on Hillas parameters. We find that present IACTs can distinguish air showers induced by tau neutrinos from the background of hadronic showers in the PeV-EeV energy range. We present the neutrino trigger efficiency obtained for a few configurations being considered for the next-generation Cherenk...

  8. Detection of tau neutrinos by Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes

    Gora, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential to detect tau neutrinos in the energy range of 1-1000 PeV searching for very inclined showers with imaging Cherenkov telescopes. A neutrino induced tau lepton escaping from the Earth may decay and initiate an air shower which can be detected by a fluorescence or Cherenkov telescope. We present here a study of the detection potential of Earth-skimming neutrinos taking into account neutrino interactions in the Earth crust, local matter distributions at various detector sites, the development of tau-induced showers in air and the detection of Cherenkov photons with IACTs. We analyzed simulated shower images on the camera focal plane and implemented generic reconstruction chains based on Hillas parameters. We find that present IACTs can distinguish air showers induced by tau neutrinos from the background of hadronic showers in the PeV-EeV energy range. We present the neutrino trigger efficiency obtained for a few configurations being considered for the next-generation Cherenk...

  9. Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical

  10. Improving Accuracy in Detecting Acoustic Onsets

    Duyck, Wouter; Anseel, Frederik; Szmalec, Arnaud; Mestdagh, Pascal; Tavernier, Antoine; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In current cognitive psychology, naming latencies are commonly measured by electronic voice keys that detect when sound exceeds a certain amplitude threshold. However, recent research (e.g., K. Rastle & M. H. Davis, 2002) has shown that these devices are particularly inaccurate in precisely detecting acoustic onsets. In this article, the authors…

  11. J-PARC Press Release: Electron neutrino oscillation detected at T2K

    T2K Press Office

    2011-01-01

    Tsukuba, Japan, June 15, 2011. The T2K experiment, whose primary purpose is to study neutrino interactions at a large distance from their source, has detected 6 electron neutrino candidate events based on the data collected before March 11, 2011. For the first time, it was possible to observe an indication that muon neutrinos are able to transform into electron neutrinos over a distance of 295 km through the quantum mechanical phenomena of neutrino flavor oscillations.   The Super-Kamiokande detector, in Japan. © 2011, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK. The T2K experiment is searching for the neutrino oscillation phenomena, where particular types of neutrinos transform into other types of neutrinos. These observations help determine neutrino masses, as well elucidating the uncharted nature of neutrinos, such as the relationship among three neutrino generations (types). T2K aims at the world’s best sensitivity by detecting neutrinos with the Super-Kamiokande d...

  12. Detection of weak neutral currents in inclusive neutrino reactions

    At a neutrino experiment performed at CERN both the first purely leptonic reaction νsub(μ)e- → νsub(μ)e- and the inclusive inelastic neutrino-nucleon reaction νsub(μ)N → νsub(μ) hadrons were detected for the first time. The present thesis contains more detailed analysis of the last hadronic reaction in the energy range of several GeV. (orig./HSI)

  13. Solar neutrinos: propsects for detection and implications

    From the viewpoint of particle physics, the sun provides us with a high intensity (approx. 1011/cm2sec) source of neutrinos that have traveled over an interesting distance. We would be remiss not to exploit this opportunity to mount incomparable neutrino oscillation experiments. From the viewpoint of astrophysics, these neutrinos carry, in their flux and energy distribution, a precise record of the thermonuclear reactions that we believe occur in the sun's high-temperature core. They provide a unique, quantitative test of our theories of stellar evolution, and thus of one of the fundamental clocks that monitor the aging of our universe. This information cannot be obtained from conventional observations of the radiation emitted from cool stellar surfaces: solar photons have lost, in their 107 year journey outward from the core, all detailed memory of the mechanisms by which they were created. The thesis of this talk is the feasibility, by virtue of several very recent advances in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, of a complete program of solar neutrino spectroscopy that will quantitatively test both the standard stellar model and the behavior of low-energy neutrinos over astrophysical distances

  14. Mobile platform for acoustic mine detection applications

    Libbey, Brad; Fenneman, Douglas; Burns, Brian

    2005-06-01

    Researchers in academia have successfully demonstrated acoustic landmine detection techniques. These typically employ acoustic or seismic sources to induce vibration in the mine/soil system, and use vibration sensors such as laser vibrometers or geophones to measure the resultant surface motion. These techniques exploit the unique mechanical properties of landmines to discriminate the vibration response of a buried mine from an off-target measurement. The Army requires the ability to rapidly and reliably scan an area for landmines and is developing a mobile platform at NVESD to meet this requirement. The platform represents an initial step toward the implementation of acoustic mine detection technology on a representative field vehicle. The effort relies heavily on the acoustic mine detection cart system developed by researchers at the University of Mississippi and Planning Systems, Inc. The NVESD platform consists of a John Deere E-gator configured with a robotic control system to accurately position the vehicle. In its present design, the E-gator has been outfitted with an array of laser vibrometers and a bank of loudspeakers. Care has been taken to ensure that the vehicle"s mounting hardware and data acquisition algorithms are sufficiently robust to accommodate the implementation of other sensor modalities. A thorough discussion of the mobile platform from its inception to its present configuration will be provided. Specific topics to be addressed include the vehicle"s control and data acquisition systems. Preliminary results from acoustic mine detection experiments will also be presented.

  15. Detectable MeV neutrinos from black hole neutrino-dominated accretion flows

    Liu, Tong; Ma, Ren-Yi; Xue, Li

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) around rotating stellar-mass black holes (BHs) have been theorized as the central engine of relativistic jets launched in massive star core collapse events or compact star mergers. In this work, we calculate the electron neutrino/anti-neutrino spectra of NDAFs by fully taking into account the general relativistic effects, and investigate the effects of viewing angle, BH spin, and mass accretion rate on the results. We show that even though a typical NDAF has a neutrino luminosity lower than that of a typical supernova, it can reach $10^{50}-10^{51}~{\\rm erg~s^{-1}}$ peaking at $\\sim 10$ MeV, making them potentially detectable with the upcoming sensitive MeV neutrino detectors if they are close enough to Earth. Based on the event rate of NDAFs in the local universe, we estimate a detection rate up to $\\sim$ 5 per century by the Hyper-Kamiokande detector. Detecting one such event would establish the observational evidence of NDAFs in the universe.

  16. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    Cerdeño, David G; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A N; Vincent, Aaron C; hm, Céline Bøe

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to infer errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. The combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the boron-8 flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on bo...

  17. DETECTING GRAVITY MODES IN THE SOLAR 8 B NEUTRINO FLUX

    The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the 8 B neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order 2, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun's core is smaller than 5.8 × 10–4. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the 8 B neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the 8 B neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes

  18. Low energy neutrino detection with the Mont Blanc LSD experiment

    A 90 tons Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) is fully running since October 1984 in the Mont Blanc Laboratory, at a depth of 5200 hg/cm2 under ground. The detection of cosmic neutrinos of different origin is the main goal of this experiment. The detector is very well shielded against the local radioactivity and is extremely sensitive to detect low energy particles with a threshold of 5 MeV. We discuss here the status of the experiment and present data on: 1) An experimental limit on the rate of neutrino bursts from galactic stellar collapses, 2) The possibility to detect solar neutrinos either from the 8B decay or correlated with large solar flares, and 3) An experimental limit on the flux of anti νe in the energy range 5 to 60 MeV. (orig.)

  19. Acoustic detectability of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    The palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus Fabricius, native to Florida, attacks palm trees. Like its economically destructive relatives, R. ferrugineus (Olivier) and R. palmarum L., it feeds internally and often is not detected until irreparable damage occurs. Acoustic methods previously used su...

  20. Neutrinos

    de Gouvea, A; Scholberg, K; Zeller, G P; Alonso, J; Bernstein, A; Bishai, M; Elliott, S; Heeger, K; Hoffman, K; Huber, P; Kaufman, L J; Kayser, B; Link, J; Lunardini, C; Monreal, B; Morfin, J G; Robertson, H; Tayloe, R; Tolich, N; Abazajian, K; Akiri, T; Albright, C; Asaadi, J; Babu, K S; Balantekin, A B; Barbeau, P; Bass, M; Blake, A; Blondel, A; Blucher, E; Bowden, N; Brice, S J; Bross, A; Carls, B; Cavanna, F; Choudhary, B; Coloma, P; Connolly, A; Conrad, J; Convery, M; Cooper, R L; Cowen, D; da Motta, H; de Young, T; Di Lodovico, F; Diwan, M; Djurcic, Z; Dracos, M; Dodelson, S; Efremenko, Y; Ekelof, T; Feng, J L; Fleming, B; Formaggio, J; Friedland, A; Fuller, G; Gallagher, H; Geer, S; Gilchriese, M; Goodman, M; Grant, D; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Halzen, F; Harris, D; Heffner, M; Henning, R; Hewett, J L; Hill, R; Himmel, A; Horton-Smith, G; Karle, A; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Kettell, S; Klein, J; Kim, Y; Kim, Y K; Kolomensky, Yu; Kordosky, M; Kudenko, Yu; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lande, K; Lang, K; Lanza, R; Lau, K; Lee, H; Li, Z; Littlejohn, B R; Lin, C J; Liu, D; Liu, H; Long, K; Louis, W; Luk, K B; Marciano, W; Mariani, C; Marshak, M; Mauger, C; McDonald, K T; McFarland, K; McKeown, R; Messier, M; Mishra, S R; Mosel, U; Mumm, P; Nakaya, T; Nelson, J K; Nygren, D; Gann, G D Orebi; Osta, J; Palamara, O; Paley, J; Papadimitriou, V; Parke, S; Parsa, Z; Patterson, R; Piepke, A; Plunkett, R; Poon, A; Qian, X; Raaf, J; Rameika, R; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Rebel, B; Roser, R; Rosner, J; Rott, C; Rybka, G; Sahoo, H; Sangiorgio, S; Schmitz, D; Shrock, R; Shaevitz, M; Smith, N; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Sorensen, P; Sousa, A; Spitz, J; Strauss, T; Svoboda, R; Tanaka, H A; Thomas, J; Tian, X; Tschirhart, R; Tully, C; Van Bibber, K; Van de Water, R G; Vahle, P; Vogel, P; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M; Webber, D; Weerts, H; White, C; White, H; Whitehead, L; Wilson, R J; Winslow, L; Wongjirad, T; Worcester, E; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Zimmerman, E D

    2013-01-01

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  1. Detecting supernova neutrinos with iron and lead detectors

    Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Chakraborty, Sovan; Kar, Kamales; Saha, Satyajit

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) neutrinos can excite the nuclei of various detector materials beyond their neutron emission thresholds through charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) interactions. The emitted neutrons, if detected, can be a signal for the supernova event. Here we present the results of our study of SN neutrino detection through the neutron channel in lead ($^{208} {\\rm Pb}$) and iron ($^{56} {\\rm Fe}$) detectors for realistic neutrino fluxes and energies given by the recent Basel/Darmstadt simulations for a 18 solar mass progenitor SN at a distance of 10 kpc. We find that, in general, the number of neutrons emitted per kTon of detector material for the neutrino luminosities and average energies of the different neutrino species as given by the Basel/Darmstadt simulations are significantly lower than those estimated in previous studies based on the results of earlier SN simulations. At the same time, we highlight the fact that, although the total number of neutrons produced per kTon in a iron detector is...

  2. Acoustic detection for hydraulic research

    Three distinct physical effects are discussed, each of which is used for a particular method of detecting and locating minor leaks. The principle, considered phenomena and equipment requirements for each method are discussed, together with results of laboratory tests with calibrated leakage orifices varying between 20 μm and 180 μm in diameter. Two of the methods are being tested in industry and one is still at the laboratory development stage

  3. Permafrost - An Alternative Target Material for Ultra High Energy Neutrino Detection?

    Nahnhauer, R; Tosi, D

    2007-01-01

    The detection of cosmic neutrinos with energies above 1017 eV got growing interest during recent years. Possible target materials for in-matter arrays of ~100 km3 size under discussion are water, ice and rock salt. Here we propose to investigate permafrost as an additional alternative, covering ~20% of Earth land surface and reaching down to more than 1000 m depth at certain locations. If sufficiently large attenuation lengths for radio and acoustic signals can be demonstrated by in-situ measurements, the construction of a large hybrid array within this material may be possible in the Northern hemisphere. Properties and problems of a possible location in Siberia are discussed below. Some acoustic data are compared to laboratory measurements using "artificial" permafrost.

  4. First direct detection of solar pp neutrinos by Borexino

    According to the Standard Solar Model (SSM) the radiative energy of our Sun is produced by a series of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. In 99% of cases these processes are supposed to start with a fusion of two protons and the emission of a positron and a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos vastly outnumber those emitted in other sub-reactions, but only the large volume organic liquid scintillator detector Borexino has recently succeeded to perform a spectroscopic and direct measurement of them. The present talk reviews the procedure adopted by the Borexino collaboration to detect pp neutrinos. The key requirements, i.e. unprecedented radiopurity levels at low energies and a precise spectral description of the main background arising from 14C decays, and their fulfillment are discussed. The measured pp neutrino flux is then compared with the predictions of the SSM including neutrino oscillation mechanisms, and with the solar luminosity constraint deduced from photospheric observations.

  5. Detecting Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun with Neutrinos

    Murase, Kohta

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) may have a relic density that is in part determined by a particle/antiparticle asymmetry, much like baryons. If this is the case, it can accumulate in stars like the Sun to sizable number densities and annihilate to Standard Model (SM) particles including neutrinos. We show that the combination of neutrino telescope and direct detection data can be used in conjunction to determine or constrain the DM asymmetry from data. Depending on the DM mass, the current neutrino data from Super-K and IceCube give powerful constraints on asymmetric DM unless its fractional asymmetry is $\\lesssim 10^{-2}$. Future neutrino telescopes and detectors like Hyper-K and KM3NeT can search for the resulting signal of high-energy neutrinos from the center of the Sun. The observation of such a flux yields information on both the DM-nucleus cross section but also on the relative abundances of DM and anti-DM.

  6. Galactic abundances as a relic neutrino detection scheme

    Riis, Anna Sejersen; Hannestad, Steen

    2011-01-01

    We propose to use the threshold-free process of neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (NCB) using all available candidate nuclei in the Milky Way as target material in order to detect the presence of the Cosmic neutrino background. By integrating over the lifetime of the galaxy one might be able to see the effect of NCB processes as a slightly eschewed abundance ratio of selected beta-decaying nuclei. First, the candidates must be chosen so that both the mother and daughter nuclei have a lifetime comparable to that of the Milky Way or the signal could be easily washed out by additional decays. Secondly, relic neutrinos have so low energy that their de Broglie wavelengths are macroscopic and they may therefore scatter coherently on the electronic cloud of the candidate atoms. One must therefore compare the cross sections for the two processes (induced beta-decay by neutrino capture, and coherent scattering of the neutrinos on atomic nuclei) before drawing any conclusions. Finally, the density of target nucl...

  7. First direct detection of solar pp neutrinos by Borexino

    Maneschg, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: Werner Maneschg on behalf of the Borexino collaboration

    2015-07-01

    According to the Standard Solar Model (SSM) the radiative energy of our Sun is produced by a series of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. In 99% of cases these processes are supposed to start with a fusion of two protons and the emission of a positron and a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos vastly outnumber those emitted in other sub-reactions, but only the large volume organic liquid scintillator detector Borexino has recently succeeded to perform a spectroscopic and direct measurement of them. The present talk reviews the procedure adopted by the Borexino collaboration to detect pp neutrinos. The key requirements, i.e. unprecedented radiopurity levels at low energies and a precise spectral description of the main background arising from 14C decays, and their fulfillment are discussed. The measured pp neutrino flux is then compared with the predictions of the SSM including neutrino oscillation mechanisms, and with the solar luminosity constraint deduced from photospheric observations.

  8. First results of the TIANSHAN radio experiment for neutrino detection

    We present the first results of a set-up called TIANSHAN radio experiment for neutrino detection (TREND) being presently deployed on the site of the 21 cm array (21CMA) radio telescope, in XinJiang, China. We describe here its detection performances as well as the analysis method we applied to the data recorded with a small scale prototype. We demonstrate the ability of the TREND set-up for an autonomous radio-detection of extended air showers induced by cosmic rays. The full set-up will consist of 80 antennas deployed over a 4 km2 area, and could result in a very attractive and unequalled radio-detection facility for the characterization of showers induced by ultra-high energy neutrinos with energies around 1017 eV.

  9. New ideas on the detection of low energy solar neutrinos

    115In provides an extremely interesting target for real time solar neutrino detection [1]. Its use was proposed by Raghavan [2], based on the reaction: ν(E>128keV) + 115In→115Sn** + e-(Eν-128keV) where the 115Sn** decays to the ground state of 115Sn with a lifetime of 3.3 μS emitting two γ rays (497 keV and 116 keV)[3]. The delayed coincidence should provide a specific signature of solar neutrino events, sharp enough to overcome background problems related to 115In β radioactivity. Real time detection of solar neutrinos with 115In has been proposed by several techniques [4]. We discuss here the possibility of performing such an experiment, focusing on superconducting granules and special scintillators. The concept of 'localized micro-avalanche' should introduce crucial improvements in superheated superconducting granules (SSG) devices and, eventually, make feasible a 4 ton In solar neutrino experiment. The possible use of dedicated scintillating crystals of In compounds is also dealt with, as feasibility studies are under way

  10. Acoustic metamaterial for subwavelength edge detection

    Molerón, Miguel; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Metamaterials have demonstrated the possibility to produce super-resolved images by restoring propagative and evanescent waves. However, for efficient information transfer, for example, in compressed sensing, it is often desirable to visualize only the fast spatial variations of the wave field (carried by evanescent waves), as the one created by edges or small details. Image processing edge detection algorithms perform such operation, but they add time and complexity to the imaging process. Here we present an acoustic metamaterial that transmits only components of the acoustic field that are approximately equal to or smaller than the operating wavelength. The metamaterial converts evanescent waves into propagative waves exciting trapped resonances, and it uses periodicity to attenuate the propagative components. This approach achieves resolutions ~5 times smaller than the operating wavelength and makes it possible to visualize independently edges aligned along different directions.

  11. Detection and Classification of Whale Acoustic Signals

    Xian, Yin

    This dissertation focuses on two vital challenges in relation to whale acoustic signals: detection and classification. In detection, we evaluated the influence of the uncertain ocean environment on the spectrogram-based detector, and derived the likelihood ratio of the proposed Short Time Fourier Transform detector. Experimental results showed that the proposed detector outperforms detectors based on the spectrogram. The proposed detector is more sensitive to environmental changes because it includes phase information. In classification, our focus is on finding a robust and sparse representation of whale vocalizations. Because whale vocalizations can be modeled as polynomial phase signals, we can represent the whale calls by their polynomial phase coefficients. In this dissertation, we used the Weyl transform to capture chirp rate information, and used a two dimensional feature set to represent whale vocalizations globally. Experimental results showed that our Weyl feature set outperforms chirplet coefficients and MFCC (Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients) when applied to our collected data. Since whale vocalizations can be represented by polynomial phase coefficients, it is plausible that the signals lie on a manifold parameterized by these coefficients. We also studied the intrinsic structure of high dimensional whale data by exploiting its geometry. Experimental results showed that nonlinear mappings such as Laplacian Eigenmap and ISOMAP outperform linear mappings such as PCA and MDS, suggesting that the whale acoustic data is nonlinear. We also explored deep learning algorithms on whale acoustic data. We built each layer as convolutions with either a PCA filter bank (PCANet) or a DCT filter bank (DCTNet). With the DCT filter bank, each layer has different a time-frequency scale representation, and from this, one can extract different physical information. Experimental results showed that our PCANet and DCTNet achieve high classification rate on the whale

  12. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  13. On the feasibility of RADAR detection of high-energy cosmic neutrinos

    de Vries, Krijn D; Meures, Thomas; O'Murchadha, Aongus

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the radar detection technique as a probe for high-energy cosmic neutrino induced particle cascades in a dense medium like ice. With the recent detection of high-energy cosmic neutrinos by the IceCube neutrino observatory the window to neutrino astronomy has been opened. We discuss a new technique to detect cosmic neutrinos at even higher energies than those covered by IceCube, but with an energy threshold below the currently operating Askaryan radio detectors. A calculation for the radar return power, as well as first experimental results will be presented.

  14. The optical detection unit for Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope

    Avrorin A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first stage of the GVD-cluster composed of five strings was deployed in April 2014. Each string consists of two sections with 12 optical modules per section. A section is the basic detection unit of the Baikal neutrino telescope. We will describe the section design, review its basic elements – optical modules, FADC readout units, slow control and calibration systems, and present selected results for section in-situ tests in Lake Baikal.

  15. ANTARES neutrino detection and possible Swift X-ray counterpart

    Dornic, D.; Basa, S.; Evans, P. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Lipunov, V.

    2015-09-01

    On September 1st, 2015, at 07:38:25 UT, ANTARES has detected a bright neutrino at a location of: & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp;RA(J2000) = 16h 25m 42s & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp;DEC (J2000) = -27d 23m 24s with an uncertainty of 18 arcmin (radius, 50% containment) A target of opportunity alert has been sent immediately to Swift.

  16. Emulsion chamber with big radiation length for detecting neutrino oscillations

    A conceptual scheme of a hybrid-emulsion spectrometer for investigating various channels of neutrino oscillations is proposed. The design emphasizes detection of τ leptons by detached vertices, reliable identification of electrons, and good spectrometry for all charged particles and photons. A distributed target is formed by layers of low-Z material, emulsion-plastic-emulsion sheets, and air gaps in which τ decays are detected. The tracks of charged secondaries, including electrons, are momentum-analyzed by curvature in magnetic field using hits in successive thin layers of emulsion. The τ leptons are efficiently detected in all major decay channels, including τ-→e-νν-bar. The performance of a model spectrometer, that contains 3 t of nuclear emulsion and 20 t of passive material, is estimated for different experimental environments. When irradiated by the νμ beam of a proton accelerator over a medium baseline of ν>∼1 km/GeV, the spectrometer will efficiently detect either the νμ→ντ or the νμ→νe transitions in the mass-difference region of Δm2∼1 eV2, as suggested by the results of LSND. When exposed to the neutrino beam of a muon storage ring over a long baseline of ν>∼10-20 km/GeV, the model detector will efficiently probe the entire pattern of neutrino oscillations in the region Δm2∼10-2-10-3 eV2, as suggested by the data on atmospheric neutrinos

  17. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino fluxes and their detectability

    Lund, Tina; Marek, Andreas; Lunardini, Cecilia; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Raffelt, Georg

    2010-01-01

    In the delayed explosion scenario of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), the accretion phase shows pronounced convective overturns and a low-multipole hydrodynamic instability, the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). These effects imprint detectable fast time variations on the emerging neutrino flux. Among existing detectors, IceCube is best suited to this task, providing an event rate of ~1000 events per ms during the accretion phase for a fiducial SN distance of 10 kpc, comparable to w...

  18. Emulsion chamber with big radiation length for detecting neutrino oscillations

    Asratyan, A. E.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Kaftanov, V. S.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Verebryusov, V. S.

    2000-08-01

    A conceptual scheme of a hybrid-emulsion spectrometer for investigating various channels of neutrino oscillations is proposed. The design emphasizes detection of τ leptons by detached vertices, reliable identification of electrons, and good spectrometry for all charged particles and photons. A distributed target is formed by layers of low- Z material, emulsion-plastic-emulsion sheets, and air gaps in which τ decays are detected. The tracks of charged secondaries, including electrons, are momentum-analyzed by curvature in magnetic field using hits in successive thin layers of emulsion. The τ leptons are efficiently detected in all major decay channels, including τ-→ e-νν¯. The performance of a model spectrometer, that contains 3 t of nuclear emulsion and 20 t of passive material, is estimated for different experimental environments. When irradiated by the ν μ beam of a proton accelerator over a medium baseline of ˜1 km/ GeV, the spectrometer will efficiently detect either the ν μ→ν τ or the ν μ→ν e transitions in the mass-difference region of Δm 2˜1 eV2, as suggested by the results of LSND. When exposed to the neutrino beam of a muon storage ring over a long baseline of ˜10- 20 km/ GeV, the model detector will efficiently probe the entire pattern of neutrino oscillations in the region Δ m2˜10 -2- 10 -3 eV2, as suggested by the data on atmospheric neutrinos.

  19. Detecting non-relativistic cosmic neutrinos by capture on tritium: phenomenology and physics potential

    Long, Andrew J; Sabancilar, Eray

    2014-01-01

    We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the projected energy resolution of $\\Delta \\sim$ 0.15 eV, the experiment will be sensitive to neutrino masses with degenerate spectrum, $m_1 \\simeq m_2 \\simeq m_3 = m_\

  20. Detection of extended galactic sources with an underwater neutrino telescope

    In this study we investigate the discovery capability of a Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope to Galactic extended sources. We focus on the brightest HESS gamma rays sources which are considered also as very high energy neutrino emitters. We use the unbinned method taking into account both the spatial and the energy distribution of high energy neutrinos and we investigate parts of the Galactic plane where nearby potential neutrino emitters form neutrino source clusters. Neutrino source clusters as well as isolated neutrino sources are combined to estimate the observation period for 5 sigma discovery of neutrino signals from these objects

  1. detection of buried objects using acoustic waves

    Many obstacles are faced in removing the buried landmines such as the loss or absence of maps or information about these mines and the high financial costs needed to remove these mines. So that many techniques were designed and developed for demining (detecting and clearing) these buried mines. Each technique has some strengths and drawbacks. This thesis presents a survey on the landmine detection techniques, the strengths and limitations of these techniques are highlighted and compared to show the ideal conditions and the challenges facing each technique. Furthermore, a comparison between these techniques from the points of view of cost, complexity, speed, safety, false alarms in detection and the effect of the environmental conditions is presented. one of the reliable and powerful landmine detection techniques is the Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV)-based Acoustic to Seismic (A/S) landmine detection system. The interpretation of the LDV-based A/S data is performed off-line manually, depending heavily on the skills, experience, alertness and consistency of a trained operator. This requires a significantly long time. Results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors, particularly when dealing with large volumes of data. This thesis proposes several image processing techniques to automate the process of landmine detection from the data scanned by the LDV-based A/S system. The obtained results are so far promising in terms of accuracy, consistency, reliability and processing speed. The previously proposed techniques for landmine detection give high false alarm rates. This thesis proposes some techniques to improve the performance of the automatic object detection techniques. These techniques are based on segmentation, masking, morphology image processing and the wavelet transform. These techniques have achieved a high detection rate.

  2. Detection of Atmospheric Muon Neutrinos with the IceCube 9-String Detector

    Achterberg, A; Adams, J; Ahrens, J; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bahcall, J N; Bai, X; Baret, B; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Becka, T; Becker, J K; Becker, K H; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Beimforde, M; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bolmont, J; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Braun, J; Burgess, C; Burgess, T; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Davour, A; Day, C T; De Clercq, C; Demirors, L; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; De Young, T; Díaz-Veléz, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Duvoort, M R; Edwards, W R; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Gozzini, R; Griesel, T; Grullon, S; Gross, A; Gunasingha, R M; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Hardtke, D; Hardtke, R; Hart, J E; Hasegawa, Y; Hauschildt, T; Hays, D; Heise, J; Helbing, K; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hodges, J; Hoffman, K D; Hommez, B; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hulss, J P; Hundertmark, S; Inaba, M; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Jones, A; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kawai, H; Kelley, J L; Kislat, F; Kitamura, N; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Kühn, K; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Lauer, R; Leich, H; Leier, D; Liubarsky, I; Lundberg, J; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McCauley, T; McParland, C P; Meagher, K; Meli, A; Messarius, T; Mészáros, P; Miyamoto, H; Mokhtarani, A; Montaruli, T; Morey, A; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Munich, K; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olivas, A; Patton, S; Peña-Garay, C; Perez de los Heros, C; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Pretz, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Razzaque, S; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Robbins, S; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Rutledge, D; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H G; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Smith, A J; Song, C; Sopher, J E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoufer, M C; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sulanke, K H; Sullivan, G W; Sumner, T J; Taboada, I; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Tluczykont, M; Toale, P A; Tosi, D; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G; Viscomi, V; Voigt, B; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Waldmann, H; Walter, M; Wang, Y R; Wendt, C; Wiebusch, C; Wikström, G; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino detector is a cubic kilometer TeV to PeV neutrino detector under construction at the geographic South Pole. The dominant population of neutrinos detected in IceCube is due to meson decay in cosmic-ray air showers. These atmospheric neutrinos are relatively well-understood and serve as a calibration and verification tool for the new detector. In 2006, the detector was approximately 10% completed, and we report on data acquired from the detector in this configuration. We observe an atmospheric neutrino signal consistent with expectations, demonstrating that the IceCube detector is capable of identifying neutrino events. In the first 137.4 days of livetime, 234 neutrino candidates were selected with an expectation of 211 +/- 76.1(syst.) +/- 14.5(stat.) events from atmospheric neutrinos.

  3. Detection of atmospheric muon neutrinos with the IceCube 9-string detector

    Achterberg, A.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Ahrens, J.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baret, B.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Beimforde, M.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Braun, J.; Burgess, C.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Davour, A.; Day, C. T.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Griesel, T.; Grullon, S.; Groß, A.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, D.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, J. E.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hauschildt, T.; Hays, D.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hommez, B.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Jones, A.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kawai, H.; Kelley, J. L.; Kislat, F.; Kitamura, N.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Leich, H.; Leier, D.; Liubarsky, I.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McCauley, T.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Meli, A.; Messarius, T.; Mészáros, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Mokhtarani, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morey, A.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Olivas, A.; Patton, S.; Peña-Garay, C.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Pretz, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Razzaque, S.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robbins, S.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, A. J.; Song, C.; Sopher, J. E.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sumner, T. J.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Viscomi, V.; Voigt, B.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Waldmann, H.; Walter, M.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wendt, C.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zornoza, J. D.

    2007-07-01

    The IceCube neutrino detector is a cubic kilometer TeV to PeV neutrino detector under construction at the geographic South Pole. The dominant population of neutrinos detected in IceCube is due to meson decay in cosmic-ray air showers. These atmospheric neutrinos are relatively well understood and serve as a calibration and verification tool for the new detector. In 2006, the detector was approximately 10% completed, and we report on data acquired from the detector in this configuration. We observe an atmospheric neutrino signal consistent with expectations, demonstrating that the IceCube detector is capable of identifying neutrino events. In the first 137.4 days of live time, 234 neutrino candidates were selected with an expectation of 211±76.1(syst)±14.5(stat) events from atmospheric neutrinos.

  4. Detection and reconstruction of short-lived particles produced by neutrino interactions in emulsion

    Uiterwijk, J W E

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, several different topics related to the chorus experiment are pre- sented. The chorus experiment has been used to study neutrino oscillations using the neutrino beam at cern. The neutrino oscillation hypothesis provided an explanation for the lower than expected fluxes of solar and atmospheric neutrinos. There are three neutrino species in nature corresponding to different weak eigenstates, namely, the elec- tron neutrino (νe ), the muon neutrino (νμ ), and the tau neutrino (ντ ). The lower fluxes could be interpreted as spontaneous oscillations between electron and muon neutrinos and between muon and tau neutrinos. The chorus experiment was designed to detect oscillation of muon neutrinos into tau neutrinos with small mixing probability down to 2 · 10−4 and a mass difference square between νμ and ντ larger than 0.5 eV2 . In the last decade, several disappearance experiments have confirmed the neutrino oscillation hypothesis and showed that oscillations occur between mass eig...

  5. Neutrino Solar Flare detection for a saving alert system of satellites and astronauts

    Fargion, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Largest Solar Neutrino Flare may be soon detectable by Deep Core neutrino detector immediately and comunicate to satellites or astronauts. Its detection is the fastest manifestation of a later (tens minutes,hours) dangerous cosmic shower. The precursor trigger maybe saving satellites and even long flight astronauts lives. We shall suggest how. Moreover their detection may probe the inner solar flare acceleration place as well as the neutrino flavor mixing in a new different parameter windows....

  6. Neutrino oscillations

    Lecture notes on neutrino oscillations are given, including some background about neutrino mixing and masses, descriptions of flavour oscillations and experimental attempts to detect them, matter effects and neutrino-antineutrino oscillations. (U.K.)

  7. Detection and localisation of very high energy particles in underwater acoustic; Detection et localisation de particules de tres hautes energies en acoustique sous-marine

    Juennard, N

    2007-12-15

    The theme of this thesis is included in the Antares international project whose object is to build a neutrino telescope located in a deep water environment in the Mediterranean sea. In deep water sea, a neutrino can interact with a water molecule. The collision generates a luminous flash and an acoustic wave. The goal of this work is to study this acoustic sound wave and develop a system able to detect the corresponding wave front and to estimate the initial direction of the particle. We first focus on the acoustic sound wave. Two different models are studied, and works made recently have led to a mathematical expression of both signal and wave front. Then, several detection methods are studied, from the most classical to the more recent ones. The experimental comparison in semi-real situation leads to the choice of a detection method: the Extended stochastic matched filter. Position and direction of the neutrino are now estimated with a Gauss-Newton inspired algorithm. This estimator is based on a wave front propagation model and on the time detection information given by the telescope hydro-phones. Performances of the system are then estimated. An antenna structure is then proposed and a global simulation finalizes this thesis. In this simulation, detection and estimation are based on the results found in the previous sections. Underwater sea noise is real and the results of the simulation valid our works. (author)

  8. Development of an acoustic transceiver for positioning systems in Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    Larosa, Giuseppina; Llorens, Carlos D; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the acoustic transceiver developed for the positioning system in underwater neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and need a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors of the telescope which have some degree of motion due to sea currents. To have a highly reliable and versatile system in the infrastructure, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing the received signal on the board. The solution proposed and presented here consists of an acoustic transducer that works in the 20-40 kHz region and withstands high pressures (up to 500 bars). The electronic-board can be configured from shore and is able to feed the transducer with arbitrary signals and to control the transmitted and received signals with very good timing precision. The results of the different tests don...

  9. Neutral Current Coherent Cross Sections -- Implications on Gaseous Spherical TPC's for detecting SN and Earth neutrinos

    Giomataris, Y

    2016-01-01

    The detection of galactic supernova (SN) neutrinos represents one of the future frontiers of low-energy neutrino physics and astrophysics. The neutron coherence of neutral currents (NC) allows quite large cross sections in the case of neutron rich targets, which can be exploited in detecting earth and sky neutrinos by measuring nuclear recoils. They are relatively cheap and easy to maintain. The relevant NC cross sections are not dependent on flavor conversions and, thus, their measurement will provide useful information about the neutrino source. In particular they will yield information about the primary neutrino fluxes and perhaps about the spectrum after flavor conversions in neutrino sphere.They might also provide some clues about the neutrino mass hierarchy. The advantages of large gaseous low threshold and high resolution detectors with time projection counters (TPC) are discussed.

  10. Acoustic signal detection through the cross-correlation method in experiments with different signal to noise ratio and reverberation conditions

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Bou-Cabo, M; Felis, I; Llorens, C; Martínez-Mora, J A; Saldaña, M

    2015-01-01

    The study and application of signal detection techniques based on cross-correlation method for acoustic transient signals in noisy and reverberant environments are presented. These techniques are shown to provide high signal to noise ratio, good signal discernment from very close echoes and accurate detection of signal arrival time. The proposed methodology has been tested on real data collected in environments and conditions where its benefits can be shown. This work focuses on the acoustic detection applied to tasks of positioning in underwater structures and calibration such those as ANTARES and KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescopes, as well as, in particle detection through acoustic events for the COUPP/PICO detectors. Moreover, a method for obtaining the real amplitude of the signal in time (voltage) by using cross correlation has been developed and tested and is described in this work.

  11. Detection of Cascades induced by Atmospheric Neutrinos in the 79-string IceCube Detector

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino production and oscillation physics can be studied by utilizing the very high flux of atmospheric neutrinos observed with IceCube. In a Cherenkov medium such as ice, atmospheric muon neutrino interactions create tracks while cascades (showers) are produced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of all flavors. We present the first detection of atmospheric neutrino-induced cascades at energies between 30 GeV and 10 TeV using the DeepCore array of the IceCube detector. Using 281 days of data, 1029 events are observed with 59% predicted to be cascades.

  12. Testing keV sterile neutrino dark matter in future direct detection experiments

    Campos, Miguel D

    2016-01-01

    We determine constraints on sterile neutrino warm dark matter through direct detection experiments, taking XENON100 and its future stages as example. If keV-scale sterile neutrinos scatter inelastically with bound electrons of the target material, an electron recoil signal is generated. This can be used to set limits on the sterile neutrino mass and its mixing with the active sector. While not competitive with astrophysical constraints from X-ray data, the constraints are the first direct laboratory bounds on sterile neutrino warm dark matter, and will be in some parts of parameter space the strongest limits on keV-scale neutrinos.

  13. Constraining Absolute Neutrino Masses via Detection of Galactic Supernova Neutrinos at JUNO

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun

    2014-01-01

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses $m_\

  14. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun

    2015-01-01

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses $m^{}_\

  15. Neutrino Geophysics at Baksan I: Possible Detection of Georeactor Antineutrinos

    Domogatski, G.; Kopeikin, V.; Mikaelyan, L.; Sinev, V.

    2004-01-01

    J.M. Herndon in 90-s proposed a natural nuclear fission georeactor at the center of the Earth with a power output of 3-10 TW as an energy source to sustain the Earth magnetic field. R.S. Raghavan in 2002 y. pointed out that under certain condition antineutrinos generated in georeactor can be detected using massive scintillation detectors. We consider the underground Baksan Neutrino Observatory (4800 m.w.e.) as a possible site for developments in Geoneutrino physics. Here the intrinsic backgro...

  16. Dedicated scintillating crystals for neutrino and dark matter detection

    It was recently proposed to use scintillating crystals incorporating a large amount of 115In for the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos through Raghavan's reaction. We report here on recent progress in feasibility studies, i.e. crystal growth of transparent undoped and doped single crystals of indium compounds. We also discuss some aspects related to the luminescence of scintillators at low temperature, in connection with the proposal to develop a luminescent bolometer for particle identification through the heat/light ratio

  17. R&D studies for the development of a compact transmitter able to mimic the acoustic signature of a UHE neutrino interaction

    Ardid, M; Bou-Cabo, M; Larosa, G; Mart\\inez-Mora, J A; Espinosa, V; Camarena, F; Ferri, M

    2011-01-01

    Calibration of acoustic neutrino telescopes with neutrino-like signals is an essential aspect to evaluate the feasibility of the technique and to know the efficiency of the detectors. However, it is not straightforward to have acoustic transmitters that, on one hand, are able to mimic the signature of a UHE neutrino interaction, that is, a bipolar acoustic pulse with the 'pancake' directivity, and, on the other hand, fulfill practical issues such as ease of deployment and operation. This is a non-trivial problem since it requires directive transducer with cylindrical symmetry for a broadband frequency range. Classical solutions using linear arrays of acoustic transducers result in long arrays with many elements, which increase the cost and the complexity for deployment and operation. In this paper we present the extension of our previous R&D studies using the parametric acoustic source technique by dealing with the cylindrical symmetry, and demonstrating that it is possible to use this technique for havin...

  18. Cosmic Neutrinos

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2008-02-01

    I recall the place of neutrinos in the electroweak theory and summarize what we know about neutrino mass and flavor change. I next review the essential characteristics expected for relic neutrinos and survey what we can say about the neutrino contribution to the dark matter of the Universe. Then I discuss the standard-model interactions of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, paying attention to the consequences of neutrino oscillations, and illustrate a few topics of interest to neutrino observatories. I conclude with short comments on the remote possibility of detecting relic neutrinos through annihilations of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos at the Z resonance.

  19. Neutrino Solar Flare detection for a saving alert system of satellites and astronauts

    Fargion, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Largest Solar Neutrino Flare may be soon detectable by Deep Core neutrino detector immediately and comunicate to satellites or astronauts. Its detection is the fastest manifestation of a later (tens minutes,hours) dangerous cosmic shower. The precursor trigger maybe saving satellites and even long flight astronauts lives. We shall suggest how. Moreover their detection may probe the inner solar flare acceleration place as well as the neutrino flavor mixing in a new different parameter windows. We show the updated expected rate and signature of neutrinos and antineutrinos in largest solar flare for present tens Megaton Deep Core telescope at tens Gev range. Speculation for additional Icecube gigaton array signals are also considered.

  20. Indirect dark matter detection in the light of sterile neutrinos

    The recent global fit of short baseline neutrino oscillation data favors the presence of one (or more) sterile neutrino state which leads to new mass splitting Δm2 ∼ 1 eV2. We consider the effect of this new states on the evolution of neutrinos from the dark matter annihilation inside the Sun. We show that neutrinos with energy Eν∼>100 GeV undergo resonant active-sterile oscillation which depletes the flux of neutrinos arriving at the Earth. As an example of this effect, we present the oscillation probabilities for the case of monochromatic neutrinos from the direct annihilation of dark matter particles to neutrinos and the depletion due to the presence of sterile neutrinos. We discuss the seasonal variation of oscillation probabilities which is expected for the case of monochromatic neutrinos

  1. Detecting dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillations

    GU Pei-Hong; BI Xiao-Jun; FENG Bo; YOUNG Bing-Lin; ZHANG Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a possibility of studying properties of dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We consider two types of models of neutrino dark energy. For one type of models the scalar field is taken to be quintessence-like and for the other phantom-like. In these models the scalar fields couple to the neutrinos to give rise to spatially varying neutrino masses. We will show that the two types of models predict different behaviors of the spatial variation of the neutrino masses inside the Earth and consequently result in different signals in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  2. A feasibility study for the detection of supernova explosions with an undersea neutrino telescope

    We study the potential of a very large volume underwater Mediterranean neutrino telescope to observe neutrinos from supernova (SN) explosions within our galaxy. The intense neutrino burst emitted in a SN explosion results in a large number of MeV neutrinos inside the instrumented volume of the neutrino telescope that can be detected (mainly) via the reaction ν¯e+p⟶e++n. In this study we simulated the response of the underwater neutrino telescope to the electron antineutrino flux predicted by the Garching model for SN explosions. We assumed that the neutrino telescope comprises 6160 direction sensitive optical modules, each containing 31 small photomultiplier tubes. Multiple coincidences between the photomultiplier tubes of the same optical module are utilized to suppress the noise produced by 40K radioactive decays and to establish a statistical significant signature of the SN explosion

  3. A feasibility study for the detection of supernova explosions with an undersea neutrino telescope

    Leisos, A., E-mail: leisos@eap.gr [Physics Laboratory, School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, Tsamadou 13-15 and Ag. Andreou, Patras 26222 (Greece); Tsirigotis, A.G.; Tzamarias, S.E. [Physics Laboratory, School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, Tsamadou 13-15 and Ag. Andreou, Patras 26222 (Greece)

    2013-10-11

    We study the potential of a very large volume underwater Mediterranean neutrino telescope to observe neutrinos from supernova (SN) explosions within our galaxy. The intense neutrino burst emitted in a SN explosion results in a large number of MeV neutrinos inside the instrumented volume of the neutrino telescope that can be detected (mainly) via the reaction ν{sup ¯}{sub e}+p⟶e{sup +}+n. In this study we simulated the response of the underwater neutrino telescope to the electron antineutrino flux predicted by the Garching model for SN explosions. We assumed that the neutrino telescope comprises 6160 direction sensitive optical modules, each containing 31 small photomultiplier tubes. Multiple coincidences between the photomultiplier tubes of the same optical module are utilized to suppress the noise produced by {sup 40}K radioactive decays and to establish a statistical significant signature of the SN explosion.

  4. Neutrino physics

    The fundamental properties of neutrinos are reviewed in these lectures. The first part is focused on the basic characteristics of neutrinos in the Standard Model and how neutrinos are detected. Neutrino masses and oscillations are introduced and a summary of the most important experimental results on neutrino oscillations to date is provided. Then, present and future experimental proposals are discussed, including new precision reactor and accelerator experiments. Finally, different approaches for measuring the neutrino mass and the nature (Majorana or Dirac), of neutrinos are reviewed. The detection of neutrinos from supernovae explosions and the information that this measurement can provide are also summarized at the end. (author)

  5. Neutrino Physics

    Gil-Botella, I

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental properties of neutrinos are reviewed in these lectures. The first part is focused on the basic characteristics of neutrinos in the Standard Model and how neutrinos are detected. Neutrino masses and oscillations are introduced and a summary of the most important experimental results on neutrino oscillations to date is provided. Then, present and future experimental proposals are discussed, including new precision reactor and accelerator experiments. Finally, different approaches for measuring the neutrino mass and the nature (Majorana or Dirac) of neutrinos are reviewed. The detection of neutrinos from supernovae explosions and the information that this measurement can provide are also summarized at the end.

  6. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ → νbar nu, τ+τ-, bbar b, we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νbar nu and τ+τ- channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νbar nu channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV . If the νbar nu or τ+τ- channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions.

  7. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ→νν-bar,τ+τ−,bb-bar, we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ+τ− channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV. If the νν-bar or τ+τ− channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions

  8. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    Guo, Wan-Lei [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,P.O. Box 918, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-01-21

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ→νν-bar,τ{sup +}τ{sup −},bb-bar, we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV. If the νν-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions.

  9. Future Detection of Supernova Neutrino Burst and Explosion Mechanism

    Future detection of a supernova neutrino burst by large underground detectors would give important information for the explosion mechanism of collapse-driven supernovae. We studied the statistical analysis for the future detection of a nearby supernova by using a numerical supernova model and realistic Monte Carlo simulations of detection by the Super-Kamiokande detector. We mainly discuss the detectability of the signatures of the delayed explosion mechanism in the time evolution of the νe luminosity and spectrum. For a supernova at 10 kpc away from the Earth, we find not only that the signature is clearly discernible but also that the deviation of the energy spectrum from the Fermi-Dirac (FD) distribution can be observed. The deviation from the FD distribution would, if observed, provide a test for the standard picture of neutrino emission from collapse-driven supernovae. For the D=50 kpc case, the signature of the delayed explosion is still observable, but statistical fluctuation is too large to detect the deviation from the FD distribution. We also propose a method for statistical reconstruction of the time evolution of νe luminosity and spectrum from data, by which we can get a smoother time evolution and smaller statistical errors than by a simple, time-binning analysis. This method is useful especially when the available number of events is relatively small, e.g., a supernova in the LMC or SMC. A neutronization burst of νe's produces about five scattering events when D=10 kpc, and this signal is difficult to distinguish from νep events. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  10. Technique of neutrino-induced muon detection on the Earth surface

    Methods of the rejection of atmospheric muon background for cosmic ray neutrino detection in a ground level Cherenkov water detector are described. The background rejection factor on the level 1010 is reached, and thereby a possibility to detect neutrino-induced muons on the Earth surface is shown

  11. Low-energy solar neutrino spectroscopy with Borexino. Towards the detection of the solar pep and CNO neutrino flux

    Borexino is a large-volume organic liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented high radiopurity which has been designed for low-energy neutrino spectroscopy in real time. Besides the main objective of the experiment, the measurement of the solar 7Be neutrino flux, Borexino also aims at detecting solar neutrinos from the pep fusion process and from the CNO cycle. The detectability of these neutrinos is strictly connected to a successful rejection of all relevant background components. The identification and reduction of these background signals is the central subject of this dissertation. In the first part, contaminants induced by cosmic-ray muons and muon showers were analyzed. The dominant background is the cosmogenic radioisotope 11C. Its rate is ∝10 times higher than the expected combined pep and CNO neutrino rate in the preferred energy window of observation at [0.8,1.3] MeV. Since 11C is mostly produced under the release of a free neutron, 11C can be tagged with a threefold coincidence (TFC) consisting of the muon signal, the neutron capture and the subsequent 11C decay. By optimizing the TFC method and other rejection techniques, a 11C rejection efficiency of 80% was achieved. This led to a neutrino-to-background ratio of 1:1.7, whereby 61% of statistics is lost. The second part of the work concerns the study of the external background. Especially long-range 2.6 MeV gamma rays from 208Tl decays in the outer detector parts can reach the scintillator in the innermost region of the detector. For the determination of the resultant spectral shape, a custom-made ∝5 MBq 228Th source was produced and an external calibration was carried out for the first time. The obtained calibration data and the achieved 11C rejection efficiency will allow for the direct detection of solar pep and possibly also CNO neutrinos with Borexino. (orig.)

  12. Prospects for Detecting a Neutrino Magnetic Moment with a Tritium Source and Beta-beams

    McLaughlin, G. C.; Volpe, C.

    2003-01-01

    We compare the prospects for detecting a neutrino magnetic moment by the measurement of neutrinos from a tritium source, reactors and low-energy beta-beams. In all cases the neutrinos or antineutrinos are detected by scattering of electrons. We find that a large (20 MCurie) tritium source could improve the limit on the neutrino magnetic moment significantly, down to the level of a few $\\times 10^{-12}$ while low-energy beta-beams with sufficiently rapid production of ions could improve the li...

  13. New detection technologies for ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Böser, Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    provides another promising approachfor the identification of the sources of cosmic rays. The low event rates and large required target volumes limit the experimental methods to far-ranging signatures .from the cascade, such as acoustic emission from the quasi-instantaneous energy deposit or Cherenkov emission from the charged particles in the cascade. Searching for optical Cherenkov photons in a cubic-kilometer of Antarctic ice, the IceCube experiment has recently found an excess of high-energy neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range.Yet its effective volume is too small to detect the GZK flux predicted from interaction of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background. Seeking to increase the observed target volume, radio observations of the rim of the moon have energy thresholds well beyond the EeV scale and thus are more likely to find interactions of charged cosmic rays than GZK neutrinos. The currently best sensitivity to this flux is provided from searches for GHz radio emission of neutrino-induced cascades in the antarctic ice from the ANITA ballon experiment. While no high-energy neutrinos have been found, a geomagnetic emission component from air-showers

  14. New detection technologies for ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Böser Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    in dense media provides another promising approachfor the identification of the sources of cosmic rays. The low event rates and large required target volumes limit the experimental methods to far-ranging signatures .from the cascade, such as acoustic emission from the quasi-instantaneous energy deposit or Cherenkov emission from the charged particles in the cascade. Searching for optical Cherenkov photons in a cubic-kilometer of Antarctic ice, the IceCube experiment has recently found an excess of high-energy neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range.Yet its effective volume is too small to detect the GZK flux predicted from interaction of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background. Seeking to increase the observed target volume, radio observations of the rim of the moon have energy thresholds well beyond the EeV scale and thus are more likely to find interactions of charged cosmic rays than GZK neutrinos. The currently best sensitivity to this flux is provided from searches for GHz radio emission of neutrino-induced cascades in the antarctic ice from the ANITA ballon experiment. While no high-energy neutrinos have been found, a geomagnetic emission component from air-showers

  15. Neutrino masses and ordering via gravitational waves, photon and neutrino detections

    Langaeble, Kasper; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We define the theoretical framework and deduce the conditions under which multi-messenger astronomy can constrain neutrino masses and unveil their ordering. The framework uses time differences between the arrival of neutrinos and the other two light messengers, i.e. light and gravitons, emitted in astrophysical catastrophes. We argue that it is possible to decrease the upper bound on the absolute mass of the lightest neutrino to less than about $0.02$~eV for astrophysical sources at around 10~Mpc and with neutrino energies of about $5$~MeV. We also show that the potential observation of neutrinos from astrophysical sources located at distances of hundreds of mega parsec similar to the one discovered by the LIGO collaboration \\cite{Abbott:2016blz} leads to stronger constraints on neutrino properties.

  16. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Franco, D.; Giganti, C.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Bottino, B.; Canci, N.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pocar, A.; Razeti, M.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Suvorov, Y.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Wang, H.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ``neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ~15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  17. Detectable MeV neutrinos from black hole neutrino-dominated accretion flows

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, Bing; Ma, Ren-Yi; Xue, Li

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) around rotating stellar-mass black holes (BHs) have been theorized as the central engine of relativistic jets launched in massive star core collapse events or compact star mergers. In this work, we calculate the electron neutrino/anti-neutrino spectra of NDAFs by fully taking into account the general relativistic effects, and investigate the effects of viewing angle, BH spin, and mass accretion rate on the results. We show that even though a typical ...

  18. Testing keV sterile neutrino dark matter in future direct detection experiments

    Campos, Miguel D.; Rodejohann, Werner

    2016-01-01

    We determine constraints on sterile neutrino warm dark matter through direct detection experiments, taking XENON100 and its future stages as example. If keV-scale sterile neutrinos scatter inelastically with bound electrons of the target material, an electron recoil signal is generated. This can be used to set limits on the sterile neutrino mass and its mixing with the active sector. While not competitive with astrophysical constraints from X-ray data, the constraints are the first direct lab...

  19. Solar neutrinos as background in dark matter searches involving electron detection

    Vergados, J D

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we estimate the potential background of solar neutrinos on electron detectors. These detectors are considered relevant for detecting light dark matter particles in the MeV region, currently sought by experiments. We find that the copious low energy pp neutrinos are a dangerous background at the energies involved in these experiments, in fact close to the anticipated event rate, while the more energetic Boron neutrinos are harmless

  20. Recent experiments on acoustic leak detection

    In the ASB-sodium loop a series of injection experiments with water, helium, argon and nitrogen was performed. The aim of these tests was to get: a comparison of the acoustic signals, generated by water and gas injections with regard to intensity and frequency content; an experimental basis for the design of an acoustic calibration source. The experimental set-up, the variation parameters and first results will be discussed. The principal design of an acoustic calibration source and its range of application will be given. (author)

  1. An acoustically controlled tetherless underwater vehicle for installation and maintenance of neutrino detectors in the deep ocean

    Ballou, P J

    1997-01-01

    The task of installing and servicing high energy neutrino detectors in the deep ocean from a surface support vessel is problematic using conventional tethered systems. An array of multiple detector strings rising 500 m from the ocean floor, and forming a grid with 50 m spacing between the strings, presents a substantial entanglement hazard for equipment cables deployed from the surface. Such tasks may be accomplished with fewer risks using a tetherless underwater remotely operated vehicle that has a local acoustic telemetry link to send control commands and sensor data between the vehicle and a stationary hydrophone suspended above or just outside the perimeter of the work site. The Phase I effort involves the development of an underwater acoustic telemetry link for vehicle control and sensor feedback, the evaluation of video compression methods for real-time acoustic transmission of video through the water, and the defining of local control routines on board the vehicle to allow it to perform certain basic m...

  2. Acoustic detection of air shower cores

    Gao, X.; Liu, Y.; Du, S.

    1985-01-01

    At an altitude of 1890m, a pre-test with an Air shower (AS) core selector and a small acoustic array set up in an anechoic pool with a volume of 20x7x7 cu m was performed, beginning in Aug. 1984. In analyzing the waveforms recorded during the effective working time of 186 hrs, three acoustic signals which cannot be explained as from any source other than AS cores were obtained, and an estimation of related parameters was made.

  3. Acoustic Event Detection Based on MRMR Selected Feature Vectors

    VOZARIKOVA Eva; Juhar, Jozef; CIZMAR Anton

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the detection of potentially dangerous acoustic events such as gun shots and breaking glass in the urban environment. Various feature extraction methods can be used forrepresenting the sound in the detection system based on Hidden Markov Models of acoustic events. Mel – frequency cepstral coefficients, low - level descriptors defined in MPEG-7 standard and another time andspectral features were considered in the system. For the selection of final subset of features Mi...

  4. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    Whittington, Denver [Indiana U.

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  5. Photon detection system designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    Whittington, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  6. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  7. Neutrino geophysics at Baksan I: possible detection of georeactor antineutrinos

    J.M. Herndon in 90s proposed a natural nuclear fission georeactor at the center of the Earth with a power output of 3 - 10 TW as an energy source to sustain the Earth magnetic field. R.S. Raghavan in 2002 pointed out that under certain condition antineutrinos generated in georeactor can be detected using massive scintillation detectors. It is considered that underground Baksan Neutrino Observatory (4880 m w.e.) as a possible site dor development in Geoneutrino physics. Here the intrinsic background level of less than 1 event/yr in a liquid scintillation ∼1000-t target detector can be achieved and the main source of background is the antineutrino flux from power reactors. It is find that this flux is ∼ 10 times lower than at KamLAND detector site and two times lower than at Gran Sasso laboratory and thus at Baksan the georeactor burning nuclear fuel by analysis of the antineutrino energy spectrum

  8. Emulsion Chamber with Big Radiation Length for Detecting Neutrino Oscillations

    Asratyan, A E; Dolgolenko, A G; Kaftanov, V S; Kubantsev, M A; Verebryusov, V S

    2000-01-01

    A conceptual scheme of a hybrid-emulsion spectrometer for investigatingvarious channels of neutrino oscillations is proposed. The design emphasizesdetection of $\\tau$ leptons by detached vertices, reliable identification ofelectrons, and good spectrometry for all charged particles and photons. Adistributed target is formed by layers of low-Z material,emulsion-plastic-emulsion sheets, and air gaps in which $\\tau$ decays aredetected. The tracks of charged secondaries, including electrons, aremomentum-analyzed by curvature in magnetic field using hits in successive thinlayers of emulsion. The $\\tau$ leptons are efficiently detected in all majordecay channels, including \\xedec. Performance of a model spectrometer, thatcontains 3 tons of nuclear emulsion and 20 tons of passive material, isestimated for different experimental environments. When irradiated by the$\

  9. Detection potential to point-like neutrino sources with the NEMO-km3 telescope

    Distefano, C.

    2006-01-01

    The NEMO Collaboration is conducting an R&D activity towards the construction of a Mediterranean km3 neutrino telescope. In this work, we present the results of Monte Carlo simulation studies on the capability of the proposed NEMO telescope to detect and identify point-like sources of high energy muon neutrinos.

  10. Detecting non-relativistic cosmic neutrinos by capture on tritium: phenomenology and physics potential

    We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the projected energy resolution of Δ ∼ 0.15 eV, the experiment will be sensitive to neutrino masses with degenerate spectrum, m1 ≅ m2 ≅ m3 = mν ∼> 0.1 eV. These neutrinos are non-relativistic today; detecting them would be a unique opportunity to probe this unexplored kinematical regime. The signature of neutrino capture is a peak in the electron spectrum that is displaced by 2 mν above the beta decay endpoint. The signal would exceed the background from beta decay if the energy resolution is Δ ∼< 0.7 mν . Interestingly, the total capture rate depends on the origin of the neutrino mass, being ΓD ≅ 4 and ΓM ≅ 8 events per year (for a 100 g tritium target) for unclustered Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, respectively. An enhancement of the rate of up to O(1) is expected due to gravitational clustering, with the unique potential to probe the local overdensity of neutrinos. Turning to more exotic neutrino physics, PTOLEMY could be sensitive to a lepton asymmetry, and reveal the eV-scale sterile neutrino that is favored by short baseline oscillation searches. The experiment would also be sensitive to a neutrino lifetime on the order of the age of the universe and break the degeneracy between neutrino mass and lifetime which affects existing bounds

  11. Direct detection of relic active and sterile neutrinos

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Both active and sterile sub-eV neutrinos can form the cosmic neutrino background in the early Universe. We consider the beta-decaying (e.g., $^3$H) and EC-decaying (e.g., $^{163}$Ho) nuclei as the promising targets to capture relic neutrinos in the laboratory. We calculate the capture rates of relic electron neutrinos and antineutrinos against the corresponding beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay backgrounds in the (3+$N_{\\rm s}$) flavor mixing scheme, and discuss the future prospect in terms of the PTOLEMY project. We stress that such direct measurements of hot DM might not be hopeless in the long term.

  12. Acoustic detection in superconducting magnets for performance characterization and diagnostics

    Marchevsky, M; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S

    2013-01-01

    Quench diagnostics in superconducting accelerator magnets is essential for understanding performance limitations and improving magnet design. Applicability of the conventional quench diagnostics methods such as voltage taps or quench antennas is limited for long magnets or complex winding geometries, and alternative approaches are desirable. Here, we discuss acoustic sensing technique for detecting mechanical vibrations in superconducting magnets. Using LARP high-field Nb3Sn quadrupole HQ01 [1], we show how acoustic data is connected with voltage instabilities measured simultaneously in the magnet windings during provoked extractions and current ramps to quench. Instrumentation and data analysis techniques for acoustic sensing are reviewed.

  13. The Nuclear Physics of Solar and Supernova Neutrino Detection

    Haxton, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    This talk provides a basic introduction for students interested in the responses of detectors to solar, supernova, and other low-energy neutrino sources. Some of the nuclear physics is then applied in a discussion of nucleosynthesis within a Type II supernova, including the r-process and the neutrino process.

  14. Low-energy solar neutrino spectroscopy with Borexino. Towards the detection of the solar pep and CNO neutrino flux

    Maneschg, Werner

    2011-05-11

    Borexino is a large-volume organic liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented high radiopurity which has been designed for low-energy neutrino spectroscopy in real time. Besides the main objective of the experiment, the measurement of the solar {sup 7}Be neutrino flux, Borexino also aims at detecting solar neutrinos from the pep fusion process and from the CNO cycle. The detectability of these neutrinos is strictly connected to a successful rejection of all relevant background components. The identification and reduction of these background signals is the central subject of this dissertation. In the first part, contaminants induced by cosmic-ray muons and muon showers were analyzed. The dominant background is the cosmogenic radioisotope {sup 11}C. Its rate is {proportional_to}10 times higher than the expected combined pep and CNO neutrino rate in the preferred energy window of observation at [0.8,1.3] MeV. Since {sup 11}C is mostly produced under the release of a free neutron, {sup 11}C can be tagged with a threefold coincidence (TFC) consisting of the muon signal, the neutron capture and the subsequent {sup 11}C decay. By optimizing the TFC method and other rejection techniques, a {sup 11}C rejection efficiency of 80% was achieved. This led to a neutrino-to-background ratio of 1:1.7, whereby 61% of statistics is lost. The second part of the work concerns the study of the external background. Especially long-range 2.6 MeV gamma rays from {sup 208}Tl decays in the outer detector parts can reach the scintillator in the innermost region of the detector. For the determination of the resultant spectral shape, a custom-made {proportional_to}5 MBq {sup 228}Th source was produced and an external calibration was carried out for the first time. The obtained calibration data and the achieved {sup 11}C rejection efficiency will allow for the direct detection of solar pep and possibly also CNO neutrinos with Borexino. (orig.)

  15. Gamma-Ray, Neutrino & Gravitational Wave Detection: OG 2.5,2.6,2.7 Rapporteur

    Rowell, G

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on a rapporteur talk presented at the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference held in Merida, Mexico (July 2007), and covers three of the OG sessions devoted to neutrino, gravitational wave, and gamma-ray detection.

  16. Prospects for detecting dark matter with neutrino telescopes in intermediate mass black hole scenarios

    Current strategies of indirect dark matter detection with neutrino telescopes are based on the search for high-energy neutrinos from the solar core or from the center of the Earth. Here, we propose a new strategy based on the detection of neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in mini-spikes around intermediate mass black holes. Neutrino fluxes, in this case, depend on the annihilation cross-section of dark matter particles, whereas solar and terrestrial fluxes are sensitive to the scattering cross-section off nucleons, a circumstance that makes the proposed search complementary to the existing ones. We discuss the prospects for detection with upcoming underwater and under-ice experiments such as ANTARES and IceCube, and show that several, up to many, sources could be detected with both experiments. A kilometer-scale telescope in the Mediterranean appears to be ideally suited for the proposed search

  17. Acoustic Helicopter and FW Aircraft Detection and Classification

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2001-01-01

    The possibility to detect the passage of aircraft (either propeller or jet) with one or more mechanical wave sensors (acoustic or seismic) is investigated. An existing algorithm-sensor demonstator can detect and classify helicopter targets. In its current form it is developed to reject other targets

  18. Zero Threshold Reactions for Detecting Ultra Low Energy Cosmic Relic Neutrinos

    Raghavan, R S

    2007-01-01

    Zero-threshold reactions such as electron capture, beta+ and beta- decay can be induced by ultra low energy cosmic relic neutrinos (CRN). I conclude that the CRN can be detected and quantitatively measured with state of the art nuclear spectroscopic technologies. For current estimates of Pauli-limited number densities of CRN on earth, the detected CRN signals have the sensitivity to discover meV scale neutrino masses for which there are no strategies, much less, technologies at present.

  19. R and D studies for the development of a compact transmitter able to mimic the acoustic signature of a UHE neutrino interaction

    Calibration of acoustic neutrino telescopes with neutrino-like signals is essential to evaluate the feasibility of the technique and to know the efficiency of the detectors. However, it is not straightforward to have acoustic transmitters that, on one hand, are able to mimic the signature of a UHE neutrino interaction, that is, a bipolar acoustic pulse with the ‘pancake’ directivity, and on the other hand, fulfil practical issues such as ease of deployment and operation. This is a non-trivial problem since it requires directive transducer with cylindrical symmetry for a broadband frequency range. Classical solutions using linear arrays of acoustic transducers result in long arrays with many elements, which increase the cost and the complexity for deployment and operation. In this paper we present the extension of our previous R and D studies using the parametric acoustic source technique by dealing with the cylindrical symmetry and demonstrating that it is possible to use this technique for having a compact solution that could be much more easily included in neutrino telescope infrastructures or used in specific sea campaigns for calibration.

  20. Atmospheric neutrinos and neutrino oscillations

    The results on the composition of atmospheric neutrinos interacting in underground detectors and on the rate of atmospheric muon neutrino interactions in the earth surrounding the detectors are reviewed. So far, systematic errors on the neutrino flux and on the electrons and muons neutrino interaction identifications are not yet reliable enough to prove that atmospheric neutrinos oscillate before being detected. (author) 22 refs., 5 figs

  1. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Franco, D; Agnes, P; Agostino, L; Bottino, B; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Galbiati, C; Goretti, A M; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Jollet, C; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Pocar, A; Renshaw, A L; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Suvorov, Y; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Wang, H; Zavatarelli, S

    2015-01-01

    The direct search for dark matter WIMP particles through their interaction with nuclei at the "neutrino floor" sensitivity, where neutrino-induced coherent scattering on nuclei starts contributing to the background, requires detectors capable of collecting exposures of the order of 1~ktonne yr free of background resulting from beta and gamma decays and cosmogenic and radiogenic neutrons. The same constraints are required for precision measurements of solar neutrinos elastically scattering on electrons. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are prime candidates for the ambitious program to explore the nature of dark matter. The large target, high scintillation light yield and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions concurrently allows a high precision measurement of solar neutrino fluxes. We studied the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equival...

  2. An acoustically controlled tetherless underwater vehicle for installation and maintenance of neutrino detectors in the deep ocean

    Ballou, Philip J.

    1997-02-01

    The task of installing and servicing high energy neutrino detectors in the deep ocean from a surface support vessel is problematic using conventional tethered systems. An array of multiple detector strings rising 500 m from the ocean floor, and forming a grid with 50 m spacing between the strings, presents a substantial entanglement hazard for equipment cables deployed from the surface. Such tasks may be accomplished with fewer risks using a tetherless underwater remotely operated vehicle that has a local acoustic telemetry link to send control commands and sensor data between the vehicle and a stationary hydrophone suspended above or just outside the perimeter of the work site. The Phase I effort involves the development of an underwater acoustic telemetry link for vehicle control and sensor feedback, the evaluation of video compression methods for real-time acoustic transmission of video through the water, and the defining of local control routines on board the vehicle to allow it to perform certain basic maneuvering tasks autonomously, or to initiate a self-rescue if the acoustic control link should be lost. In Phase II, a prototype tetherless vehicle system will be designed and constructed to demonstrate the ability to install cable interconnections within a detector array at 4 km depth. The same control technology could be used with a larger more powerful vehicle to maneuver the detector strings into desired positions as they are being lowered to the ocean floor.

  3. An acoustically controlled tetherless underwater vehicle for installation and maintenance of neutrino detectors in the deep ocean

    The task of installing and servicing high energy neutrino detectors in the deep ocean from a surface support vessel is problematic using conventional tethered systems. An array of multiple detector strings rising 500 m from the ocean floor, and forming a grid with 50 m spacing between the strings, presents a substantial entanglement hazard for equipment cables deployed from the surface. Such tasks may be accomplished with fewer risks using a tetherless underwater remotely operated vehicle that has a local acoustic telemetry link to send control commands and sensor data between the vehicle and a stationary hydrophone suspended above or just outside the perimeter of the work site. The Phase I effort involves the development of an underwater acoustic telemetry link for vehicle control and sensor feedback, the evaluation of video compression methods for real-time acoustic transmission of video through the water, and the defining of local control routines on board the vehicle to allow it to perform certain basic maneuvering tasks autonomously, or to initiate a self-rescue if the acoustic control link should be lost. In Phase II, a prototype tetherless vehicle system will be designed and constructed to demonstrate the ability to install cable interconnections within a detector array at 4 km depth. The same control technology could be used with a larger more powerful vehicle to maneuver the detector strings into desired positions as they are being lowered to the ocean floor

  4. Neutrino Geophysics at Baksan I: Possible Detection of Georeactor Antineutrinos

    Domogatski, G; Mikaelyan, L A; Sinev, V

    2004-01-01

    J.M. Herndon in 90-s proposed a natural nuclear fission georeactor at the center of the Earth with a power output of 3-10 TW as an energy source to sustain the Earth magnetic field. R.S. Raghavan in 2002 y. pointed out that under certain condition antineutrinos generated in georeactor can be detected using massive scintillation detectors. We consider the underground Baksan Neutrino Observatory (4800 m.w.e.) as a possible site for developments in Geoneutrino physics. Here the intrinsic background level of less than one event/year in a liquid scintillation ~1000 target ton detector can be achieved and the main source of background is the antineutrino flux from power reactors. We find that this flux is ~10 times lower than at KamLAND detector site and two times lower than at Gran Sasso laboratory and thus at Baksan the georeactor hypothesis can be conclusively tested. We also discuss possible search for composition of georector burning nuclear fuel by analysis of the antineutrino energy spectrum.

  5. Neutrino Geophysics at Baksan I: Possible Detection of Georeactor Antineutrinos

    J.M. Herndon in the 1990s proposed a natural nuclear fission georeactor at the center of the Earth with a power output of 3-10 TW as an energy source to sustain the Earth magnetic field. R.S. Raghavan in 2002 pointed out that, under certain conditions, antineutrinos generated in such a georeactor can be detected using massive scintillation detectors. We consider the underground Baksan Neutrino Observatory (4800 m w.e.) as a possible site for developments in geoneutrino physics. Here, the intrinsic background level of less than 1 event/yr in a liquid scintillation ∼1000-t target detector can be achieved and the main source of background is the antineutrino flux from power reactors. We find that this flux is ∼10 times lower than at the KamLAND detector site and two times lower than at the Gran Sasso laboratory and thus at Baksan the georeactor hypothesis can be conclusively tested. We also discuss possible searches for the composition of georeactor burning nuclear fuel by analysis of the antineutrino energy spectrum

  6. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels $\\chi \\chi \\rightarrow \

  7. Proceedings of the first workshop on solar neutrino detection

    The purpose of the workshop was to review this vital field of the solar neutrino physics and to search for new techniques for next generation detectors to cover full range of the solar neutrino spectrum. Reviews of the solar model, the matter oscillation and experimental status were given. Discussions were also focused on a radio chemical measurement and indium detectors. Progress reports of scintillation fibers and indium-loaded scintillators were presented. Possible new detectors to use low temperature techniques were also reported. Progress reports from the Kamioka experiment, the only one from the real world, covered their search for the solar neutrinos and the effect of the matter oscillation of atomospheric neutrinos. (author)

  8. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  9. Passive acoustic detection of deep-diving beaked whales

    Zimmer, W.M.X.; Harwood, J.; Tyack, P.L.;

    2008-01-01

    clicks regularly to echolocate on prey during deep foraging dives. The effectiveness of PAD for beaked whales depends not only on the acoustic behavior and output of the animals but also on environmental conditions and the quality of the passive sonar implemented. A primary constraint on the range at...... receiver close to the surface should be able to detect acoustically Cuvier's beaked whales with a high probability at distances up to 0.7  km, provided the listening duration exceeds the deep dive interval, about 2.5  h on average. Detection ranges beyond 4  km are unlikely and would require low ambient...

  10. Neutrino Radar

    Panigrahi, P K

    2002-01-01

    We point out that with improving our present knowledge of experimental neutrino physics it will be possible to locate nuclear powered vehicles like submarines, aircraft carriers and UFOs and detect nuclear testing. Since neutrinos cannot be shielded, it will not be possible to escape these detection. In these detectors it will also be possible to perform neutrino oscillation experiments during any nuclear testing.

  11. Matter Effects of Thin Layers Detecting Oil by Oscillations of Solar Neutrinos

    Ioannisian, A N; Ioannisian, Ara N.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a possibility to use the solar neutrinos for studies of small scale structures of the Earth and for geological research. Effects of thin layers of matter with density contrast on oscillations of Beryllium neutrinos inside the Earth are studied. We find that change of the $^7Be$ neutrino flux can reach 0.25 % for layers with density of oil and size $(10 - 100)$ km. Problems of detection are discussed. Hypothetical method would consist of measuring the $^7Be -$ flux by e.g. large deep underwater detector-submarine which could change its location.

  12. Implication of the non-detection of neutrinos above 2PeV

    Yacobi, Lee; Behar, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube telescope has detected diffuse neutrino emission, 20 events of which were reported to be above 60~TeV. In this paper, we fit the diffuse neutrino spectrum using Poisson statistics, which are the most appropriate for the low counts per energy bin. We extend the fitted energy range and exploit the fact that no neutrinos were detected above 2~PeV, despite the high detector sensitivity around the Glashow resonance at 6.3\\,PeV and beyond. A best-fit power-law slope of $\\alpha=2.9\\pm 0.3$ is found with no evidence for a high-energy cutoff. This slope is steeper than $\\alpha=2.3\\pm 0.3$ found by the IceCube team using a different fitting method. Such a steep spectrum facilitates the identification of high energy ($\\gg$ PeV) neutrinos, if detected, to be due to the GZK effect of cosmic-ray protons interacting with the Extragalactic Background Light. We use the ratio of EeV to PeV neutrinos in GZK models to show that the currently detected PeV neutrinos could not be due to the GZK effect, because this woul...

  13. Follow-up of high energy neutrinos detected by the ANTARES telescope

    Mathieu, Aurore

    2016-04-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect high energy neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky with a high duty cycle. Potential neutrino sources are gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a detection method based on follow-up observations from the neutrino direction has been developed. This program, denoted as TAToO, includes a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT, Zadko and MASTER) and the Swift-XRT telescope, which are triggered when an "interesting" neutrino is detected by ANTARES. A follow-up of special events, such as neutrino doublets in time/space coincidence or a single neutrino having a very high energy or in the specific direction of a local galaxy, significantly improves the perspective for the detection of transient sources. The analysis of early and long term follow-up observations to search for fast and slowly varying transient sources, respectively, has been performed and the results covering optical and X-ray data are presented in this contribution.

  14. Follow-up of high energy neutrinos detected by the ANTARES telescope

    Mathieu Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect high energy neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky with a high duty cycle. Potential neutrino sources are gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a detection method based on follow-up observations from the neutrino direction has been developed. This program, denoted as TAToO, includes a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT, Zadko and MASTER and the Swift-XRT telescope, which are triggered when an “interesting” neutrino is detected by ANTARES. A follow-up of special events, such as neutrino doublets in time/space coincidence or a single neutrino having a very high energy or in the specific direction of a local galaxy, significantly improves the perspective for the detection of transient sources. The analysis of early and long term follow-up observations to search for fast and slowly varying transient sources, respectively, has been performed and the results covering optical and X-ray data are presented in this contribution.

  15. Detecting Fast Time Variations in the Supernova Neutrino Flux with Hyper-Kamiokande

    Migenda, Jost

    2016-01-01

    For detection of neutrinos from galactic supernovae, the planned Hyper-Kamiokande detector will be the first detector that delivers both a high event rate (about one third of the IceCube rate) and event-by-event energy information. In this thesis, we use a three-dimensional computer simulation by the Garching group to find out whether this additional information can be used to improve the detection prospects of fast time variations in the neutrino flux. We find that the amplitude of SASI oscillations of the neutrino number flux is energy-dependent. However, in this simulation, the larger amplitude in some energy bins is not sufficient to counteract the increased noise caused by the lower event rate. Finally, we derive a condition describing when it is advantageous to consider an energy bin instead of the total signal and show that this condition is satisfied if the oscillation of the mean neutrino energy is increased slightly.

  16. Prospects for Detecting a Neutrino Magnetic Moment with a Tritium Source and Beta-beams

    McLaughlin, G C

    2003-01-01

    We compare the prospects for detecting a neutrino magnetic moment by the measurement of neutrinos from a tritium source, reactors and low-energy beta-beams. In all cases the neutrinos or antineutrinos are detected by scattering of electrons. We find that a large (20 MCurie) tritium source could improve the limit on the neutrino magnetic moment significantly, down to the level of a few $\\times 10^{-12}$ while low-energy beta-beams with sufficiently rapid production of ions could improve the limits to the level of a few $\\times 10^{-11}$. The latter would require ion production at the rate of at least $10^{15}$ s$^{-1}$.

  17. Development of Acoustic Sensors for the ANTARES Experiment

    Naumann, C L; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Salomon, K; Naumann, Christopher Lindsay; Anton, Gisela; Graf, Kay; Hoessl, Juergen; Kappes, Alexander; Karg, Timo; Katz, Uli; Lahmann, Robert; Salomon, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the possibility of acoustic detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos in water, our group is planning to deploy and operate an array of acoustic sensors using the ANTARES Neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, acoustic sensor hardware has to be developed which is both capable of operation under the hostile conditions of the deep sea and at the same time provides the high sensitivity necessary to detect the weak pressure signals resulting from the neutrino's interaction in water. In this paper, two different approaches to building such sensors, as well as performance studies in the laboratory and in situ, are presented.

  18. Theoretical detection ranges for acoustic based manatee avoidance technology.

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2006-07-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. To reduce the number of collisions, warning systems based upon detecting manatee vocalizations have been proposed. One aspect of the feasibility of an acoustically based warning system relies upon the distance at which a manatee vocalization is detectable. Assuming a mixed spreading model, this paper presents a theoretical analysis of the system detection capabilities operating within various background and watercraft noise conditions. This study combines measured source levels of manatee vocalizations with the modeled acoustic properties of manatee habitats to develop a method for determining the detection range and hydrophone spacing requirements for acoustic based manatee avoidance technologies. In quiet environments (background noise approximately 70 dB) it was estimated that manatee vocalizations are detectable at approximately 250 m, with a 6 dB detection threshold, In louder environments (background noise approximately 100dB) the detection range drops to 2.5 m. In a habitat with 90 dB of background noise, a passing boat with a maximum noise floor of 120 dB would be the limiting factor when it is within approximately 100 m of a hydrophone. The detection range was also found to be strongly dependent on the manatee vocalization source level. PMID:16875213

  19. Measurements of the Suitability of Large Rock Salt Formations for Radio Detection of High Energy Neutrinos

    Gorham, Peter; Saltzberg, David; Odian, Allen; Williams, Dawn; Besson, David; Frichter, George; Tantawi, Sami

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that large rock salt formations might be suitable as target masses for detection of neutrinos of energies about 10 PeV and above. In neutrino interactions at these energies, the secondary electromagnetic cascade produces a coherent radio pulse well above ambient thermal noise via the Askaryan effect. We describe measurements of radio-frequency attenuation lengths and ambient thermal noise in two salt formations. Measurements in the Waste Isolation Pilot Pl...

  20. Detection potential for the diffuse supernova neutrino background in the large liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Wurm, M.; F. von Feilitzsch; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hochmuth, K. A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodan; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.

    2007-01-01

    The large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) will provide high-grade background discrimination and enable the detection of diffuse supernova neutrinos (DSN) in an almost background-free energy window from ~10 to 25 MeV. Within ten years of exposure, it will be possible to derive significant constraints on both core-collapse supernova models and the supernova rate in the near universe up to redshifts z

  1. Detection of solar and supernova neutrinos. The 2002 nobel prize for physics

    The author reviews the birth of neutrino astronomy, with special emphasis on the pioneering contributions to the detection of solar and supernova neutrinos of the 2002 Nobel Prize winners, Raymond Davis Jr and Masatoshi Koshiba. The author describes briefly the recent developments in this rapidly growing field as well as the prospects for the near future, and concludes with a few thoughts that come from reflecting over the history

  2. On Marine Mammal Acoustic Detection Performance Bounds

    Xian, Yin; Nolte, Loren; Tantum, Stacy; Liao, Xuejun; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Since the spectrogram does not preserve phase information contained in the original data, any algorithm based on the spectrogram is not likely to be optimum for detection. In this paper, we present the Short Time Fourier Transform detector to detect marine mammals in the time-frequency plane. The detector uses phase information for detection. We evaluate this detector by comparing it to the existing spectrogram based detectors for different SNRs and various environments including a known ocea...

  3. Detecting Neutrinos from AGN New Fluxes and Cross Sections

    Hill, G C

    1996-01-01

    New information on the structure of the nucleon from the HERA ep collider leads to higher neutrino cross sections for the processes nu_mu + N --> mu + X needed to calculate the expected rates of astrophysical neutrino induced muons in large detectors either under construction, or in the design stage. These higher cross sections lead to higher muon rates for arrival angles where neutrino attenuation in the earth is less important. On the other hand, new estimates of AGN neutrino fluxes suggest that the expected muon rates in these detectors may be much lower than previously calculated. I use the new cross sections to calculate the expected muon rates and angular distributions in large detectors for a variety of AGN models and compare these rates with the atmospheric neutrino backrounds (from both conventional decay channels and the "prompt" charmed meson decay channels). If the lowest flux estimates are correct, there may be diffculties in determining the origin of a small excess of muons, due to the large unc...

  4. Calibration Of Sno For The Detection Of (8)b Neutrinos

    Ford, R J

    1999-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation water Čerenkov detector using 1000 tonnes of heavy water to study neutrino astrophysics. Using deuterium neutrino reactions, SNO will measure the flux and energy spectrum of solar electron neutrinos, and will measure the flavour-blind flux of neutrinos. A nitrogen/multi-dye laser diffuser ball has been designed and installed in SNO for calibration of the electronics, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and optical parameters. The laser provides pulsed radiation at 337.1 nm with a 600 psec width and pulse rate up to 50 Hz. The laser can be used directly or as a pump for one of four dye laser resonators, which provides five wavelength selections from 337–500 nm. The light is delivered to a pseudo-isotropic diffuser ball (the laserball) by a 100 μm UV-VIS fibre bundle with less than 1 nsec dispersion at 337 nm. The laserball can be deployed throughout the detector with the rope manipulator system. The laserball output is adjustabl...

  5. Detection of supernova neutrinos on the Earth for large theta13

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Supernova (SN) neutrinos detected on the Earth are subject to the shock wave effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, the neutrino collective effects and the Earth matter effects. Considering the recent experimental result about the large mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ ($\\backsimeq8.8^{\\circ}$) provided by the Daya Bay Collaboration and applying the available knowledge for the neutrino conversion probability in the high resonance of SN, $P_{H}$, which is in the form of hypergeometric function in the case of large $\\theta_{13}$, we deduce the expression of $P_{H}$ taking into account the shock wave effects. It is found that $P_{H}$ is not zero in a certain range of time due to the shock wave effects. After considering all the four physical effects and scanning relevant parameters, we calculate the event numbers of SN neutrinos detected at the Daya Bay experiment. From the numerical results, it is found that the behaviors of neutrino event numbers detected on the Earth depend on the neutrino mass hi...

  6. Simulation and measurement of different hydrophone components for acoustic particle detection; Simulation und Messung verschiedener Hydrophonkomponenten zur akustischen Teilchendetektion

    Salomon, K.S.

    2007-01-26

    A study of piezoceramics as sensitive elements for the use in acoustical astroparticle physics is presented in this work. This study aims to develop underwater microphones (hydrophones) in order to detect thermoacoustic sound pulses, which are produced in neutrino interactions. The sensitive elements of the acoustical detectors, the piezo ceramics, are under investigation in this work. Therefore the equations of a piezo are solved in simulations to derive its macroscopic properties. Especially the impedance and the displacement of the piezo as response to applied voltage are of interest. This is correlated with the electrical and mechanical answer of a piezo when sending. For receiving the resulting voltage or the electrical charge due to applied stress are of interest. In the present studies cylinder and hollow cylinder were analyzed. Insight of the interrelationship between the displacement and the impedance is given. The impedance is fitted with an equivalent circuit, to derive the mechanical analog properties. Furthermore the effect of the piezo geometry to the resonance frequencies is explored. Further calculations were made to reveal the sound field produced by a piezo. Measurements of the impedance with a phase-gain-analyser are made. On the other side the displacement is measured using optical interferometry. Beside the simulation and measurements of the piezosensitive elements a study for a trigger-algorithm using the crosscorrelation is introduced. In this study in situ measurements with low signal amplitudes are used to describe noise. To this noise data signals were added and it was examined how well the signals can be reconstructed. Based on the result of this work and taking commercial available piezoceramic materials into account, the optimal sensitive element of an acoustic neutrino detector is a PZT-5A disc with a diameter of 5 mm and a height of 10 mm. A single detector of this kind is able to detect neutrinos with energies more then one PeV as it

  7. The use of acoustic emission to detect stress relief cracking

    Stress rupture tests have been carried out on CrMoV steel specimens containing weld heat affected zone structures. An acoustic emission technique is described which has been used to detect cracking in these tests. Cavitational damage is associated with bursts of acoustic output and these results have been supported by fractograpic examination. The features of progressive cavitational damage are described for materials of different cracking susceptibility. It is implied that cavity formation can occur in the heat affected zone of CrMoV welds when heating to the stress relieving temperature. (orig.)

  8. Techniques and methods for the low-energy neutrino detection

    Ranucci, Gioacchino

    2016-04-01

    Low-energy neutrino physics and astrophysics has been one of the most active field of particle physics research over the past two decades, achieving important and sometimes unexpected results, which have paved the way for a bright future of further exciting studies. The methods, the techniques and the technologies employed for the construction of the many experiments which acted as important players in this area of investigation have been crucial elements to reach the many accumulated physics successes. The topic covered in this review is, thus, the description of the main features of the set of methodologies at the basis of the design, construction and operation of low-energy neutrino detectors.

  9. Wavelet-based acoustic emission detection method with adaptive thresholding

    Menon, Sunil; Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Hamza, Rida; Busch, Darryl

    2000-06-01

    Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. One such technology, the use of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults, has been investigated by Honeywell Technology Center for its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS). This ambitious, 38-month, proof-of-concept effort, which was a part of the Naval Surface Warfare Center Air Vehicle Diagnostics System program, culminated in a successful three-week flight test of the RAMS system at Patuxent River Flight Test Center in September 1997. The flight test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. This paper presents the results of stress wave data analysis of the flight-test dataset using wavelet-based techniques to assess background operational noise vs. machinery failure detection results.

  10. Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs

    Bermudez, Edgar F.

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

  11. Passive acoustic detection of deep-diving beaked whales.

    Zimmer, Walter M X; Harwood, John; Tyack, Peter L; Johnson, Mark P; Madsen, Peter T

    2008-11-01

    Beaked whales can remain submerged for an hour or more and are difficult to sight when they come to the surface to breathe. Passive acoustic detection (PAD) not only complements traditional visual-based methods for detecting these species but also can be more effective because beaked whales produce clicks regularly to echolocate on prey during deep foraging dives. The effectiveness of PAD for beaked whales depends not only on the acoustic behavior and output of the animals but also on environmental conditions and the quality of the passive sonar implemented. A primary constraint on the range at which beaked whale clicks can be detected involves their high frequencies, which attenuate rapidly, resulting in limited ranges of detection, especially in adverse environmental conditions. Given current knowledge of source parameters and in good conditions, for example, with a wind speed of 2 ms, a receiver close to the surface should be able to detect acoustically Cuvier's beaked whales with a high probability at distances up to 0.7 km, provided the listening duration exceeds the deep dive interval, about 2.5 h on average. Detection ranges beyond 4 km are unlikely and would require low ambient noise or special sound propagation conditions. PMID:19045770

  12. Development of a Relic Neutrino Detection Experiment at PTOLEMY: Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield

    Betts, S; Carnevale, R H; Chang, C; Chen, C; Chidzik, S; Ciebiera, L; Cloessner, P; Cocco, A; Cohen, A; Dong, J; Klemmer, R; Komor, M; Gentile, C; Harrop, B; Hopkins, A; Jarosik, N; Messina, M; Osherson, B; Raitses, Y; Sands, W; Schaefer, M; Taylor, J; Tully, C G; Woolley, R; Zwicker, A

    2013-01-01

    The PTOLEMY experiment (Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield) aims to achieve the sensitivity required to detect the relic neutrino background through a combination of a large area surface-deposition tritium target, MAC-E filter methods, cryogenic calorimetry, and RF tracking and time-of-flight systems. A small-scale prototype is in operation at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with the goal of validating the technologies that would enable the design of a 100 gram PTOLEMY. With precision calorimetry in the prototype setup, the limitations from quantum mechanical and Doppler broadening of the tritium target for different substrates will be measured, including graphene substrates. Beyond relic neutrino physics, sterile neutrinos contributing to the dark matter in the universe are allowed by current constraints on partial contributions to the number of active neutrino species in thermal equilibrium in the early universe. The current PTOLEMY prototype is expected ...

  13. On Marine Mammal Acoustic Detection Performance Bounds

    Xian, Yin; Tantum, Stacy; Liao, Xuejun; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Since the spectrogram does not preserve phase information contained in the original data, any algorithm based on the spectrogram is not likely to be optimum for detection. In this paper, we present the Short Time Fourier Transform detector to detect marine mammals in the time-frequency plane. The detector uses phase information for detection. We evaluate this detector by comparing it to the existing spectrogram based detectors for different SNRs and various environments including a known ocean, uncertain ocean, and mean ocean. The results show that this detector outperforms the spectrogram based detector. Simulations are presented using the polynomial phase signal model of the North Atlantic Right Whale (NARW), along with the bellhop ray tracing model.

  14. NOSTOS: a spherical TPC to detect low energy neutrinos

    A novel low-energy (∼few keV) neutrino-oscillation experiment NOSTOS, combining a strong tritium source and a high pressure spherical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector 10 m in radius has been recently proposed. The oscillation of neutrinos of such energies occurs within the size of the detector itself, potentially allowing for a very precise (and rather systematics-free) measure of the oscillation parameters, in particular, of the smaller mixing angle θ13, which value could be determined for the first time. This detector could also be sensitive to the neutrino magnetic moment and be capable of accurately measure the Weinberg angle at low energy. The same apparatus, filled with high pressure Xenon, exhibits a high sensitivity as a Super Nova neutrino detector with extra galactic sensitivity. The outstanding benefits of the new concept of the spherical TPC will be presented, as well as the issues to be demonstrated in the near future by an ongoing R and D. The very first results of small prototype in operation in Saclay are shown

  15. ARIANNA: A New Concept for UHE Neutrino Detection

    The ARIANNA concept utilizes the Ross Ice Shelf near the coast of Antarctica to increase the sensitivity to cosmogenic neutrinos by roughly an order of magnitude when compared to the sensitivity of existing detectors and those under construction. Therefore, ARIANNA can test a wide variety of scenarios for GZK neutrino production, and probe for physics beyond the standard model by measuring the neutrino cross-section at center of momentum energies near 100 TeV. ARIANNA capitalizes on several remarkable properties of the Ross Ice Shelf: shelf ice is relatively transparent to electromagnetic radiation at radio frequencies and the water-ice boundary below the shelf creates a good mirror to reflect radio signals from neutrino interactions in any downward direction. The high sensitivity results from nearly six months of continuous operation, low energy threshold (∼3x1017 eV), and more than 2π of sky coverage. The baseline concept for ARIANNA consists of moderately high gain antenna stations arranged on a 100 x 100 square grid, separated by about 300m. Each station consists of a small group of cross-polarized antennas residing just beneath the snow surface and facing downwards. They communicate with a central control hub by wireless links to generate global triggers

  16. Detection possibility of the pair-annihilation neutrinos from the neutrino-cooled pre-supernova star

    Odrzywolek, A.; MISIASZEK M.; Kutschera, M.

    2003-01-01

    The signal produced in neutrino observatories by the pair-annihilation neutrinos emitted from a 20 $M_{\\odot}$ pre-supernova star at the silicon burning phase is estimated. The spectrum of the neutrinos with an average energy $\\sim$2 MeV is calculated with the use of the Monte Carlo method. A few relevant reactions for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in modern detectors are considered. The most promising results are from $\\bar{\

  17. Topography and biological noise determine acoustic detectability on coral reefs

    Cagua, Edgar F.

    2013-08-19

    Acoustic telemetry is an increasingly common tool for studying the movement patterns, behavior and site fidelity of marine organisms, but to accurately interpret acoustic data, the variability, periodicity and range of detectability between acoustic tags and receivers must be understood. The relative and interactive effects of topography with biological and environmental noise have not been quantified on coral reefs. We conduct two long-term range tests (1- and 4-month duration) on two different reef types in the central Red Sea to determine the relative effect of distance, depth, topography, time of day, wind, lunar phase, sea surface temperature and thermocline on detection probability. Detectability, as expected, declines with increasing distance between tags and receivers, and we find average detection ranges of 530 and 120 m, using V16 and V13 tags, respectively, but the topography of the reef can significantly modify this relationship, reducing the range by ~70 %, even when tags and receivers are in line-of-sight. Analyses that assume a relationship between distance and detections must therefore be used with care. Nighttime detection range was consistently reduced in both locations, and detections varied by lunar phase in the 4-month test, suggesting a strong influence of biological noise (reducing detection probability up to 30 %), notably more influential than other environmental noises, including wind-driven noise, which is normally considered important in open-water environments. Analysis of detections should be corrected in consideration of the diel patterns we find, and range tests or sentinel tags should be used for more than 1 month to quantify potential changes due to lunar phase. Some studies assume that the most usual factor limiting detection range is weather-related noise; this cannot be extrapolated to coral reefs. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-12-01

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  19. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-10-31

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  20. Acoustic metamaterial for subwavelength edge detection

    Molerón, Miguel; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials have demonstrated the possibility to produce super-resolved images by restoring propagative and evanescent waves. However, for efficient information transfer, for example, in compressed sensing, it is often desirable to visualize only the fast spatial variations of the wave field (carried by evanescent waves), as the one created by edges or small details. Image processing edge detection algorithms perform such operation, but they add time and complexity to the ima...

  1. The Antarctica as a neutrino detector

    The RAMAND-I (RAdioMuon And Neutrino Detector-Ice) is presented briefly. This project was initiated to develop acoustic detection techniques for the measurement of high-energy neutrinos arriving from the Universe.The detector itself is a 10 x 100 km2 area ice surface on the Antarctica equipped with a suitable antenna network. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 8 figs

  2. Detection of sub-GeV Dark Matter and Solar Neutrinos via Chemical-Bond Breaking

    Essig, Rouven; Slone, Oren; Volansky, Tomer

    2016-01-01

    We explore a new low-threshold direct-detection concept for dark matter, based on the breaking of chemical bonds between atoms. This includes the dissociation of molecules and the creation of defects in a lattice. With thresholds of a few to 10's of eV, such an experiment could probe the nuclear couplings of dark matter particles as light as a few MeV. We calculate the expected rates for dark matter to break apart diatomic molecules, which we take as a case study for more general systems. We briefly mention ideas for how chemical-bond breaking might be detected in practice. We also discuss the possibility of detecting solar neutrinos, including pp neutrinos, with this experimental concept. With an event rate of $\\mathcal{O}$(0.1/kg-year), large exposures are required, but measuring low-energy solar neutrinos would provide a crucial test of the solar model.

  3. Development Toward a Ground-Based Interferometric Phased Array for Radio Detection of High Energy Neutrinos

    Avva, J; Chesebro, T; Cremonisi, L; Deaconu, C; Gupta, A; Ludwig, A; Messino, W; Miki, C; Nichol, R; Oberla, E; Romero-Wolf, A; Saltzberg, D; Schlupf, C; Shipp, N; Varner, G; Vieregg, A G; Wissel, S A

    2016-01-01

    A promising method for further measurements of high energy neutrinos at the PeV scale and above is through an in-ice radio interferometric phased array, designed to look for Askaryan emission from neutrinos interacting in large volumes of glacial ice. Such a detector would be sensitive to two populations of neutrinos: the PeV-scale astrophysical neutrino flux recently detected by IceCube, and the predicted cosmogenic ultra-high energy (UHE) flux ($E>10^{17}$ eV). Characterizing these high energy neutrino populations is an important step toward understanding the most energetic cosmic accelerators, and the discovery of UHE neutrinos would allow us to probe fundamental physics at energy scales that are not achievable on Earth. We report here on studies validating the phased array technique, including measurements and a simulation of thermal noise correlations between nearby antennas, beamforming for impulsive signals, and a measurement of the expected improvement in trigger efficiency through the phased array te...

  4. DETECTION OF EPR USING A PULSED MICROWAVE ACOUSTIC TECHNIQUE

    Netzelmann, U.; Lerchner, H.; Pelzl, J.; Sigrist, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new pulsed microwave acoustic method is shown to be suited for the detection of EPR. Pressure amplitudes obtained for DPPH in n-hexane agree with theoretical predictions. Our calculations clearly demonstrate that temperature gradients within the sample are important for generating large signal amplitudes. Hence this technique is of special interest for samples with an inhomogeneous distribution of paramagnetic centers or for the study of interfaces.

  5. Resonance and Nonlinear Seismo-Acoustic Land Mine Detection

    Donskoy, Dimitri M.

    2008-01-01

    We have presented an overview of our team’s (at Stevens Institute of Technology) contribution in development of resonance and nonlinear Seismo-Acoustic Mine Detection (SAMD) techniques. Among our major accomplishments are the discovery and quantitative characterization of mine resonances; the discovery of a very strong nonlinear dynamics of the buried mines manifesting itself through the combination and intermodulation frequencies; the development of a physical model describing the linear a...

  6. Acoustic detection in superconducting magnets for performance characterization and diagnostics

    Marchevsky, M.; Wang, X.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.

    2014-01-01

    Quench diagnostics in superconducting accelerator magnets is essential for understanding performance limitations and improving magnet design. Applicability of the conventional quench diagnostics methods such as voltage taps or quench antennas is limited for long magnets or complex winding geometries, and alternative approaches are desirable. Here, we discuss acoustic sensing technique for detecting mechanical vibrations in superconducting magnets. Using LARP high-field Nb3Sn quadrupole HQ01 [...

  7. Detecting baryon acoustic oscillations by 3d weak lensing

    Grassi, Alessandra; Schaefer, Bjoern Malte

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting baryon acoustic oscillation features in the cosmic matter distribution by 3d weak lensing. Baryon oscillations are inaccessible even to weak lensing tomography because of wide line-of-sight weighting functions and require a specialized approach via 3d shear estimates. We quantify the uncertainty of estimating the matter spectrum amplitude at the baryon oscillations wave vectors by a Fisher-matrix approach with a fixed cosmology and show in this way ...

  8. Towards an Automated Acoustic Detection System for Free Ranging Elephants

    Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Hensman, Sean; Stoeger, Angela S

    2015-01-01

    The human-elephant conflict is one of the most serious conservation problems in Asia and Africa today. The involuntary confrontation of humans and elephants claims the lives of many animals and humans every year. A promising approach to alleviate this conflict is the development of an acoustic early warning system. Such a system requires the robust automated detection of elephant vocalizations under unconstrained field conditions. Today, no system exists that fulfills these requirements. In t...

  9. Acoustic monitoring of safety/relief valves for leak detection

    The results presented here indicate that there is a high probability of confidentially detecting pilot stage leakage in safety/relief valves through the use of acoustic monitoring, especially in the frequency range 30-60 kHz. This should be particularly true if the sensors and signal processing equipment are designed for sensitivity to this range, and if routine or continuous monitoring is performed so that trends can be recognized

  10. Standard and non-standard neutrino-nucleus reactions cross sections and event rates to neutrino detection experiments

    Papoulias, D K

    2015-01-01

    Open neutrino physics issues require precision studies, both theoretical and experimental ones, and towards this aim coherent neutral current neutrino-nucleus scattering events are expected to be observed soon. In this work, we explore $\