Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM
Rosenhave, P.E. [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)
1997-12-31
In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.
Multivariate mixed normal conditional heteroskedasticity
Bauwens, Luc; Hafner, Christian; ROMBOUTS, Jeroen
2006-01-01
We propose a new multivariate volatility model where the conditional distribution of a vector time series is given by a mixture of multivariate normal distributions. Each of these distributions is allowed to have a time-varying covariance matrix. The process can be globally covariance- stationary even though some components are not covariance-stationary. We derive some theo- retical properties of the model such as the unconditional covariance matrix and autocorrelations of squared returns. Th...
On the Conditional Distribution of the Multivariate $t$ Distribution
Ding, Peng
2016-01-01
As alternatives to the normal distributions, $t$ distributions are widely applied in robust analysis for data with outliers or heavy tails. The properties of the multivariate $t$ distribution are well documented in Kotz and Nadarajah's book, which, however, states a wrong conclusion about the conditional distribution of the multivariate $t$ distribution. Previous literature has recognized that the conditional distribution of the multivariate $t$ distribution also follows the multivariate $t$ ...
Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2012-01-01
Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....
A direct-gradient multivariate index of biotic condition
Miranda, Leandro E.; Aycock, J.N.; Killgore, K. J.
2012-01-01
Multimetric indexes constructed by summing metric scores have been criticized despite many of their merits. A leading criticism is the potential for investigator bias involved in metric selection and scoring. Often there is a large number of competing metrics equally well correlated with environmental stressors, requiring a judgment call by the investigator to select the most suitable metrics to include in the index and how to score them. Data-driven procedures for multimetric index formulation published during the last decade have reduced this limitation, yet apprehension remains. Multivariate approaches that select metrics with statistical algorithms may reduce the level of investigator bias and alleviate a weakness of multimetric indexes. We investigated the suitability of a direct-gradient multivariate procedure to derive an index of biotic condition for fish assemblages in oxbow lakes in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Although this multivariate procedure also requires that the investigator identify a set of suitable metrics potentially associated with a set of environmental stressors, it is different from multimetric procedures because it limits investigator judgment in selecting a subset of biotic metrics to include in the index and because it produces metric weights suitable for computation of index scores. The procedure, applied to a sample of 35 competing biotic metrics measured at 50 oxbow lakes distributed over a wide geographical region in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, selected 11 metrics that adequately indexed the biotic condition of five test lakes. Because the multivariate index includes only metrics that explain the maximum variability in the stressor variables rather than a balanced set of metrics chosen to reflect various fish assemblage attributes, it is fundamentally different from multimetric indexes of biotic integrity with advantages and disadvantages. As such, it provides an alternative to multimetric procedures.
Condition Monitoring and Management from Acoustic Emissions
Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik Bohl
2005-01-01
In the following, I will use technical terms without explanation as it gives the freedom to describe the project in a shorter form for those who already know. The thesis is about condition monitoring of large diesel engines from acoustic emission signals. The experiments have been focused on a...... this work is the analysis of the angular position changes of the engine related events such as fuel injection and valve openings, caused by operational load changes. With inspiration from speech recognition and voice effects the angular timing changes have been inverted with the event alignment...
Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.
2016-03-01
Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.
Covariance estimation for multivariate conditionally Gaussian dynamic linear models
2008-01-01
In multivariate time series, the estimation of the covariance matrix of the observation innovations plays an important role in forecasting as it enables the computation of the standardized forecast error vectors as well as it enables the computation of confidence bounds of the forecasts. We develop an on-line, non-iterative Bayesian algorithm for estimation and forecasting. It is empirically found that, for a range of simulated time series, the proposed covariance estimator has good performan...
Multivariate characterisation of environmental conditions for reindeer husbandry in Sweden
Henrik Lundqvist
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Pastoralism using semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus is a traditional livelihood in northern Fennoscandia. The area used for reindeer herding in Sweden covers as much as half of the country’s area. Variation in the productivity of reindeer husbandry is clearly affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this investigation was to identify factor combinations which describe the spatial variation in conditions that plausibly determine productivity in reindeer herding. Initially, 37 variables representing geographical location, climate, weather episodes related to ice crust formation and insect harassment, topography, vegetation, forage abundance and qualities, and fragmentation of the ranges were derived, using prior ecological knowledge and spatially explicit data. The variables were mapped in a raster of 1958 squares of 100 km2 each, covering the entire Swedish reindeer herding area. Reductions of variables were performed with multivariate analyses in steps, ultimately retaining 15 variables. The first five principal components (PCs of these variables explained 84% of the total variation. The first component, related to major western mountain/eastern lowland gradients, already accounts for 49% of the variation. The following components explained variation ranging from 10% to 5.4%, and revealed spatial patterns in summer versus winter forage, climatic conditions and ice crust formation, abundance of forests and winter forage, and northward slopes together with valuable forest areas, respectively. A tentative zone division of the Swedish reindeer herding area into seven zones was made, based upon cluster analysis and spatial distribution of component scores. Extending this approach and method seems useful also in the understanding and management of other natural resources and national parks, especially with an ongoing global climate change perspective.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Multivariat karakterisering av grundf
Bentsen, Caroline L; Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D; Brooks, Robert
2006-04-01
Mate choice may impose both linear (i.e., directional) and nonlinear (i.e., quadratic and correlational) sexual selection on advertisement traits. Traditionally, mate recognition and sensory tuning have been thought to impose stabilizing (i.e., negative quadratic) sexual selection, whereas adaptive mate choice effects directional selection. It has been suggested that adaptive choice may exert positive quadratic and/or correlational sexual selection. Earlier, we showed that five structural components of the advertisement call of male field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) were under multivariate stabilizing selection under laboratory conditions. Here we experimentally estimate selection on these five traits plus a measure of calling activity (the number of repeats in a looped bout of calling) in the field. There was general support for multivariate stabilizing selection on call structure, and calling activity was under strong positive directional selection, as predicted for a signal of genetic quality. There was, however, also appreciable correlational selection, suggesting an interaction between male call structure and calling effort. Interestingly, selection for short interbout durations of silence favored longer intercall durations in the field, in contrast to results from continuous looped call playback in the laboratory. We discuss the general importance of nonlinear selection in the honest signaling of genetic quality. PMID:16670989
Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions.
Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B
2002-12-01
Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5 x 10(3) kg/m(3) are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites." This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface. PMID:12513291
Multivariate Spatial Condition Mapping Using Subtractive Fuzzy Cluster Means
Hakilo Sabit
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are usually deployed for monitoring given physical phenomena taking place in a specific space and over a specific duration of time. The spatio-temporal distribution of these phenomena often correlates to certain physical events. To appropriately characterise these events-phenomena relationships over a given space for a given time frame, we require continuous monitoring of the conditions. WSNs are perfectly suited for these tasks, due to their inherent robustness. This paper presents a subtractive fuzzy cluster means algorithm and its application in data stream mining for wireless sensor systems over a cloud-computing-like architecture, which we call sensor cloud data stream mining. Benchmarking on standard mining algorithms, the k-means and the FCM algorithms, we have demonstrated that the subtractive fuzzy cluster means model can perform high quality distributed data stream mining tasks comparable to centralised data stream mining.
Absorption and impedance boundary conditions for phased geometrical-acoustics methods
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2012-01-01
Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, both absorption coefficients and surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been...... reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....
Optimizing acoustical conditions for speech intelligibility in classrooms
Yang, Wonyoung
High speech intelligibility is imperative in classrooms where verbal communication is critical. However, the optimal acoustical conditions to achieve a high degree of speech intelligibility have previously been investigated with inconsistent results, and practical room-acoustical solutions to optimize the acoustical conditions for speech intelligibility have not been developed. This experimental study validated auralization for speech-intelligibility testing, investigated the optimal reverberation for speech intelligibility for both normal and hearing-impaired listeners using more realistic room-acoustical models, and proposed an optimal sound-control design for speech intelligibility based on the findings. The auralization technique was used to perform subjective speech-intelligibility tests. The validation study, comparing auralization results with those of real classroom speech-intelligibility tests, found that if the room to be auralized is not very absorptive or noisy, speech-intelligibility tests using auralization are valid. The speech-intelligibility tests were done in two different auralized sound fields---approximately diffuse and non-diffuse---using the Modified Rhyme Test and both normal and hearing-impaired listeners. A hybrid room-acoustical prediction program was used throughout the work, and it and a 1/8 scale-model classroom were used to evaluate the effects of ceiling barriers and reflectors. For both subject groups, in approximately diffuse sound fields, when the speech source was closer to the listener than the noise source, the optimal reverberation time was zero. When the noise source was closer to the listener than the speech source, the optimal reverberation time was 0.4 s (with another peak at 0.0 s) with relative output power levels of the speech and noise sources SNS = 5 dB, and 0.8 s with SNS = 0 dB. In non-diffuse sound fields, when the noise source was between the speaker and the listener, the optimal reverberation time was 0.6 s with
Classification of heart valve condition using acoustic measurements
Clark, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-11-15
Prosthetic heart valves and the many great strides in valve design have been responsible for extending the life spans of many people with serious heart conditions. Even though the prosthetic valves are extremely reliable, they are eventually susceptible to long-term fatigue and structural failure effects expected from mechanical devices operating over long periods of time. The purpose of our work is to classify the condition of in vivo Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves by processing acoustic measurements of heart valve sounds. The structural failures of interest for Bscc valves is called single leg separation (SLS). SLS can occur if the outlet strut cracks and separates from the main structure of the valve. We measure acoustic opening and closing sounds (waveforms) using high sensitivity contact microphones on the patient`s thorax. For our analysis, we focus our processing and classification efforts on the opening sounds because they yield direct information about outlet strut condition with minimal distortion caused by energy radiated from the valve disc.
Multi-variable Extremum Seeking Control for Mini-split Air-conditioning System
Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.
2014-01-01
In this study, a multi-variable extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme is proposed for a variable-speed mini-split air-conditioning system. The control inputs are the evaporator and condenser fan speeds, respectively, while the total power consumption is used as the feedback. As accurate model is hard and expensive to obtain for the AC system of interest in real time, nearly model-free self-optimizing control methods such as ESC is considered a more feasible solution to practical deployment. R...
A multivariate conditional model for streamflow prediction and spatial precipitation refinement
Liu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Xiuzhi; Guan, Yinghui
2015-10-01
The effective prediction and estimation of hydrometeorological variables are important for water resources planning and management. In this study, we propose a multivariate conditional model for streamflow prediction and the refinement of spatial precipitation estimates. This model consists of high dimensional vine copulas, conditional bivariate copula simulations, and a quantile-copula function. The vine copula is employed because of its flexibility in modeling the high dimensional joint distribution of multivariate data by building a hierarchy of conditional bivariate copulas. We investigate two cases to evaluate the performance and applicability of the proposed approach. In the first case, we generate one month ahead streamflow forecasts that incorporate multiple predictors including antecedent precipitation and streamflow records in a basin located in South China. The prediction accuracy of the vine-based model is compared with that of traditional data-driven models such as the support vector regression (SVR) and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The results indicate that the proposed model produces more skillful forecasts than SVR and ANFIS. Moreover, this probabilistic model yields additional information concerning the predictive uncertainty. The second case involves refining spatial precipitation estimates derived from the tropical rainfall measuring mission precipitationproduct for the Yangtze River basin by incorporating remotely sensed soil moisture data and the observed precipitation from meteorological gauges over the basin. The validation results indicate that the proposed model successfully refines the spatial precipitation estimates. Although this model is tested for specific cases, it can be extended to other hydrometeorological variables for predictions and spatial estimations.
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation
Siegfried Hohmann
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.
The liquid phase separation of Bi-Ga hypermonotectic alloy under acoustic levitation condition
HONG ZhenYu; L(U) YongJun; XIE WenJun; WEI BingBo
2007-01-01
Containerless treatment of Bi-58.5at%Ga hypermonotectic alloy is successfully performed with acoustic levitation technique. Under acoustic levitation condition, the second phase (Ga) distributes almost homogeneously in solidification sample, opposite to macrosegregation in solidification sample under conventional condition. Stokes motion of the second liquid droplet (Ga) is significantly restrained under acoustic levitation condition. The analyses indicate that the melt vibration in the gravity direction forced by acoustic field can induce steady flow around the second liquid droplet, which influences droplet shape during its moving upward and consequently restrains Stokes motion velocity of the second liquid droplet.
Estimating the impact of environmental conditions on hatching results using multivariable analysis
IA Nääs
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Hatching results are directly related to environmental and biological surroundings. This research study aimed at evaluating the influence of incubation environmental conditions on hatchability and one-day-old chickling quality of five production flocks using multivariable analysis tool. The experiment was carried out in a commercial hatchery located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental variables such as dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and number of colony forming units of fungi were recorded inside a broiler multi-stage setter, a hatcher after eggs transference, and a chick-processing room. The homogeneity of parameter distribution among quadrants inside the setter, the hatcher, and the chick room was tested using the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis, and the fit analysis was applied. The multivariate analysis was applied using the Main Component Technique in order to identify possible correlations between environmental and production parameters. Three different groups were identified: the first group is represented by temperature, which was positively correlated both with good hatchability and good chick quality; the second group indicates that poor chick quality was positively correlated with air velocity and relative humidity increase. The third group, represented by carbon dioxide concentration and fungi colonies forming units, presented strong positive association with embryo mortality increase.
On the wave equation with semilinear porous acoustic boundary conditions
Graber, Philip Jameson
2012-05-01
The goal of this work is to study a model of the wave equation with semilinear porous acoustic boundary conditions with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear boundary/interior damping. First, applying the nonlinear semigroup theory, we show the existence and uniqueness of local in time solutions. The main difficulty in proving the local existence result is that the Neumann boundary conditions experience loss of regularity due to boundary sources. Using an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in Lasiecka and Tataru (1993) [28], we show that the existence of solutions can still be obtained. Second, we prove that under some restrictions on the source terms, then the local solution can be extended to be global in time. In addition, it has been shown that the decay rates of the solution are given implicitly as solutions to a first order ODE and depends on the behavior of the damping terms. In several situations, the obtained ODE can be easily solved and the decay rates can be given explicitly. Third, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term and if the boundary source dominates the boundary damping, then the solution ceases to exists and blows up in finite time. Moreover, in either the absence of the interior source or the boundary source, then we prove that the solution is unbounded and grows as an exponential function. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Cunha, Isabel; Saborido-Rey, Fran; Planas, Miguel
2003-01-01
The nutritional condition of turbot larvae (Scophthalmus maximus) was assessed by a multivariate analysis with DNA, RNA, and protein content as input variables. Special attention was given to the time that feeding began and to the timing and duration of starvation. The combination of the principal components analysis and the stepwise discriminant analysis, both techniques of multivariate analysis, made it possible to allocate the larvae into groups that were defined and identified based on si...
Senila Marin
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The metals bioavailability in soils is commonly assessed by chemical extractions; however a generally accepted method is not yet established. In this study, the effectiveness of Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT technique and single extractions in the assessment of metals bioaccumulation in vegetables, and the influence of soil parameters on phytoavailability were evaluated using multivariate statistics. Soil and plants grown in vegetable gardens from mining-affected rural areas, NW Romania, were collected and analysed. Results Pseudo-total metal content of Cu, Zn and Cd in soil ranged between 17.3-146 mg kg-1, 141–833 mg kg-1 and 0.15-2.05 mg kg-1, respectively, showing enriched contents of these elements. High degrees of metals extractability in 1M HCl and even in 1M NH4Cl were observed. Despite the relatively high total metal concentrations in soil, those found in vegetables were comparable to values typically reported for agricultural crops, probably due to the low concentrations of metals in soil solution (Csoln and low effective concentrations (CE, assessed by DGT technique. Among the analysed vegetables, the highest metal concentrations were found in carrots roots. By applying multivariate statistics, it was found that CE, Csoln and extraction in 1M NH4Cl, were better predictors for metals bioavailability than the acid extractions applied in this study. Copper transfer to vegetables was strongly influenced by soil organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, while pH had a higher influence on Cd transfer from soil to plants. Conclusions The results showed that DGT can be used for general evaluation of the risks associated to soil contamination with Cu, Zn and Cd in field conditions. Although quantitative information on metals transfer from soil to vegetables was not observed.
Effects of boundary conditions on vibrating mode of acoustic logging dipole transducer
2008-01-01
Acoustic transducer is an important part of acoustic well logging tool. In this paper,ANSYS software package is used to design acoustic dipole transducer and simulate vibrating mode of the dipole transducer in different mechanical boundary conditions. The results show that boundary conditions influence the number of vibrating mode in the same frequency band and the frequency value of the same vibrating mode. Several acoustic dipole transducers are designed according to the results of numerical simulation and laboratory measurements. The basic frequency of vibrating mode of experi-ment has good agreement with that of simulation. The numerical simulation plays a good guidance role in designing,producing and correctly installing the acoustic dipole transducer.
Torres-Arredondo, M.A.; Tibaduiza, D.-A.; McGugan, Malcolm; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Borum, Kaj Kvisgaard; Mujica, L.E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.
2013-01-01
structural health monitoring (SHM) systems based on ultrasonic guided waves with focus on the acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonics techniques. The use of a guided wave based approach is driven by the fact that these waves are able to propagate over relatively long distances, and interact sensitively and...
Different methods are commonly used for non-destructive testing in structures; among others, acoustic emission and ultrasonic inspections are widely used to assess structures. The research presented in this paper is motivated by the need to improve the inspection capabilities and reliability of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems based on ultrasonic guided waves with focus on the acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonics techniques. The use of a guided wave based approach is driven by the fact that these waves are able to propagate over relatively long distances, and interact sensitively and uniquely with different types of defect. Special attention is paid here to the development of efficient SHM methodologies. This requires robust signal processing techniques for the correct interpretation of the complex ultrasonic waves. Therefore, a variety of existing algorithms for signal processing and pattern recognition are evaluated and integrated into the different proposed methodologies. As a contribution to solve the problem, this paper presents results in damage detection and classification using a methodology based on hierarchical nonlinear principal component analysis, square prediction measurements and self-organizing maps, which are applied to data from acoustic emission tests and acousto-ultrasonic inspections. At the end, the efficiency of these methodologies is experimentally evaluated in diverse anisotropic composite structures. (paper)
Multivariate or Multivariable Regression?
Hidalgo, Bertha; Goodman, Melody
2012-01-01
The terms multivariate and multivariable are often used interchangeably in the public health literature. However, these terms actually represent 2 very distinct types of analyses. We define the 2 types of analysis and assess the prevalence of use of the statistical term multivariate in a 1-year span of articles published in the American Journal of Public Health. Our goal is to make a clear distinction and to identify the nuances that make these types of analyses so distinct from one another.
Periodic Time-Domain Nonlocal Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Duct Acoustics
Watson, Willie R.; Zorumski, William E.
1996-01-01
Periodic time-domain boundary conditions are formulated for direct numerical simulation of acoustic waves in ducts without flow. Well-developed frequency-domain boundary conditions are transformed into the time domain. The formulation is presented here in one space dimension and time; however, this formulation has an advantage in that its extension to variable-area, higher dimensional, and acoustically treated ducts is rigorous and straightforward. The boundary condition simulates a nonreflecting wave field in an infinite uniform duct and is implemented by impulse-response operators that are applied at the boundary of the computational domain. These operators are generated by convolution integrals of the corresponding frequency-domain operators. The acoustic solution is obtained by advancing the Euler equations to a periodic state with the MacCormack scheme. The MacCormack scheme utilizes the boundary condition to limit the computational space and preserve the radiation boundary condition. The success of the boundary condition is attributed to the fact that it is nonreflecting to periodic acoustic waves. In addition, transient waves can pass rapidly out of the solution domain. The boundary condition is tested for a pure tone and a multitone source in a linear setting. The effects of various initial conditions are assessed. Computational solutions with the boundary condition are consistent with the known solutions for nonreflecting wave fields in an infinite uniform duct.
Conditions for the Observation of Two Ion-Acoustic Waves via Thomson Scattering
郑坚; 胡广月; 王哲斌; 俞昌旋; 刘万东
2003-01-01
Observation of two ion-acoustic waves via Thomson scattering can provide precise measurements of plasma parameters. The conditions for the observation of two ion-acoustic modes in a two-ion plasmaare discussed.The ratio of electron temperature Te to ion temperature Ti is the critical parameter for the presence of two ion-acoustic modes, which should be in the range of 4/ZL(＜～)Te/Ti(＜～)2AH/ZHAL, where ZL,H are the charge states of light and heavy ions, and AL,H are the atomic numbers of light and heavy ions, respectively. As the temperature ratio varies in this range, the concentration of heavy ions must increase with the ratio Te/Ti so that the two ion-acoustic modes can have the same fluctuation levels.
Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand
2007-01-01
The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.
Ben Zitoun, Feyed
2014-01-01
This paper presents a method for solving a wide class of linear and nonlinear Partial Differential Equations subject to certain initial conditions. The proposed method reduces the Partial Differential Equation and the given initial conditions into a set of equations which allows us to obtain directly and easily the solution of the initial-value problem. The main characteristic of the method is that it uses the multivariate Faà di Bruno formula due to Savits and Constantine [T.H. Savits, Some ...
Del Giudice, G; Padulano, R; Siciliano, D
2016-01-01
The lack of geometrical and hydraulic information about sewer networks often excludes the adoption of in-deep modeling tools to obtain prioritization strategies for funds management. The present paper describes a novel statistical procedure for defining the prioritization scheme for preventive maintenance strategies based on a small sample of failure data collected by the Sewer Office of the Municipality of Naples (IT). Novelty issues involve, among others, considering sewer parameters as continuous statistical variables and accounting for their interdependences. After a statistical analysis of maintenance interventions, the most important available factors affecting the process are selected and their mutual correlations identified. Then, after a Box-Cox transformation of the original variables, a methodology is provided for the evaluation of a vulnerability map of the sewer network by adopting a joint multivariate normal distribution with different parameter sets. The goodness-of-fit is eventually tested for each distribution by means of a multivariate plotting position. The developed methodology is expected to assist municipal engineers in identifying critical sewers, prioritizing sewer inspections in order to fulfill rehabilitation requirements. PMID:26901717
Alencar Bravo
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Despite the knowledge gained in recent years regarding the use of acoustic emissions (AEs in ecologically friendly, natural fiber-reinforced composites (including certain composites with bio-sourced matrices, there is still a knowledge gap in the understanding of the difference in damage behavior between green and biocomposites. Thus, this article investigates the behavior of two comparable green and biocomposites with tests that better reflect real-life applications, i.e., load-unloading and creep testing, to determine the evolution of the damage process. Comparing the mechanical results with the AE, it can be concluded that the addition of a coupling agent (CA markedly reduced the ratio of AE damage to mechanical damage. CA had an extremely beneficial effect on green composites because the Kaiser effect was dominant during cyclic testing. During the creep tests, the use of a CA also avoided the transition to new damaging phases in both composites. The long-term applications of PE green material must be chosen carefully because bio and green composites with similar properties exhibited different damage processes in tests such as cycling and creep that could not be previously understood using only monotonic testing.
Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment (WaterRF Report 4360)
Unique to prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), individual wire breaks create an excitation in the pipe wall that may vary in response to the remaining compression of the pipe core. This project was designed to improve acoustic signal processing for pipe condition assessment...
On the focusing conditions in time-reversed acoustics, seismic interferometry, and Marchenko imaging
Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Vasconcelos, I.; Van Manen, D.J.; Ravasi, M.
2014-01-01
Despite the close links between the fields of time-reversed acoustics, seismic interferometry and Marchenko imaging, a number of subtle differences exist. This paper reviews the various focusing conditions of these methods, the causality/acausality aspects of the corresponding focusing wavefields, a
Wang, Yiyi; Kockelman, Kara M
2013-11-01
This work examines the relationship between 3-year pedestrian crash counts across Census tracts in Austin, Texas, and various land use, network, and demographic attributes, such as land use balance, residents' access to commercial land uses, sidewalk density, lane-mile densities (by roadway class), and population and employment densities (by type). The model specification allows for region-specific heterogeneity, correlation across response types, and spatial autocorrelation via a Poisson-based multivariate conditional auto-regressive (CAR) framework and is estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Least-squares regression estimates of walk-miles traveled per zone serve as the exposure measure. Here, the Poisson-lognormal multivariate CAR model outperforms an aspatial Poisson-lognormal multivariate model and a spatial model (without cross-severity correlation), both in terms of fit and inference. Positive spatial autocorrelation emerges across neighborhoods, as expected (due to latent heterogeneity or missing variables that trend in space, resulting in spatial clustering of crash counts). In comparison, the positive aspatial, bivariate cross correlation of severe (fatal or incapacitating) and non-severe crash rates reflects latent covariates that have impacts across severity levels but are more local in nature (such as lighting conditions and local sight obstructions), along with spatially lagged cross correlation. Results also suggest greater mixing of residences and commercial land uses is associated with higher pedestrian crash risk across different severity levels, ceteris paribus, presumably since such access produces more potential conflicts between pedestrian and vehicle movements. Interestingly, network densities show variable effects, and sidewalk provision is associated with lower severe-crash rates. PMID:24036167
Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage: Role of acoustic boundary conditions at the pleural surface
O'Brien, William D.; Kramer, Jeffrey M.; Waldrop, Tony G.; Frizzell, Leon A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; Zachary, James F.
2002-02-01
In a previous study [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1290 (2000)] the acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung was evaluated as a possible explanation for the enhanced lung damage with increased hydrostatic pressure, but the hydrostatic-pressure-dependent impedance difference alone could not explain the enhanced occurrence of hemorrhage. In that study, it was hypothesized that the animal's breathing pattern might be altered as a function of hydrostatic pressure, which in turn might affect the volume of air inspired and expired. The acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung would be affected with altered lung inflation, thus altering the acoustic boundary conditions. In this study, 12 rats were exposed to 3 volumes of lung inflation (inflated: approximately tidal volume; half-deflated: half-tidal volume; deflated: lung volume at functional residual capacity), 6 rats at 8.6-MPa in situ peak rarefactional pressure (MI of 3.1) and 6 rats at 16-MPa in situ peak rarefactional pressure (MI of 5.8). Respiration was chemically inhibited and a ventilator was used to control lung volume and respiratory frequency. Superthreshold ultrasound exposures of the lungs were used (3.1-MHz, 1000-Hz PRF, 1.3-μs pulse duration, 10-s exposure duration) to produce lesions. Deflated lungs were more easily damaged than half-deflated lungs, and half-deflated lungs were more easily damaged than inflated lungs. In fact, there were no lesions observed in inflated lungs in any of the rats. The acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung is much less for the deflated lung condition, suggesting that the extent of lung damage is related to the amount of acoustic energy that is propagated across the pleural surface boundary.
Acoustics of motor car air conditioning systems; Akustik der Kfz-Klimaanlagen
Matthes, M.; Martini, J.; Cucuz, S. [Visteon Deutschland GmbH, VTZ Kerpen (Germany)
2002-07-01
Air conditioning systems in motor cars provide thermal comfort but the noise level may increase to an extent that makes the driver shut off the air conditioning system altogether. The contribution presents an introduction to acoustics. The human ear is described, and typical acoustic parameters like sound pressure, sound intensity, acoustic power and level definitions are introduced. Measuring systems and techniques are described, and typical problems and solutions in air conditioner acoustics are gone into. Finally, empirical estimates are made for the sound pressure level of ventilation nozzles and air conditioners. [German] Gestiegene Komfortansprueche der Kfz-Insassen haben in Europa waehrend der letzten Dekade die Kfz-Klimaanlage zu einem Standard-Ausstattungsmerkmal in der oberen Mittelklasse werden lassen, und auch kleinere Fahrzeugklassen (B- und C-Segment) folgen dieser Entwicklung auf dem Fusse. Die Hauptaufgabe der Kfz-Klimaanlage - die Bereitstellung des thermischen Komforts - wird aber mit akustischen Belastungen der Fahrzeuginsassen erkauft. Die akustische Belastung kann dabei so gross werden, dass die Insassen von einem optimalen Gebrauch der Klimaanlage absehen - einfach weil sie zu laut ist. Um einen moeglichst umfassenden Einblick in die Akustik zu gewaehren, wird zunaechst das menschliche Gehoer vorgestellt. Danach werden typische Kenngroessen der Akustik wie Schalldruck, Schallintensitaet und Schallleistung und die entsprechenden Pegeldefinitionen eingefuehrt. Im zweiten Abschnitt werden Messraeume und Messverfahren vorgestellt, um dann auf typische Probleme und Loesungsmoeglichkeiten in der Klimageraeteakustik einzugehen. Schliesslich werden empirische Abschaetzungen fuer den Schalldruckpegel von Belueftungsduesen und Klimageraeten vorgestellt. (orig.)
Finite volume time domain room acoustics simulation under general impedance boundary conditions
Bilbao, Stefan; Hamilton, Brian; Botts, Jonathan; Savioja, Lauri
2016-01-01
In room acoustics simulation and virtualization applications, accurate wall termination is a perceptually crucial feature. It is particularly important in the setting of wave-based modeling of 3D spaces, using methods such as the finite difference time domain method or finite volume time domain method. In this article, general locally reactive impedance boundary conditions are incorporated into a 3D finite volume time domain formulation, which may be specialized to the various types of finite...
Zheng Min
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, numerical calculations of harmonic response with acoustic-vibration coupling of the combustion chamber under different combustion conditions has been performed by combining CFD and FEM methods. Temperature and sound pressure fields created by the flame in the combustion chamber are calculated first. And then the results of the CFD are exported to the FEM analysis for the interaction between acoustic waves and wall vibrations. The possible acoustic-vibration coupled eigenfrequencies at given combustion conditions are predicted by the harmonic response analysis.
Betcke, Timo; Graham, Ivan G; Langdon, Stephen; Lindner, Marko
2010-01-01
We consider the classical coupled, combined-field integral equation formulations for time-harmonic acoustic scattering by a sound soft bounded obstacle. In recent work, we have proved lower and upper bounds on the $L^2$ condition numbers for these formulations, and also on the norms of the classical acoustic single- and double-layer potential operators. These bounds to some extent make explicit the dependence of condition numbers on the wave number $k$, the geometry of the scatterer, and the coupling parameter. For example, with the usual choice of coupling parameter they show that, while the condition number grows like $k^{1/3}$ as $k\\to\\infty$, when the scatterer is a circle or sphere, it can grow as fast as $k^{7/5}$ for a class of `trapping' obstacles. In this paper we prove further bounds, sharpening and extending our previous results. In particular we show that there exist trapping obstacles for which the condition numbers grow as fast as $\\exp(\\gamma k)$, for some $\\gamma>0$, as $k\\to\\infty$ through so...
Dron, Olivier; Aider, Jean-Luc
2013-09-01
It is well-known that particles can be focused at mid-height of a micro-channel using Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) tuned at the resonance frequency (h=λ/2). The resonance condition is a strong limitation to the use of acoustophoresis (particles manipulation using acoustic force) in many applications. In this study we show that it is possible to focus the particles anywhere along the height of a micro-channel just by varying the acoustic frequency, in contradiction with the resonance condition. This result has been thoroughly checked experimentally. The different physical properties as well as wall materials have been changed. The wall materials is finally the only critical parameters. One of the specificity of the micro-channel is the thickness of the carrier and reflector layer. A preliminary analysis of the experimental results suggests that the acoustic focusing beyond the classic resonance condition can be explained in the framework of the multilayered resonator proposed by Hill [1]. Nevertheless, further numerical studies are needed in order to confirm and fully understand how the acoustic pressure node can be moved over the entire height of the micro channel by varying the acoustic frequency. Despite some uncertainties about the origin of the phenomenon, it is robust and can be used for improved acoustic sorting or manipulation of particles or biological cells in confined set-ups. PMID:23628114
Classroom acoustics design guidelines based on the optimization of speaker conditions
Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas
2012-01-01
suggested in order to optimize the vocal comfort and the vocal load experienced by speakers. Theoretical prediction models of room-averaged speaker-oriented parameters like voice support or reverberation time derived from an oral-binaural impulse response are combined with empirical models of actual voice...... and noise level measurements in classrooms. Requirements of optimum vocal comfort, average A-weighted speech levels across the audience higher than 50 dB, and a physical volume higher than 6 m3/student are combined to extract optimum acoustic conditions, which depend on the number of students. These...
Vibro-acoustic characterization of flexible hose in CO2 car air conditioning systems
Angelini, F.; Bergami, A.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.
2008-06-01
Following the EU directive 2006/40/EC proscribing from 2011 that refrigerant fluids must have a global warming potential not higher than 150, it will not be allowed anymore to employ the current R134a on car air conditioning systems. Maflow s.p.a (automotive hose maker) is developing products for each possible new refrigerant. This paper is focused on hoses for CO2 refrigerants operating in the worst conditions because of the high pressures and temperatures at which they are working (with R134a the high pressure is 18 bar and low pressure is 3 bar; with CO2 the high pressure is 100 bar and low pressure is 35 bar). Therefore the noise emission control of the CO2 air conditioning systems is very important. The aim of this study is to develop a standard measurement method for the vibro - acoustic characterization of High Pressure (HP - Shark F4) and Low Pressure (LP - ULEV) hoses to reduce noise emission and raise car passenger comfort; in particular deep research on high pressure hose. The method is based on the measurement of the vibration level of the hoses in a standard test bench by means of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and its acoustic emission by a sound intensity probe.
William J Murphy
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL was studied with two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions at the E-A-RCAL Laboratory. IPIL is the difference between the maximum estimated pressure for the open-ear condition and the maximum pressure measured when a hearing protector is placed on an acoustic test fixture (ATF. Two models of an ATF manufactured by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL were evaluated with high-level acoustic impulses created by an acoustic shock tube at levels of 134 decibels (dB, 150 dB, and 168 dB. The fixtures were identical except that the E-A-RCAL ISL fixture had ear canals that were 3 mm longer than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH ISL fixture. Four hearing protection conditions were tested: Combat Arms earplug with the valve open, ETYPlugs ® earplug, TacticalPro headset, and a dual-protector ETYPlugs earplug with TacticalPro earmuff. The IPILs measured for the E-A-RCAL fixture were 1.4 dB greater than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH ISL ATF. For the E-A-RCAL ISL ATF, the left ear IPIL was 2.0 dB greater than the right ear IPIL. For the NIOSH ATF, the right ear IPIL was 0.3 dB greater than the left ear IPIL.
Mba, David; Rao, Raj B. K. N.
2006-01-01
One of the earliest documented applications of Acoustic Emission Technology (AET) to rotating machinery monitoring was in the late 1960s. Since then there has been an explosion in research and application based studies covering bearings, pumps, gearboxes, engines and rotating structures. This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review to date on the application of Acoustic Emission Technology to condition monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery.
Objective estimation of parameters of individual reliability is an indispensable condition of an opportunity of decrease in operational expenses for maintenance service and repair of the equipment and devices of electro power systems. The method of decrease in risk of erroneous classification of multivariate statistical data is offered. The method based on imitating modeling and the theory of check of statistical hypotheses
无
2007-01-01
The structural acoustic coupling characteristics of a rectangular enclosure consisting of two elastic supported flexible plates and four rigid plates are analyzed. A general formulation considering the full coupling between the plates and cavity is developed by using Hamiltonian function and Rayleigh-Ritz method. By means of continuous distributions of artificial springs along boundary of flexible plates, a wide variety of boundary conditions and structure joint conditions are considered. To demonstrate the validity of the analytical model,the responses of sound pressure in the cavity and plate velocity are worked out. The analytical results coincides well with Kim's experimental results. The result is satisfactory. Finally, analytical results on the structure vibration and the sound field inside the cavity are presented.These results indicate that the coupling of the combined structure is relatively weak, so the internal cavity sound is controlled by plate directly excited,and the translational stiffness affects the sound more than the rotational stiffness does.
Lee, Joon Hyun; Lee, Min Rae [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Teak [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2005-11-15
In this study, an advanced condition monitoring technique based on acoustic emission (AE) detection and artificial neural networks was applied to a check valve, one of the components being used extensively in a safety system of a nuclear power plant (Npp). AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and evaluate disk movement for valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference in a check valve. It is clearly demonstrated that the evaluation of different types of failure modes such as disk wear and check valve leakage were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters. It is also shown that the leak size can be determined with an artificial neural network.
In this study, an advanced condition monitoring technique based on acoustic emission (AE) detection and artificial neural networks was applied to a check valve, one of the components being used extensively in a safety system of a nuclear power plant (Npp). AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and evaluate disk movement for valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference in a check valve. It is clearly demonstrated that the evaluation of different types of failure modes such as disk wear and check valve leakage were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters. It is also shown that the leak size can be determined with an artificial neural network
General band gap condition in one-dimensional resonator-based acoustic metamaterial
Liu, Yafei; Hou, Zhilin; Fu, Xiujun
2016-03-01
A one-dimensional model for resonator-based acoustic metamaterials is introduced. The condition for band gap in such kind of structure is obtained. According to this condition, the dispersion relation is in general a result of the scattering phase and propagating phase. The phenomenon that the band gap is less dependent on lattice structure appears only in the special system in which the coupling between the resonators and the host medium is weak enough. For strong coupled systems, the dispersion of wave can be significantly adjusted by the propagating phase. Based on the understanding, a general guide for band gap optimization is given and the mechanism for structures with the defect states at subwavelength scale is revealed.
This paper presents new techniques under development for monitoring the health and vibration of the active components in nuclear power plants, The purpose of this study is to develop an automated system for condition classification of a check valve one of the components being used extensively in a safety system of a nuclear power plant. Acoustic emission testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and evaluate disc movement for valve failure such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference in a check valve, It is clearly demonstrated that the evaluation of different types of failure types such as disc wear and check valve leakage were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters, It is also shown that the leak size can be determined with an artificial neural network
Caesarendra, Wahyu; Kosasih, Buyung; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Zhu, Hongtao; Moodie, Craig A. S.; Zhu, Qiang
2016-05-01
This paper presents an acoustic emission-based method for the condition monitoring of low speed reversible slew bearings. Several acoustic emission (AE) hit parameters as the monitoring parameters for the detection of impending failure of slew bearings are reviewed first. The review focuses on: (1) the application of AE in typical rolling element bearings running at different speed classifications, i.e. high speed (>600 rpm), low speed (10-600 rpm) and very low speed (<10 rpm); (2) the commonly used AE hit parameters in rolling element bearings and (3) AE signal processing, feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. In the experiment, impending failure of the slew bearing was detected by the AE hit parameters after the new bearing had run continuously for approximately 15 months. The slew bearing was then dismantled and the evidence of the early defect was analysed. Based on the result, we propose a feature extraction method of the AE waveform signal using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) algorithm and demonstrate that the LLE feature can detect the sign of failure earlier than the AE hit parameters with improved prediction of the progressive trend of the defect.
Escolano-Carrasco, José; Jacobsen, Finn; López, J.J.
2008-01-01
The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method provides a simple and accurate way of solving initial boundary value problems. However, most acoustic problems involve frequency dependent boundary conditions, and it is not easy to include such boundary conditions in an FDTD model. Although solutions...
A study of condition monitoring of check valve using acoustic emission and neural network technique
The check valve is one of typical component being extensively used in safety systems of nuclear power plants. The failures of check valves have resulted in significant maintenance efforts, on occasion, have resulted in water hammer, over-pressurization of low-pressure systems, and damage to flow system components. The objective of this research is to demonstrate condition-monitoring system based on acoustic emission, AE detection that can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance/ replacement could be preformed prior to loss of safety function. This work is also focused on the capability of neural network technique to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and degradation, check valve failures and undesirable operating modes
Multivariate volatility models
Fengler, Matthias R.; Herwartz, Helmut
2001-01-01
Multivariate Volatility Models belong to the class of nonlinear models for financial data. Here we want to focus on multivariate GARCH models. These models assume that the variance of the innovation distribution follows a time dependent process conditional on information which is generated by the history of the process. In this chapter we demonstrate how to use the bigarch quantlet of XploRe to estimate the conditional covariance of a bivariate (high frequency) return process. In particular w...
Tasinkevych, Yuriy; Podhajecki, Jerzy; Falińska, Katarzyna; Litniewski, Jerzy
2016-02-01
The paper presents a method that allows the thickness of a compact bone layer and longitudinal wave velocity in the bone to be determined simultaneously with the use of reflected waves, with particular emphasis on the case of layers when the propagation time through the layer is shorter than the time duration of the interrogating pulse. The proposed method estimates simultaneously the thickness of the cortical bone layer and acoustic wave velocity by fitting the temporal spectrum of the simulated reflected wave to the spectrum of the reflected wave measured experimentally. For the purpose of echo-simulations the model of "soft tissue - compact bone layer - cancellous bone" was developed. Next, the cost function was defined as the least square error between the measured and simulated temporal spectra. Minimization of the cost function allowed us to determine the values of the parameters of the cortical bone layer which best fitted the measurements. To solve the optimization problem a simulated annealing algorithm was used. The method was tested using acoustic data obtained at the frequency of 0.6 MHz and 1 MHz respectively for a custom designed bone mimicking phantom and a calf femur. For the cortical shell of the calf femur whose thickness varies from 2.1 mm to 2.4 mm and velocity of 2910 m/s, the relative errors of the thickness estimation ranged from 0.4% to 5.5%. The corresponding error of the acoustic wave velocity estimation in the layer was 3.1%. In the case of artificial bone the thickness of the cortical layer was equal to 1.05 and 1.2 mm and acoustic wave velocity was 2900 m/s. These parameters were determined with the errors ranging from 1.9% to 10.8% and from 3.9% to 4.5% respectively. PMID:26522955
Tjaden, Kris; Lam, Jennifer; Wilding, Greg
2013-01-01
Purpose: The impact of clear speech, increased vocal intensity, and rate reduction on acoustic characteristics of vowels was compared in speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD), speakers with multiple sclerosis (MS), and healthy controls. Method: Speakers read sentences in habitual, clear, loud, and slow conditions. Variations in clarity,…
Acoustic Surveys of a Scaled-Model CESTOL Transport Aircraft in Static and Forward Speed Conditions
Burnside, Nathan; Horne, Clifton
2012-01-01
An 11% scale-model of a Cruise-Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) scalemodel test was recently completed. The test was conducted in the AEDC National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The model included two over-wing pod-mounted turbine propulsion simulators (TPS). The hybrid blended wing-body used a circulation control wing (CCW) with leadingand trailing-edge blowing. The bulk of the test matrix included three forward velocities (40 kts, 60 kts, and 100kts), angle-of-attack variation between -5 and 25 , and CCW mass flow variation. Seven strut-mounted microphones outboard of the left wing provided source directivity. A phased microphone array was mounted outboard of the right wing for source location. The goal of this paper is to provide a preliminary look at the acoustic data acquired during the Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics (AMELIA) test for 0 angle-of-attack and 0 sideslip conditions. Data presented provides a good overview of the test conditions and the signal-to-noise quality of the data. TPS height variation showed a difference of 2 dB to 3 dB due to wing shielding. Variation of slot mass flow showed increases of 12 dB to 26 dB above the airframe noise and the TPS increased the overall levels an additional 5 dB to 10 dB.
Crystal Growth in Al72.9Ge27.1 Alloy Melt under Acoustic Levitation Conditions
YAN Na; DAI Fu-Ping; WANG Wei-Li; WEI Bing-Bo
2011-01-01
The nonequilibrium solidification of liquid Al72.9Ge27.1 hypoeutectic alloy is accomplished by using single-axis acoustic levitation.A maximum undercooling of 112K (0.16TL) is obtained for the alloy melt at a coofing rate of 50 K/s. The primary (Al) phase displays a morphological transition from coarse dendrite under a normal conditions to equiaxed grain under acoustic levitation.In the (Al)+(Ge) eutectic,the (Ge) phase exhibits a conspicuous branched growth morphology.Both the primary (Al) dendrites and (Al)+(Ge) eutectics are well refined and the solute content of the primary (Al) phase is extended under acoustic levitation.The calculated and experimental results indicate that the solute trapping effect becomes more intensive with the enhancement of bulk undercooling.
Adrián-Martínez, S; Bou-Cabo, M; Felis, I; Llorens, C; Martínez-Mora, J A; Saldaña, M
2015-01-01
The study and application of signal detection techniques based on cross-correlation method for acoustic transient signals in noisy and reverberant environments are presented. These techniques are shown to provide high signal to noise ratio, good signal discernment from very close echoes and accurate detection of signal arrival time. The proposed methodology has been tested on real data collected in environments and conditions where its benefits can be shown. This work focuses on the acoustic detection applied to tasks of positioning in underwater structures and calibration such those as ANTARES and KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescopes, as well as, in particle detection through acoustic events for the COUPP/PICO detectors. Moreover, a method for obtaining the real amplitude of the signal in time (voltage) by using cross correlation has been developed and tested and is described in this work.
Wu, Wei; Wheeler, Diek W; Pipa, Gordon
2011-01-01
Synchronous neuronal firing has been proposed as a potential neuronal code. To determine whether synchronous firing is really involved in different forms of information processing, one needs to directly compare the amount of synchronous firing due to various factors, such as different experimental or behavioral conditions. In order to address this issue, we present an extended version of the previously published method, NeuroXidence. The improved method incorporates bi- and multivariate testing to determine whether different factors result in synchronous firing occurring above the chance level. We demonstrate through the use of simulated data sets that bi- and multivariate NeuroXidence reliably and robustly detects joint-spike-events across different factors. PMID:21897816
Wallace, Jack; Champagne, Pascale; Hall, Geof
2016-06-01
The wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) at a wastewater treatment facility in eastern Ontario, Canada, have experienced excessive algae growth and high pH levels in the summer months. A full range of parameters were sampled from the system and the chemical dynamics in the three WSPs were assessed through multivariate statistical analysis. The study presents a novel approach for exploratory analysis of a comprehensive water chemistry dataset, incorporating principal components analysis (PCA) and principal components (PC) and partial least squares (PLS) regressions. The analyses showed strong correlations between chl-a and sunlight, temperature, organic matter, and nutrients, and weak and negative correlations between chl-a and pH and chl-a and DO. PCA reduced the data from 19 to 8 variables, with a good fit to the original data matrix (similarity measure of 0.73). Multivariate regressions to model system pH in terms of these key parameters were performed on the reduced variable set and the PCs generated, for which strong fits (R(2) > 0.79 with all data) were observed. The methodologies presented in this study are applicable to a wide range of natural and engineered systems where a large number of water chemistry parameters are monitored resulting in the generation of large data sets. PMID:27038585
Fatigue crack growth and active corrosion processes are the main causes of structural failures of transport products like road tankers, railway tank cars and ships. To prevent those failures, preventive, time-based maintenance is performed. However, preventive inspections are costly and include the risk of not detecting a defect, which could lead to a failure within the next service period. An alternative is the idea of continuous monitoring of the whole structure by means of acoustic emission testing (AT). With AT, defects within the material shall be detected and repaired directly after their appearance. Acoustic emission testing is an online non-destructive testing method. Acoustic emission (AE) arises from changes within the material and is transported by elastic waves through the material. If the AE event generates enough energy, the elastic wave propagates to the boundaries of the component, produces a displacement in the picometre scale and can be detected by a piezoelectric sensor. The sensor produces an electrical signal. From this AE signal, AE features such as the maximum amplitude or the frequency can be extracted. Methods of signal analysis are used to investigate the time and frequency dependency of signal groups. The purpose of the signal analysis is to connect the AE signal with the originating AE source. If predefined damage mechanisms are identified, referencing the damage condition of the structure is possible. Acoustic emission from events of the actual crack propagation process can for example lead to the crack growth rate or the stress intensity factor, both specific values from fracture mechanics. A new development in the domain of acoustic emission testing is the pattern recognition of AE signals. Specific features are extracted from the AE signals to assign them to their damage mechanisms. In this thesis the AE signals from the damage mechanisms corrosion and fatigue crack growth are compared and analysed. The damage mechanisms were
The primary object of this work is to investigate advanced condition monitoring systems based on acoustic emission (AE) detection that can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance/replacement could be performed prior to loss of safety function. The research is focused on the capability of AE technique to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and degradation, check valve failures and undesirable operating modes. The systematic approach to classify the dynamic responses of AE signatures associated with typical failure modes of check valve for nuclear power plants is performed in this study. The characteristics of AE signature responses of internal parts of check valves due to local aging and degradation is analyzed by extracting effective AE parameters. This work also includes the investigation and adaptation of several advanced sensor technologies such as accelerometer and advanced ultrasonic technique. In addition, this work will develop advanced sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms from check valve degradation. (author)
Florian G. Strobl
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Static conditions represent an important shortcoming of many in vitro experiments on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. Here, we present a versatile microfluidic device based on acoustic streaming induced by surface acoustic waves (SAWs. The device offers a convenient method for introducing fluid motion in standard cell culture chambers and for mimicking capillary blood flow. We show that shear rates over the whole physiological range in sample volumes as small as 200 μL can be achieved. A precise characterization method for the induced flow profile is presented and the influence of flow on the uptake of Pt-decorated CeO2 particles by endothelial cells (HMEC-1 is demonstrated. Under physiological flow conditions the particle uptake rates for this system are significantly lower than at low shear conditions. This underlines the vital importance of the fluidic environment for cellular uptake mechanisms.
The objective of this study is to demonstrate that a condition-monitoring system based on acoustic emission (AE) detection can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance or replacement can be preformed prior to the loss of safety function. This research is focused on the investigation and understanding of the capability of the acoustic emission technique to provide diagnostic information on check valve failures. AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference. It is clearly demonstrated that the distinction of different types of failure were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters
Lee, Joon-Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Kumjeong-gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: johlee@pusan.ac.kr; Lee, Min-Rae [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Teak [Man-Machine Interface System Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Laboratories, Risk and Reliability Analysis Department, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jung, Yoong-Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Kumjeong-gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)
2006-07-15
The objective of this study is to demonstrate that a condition-monitoring system based on acoustic emission (AE) detection can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance or replacement can be preformed prior to the loss of safety function. This research is focused on the investigation and understanding of the capability of the acoustic emission technique to provide diagnostic information on check valve failures. AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference. It is clearly demonstrated that the distinction of different types of failure were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters.
Arun, Mike W J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A
2014-12-01
While studies have used acoustic sensors to determine fracture initiation time in biomechanical studies, a systematic procedure is not established to process acoustic signals. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission data using signal processing techniques to identify fracture initiation time. The methodology was developed from testing a human cadaver lumbar spine column. Acoustic sensors were glued to all vertebrae, high-rate impact loading was applied, load-time histories were recorded (load cell), and fracture was documented using CT. Compression fracture occurred to L1 while other vertebrae were intact. FFT of raw voltage-time traces were used to determine an optimum frequency range associated with high decibel levels. Signals were bandpass filtered in this range. Bursting pattern was found in the fractured vertebra while signals from other vertebrae were silent. Bursting time was associated with time of fracture initiation. Force at fracture was determined using this time and force-time data. The methodology is independent of selecting parameters a priori such as fixing a voltage level(s), bandpass frequency and/or using force-time signal, and allows determination of force based on time identified during signal processing. The methodology can be used for different body regions in cadaver experiments. PMID:25241279
Asymptotic behavior to a von Kármán equations of memory type with acoustic boundary conditions
Kang, Jum-Ran
2016-06-01
We study the stability of solutions to a von Kármán plate model of memory type with acoustic boundary conditions. We establish the general decay rate result, using some properties of the convex functions. Our result is obtained without imposing any restrictive assumptions on the behavior of the relaxation function at infinity. These general decay estimates extend and improve on some earlier results-exponential or polynomial decay rates.
Study on acoustic emission characteristics of Beishan granite under triaxial compression conditions
Beishan granite is the candidate host rock of China's high-level radioactive waste repository. Compression tests with different confining stresses in combination with acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique are used to study the strength and failure mechanism of granite in the depth of Xinchang pluton of Beishan area, Gansu province. The variation characteristics of the acoustic emission parameters during rock failure were investigated. The characteristic stress thresholds associated with crack initiation, crack damage and peak strength envelops at different fracturing stages of rocks were obtained. The presented study has provided preconditions and mechanical parameters for establishing the failure criterion and further stability analysis of underground engineering. (authors)
Shkuratnik, V.L.; Kuchurin, S.V.; Vinnikov, V.A. [Moscow State Mining University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2007-07-15
The experimental data on acoustic emission regularities are presented for specimens of different genetic coal types exposed to a wide range of cyclic heating modes. Peculiarities of formation and manifestation of thermal-emission memory effect depending on amplitude and duration of the thermal-field action are revealed.
Studies of properties and conditions of rock massifs by seismic acoustics methods
Lykoshin, A.G.; Jashchenko, Z.G.; Savich, A.I.; Koptev, V.I.
1970-01-01
The present report deals with the procedure and results obtained after application of seismic-acoustic methods to study jointing, anisotropy and heterogeneity of rock massifs as well as influence of the above factors on deformation properties of rocks. A special feature of the procedure is the application on a large scale of the multifrequency modifiations of the seismic acoustics (seismic, acoustic, and ultrasound methods), insuring more detailed and thorough study of the massif. The latter is proved by an experience of several years' standing gained as a result of the geophysical studies executed by the Hydroproject at different hydropower schemes of the U.S.S.R.. The application of seismic-acoustic methods, to cope with the subjects mentioned above, is grounded on the theoretical studies and experimental works of the kinematic special features on propagation of the elastic waves (longitudinal and transversal) in fractured anisotropic and heterogneous media. The studies determine the qualitive properties of jointing (volume of joints, directions of the prevailing directions of joint systems, properties of joints filling); and the grade, character, and nature of anisotropy as well as heterogeneity and dimensions of the heterogeneity elements (blocks).
Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization
Murray, Nathan E.
2012-03-12
Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives
Ionospheric manifestations of acoustic-gravity waves under quiet and disturbed conditions
Barabash, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Panasenko, Sergii; Domnin, Igor
2014-05-01
We present the observation results of wave disturbances in the ionosphere, which are known to be manifestations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs). The observations have been conducted under quiet and naturally or artificially disturbed conditions by ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar located near Kharkiv, Ukraine. Wave disturbance parameters under quiet conditions were obtained and analysed during geophysical periods including vernal and autumn equinoxes as well as summer and winter solstices. The prevailing oscillation in ionospheric F2- layer had the period of 140 - 200 min and relative amplitude of 0.1 - 0.2. The duration of this oscillation changed from 5 - 7 to 24 hours, depending on a season. The amplitude of fluctuations with other periods was noticeably smaller. The time intervals at which the intensity of incoherent scatter signals varied quasi-periodically in the altitude range from 150 to 300 km were detected. The parameters of these variations were estimated using statistical analysis and bandpass filtering. The periods of wave processes were shown to be of 30 - 120 min, there durations did not exceed of 2 - 6 periods and relative amplitudes usually ranged from 0.03 to 0.15. The phase of oscillations was detected to propagate downwards. The vertical phase velocity of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) was estimated to be in the range from 50 to 200 m/s and increased with altitude. The observations of the partial solar eclipse on January, 4, 2011 near Kharkiv were used to study the ionospheric parameters in naturally disturbed conditions. The F2-layer critical frequency dropped by a factor of 2.1. The time delay of these variations with respect to the main magnitude of the solar disk obscuration was equal to about 16 minutes. The virtual height of signal reflection near the maximum of the F2-layer ionization increased by 70 km, and the height of the model parabolic layer increased by 10 km. Some decrease in electron density and
Arweiler, Iris; Dau, Torsten; Poulsen, Torben
, a classroom and a church. The data from the study provide constraints for existing models of speech intelligibility prediction (based on the speech intelligibility index, SII, or the speech transmission index, STI) which have shortcomings when reverberation and/or fluctuating noise affect speech......Speech intelligibility depends on many factors such as room acoustics, the acoustical properties and location of the signal and the interferers, and the ability of the (normal and impaired) auditory system to process monaural and binaural sounds. In the present study, the effect of reverberation on...... spatial release from masking was investigated in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners using three types of interferers: speech shaped noise, an interfering female talker and speech-modulated noise. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) were obtained in three simulated environments: a listening room...
Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Dobak, Paweł
2015-12-01
Localised landslide activity has been observed in the area of the plateau slope analysed, in the vicinity of the planned Warsaw Southern Ring Road. Using calculation models quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the impact of natural and anthropogenic load factors on slope stability (and hence, safety) are made. The present paper defines six stages of slope stability analysis, leading to an indication of optimum slope design in relation to the development planned. The proposed procedure produces a ranking of factors that affect slope stability. In the engineering geological conditions under consideration, the greatest factors impacting degradation and failure of slope stability are changes in soil strength due to local, periodic yielding and the presence of dynamic loads generated by intensification of road traffic. Calculation models were used to assess the impact of destabilisation factors and to obtain mutual equivalence with 3D-visualisation relations. Based on this methodology, various scenarios dedicated to specific engineering geological conditions can be developed and rapid stability evaluations of changing slope loads can be performed.
Are acoustical parameters of begging call elements of thin-billed prions related to chick condition?
Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud; Mundry, Roger; Masello, Juan F.
2010-01-01
Chicks of burrowing petrels use begging calls to advertise their hunger levels when parents arrived at the nest. In a previous study, adult thin-billed prions Pachyptila belcheri responded to higher begging call rates of their single chick by regurgitating larger meals. We tested whether acoustic parameters of begging call elements may also be involved in signalling. To describe variation in begging, we determined begging session parameters, namely the duration, number of calls and the mean a...
Based on impedance prediction methods for a perforated plate acoustic liner, time-domain impedance boundary conditions are enhanced with consideration of incident intensity. The impedance coefficient of the time-domain boundary condition is re-derived using parameters of the liner structure, and is classified by physical characteristics. To show the capability of the reconstructed impedance boundary condition, two numerical calculations are performed with comparison to analytical results. The first considers the one dimensional wave propagation problem to account for the reflection wave due to an incident intensity variation on the acoustic liner. The second considers the excess attenuation of impedance surface. The numerical simulation is performed using the linearized Euler equations (LEEs). Dispersion-relation-preserving finite difference scheme and optimized Adams-Bashforth time-integration method are used spatial discretization / time integration, respectively. The numerical results show excellent agreement with analytical results. Moreover, a reconstruction method of impedance boundary condition can easily obtain the impedance coefficients under environments of variant magnitudes of incident waves
Parameter estimation in a structural acoustic system with fully nonlinear coupling conditions
Banks, H. T.; Smith, Ralph C.
1994-01-01
A methodology for estimating physical parameters in a class of structural acoustic systems is presented. The general model under consideration consists of an interior cavity which is separated from an exterior noise source by an enclosing elastic structure. Piezoceramic patches are bonded to or embedded in the structure; these can be used both as actuators and sensors in applications ranging from the control of interior noise levels to the determination of structural flaws through nondestructive evaluation techniques. The presence and excitation of patches, however, changes the geometry and material properties of the structure as well as involves unknown patch parameters, thus necessitating the development of parameter estimation techniques which are applicable in this coupled setting. In developing a framework for approximation, parameter estimation and implementation, strong consideration is given to the fact that the input operator is unbonded due to the discrete nature of the patches. Moreover, the model is weakly nonlinear. As a result of the coupling mechanism between the structural vibrations and the interior acoustic dynamics. Within this context, an illustrating model is given, well-posedness and approximations results are discussed and an applicable parameter estimation methodology is presented. The scheme is then illustrated through several numerical examples with simulations modeling a variety of commonly used structural acoustic techniques for systems excitations and data collection.
Condenser microphones are more commonly used and have been extensively modeled and characterized in air at ambient temperature and static pressure. However, several applications of interest for metrology and physical acoustics require to use these transducers in significantly different environmental conditions. Particularly, the extremely accurate determination of the speed of sound in monoatomic gases, which is pursued for a determination of the Boltzmann constant k by an acoustic method, entails the use of condenser microphones mounted within a spherical cavity, over a wide range of static pressures, at the temperature of the triple point of water (273.16 K). To further increase the accuracy achievable in this application, the microphone frequency response and its acoustic input impedance need to be precisely determined over the same static pressure and temperature range. Few previous works examined the influence of static pressure, temperature, and gas composition on the microphone's sensitivity. In this work, the results of relative calibrations of 1/4 in. condenser microphones obtained using an electrostatic actuator technique are presented. The calibrations are performed in pure helium and argon gas at temperatures near 273 K and in the pressure range between 10 and 600 kPa. These experimental results are compared with the predictions of a realistic model available in the literature, finding a remarkable good agreement. The model provides an estimate of the acoustic impedance of 1/4 in. condenser microphones as a function of frequency and static pressure and is used to calculate the corresponding frequency perturbations induced on the normal modes of a spherical cavity when this is filled with helium or argon gas.
Lyamshev, Leonid M
2004-01-01
Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...
Multivariate Modelling via Matrix Subordination
Nicolato, Elisa
stochastic volatility via time-change is quite ineffective when applied to the multivariate setting. In this work we propose a new class of models, which is obtained by conditioning a multivariate Brownian Motion to a so-called matrix subordinator. The obtained model-class encompasses the vast majority of...
Smith, Kelly; Gay, Robert; Stachowiak, Susan
2013-01-01
In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles
Smith, Kelly M.; Gay, Robert S.; Stachowiak, Susan J.
2013-01-01
In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles.
Hangx, Suzanne; Brantut, Nicolas
2016-04-01
Mechanisms such as grain rearrangement, coupled with elastic deformation, grain breakage, grain rearrangement, grain rotation, and intergranular sliding, play a key role in determining porosity and permeability reduction during burial of clastic sediments. Similarly, in poorly consolidated, highly porous sands and sandstones, grain rotation, intergranular sliding, grain failure, and pore collapse often lead to significant reduction in porosity through the development of compaction bands, with the reduced porosity and permeability of such bands producing natural barriers to flow within reservoir rocks. Such time-independent compaction processes operating in highly porous water- and hydrocarbon-bearing clastic reservoirs can exert important controls on production-related reservoir deformation, subsidence, and induced seismicity. We performed triaxial compression experiments on sand aggregates consisting of well-rounded Ottawa sand (d = 300-400 μm; φ = 36.1-36.4%) at room temperature, to systematically investigate the effect of confining pressure (Pceff = 5-100 MPa), strain rate (10‑6-10‑4 s‑1) and chemical environment (decane vs. water; Pf = 5 MPa) on compaction. For a limited number of experiments grain size distribution (d = 180-500 μm) and grain shape (subangular Beaujean sand; d = 180-300 μm) were varied to study their effect. Acoustic emission statistics and location, combined with microstructural and grain size analysis, were used to verify the operating microphysical compaction mechanisms. All tests showed significant pre-compaction during the initial hydrostatic (set-up) phase, with quasi-elastic loading behaviour accompanied by permanent deformation during the differential loading stage. This permanent volumetric strain involved elastic grain contact distortion, particle rearrangement, and grain failure. From the acoustic data and grain size analysis, it was evident that at low confining pressure grain rearrangement controlled compaction, with
Multivariate Rotated ARCH models
Shephard, Neil; Sheppard, Kevin; Noureldin, Diaa
2012-01-01
This paper introduces a new class of multivariate volatility models which is easy to estimate using covariance targeting, even with rich dynamics. We call them rotated ARCH (RARCH) models. The basic structure is to rotate the returns and then to fit them using a BEKK-type parameterization of the time-varying covariance whose long-run covariance is the identity matrix. The extension to DCC-type parameterizations is given, introducing the rotated conditional correlation (RCC) model. Inference f...
Chebyshev approximation for multivariate functions
Sukhorukova, Nadezda; Ugon, Julien; Yost, David
2015-01-01
In this paper, we derive optimality conditions (Chebyshev approximation) for multivariate functions. The theory of Chebyshev (uniform) approximation for univariate functions is very elegant. The optimality conditions are based on the notion of alternance (maximal deviation points with alternating deviation signs). It is not very straightforward, however, how to extend the notion of alternance to the case of multivariate functions. There have been several attempts to extend the theory of Cheby...
Ledenyov, Oleg P
2013-01-01
The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...
Bugai, A. N., E-mail: bugay_aleksandr@mail.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Studies (Russian Federation); Sazonov, S. V., E-mail: sazonov.sergey@gmail.com [Kurchatov Institute Russian Scientific Center (Russian Federation)
2011-03-15
The nonlinear generation of an acoustic supercontinuum in a solid doped with impurity paramagnetic ions is studied theoretically. It is shown that generation can be the most efficient at two certain carrier frequencies of input pulses lying above the resonance spin-phonon absorption line and determined by the time and spatial dispersions, respectively. The generated supercontinuum lies well below the resonance absorption line. Generation of the supercontinuum in the single-frequency regime is accompanied by a shift of the input pulse spectrum mainly to the red. In the two-frequency regime, cross scattering is possible when a higher-frequency pulse is scattered by the powerful supercontinuum generated by a pulse with a different, lower carrier frequency. As a result, the spectrum of the high-frequency pulse experiences a strong modulation and broadening both to the red and blue. The efficiency of supercontinuum generation both in the single-frequency and two-frequency regimes can be on the order of 1%.
Mixed-frequency multivariate GARCH
DHAENE, Geert; Wu, Jianbin
2016-01-01
We introduce and evaluate mixed-frequency multivariate GARCH models for forecasting low-frequency (weekly or monthly) multivariate volatility based on high-frequency intra-day returns (at five-minute intervals) and on the overnight returns. The low-frequency conditional volatility matrix is modelled as a weighted sum of an intra-day and an overnight component, driven by the intra-day and the overnight returns, respectively. The components are specified as multivariate GARCH (1,1) models of th...
Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton;
2011-01-01
Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design for the...... acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design was...... simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....
Supervised and unsupervised condition monitoring of non-stationary acoustic emission signals
Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan
2005-01-01
We are pursuing a system that monitors the engine condition under multiple load settings, i.e. under non-stationary operating conditions. The running speed when data acquired under simulated marine conditions (different load settings on the propeller curve) was in the range from approximately 70 to...... 125 rotations per minute; furthermore the running speed was stable within periods of fixed load. Electronically controlled engines can change the angular timing of certain events, such as fuel injection in order to optimize its performance. However, this behaviour makes it difficult to detect...
King, J. R. C.; Ziolkowski, A. M.; Ruffert, M.
2015-03-01
We have developed a new boundary condition for finite volume simulations of oscillating bubbles. Our method uses an approximation to the motion outside the domain, based on the solution at the domain boundary. We then use this approximation to apply boundary conditions by defining incoming characteristic waves at the domain boundary. Our boundary condition is applicable in regions where the motion is close to spherically symmetric. We have tested our method on a range of one- and two-dimensional test cases. Results show good agreement with previous studies. The method allows simulations of oscillating bubbles for long run times (5 ×105 time steps with a CFL number of 0.8) on highly truncated domains, in which the boundary condition may be applied within 0.1% of the maximum bubble radius. Conservation errors due to the boundary conditions are found to be of the order of 0.1% after 105 time steps. The method significantly reduces the computational cost of fixed grid finite volume simulations of oscillating bubbles. Two-dimensional results demonstrate that highly asymmetric bubble features, such as surface instabilities and the formation of jets, may be captured on a small domain using this boundary condition.
For advanced maintenance and safety in nuclear power plants, it is necessary to combine various technologies that are used to monitor the status of different equipment. Non-contact measurement methods offer technical advantages over contact measurement methods, such as the ability to perform spot measurements, adapt to high-temperature environments, and inspect dynamic parts. The acoustic emission (AE) method can detect earlier abnormal signs in bearings than vibration analysis, which is commonly used in power plants. The AE method is also able to detect various other events such as wear and leakage of materials. However, currently, non-contact AE measurement is not used for condition monitoring in power plants. To verify the feasibility of a non-contact AE measurement method using laser interferometry for condition monitoring technology, laboratory tests were conducted using a rotating machine fitted with bearings that had deliberately been made defective. The AE signals propagating from these defects were measured using a Michelson interferometer on the rotating polished shaft, and a piezoelectric sensor positioned on the bearing housing. This paper demonstrates that the non-contact AE method can detect various stages of deterioration in bearings, and therefore, the method can be considered as a useful future tool for condition monitoring of bearings in rotating machines. (author)
Janik Vincent M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomous reflexes enable animals to respond quickly to potential threats, prevent injury and mediate fight or flight responses. Intense acoustic stimuli with sudden onsets elicit a startle reflex while stimuli of similar intensity but with longer rise times only cause a cardiac defence response. In laboratory settings, habituation appears to affect all of these reflexes so that the response amplitude generally decreases with repeated exposure to the stimulus. The startle reflex has become a model system for the study of the neural basis of simple learning processes and emotional processing and is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical applications. However, previous studies did not allow animals to avoid the stimulus and the evolutionary function and long-term behavioural consequences of repeated startling remain speculative. In this study we investigate the follow-up behaviour associated with the startle reflex in wild-captured animals using an experimental setup that allows individuals to exhibit avoidance behaviour. Results We present evidence that repeated elicitation of the acoustic startle reflex leads to rapid and pronounced sensitisation of sustained spatial avoidance behaviour in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. Animals developed rapid flight responses, left the exposure pool and showed clear signs of fear conditioning. Once sensitised, seals even avoided a known food source that was close to the sound source. In contrast, animals exposed to non-startling (long rise time stimuli of the same maximum sound pressure habituated and flight responses waned or were absent from the beginning. The startle threshold of grey seals expressed in units of sensation levels was comparable to thresholds reported for other mammals (93 dB. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the acoustic startle reflex plays a crucial role in mediating flight responses and strongly influences the motivational state of an animal beyond a short
Weapon identification across varying acoustic conditions using an exemplar embedding approach
Khan, Saad; Divakaran, Ajay; Sawhney, Harpreet S.
2010-04-01
Gunshot recordings have the potential for both tactical detection and forensic evaluation particularly to ascertain information about the type of firearm and ammunition used. Perhaps the most significant challenge to such an analysis is the effect of recording conditions on the audio signature of recorded data. In this paper we present a first study of using an exemplar embedding approach to automatically detect and classify firearm type across different recording conditions. We demonstrate that a small number of exemplars can span the space of gunshot audio signatures and that this optimal set can be obtained using a wrapper function. By projecting a given gunshot to the subspace spanned by the exemplar set a distance measure/feature vector is obtained that enables comparisons across recording conditions. We also investigate the use of a hierarchy of gunshot classifications that assists in improving finer level classification by pruning out gunshot labeling that is inconsistent with its higher level type. The embedding based approach can thus be used both by itself and as a pruning stage for other search techniques. Our dataset includes 20 different gun types captured in a number of different conditions. This data acts as our original exemplar set. The dataset also includes 12 gun types each with multiple shots recorded in the same conditions as the exemplar set. This second set provides our training and testing sets. We show that we can reduce our exemplar space from 20 to only 4 uniquely different gunshots without significantly limiting the ability of our embedding approach to discriminate different gunshots in the training and testing sets. The basic hypothesis in the embedding approach is that the relationship between the set of exemplars and space of gunshots including the testing/training set would be robust to a change in recording conditions or the environment. That is to say the embedding distance between a particular gunshot and the exemplars would tend
Shin, Yoon Shik
The objective of this work was to conduct an experimental and numerical investigation of the noise radiated by a small-scale axial fan from two different points-of-view: the development of an inflow treatment to compensate for unfavorable inflow conditions that result in excessive noise, and a consideration of installation effects for the acoustic source type of small axial fans. The effect of disturbed inflow on axial fans was experimentally investigated by intentionally placing a blockage plate at four different locations upstream of a fan. The blocked inflow made the axial fan perform very poorly; the severely decreased pressure performance introduced an overly strong dependence of flow performance on pressure load condition. An inflow diffuser made from aluminum foam was suggested to improve the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the axial fan under such unfavorable inflow conditions. The inflow diffuser improved the stability of flow performance and reduced the blade passing tone by a small amount, but the levels of the high frequency harmonics of the blade passing tone were increased. A corresponding numerical model was built to model the flow change due to the inflow foam treatment. The inflow foam diffuser was approximated as a homogeneous porous zone to make the computational cost affordable, and it was shown that the model can predict the foam's influence on the pressure and flow performance of the fan. The aeroacoustic analogy model was applied to the solid surfaces of the fan and its housing to simulate the tonal noise at the blade passing frequency. The validity of the homogeneous foam model in terms of aeroacoustic predictions was also confirmed. As for the second aspect of the axial fan noise source, the dipole-like source behavior of an axial fan at the blade passing frequency was verified by directivity measurements. Thus, dipole modeling of an axial fan was justified. This result is associated with the problem of overestimated fan source
Acoustic imagery applied to the examination of the internal condition of concrete structures
A new process in civil engineering that can be used to examine the internal condition of a concrete structure using non-intrusive data acquisition techniques was discussed. The process described combines elements of computerized tomography with scientific visualization techniques to obtain representation of the structure showing the spatial distribution of stress wave velocity within the structure. An overview of the theory, details of the experimental procedure, and treatment of the data obtained are provided. Application of the technique to an existing structure is described. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs
Sree, Dave
2015-01-01
Near-field acoustic power level analysis of F31A31 open rotor model has been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated cruise flight conditions. The non-proprietary parts of the test data obtained from experiments in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center. The tone and broadband components of total noise have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, freestream Mach number, and input shaft power, with different blade-pitch setting angles at simulated cruise flight conditions, are presented and discussed. Empirical equations relating models acoustic power level and input shaft power have been developed. The near-field acoustic efficiency of the model at simulated cruise conditions is also determined. It is hoped that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.
Wang, Li-Lian; Zhao, Xiaodan
2011-01-01
This paper is concerned with fast and accurate computation of exterior wave equations truncated via exact circular or spherical nonreflecting boundary conditions (NRBCs, which are known to be nonlocal in both time and space). We first derive analytic expressions for the underlying convolution kernels, which allow for a rapid and accurate evaluation of the convolution with $O(N_t)$ operations over $N_t$ successive time steps. To handle the onlocality in space, we introduce the notion of boundary perturbation, which enables us to handle general bounded scatters by solving a sequence of wave equations in a regular domain. We propose an efficient spectral-Galerkin solver with Newmark's time integration for the truncated wave equation in the regular domain. We also provide ample numerical results to show high-order accuracy of NRBCs and efficiency of the proposed scheme.
Lee, Min Rae; Lee, Joon Hyun [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Teak [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2005-07-01
The analysis of Acoustic Emission (AE) signals produced during object leakage is promising for condition monitoring of the components. In this study, an advanced condition monitoring technique based on acoustic emission detection and artificial neural networks was applied to a check valve, one of the components being used extensively in a safety system of a nuclear power plant. AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and evaluate disk movement for valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference in a check valve. It is clearly demonstrated that the evaluation of different types of failure modes such as disk wear and check valve leakage were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters. It is also shown that the leak size can be determined with an artificial neural network.
The analysis of Acoustic Emission (AE) signals produced during object leakage is promising for condition monitoring of the components. In this study, an advanced condition monitoring technique based on acoustic emission detection and artificial neural networks was applied to a check valve, one of the components being used extensively in a safety system of a nuclear power plant. AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and evaluate disk movement for valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference in a check valve. It is clearly demonstrated that the evaluation of different types of failure modes such as disk wear and check valve leakage were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters. It is also shown that the leak size can be determined with an artificial neural network
Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.
2007-01-01
Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.
Acoustic load evaluation within two phase medium and the related fluid-structure interaction analysis in case of Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) for light water reactor systems is an important inter-disciplinary area. The present work highlights the development of a three-dimensional finite element code FLUSHEL to analyse LOCA induced depressurization problems for Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) core barrel and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core shroud. With good comparison obtained between prediction made by the present code and the experimental results of HDR-PWR test problem, coupled fluid-structure interaction analysis of core shroud of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) is presented for recirculation line break. It is shown that the acoustic load induced stresses in the core shroud are small and downcomer acoustic cavity modes are decoupled with the shell multi-lobe modes. Thus the structural integrity of TAPS core shroud for recirculation line break induced acoustic load is demonstrated. (author)
Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Introducción: En el sector de la docencia una situación frecuente son las precarias condiciones acústicas de las aulas. Objetivo: Caracterizar las condiciones acústicas de algunas aulas de una universidad pública en Bogotá. Material y Métodos: Durante el I semestre del 2009 se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, se evaluaron 25 salones de una universidad pública de Bogotá, los cuales fueron seleccionados de forma aleatoria según los reportes de docentes previamente entrevistados. Resultados: De los 25 salones medidos en la facultad 1 el 63,63% de los salones medidos presentó muy mala acústica según el índice de Acústica Total, mientras que en la Facultad 2 el 40% de los salones tuvo mala acústica, y en la Facultad 3 el 33,3% presentó acústica mala. Conclusiones: La ausencia de estudios en los que se reporten mediciones objetivas de tiempo de reverberación (TR e inteligibilidad evidencia la necesidad de realizar disertaciones de este tipo buscando generar herramientas que permitan mejorar las condiciones de salud, trabajo y vida de este grupo ocupacional.Introduction: Teachers complain about bad acoustic conditions in their classroom frequently. Aim: to describe some classroom acoustic conditions at Colombian Estate University in Bogotá city. Material and Methods: a transversal descriptive study was development in the first semester of 2009, 25 classrooms was measured at Colombian University in Bogota City, this classroom was selected randomized way according preview teachers evaluated reporting. Results: about 25 measured classroom at Faculty 1 63.63% of classroom had acoustic bad according Total Acoustic Index, while at Faculty 2 40% of classroom has bad acoustic, and Faculty 3 33.3% had bad acoustic. Conclusions: studies to report reverberation time (TR and intelligibility objectives measurements are a few, this exposed it is necessary to do dissertations to investigate and to contribute tools according to
Which multivariate gamma distributions are infinitely divisible?
Bernardoff, Philippe
2006-01-01
We define a multivariate gamma distribution on [math] by its Laplace transform [math] , [math] where ¶ [math] ¶ Under [math] , we establish necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficients of [math] such that the above function is the Laplace transform of some probability distribution, for all [math] thus characterizing all infinitely divisible multivariate gamma distributions on [math
Victor Desarnaulds; Carvalho, A
2002-01-01
Liturgical differences between Catholic and Reformed celebrations in Switzerland were studied by a temporal analysis of 16 worships. The importance of speech, music, and silence and the participation of the priest, assembly and organist are analysed. Data from 190 churches show that Reformed churches present a smaller average volume, a denser occupation of space and a shorter reverberation time than Catholic churches. The geometrical and acoustical characteristics of Reformed churches favour ...
Noson, Dennis; Kato, Kosuke; Ando, Yoichi
2001-05-01
Solo singers have been shown to over estimate the relative sound pressure level of a delayed, external reproduction of their own voice, singing single syllables, which, in turn, appears to influence the preferred delay of simulated stage reflections [Noson, Ph.D. thesis, Kobe University, 2003]. Bone conduction is thought to be one factor separating singer versus instrumental performer judgments of stage acoustics. Using a parameter derived from the vocal signal autocorrelation function (ACF envelope), the changes in singer preference for delayed reflections is primarily explained by the ACF parameter, rather than internal bone conduction. An auditory model of a singer's preferred reflection delay is proposed, combining the effects of acoustical environment (reflection amplitude), bone conduction, and performer vocal overestimate, which may be applied to the acoustic design of reflecting elements in both upstage and forestage environments of opera stages. For example, soloists who characteristically underestimate external voice levels (or overestimate their own voice) should be provided shorter distances to reflective panels-irrespective of their singing style. Adjustable elements can be deployed to adapt opera houses intended for bel canto style performances to other styles. Additional examples will also be discussed. a)Now at Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto, Japan. b)Now at: 1-10-27 Yamano Kami, Kumamoto, Japan.
Iliopoulos, S.; Iliopoulos, A.; Pyl, L.; Sol, H.; Aggelis, D. G.
2014-04-01
The Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) is a useful tool for characterizing the structural condition of concrete. Processing the obtained dynamic parameters (damping ratio, response frequency) as a function of response amplitude, clear and systematic differences appear between intact and cracked specimens, while factors like age and sustained load are also influential. Simultaneously, Acoustic Emission (AE) and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) techniques are used during the three point bending test of the beams in order to supply additional information on the level of damage accumulation which resulted in the specific dynamic behavior revealed by the IET test.
杜人君; 解文军
2011-01-01
采用单轴式声悬浮方法研究了环己烷液滴的蒸发过程,发现环己烷液滴的蒸发可以使自身温度降至熔点以下并发生凝固.高速摄像实时观测表明,环己烷晶核开始形成于液滴赤道附近,并以枝晶方式长大,平均生长速度为12.5—160.4mm/s.进一步研究发现,声悬浮条件下平均Sherwood数与平均Nusselt数的比值Sh/Nu是在自然对流条件下的1.3倍,这表明声流边界层有效提高了环己烷液滴的蒸发速率而对传热的促进作用相对较小,因而可以使液滴降至更低温度,进而发生凝固.据此,提出了挥发性液体在声悬浮条件下发生蒸发凝固的必要条件.%The evaporation process of a cyclohexane drop is investigated by single-axis acoustic levitation method.It is found that the evaporation of the cyclohexane drop results in the decrease of its temperature below the melting point,and leading to solidification.The real-time observation with a high speed camera shows that the cyclohexane nucleates near the equator of the drop surface and grows dendritically with an average velocity ranging from 12.5 to 160.4 mm/s.Further studies indicate that the ratio Sh/Nu of the average Sherwood number to Nusselt number under acoustic levitation condition is 1.3 times of that under natural convection condition.This suggests that the acoustic streaming boundary layer effectively strengthens the evaporation but has less promotion effect on the heat transfer.Therefore,the drop temperature declines to a lower value and the evaporation induced solidification occurs under acoustic levitation condition.Accordingly,a necessary condition for the occurrence of evaporation induced solidification of volatile liquids is proposed.
Methods of Multivariate Analysis
Rencher, Alvin C
2012-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit
Continuous multivariate exponential extension
The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE
The monitoring of multiphase flow is an established process that has spanned several decades. This paper demonstrates the use of acoustic emission (AE) technology to investigate sand transport characteristic in three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2 ms−1 to 2.0 ms−1 and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2 ms−1 to 1.0 ms−1. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG) and superficial liquid velocity (VSL)
Multivariate Time Series Search
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Stelzer, Robert
2011-01-01
Univariate superpositions of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-type processes (OU), called supOU processes, provide a class of continuous time processes capable of exhibiting long memory behavior. This paper introduces multivariate supOU processes and gives conditions for their existence and finiteness of moments...... parameter is restricted to normal matrices and especially to strictly negative definite ones. For finite variation Lévy bases we are able to give conditions for supOU processes to have locally bounded càdlàg paths of finite variation and to show an analogue of the stochastic differential equation of OU...
Vu Thanh Hai; Albert K. Tsuia; Zhaoyong Zhang
2009-01-01
We search for evidence of conditional volatility in the quarterly real GDP growth rates of three East Asian tigers : Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The widely accepted exponential GARCH-type model is used to capture the existence of asymmetric volatility and the potential structural break points in the volatility. We find evidence of asymmetry and persistence in the volatility of GDP growth rates. It is noted that the identified structural breakpoints of volatility correspond reasonably wel...
Blauert, Jens
Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....
El-Alej, M., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk; Mba, D., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk; Yeung, H., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 OAL (United Kingdom)
2014-04-11
The monitoring of multiphase flow is an established process that has spanned several decades. This paper demonstrates the use of acoustic emission (AE) technology to investigate sand transport characteristic in three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup −1} to 2.0 ms{sup −1} and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup −1} to 1.0 ms{sup −1}. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG) and superficial liquid velocity (VSL)
Multivariate COGARCH(1,1) processes
Stelzer, Robert
2010-01-01
Multivariate $\\operatorname {COGARCH}(1,1)$ processes are introduced as a continuous-time models for multidimensional heteroskedastic observations. Our model is driven by a single multivariate L\\'{e}vy process and the latent time-varying covariance matrix is directly specified as a stochastic process in the positive semidefinite matrices. After defining the $\\operatorname {COGARCH}(1,1)$ process, we analyze its probabilistic properties. We show a sufficient condition for the existence of a st...
Applied multivariate statistical analysis
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl
2015-01-01
Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners. It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added. All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior. All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...
An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. The tumor ... press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms ...
An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...
A MULTIVARIATE WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION
Cheng Lee
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A multivariate survival function of Weibull Distribution is developed by expanding the theorem by Lu and Bhattacharyya. From the survival function, the probability density function, the cumulative probability function, the determinant of the Jacobian Matrix, and the general moment are derived.
Multivariate Intraclass Correlation.
Wiley, David E.; Hawkes, Thomas H.
This paper is an explication of a statistical model which will permit an interpretable intraclass correlation coefficient that is negative, and a generalized extension of that model to cover a multivariate problem. The methodological problem has its practical roots in an attempt to find a statistic which could indicate the degree of similarity or…
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger;
2011-01-01
We propose a multivariate realised kernel to estimate the ex-post covariation of log-prices. We show this new consistent estimator is guaranteed to be positive semi-definite and is robust to measurement error of certain types and can also handle non-synchronous trading. It is the first estimator...
Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg
Interest in statistical methodology is increasing so rapidly in the astronomical community that accessible introductory material in this area is long overdue. This book fills the gap by providing a presentation of the most useful techniques in multivariate statistics. A wide-ranging annotated set....... Fortran programs are provided for many of the methods described....
Multivariate Nonnegative Quadratic Mappings
Luo, Z-Q; Sturm, J.F.; Zhang, S.
2003-01-01
In this paper we study several issues related to the characterization of speci c classes of multivariate quadratic mappings that are nonnegative over a given domain, with nonnegativity de ned by a pre-speci ed conic order.In particular, we consider the set (cone) of nonnegative quadratic mappings de
T Mohammadi Moghaddam
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a salted and roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. (Maghsudi, 2010; Kashaninejad et al. 2006. Roasting is one of the most important food processes which provides useful attributes to the product. One of the objectives of nut roasting is to alter and significantly enhance the flavor, texture, color and appearance of the product (Ozdemir, 2001. In recent years, spectral imaging techniques (i.e. hyperspectral and multispectral imaging have emerged as powerful tools for safequality inspection of various agricultural commodities (Gowen et al., 2007. The objectives of this study were to apply reflectance hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive determination of moisture content and hardness of pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions. Materials and methods: Dried O’hadi pistachio nuts were supplied from a local market in Mashhad. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 5L of 20% salt solution for 20min (Goktas Seyhan, 2003. For roasting process, three temperatures (90, 120 and 150°C, three times (20, 35 and 50 min and three air velocities (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were applied. The moisture content of pistachio kernels was measured in triplicate using oven drying (3 gr samples at 105 °C for 12 hours. Uniaxial compression test by a 35mm diameter plastic cylinder, was made on the pistachio kernels, which were mounted on a platform. Samples were compressed at a depth of 2mm and speed of 30 mm min-1. A hyperspectral imaging system in the Vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm was employed. The spectral pre-processing techniques: first derivative and second derivative, median filter, Savitzkye-Golay, wavelet, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and standard normal variate transformation (SNV were used. To make models at PLSR and ANN methods, ParLeS software and Matlab R2009a were used, respectively. The coefficient
Bayesian multivariate mixed-scale density estimation
Canale, Antonio
2011-01-01
Although univariate continuous density estimation has received abundant attention in the Bayesian nonparametrics literature, there is essentially no theory on multivariate mixed scale density estimation. In this article, we consider a general framework to jointly model continuous, count and categorical variables under a nonparametric prior, which is induced through rounding latent variables having an unknown density with respect to Lesbesgue measure. For the proposed class of priors, we provide sufficient conditions for large support, strong consistency and rates of posterior contraction. These conditions, which primarily relate to the prior on the latent variable density and heaviness of the tails for the observed continuous variables, allow one to convert sufficient conditions obtained in the setting of multivariate continuous density estimation to the mixed scale case. We provide new results in the multivariate continuous density estimation case, showing the Kullback-Leibler property and strong consistency...
Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics
Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)
2010-03-24
In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)
Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics
In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)
Multivariate Statistical Process Control
Kulahci, Murat
2013-01-01
conjunction with image data are plagued with various challenges beyond the usual ones encountered in current applications. In this presentation we will introduce the basic ideas of SPC and the multivariate control charts commonly used in industry. We will further discuss the challenges the practitioners are...... identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...... amount of cross correlation, practitioners are often recommended to use latent structures methods such as Principal Component Analysis to summarize the data in only a few linear combinations of the original variables that capture most of the variation in the data. Applications of these control charts in...
Intelligent multivariate process supervision
This thesis addresses the difficulties encountered in managing large amounts of data in supervisory control of complex systems. Some previous alarm and disturbance analysis concepts are reviewed and a method for improving the supervision of complex systems is presented. The method, called multivariate supervision, is based on adding low level intelligence to the process control system. By using several measured variables linked together by means of deductive logic, the system can take into account the overall state of the supervised system. Thus, it can present to the operators fewer messages with higher information content than the conventional control systems which are based on independent processing of each variable. In addition, the multivariate method contains a special information presentation concept for improving the man-machine interface. (author)
Multivariate calculus and geometry
Dineen, Seán
2014-01-01
Multivariate calculus can be understood best by combining geometric insight, intuitive arguments, detailed explanations and mathematical reasoning. This textbook has successfully followed this programme. It additionally provides a solid description of the basic concepts, via familiar examples, which are then tested in technically demanding situations. In this new edition the introductory chapter and two of the chapters on the geometry of surfaces have been revised. Some exercises have been replaced and others provided with expanded solutions. Familiarity with partial derivatives and a course in linear algebra are essential prerequisites for readers of this book. Multivariate Calculus and Geometry is aimed primarily at higher level undergraduates in the mathematical sciences. The inclusion of many practical examples involving problems of several variables will appeal to mathematics, science and engineering students.
Introduction to multivariate discrimination
Kégl Balázs
2013-01-01
ISBN:978-2-7598-1032-1 International audience Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, ...
Multivariate variance ratio statistics
Hong, Seok Young; Linton, Oliver; Zhang, Hui Jun
2014-01-01
We propose several multivariate variance ratio statistics. We derive the asymptotic distribution of the statistics and scalar functions thereof under the null hypothesis that returns are unpredictable after a constant mean adjustment (i.e., under the Efficient Market Hypothesis). We do not impose the no leverage assumption of Lo and MacKinlay (1988) but our asymptotic standard errors are relatively simple and in particular do not require the selection of a band- width parameter. We extend the...
Sparse Multivariate Factor Regression
Kharratzadeh, Milad; Coates, Mark
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of multivariate regression in a setting where the relevant predictors could be shared among different responses. We propose an algorithm which decomposes the coefficient matrix into the product of a long matrix and a wide matrix, with an elastic net penalty on the former and an $\\ell_1$ penalty on the latter. The first matrix linearly transforms the predictors to a set of latent factors, and the second one regresses the responses on these factors. Our algorithm simulta...
Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.
1981-01-01
The essential feature of multivariate methods is that they aim at reducing the complexity of phenomena in which many variables or attributes are involved. Given this general feature , it is no surprise to see that these methods have been applied in various fields of research, such as economics, geography, medicine, biology, etc. This paper will be devoted to the development of some methods for ordinally measurable data and its implications for regional statistical and econometric analyse...
Multivariate Bernoulli distribution
Dai, Bin; Ding, Shilin; Wahba, Grace
2012-01-01
In this paper, we consider the multivariate Bernoulli distribution as a model to estimate the structure of graphs with binary nodes. This distribution is discussed in the framework of the exponential family, and its statistical properties regarding independence of the nodes are demonstrated. Importantly the model can estimate not only the main effects and pairwise interactions among the nodes but also is capable of modeling higher order interactions, allowing for the existence of complex cliq...
Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging
2012-01-01
The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging
Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.
2003-08-01
Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.
Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa
2014-02-04
Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a \\'biocline\\' during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a) indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten.
Multivariate respiratory motion prediction
In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation. (paper)
Introduction to multivariate discrimination
Kégl Balázs
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1–9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1 we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2, since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1. Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5. We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems
Introduction to multivariate discrimination
Kégl, Balázs
2013-07-01
Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either
Introduction to multivariate discrimination
Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyper-parameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either
Multivariate respiratory motion prediction
Dürichen, R.; Wissel, T.; Ernst, F.; Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.
2014-10-01
In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation.
Crawfis, R.A.
1996-03-01
This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.
Multivariate statistical methods a primer
Manly, Bryan FJ
2004-01-01
THE MATERIAL OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSISExamples of Multivariate DataPreview of Multivariate MethodsThe Multivariate Normal DistributionComputer ProgramsGraphical MethodsChapter SummaryReferencesMATRIX ALGEBRAThe Need for Matrix AlgebraMatrices and VectorsOperations on MatricesMatrix InversionQuadratic FormsEigenvalues and EigenvectorsVectors of Means and Covariance MatricesFurther Reading Chapter SummaryReferencesDISPLAYING MULTIVARIATE DATAThe Problem of Displaying Many Variables in Two DimensionsPlotting index VariablesThe Draftsman's PlotThe Representation of Individual Data P:ointsProfiles o
Uniform Convergence of Multivariate Spectral Density Estimates
Wu, Wei Biao; Zaffaroni, Paolo
2015-01-01
We consider uniform moment convergence of lag-window spectral density estimates for univariate and multivariate stationary processes. Optimal rates of convergence are obtained under mild and easily verifiable conditions. Our theory complements earlier results which primarily concern weak or in-probability convergence.
Modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations are derived for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves in order to examine the soliton reflection and its transmission through an inhomogeneous plasma comprising ions, dust grains with fluctuating charge and two types of electrons, namely nonisothermal electrons and isothermal electrons. All the mKdV equations are coupled at the point of reflection and solved for the reflected soliton. Unlike others, a relation is established between the velocity shifts of the incident, reflected and transmitted solitons, and based on a critical value of the shift of incident soliton the strengths of the soliton reflection and transmission are talked about. Conditions are obtained for the soliton reflection and its transmission, and a comparative study is made for the two cases of fixed and fluctuating charges on the dust grains
Malik, Hitendra K.; Tomar, Renu [Plasma Waves and Particle Acceleration Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Dahiya, Raj P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)
2014-07-15
Modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations are derived for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves in order to examine the soliton reflection and its transmission through an inhomogeneous plasma comprising ions, dust grains with fluctuating charge and two types of electrons, namely nonisothermal electrons and isothermal electrons. All the mKdV equations are coupled at the point of reflection and solved for the reflected soliton. Unlike others, a relation is established between the velocity shifts of the incident, reflected and transmitted solitons, and based on a critical value of the shift of incident soliton the strengths of the soliton reflection and transmission are talked about. Conditions are obtained for the soliton reflection and its transmission, and a comparative study is made for the two cases of fixed and fluctuating charges on the dust grains.
System identification for multivariable control
Vanzee, G. A.
1981-05-01
System identification methods and modern control theory are applied to industrial processes. These processes must often be controlled in order to meet certain requirements with respect to the product quality, safety, energy consumption, and environmental load. Modern control system design methods which take the occurring interaction phenomena and stochastic disturbances into account are used. An accurate dynamic mathematical model of the process, by theoretical modelling and/or by system identification is obtained. The computational aspects of two important types of identifications methods, i.e., stochastic realization and prediction error based parameter estimation are studied. The studied computational aspects are the robustness, the accuracy, and the computational costs of the methods. Theoretical analyses and applications to a multivariable pilot scale process, operating under closed loop conditions are investigated.
Multivariate COGARCH(1,1) processes
Stelzer, Robert
2010-01-01
Multivariate $\\operatorname {COGARCH}(1,1)$ processes are introduced as a continuous-time models for multidimensional heteroskedastic observations. Our model is driven by a single multivariate L\\'{e}vy process and the latent time-varying covariance matrix is directly specified as a stochastic process in the positive semidefinite matrices. After defining the $\\operatorname {COGARCH}(1,1)$ process, we analyze its probabilistic properties. We show a sufficient condition for the existence of a stationary distribution for the stochastic covariance matrix process and present criteria ensuring the finiteness of moments. Under certain natural assumptions on the moments of the driving L\\'{e}vy process, explicit expressions for the first and second-order moments and (asymptotic) second-order stationarity of the covariance matrix process are obtained. Furthermore, we study the stationarity and second-order structure of the increments of the multivariate $\\operatorname {COGARCH}(1,1)$ process and their "squares".
Low rank Multivariate regression
Giraud, Christophe
2010-01-01
We consider in this paper the multivariate regression problem, when the target regression matrix $A$ is close to a low rank matrix. Our primary interest in on the practical case where the variance of the noise is unknown. Our main contribution is to propose in this setting a criterion to select among a family of low rank estimators and prove a non-asymptotic oracle inequality for the resulting estimator. We also investigate the easier case where the variance of the noise is known and outline that the penalties appearing in our criterions are minimal (in some sense). These penalties involve the expected value of the Ky-Fan quasi-norm of some random matrices. These quantities can be evaluated easily in practice and upper-bounds can be derived from recent results in random matrix theory.
Afzulpurkar, S.; Maurya, P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Madhan, R.; Prabhudesai, S.P.
traffic. This necessitates monitoring the AUV status and data quality through an acoustic link which needs to perform reliably under such conditions, at long range. To address these situations partially, acoustic communication capability is planned...
Multivariate statistics exercises and solutions
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl
2015-01-01
The authors present tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis by means of exercises and their solutions. The first part is devoted to graphical techniques. The second part deals with multivariate random variables and presents the derivation of estimators and tests for various practical situations. The last part introduces a wide variety of exercises in applied multivariate data analysis. The book demonstrates the application of simple calculus and basic multivariate methods in real life situations. It contains altogether more than 250 solved exercises which can assist a university teacher in setting up a modern multivariate analysis course. All computer-based exercises are available in the R language. All R codes and data sets may be downloaded via the quantlet download center www.quantlet.org or via the Springer webpage. For interactive display of low-dimensional projections of a multivariate data set, we recommend GGobi.
Damarla, Thyagaraju
2015-01-01
This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...
Akiyama, Iwaki
2009-01-01
The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine movements of green turtles in the nearshore foraging areas, we deployed acoustic tags and determined their movements through active and passive...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....
COMBUSTION ACOUSTICS DIAGNOSTICS
This is an Exploratory Research Project that was awarded by APPCD for research on developing an acoustic flame condition monitor. It will involve a bench scale experiment of 4-6 weeks duration to record adjacent audible energy of a Bunsen burner. The experiment will require a d...
Centeno P, J.; Castillo J, V.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Nunez C, A.; Polo L, M. A., E-mail: baldepeor21@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)
2013-10-15
The objective of this word is to study the hydrodynamic and acoustic phenomenon in the main steam lines (MSLs). For this study was considered the specific case of a pipe section of the MSL, where is located the standpipe of the pressure and/or safety relief valve (SRV). In the SRV cavities originates a phenomenon known as whistling that generates a hydrodynamic disturbance of acoustic pressure waves with different tones depending of the reactor operation conditions. In the SRV cavities the propagation velocity of the wave can originate mechanical damage in the structure of the steam dryer and on free parts. The importance of studying this phenomenon resides in the safety of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. To dissipate the energy of the pressure wave, acoustic side branches (ASBs) are used on the standpipe of the SRVs. The ASBs are arrangements of compacted lattices similar to a porous medium, where the energy of the whistling phenomenon is dissipate and therefore the acoustic pressure load that impacts in particular to the steam dryers, and in general to the interns of the vessel, diminishes. For the analysis of the whistling phenomenon two three-dimensional (3-D) models were built, one hydrodynamic in stationary state and other acoustic for the harmonic times in transitory regimen, in which were applied techniques of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The study includes the reactor operation analysis under conditions of extended power up rate (EPU) with ASB and without ASB. The obtained results of the gauges simulated in the MSL without ASB and with ASB, show that tones with values of acoustic pressure are presented in frequency ranges between 160 and 200 Hz around 12 MPa and of 7 MPa, respectively. This attenuation of tones implies the decrease of the acoustic loads in the steam dryer and in the interns of the vessel that are designed to support pressures not more to 7.5 MPa approximately. With the above-mentioned is possible to protect the steam dryer
Decompositions of Trigonometric Polynomials with Applications to Multivariate Subdivision Schemes
Dyn, Nira
2009-01-01
We study multivariate trigonometric polynomials, satisfying a set of constraints close to the known Strung-Fix conditions. Based on the polyphase representation of these polynomials relative to a general dilation matrix, we develop a simple constructive method for a special type of decomposition of such polynomials. These decompositions are of interest to the analysis of convergence and smoothness of multivariate subdivision schemes associated with general dilation matrices. We apply these decompositions, by verifying sufficient conditions for the convergence and smoothness of multivariate scalar subdivision schemes, proved here. For the convergence analysis our sufficient conditions apply to arbitrary dilation matrices, while the previously known necessary and sufficient conditions are relevant only in case of dilation matrices with a self similar tiling. For the analysis of smoothness, we state and prove two theorems on multivariate matrix subdivision schemes, which lead to sufficient conditions for C^1 lim...
Acoustic detection of pneumothorax
Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.
2003-04-01
This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.
Practical acoustic emission testing
2016-01-01
This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.
Model Checking Multivariate State Rewards
Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2010-01-01
We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise...
Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts: An Overview
Bersimis, Sotiris; Psarakis, Stelios; Panaretos, John
2006-01-01
In this paper we discuss the basic procedures for the implementation of multivariate statistical process control via control charting. Furthermore, we review multivariate extensions for all kinds of univariate control charts, such as multivariate Shewhart-type control charts, multivariate CUSUM control charts and multivariate EWMA control charts. In addition, we review unique procedures for the construction of multivariate control charts, based on multivariate statistical techniques such as p...
This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)
Multivariate Term Structure Models with Level and Heteroskedasticity Effects
Christiansen, Charlotte
2005-01-01
The paper introduces and estimates a multivariate level-GARCH model for the long rate and the term-structure spread where the conditional volatility is proportional to the ãth power of the variable itself (level effects) and the conditional covariance matrix evolves according to a multivariate GA...... the level model. GARCH effects are more important than level effects. The results are robust to the maturity of the interest rates. Udgivelsesdato: MAY...
Aerosol behaviour in an acoustic field
The average size of an aerosol submitted to acoustic waves is increased. This results from coagulation of the finest particles on the largest ones. The mechanisms responsible for acoustic agglomeration are mentioned. An experimental apparatus was developed in order to control the evolution of aerosol distribution in an acoustic field. Important deposition on the walls of the agglomeration chamber was observed as a consequence of the acoustically induced turbulent flow. Finally, a dimensionless relationship was established between deposition rates and particle diameters as a function of experimental parameters (aeraulic and acoustic conditions, etc...)
A primer of multivariate statistics
Harris, Richard J
2014-01-01
Drawing upon more than 30 years of experience in working with statistics, Dr. Richard J. Harris has updated A Primer of Multivariate Statistics to provide a model of balance between how-to and why. This classic text covers multivariate techniques with a taste of latent variable approaches. Throughout the book there is a focus on the importance of describing and testing one's interpretations of the emergent variables that are produced by multivariate analysis. This edition retains its conversational writing style while focusing on classical techniques. The book gives the reader a feel for why
Multivariate Visual Explanation for High Dimensional Datasets
Barlowe, Scott; Zhang, Tianyi; Liu, Yujie; Yang, Jing; Jacobs, Donald
2008-01-01
Understanding multivariate relationships is an important task in multivariate data analysis. Unfortunately, existing multivariate visualization systems lose effectiveness when analyzing relationships among variables that span more than a few dimensions. We present a novel multivariate visual explanation approach that helps users interactively discover multivariate relationships among a large number of dimensions by integrating automatic numerical differentiation techniques and multidimensiona...
Marinetti, Laureen J; Leavell, Bonita J; Jones, Calleen M; Hepler, Bradford R; Isenschmid, Daniel S; Commissaris, Randall L
2012-06-01
Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) is metabolized to gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in the body. GHB is a DEA Schedule 1 compound; GBL is a DEA List 1 chemical. Gamma valerolactone (GVL) is the 4-methyl analog of GBL; GVL is metabolized to 4-methyl-GHB; GVL is NOT metabolized to GBL or GHB. The effects of GBL (18.75-150 mg/kg), GVL (200-1600 mg/kg) or vehicle on the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), and the classically-conditioned enhancement of startle, the Startle Anticipated Potentiation of Startle (SAPS) response were studied in male rats. Both compounds produced a dose-dependent reduction of ASR, with GBL 5-7 times more potent than GVL. In contrast, GBL treatment significantly reduced SAPS at doses that exerted only moderate effects on ASR, whereas GVL exerted little or no effect on the SAPS, except at doses that produced pronounced reductions in Noise Alone ASR. In a second experiment, rats were tested for Noise Alone ASR behavior following treatment with a single mid-range dose of GBL (75 mg/kg), GVL (400mg/kg) or vehicle; immediately following startle testing the animals were sacrificed and their brains and blood were collected for determination of GHB, 4-methyl-GHB, GBL and GVL. GHB was found in measurable concentrations in all of the blood specimens and 6 (of 8) of the brain specimens from the GBL-treated subjects. 4-Methyl-GHB was found in measurable concentrations in all of the blood and brain specimens of the GVL-treated subjects; the change in startle amplitude was inversely correlated to the brain concentrations of these compounds. These findings confirm the differences in the metabolic fate of GBL and GVL as pro-drugs for the formation of GHB and 4-methyl-GHB, respectively. Moreover, the dissimilarity in effect profile for GBL and GVL on ASR versus SAPS behaviors suggests that different receptor(s) may be involved in mediating these behavioral effects. PMID:22349589
Multivariate permutation tests in genetics.
Rosa Arboretti Giancristofaro
2003-01-01
In this paper we provide some new statistical results for hypotheses testing in genetics particularly referred to multivariate allelic association studies. An extensive power simulation study is also provided on permutation solutions.
Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges
Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael
We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...
Multivariable Intelligent Decoupling Control System and its Application
TianYou CHAI; Heng YUE
2005-01-01
Many industrial processes have compositive complexities including multivariable, strong coupling, nonlinearity, time-variant and operating condition variations. Combining multivariable adaptive decoupling control with neural networks, this paper presents a multivariable neural networkbased decoupling control algorithm. This control algorithm is integrated with distributed control technique and intelligent control technique, and a three-leveled intelligent decoupling control system consisting of basic control level, coordinating control level, and management and decision level is developed. The configuration and function of the control system are discussed in detail. This system has been successfully applied in ball mill pulverizing systems of 200MW power units, and remarkable benefits have been obtained.
(Anti)symmetric multivariate trigonometric functions and corresponding Fourier transforms
Klimyk, A.; Patera, J.
2007-09-01
Four families of special functions, depending on n variables, are studied. We call them symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate sine and cosine functions. They are given as determinants or antideterminants of matrices, whose matrix elements are sine or cosine functions of one variable each. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator, satisfying specific conditions at the boundary of a certain domain F of the n-dimensional Euclidean space. Discrete and continuous orthogonality on F of the functions within each family allows one to introduce symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate Fourier-like transforms involving the symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate sine and cosine functions.
Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed
Multivariable modeling and multivariate analysis for the behavioral sciences
Everitt, Brian S
2009-01-01
Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues.The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multip
Meshless RBF based pseudospectral solution of acoustic wave equation
Mishra, Pankaj K
2015-01-01
Chebyshev pseudospectral (PS) methods are reported to provide highly accurate solution using polynomial approximation. Use of polynomial basis functions in PS algorithms limits the formulation to univariate systems constraining it to tensor product grids for multi-dimensions. Recent studies have shown that replacing the polynomial by radial basis functions in pseudospectral method (RBF-PS) has the advantage of using irregular grids for multivariate systems. A RBF-PS algorithm has been presented here for the numerical solution of inhomogeneous Helmholtz's equation using Gaussian RBF for derivative approximation. Efficacy of RBF approximated derivatives has been checked through error analysis comparison with PS method. Comparative study of PS, RBF-PS and finite difference approach for the solution of a linear boundary value problem has been performed. Finally, a typical frequency domain acoustic wave propagation problem has been solved using Dirichlet boundary condition and a point source. The algorithm present...
On the functional estimation of multivariate diffusion processes
Bandi, Federico; Moloche, Guillermo
2008-01-01
We propose a fully nonparametric estimation theory for the drift vector and the diffusion matrix of multivariate diffusion processes. The estimators are sample analogues to infinitesimal conditional expectations constructed as Nadaraya-Watson kernel averages. Minimal assumptions are imposed on the statistical properties of the multivariate system to obtain limiting results. Harris recurrence is all that we require to show strong consistency and asymptotic (mixed) normality of the functional e...
Acoustic fault injection tool (AFIT)
Schoess, Jeffrey N.
1999-05-01
On September 18, 1997, Honeywell Technology Center (HTC) successfully completed a three-week flight test of its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS) at Patuxent River Flight Test Center. This flight test was the culmination of an ambitious 38-month proof-of-concept effort directed at demonstrating the feasibility of detecting crack propagation in helicopter rotor components. The program was funded as part of the U.S. Navy's Air Vehicle Diagnostic Systems (AVDS) program. Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. The application of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults has proven the feasibility of the technology. The flight-test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. During the RAMS flight test, 12 test flights were flown from which 25 Gbyte of digital acoustic data and about 15 hours of analog flight data recorder (FDR) data were collected from the eight on-rotor acoustic sensors. The focus of this paper is to describe the CH-46 flight-test configuration and present design details about a new innovative machinery diagnostic technology called acoustic fault injection. This technology involves the injection of acoustic sound into machinery to assess health and characterize operational status. The paper will also address the development of the Acoustic Fault Injection Tool (AFIT), which was successfully demonstrated during the CH-46 flight tests.
Applied multivariate statistics with R
Zelterman, Daniel
2015-01-01
This book brings the power of multivariate statistics to graduate-level practitioners, making these analytical methods accessible without lengthy mathematical derivations. Using the open source, shareware program R, Professor Zelterman demonstrates the process and outcomes for a wide array of multivariate statistical applications. Chapters cover graphical displays, linear algebra, univariate, bivariate and multivariate normal distributions, factor methods, linear regression, discrimination and classification, clustering, time series models, and additional methods. Zelterman uses practical examples from diverse disciplines to welcome readers from a variety of academic specialties. Those with backgrounds in statistics will learn new methods while they review more familiar topics. Chapters include exercises, real data sets, and R implementations. The data are interesting, real-world topics, particularly from health and biology-related contexts. As an example of the approach, the text examines a sample from the B...
Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling
Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...... Bayesian hierarchy for sparse models using slab and spike priors (two-component δ-function and continuous mixtures), non-Gaussian latent factors and a stochastic search over the ordering of the variables. The framework, which we call SLIM (Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling), is validated and......-linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling) and allowing for correlations between latent variables, called CSLIM (Correlated SLIM), for the temporal and/or spatial data. The source code and scripts are available from http://cogsys.imm.dtu.dk/ slim/. © 2011 Ricardo Henao and Ole Winther....
Acoustic emission leak monitoring system LMS-96
On-line acoustic emission leak monitoring under industrial conditions of nuclear power plants is a problem with specific features setting specific demands on the leak monitoring system. The paper briefly reviews those problems (attenuation pattern of a real structure, acoustic background, alarm system, etc.) and the solution of some of them is discussed. Information is presented on the Acoustic Emission Leak Monitoring System LMS-96 by SKODA NUCLEAR MACHINERY and the system's function is briefly described. (author)
Multivariate approaches in plant science
Gottlieb, D.M.; Schultz, j.; Bruun, Susanne Wrang;
2004-01-01
amount of data. We present a multivariate approach to the handling of data in proteomics with the advantage that protein patterns can be spotted at an early stage and consequently the proteins selected for sequencing can be selected intelligently. These methods can also be applied to other data....... Traditionally statistical methods are not suitable for analysis of the huge amounts of data, where the number of variables exceed the number of objects. Multivariate data analysis, on the other hand, may uncover the hidden structures present in these data. This study takes its starting point in the field...
Strategies for Industrial Multivariable Control
Hangstrup, M.
dynamics and gains strongly depend upon one or more physical parameters characterizing the operating point. This class covers many industrial systems such as airplanes, ships, robots and process control systems. Power plant boilers are representatives for process control systems in general. The dynamics......Multivariable control strategies well-suited for industrial applications are suggested. The strategies combine the practical advantages of conventional SISO control schemes and -technology with the potential of multivariable controllers. Special emphasis is put on parameter-varying systems whose...
A Multivariate GARCH Model with Time-Varying correlations
Y. K. Tse; Tsui, Albert K. C.
2000-01-01
In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying correlations. We adopt the vech representation based on the conditional variances and the conditional correlations. While each conditional-variance term is assumed to follow a univariate GARCH formulation, the conditional-correlation matrix is postulated to follow an autoregressive moving average type of analogue. By imposing some suitable restrictions on the conditional-correlation-matrix equation, we manage to constru...
Multivariate Subexponential Distributions and Their Applications
Samorodnitsky, Gennady; Sun, Julian
2015-01-01
We propose a new definition of a multivariate subexponential distribution. We compare this definition with the two existing notions of multivariate subexponentiality, and compute the asymptotic behaviour of the ruin probability in the context of an insurance portfolio, when multivariate subexponentiality holds. Previously such results were available only in the case of multivariate regularly varying claims.
Wachsmuth, Janne
2016-05-01
Fatigue crack growth and active corrosion processes are the main causes of structural failures of transport products like road tankers, railway tank cars and ships. To prevent those failures, preventive, time-based maintenance is performed. However, preventive inspections are costly and include the risk of not detecting a defect, which could lead to a failure within the next service period. An alternative is the idea of continuous monitoring of the whole structure by means of acoustic emission testing (AT). With AT, defects within the material shall be detected and repaired directly after their appearance. Acoustic emission testing is an online non-destructive testing method. Acoustic emission (AE) arises from changes within the material and is transported by elastic waves through the material. If the AE event generates enough energy, the elastic wave propagates to the boundaries of the component, produces a displacement in the picometre scale and can be detected by a piezoelectric sensor. The sensor produces an electrical signal. From this AE signal, AE features such as the maximum amplitude or the frequency can be extracted. Methods of signal analysis are used to investigate the time and frequency dependency of signal groups. The purpose of the signal analysis is to connect the AE signal with the originating AE source. If predefined damage mechanisms are identified, referencing the damage condition of the structure is possible. Acoustic emission from events of the actual crack propagation process can for example lead to the crack growth rate or the stress intensity factor, both specific values from fracture mechanics. A new development in the domain of acoustic emission testing is the pattern recognition of AE signals. Specific features are extracted from the AE signals to assign them to their damage mechanisms. In this thesis the AE signals from the damage mechanisms corrosion and fatigue crack growth are compared and analysed. The damage mechanisms were
A "Model" Multivariable Calculus Course.
Beckmann, Charlene E.; Schlicker, Steven J.
1999-01-01
Describes a rich, investigative approach to multivariable calculus. Introduces a project in which students construct physical models of surfaces that represent real-life applications of their choice. The models, along with student-selected datasets, serve as vehicles to study most of the concepts of the course from both continuous and discrete…
The Multivariate Gaussian Probability Distribution
Ahrendt, Peter
2005-01-01
This technical report intends to gather information about the multivariate gaussian distribution, that was previously not (at least to my knowledge) to be found in one place and written as a reference manual. Additionally, some useful tips and tricks are collected that may be useful in practical ...
Parameter Sensitivity in Multivariate Methods
Green, Bert F., Jr.
1977-01-01
Interpretation of multivariate models requires knowing how much the fit of the model is impaired by changes in the parameters. The relation of parameter change to loss of goodness of fit can be called parameter sensitivity. Formulas are presented for assessing the sensitivity of multiple regression and principal component weights. (Author/JKS)
a Multivariate Image Analysis Toolbox
Hagen, Reidar Strand
2005-01-01
The toolkit has been implemented as planned: The ground work for visualisation mappings and relationships between datasets have been finished. Wavelet transforms have been to compress datasets in order to reduce computational time. Principal Component Analysis and other transforms are working. Examples of use have been provided, and several ways of visualizing them have been provided. Multivariate Image Analysis is viable on regular Workstations.
Multivariate fluctuation relations for currents
This paper is devoted to multivariate fluctuation relations for all the currents flowing across an open system in contact with several reservoirs at different temperatures and chemical potentials, or driven by time-independent external mechanical forces. After some transient behavior, the open system is supposed to reach a nonequilibrium steady state that is controlled by the thermodynamic and mechanical forces, called the affinities. The time-reversal symmetry of the underlying Hamiltonian dynamics implies symmetry relations among the statistical properties of the fluctuating currents, depending on the values of the affinities. These multivariate fluctuation relations are not only compatible with the second law of thermodynamics, but they also imply remarkable relations between the linear or nonlinear response coefficients and the cumulants of the fluctuating currents. These relations include the Onsager and Casimir reciprocity relations, as well as their generalizations beyond linear response. Methods to deduce multivariate fluctuation relations are presented for classical, stochastic and quantum systems. In this way, multivariate fluctuation relations are obtained for energy or particle transport in the effusion of an ideal gas, heat transport in Hamiltonian systems coupled by Langevin stochastic forces to heat reservoirs, driven Brownian motion of an electrically charged particle subjected to an external magnetic field, and quantum electron transport in multi-terminal mesoscopic circuits where the link to the scattering approach is established. (paper)
Application of acoustic diagnosis for rotating machines
This report describes the effectiveness of the application of acoustic diagnosis using vibration data for inspecting rotating machines. We usually apply the vibration diagnosis for the inspection of rotating machines on CBM (Condition Based Maintenance). However, with the vibration diagnosis, sometimes we cannot discover the cause of abnormal sounds from rotating machines. Therefore, we tried another diagnosis. We converted the vibration data to the acoustic data and then inspected the abnormal sounds. We used the frequency filters in the acoustic analyzer for the diagnosis. This acoustic diagnosis method is helpful in transmitting the inspection techniques of rotating machines to the next generation. (author)
Propagation behavior of acoustic wave in wood
Huadong Xu; Guoqi Xu; Lihai Wang; Lei Yu
2014-01-01
We used acoustic tests on a quarter-sawn poplar timbers to study the effects of wood anisotropy and cavity defects on acoustic wave velocity and travel path, and we investigated acoustic wave propagation behavior in wood. The timber specimens were first tested in unmodified condition and then tested after introduction of cavity defects of varying sizes to quantify the transmitting time of acoustic waves in laboratory conditions. Two-dimensional acoustic wave contour maps on the radial section of specimens were then simulated and analyzed based on the experimental data. We tested the relationship between wood grain and acoustic wave velocity as waves passed in various directions through wood. Wood anisotropy has significant effects on both velocity and travel path of acoustic waves, and the velocity of waves passing longitudinally through timbers exceeded the radial velocity. Moreover, cavity defects altered acoustic wave time contours on radial sections of timbers. Acous-tic wave transits from an excitation point to the region behind a cavity in defective wood more slowly than in intact wood.
The Acoustic Voice Quality Index: Toward Improved Treatment Outcomes Assessment in Voice Disorders
Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Roy, Nelson
2010-01-01
Voice practitioners require an objective index of dysphonia severity as a means to reliably track treatment outcomes. To ensure ecological validity however, such a measure should survey both sustained vowels and continuous speech. In an earlier study, a multivariate acoustic model referred to as the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), consisting…
Crum, L.; Andrew, M.; Bailey, M.; Beach, K.; Brayman, A.; Curra, F.; Kaczkowski, P.; Kargl, S.; Martin, R.; Vaezy, S.
2003-04-01
Over the past several years, the Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound (CIMU) at the Applied Physics Laboratory in the University of Washington has undertaken a broad research program in the general area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Our principal emphasis has been on the use of HIFU to induce hemostasis; in particular, CIMU has sought to develop a small, lightweight, portable device that would use ultrasound for both imaging and therapy. Such a technology is needed because nearly 50% of combat casualty mortality results from exsanguinations, or uncontrolled bleeding. A similar percentage occurs for civilian death due to trauma. In this general review, a presentation of the general problem will be given, as well as our recent approaches to the development of an image-guided, transcutaneous, acoustic hemostasis device. [Work supported in part by the USAMRMC, ONR and the NIH.
The Components of Good Acoustics in a High Performance School
Stewart, William
2009-01-01
Acoustics has received greater importance in the learning environment in recent years. In August 2000, The Acoustical Society of America (ASA) published the study "Classroom Acoustics: A Resource for Creating Learning Environments with Desirable Listening Conditions" providing a framework for understanding the qualities, descriptors of the…
Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2010-01-01
In this article we consider the distributions of non-negative random vectors with a joint rational Laplace transform, i.e., a fraction between two multi-dimensional polynomials. These distributions are in the univariate case known as matrix-exponential distributions, since their densities can be...... written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem for the...
Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling
Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...... Bayesian hierarchy for sparse models using slab and spike priors (two-component δ-function and continuous mixtures), non-Gaussian latent factors and a stochastic search over the ordering of the variables. The framework, which we call SLIM (Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling), is validated and...... computational complexity. We attribute this mainly to the stochastic search strategy used, and to parsimony (sparsity and identifiability), which is an explicit part of the model. We propose two extensions to the basic i.i.d. linear framework: non-linear dependence on observed variables, called SNIM (Sparse Non-linear...
Visualization of Multivariate Metabolomic Data
ZHOU Jun; CAO Bei; ZHENG Tian; LIU Lin-sheng; GUO Sheng; DUAN Jin-ao; AA Ji-ye; WANG Guang-ji; ZHANG Feng-yi; GU Rong-rong; WANG Xin-wen; ZHAO Chun-yan; LI Meng-jie; SHI Jian
2011-01-01
Objective Although principal components analysis profiles greatly facilitate the visualization and interpretation of the multivariate data,the quantitative concepts in both scores plot and loading plot are rather obscure.This article introduced three profiles that assisted the better understanding of metabolomic data.Methods The discriminatory profile,heat map,and statistic profile were developed to visualize the multivariate data obtained from high-throughput GC-TOF-MS analysis.Results The discriminatory profile and heat map obviously showed the discriminatory metabolites between the two groups,while the statistic profile showed the potential markers of statistic significance.Conclusion The three types of profiles greatly facilitate our understanding of the metabolomic data and the identification of the potential markers.
Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video
Full Text Available Educational Video Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video ... for pre- and post-treatment acoustic neuroma patients. Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic ...
Bootstrapping Realized Multivariate Volatility Measures.
Donovon, Prosper; Goncalves, Silvia; Meddahi, Nour
2013-01-01
We study bootstrap methods for statistics that are a function of multivariate high frequency returns such as realized regression coefficients and realized covariances and correlations. For these measures of covariation, the Monte Carlo simulation results of Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (2004) show that finite sample distortions associated with their feasible asymptotic theory approach may arise if sampling is not too frequent. This motivates our use of the bootstrap as an altern...
The Multivariate Ahrens Sampling Method
Karawatzki, Roman
2006-01-01
The "Ahrens method" is a very simple method for sampling from univariate distributions. It is based on rejection from piecewise constant hat functions. It can be applied analogously to the multivariate case where hat functions are used that are constant on rectangular domains. In this paper we investigate the case of distributions with so called orthounimodal densities. Technical implementation details as well as their practical limitations are discussed. The application to more general distr...
Multivariate Time Series Similarity Searching
Jimin Wang; Yuelong Zhu; Shijin Li; Dingsheng Wan; Pengcheng Zhang
2014-01-01
Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searchin...
Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller
2009-01-01
Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...
Liquid rocket combustion chamber acoustic characterization
Cândido Magno de Souza
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, many solid and liquid rocket motors have experienced combustion instabilities. Among other causes, there is the interaction of acoustic modes with the combustion and/or fluid dynamic processes inside the combustion chamber. Studies have been showing that, even if less than 1% of the available energy is diverted to an acoustic mode, combustion instability can be generated. On one hand, this instability can lead to ballistic pressure changes, couple with other propulsion systems such as guidance or thrust vector control, and in the worst case, cause motor structural failure. In this case, measures, applying acoustic techniques, must be taken to correct/minimize these influences on the combustion. The combustion chamber acoustic behavior in operating conditions can be estimated by considering its behavior in room conditions. In this way, acoustic tests can be easily performed, thus identifying the cavity modes. This paper describes the procedures to characterize the acoustic behavior in the inner cavity of four different configurations of a combustion chamber. Simple analytical models are used to calculate the acoustic resonance frequencies and these results are compared with acoustic natural frequencies measured at room conditions. Some comments about the measurement procedures are done, as well as the next steps for the continuity of this research. The analytical and experimental procedures results showed good agreement. However, limitations on high frequency band as well as in the identification of specific kinds of modes indicate that numerical methods able to model the real cavity geometry and an acoustic experimental modal analysis may be necessary for a more complete analysis. Future works shall also consider the presence of passive acoustic devices such as baffles and resonators capable of introducing damping and avoiding or limiting acoustic instabilities.
Evaluating multivariate GARCH models in the Nordic electricity markets
This paper considers a variety of specification tests for multivariate GARCH models that are used in dynamic hedging in the electricity markets. The test statistics include the robust conditional moments tests for sign-size bias along with the recently introduced copula tests for an appropriate dependence structure. We consider this effort worthwhile, since quite often the tests of multivariate GARCH models are easily omitted and the models become selected ad-hoc depending on the results they generate. Hedging performance comparisons, in terms of unconditional and conditional ex-post variance portfolio reduction, are conducted. (orig.)
Dynamic acoustic tractor beams
Mitri, F. G.
2015-03-01
Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.
Dynamic acoustic tractor beams
Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology – ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)
2015-03-07
Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.
Unexpectedly Large Surface Gravities for Acoustic Horizons?
Liberati, S; Visser, M; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt
2000-01-01
Acoustic black holes are fluid dynamic analogs of general relativistic black holes, wherein the behaviour of sound waves in a moving fluid acts as an analog for scalar fields propagating in a gravitational background. Acoustic horizons possess many of the properties more normally associated with the event horizons of general relativity, up to and including Hawking radiation. They have received much attention because it would seem to be much easier to experimentally create an acoustic horizon than to create an event horizon. We wish to point out some potential difficulties (and opportunities) in actually setting up an experiment that possesses an acoustic horizon. We show that in zero-viscosity, stationary fluid flow with generic boundary conditions, the creation of an acoustic horizon is accompanied by a formally infinite ``surface gravity'', and a formally infinite Hawking flux. Only by applying a suitable non-constant external body force, and for very specific boundary conditions on the flow, can these quan...
Hussein Esfahlani; Sami Karkar; Herve Lissek; Mosig, Juan R.
2016-01-01
The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic ...
Multivariance as a crucial property of microcosm
Rylov, Yuri A
2008-01-01
The conventional method of a generalized geometry construction, based on deduction of all propositions of the geometry from axioms, appears to be imperfect in the sense, that multivariant geometries cannot be constructed by means of this method. Multivariant geometry is such a geometry, where at the point P there are many vectors PP', PP'',... which are equivalent to the vector QQ' at the point Q, but they are not equivalent between themselves. In the conventional (Euclidean) method the equivalence relation is transitive, whereas in a multivariant geometry the equivalance relation is intransitive, in general. It is a reason, why the multivariant geometries cannot be deduced from a system of axioms. However, the space-time geometry in microcosm is multivariant. In general, the multivariance is a property of the particle dynamics in microcosm, which is observed experimentally. Multivariance cannot be ignored. Multivariance may be prescribed either to space-time geometry, or to dynamics in the single-variant spa...
ACOUSTIC EMISSION DURING STRETCHING OF POLYMERS
QIAN Renyuan; WANG Tiangui; SHEN Jingshu
1983-01-01
Acoustic emission has been studied for a wide range of polymers including amorphous glasses,semi-crystalline polymers, copolymers, polymer blends and a crosslinked rubber during the course of uni-axial stretching at room temperature. For non-crystalline polymers acoustic emission occurred in rather small number of events accompanied by crazing and micro-crack formation. Strong acoustic activity appeared during yielding and necking of crystalline polymers. Rather small number or none of acoustic bursts occurred during the initial stage of neck drawing but numerous strong bursts appeared when drawing proceeded approaching specimen break. Specimens of the same polymer but of different fabrication history may be reflected in their acoustic emission behavior. Acoustic emission during stretching crosslinked polybutadiene rubber was very weak but observable when the force-elongation curve started to deviate from the linear region. No Kaiser effect was observed for the rubber. Very strong and numerous acoustic emission was observed during stretching specimens of polymer blends.High impact resistant polymer modifications showed no sharp increase of acoustic activity before specimen break. So long as the polymer and conditions of specimen fabrication are the same quite reproducible acoustic emission behavior could be observed.
A new definition for acoustic dose
This paper discusses a recent proposal for definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate. Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Its time-derivative, acoustic dose-rate, Qm, in W kg-1 is central to the prediction of both rate of temperature rise and radiation force. These quantities have spatial and temporal dependency, depending on the local field parameters (acoustic pressure, particle velocity, intensity) and local material properties (absorption coefficient, αa, and mass density, ρ0). Spatial and/or temporal averaging can be applied where appropriate. For plane-wave monochromatic conditions in a homogeneous medium, Qm=2αaI/ρ0, (I is the time-averaged intensity), a simple expression which may also incorporate frequency dependencies of energy deposition. Acoustic dose and acoustic does-rate are exact analogues for Specific Absorption and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), quantities central to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave dosimetry. Acoustic dosimetry in the presence of tissue/gas interfaces remains a considerable challenge.
Acoustic resonance for nonmetallic mine detection
Kercel, S.W.
1998-04-01
The feasibility of acoustic resonance for detection of plastic mines was investigated by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Instrumentation and Controls Division under an internally funded program. The data reported in this paper suggest that acoustic resonance is not a practical method for mine detection. Representative small plastic anti-personnel mines were tested, and were found to not exhibit detectable acoustic resonances. Also, non-metal objects known to have strong acoustic resonances were tested with a variety of excitation techniques, and no practical non-contact method of exciting a consistently detectable resonance in a buried object was discovered. Some of the experimental data developed in this work may be useful to other researchers seeking a method to detect buried plastic mines. A number of excitation methods and their pitfalls are discussed. Excitation methods that were investigated include swept acoustic, chopped acoustic, wavelet acoustic, and mechanical shaking. Under very contrived conditions, a weak response that could be attributed to acoustic resonance was observed, but it does not appear to be practical as a mine detection feature. Transfer properties of soil were investigated. Impulse responses of several representative plastic mines were investigated. Acoustic leakage coupling, and its implications as a disruptive mechanism were investigated.
A theoretical study of the feasibility of acoustical tweezers: Ray acoustics approach
Lee, Jungwoo; Ha, Kanglyeol; Shung, K. Kirk
2005-05-01
The optical tweezer has been found to have many biomedical applications in trapping macromolecules and cells. For the trapping mechanism, there has to be a sharp spatial change in axial optical intensity and the particle size must be much greater than the wavelength. Similar phenomenon may exist in acoustics. This work was undertaken to demonstrate theoretically that it is possible to acoustically trap particles near the focal point where most of the acoustic energy is concentrated if certain conditions are met. Acoustic force exerted on a fluid particle in ultrasonic fields is analyzed in a ray acoustics regime where the wavelength of acoustic beam is much smaller than the size of the particle. In order to apply the acoustical tweezer to manipulating macromolecules and cells whose size is in the order of a few microns or less, a prerequisite is that the ultrasound wavelength has to be much smaller than a few microns. In this paper, the analysis is therefore based on the field pattern produced by a strongly focused 100 MHz ultrasonic transducer with Gaussian intensity distribution. For the realization of acoustic trapping, negative axial radiation force has to be generated to pull a particle towards a focus. The fat particle considered for acoustic trapping in this paper has an acoustic impedance of 1.4 MRayls. The magnitude of the acoustic axial radiation force that has been calculated as the size of the fat particle is varied from 8λ to 14λ. In addition, both Fresnel coefficients at various positions are also calculated to assess the interaction of reflection and refraction and their relative contribution to the effect of the acoustical tweezer. The simulation results show that the feasibility of the acoustical tweezer depends on both the degree of acoustic impedance mismatch and the degree of focusing relative to the particle size. .
A Generic Multivariate Distribution for Counting Data
Capistrán, Marcos; Christen, J. Andrés
2011-01-01
Motivated by the need, in some Bayesian likelihood free inference problems, of imputing a multivariate counting distribution based on its vector of means and variance-covariance matrix, we define a generic multivariate discrete distribution. Based on blending the Binomial, Poisson and Negative-Binomial distributions, and using a normal multivariate copula, the required distribution is defined. This distribution tends to the Multivariate Normal for large counts and has an approximate pmf versi...
Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures
Xiao, Bingmu
2013-05-01
In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.
Multivariate strategies in functional magnetic resonance imaging
Hansen, Lars Kai
2007-01-01
We discuss aspects of multivariate fMRI modeling, including the statistical evaluation of multivariate models and means for dimensional reduction. In a case study we analyze linear and non-linear dimensional reduction tools in the context of a `mind reading' predictive multivariate fMRI model....
Mohammad Faraji Rad
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Acoustic neuromas (AN are schwann cell-derived tumors that commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve also known as vestibular schwannoma(VS causes unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and unsteadiness. In many cases, the tumor size may remain unchanged for many years following diagnosis, which is typically made by MRI. In the majority of cases the tumor is small, leaving the clinician and patient with the options of either serial scanning or active treatment by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR or microneurosurgery. Despite the vast number of published treatment reports, comparative studies are few. The predominant clinical endpoints of AN treatment include tumor control, facial nerve function and hearing preservation. Less focus has been put on symptom relief and health-related quality of life (QOL. It is uncertain if treating a small tumor leaves the patient with a better chance of obtaining relief from future hearing loss, vertigo or tinnitus than by observing it without treatment. In this paper we review the literature for the natural course, the treatment alternatives and the results of AN. Finally, we present our experience with a management strategy applied for more than 30 years.
Brandon LaBelle
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Experiences of listening can be appreciated as intensely relational, bringing us into contact with surrounding events, bodies and things. Given that sound propagates and expands outwardly, as a set of oscillations from a particular source, listening carries with it a sensual intensity, whereby auditory phenomena deliver intrusive and disruptive as well as soothing and assuring experiences. The physicality characteristic of sound suggests a deeply impressionistic, locational "knowledge structure" – that is, the ways in which listening affords processes of exchange, of being in the world, and from which we extend ourselves. Sound, as physical energy reflecting and absorbing into the materiality around us, and even one's self, provides a rich platform for understanding place and emplacement. Sound is always already a trace of location.Such features of auditory experience give suggestion for what I may call an acoustical paradigm – how sound sets in motion not only the material world but also the flows of the imagination, lending to forces of signification and social structure, and figuring us in relation to each other. The relationality of sound brings us into a steady web of interferences, each of which announces the promise or problematic of being somewhere.
Springer Handbook of Acoustics
Rossing, Thomas D
2007-01-01
Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...
Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes
Huser, Raphael Georges
2015-11-17
The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.
Exploratory and multivariate data analysis
Jambu, Michel
1991-01-01
With a useful index of notations at the beginning, this book explains and illustrates the theory and application of data analysis methods from univariate to multidimensional and how to learn and use them efficiently. This book is well illustrated and is a useful and well-documented review of the most important data analysis techniques.Key Features* Describes, in detail, exploratory data analysis techniques from the univariate to the multivariate ones* Features a complete description of correspondence analysis and factor analysis techniques as multidimensional statistical data a
Aspects of multivariate statistical theory
Muirhead, Robb J
2009-01-01
The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. "". . . the wealth of material on statistics concerning the multivariate normal distribution is quite exceptional. As such it is a very useful source of information for the general statistician and a must for anyone wanting to pen
Essentials of multivariate data analysis
Spencer, Neil H
2013-01-01
""… this text provides an overview at an introductory level of several methods in multivariate data analysis. It contains in-depth examples from one data set woven throughout the text, and a free [Excel] Add-In to perform the analyses in Excel, with step-by-step instructions provided for each technique. … could be used as a text (possibly supplemental) for courses in other fields where researchers wish to apply these methods without delving too deeply into the underlying statistics.""-The American Statistician, February 2015
Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions
Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;
2014-01-01
both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued acoustical descriptions of the surfaces. In this paper the PARISM model is used to simulate a rectangular room with most of the absorption located in the ceiling. This room configuration is typical for classroom conditions. The simulations are...... measures which are important for evaluation of the acoustics in classrooms....
Acoustics of a broadcast center
Beristain, Sergio
2003-04-01
A broadcast system in Mexico City had to change facilities in order to concentrate in a single site all related broadcast stations and production studios in order to facilitate its normal operation. This led to a design which included the acoustic noise isolation and the interior acoustics of every studio and control room, together with the audio interconection, the electricity layout, the air conditioning system, the office building, etc. This paper presents the acoustics profile of the center, including final results of the construction as they were measured on completion of the installation. The complex has seven AM and FM broadcast stations, plus seven production studios for news, commercials and radio-novels plus an audio master control room, and everything was completed within four months.
Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies
Smaldino, Joseph J.
2005-04-01
This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.
Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia
Abdou, Adel A.
2003-03-01
The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.
Acoustic clouds: standing sound waves around a black hole analogue
Benone, Carolina L; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen
2014-01-01
Under certain conditions sound waves in fluids experience an acoustic horizon with analogue properties to those of a black hole event horizon. In particular, a draining bathtub-like model can give rise to a rotating acoustic horizon and hence a rotating black hole (acoustic) analogue. We show that sound waves, when enclosed in a cylindrical cavity, can form stationary waves around such rotating acoustic black holes. These acoustic perturbations display similar properties to the scalar clouds that have been studied around Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes; thus they are dubbed acoustic clouds. We make the comparison between scalar clouds around Kerr black holes and acoustic clouds around the draining bathtub explicit by studying also the properties of scalar clouds around Kerr black holes enclosed in a cavity. Acoustic clouds suggest the possibility of testing, experimentally, the existence and properties of black hole clouds, using analog models.
Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam
Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian
2016-05-31
An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.
Purpose and objective: To define the relationships between dose and tumor diameter for the risks of developing trigeminal, facial, and acoustic neuropathies after acoustic neuroma radiosurgery, a large single-institution experience was analyzed. Materials and methods: Two hundred and thirty-eight patients with unilateral acoustic neuromas who underwent Gamma knife radiosurgery between 1987-1994 with 6-91 months of follow-up (median 30 months) were studied. Minimum tumor doses were 12-20 Gy (median 15 Gy). Transverse tumor diameter varied from 0.3-5.5 cm (median 2.1 cm). The relationships of dose and diameter to the development of cranial neuropathies were delineated by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The development of post-radiosurgery neuropathies affecting cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII were correlated with minimum tumor dose and transverse tumor diameter (Pmin for VIII where P=0.10). A comparison of the dose-diameter response curves showed the acoustic nerve to be the most sensitive to doses of 12-16 Gy and the facial nerve to be the least sensitive. Conclusion: The risks of developing trigeminal, facial, and acoustic neuropathies following acoustic neuroma radiosurgery can be predicted from the transverse tumor diameter and the minimum tumor dose using models constructed from data presently available
Multivariable modeling of J-R data
Current methods for evaluating safety and remaining life issues for reactor pressure vessels (RPV's) and piping are based on the J-R curve. Unfortunately, field-aged J-specimens are not always available for the specific weld or heat in service or at the radiation conditions which match the case to be analyzed. In order to best evaluate plant safety, therefore, it is necessary to reliably estimate a J-R curve from available data, such as material chemistry, radiation exposure, tensile properties, and Charpy data. A multivariable model for predicting J-R curves from available data, such as material chemistry, radiation exposure, and Charpy data, is being developed. This is an interim report on a project to collect public test data, apply advanced pattern recognition tools, and fit an improved model. A four-parameter model for the dependence of Jd on crack extension, Charpy energy, temperature, and specimen thickness is presented
An Adaptive Multivariable Control System for Hydroelectric Generating Units
Gunne J. Hegglid
1983-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an adaptive multivariable control system for hydroelectric generating units. The system is based on a detailed mathematical model of the synchronous generator, the water turbine, the exiter system and turbine control servo. The models of the water penstock and the connected power system are static. These assumptions are not considered crucial. The system uses a Kalman filter for optimal estimation of the state variables and the parameters of the electric grid equivalent. The multivariable control law is computed from a Riccatti equation and is made adaptive to the generators running condition by means of a least square technique.
Statistical analysis of multivariate atmospheric variables. [cloud cover
Tubbs, J. D.
1979-01-01
Topics covered include: (1) estimation in discrete multivariate distributions; (2) a procedure to predict cloud cover frequencies in the bivariate case; (3) a program to compute conditional bivariate normal parameters; (4) the transformation of nonnormal multivariate to near-normal; (5) test of fit for the extreme value distribution based upon the generalized minimum chi-square; (6) test of fit for continuous distributions based upon the generalized minimum chi-square; (7) effect of correlated observations on confidence sets based upon chi-square statistics; and (8) generation of random variates from specified distributions.
Sonification of acoustic emission data
Raith, Manuel; Große, Christian
2014-05-01
While loading different specimens, acoustic emissions appear due to micro crack formation or friction of already existing crack edges. These acoustic emissions can be recorded using suitable ultrasonic transducers and transient recorders. The analysis of acoustic emissions can be used to investigate the mechanical behavior of different specimens under load. Our working group has undertaken several experiments, monitored with acoustic emission techniques. Different materials such as natural stone, concrete, wood, steel, carbon composites and bone were investigated. Also the experimental setup has been varied. Fire-spalling experiments on ultrahigh performance concrete and pullout experiments on bonded anchors have been carried out. Furthermore uniaxial compression tests on natural stone and animal bone had been conducted. The analysis tools include not only the counting of events but the analysis of full waveforms. Powerful localization algorithms and automatic onset picking techniques (based on Akaikes Information Criterion) were established to handle the huge amount of data. Up to several thousand events were recorded during experiments of a few minutes. More sophisticated techniques like moment tensor inversion have been established on this relatively small scale as well. Problems are related to the amount of data but also to signal-to-noise quality, boundary conditions (reflections) sensor characteristics and unknown and changing Greens functions of the media. Some of the acoustic emissions recorded during these experiments had been transferred into audio range. The transformation into the audio range was done using Matlab. It is the aim of the sonification to establish a tool that is on one hand able to help controlling the experiment in-situ and probably adjust the load parameters according to the number and intensity of the acoustic emissions. On the other hand sonification can help to improve the understanding of acoustic emission techniques for training
Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and...
Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video
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Full Text Available ... Resources Patient Surveys Related Links Clinical Trials.gov Health Care Insurance Toolkit Additional Resources ANA Public Webinars © 2016 Acoustic Neuroma Association Acoustic Neuroma Association ® • ...
Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video
Full Text Available ... Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask ... Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask ...
Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video
Full Text Available ... ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Join/Renew ... ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Search ANAUSA. ...
Chitkara, Naveen; Chanda, Rakesh; Yadav, S. P. S.; N.K. Sharma
2002-01-01
Predominantly cystic acoustic neuromas are rare and they usually present with clinical and radiological features different from their more common solid counterparts. Two cases of cystic acoustic neuromas are reported here.
Multivariable Burchnall-Chaundy theory.
Previato, Emma
2008-03-28
Burchnall & Chaundy (Burchnall & Chaundy 1928 Proc. R. Soc. A 118, 557-583) classified the (rank 1) commutative subalgebras of the algebra of ordinary differential operators. To date, there is no such result for several variables. This paper presents the problem and the current state of the knowledge, together with an interpretation in differential Galois theory. It is known that the spectral variety of a multivariable commutative ring will not be associated to a KP-type hierarchy of deformations, but examples of related integrable equations were produced and are reviewed. Moreover, such an algebro-geometric interpretation is made to fit into A.N. Parshin's newer theory of commuting rings of partial pseudodifferential operators and KP-type hierarchies which uses higher local fields. PMID:17588865
A Multivariate Process Capability Index
WANG Shaoxi; JIA Xinzhang; JIAO Huifang; BIAN Yingchao; SONG Ning; ZHAO Luyu; WEN Xin
2006-01-01
Process capability indices have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, providing numerical measures on process precision, process accuracy, and process performance. Capability measures for processes with a single characteristic have been investigated extensively. However, capability measures for processes with multiple characteristics are comparatively neglected. In this paper, inspired by the approach and model of process capability index investigated by K.S.Chen et al.(2003) and A.B.Yeh et al.(1998), a note model of multivariate process capability index based on non-conformity is presented. As for this index, the data of each single characteristic don't require satisfying normal distribution, of which its computing is simple and particioners will not fell too theoretical. At last the application analysis is made.
Multivariate methods for particle identification
Visan, Cosmin
2013-01-01
The purpose of this project was to evaluate several MultiVariate methods in order to determine which one, if any, offers better results in Particle Identification (PID) than a simple n$\\sigma$ cut on the response of the ALICE PID detectors. The particles considered in the analysis were Pions, Kaons and Protons and the detectors used were TPC and TOF. When used with the same input n$\\sigma$ variables, the results show similar perfoance between the Rectangular Cuts Optimization method and the simple n$\\sigma$ cuts. The method MLP and BDT show poor results for certain ranges of momentum. The KNN method is the best performing, showing similar results for Pions and Protons as the Cuts method, and better results for Kaons. The extension of the methods to include additional input variables leads to poor results, related to instabilities still to be investigated.
Multivariate Voronoi Outlier Detection for Time Series
Zwilling, Chris E.; Wang, Michelle Yongmei
2014-01-01
Outlier detection is a primary step in many data mining and analysis applications, including healthcare and medical research. This paper presents a general method to identify outliers in multivariate time series based on a Voronoi diagram, which we call Multivariate Voronoi Outlier Detection (MVOD). The approach copes with outliers in a multivariate framework, via designing and extracting effective attributes or features from the data that can take parametric or nonparametric forms. Voronoi d...
Multivariate statistical analysis with experimental data
Li, Juncheng
2011-01-01
Collected data from the sensors monitoring the environment in oil industry are various and raw, multivariate statistical analysis can turn these data into meaningful information. This paper would introduce some typical multivariate analysis methods, and investigate the data gathered in the Biota Guard exposed experiment by the means of some appropriate multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis produces the principal components to represent the information of the multivar...
Multivariate Statistical Analysis: A Geometric Perspective
Tyurin, Yuri N.
2009-01-01
A new, coordinate-free (geometric) approach to multivariate statistical analysis. General multivariate linear models and linear hypotheses are defined in geometric form. A method of constructing statistical criteria is defined for linear hypotheses. As a result, multivariate statistical analysis is developed in full analogy to classical statistical analysis. This approach is based on tensor products and modules over the ring of square matrices, supplied with an inner product.
Blaeser, Susan B; Struck, Christopher J
2016-03-01
American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27036268
Computational and experimental techniques for coupled acoustic/structure interactions.
Sumali, Anton Hartono; Pierson, Kendall Hugh; Walsh, Timothy Francis; Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn; Reese, Garth M.; Day, David Minot
2004-01-01
This report documents the results obtained during a one-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative aimed at investigating coupled structural acoustic interactions by means of algorithm development and experiment. Finite element acoustic formulations have been developed based on fluid velocity potential and fluid displacement. Domain decomposition and diagonal scaling preconditioners were investigated for parallel implementation. A formulation that includes fluid viscosity and that can simulate both pressure and shear waves in fluid was developed. An acoustic wave tube was built, tested, and shown to be an effective means of testing acoustic loading on simple test structures. The tube is capable of creating a semi-infinite acoustic field due to nonreflecting acoustic termination at one end. In addition, a micro-torsional disk was created and tested for the purposes of investigating acoustic shear wave damping in microstructures, and the slip boundary conditions that occur along the wet interface when the Knudsen number becomes sufficiently large.
Zakrzewski, T. [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland)
1994-12-01
In hard coal mines a variety of stationery machines and equipment indispensable to ensure continuity of operation at performance of a definite process is used. To ensure their reliability and stability of performance, the continuous monitoring of technical equipment by tests of vibration processes going together with operation of every machinery, is necessary. The article presents the estimation method of technical condition of main deaeration fans, based on on-line register of vibration processes generated by main kinematic pairs of driving system during their normal operation. Due to regular measurement of vibration one can predict, by extrapolation, when a machine has to be repaired and plan necessary repairs in advance. The monitoring trend method allows enlogation of inter repair periods and considerable reduction of repair costs. (author) 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.
2015-01-01
The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.
A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack
2013-01-01
Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....
Multivariate Analysis of Variance Using Spatial Ranks
KYUNGMEE CHOI; JOHN MARDEN
2002-01-01
The authors consider multivariate analysis of variance procedures based on the multivariate spatial ranks. Two models are considered: the location-family model and the fully nonparametric model. Procedures for testing main and interaction effects are given for the 2 × 2 layout.
R. A. Fisher and multivariate analysis
Anderson, T. W.
1996-01-01
This paper reviews R. A. Fisher's many fundamental contributions to multivariate statistical analysis--from the derivation of the distribution of the sample correlation coefficient to discriminant analysis. The emphasis here is on the conceptual and mathematical development. All of his papers on multivariate analysis will be included in this survey.
An Implementation Technique for Multivariate Robust Design
MA Yi-zhong; ZHAO Feng-yu
2005-01-01
This paper investigates systematically the problem of multivariate robust parameter design. First, a measurement criterion for the total variation of multivariate quality characteristics is introduced by the result of information theory. Then the implementation procedure in the robust design is presented. After that, a simulation example from a practical industrial process is provided. Finally, some comments and further work are discussed.
An architecture for implementation of multivariable controllers
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob
1999-01-01
. Proceedings of the 1999 Issue Date : 1999 Volume : 6 On page(s): 4029 - 4033 vol.6 Location: San Diego, CA Meeting Date : 02 Jun 1999-04 Jun 1999 Print ISBN: 0-7803-4990-3 References Cited: 7 INSPEC Accession Number: 6403075 Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/ACC.1999.786292 Date of Current Version : 06...... shown how it is possible to change from one multivariable controller to another multivariable controller online in a smooth way with guarantee for closed loop stability. This includes also the case where the controllers are unstable. Gain scheduled controllers can be implemented in this architecture....... The general architecture for smooth online changes of multivariable controllers can also handle the start up and close down of multivariable systems. Furthermore, the start up of unstable multivariable controllers can also be handled in this architecture. Finally, implementation of (unstable...
Multivariate pluvial flood damage models
Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)
2015-09-15
Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.
Multivariate pluvial flood damage models
Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks
Acoustic chemometric prediction of total solids in bioslurry
Ihunegbo, Felicia; Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim;
2012-01-01
several earlier dedicated attempts. A full-scale feasibility study based on standard addition experiments involving natural plant biomass was conducted using multivariate calibration (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS-R) of acoustic signatures against dry matter content (total solids, TS). Prediction...... range of 5.8–10.8% w/w dry matter. Based on these excellent prediction performance measures, it is concluded that acoustic chemometrics has come of age as a full grown PAT approach for on-line monitoring of dry matter (TS) in complex bioslurry, with a promising application potential in other biomass...
Acoustic streaming in microchannels
Tribler, Peter Muller
, and experimental results for the streaming-induced drag force dominated motion of particles suspended in a water-filled microchannel supporting a transverse half-wavelength resonance. The experimental and theoretical results agree within a mean relative dierence of approximately 20%, a low deviation given state......This thesis presents studies of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic channels, which is a steady flow of the fluid initiated by the interactions of an oscillating acoustic standing wave and the rigid walls of the microchannel. The studies present analysis of the acoustic resonance......, the acoustic streaming flow, and the forces on suspended microparticles. The work is motivated by the application of particle focusing by acoustic radiation forces in medical, environmental and food sciences. Here acoustic streaming is most often unwanted, because it limits the focusability of particles...
Nilsson, Anders
2015-01-01
This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...
Springer handbook of acoustics
2014-01-01
Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays and acoustic emission. Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...
陈雪莲; 魏周拓
2012-01-01
In view of practical demand of drilling geology, we compared distributions of the monopole exciting acoustic field both inside and outside a borehole between homogeneous formations and near-borehole geological interfaces in a logging-while-drilling (LWD) condition by applying numerical simulation of the 3D rectangular-coordinate and time-domain finite difference, and examined the influence of a drill collar on radiation intensity of the acoustic field outside a borehole. Because of the shielding effect of a large diameter drill collar, there is a significant difference in the reflected P wave amplitude received from eight different azimuths evenly distributed on the drill collar when the reflection of near-borehole formation interfaces exists. The reflected P wave information on near-borehole formation interfaces can be extracted through vector calculus of signals received from different azimuths. By comparing the reflected P wave intensity of different azimuthal receivers, one can determine the azimuth information of formation interfaces. As the reflected compressional wave is a weak signal in a waveform, it is recommended to keep the distance between the source and receiver within 4 m for data acquisition. The results provided a reference for the development of LWD acoustic reflection tools and data processing as well.%从随钻地质导向的实际需求出发,通过三维直角坐标时域有限差分数值模拟的方法对比了均匀地层和井旁存在地质界面时随钻环境下单极子声源激发的井孔内外声场分布特征,考察了钻铤的存在对井外辐射声场强度的影响.由于硕大钻铤的声场屏蔽效应,井旁存在地层界面时,井周8个方位上接收到的反射纵波信息具有明显差异,通过对不同方位上接收的信号做矢量计算,得到了来自井旁地层界面的反射纵波信息;通过对比不同方位上接收器接收到的反射纵波信号的强弱,还可确定地层界面的方位信息.由
APPLICATION OF DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION IN ACOUSTIC AND STRUCTURAL ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS
无
2007-01-01
Conventional element based methods for modeling acoustic problems are limited to low-frequency applications due to the huge computational efforts. For high-frequency applications, probabilistic techniques, such as statistical energy analysis (SEA), are used. For mid-frequency range, currently no adequate and mature simulation methods exist. Recently, wave based method has been developed which is based on the indirect TREFFTZ approach and has shown to be able to tackle problems in the mid-frequency range. In contrast with the element based methods, no discretization is required. A sufficient, but not necessary, condition for convergence of this method is that the acoustic problem domain is convex. Non-convex domains have to be partitioned into a number of (convex) subdomains. At the interfaces between subdomains, specific coupling conditions have to be imposed. The considered two-dimensional coupled vibro-acoustic problem illustrates the beneficial convergence rate of the proposed wave based prediction technique with high accuracy. The results show the new technique can be applied up to much higher frequencies.
Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland;
2016-01-01
Multivariate methodology was employed for finding optimum remediation conditions for electrodialytic remediation of harbour sediment from an Arctic location in Norway. The parts of the experimental domain in which both sediment- and technology-specific remediation objectives were met were...
Learning Adaptive Forecasting Models from Irregularly Sampled Multivariate Clinical Data
Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos
2016-01-01
Building accurate predictive models of clinical multivariate time series is crucial for understanding of the patient condition, the dynamics of a disease, and clinical decision making. A challenging aspect of this process is that the model should be flexible and adaptive to reflect well patient-specific temporal behaviors and this also in the case when the available patient-specific data are sparse and short span. To address this problem we propose and develop an adaptive two-stage forecasting approach for modeling multivariate, irregularly sampled clinical time series of varying lengths. The proposed model (1) learns the population trend from a collection of time series for past patients; (2) captures individual-specific short-term multivariate variability; and (3) adapts by automatically adjusting its predictions based on new observations. The proposed forecasting model is evaluated on a real-world clinical time series dataset. The results demonstrate the benefits of our approach on the prediction tasks for multivariate, irregularly sampled clinical time series, and show that it can outperform both the population based and patient-specific time series prediction models in terms of prediction accuracy.
Estimating the decomposition of predictive information in multivariate systems.
Faes, Luca; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Nollo, Giandomenico; Jurysta, Fabrice; Marinazzo, Daniele
2015-03-01
In the study of complex systems from observed multivariate time series, insight into the evolution of one system may be under investigation, which can be explained by the information storage of the system and the information transfer from other interacting systems. We present a framework for the model-free estimation of information storage and information transfer computed as the terms composing the predictive information about the target of a multivariate dynamical process. The approach tackles the curse of dimensionality employing a nonuniform embedding scheme that selects progressively, among the past components of the multivariate process, only those that contribute most, in terms of conditional mutual information, to the present target process. Moreover, it computes all information-theoretic quantities using a nearest-neighbor technique designed to compensate the bias due to the different dimensionality of individual entropy terms. The resulting estimators of prediction entropy, storage entropy, transfer entropy, and partial transfer entropy are tested on simulations of coupled linear stochastic and nonlinear deterministic dynamic processes, demonstrating the superiority of the proposed approach over the traditional estimators based on uniform embedding. The framework is then applied to multivariate physiologic time series, resulting in physiologically well-interpretable information decompositions of cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory interactions during head-up tilt and of joint brain-heart dynamics during sleep. PMID:25871169
Multivariate Receptor Models for Spatially Correlated Multipollutant Data
Jun, Mikyoung
2013-08-01
The goal of multivariate receptor modeling is to estimate the profiles of major pollution sources and quantify their impacts based on ambient measurements of pollutants. Traditionally, multivariate receptor modeling has been applied to multiple air pollutant data measured at a single monitoring site or measurements of a single pollutant collected at multiple monitoring sites. Despite the growing availability of multipollutant data collected from multiple monitoring sites, there has not yet been any attempt to incorporate spatial dependence that may exist in such data into multivariate receptor modeling. We propose a spatial statistics extension of multivariate receptor models that enables us to incorporate spatial dependence into estimation of source composition profiles and contributions given the prespecified number of sources and the model identification conditions. The proposed method yields more precise estimates of source profiles by accounting for spatial dependence in the estimation. More importantly, it enables predictions of source contributions at unmonitored sites as well as when there are missing values at monitoring sites. The method is illustrated with simulated data and real multipollutant data collected from eight monitoring sites in Harris County, Texas. Supplementary materials for this article, including data and R code for implementing the methods, are available online on the journal web site. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
刘佳; 杨士莪; 朴胜春
2012-01-01
A method of single channel blind source separation for underwater acoustic signal was proposed under condition of multipath transmission. Firstly, the multipath time delay was estimated with autocorrelation. Then, the successive multipath signals were added in phase, so as to increase the signal-noise ratio. At last, virtual channels were constructed with the observed data using resample method, the limitation of single channel was overcomed. The simulation results showed that the ship-radiated noise can be separated from ambient noise using this method with single observing channel under condition of multipath transmission, and the method works stably under different SNRs.%提出一种适用于多途环境下的单观测通道水声信号盲源分离方法.该方法首先利用自相关估计多途时延,使经各途径到达的多途信号同相叠加,信号能量得到增强,而噪声由于随机性能量不会增加,进而提高信噪比.然后采用间隔重采样的方法,虚拟多接收通道,解决单通道的欠定问题.仿真分析表明该方法可以有效解决多途环境下的舰船辐射噪声与环境噪声分离,而且在不同信噪比下有较稳定的分离性能.
Multivariate elliptically contoured autoregressive process
Taras Bodnar; Arjun K. Gupta
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new class of elliptically contoured processes. The suggested process possesses both the generality of the conditional heteroscedastic autoregressive process and the elliptical symmetry of the elliptically contoured distributions. In the empirical study we find the link between the conditional time varying behavior of the covariance matrix of the returns and the time variability of the investor’s coefficient of risk aversion. Moreover, it is shown that the non-dia...
Multivariate Analysis of Ladle Vibration
Yenus, Jaefer; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dunn, Michelle
2016-08-01
The homogeneity of composition and uniformity of temperature of the steel melt before it is transferred to the tundish are crucial in making high-quality steel product. The homogenization process is performed by stirring the melt using inert gas in ladles. Continuous monitoring of this process is important to make sure the action of stirring is constant throughout the ladle. Currently, the stirring process is monitored by process operators who largely rely on visual and acoustic phenomena from the ladle. However, due to lack of measurable signals, the accuracy and suitability of this manual monitoring are problematic. The actual flow of argon gas to the ladle may not be same as the flow gage reading due to leakage along the gas line components. As a result, the actual degree of stirring may not be correctly known. Various researchers have used one-dimensional vibration, and sound and image signals measured from the ladle to predict the degree of stirring inside. They developed online sensors which are indeed to monitor the online stirring phenomena. In this investigation, triaxial vibration signals have been measured from a cold water model which is a model of an industrial ladle. Three flow rate ranges and varying bath heights were used to collect vibration signals. The Fast Fourier Transform was applied to the dataset before it has been analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). PCA was used to unveil the structure in the experimental data. PLS was mainly applied to predict the stirring from the vibration response. It was found that for each flow rate range considered in this study, the informative signals reside in different frequency ranges. The first latent variables in these frequency ranges explain more than 95 pct of the variation in the stirring process for the entire single layer and the double layer data collected from the cold model. PLS analysis in these identified frequency ranges demonstrated that the latent
Localized Acoustic Surface Modes
Farhat, Mohamed
2015-08-04
We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.
Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...
Handbook of Engineering Acoustics
Möser, Michael
2013-01-01
This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.
Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.
2016-01-01
The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.
Modelling Australian Stock Market Volatility: A Multivariate GARCH Approach
Valadkhani, Abbas; O'Brien, Martin; Karunanayake, Indika
2009-01-01
This paper uses a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (MGARCH) model to provide an insight into the nature of interaction between stock market returns of four countries, namely, Australia, Singapore, the UK, and the US. Using weekly data spanning from January 1992 to December 2008 the results indicate that all markets (particularly Australia and Singapore) display significant positive mean-spillovers from the US stock market returns but not vice versa. We al...
Inference on multivariate heteroscedastic time varying random coefficient models
Giraitis, Liudas; Kapetanios, George; Yates, Tony
2015-01-01
In this paper we introduce the general setting of a multivariate time series autoregressive model with stochastic time-varying coefficients and time-varying conditional variance of the error process. This allows modeling VAR dynamics for non-stationary times series and estimation of time varying parameter processes by well-known rolling regression estimation techniques. We establish consistency, convergence rates and asymptotic normality for kernel estimators of the paths of coefficient proce...
Dynamic Principal Components: a New Class of Multivariate GARCH Models
Gian Piero Aielli; Massimiliano Caporin
2015-01-01
The OGARCH specification is the leading model for a class of multivariate GARCH (MGARCH)specifications that are based on linear combinations of univariate GARCH specifications. Most MGARCH models in this class adopt a spectral decomposition of the covariance matrix, allowing for heteroskedasticity on at least some of the principal components, while the loading matrix, which maps the conditional principal components to the asset returns, is constant over time. This paper extends the OGARCH mod...
FInancial Integration and Interenational Portfolio Diversification : A Multivariate Analysis
Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi
2003-01-01
In this article, we extend the conditional ICAPM of De Santis and Gérard (1997,1998) using an asymmetric multivariate GARCH specification. This approach, with double asymmetric effects, allows to the risk premia, betas and correlations to vary through time. Then, we investigate ex ante benefits from world market diversification. The evidence supports the financial integration hypothesis and suggests that investors from all countries could expect statistically significant benefits from interna...
Multivariate State Hidden Markov Models for Mark-Recapture Data
Johnson, Devin S.; Jeff L Laake; Melin, Sharon R.; DeLong, Robert L.
2016-01-01
State-based Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) models have become an often used method for assessing states or conditions of free-ranging animals through time. Although originally envisioned to account for differences in survival and observation processes when animals are moving though various geographical strata, the model has evolved to model vital rates in different life-history or diseased states. We further extend this useful class of models to the case of multivariate state data. Researchers can...
ACOUSTO-OPTIC IMAGING IN DIFFERENT FIELDS OF ACOUSTICS
Mayer, W.
1990-01-01
A very short introduction of the principles of light diffraction by ultrasonic waves is followed by a discussion of acousto-optic imaging (schlieren) techniques. This method is often useful to obtain qualitative results of various acoustic phenomena in ultrasonics, underwater sound, material characterization, transducer performance and other areas of acoustics. Examples from different fields of acoustics and some scale model studies will be given, illustrating under what conditions this metho...
... org Connect with us! What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Each heading slides to reveal information. Important Points ... Neuroma Important Points To Know About an Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, ...
Effective acoustic modeling for robust speaker recognition
Hasan Al Banna, Taufiq
Robustness due to mismatched train/test conditions is the biggest challenge facing the speaker recognition community today, with transmission channel and environmental noise degradation being the prominent factors. Performance of state-of-the art speaker recognition methods aim at mitigating these factors by effectively modeling speech in multiple recording conditions, so that it can learn to distinguish between inter-speaker and intra-speaker variability. The increasing demand and availability of large development corpora introduces difficulties in effective data utilization and computationally efficient modeling. Traditional compensation strategies operate on higher dimensional utterance features, known as supervectors, which are obtained from the acoustic modeling of short-time features. Feature compensation is performed during front-end processing. Motivated by the covariance structure of conventional acoustic features, we envision that feature normalization and compensation can be integrated into the acoustic modeling. In this dissertation, we investigate the following fundamental research challenges: (i) analysis of data requirements for effective and efficient background model training, (ii) introducing latent factor analysis modeling of acoustic features, (iii) integration of channel compensation strategies in mixture-models, and (iv) development of noise robust background models using factor analysis. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions are demonstrated in various noisy and channel degraded conditions using the recent evaluation datasets released by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These research accomplishments make an important step towards improving speaker recognition robustness in diverse acoustic conditions.
Multivariate statistical methods a first course
Marcoulides, George A
2014-01-01
Multivariate statistics refer to an assortment of statistical methods that have been developed to handle situations in which multiple variables or measures are involved. Any analysis of more than two variables or measures can loosely be considered a multivariate statistical analysis. An introductory text for students learning multivariate statistical methods for the first time, this book keeps mathematical details to a minimum while conveying the basic principles. One of the principal strategies used throughout the book--in addition to the presentation of actual data analyses--is poin
Multivariable control in nuclear power stations
Multivariable methods have the potential to improve the control of large systems such as nuclear power stations. Linear-quadratic optimal control is a multivariable method based on the minimization of a cost function. A related technique leads to the Kalman filter for estimation of plant state from noisy measurements. A design program for optimal control and Kalman filtering has been developed as part of a computer-aided design package for multivariable control systems. The method is demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator, and simulated results are presented
A multivariate process capability index model system
Wang Shaoxi; Wang Danghui
2011-01-01
This paper presents a systematic multivariate process capability index (MPCI) method, which may provide references for assuring and improving process quality levels while achieving an overall evaluation of process quality. The system method includes a spatial MPCI model for multivariate normal distribution data, MPCI model based on factor weight for multivariate no-normal distribution application, and MPCI model based on yield for yield application. At last, examples for calculating MPCI are given, and the experimental results show that this systematic method is effective and practical.
Multivariate elliptically contoured autoregressive process
Taras Bodnar
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new class of elliptically contoured processes. The suggested process possesses both the generality of the conditional heteroscedastic autoregressive process and the elliptical symmetry of the elliptically contoured distributions. In the empirical study we find the link between the conditional time varying behavior of the covariance matrix of the returns and the time variability of the investor’s coefficient of risk aversion. Moreover, it is shown that the non-diagonal elements of the dispersion matrix are slowly varying in time.
An Introduction to Applied Multivariate Analysis
Raykov, Tenko
2008-01-01
Focuses on the core multivariate statistics topics which are of fundamental relevance for its understanding. This book emphasis on the topics that are critical to those in the behavioral, social, and educational sciences.
Acoustic emission source modeling
Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga
2010-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-36. ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission source * wave propagation * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video
Full Text Available ... Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself Post-treatment Post-treatment ... Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself Post-treatment Post-treatment ...
A Multivariate Approach to Functional Neuro Modeling
Mørch, Niels J.S.
1998-01-01
This Ph.D. thesis, A Multivariate Approach to Functional Neuro Modeling, deals with the analysis and modeling of data from functional neuro imaging experiments. A multivariate dataset description is provided which facilitates efficient representation of typical datasets and, more importantly...... macroscopic variables to be manifestations of an underlying system. - A review of two microscopic basis selection procedures, namely principal component analysis and independent component analysis, with respect to their applicability to functional datasets. - Quantitative model performance assessment via a...
MULTIVARIATE PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOSYSTEMS PRODUCED BY QUASIGROUPS
Samardjiska, Simona
2015-01-01
Multivariate public key cryptography (MPKC) is the study of public key cryptosystems based on the NP-hard problem of solving multivariate quadratic (MQ) systems of equations over finite fields. In the past two decades the concept has gained the attention of the cryptographic community as one of the possible alternatives for the post quantum world: a world in which, due to known quantum algorithms, the classical, number theoretic public key cryptosystems will no longer be c...
Multivariate Integral Perturbation Techniques - I (Theory)
Dash, Jan W.
2006-01-01
We present a quasi-analytic perturbation expansion for multivariate N-dimensional Gaussian integrals. The perturbation expansion is an infinite series of lower-dimensional integrals (one-dimensional in the simplest approximation). This perturbative idea can also be applied to multivariate Student-t integrals. We evaluate the perturbation expansion explicitly through 2nd order, and discuss the convergence, including enhancement using Pade approximants. Brief comments on potential applications ...
Nonparametric pricing of multivariate contingent claims
Joshua V. Rosenberg
2003-01-01
In this paper, I derive and implement a nonparametric, arbitrage-free technique for multivariate contingent claim (MVCC) pricing. Using results from the method of copulas, I show that the multivariate risk-neutral density can be written as a product of marginal risk-neutral densities and a risk-neutral dependence function. I then develop a pricing technique using nonparametrically estimated marginal risk-neutral densities (based on options data) and a nonparametric dependence function (based ...
Risks aggregation in multivariate dependent Pareto distributions
Sarabia, José María; Gómez-Déniz, Emilio; Prieto, Faustino; Jordá, Vanesa
2015-01-01
In this paper we obtain closed expressions for the probability distribution function, when we consider aggregated risks with multivariate dependent Pareto distributions. We work with the dependent multivariate Pareto type II proposed by Arnold (1983, 2015), which is widely used in insurance and risk analysis. We begin with the individual risk model, where we obtain the probability density function (PDF), which corresponds to a second kind beta distribution. We obtain several risk measures inc...
Multivariable Feedback Control of Nuclear Reactors
Rune Moen
1982-07-01
Full Text Available Multivariable feedback control has been adapted for optimal control of the spatial power distribution in nuclear reactor cores. Two design techniques, based on the theory of automatic control, were developed: the State Variable Feedback (SVF is an application of the linear optimal control theory, and the Multivariable Frequency Response (MFR is based on a generalization of the traditional frequency response approach to control system design.
Multivariate outlier detection with compositional data
Filzmoser, P; Hron, K.
2010-01-01
Multivariate outlier detection is usually based on Mahalanobis distances, by plugging in robust estimates of location and covariance. For compositional data, carrying only relative information, a special transformation needs to be consulted in order to be able to work in the appropriate geometry. The e ect of the trans- formation is discussed in this contribution. Furthermore, di erent possibilities for the interpretation of the identi ed multivariate outliers are presented.
Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.
Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C
2006-01-01
Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274
Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials
Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan
2014-11-01
A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.
Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik
2011-01-01
Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...
The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will...... present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....
Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach
This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication
Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach
Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2008-06-01
This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication.
Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach
Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de vera s.n., E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es
2008-06-15
This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication.
Potential of acoustic emissions from three point bending tests as rock failure precursors
Agioutantis Z.; Kaklis K.; Mavrigiannakis S.; Verigakis M.; Vallianatos F.; Saltas V.
2016-01-01
Development of failure in brittle materials is associated with microcracks, which release energy in the form of elastic waves called acoustic emissions. This paper presents results from acoustic emission mea-surements obtained during three point bending tests on Nestos marble under laboratory conditions. Acoustic emission activity was monitored using piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors, and the potential for accurate prediction of rock damage based on acoustic emission data was investigated. Damage local-ization was determined based on acoustic emissions generated from the critically stressed region as scat-tered events at stresses below and close to the strength of the material.
Acoustic Signature Monitoring and Management of Naval Platforms
Basten, T.G.H.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Graafland, F.; Hof, J. van 't
2015-01-01
Acoustic signatures make naval platforms susceptible to detection by threat sensors. The variable operational conditions and lifespan of a platform cause variations in the acoustic signature. To deal with these variations, a real time signature monitoring capability is being developed, with advisory
A Regional Multivariate Drought Index Applied to California
Keyantash, J.; Dracup, J. A.
2001-05-01
A multivariate, principal component-based index is proposed as a way to assess the aggregate severity of drought at the climate divisional level. The approach considers monthly records for precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, evaporation, teleconnection patterns, and other drought-relevant processes. The data are subjected to principal components analysis, and the selection of relevant geophysical variables is determined by regressing PCA-derived variables against the Vegetation Condition Index, an NDVI-based benchmark of vegetation health. The standardized anomaly of the score of the retained principal components is used as the dimensionless measure of drought strength. Temporal comparisons are made between the performance of the multivariate drought index and the PDSI for selected California climate divisions.
A Symplectic Method to Generate Multivariate Normal Distributions
Baumgarten, Christian
2012-01-01
The AMAS group at the Paul Scherrer Institute developed an object oriented library for high performance simulation of high intensity ion beam transport with space charge. Such particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations require a method to generate multivariate particle distributions as starting conditions. In a preceeding publications it has been shown that the generators of symplectic transformations in two dimensions are a subset of the real Dirac matrices (RDMs) and that few symplectic transformations are required to transform a quadratic Hamiltonian into diagonal form. Here we argue that the use of RDMs is well suited for the generation of multivariate normal distributions with arbitrary covariances. A direct and simple argument supporting this claim is that this is the "natural" way how such distributions are formed. The transport of charged particle beams may serve as an example: An uncorrelated gaussian distribution of particles starting at some initial position of the accelerator is subject to linear deformat...
Regularized multivariate regression models with skew-t error distributions
Chen, Lianfu
2014-06-01
We consider regularization of the parameters in multivariate linear regression models with the errors having a multivariate skew-t distribution. An iterative penalized likelihood procedure is proposed for constructing sparse estimators of both the regression coefficient and inverse scale matrices simultaneously. The sparsity is introduced through penalizing the negative log-likelihood by adding L1-penalties on the entries of the two matrices. Taking advantage of the hierarchical representation of skew-t distributions, and using the expectation conditional maximization (ECM) algorithm, we reduce the problem to penalized normal likelihood and develop a procedure to minimize the ensuing objective function. Using a simulation study the performance of the method is assessed, and the methodology is illustrated using a real data set with a 24-dimensional response vector. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Multivariable control altitude demonstration on the F100 turbofan engine
Lehtinen, B.; Dehoff, R. L.; Hackney, R. D.
1979-01-01
The control system designed under the Multivariable Control Synthesis (MVCS) program for the F100 turbofan engine is described. The MVCS program, applied the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) synthesis methods in the design of a multivariable engine control system to obtain enhanced performance from cross-coupled controls, maximum use of engine variable geometry, and a systematic design procedure that can be applied efficiently to new engine systems. Basic components of the control system, a reference value generator for deriving a desired equilibrium state and an approximate control vector, a transition model to produce compatible reference point trajectories during gross transients, gain schedules for producing feedback terms appropriate to the flight condition, and integral switching logic to produce acceptable steady-state performance without engine operating limit exceedance are described and the details of the F100 implementation presented. The engine altitude test phase of the MVCS program, and engine responses in a variety of test operating points and power transitions are presented.
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Stelzer, Robert
moments. Moreover, the second order moment structure is explicitly calculated, and examples exhibit the possibility of long range dependence. Our supOU processes are defined via homogeneous and factorisable Lévy bases. We show that the behaviour of supOU processes is particularly nice when the mean...... reversion parameter is restricted to normal matrices and especially to strictly negative definite ones.For finite variation Lévy bases we are able to give conditions for supOU processes to have locally bounded càdlàg paths of finite variation and to show an analogue of the stochastic differential equation...
Enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality
Keselman, Alla
Inquiry learning as an educational method is gaining increasing support among elementary and middle school educators. In inquiry activities at the middle school level, students are typically asked to conduct investigations and infer causal relationships about multivariable causal systems. In these activities, students usually demonstrate significant strategic weaknesses and insufficient metastrategic understanding of task demands. Present work suggests that these weaknesses arise from students' deficient mental models of multivariable causality, in which effects of individual features are neither additive, nor constant. This study is an attempt to develop an intervention aimed at enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality. Three groups of students engaged in a scientific investigation activity over seven weekly sessions. By creating unique combinations of five features potentially involved in earthquake mechanism and observing associated risk meter readings, students had to find out which of the features were causal, and to learn to predict earthquake risk. Additionally, students in the instructional and practice groups engaged in self-directed practice in making scientific predictions. The instructional group also participated in weekly instructional sessions on making predictions based on multivariable causality. Students in the practice and instructional conditions showed small to moderate improvement in their attention to the evidence and in their metastrategic ability to recognize effective investigative strategies in the work of other students. They also demonstrated a trend towards making a greater number of valid inferences than the control group students. Additionally, students in the instructional condition showed significant improvement in their ability to draw inferences based on multiple records. They also developed more accurate knowledge about non-causal features of the system. These gains were maintained
Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits
We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry–Perot resonance. - Highlights: • Expression of transmission coefficient of an acoustic grating with curled slits. • Non-dispersive and tunable effective medium parameters for the acoustic grating. • A flat acoustic focusing lens with gradient index by using the acoustic grating
A theoretical study of the feasibility of acoustical tweezer: Ray acoustics approach
Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, Kirk
2005-04-01
Optical tweezer has been found to have many biomedical applications in trapping macromolecules and cells. For the trapping mechanism, there has to be a sharp spatial change in axial optical intensity and the particle size must be much greater than the wavelength. Similar phenomenon may exist in acoustics. This work was undertaken to demonstrate theoretically that it is possible to acoustically trap particles near the focal point if certain conditions are met. Acoustic force exerted on fat tissue in ultrasonic fields is analyzed in ray acoustics regime where the wavelength of acoustic beam is much smaller than the size of the particle. In this paper, the analysis is therefore based on the field pattern produced by a strongly focused 100 MHz ultrasonic transducer with Gaussian intensity distribution. The magnitude of force and Fresnel coefficients at various positions are calculated. According to the simulation results, acoustical tweezer works particularly when the beam width at focus is one wavelength and the tolerance of acoustic impedance mismatch between two media lies within 6.7%. [Work supported by NIH Grant P41-EB2182.
Ellis, Donna
2002-11-01
The effects that poor acoustics have on students extend beyond the classroom. This paper is to discuss the immediate and long-term results that inadequate acoustical design in the educational setting has on academic and social development and how the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) are contributing to the classroom acoustic movement. DCPS is taking a pro-active stance in educational acoustics by mandating the ANSI Draft S12.60-200X classroom acoustic standard in the transformation of ten schools a year for the next ten to fifteen years. Synthesizing the ANSI S12 standard with the DCPS Design Guidelines describes explanation of how to design for appropriate acoustics in all core-learning spaces. Examples of the existing conditions of the facilities and acoustical remediation for new and historical preservation projects will be demonstrated. In addition, experience will be shared on the International Building Code Council hearings for classroom acoustics.
Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report
This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks
From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation
Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; KIRKEGAARD, Poul Henning
2005-01-01
Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to inve...
ibr: Iterative bias reduction multivariate smoothing
Hengartner, Nicholas W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cornillon, Pierre-andre [AGRO-SUP, FRANCE; Matzner - Lober, Eric [RENNES 2, FRANCE
2009-01-01
Regression is a fundamental data analysis tool for relating a univariate response variable Y to a multivariate predictor X {element_of} E R{sup d} from the observations (X{sub i}, Y{sub i}), i = 1,...,n. Traditional nonparametric regression use the assumption that the regression function varies smoothly in the independent variable x to locally estimate the conditional expectation m(x) = E[Y|X = x]. The resulting vector of predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} at the observed covariates X{sub i} is called a regression smoother, or simply a smoother, because the predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} are less variable than the original observations Y{sub i}. Linear smoothers are linear in the response variable Y and are operationally written as {cflx m} = X{sub {lambda}}Y, where S{sub {lambda}} is a n x n smoothing matrix. The smoothing matrix S{sub {lambda}} typically depends on a tuning parameter which we denote by {lambda}, and that governs the tradeoff between the smoothness of the estimate and the goodness-of-fit of the smoother to the data by controlling the effective size of the local neighborhood over which the responses are averaged. We parameterize the smoothing matrix such that large values of {lambda} are associated to smoothers that averages over larger neighborhood and produce very smooth curves, while small {lambda} are associated to smoothers that average over smaller neighborhood to produce a more wiggly curve that wants to interpolate the data. The parameter {lambda} is the bandwidth for kernel smoother, the span size for running-mean smoother, bin smoother, and the penalty factor {lambda} for spline smoother.
Multivariate log-skew-elliptical distributions with applications to precipitation data
Marchenko, Yulia V.
2009-07-13
We introduce a family of multivariate log-skew-elliptical distributions, extending the list of multivariate distributions with positive support. We investigate their probabilistic properties such as stochastic representations, marginal and conditional distributions, and existence of moments, as well as inferential properties. We demonstrate, for example, that as for the log-t distribution, the positive moments of the log-skew-t distribution do not exist. Our emphasis is on two special cases, the log-skew-normal and log-skew-t distributions, which we use to analyze US national (univariate) and regional (multivariate) monthly precipitation data. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Underwater Applications of Acoustical Holography
P. C. Mehta
1984-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes the basic technique of acoustical holography. Requirements for recording the acoustical hologram are discussed with its ability for underwater imaging in view. Some practical systems for short-range and medium-range imaging are described. The advantages of acoustical holography over optical imaging, acoustical imaging and sonars are outlined.
Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms
Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger
2005-01-01
Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be...
Tunable acoustic metamaterials
Babaee, Sahab; Viard, Nicolas; Fang, Nicholas; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-03-01
We report a new class of active and switchable acoustic metamaterials composed of three-dimensional stretchable chiral helices arranged on a two-dimensional square lattice. We investigate the propagation of sounds through the proposed structure both numerically and experimentally and find that the deformation of the helices can be exploited as a novel and effective approach to control the propagation of acoustic waves. The proposed concept expands the ability of existing acoustic metamaterials since we demonstrate that the deformation can be exploited to turn on or off the band gap, opening avenues for the design of adaptive noise-cancelling devices.
Multivariate Statistical Modelling of Drought and Heat Wave Events
Manning, Colin; Widmann, Martin; Vrac, Mathieu; Maraun, Douglas; Bevaqua, Emanuele
2016-04-01
Multivariate Statistical Modelling of Drought and Heat Wave Events C. Manning1,2, M. Widmann1, M. Vrac2, D. Maraun3, E. Bevaqua2,3 1. School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK 2. Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, (LSCE-IPSL), Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France 3. Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz, Austria Compound extreme events are a combination of two or more contributing events which in themselves may not be extreme but through their joint occurrence produce an extreme impact. Compound events are noted in the latest IPCC report as an important type of extreme event that have been given little attention so far. As part of the CE:LLO project (Compound Events: muLtivariate statisticaL mOdelling) we are developing a multivariate statistical model to gain an understanding of the dependence structure of certain compound events. One focus of this project is on the interaction between drought and heat wave events. Soil moisture has both a local and non-local effect on the occurrence of heat waves where it strongly controls the latent heat flux affecting the transfer of sensible heat to the atmosphere. These processes can create a feedback whereby a heat wave maybe amplified or suppressed by the soil moisture preconditioning, and vice versa, the heat wave may in turn have an effect on soil conditions. An aim of this project is to capture this dependence in order to correctly describe the joint probabilities of these conditions and the resulting probability of their compound impact. We will show an application of Pair Copula Constructions (PCCs) to study the aforementioned compound event. PCCs allow in theory for the formulation of multivariate dependence structures in any dimension where the PCC is a decomposition of a multivariate distribution into a product of bivariate components modelled using copulas. A
Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble
Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi
2015-01-01
Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p
Admissibility of Invariant Tests in the General Multivariate Analysis of Variance Problem
Marden, John I.
1983-01-01
Necessary and sufficient conditions for an invariant test to be admissible among invariant tests in the general multivariate analysis of variance problem are presented. It is shown that in many cases the popular tests based on the likelihood ratio matrix are inadmissible. Other tests are shown admissible. Numerical work suggests that the inadmissibility of the likelihood ratio test is not serious. The results are given for the multivariate analysis of variance problem as a special case.
On Modeling Eavesdropping Attacks in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks †
Wang, Qiu; Dai, Hong-Ning; Li, Xuran; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Hong
2016-01-01
The security and privacy of underwater acoustic sensor networks has received extensive attention recently due to the proliferation of underwater activities. This paper proposes an analytical model to investigate the eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Our analytical framework considers the impacts of various underwater acoustic channel conditions (such as the acoustic signal frequency, spreading factor and wind speed) and different hydrophones (isotropic hydrophones and array hydrophones) in terms of network nodes and eavesdroppers. We also conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the effectiveness and the accuracy of our proposed model. Empirical results show that our proposed model is quite accurate. In addition, our results also imply that the eavesdropping probability heavily depends on both the underwater acoustic channel conditions and the features of hydrophones. PMID:27213379
On Modeling Eavesdropping Attacks in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Qiu Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The security and privacy of underwater acoustic sensor networks has received extensive attention recently due to the proliferation of underwater activities. This paper proposes an analytical model to investigate the eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Our analytical framework considers the impacts of various underwater acoustic channel conditions (such as the acoustic signal frequency, spreading factor and wind speed and different hydrophones (isotropic hydrophones and array hydrophones in terms of network nodes and eavesdroppers. We also conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the effectiveness and the accuracy of our proposed model. Empirical results show that our proposed model is quite accurate. In addition, our results also imply that the eavesdropping probability heavily depends on both the underwater acoustic channel conditions and the features of hydrophones.
Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials
Ming-Hui Lu; Liang Feng; Yan-Feng Chen
2009-01-01
Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surf...
Acoustics forces on a solid sphere in focused sound fields and their use for acoustical traps
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Kristensen, Søren H.;
2009-01-01
It is known that stationary sound fields can be used to levitate small objects in air; this phenomenon has potential applications in containerless processing of materials. Recently the use of acoustic forces have been considered for the manipulation of small samples, which offers several advantages...... in the cases of hazardous substances, processing of materials under pure conditions, handling of fragile or sticky objects, for instance. Several theoretical investigations on the use of focused Gaussian and Bessel acoustic beams have been reported in literature. In those papers, water has been assumed...... as the medium for the propagation of the acoustic waves. The objective of the work to be presented has been to study the extent to which it is possible to use focused sound fields for the manipulation of a rigid sphere in air. The possibility of developing acoustical tweezers has been the main motivation...
Multivariable control in nuclear power stations -survey of design methods
The development of larger nuclear generating stations increases the importance of dynamic interaction between controllers, because each control action may affect several plant outputs. Multivariable control provides the techniques to design controllers which perform well under these conditions. This report is a foundation for further work on the application of multivariable control in AECL. It covers the requirements of control and the fundamental mathematics used, then reviews the most important linear methods, based on both state-space and frequency-response concepts. State-space methods are derived from analysis of the system differential equations, while frequency-response methods use the input-output transfer function. State-space methods covered include linear-quadratic optimal control, pole shifting, and the theory of state observers and estimators. Frequency-response methods include the inverse Nyquist array method, and classical non-interactive techniques. Transfer-function methods are particularly emphasized since they can incorporate ill-defined design criteria. The underlying concepts, and the application strengths and weaknesses of each design method are presented. A review of significant applications is also given. It is concluded that the inverse Nyquist array method, a frequency-response technique based on inverse transfer-function matrices, is preferred for the design of multivariable controllers for nuclear power plants. This method may be supplemented by information obtained from a modal analysis of the plant model. (auth)
Multi-variable feedback regulation of plasma processing reactors
Firestone, M.A. [JAYCOR, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1994-12-31
It has been recognized in the past several years that active feedback control will be crucial for the commercial viability of advanced plasma processing reactors. This control must be stable, robust, and efficient to provide long periods without human intervention and continuous repeatable process runs. However, as yet there have been no major efforts of apply modern control theory techniques to this problem. This paper will illustrate how model based, multi-variable feedback control can be used in plasma processing reactors. As an example, the authors will show how a feedback regulation scheme can be developed for a microwave plasma reactor. However, the methodology is generic and can be used for any plasma processing device. Modern multi-variable control techniques make use of the inherent system dynamics to derive stable, robust feedback gains that are optimized for the desired objectives and reactor conditions. This is accomplished by building the parameter interactions and couplings (the system dynamics) and the device controller characteristics into the feedback gains. The gains also are a function of the control priorities. This approach is referred to as a multi-input/multi-output method and is to be contrasted with classical control, which is single-input/single-output in character. To utilize the system couplings for control purposes, multi-variable control is heavily dependent upon analytical time dependent system models. In the example these would be the microwave/plasma interactions and the plasma physics and chemistry dynamics.
On-The-Fly Approximation of Multivariate Total Variation Minimization
Frecon, Jordan; Pustelnik, Nelly; Abry, Patrice; Condat, Laurent
2016-05-01
In the context of change-point detection, addressed by Total Variation minimization strategies, an efficient on-the-fly algorithm has been designed leading to exact solutions for univariate data. In this contribution, an extension of such an on-the-fly strategy to multivariate data is investigated. The proposed algorithm relies on the local validation of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions on the dual problem. Showing that the non-local nature of the multivariate setting precludes to obtain an exact on-the-fly solution, we devise an on-the-fly algorithm delivering an approximate solution, whose quality is controlled by a practitioner-tunable parameter, acting as a trade-off between quality and computational cost. Performance assessment shows that high quality solutions are obtained on-the-fly while benefiting of computational costs several orders of magnitude lower than standard iterative procedures. The proposed algorithm thus provides practitioners with an efficient multivariate change-point detection on-the-fly procedure.
Acoustic integrated extinction
Norris, Andrew N
2015-01-01
The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross-section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. [1] derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...
Principles of musical acoustics
Hartmann, William M
2013-01-01
Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...
Bennett, Gloria A.
1992-01-01
A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.
Beristain, Sergio
2002-11-01
Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...
Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...
Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video
Full Text Available ... treatment Summary Types Of Post-treatment Issues Resources Medical Resources Considerations When Selecting a Healthcare Professional Healthcare ... ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma ...
Acoustic coherent perfect absorbers
In this paper, we explore the possibility of achieving acoustic coherent perfect absorbers. Through numerical simulations in two dimensions, we demonstrate that the energy of coherent acoustic waves can be totally absorbed by a fluid absorber with specific complex mass density or bulk modulus. The robustness of such absorbing systems is investigated under small perturbations of the absorber parameters. We find that when the resonance order is the lowest and the size of the absorber is comparable to the wavelength in the background, the phenomenon of perfect absorption is most stable. When the wavelength inside both the background and the absorber is much larger than the size of the absorber, perfect absorption is possible when the mass density of the absorber approaches the negative value of the background mass density. Finally, we show that by using suitable dispersive acoustic metamaterials, broadband acoustic perfect absorption may be achieved. (papers)
Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.
Dunn, Robert A
2015-12-01
Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303
Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...
A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF CROATIAN COUNTIES ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Elza Jurun
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In the focus of this paper is a multivariate analysis of Croatian Counties entrepreneurship. Complete data base available by official statistic institutions at national and regional level is used. Modern econometric methodology starting from a comparative analysis via multiple regression to multivariate cluster analysis is carried out as well as the analysis of successful or inefficacious entrepreneurship measured by indicators of efficiency, profitability and productivity. Time horizons of the comparative analysis are in 2004 and 2010. Accelerators of socio-economic development - number of entrepreneur investors, investment in fixed assets and current assets ratio in multiple regression model are analytically filtered between twenty-six independent variables as variables of the dominant influence on GDP per capita in 2010 as dependent variable. Results of multivariate cluster analysis of twentyone Croatian Counties are interpreted also in the sense of three Croatian NUTS 2 regions according to European nomenclature of regional territorial division of Croatia.
Simplicial band depth for multivariate functional data
López-Pintado, Sara
2014-03-05
We propose notions of simplicial band depth for multivariate functional data that extend the univariate functional band depth. The proposed simplicial band depths provide simple and natural criteria to measure the centrality of a trajectory within a sample of curves. Based on these depths, a sample of multivariate curves can be ordered from the center outward and order statistics can be defined. Properties of the proposed depths, such as invariance and consistency, can be established. A simulation study shows the robustness of this new definition of depth and the advantages of using a multivariate depth versus the marginal depths for detecting outliers. Real data examples from growth curves and signature data are used to illustrate the performance and usefulness of the proposed depths. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
A MATLAB companion for multivariable calculus
Cooper, Jeffery
2001-01-01
Offering a concise collection of MatLab programs and exercises to accompany a third semester course in multivariable calculus, A MatLab Companion for Multivariable Calculus introduces simple numerical procedures such as numerical differentiation, numerical integration and Newton''s method in several variables, thereby allowing students to tackle realistic problems. The many examples show students how to use MatLab effectively and easily in many contexts. Numerous exercises in mathematics and applications areas are presented, graded from routine to more demanding projects requiring some programming. Matlab M-files are provided on the Harcourt/Academic Press web site at http://www.harcourt-ap.com/matlab.html.* Computer-oriented material that complements the essential topics in multivariable calculus* Main ideas presented with examples of computations and graphics displays using MATLAB * Numerous examples of short code in the text, which can be modified for use with the exercises* MATLAB files are used to implem...
Multivariate analysis: A statistical approach for computations
Michu, Sachin; Kaushik, Vandana
2014-10-01
Multivariate analysis is a type of multivariate statistical approach commonly used in, automotive diagnosis, education evaluating clusters in finance etc and more recently in the health-related professions. The objective of the paper is to provide a detailed exploratory discussion about factor analysis (FA) in image retrieval method and correlation analysis (CA) of network traffic. Image retrieval methods aim to retrieve relevant images from a collected database, based on their content. The problem is made more difficult due to the high dimension of the variable space in which the images are represented. Multivariate correlation analysis proposes an anomaly detection and analysis method based on the correlation coefficient matrix. Anomaly behaviors in the network include the various attacks on the network like DDOs attacks and network scanning.
Biological sequence classification with multivariate string kernels.
Kuksa, Pavel P
2013-01-01
String kernel-based machine learning methods have yielded great success in practical tasks of structured/sequential data analysis. They often exhibit state-of-the-art performance on many practical tasks of sequence analysis such as biological sequence classification, remote homology detection, or protein superfamily and fold prediction. However, typical string kernel methods rely on the analysis of discrete 1D string data (e.g., DNA or amino acid sequences). In this paper, we address the multiclass biological sequence classification problems using multivariate representations in the form of sequences of features vectors (as in biological sequence profiles, or sequences of individual amino acid physicochemical descriptors) and a class of multivariate string kernels that exploit these representations. On three protein sequence classification tasks, the proposed multivariate representations and kernels show significant 15-20 percent improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art sequence classification methods. PMID:24384708
Acoustic emission source modeling
Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga
Plzeň : University of West Bohemia, 2009 - (Adámek, V.; Zajíček, M.). s. 1-2 ISBN 978-80-7043-824-4. [Výpočtová mechanika 2009. 09.11.2009-11.11.2009, Nečtiny] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission source * wave propagation * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Pellicer, Francisco; Reitsma, Robert; Agüera, Joaquín; Marinas, Alexandra
2013-01-01
The Acoustic Buoy is a project between the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics (LAB) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). In areas that the human activities produce high noise levels, such as oil exploration or construction, there is a need to monitor the environment for the presence of cetaceans. Another need is for fishing, to prevent endangered species from being killed. This can be done with an Autonomous Acoustic Buoy (AAB). Mooring or anchoring at to the seaflo...
Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S
2011-01-01
Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....
王路才; 周其斗; 纪刚
2013-01-01
采用结构有限元耦合流体边界元的附加质量附加阻尼算法，建立了加肋有限圆柱壳体的有限元模型，并采用该模型对十四种方案的水下振动和声辐射进行了分析，讨论了模型边界条件对其水下振动和声辐射的影响规律以及在采用舱段模型代替整艇模型进行噪声估算时中间舱段长度的选取原则。结果表明用一个舱段模拟整艇的动态特性容易造成低频整体模态振型的缺失，在舱段首阶弯曲振动的模态频率以上，采用舱段来预报整艇的表面振动和辐射声功率是可以接受的；当整艇艇长不超过中间舱段长度的两倍时，可以采用舱段模型代替整艇模型进行噪声估算。%An additional mass and damping approach combining Finite Element Method (FEM) with Bound-ary Element Method (BEM) is proposed to calculate underwater vibration and acoustic radiation from a ring stiffened cylindrical shell with different boundary conditions. The comparison and analysis of the results show that using a cabin model of submarine replacing a full-scale model for vibration and noise estimation would stride over the low modes. When the frequency is exceeding the cabin’s first bending model fre-quency or the full length is less than twice of the cabin’s, using a cabin model replacing a full-scale mod-el for vibration and noise estimation is feasible.
Preserving the acoustical heritage of historical buildings
Rindel, Jens Holger
2005-01-01
The use of virtual reality and auralization techniques has opened new possibilities for the study of acoustical conditions in historic buildings. With reference to some recent and current projects the paper describes the steps in the process and how new technology may be used to overcome some of ...
Wavefront modulation and subwavelength diffractive acoustics with an acoustic metasurface.
Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A
2014-01-01
Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront-shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality to their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of an acoustic metasurface based on tapered labyrinthine metamaterials. The demonstrated metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law, but also exhibits various unique properties such as conversion from propagating wave to surface mode, extraordinary beam-steering and apparent negative refraction through higher-order diffraction. Such designer acoustic metasurfaces provide a new design methodology for acoustic signal modulation devices and may be useful for applications such as acoustic imaging, beam steering, ultrasound lens design and acoustic surface wave-based applications. PMID:25418084
Starting up unstable multivariable controllers safety
Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik
The problem of superimposing a multivariable controller on a running plant is considered. A simple but effective controller architecture is suggested which allows the transition from a conventional controller to a full multivariable controller to take place in a continuous way. This architecture...... allows for unstable controllers to be handled in a reliable way. Moreover, bandwidth properties can be tuned separately. It is shown how this architecture can be extended to provide a useful tool to implement gain scheduled controllers in the same fashion....
Analysis of multivariate social science data
Bartholomew, David J; Galbraith, Jane; Moustaki, Irini
2008-01-01
Drawing on the authors' varied experiences working and teaching in the field, Analysis of Multivariate Social Science Data, Second Editionenables a basic understanding of how to use key multivariate methods in the social sciences. With updates in every chapter, this edition expands its topics to include regression analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation models, and multilevel models. After emphasizing the summarization of data in the first several chapters, the authors focus on regression analysis. This chapter provides a link between the two halves of the book, signal
Multivariate multiscale entropy for brain consciousness analysis.
Ahmed, Mosabber Uddin; Li, Ling; Cao, Jianting; Mandic, Danilo P
2011-01-01
The recently introduced multiscale entropy (MSE) method accounts for long range correlations over multiple time scales and can therefore reveal the complexity of biological signals. The existing MSE algorithm deals with scalar time series whereas multivariate time series are common in experimental and biological systems. To that cause, in this paper the MSE method is extended to the multivariate case. This allows us to gain a greater insight into the complexity of the underlying signal generating system, producing multifaceted and more robust estimates than standard single channel MSE. Simulations on both synthetic data and brain consciousness analysis support the approach. PMID:22254434
The multivariate Piecing-Together approach revisited
Aulbach, Stefan; Falk, Michael; Hofmann, Martin
2011-01-01
The univariate Piecing-Together approach (PT) fits a univariate generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) to the upper tail of a given distribution function in a continuous manner. A multivariate extension was established by Aulbach et al. (2012a): The upper tail of a given copula C is cut off and replaced by a multivariate GPD-copula in a continuous manner, yielding a new copula called a PT-copula. Then each margin of this PT-copula is transformed by a given univariate distribution function. Thi...
Macdonald Polynomials and Multivariable Basic Hypergeometric Series
Michael J. Schlosser
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We study Macdonald polynomials from a basic hypergeometric series point of view. In particular, we show that the Pieri formula for Macdonald polynomials and its recently discovered inverse, a recursion formula for Macdonald polynomials, both represent multivariable extensions of the terminating very-well-poised ${}_6phi_5$ summation formula. We derive several new related identities including multivariate extensions of Jackson's very-well-poised ${}_8phi_7$ summation. Motivated by our basic hypergeometric analysis, we propose an extension of Macdonald polynomials to Macdonald symmetric functions indexed by partitions with complex parts. These appear to possess nice properties.
Quadrotor system identification using the multivariate multiplex b-spline
Visser, T.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.
2015-01-01
A novel method for aircraft system identification is presented that is based on a new multivariate spline type; the multivariate multiplex B-spline. The multivariate multiplex B-spline is a generalization of the recently introduced tensor-simplex B-spline. Multivariate multiplex splines obtain simil
The Oscillation Behavior of Empirical Processes: The Multivariate Case
Stute, Winfried
1984-01-01
We derive sharp finite sample estimates and exact almost sure limit results for local deviations of multivariate empirical processes. These are useful for obtaining, e.g., exact convergence rates of multivariate kernel density estimators. It is also indicated how local properties of multivariate empirical processes may be used to study various problems in nonparametric multivariate analysis.
eshless Method for Acoustic and Elastic Modeling
JiaXiaofeng; HuTianyue; WangRunqiu
2005-01-01
Wave equation method is one of the fundamental techniques for seismic modeling and imaging. In this paper the element-free-method (EFM) was used to solve acoustic and elastic equations.The key point of this method is no need of elements, which makes nodes free from the elemental restraint. Besides, the moving-least-squares (MLS) criterion in EFM leads to a high accuracy and smooth derivatives. The theories of EFM for both acoustic and elastic wave equations as well as absorbing boundary conditions were discussed respectively. Furthermore, some pre-stack models were used to show the good performance of EFM in seismic modeling.
Nonlinear multivariate rainfall-stage model for large wetland systems
Ali, Alaa
2009-08-01
SummaryWetland restoration is often measured by how close the spatial and temporal water level (stage) patterns are to the pre-drainage conditions. Driven by rainfall, such multivariate conditions are governed by nonstationary, nonlinear, and nonGaussian processes and are often simulated by physically based distributed models which are difficult to run in real time due to extensive data requirements. The objective of this study is to provide the wetland restorationists with a real time rainfall-stage modeling tool of simpler input structure and capability to recognize the wetland system complexity. A dynamic multivariate Nonlinear AutoRegressive network with eXogenous inputs (NARX) combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was developed. An implementation procedure was proposed and an application to Florida Everglade's wetland systems was presented. Inputs to the model are time lagged rainfall, evapotranspiration and previously simulated stages. Data locations, preliminary time lag selection, spatial and temporal nonstationarity are identified through exploratory data analysis. PCA was used to eliminate input variable interdependence and to reduce the problem dimensions by more than 90% while retaining more than 80% of the process variance. A structured approach to select optimal time lags and network parameters was provided. NARX model results were compared to those of the linear Multivariate AutoRegressive model with eXogenous inputs. While one step ahead prediction shows comparable results, recursive prediction by NARX is far more superior to that of the linear model. Also, NARX testing under drastically different climatic conditions from those used in the development demonstrates a very good and robust performance. Driven by net rainfall, NARX exhibited robust stage prediction with an overall Efficiency Coefficient of 88%, Mean Square Error less than 0.004 m 2, a standard error less than 0.06 m, a bias close to zero and normal probability plots show that
Acoustic vector sensor signal processing
SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin
2006-01-01
Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.
Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul
Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO2, NO2, and O3, PM10, TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)
AN ALGEBRAIC METHOD FOR POLE PLACEMENT IN MULTIVARIABLE SYSTEMS
M. de la Sen
2001-01-01
This paper considers the pole placement in multivariable systems involving known delays by using dynamic controllers subject to multirate sampling. The controller parametrizations are calculated from algebraic equations which are solved by using the Kronecker product of matrices. It is pointed out that the sampling periods can be selected in a convenient way for the solvability of such equations under rather weak conditions provided that the continuous plant is spectrally controllable. Some overview about the use of nonuniform sampling is also given in order to improve the system's performance.
Generation of Small Enterprises’ Multivariate Sample Aggregates
Bokun, N. Ch.
2007-01-01
The work gives methodology of small enterprises’ multivariate sample aggregates in order to provide more comprehensive statistical evaluation of small institutional units’ economic activity. The strategy is found on usage cluster analysis. The article provides results of small enterprises’ selection carried out in Minsk City.
Multivariate statistical mapping of spectroscopic imaging data.
Young, Karl; Govind, Varan; Sharma, Khema; Studholme, Colin; Maudsley, Andrew A; Schuff, Norbert
2010-01-01
For magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging studies of the brain, it is important to measure the distribution of metabolites in a regionally unbiased way; that is, without restrictions to a priori defined regions of interest. Since magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging provides measures of multiple metabolites simultaneously at each voxel, there is furthermore great interest in utilizing the multidimensional nature of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for gains in statistical power. Voxelwise multivariate statistical mapping is expected to address both of these issues, but it has not been previously employed for spectroscopic imaging (SI) studies of brain. The aims of this study were to (1) develop and validate multivariate voxel-based statistical mapping for magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and (2) demonstrate that multivariate tests can be more powerful than univariate tests in identifying patterns of altered brain metabolism. Specifically, we compared multivariate to univariate tests in identifying known regional patterns in simulated data and regional patterns of metabolite alterations due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a devastating brain disease of the motor neurons. PMID:19953514
Multivariate Analysis of Industrial Scale Fermentation Data
Mears, Lisa; Nørregård, Rasmus; Stocks, Stuart M.;
2015-01-01
Multivariate analysis allows process understanding to be gained from the vast and complex datasets recorded from fermentation processes, however the application of such techniques to this field can be limited by the data pre-processing requirements and data handling. In this work many iterations ......, with an average prediction error of 7.6%. A methodology is proposed for applying multivariate analysis to industrial scale batch process data.......Multivariate analysis allows process understanding to be gained from the vast and complex datasets recorded from fermentation processes, however the application of such techniques to this field can be limited by the data pre-processing requirements and data handling. In this work many iterations...... of multivariate modelling were carried out using different data pre-processing and scaling methods in order to extract the trends from the industrial data set, obtained from a production process operating in Novozymes A/S. This data set poses challenges for data analysis, combining both online and offline...
Multivariate model for test response analysis
Krishnan, S.; Kerkhoff, H.G.
2010-01-01
A systematic approach to construct an effective multivariate test response model for capturing manufacturing defects in electronic products is described. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by its capability in reducing the number of test-points, while achieving the maximal coverage attai
Modelling and Forecasting Multivariate Realized Volatility
Chiriac, Roxana; Voev, Valeri
This paper proposes a methodology for modelling time series of realized covariance matrices in order to forecast multivariate risks. The approach allows for flexible dynamic dependence patterns and guarantees positive definiteness of the resulting forecasts without imposing parameter restrictions...... any risk-averse investor, regardless of the type of utility function, would be better-off using our model....
Multivariate data analysis of 2 DE data
Wulff, Tune; Jokumsen, Alfred; Jessen, Flemming
were achieved by 2-DE. Protein spots, which individually or in combination with other spots varied according to hypoxia were found by multivariate data analysis (partial least squares regression) on group scaled data (normalised spot volumes) followed by selection of significant spots by jack...
Sparse Multivariate Modeling: Priors and Applications
Henao, Ricardo
them with different prior assumptions in order to make them appropriate at handling different domain specific situations as time series, non-linearities, batch effects, missing values, etc. In particular, we present a framework for linear Bayesian networks we call sparse identifiable multivariate...... reviewed material....
Multivariate data analysis: The French way
Holmes, Susan
2008-01-01
This paper presents exploratory techniques for multivariate data, many of them well known to French statisticians and ecologists, but few well understood in North American culture. We present the general framework of duality diagrams which encompasses discriminant analysis, correspondence analysis and principal components, and we show how this framework can be generalized to the regression of graphs on covariates.
Intermittent control of unstable multivariate systems.
Loram, I; Gawthrop, P; Gollee, H
2015-08-01
A sensorimotor architecture inspired from biological, vertebrate control should (i) explain the interface between high dimensional sensory analysis, low dimensional goals and high dimensional motor mechanisms and (ii) provide both stability and flexibility. Our interest concerns whether single-input-single-output intermittent control (SISO_IC) generalized to multivariable intermittent control (MIC) can meet these requirements.We base MIC on the continuous-time observer-predictorstate-feedback architecture. MIC uses event detection. A system matched hold (SMH), using the underlying continuoustime optimal control design, generates multivariate open-loop control signals between samples of the predicted state. Combined, this serial process provides a single-channel of control with optimised sensor fusion and motor synergies. Quadratic programming provides constrained, optimised equilibrium control design to handle unphysical configurations, redundancy and provides minimum, necessary reduction of open loop instability through optimised joint impedance. In this multivariate form, dimensionality is linked to goals rather than neuromuscular or sensory degrees of freedom. The biological and engineering rationale for intermittent rather than continuous multivariate control, is that the generalised hold sustains open loop predictive control while the open loop interval provides time within the feedback loop for online centralised, state dependent optimisation and selection. PMID:26736539
Net analyte signal calculation for multivariate calibration
Ferre, J.; Faber, N.M.
2003-01-01
A unifying framework for calibration and prediction in multivariate calibration is shown based on the concept of the net analyte signal (NAS). From this perspective, the calibration step can be regarded as the calculation of a net sensitivity vector, whose length is the amount of net signal when the
Using Matlab in a Multivariable Calculus Course.
Schlatter, Mark D.
The benefits of high-level mathematics packages such as Matlab include both a computer algebra system and the ability to provide students with concrete visual examples. This paper discusses how both capabilities of Matlab were used in a multivariate calculus class. Graphical user interfaces which display three-dimensional surfaces, contour plots,…
Multivariate extended skew-t distributions and related families
Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.
2010-12-01
A class of multivariate extended skew-t (EST) distributions is introduced and studied in detail, along with closely related families such as the subclass of extended skew-normal distributions. Besides mathematical tractability and modeling flexibility in terms of both skewness and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the most relevant properties of the EST distribution include closure under conditioning and ability to model lighter tails as well. The first part of the present paper examines probabilistic properties of the EST distribution, such as various stochastic representations, marginal and conditional distributions, linear transformations, moments and in particular Mardia’s measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis. The second part of the paper studies statistical properties of the EST distribution, such as likelihood inference, behavior of the profile log-likelihood, the score vector and the Fisher information matrix. Especially, unlike the extended skew-normal distribution, the Fisher information matrix of the univariate EST distribution is shown to be non-singular when the skewness is set to zero. Finally, a numerical application of the conditional EST distribution is presented in the context of confidential data perturbation.
Acoustic comfort in eating establishments
Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas
2014-01-01
The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating...
Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials
Ming-Hui Lu
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surface evanescent waves have also been recognized to play key roles to reach acoustic subwavelength imaging and enhanced transmission.
Fast computation of the multivariable stability margin for real interrelated uncertain parameters
Sideris, Athanasios; Sanchez Pena, Ricardo S.
1988-01-01
A novel algorithm for computing the multivariable stability margin for checking the robust stability of feedback systems with real parametric uncertainty is proposed. This method eliminates the need for the frequency search involved in another given algorithm by reducing it to checking a finite number of conditions. These conditions have a special structure, which allows a significant improvement on the speed of computations.
From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation
Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2005-01-01
Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic...... properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of application that an acoustic simulation programme can have during an architectural...... the first phases in the architectural process and set out a reverse strategy for simulation programmes to do so - from developing acoustics from given spaces to developing spaces from given acoustics...
Surface resonant states and superlensing in acoustic metamaterials
Ambati, Muralidhar; Fang, Nicholas; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Xiang
2007-05-01
We report that the negative material responses of acoustic metamaterials can lead to a plethora of surface resonant states. We determine that negative effective-mass density is the necessary condition for the existence of surface states on acoustic metamaterials. We offer the microscopic picture of these unique surface states; in addition, we find that these surface excitations enhance the transmission of evanescent pressure fields across the metamaterial. The evanescent pressure fields scattered from an object can be resonantly coupled and enhanced at the surface of the acoustic metamaterial, resulting in an image with resolution below the diffraction limit. This concept of acoustic superlens opens exciting opportunities to design acoustic metamaterials for ultrasonic imaging.
Acoustic monitoring techniques for corrosion degradation in cemented waste canisters
This report describes work carried out to investigate acoustic emission as a monitor of corrosion and degradation of wasteforms where the waste is potentially reactive metal. Electronic monitoring equipment has been designed, built and tested to allow long-term monitoring of a number of waste packages simultaneously. Acoustic monitoring experiments were made on a range of 1 litre cemented Magnox and aluminium samples cast into canisters comparing the acoustic events with hydrogen gas evolution rates and electrochemical corrosion rates. The attenuation of the acoustic signals by the cement grout under a range of conditions has been studied to determine the volume of wasteform that can be satisfactorily monitored by one transducer. The final phase of the programme monitored the acoustic events from full size (200 litre) cemented, inactive, simulated aluminium swarf wastepackages prepared at the AEA waste cementation plant at Winfrith. (Author)
Wavefront Modulation and Subwavelength Diffractive Acoustics with an Acoustic Metasurface
Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.
2014-01-01
Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality as their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a desig...
ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.
DOELLE, LESLIE L.
THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…
The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.
Boehlert, George W.
The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts
Acoustics waves and oscillations
Sen, S.N.
2013-01-01
Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...
Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...
Beyer, Robert
1981-01-01
Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)
A Century of Acoustic Metrology
Rasmussen, Knud
The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....
The role of classroom acoustics on vocal intensity regulation and speakers’ comfort
Pelegrin Garcia, David
Teachers are one of the professional groups with the highest risk of suffering from voice disorders. Teachers point out classroom acoustics among the potential hazards affecting their vocal health, together with air dryness, background noise, and other environmental factors. The present project has...... investigated the relationships between the classroom acoustic condition and teachers’ voice, focusing on their vocal intensity, and between the classroom acoustic condition and the sensation of acoustic comfort for a speaker. In the presence of low background noise levels, teachers were found to adjust their...... in average teacher-to-student distance, but some of the variation was due to the room acoustic condition. The amount of vocal intensity variation with the room acoustic condition increased with the distance between teacher and student. In field measurements performed during typical working days...
Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective
This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.
Diagonal dominance for the multivariable Nyquist array using function minimization
Leininger, G. G.
1977-01-01
A new technique for the design of multivariable control systems using the multivariable Nyquist array method was developed. A conjugate direction function minimization algorithm is utilized to achieve a diagonal dominant condition over the extended frequency range of the control system. The minimization is performed on the ratio of the moduli of the off-diagonal terms to the moduli of the diagonal terms of either the inverse or direct open loop transfer function matrix. Several new feedback design concepts were also developed, including: (1) dominance control parameters for each control loop; (2) compensator normalization to evaluate open loop conditions for alternative design configurations; and (3) an interaction index to determine the degree and type of system interaction when all feedback loops are closed simultaneously. This new design capability was implemented on an IBM 360/75 in a batch mode but can be easily adapted to an interactive computer facility. The method was applied to the Pratt and Whitney F100 turbofan engine.
Gokhberg, M. B.
1983-07-01
Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.
Visser, M
1999-01-01
Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.
Structural Acoustics and Vibrations
Chaigne, Antoine
This structural chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.
Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation
Trinh, Eugene H.
1989-01-01
"Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.
Acoustically enhanced remediation, Phase 2: Technology scaling
Iovenitti, J.L.; Hill, D.G. [Weiss Associates, Emeryville, CA (United States); Rynne, T.M.; Spadaro, J.F.; Hutchinson, W. [Scientific Applications and Research Associates, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Illangasakere, T. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering
1996-12-31
Weiss Associates is conducting the following three phase program investigating the in-situ application of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) of contaminated unconsolidated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I-- laboratory scale parametric investigation; Phase II--technology Scaling; and Phase III--large scale field tests. AER addresses the need for NAPL (either lighter or denser than water: LNAPL or DNAPL, respectively) in high and low permeability sediments, and the remediation of other types of subsurface contaminants (e.g., metals, radionuclides) in low permeability soils. This program has been placed in the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) DNAPL product. Phase I indicated that AER could be used to effectively remediate NAPL in high permeability soil, and that removal of NAPL from low permeability soil could be increased since the water flux through these soils was significantly increased. Phase II, Technology Scaling, the subject of this paper, focused on (1) evaluating the characteristics of an AER field deployment system, (2) developing DNAPL flow and transport performance data under acoustic excitation, (3) predicting the effect of acoustic remediation in three-dimensional unconsolidated hydrogeologic conditions, (4) conducting an engineering analysis of acoustical sources, and (5) identifying candidate field site(s) for large-scale field testing of the technology.
Multivariate Approaches to Classification in Extragalactic Astronomy
Didier eFraix-Burnet
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Clustering objects into synthetic groups is a natural activity of any science. Astrophysics is not an exception and is now facing a deluge of data. For galaxies, the one-century old Hubble classification and the Hubble tuning fork are still largely in use, together with numerous mono- or bivariate classifications most often made by eye. However, a classification must be driven by the data, and sophisticated multivariate statistical tools are used more and more often. In this paper we review these different approaches in order to situate them in the general context of unsupervised and supervised learning. We insist on the astrophysical outcomes of these studies to show that multivariate analyses provide an obvious path toward a renewal of our classification of galaxies and are invaluable tools to investigate the physics and evolution of galaxies.
Multivariate max-stable spatial processes
Genton, Marc G.
2015-02-11
Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.
Power Estimation in Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Jean François Allaire
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Power is often overlooked in designing multivariate studies for the simple reason that it is believed to be too complicated. In this paper, it is shown that power estimation in multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA can be approximated using a F distribution for the three popular statistics (Hotelling-Lawley trace, Pillai-Bartlett trace, Wilk`s likelihood ratio. Consequently, the same procedure, as in any statistical test, can be used: computation of the critical F value, computation of the noncentral parameter (as a function of the effect size and finally estimation of power using a noncentral F distribution. Various numerical examples are provided which help to understand and to apply the method. Problems related to post hoc power estimation are discussed.
Multivariate Approaches to Classification in Extragalactic Astronomy
Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar
2015-01-01
Clustering objects into synthetic groups is a natural activity of any science. Astrophysics is not an exception and is now facing a deluge of data. For galaxies, the one-century old Hubble classification and the Hubble tuning fork are still largely in use, together with numerous mono-or bivariate classifications most often made by eye. However, a classification must be driven by the data, and sophisticated multivariate statistical tools are used more and more often. In this paper we review these different approaches in order to situate them in the general context of unsupervised and supervised learning. We insist on the astrophysical outcomes of these studies to show that multivariate analyses provide an obvious path toward a renewal of our classification of galaxies and are invaluable tools to investigate the physics and evolution of galaxies.
Multivariate analysis of industrial scale fermentation data
Mears, Lisa; Nørregård, Rasmus; Stocks, Stuart;
areconsidered todefine the operation[3], which makestraditional modelling a challenge.Although multivariate techniques are routinely used for chemometric applications, theirapplication to batch processes islesscommon due to the additional challenges associated withuneven batch lengths and less reproducible data......Batch production processes pose specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This isdue tomany reasons includingnon-linear behaviour, and arelativelypoor understanding of thesystem dynamics[1].It is therefore challenging for theprocess engineer to optimise the operationconditions, due to......, and thereforeareas offocus for optimising the processoperation.This requires multivariate methods which canutilise the complexdatasetswhich areroutinely collected, containing online measured variables and offline sample data.Fermentation processes are highly sensitive to operational changes, as well...
Sensitivity Limitations for Multivariable Linear Filtering
Steven R. Weller
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines fundamental limitations in performance which apply to linear filtering problems associated with multivariable systems having as many inputs as outputs. The results of this paper quantify unavoidable limitations in the sensitivity of state estimates to process and measurement disturbances, as represented by the maximum singular values of the relevant transfer matrices. These limitations result from interpolation constraints imposed by open right half-plane poles and zeros in the transfer matrices linking process noise and output noise with state estimates. Using the Poisson integral inequality, this paper shows how sensitivity limitations and tradeoffs in multivariable filtering problems are intimately related to the directionality properties of the open right half-plane poles and zeros in these transfer matrices.
Design of multivariable controllers for robot manipulators
Seraji, H.
1986-01-01
The paper presents a simple method for the design of linear multivariable controllers for multi-link robot manipulators. The control scheme consists of multivariable feedforward and feedback controllers. The feedforward controller is the minimal inverse of the linearized model of robot dynamics and contains only proportional-double-derivative (PD2) terms. This controller ensures that the manipulator joint angles track any reference trajectories. The feedback controller is of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type and achieves pole placement. This controller reduces any initial tracking error to zero as desired and also ensures that robust steady-state tracking of step-plus-exponential trajectories is achieved by the joint angles. The two controllers are independent of each other and are designed separately based on the linearized robot model and then integrated in the overall control scheme. The proposed scheme is simple and can be implemented for real-time control of robot manipulators.
Multivariate shuffles and approximation of copulas
Durante, Fabrizio; Fernández-Sánchez, Juan
2010-01-01
Abstract We present and study a method for constructing multivariate copulas, which includes both the shuffles of Min and the ordinal sums. Such a method has been used in order to show that suitable transformations of a given copula constitute a dense set in the class of all copulas with respect to the L? norm. correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 0471013493; fax: +39 0471013009. (Durante, Fabrizio) (...
Multivariate copulas, quasi-copulas, and lattices
Fernández-Sánchez, Juan; Nelsen, Roger B.; Úbeda-Flores, Manuel
2011-01-01
Abstract We investigate some properties of the partially ordered sets of multivariate copulas and quasi-copulas. Whereas the set of bivariate quasi-copulas is a complete lattice, which is order-isomorphic to the Dedekind?MacNeille completion of the set of bivariate copulas, we show that this is not the case in higher dimensions. correspondence: Corresponding author. (Ubeda-Flores, Manuel) (Fernandez-Sanchez, Juan) ...
Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Probit Models
Siddhartha Chib; Edward Greenberg
1996-01-01
This paper provides a unified simulation-based Bayesian and non-Bayesian analysis of correlated binary data using the multivariate probit model. The posterior distribution is simulated by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, and maximum likelihood estimates are obtained by a Markov chain Monte Carlo version of the E-M algorithm. Computation of Bayes factors from the simulation output is also considered. The methods are applied to a bivariate data set, to a 534-subject, four-year longitudinal dat...
Principal alarms in multivariate statistical process control
González, Isabel; Sánchez, Ismael
2006-01-01
This paper describes a methodology for the simulation of multivariate out of control situations using in-control data. The method is based on finding the independent factors of the variability of the process, and shifting these factors one by one. These shifts are then translated in terms of the observed variables. The shifts provoked by the most important factors are called principal alarms. The principal alarms are plotted, visualizing the main deviations of the process. Also, a resampling ...
Directional Multivariate Extremes in Environmental Phenomena
Torres, Raúl; De Michele, Carlo; Laniado, Henry; Lillo, Rosa E.
2016-01-01
Several environmental phenomena can be described by different correlated variables that must be considered jointly in order to be more representative of the nature of these phenomena. For such events, identification of extremes is inappropriate if it is based on marginal analysis. Extremes have usually been linked to the notion of quantile, which is an important tool to analyze risk in the univariate setting. We propose to identify multivariate extremes and analyze environmental phenomena in ...
Multivariate statistical assessment of coal properties
Klika, Z.; Serenčíšová, J.; Kožušníková, Alena; Kolomazník, I.; Študentová, S.; Vontorová, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 128, č. 128 (2014), s. 119-127. ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal properties * structural,chemical and petrographical properties * multivariate statistics Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 3.352, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.06.029
Specification Testing for Nonlinear Multivariate Cointegrating Regressions
Chaohua Dong; Jiti Gao; Dag Tjostheim; Jiying Yin
2014-01-01
This paper considers a general model specification test for nonlinear multivariate cointegrating regressions where the regressor consists of a univariate integrated time series and a vector of stationary time series. The regressors and the errors are generated from the same innovations, so that the model accommodates endogeniety. A new and simple test is proposed and the resulting asymptotic theory is established. The test statistic is constructed based on a natural distance function between ...
Noise handling capabilities of multivariate methods
Ergon, Rolf
2002-01-01
The noise handling capabilities of principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) are somewhat disputed issues, especially regarding regressor noise. In an attempt to indicate an answer to the question, this article presents results from Monte Carlo simulations assuming a multivariate mixing problem with spectroscopic data. Comparisons with the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) based on Kalman filtering theory are included. The simulatio...
Distribution Mapping Exponent for Multivariate Data Classification
Jiřina, Marcel
Vol. 5. Orlando : IIIS, 2004 - (Callaos, N.; Lesso, W.; Kurogi, S.; Tanaka, A.; Castillo, O.), s. 103-108 ISBN 980-6560-13-2. [SCI 2004. World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics /8./. Orlando (US), 18.07.2004-21.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B096 Keywords : distribution-mapping exponent * effective dimensionality * multivariate data * local estimate * classification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
On Multivariate Methods in Robust Econometrics
Kalina, Jan
-, č. 1 (2012), s. 69-82. ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : least weighted squares * heteroscedasticity * multivariate statistics * model selection * diagnostics * computational aspects Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://www.vse.cz/pep/abstrakt.php?IDcl=411
Simplified Linear Multivariable Control Of Robots
Seraji, Homayoun
1989-01-01
Simplified method developed to design control system that makes joints of robot follow reference trajectories. Generic design includes independent multivariable feedforward and feedback controllers. Feedforward controller based on inverse of linearized model of dynamics of robot and implements control law that contains only proportional and first and second derivatives of reference trajectories with respect to time. Feedback controller, which implements control law of proportional, first-derivative, and integral terms, makes tracking errors converge toward zero as time passes.
Finding an unknown number of multivariate outliers
Riani, Marco; Atkinson, Anthony C.; CERIOLI Andrea
2009-01-01
We use the forward search to provide robust Mahalanobis distances to detect the presence of outliers in a sample of multivariate normal data. Theoretical results on order statistics and on estimation in truncated samples provide the distribution of our test statistic. We also introduce several new robust distances with associated distributional results. Comparisons of our procedure with tests using other robust Mahalanobis distances show the good size and high power of our procedure. We also ...
A multivariate nonlinear analysis of tourism expenditures
Marta Disegna; Fabrizio Durante; Enrico Foscolo
2013-01-01
Independence among different tourism expenditure categories is the most convenient hypothesis for modeling decision–making processes. Nevertheless, the best-suited framework would require dependence among expenditures in order to face individual budget and ordered choices. To this end we provide a new multivariate copula-based logit model with explanatory variables. We applied our tools to the expenditures of the foreign tourists visiting South–Tyrol (Northern Italy), and we underlined the ne...
Confidence Corridors for Multivariate Generalized Quantile Regression
Chao, Shih-Kang; Proksch, Katharina; Dette, Holger; Härdle, Wolfgang
2014-01-01
We focus on the construction of confidence corridors for multivariate nonparametric generalized quantile regression functions. This construction is based on asymptotic results for the maximal deviation between a suitable nonparametric estimator and the true function of interest which follow after a series of approximation steps including a Bahadur representation, a new strong approximation theorem and exponential tail inequalities for Gaussian random fields. As a byproduct we also obtain conf...
Purchasing power parity: A nonlinear multivariate perspective
Frédérique Bec; Anders Rahbek; Mélika Ben Salem
2008-01-01
The goal of this paper is to disentangle the respective contributions of the nominal exchange rate and the price differential to the adjustment towards the Purchasing Power Parity relation. To this end, we estimate a multivariate threshold vector equilibrium correction model, whose dynamics is consistent with the PPP in presence of trading costs. European data support the relevance of this model for Belgium, France and Italy, but this is not the case for the G7 data against the US Dollar. Fur...
Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens
Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2013-11-25
Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.
Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens
Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution
Bayesian Inference of a Multivariate Regression Model
Marick S. Sinay
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We explore Bayesian inference of a multivariate linear regression model with use of a flexible prior for the covariance structure. The commonly adopted Bayesian setup involves the conjugate prior, multivariate normal distribution for the regression coefficients and inverse Wishart specification for the covariance matrix. Here we depart from this approach and propose a novel Bayesian estimator for the covariance. A multivariate normal prior for the unique elements of the matrix logarithm of the covariance matrix is considered. Such structure allows for a richer class of prior distributions for the covariance, with respect to strength of beliefs in prior location hyperparameters, as well as the added ability, to model potential correlation amongst the covariance structure. The posterior moments of all relevant parameters of interest are calculated based upon numerical results via a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure. The Metropolis-Hastings-within-Gibbs algorithm is invoked to account for the construction of a proposal density that closely matches the shape of the target posterior distribution. As an application of the proposed technique, we investigate a multiple regression based upon the 1980 High School and Beyond Survey.
Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals
We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective
Acoustic echoes reveal room shape.
Dokmanic, Ivan; Parhizkar, Reza; Walther, Andreas; Lu, Yue M; Vetterli, Martin
2013-07-23
Imagine that you are blindfolded inside an unknown room. You snap your fingers and listen to the room's response. Can you hear the shape of the room? Some people can do it naturally, but can we design computer algorithms that hear rooms? We show how to compute the shape of a convex polyhedral room from its response to a known sound, recorded by a few microphones. Geometric relationships between the arrival times of echoes enable us to "blindfoldedly" estimate the room geometry. This is achieved by exploiting the properties of Euclidean distance matrices. Furthermore, we show that under mild conditions, first-order echoes provide a unique description of convex polyhedral rooms. Our algorithm starts from the recorded impulse responses and proceeds by learning the correct assignment of echoes to walls. In contrast to earlier methods, the proposed algorithm reconstructs the full 3D geometry of the room from a single sound emission, and with an arbitrary geometry of the microphone array. As long as the microphones can hear the echoes, we can position them as we want. Besides answering a basic question about the inverse problem of room acoustics, our results find applications in areas such as architectural acoustics, indoor localization, virtual reality, and audio forensics. PMID:23776236
Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance
Kercel, S.W.
1998-03-01
The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical
The role of classroom acoustics on vocal intensity regulation and speakers’ comfort
Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas; Poulsen, Torben
2011-01-01
Teachers are one of the professional groups with the highest risk of suffering from voice disorders. Teachers point out classroom acoustics among the potential hazards affecting their vocal health, together with air dryness, background noise, and other environmental factors. The present project has investigated the relationships between the classroom acoustic condition and teachers’ voice, focusing on their vocal intensity, and between the classroom acoustic condition and the sensation of aco...
Acoustic Emission Stethoscope - Measurements with Acoustic Emission on Wind Turbines
Krystof Kryniski [AaF Infrastructure, Stockholm (Sweden)
2013-02-15
A remote ultrasonic stethoscope, designed on mobile devices to help a maintenance team in diagnosing drive train problems, has been demonstrated. By implementing an acoustic emission technology, the operating conditions of wind turbines have been assessed by trending techniques and ultrasonic acoustic emission converted into audible sound. The new approach has been developed and tested and compared to other monitoring techniques. Acoustic emission has generally been shown to provide a number of advantages over vibration and shock pulse methods because the system is operating in a substantially higher frequency range (100 kHz) and therefore it is more immune to operation of surrounding machines and components. Quick attenuation of ultrasonic propagation waves in the drive-train structure helps to pin-point the origin of any fault as the signals are sharper and more pronounced. Further, with the intensity measurements a direction of the source of ultrasonic energy can be identified. Using a high frequency thus makes the method suitable for measuring local effects and to determine local defects since the disturbing signals from other parts are damped. Recently developed programmable sensors capable of processing signals onboard, producing quality outputs with extremely low noise-to-signal ratio, have been used. It is discussed how the new approach can lower the cost of a wind-turbine monitoring system, while at the same time making it simple and more reliable, see Appendix A. The method has been tested on rotating parts of wind-turbines, including traditionally difficult areas such as low speed main bearings and planetary gearboxes. The method developed in the project was designed to see physical processes such as friction, impacts and metal removal, occurring when machinery degrades, can be detected and notified with the developed notification system. Apart from reporting the status and displaying the changes of the pre-defined parameters or symptoms, the system has
Gamma knife radiosurgery for acoustic tumors
In order to evaluate the results of radiosurgery for acoustic tumors and to identify optimum treatment parameters, an analysis of tumor control, as well as incidences of hearing loss, facial and trigeminal neuropathies was undertaken. Between August 1987 and August 1991, 134 patients with 136 acoustic tumors received stereotactic gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh. Median follow-up was 24 months (range: 6-56 months). Tumor volumes ranged from 0.10 to 17.00 cm3 (median = 2.75 cm3). From one to ten isocenters were utilized per tumor treated (median = 3). Minimum tumor doses varied from 12 to 20 Gy (median = 17 Gy). The 4-year actuarial tumor control rate was 89.2 ± 6.0%. Some degree of hearing (by pure tone audiometry) was preserved in 71.0 ± 4.4% of patients. The actuarial rates for preservation of either pretreatment hearing level or useful hearing were 34.4% ± 6.6% and 35.1 ± 97% respectively. Respectively, the actuarial incidences of post radiosurgery facial and trigeminal neuropathies were 29.0 ± 4.4% and 32.9 ± 4.5%, respectively. No significant factors affecting tumor control were identified. Multivariate analysis identified a significantly increased risk of hearing loss in patients with neurofibromatosis (p = 0.003) as well as decreased risks of facial and trigeminal neuropathies with both decreasing tumor diameter (p = 0.001) and increasing number of isocenters treated (p 0.003). Radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment for acoustic neuromas with acceptable morbidity that may be lowered by the use of multiple isocenter treatment techniques and by earlier treatment of small tumors. (author). figs. tabs
Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques
Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele
2012-01-01
This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.
present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...
Development of Acoustic Sensors for the ANTARES Experiment
Naumann, C L; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Salomon, K; Naumann, Christopher Lindsay; Anton, Gisela; Graf, Kay; Hoessl, Juergen; Kappes, Alexander; Karg, Timo; Katz, Uli; Lahmann, Robert; Salomon, Karsten
2005-01-01
In order to study the possibility of acoustic detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos in water, our group is planning to deploy and operate an array of acoustic sensors using the ANTARES Neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, acoustic sensor hardware has to be developed which is both capable of operation under the hostile conditions of the deep sea and at the same time provides the high sensitivity necessary to detect the weak pressure signals resulting from the neutrino's interaction in water. In this paper, two different approaches to building such sensors, as well as performance studies in the laboratory and in situ, are presented.
An Urn Model Approach for Deriving Multivariate Generalized Hypergeometric Distributions
Chen, Xinjia
2013-01-01
We propose new generalized multivariate hypergeometric distributions, which extremely resemble the classical multivariate hypergeometric distributions. The proposed distributions are derived based on an urn model approach. In contrast to existing methods, this approach does not involve hypergeometric series.
Process-optimizing Multivariable Control of a Boiler System
Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Hansen, T.; Hangstrup, M.
1996-01-01
This paper presents a method to apply multivariable controllers as optional process optimizing extensions to existing conventional control systems.......This paper presents a method to apply multivariable controllers as optional process optimizing extensions to existing conventional control systems....
OMEGA (Online Multivariate Exploratory Graphical Analysis): Routine Searching for Structure
Weihs, Claus; Schmidli, Heinz
1990-01-01
A strategy for online multivariate exploratory graphical analysis is presented and illustrated, motivated by the need for a routine procedure for searching for structure in multivariate data sets arising in the context of a major pharmaceutical, dyestuffs and agrochemical company.
Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.
Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried
2015-09-01
High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. PMID:25914370
Damarla, T. R.; Whipps, Gene
2005-05-01
Target tracking and classification using passive acoustic signals is difficult at best as the signals are contaminated by wind noise, multi-path effects, road conditions, and are generally not deterministic. In addition, microphone characteristics, such as sensitivity, vary with the weather conditions. The problem is further compounded if there are multiple targets, especially if some are measured with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than the others and they share spectral information. At the U. S. Army Research Laboratory we have conducted several field experiments with a convoy of two, three, four and five vehicles traveling on different road surfaces, namely gravel, asphalt, and dirt roads. The largest convoy is comprised of two tracked vehicles and three wheeled vehicles. Two of the wheeled vehicles are heavy trucks and one is a light vehicle. We used a super-resolution direction-of-arrival estimator, specifically the minimum variance distortionless response, to compute the bearings of the targets. In order to classify the targets, we modeled the acoustic signals emanated from the targets as a set of coupled harmonics, which are related to the engine-firing rate, and subsequently used a multivariate Gaussian classifier. Independent of the classifier, we find tracking of wheeled vehicles to be intermittent as the signals from vehicles with high SNR dominate the much quieter wheeled vehicles. We used several fusion techniques to combine tracking and classification results to improve final tracking and classification estimates. We will present the improvements (or losses) made in tracking and classification of all targets. Although improvements in the estimates for tracked vehicles are not noteworthy, significant improvements are seen in the case of wheeled vehicles. We will present the fusion algorithm used.
Estimating combining ability in popcorn lines using multivariate analysis
Leandro Simôes Azeredo Gonçalves; Silverio de Paiva Freitas Júnior; Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Rosana Rodrigues; Caillet Dornelles Marinho; Eduardo Stefani Pagliosa
2014-01-01
Aiming to estimate the combining ability in tropical and temperate popcorn (Zea mays L. var. everta Sturt.) lines using multivariate analysis, ten popcorn lines were crossed in a complete diallel without reciprocals and the lines and hybrids were tested in two randomized complete block experiments with three replicates. Data were subjected to univariate and multivariate ANOVA, principal component analysis, and univariate and multivariate diallel analysis. For multivariate diallel analysis, va...
The Multivariate Split Normal Distribution and Asymmetric Principal Components Analysis
Villani, Mattias; Larsson, Rolf
2004-01-01
The multivariate split nomal distribution extends the usual multivariate normal distribution by a set of parameters which allows for skewness in the form of contraction/dilation along a subset of the prinicpal axis. The paper derives some properties for this distribution, including its moment generating function, multivariate skewness and kurtosis. Maximum likelihood estimation is discussed and a complete Bayesian analysis of the multivariate split normal distribution is developed.
Stochastic conditional intensity processes
Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus
2006-01-01
model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence......In this article, we introduce the so-called stochastic conditional intensity (SCI) model by extending Russell’s (1999) autoregressive conditional intensity (ACI) model by a latent common dynamic factor that jointly drives the individual intensity components. We show by simulations that the proposed...... for a joint latent factor and show that its inclusion allows for an improved and more parsimonious specification of the multivariate intensity process...
Modeling rainfall-runoff relationship using multivariate GARCH model
Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.
2013-08-01
The traditional hydrologic time series approaches are used for modeling, simulating and forecasting conditional mean of hydrologic variables but neglect their time varying variance or the second order moment. This paper introduces the multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) modeling approach to show how the variance-covariance relationship between hydrologic variables varies in time. These approaches are also useful to estimate the dynamic conditional correlation between hydrologic variables. To illustrate the novelty and usefulness of MGARCH models in hydrology, two major types of MGARCH models, the bivariate diagonal VECH and constant conditional correlation (CCC) models are applied to show the variance-covariance structure and cdynamic correlation in a rainfall-runoff process. The bivariate diagonal VECH-GARCH(1,1) and CCC-GARCH(1,1) models indicated both short-run and long-run persistency in the conditional variance-covariance matrix of the rainfall-runoff process. The conditional variance of rainfall appears to have a stronger persistency, especially long-run persistency, than the conditional variance of streamflow which shows a short-lived drastic increasing pattern and a stronger short-run persistency. The conditional covariance and conditional correlation coefficients have different features for each bivariate rainfall-runoff process with different degrees of stationarity and dynamic nonlinearity. The spatial and temporal pattern of variance-covariance features may reflect the signature of different physical and hydrological variables such as drainage area, topography, soil moisture and ground water fluctuations on the strength, stationarity and nonlinearity of the conditional variance-covariance for a rainfall-runoff process.
Some Systems of Multivariable Orthogonal q-Racah polynomials
Gasper, George; Rahman, Mizan
2004-01-01
In 1991 Tratnik derived two systems of multivariable orthogonal Racah polynomials and considered their limit cases. q-Extensions of these systems are derived, yielding systems of multivariable orthogonal q-Racah polynomials, from which systems of multivariable orthogonal q-Hahn, dual q-Hahn, q-Krawtchouk, q-Meixner, and q-Charlier polynomials follow as special or limit cases.
Contributions to multivariate analysis with applications in marketing
Van Perlo-Ten Kleij, Frederieke
2004-01-01
Dit proefschrift behandelt een aantal onderwerpen uit de multivariate analyse, waarbij het begrip ‘multivariate analyse’ ruim moet worden ge¨ınterpreteerd. Naast onderwerpen uit de multivariate statistiek in enge zin, besteden we ook aandacht aan matrixrekening, ‘sum-constrained linear models’, marketing en tekstanalyse.
Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals
Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.
Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals
Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es
2009-01-15
Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.
Role of Tobacco Use in the Etiology of Acoustic Neuroma
Palmisano, Sadie; Schwartzbaum, Judith; Prochazka, Michaela; Pettersson, David; Bergenheim, Tommy; Florentzson, Rut; Harder, Henrik; Mathiesen, Tiit; Nyberg, Gunnar; Siesjo, Peter; Feychting, Maria
2012-01-01
Two previous studies suggest that cigarette smoking reduces acoustic neuroma risk; however, an association between use of snuff tobacco and acoustic neuroma has not been investigated previously. The authors conducted a case-control study in Sweden from 2002 to 2007, in which 451 cases and 710 population-based controls completed questionnaires. Cases and controls were matched on gender, region, and age within 5 years. The authors estimated odds ratios using conditional logistic regression anal...
Hybrid Acoustic Modelling of Historic Spaces Using Blender
Van Mourik, Jelle; Oxnard, Stephen; Foteinou, Aglaia; Murphy, Damian Thomas
2014-01-01
Historic spaces provide a challenge in terms of achieving accurate acoustic modelling and auralisation due to the large volumes typically involved, implying significant computational overhead, uncertainty in terms of the construction materials’ properties, and translating this into appropriate physically based boundary conditions. Hybrid acoustic modeling approaches seek to solve the computational problem through complementary assimilation of various modeling paradigms. SonicRender is such a ...
Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model
For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated
Finer discrimination of brain activation with local multivariate distance
无
2007-01-01
The organization of human brain function is diverse on different spatial scales.Various cognitive states are alwavs represented as distinct activity patterns across the specific brain region on fine scales.Conventional univariate analysis of functional MRI data seeks to determine how a particular cognitive state is encoded in brain activity by analyzing each voxel separately without considering the fine-scale patterns information contained in the local brain regions.In this paper,a local multivariate distance mapping(LMDM)technique is proposed to detect the brain activation and to map the fine-scale brain activity patterns.LMDM directly represents the local brain activity with the patterns across multiple voxels rather than individual voxels,and it employs the multivariate distance between different patterns to discriminate the brain state on fine scales.Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that LMDM technique can dramatically increase the sensitivity of the detection for the fine-scale brain activity pettems which contain the subtle information of the experimental conditions.
Baresch, Diego; Marchiano, Régis
2016-01-01
The ability to manipulate matter precisely is critical for the study and development of a large variety of systems. Optical tweezers are excellent tools to handle particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to hundreds of nanometers but become inefficient and damaging on larger objects. We demonstrate for the first reported time the trapping of elastic particles by the large gradient force of a single acoustical beam in three dimensions. We show that at equal power, acoustical forces overtake by 8 orders of magnitude that of optical ones on macroscopic objects. Acoustical tweezers can push, pull and accurately control both the position of the particle and the forces exerted under damage-free conditions. The large spectrum of frequencies covered by coherent ultrasonic sources will provide a wide variety of manipulation possibilities from macro- to microscopic length scales. We believe our observations improve the prospects for wider use of non-contact manipulation in biology, biophysics, microfluidics and...
Rettig, Stefanie; Boebel, Olaf; Menze, Sebastian; Kindermann, Lars; Thomisch, Karolin; Van Opzeeland, Ilse
2013-01-01
Passive acoustic data provide a prime source of information on marine mammal distribution and behaviour. Particularly in the Southern Ocean, where ship-based data collection can be severely hampered by weather and ice conditions, passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) of marine mammals forms an important source of year-round information on acoustic presence. Array data can be used to obtain directional information on the species present in the recordings to derive movement patterns. Acoustic array...
Multivariate Analysis of Genotype-Phenotype Association.
Mitteroecker, Philipp; Cheverud, James M; Pavlicev, Mihaela
2016-04-01
With the advent of modern imaging and measurement technology, complex phenotypes are increasingly represented by large numbers of measurements, which may not bear biological meaning one by one. For such multivariate phenotypes, studying the pairwise associations between all measurements and all alleles is highly inefficient and prevents insight into the genetic pattern underlying the observed phenotypes. We present a new method for identifying patterns of allelic variation (genetic latent variables) that are maximally associated-in terms of effect size-with patterns of phenotypic variation (phenotypic latent variables). This multivariate genotype-phenotype mapping (MGP) separates phenotypic features under strong genetic control from less genetically determined features and thus permits an analysis of the multivariate structure of genotype-phenotype association, including its dimensionality and the clustering of genetic and phenotypic variables within this association. Different variants of MGP maximize different measures of genotype-phenotype association: genetic effect, genetic variance, or heritability. In an application to a mouse sample, scored for 353 SNPs and 11 phenotypic traits, the first dimension of genetic and phenotypic latent variables accounted for >70% of genetic variation present in all 11 measurements; 43% of variation in this phenotypic pattern was explained by the corresponding genetic latent variable. The first three dimensions together sufficed to account for almost 90% of genetic variation in the measurements and for all the interpretable genotype-phenotype association. Each dimension can be tested as a whole against the hypothesis of no association, thereby reducing the number of statistical tests from 7766 to 3-the maximal number of meaningful independent tests. Important alleles can be selected based on their effect size (additive or nonadditive effect on the phenotypic latent variable). This low dimensionality of the genotype-phenotype map
Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer
A. Ziemann
Full Text Available Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.
Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques.
Numerics of surface acoustic wave (SAW) driven acoustic streaming and radiation force
Nama, Nitesh; Barnkob, Rune; Kahler, Christian; Costanzo, Francesco; Jun Huang, Tony
2015-11-01
Recently, surface acoustic wave (SAW) based systems have shown great potential for various lab-on-a-chip applications. However, the physical understanding of the precise acoustic fields and associated acoustophoresis is rather limited. In this work, we present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic particle motion inside a SAW-actuated, liquid-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. We utilize a perturbation approach to divide the flow variables into first- and second-order components. The first-order fields result in a time-averaged acoustic radiation force on suspended particles, as well as the time-averaged body force terms that drive the second-order fields. We model the SAW actuation by a displacement function while we utilize impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS walls. We identify the precise acoustic fields generated inside the microchannel and investigate a range of particle sizes to characterize the transition from streaming-dominated acoustophoresis to radiation-force-dominated acoustophoresis. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of SAW devices to tune the position of vertical pressure node inside the microchannel by tuning the phase difference between the two incoming surface acoustic waves.
Acoustic capture-recapture method for towed acoustic surveys of echolocating porpoises.
Kimura, Satoko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding; Shibata, Yasutoki; Arai, Nobuaki
2014-06-01
Passive acoustic monitoring for cetaceans mainly employ fixed-location methods or point transect samplings; an acoustic survey from a moving platform to conduct line transects is less common. In this study, acoustic capture-recapture by combining a double-observer method with line transect sampling was performed to observe Yangtze finless porpoises. Two acoustic devices were towed with the distance between them varying 0.5 to 89.5 m. The conditional probabilities that both devices would detect the porpoises within the same time window were calculated. In a 1-s time window, it became smaller as the distance between the devices increased, approaching zero when the distance between them was more than 50 m. It was considered that the devices with less than 50 m distance detected the same signals from the same animals, which means the identical detection. When the distance between them is too great, the recapture rate is reduced and the incidence of false matching may increase. Thus, a separation distance of around 50 m between two devices in acoustic capture-recapture of Yangtze finless porpoises was recommended. Note that the performance of the double detections can change depending on the particular device used and on animal behaviors such as vocalizing interval, ship avoidance. PMID:24907799
Multivariate Analysis for the Processing of Signals
Beattie J.R.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Real-world experiments are becoming increasingly more complex, needing techniques capable of tracking this complexity. Signal based measurements are often used to capture this complexity, where a signal is a record of a sample’s response to a parameter (e.g. time, displacement, voltage, wavelength that is varied over a range of values. In signals the responses at each value of the varied parameter are related to each other, depending on the composition or state sample being measured. Since signals contain multiple information points, they have rich information content but are generally complex to comprehend. Multivariate Analysis (MA has profoundly transformed their analysis by allowing gross simplification of the tangled web of variation. In addition MA has also provided the advantage of being much more robust to the influence of noise than univariate methods of analysis. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness that the nature of the multivariate methods allows exploitation of its benefits for purposes other than data analysis, such as pre-processing of signals with the aim of eliminating irrelevant variations prior to analysis of the signal of interest. It has been shown that exploiting multivariate data reduction in an appropriate way can allow high fidelity denoising (removal of irreproducible non-signals, consistent and reproducible noise-insensitive correction of baseline distortions (removal of reproducible non-signals, accurate elimination of interfering signals (removal of reproducible but unwanted signals and the standardisation of signal amplitude fluctuations. At present, the field is relatively small but the possibilities for much wider application are considerable. Where signal properties are suitable for MA (such as the signal being stationary along the x-axis, these signal based corrections have the potential to be highly reproducible, and highly adaptable and are applicable in situations where the data is noisy or
Detecting Positive Correlations in a Multivariate Sample
Castro, Ery Arias; Lugosi, Gábor
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of testing whether a correlation matrix of a multivariate normal population is the identity matrix. We focus on sparse classes of alternatives where only a few entries are nonzero and, in fact, positive. We derive a general lower bound applicable to various classes and study the performance of some near-optimal tests. We pay special attention to computational feasibility and construct near-optimal tests that can be computed efficiently. Finally, we apply our results to prove new lower bounds for the clique number of high-dimensional random geometric graphs.
Approximating Multivariable Functions by Feedforward Neural Nets
Kainen, P.C.; Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.
Berlin : Springer, 2013 - (Bianchini, M.; Maggini, M.; Jain, L.), s. 143-181 ISBN 978-3-642-36656-7. - (Intelligent Systems Reference Library. 49) R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1368; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10023 Grant ostatní: CNR-AV ČR(CZ) Project 2010–2012 “Complexity of Neural-Network and Kernel Computational Models Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : multivariable approximation * feedforward neural networks * network complexity * approximation rates * variational norm * best approximation * tractability of approximation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Fast Algorithm of Multivariable Generalized Predictive Control
Jin,Yuanyu; Pang,Zhonghua; Cui,Hong
2005-01-01
To avoid the shortcoming of the traditional (previous)generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithms, too large amounts of computation, a fast algorithm of multivariable generalized predictive control is presented in which only the current control actions are computed exactly on line and the rest (the future control actions) are approximately done off line. The algorithm is simple and can be used in the arbitary-dimension input arbitary-dimension output (ADIADO) linear systems. Because it dose not need solving Diophantine equation and reduces the dimension of the inverse matrix, it decreases largely the computational burden. Finally, simulation results show that the presented algorithm is effective and practicable.
Multivariate analysis of pixelated diffraction data
A novel pixelated ASIC detector using Cadmium Telluride is applied to a combined energy dispersive- and angular dispersive- X-ray diffraction system. This system is designed to obtain multiple diffraction signatures of powdered materials simultaneously. The diffraction data is analyzed using multivariate partial least squares regression utilizing the diffraction spectra at multiple scatter angles, and material concentration in a three-way regression analysis. The calibration models are used to predict unknown samples, and show that utilizing the angular information can help improve concentration prediction in samples of mixtures and has potential in material identification systems.
Multivariate Process Control with Autocorrelated Data
Kulahci, Murat
2011-01-01
As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control and monitoring. This new high dimensional data...... often exhibit not only cross-‐correlation among the quality characteristics of interest but also serial dependence as a consequence of high sampling frequency and system dynamics. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through what is called the Hotelling’s T2 statistic...
Time Series Forecasting: A Multivariate Stochastic Approach
Sello, Stefano
1999-01-01
This note deals with a multivariate stochastic approach to forecast the behaviour of a cyclic time series. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the prediction of time behaviour of sunspot numbers for the current 23th cycle. The idea is to consider the previous known n cycles as n particular realizations of a given stochastic process. The aim is to predict the future behaviour of the current n+1th realization given a portion of the curve and the structure of the previous n realiza...
Survival Analysis with Multivariate adaptive Regression Splines
Kriner, Monika
2007-01-01
Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) are a useful tool to identify linear and nonlinear eﬀects and interactions between two covariates. In this dissertation a new proposal to model survival type data with MARS is introduced. Martingale and deviance residuals of a Cox PH model are used as response in a common MARS approach to model functional forms of covariate eﬀects as well as possible interactions in a data-driven way. Simulation studies prove that the new method yields a bett...
Multivariate Lipschitz optimization: Survey and computational comparison
Hansen, P.; Gourdin, E.; Jaumard, B.
1994-12-31
Many methods have been proposed to minimize a multivariate Lipschitz function on a box. They pertain the three approaches: (i) reduction to the univariate case by projection (Pijavskii) or by using a space-filling curve (Strongin); (ii) construction and refinement of a single upper bounding function (Pijavskii, Mladineo, Mayne and Polak, Jaumard Hermann and Ribault, Wood...); (iii) branch and bound with local upper bounding functions (Galperin, Pint{acute e}r, Meewella and Mayne, the present authors). A survey is made, stressing similarities of algorithms, expressed when possible within a unified framework. Moreover, an extensive computational comparison is reported on.
Optimal designs for multivariable spline models
Biedermann, Stefanie; Dette, Holger; Woods, David C.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate optimal designs for multivariate additive spline regression models. We assume that the knot locations are unknown, so must be estimated from the data. In this situation, the Fisher information for the full parameter vector depends on the unknown knot locations, resulting in a non-linear design problem. We show that locally, Bayesian and maximin D-optimal designs can be found as the products of the optimal designs in one dimension. A similar result is proven for Q...
New multivariable capabilities of the INCA program
Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.
1989-01-01
The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly, efficient environment for the design and analysis of control systems, specifically spacecraft control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. The (INCA) program was initially developed as a comprehensive classical design analysis tool for small and large order control systems. The latest version of INCA, expected to be released in February of 1990, was expanded to include the capability to perform multivariable controls analysis and design.
Topics in multivariate approximation and interpolation
Jetter, Kurt
2005-01-01
This book is a collection of eleven articles, written by leading experts and dealing with special topics in Multivariate Approximation and Interpolation. The material discussed here has far-reaching applications in many areas of Applied Mathematics, such as in Computer Aided Geometric Design, in Mathematical Modelling, in Signal and Image Processing and in Machine Learning, to mention a few. The book aims at giving a comprehensive information leading the reader from the fundamental notions and results of each field to the forefront of research. It is an ideal and up-to-date introduction for gr
Algorithms for computing the multivariable stability margin
Tekawy, Jonathan A.; Safonov, Michael G.; Chiang, Richard Y.
1989-01-01
Stability margin for multiloop flight control systems has become a critical issue, especially in highly maneuverable aircraft designs where there are inherent strong cross-couplings between the various feedback control loops. To cope with this issue, we have developed computer algorithms based on non-differentiable optimization theory. These algorithms have been developed for computing the Multivariable Stability Margin (MSM). The MSM of a dynamical system is the size of the smallest structured perturbation in component dynamics that will destabilize the system. These algorithms have been coded and appear to be reliable. As illustrated by examples, they provide the basis for evaluating the robustness and performance of flight control systems.
Nonparametric Multivariate Rank Tests and their Unbiasedness
Jurečková, J.; Kalina, Jan
2012-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 229-251. ISSN 1350-7265 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/09/0133; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120801; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : affine invariance * contiguity * Kolmogorov–Smirnov test * Lehmann alternatives * Liu–Singh test * Psi test * Savage test * two-sample multivariate model * unbiasedness * Wilcoxon test Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2012
Impact of acoustic cavitation on food emulsions.
Krasulya, Olga; Bogush, Vladimir; Trishina, Victoria; Potoroko, Irina; Khmelev, Sergey; Sivashanmugam, Palani; Anandan, Sambandam
2016-05-01
The work explores the experimental and theoretical aspects of emulsification capability of ultrasound to deliver stable emulsions of sunflower oil in water and meat sausages. In order to determine optimal parameters for direct ultrasonic emulsification of food emulsions, a model was developed based on the stability of emulsion droplets in acoustic cavitation field. The study is further extended to investigate the ultrasound induced changes to the inherent properties of raw materials under the experimental conditions of sono-emulsification. PMID:26603612
Martin, R. M.; Elliott, J. W.; Hoad, D. R.
1984-01-01
Helicopter blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is studied using a model scale rotor acoustic data base and an analytical rotor wake prediction method. The variation of BVI acoustic levels with vehicle flight conditions (forward speed and disk attitude) is presented. Calculations of probable BVI locations on the rotor disk are made for a range of operating conditions using the measured acoustic signals and an acoustic ray tracing technique. Analytical predictions of possible BVI locations on the rotor disk are made using a generalized distorted wake analysis program. Comparisons of the interaction locations are made with the results of both the analytic approach and the acoustic ray tracing technique.
Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits
Peng, Pai
2014-10-01
We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.
Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell
2007-01-01
As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Annual Review, a summary of the progress made in 2007 in acoustics research under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes highlights from in-house and external activities including partnerships and NRA-funded research with industry and academia. Brief progress reports from all acoustics Phase 1 NRAs are also included as are outlines of the planned activities for 2008 and all Phase 2 NRAs. N+1 and N+2 technology paths outlined for Subsonic Fixed Wing noise targets. NRA Round 1 progressing with focus on prediction method advancement. NRA Round 2 initiating work focused on N+2 technology, prediction methods, and validation. Excellent partnerships in progress supporting N+1 technology targets and providing key data sets.
Schlegel, R. G.
1982-01-01
It is important for industry and NASA to assess the status of acoustic design technology for predicting and controlling helicopter external noise in order for a meaningful research program to be formulated which will address this problem. The prediction methodologies available to the designer and the acoustic engineer are three-fold. First is what has been described as a first principle analysis. This analysis approach attempts to remove any empiricism from the analysis process and deals with a theoretical mechanism approach to predicting the noise. The second approach attempts to combine first principle methodology (when available) with empirical data to formulate source predictors which can be combined to predict vehicle levels. The third is an empirical analysis, which attempts to generalize measured trends into a vehicle noise prediction method. This paper will briefly address each.
Démoré, Christine E. M.; Dahl, Patrick M.; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P.; Spalding, Gabriel C.
2014-05-01
Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system.
Acoustic classification of dwellings
Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit
2014-01-01
Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms of...... descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...
Effect of contralateral stimulation on acoustic reflectance measurements
Tathiany Silva Pichelli
2015-10-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Acoustic reflectance is an important tool in the assessment of middle ear afflictions, and the method is considered advantageous in relation to tympanometry. There has been a growing interest in the study of contralateral acoustic stimulation and its effect on the activation of the efferent auditory pathway. Studies have shown that the introduction of simultaneous stimulation in the contralateral ear generates alterations in auditory response patterns. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of contralateral stimulation on acoustic reflectance measurements. METHODS: Case study of 30 subjects with normal hearing, of both genders, aged 18-30 years. The test and retest acoustic reflectance was conducted in the frequency range 200-6000 Hz. The procedure was repeated with the simultaneous presence of contralateral white noise at 30 dBNS. RESULTS: The analysis of the conditions of test, retest, and test with contralateral noise showed statistical difference at the frequency of 2 kHz (p = 0.011 and p = 0.002 in test and retest, respectively in the right ear. CONCLUSION: The activation of the auditory efferent pathways through contralateral acoustic stimulation produces alterations in response patterns of acoustic reflectance, increasing sound reflection and modifying middle ear acoustical energy transfer.
Acoustical properties of selected tissue phantom materials for ultrasound imaging
Zell, K [Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Sperl, J I [GE Global Research-Europe, Advanced Medical Applications Laboratory, Garching (Germany); Vogel, M W [GE Global Research-Europe, Advanced Medical Applications Laboratory, Garching (Germany); Niessner, R [Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Haisch, C [Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)
2007-10-21
This note summarizes the characterization of the acoustic properties of four materials intended for the development of tissue, and especially breast tissue, phantoms for the use in photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. The materials are agar, silicone, polyvinyl alcohol gel (PVA) and polyacrylamide gel (PAA). The acoustical properties, i.e., the speed of sound, impedance and acoustic attenuation, are determined by transmission measurements of sound waves at room temperature under controlled conditions. Although the materials are tested for application such as photoacoustic phantoms, we focus here on the acoustic properties, while the optical properties will be discussed elsewhere. To obtain the acoustic attenuation in a frequency range from 4 MHz to 14 MHz, two ultrasound sources of 5 MHz and 10 MHz core frequencies are used. For preparation, each sample is cast into blocks of three different thicknesses. Agar, PVA and PAA show similar acoustic properties as water. Within silicone polymer, a significantly lower speed of sound and higher acoustical attenuation than in water and human tissue were found. All materials can be cast into arbitrary shapes and are suitable for tissue-mimicking phantoms. Due to its lower speed of sound, silicone is generally less suitable than the other presented materials. (note)
Network structure of multivariate time series
Lacasa, Lucas; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito
2015-10-01
Our understanding of a variety of phenomena in physics, biology and economics crucially depends on the analysis of multivariate time series. While a wide range tools and techniques for time series analysis already exist, the increasing availability of massive data structures calls for new approaches for multidimensional signal processing. We present here a non-parametric method to analyse multivariate time series, based on the mapping of a multidimensional time series into a multilayer network, which allows to extract information on a high dimensional dynamical system through the analysis of the structure of the associated multiplex network. The method is simple to implement, general, scalable, does not require ad hoc phase space partitioning, and is thus suitable for the analysis of large, heterogeneous and non-stationary time series. We show that simple structural descriptors of the associated multiplex networks allow to extract and quantify nontrivial properties of coupled chaotic maps, including the transition between different dynamical phases and the onset of various types of synchronization. As a concrete example we then study financial time series, showing that a multiplex network analysis can efficiently discriminate crises from periods of financial stability, where standard methods based on time-series symbolization often fail.
Adaptable Multivariate Calibration Models for Spectral Applications
THOMAS,EDWARD V.
1999-12-20
Multivariate calibration techniques have been used in a wide variety of spectroscopic situations. In many of these situations spectral variation can be partitioned into meaningful classes. For example, suppose that multiple spectra are obtained from each of a number of different objects wherein the level of the analyte of interest varies within each object over time. In such situations the total spectral variation observed across all measurements has two distinct general sources of variation: intra-object and inter-object. One might want to develop a global multivariate calibration model that predicts the analyte of interest accurately both within and across objects, including new objects not involved in developing the calibration model. However, this goal might be hard to realize if the inter-object spectral variation is complex and difficult to model. If the intra-object spectral variation is consistent across objects, an effective alternative approach might be to develop a generic intra-object model that can be adapted to each object separately. This paper contains recommendations for experimental protocols and data analysis in such situations. The approach is illustrated with an example involving the noninvasive measurement of glucose using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Extensions to calibration maintenance and calibration transfer are discussed.
Fast Multivariate Search on Large Aviation Datasets
Bhaduri, Kanishka; Zhu, Qiang; Oza, Nikunj C.; Srivastava, Ashok N.
2010-01-01
Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical monitoring, and financial systems. Domain experts are often interested in searching for interesting multivariate patterns from these MTS databases which can contain up to several gigabytes of data. Surprisingly, research on MTS search is very limited. Most existing work only supports queries with the same length of data, or queries on a fixed set of variables. In this paper, we propose an efficient and flexible subsequence search framework for massive MTS databases, that, for the first time, enables querying on any subset of variables with arbitrary time delays between them. We propose two provably correct algorithms to solve this problem (1) an R-tree Based Search (RBS) which uses Minimum Bounding Rectangles (MBR) to organize the subsequences, and (2) a List Based Search (LBS) algorithm which uses sorted lists for indexing. We demonstrate the performance of these algorithms using two large MTS databases from the aviation domain, each containing several millions of observations Both these tests show that our algorithms have very high prune rates (>95%) thus needing actual
Acoustic emission source modeling
Hora P.
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the acoustic emission (AE source modeling by means of FEM system COMSOL Multiphysics. The following types of sources are used: the spatially concentrated force and the double forces (dipole. The pulse excitation is studied in both cases. As a material is used steel. The computed displacements are compared with the exact analytical solution of point sources under consideration.
Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline
2010-04-01
Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of
A NEW METHOD FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIVARIATE MINIMAL INTERPOLATION POLYNOMIAL
Zhang Chuanlin
2001-01-01
The extended Hermite interpolation problem on segment points set over n-dimensional Euclidean space is cansidered. Based on the algorithm to com pute the Grobner basis of Ideal given by dual basis a new method to construct minimal multivariate polynomial which satis fies the interpolation conditions is given.
Yee LEUNG; WU Kefa; DONG Tianxin
2001-01-01
In this paper, a multivariate linear functional relationship model, where the covariance matrix of the observational errors is not restricted, is considered. The parameter estimation of this model is discussed. The estimators are shown to be a strongly consistent estimation under some mild conditions on the incidental parameters.
Acoustically enhanced heat transport
Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)
2016-01-15
We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.
兰朝凤; 李凤臣; 陈欢; 卢迪; 杨德森; 张梦
2015-01-01
Based on the Burgers equation and Manley-Rowe equation, the derivation about nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves has been done in this paper. After nonlinear interaction among the low-frequency weak waves and the pump wave, the analytical solutions of acoustic waves’ amplitude in the field are deduced. The relationship between normalized energy of high-frequency and the change of acoustic energy before and after the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves is analyzed. The experimental results about the changes of the acoustic energy are presented. The study shows that new frequencies are generated and the energies of the low-frequency are modulated in a long term by the pump waves, which leads the energies of the low-frequency acoustic waves to change in the pulse trend in the process of the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves. The increase and decrease of the energies of the low-frequency are observed under certain typical conditions, which lays a foundation for practical engineering applications.
Hansen, T.
The purpose of this Ph.D. thesis is twofold: The first purpose is to devise a new method for application of multivariable controllers in boiler control systems in which they act as optional process optimizing extensions to conventional control systems and in such a way that the safety measures of...
High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics
Jackson, Darrell R
2007-01-01
High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.