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Sample records for acoustic interferometry technique

  1. Swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique for noninvasive chemical diagnostics

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.N.; Han, Wei; Lizon, D.C.; Houlton, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range from outside a container (e.g., reactor vessel, tank, pipe, industrial containers etc.). From the frequency dependence of sound attenuation, fluid density can also be determined. These physical parameters. when combined together, can be used to identify a range of chemicals. This technique can be adapted for chemical diagnostic applications, particularly in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals (liquids, mixtures, emulsions, suspensions, etc.) may provide appropriate feedback information. The SFAI theory is discussed and experimental techniques are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are also presented.

  2. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

    1996-09-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

  3. Noninvasive Measurement of Acoustic Properties of Fluids Using Ultrasonic Interferometry Technique

    Han, W.; Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.N.; Lizon, D.C.

    1997-06-15

    A swept-frequency ultrasonic interferometry technique is used for noninvasively determining acoustic properties of fluids inside containers. Measurements over a frequency range 1-15 MHz on six liquid chemicals are presented. Measurements were made with the liquid inside standard rectangular optical glass cells and stainless steel cylindrical shells. A theoretical model based on one-dimensional planar acoustic wave propagation through multi-layered media is employed for the interpretation of the observed resonance (interference) spectrum. Two analytical methods, derived from the transmission model are used for determination of sound speed, sound attenuation coefficient, and density of liquids from the relative amplitude and half-power peak width of the observed resonance peaks. Effects of the container material and geometrical properties, path-length, wall thickness are also studied. This study shows that the interferometry technique and the experimental method developed are capable of accurate determination of sound speed, sound attenuation, and density in fluids completely noninvasively. It is a capable and versatile fluid characterization technique and has many potential NDE applications.

  4. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  5. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-prese

  6. High-contrast Nulling Interferometry Techniques Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We are developing rotating-baseline nulling-interferometry techniques and algorithms on the single-aperture Hale and Keck telescopes at near-infrared wavelengths,...

  7. Applications of whole field interferometry in mechanics and acoustics

    Molin, Nils-Erik

    1999-07-01

    A description is given of fringe formation in holographic interferometry, in electronic speckle pattern interferometry, in electro-optic or TV holography and for a newly developed system for pulsed TV-holography. A numerical example, which simulates the equations describing the different techniques, is included. A strain measuring system using defocused digital speckle photography is described. Experiments showing mode shapes of musical instruments, transient bending wave propagation in beams and plates as well as sound pressure fields in air are included.

  8. Imaging of transient surface acoustic waves by full-field photorefractive interferometry

    Xiong, Jichuan [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiaolingwei, Nanjing 210094 (China); Soft Matter and Biophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Xu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdxu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: christ.glorieux@fys.kuleuven.be [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Soft Matter and Biophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Glorieux, Christ, E-mail: xdxu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: christ.glorieux@fys.kuleuven.be [Soft Matter and Biophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Matsuda, Osamu [Division of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Cheng, Liping [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-05-15

    A stroboscopic full-field imaging technique based on photorefractive interferometry for the visualization of rapidly changing surface displacement fields by using of a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is presented. The photorefractive buildup of the space charge field during and after probe laser pulses is simulated numerically. The resulting anisotropic diffraction upon the refractive index grating and the interference between the polarization-rotated diffracted reference beam and the transmitted signal beam are modeled theoretically. The method is experimentally demonstrated by full-field imaging of the propagation of photoacoustically generated surface acoustic waves with a temporal resolution of nanoseconds. The surface acoustic wave propagation in a 23 mm × 17 mm area on an aluminum plate was visualized with 520 × 696 pixels of the CCD sensor, yielding a spatial resolution of 33 μm. The short pulse duration (8 ns) of the probe laser yields the capability of imaging SAWs with frequencies up to 60 MHz.

  9. Imaging of transient surface acoustic waves by full-field photorefractive interferometry

    A stroboscopic full-field imaging technique based on photorefractive interferometry for the visualization of rapidly changing surface displacement fields by using of a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is presented. The photorefractive buildup of the space charge field during and after probe laser pulses is simulated numerically. The resulting anisotropic diffraction upon the refractive index grating and the interference between the polarization-rotated diffracted reference beam and the transmitted signal beam are modeled theoretically. The method is experimentally demonstrated by full-field imaging of the propagation of photoacoustically generated surface acoustic waves with a temporal resolution of nanoseconds. The surface acoustic wave propagation in a 23 mm × 17 mm area on an aluminum plate was visualized with 520 × 696 pixels of the CCD sensor, yielding a spatial resolution of 33 μm. The short pulse duration (8 ns) of the probe laser yields the capability of imaging SAWs with frequencies up to 60 MHz

  10. Range Surveillance Using Radio Interferometry and TDOA Techniques Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize a small network of remote sensors to perform Radio Interferometry (RI) and Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) techniques to...

  11. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  12. A graphical tool for demonstrating the techniques of radio interferometry

    We present a graphical interface designed to demonstrate the techniques of radio interferometry used by telescopes like ALMA, e-Merlin, the JVLA and SKA, in a manner accessible to the general public. Interferometry is an observational technique used by astronomers to combine the signal from a few to tens to hundreds of individual small antennas to achieve high resolution images at radio and millimetre wavelengths. This graphical interface demonstrates how the number of antenna, their position relative to one another and the rotation of the Earth allow astronomers to create highly detailed images at long wavelengths. (paper)

  13. On the focusing conditions in time-reversed acoustics, seismic interferometry, and Marchenko imaging

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Vasconcelos, I.; Van Manen, D.J.; Ravasi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the close links between the fields of time-reversed acoustics, seismic interferometry and Marchenko imaging, a number of subtle differences exist. This paper reviews the various focusing conditions of these methods, the causality/acausality aspects of the corresponding focusing wavefields, a

  14. Imaging of transient surface acoustic waves by full-field photorefractive interferometry.

    Xiong, Jichuan; Xu, Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Matsuda, Osamu; Cheng, Liping

    2015-05-01

    A stroboscopic full-field imaging technique based on photorefractive interferometry for the visualization of rapidly changing surface displacement fields by using of a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is presented. The photorefractive buildup of the space charge field during and after probe laser pulses is simulated numerically. The resulting anisotropic diffraction upon the refractive index grating and the interference between the polarization-rotated diffracted reference beam and the transmitted signal beam are modeled theoretically. The method is experimentally demonstrated by full-field imaging of the propagation of photoacoustically generated surface acoustic waves with a temporal resolution of nanoseconds. The surface acoustic wave propagation in a 23 mm × 17 mm area on an aluminum plate was visualized with 520 × 696 pixels of the CCD sensor, yielding a spatial resolution of 33 μm. The short pulse duration (8 ns) of the probe laser yields the capability of imaging SAWs with frequencies up to 60 MHz. PMID:26026514

  15. Pulsed Fiber Holography: A New Technique For Hologram Interferometry

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1985-08-01

    The advantage of the rapid development of fiber optics for communication purposes is that now holographic investigations can be made much more flexible if fibers are used. The use of optical fibers in connection with cw lasers has already found interferometric applications within metrology. The possibility of using a pulsed laser with fibers will open important new applications for hologram interferometry within science, industry, and medicine. A fiber coupling technique for pulsed lasers is described, as well as suitable equipment for pulsed or cw laser holographic investigations. Possible applications also are discussed.

  16. Photoacoustic tomography based on the Green's function retrieval with ultrasound interferometry for sample partially behind an acoustically scattering layer

    Yin, Jie; Tao, Chao; Cai, Peng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-06-01

    Acoustically inhomogeneous mediums with multiple scattering are often the nightmare of photoacoustic tomography. In order to break this limitation, a photoacoustic tomography scheme combining ultrasound interferometry and time reversal is proposed to achieve images in acoustically scattering medium. An ultrasound interferometry is developed to determine the unknown Green's function of strong scattering tissue. Using the determined Greens' function, a time-reversal process is carried out to restore images behind an acoustically inhomogeneous layer from the scattering photoacoustic signals. This method effectively decreases the false contrast, noise, and position deviation of images induced by the multiple scattering. Phantom experiment is carried out to validate the method. Therefore, the proposed method could have potential value in extending the biomedical applications of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomogeneous tissue.

  17. Verification of time-delay interferometry techniques using the University of Florida LISA interferometry simulator

    Mitryk, Shawn J; Wand, Vinzenz; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: smitryk@phys.ufl.ed, E-mail: mueller@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, PO Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States)

    2010-04-21

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a cooperative NASA/ESA mission proposed to directly measure gravitational waves (GW) in the frequency range from 30 muHz to 1 Hz with an optimal strain sensitivity of 10{sup -21}/sq root(Hz) at 3 mHz. LISA will utilize a modified Michelson interferometer to measure length changes of 40 pm/sq root(Hz) between drag-free proof masses located on three separate spacecraft (SC) separated by a distance of 5 Gm. The University of Florida has developed a hardware-in-the-loop simulator of the LISA constellation to verify the laser noise cancellation technique known as time-delay interferometry (TDI). We replicate the frequency stabilization of the laser on the local SC and the phase-locking of the lasers on the far SC. The laser photodetector beatnotes are electronically delayed, Doppler shifted and applied with a mock GW signal to simulate the laser link between the SC. The beatnotes are also measured with a LISA-like phasemeter and the data are used to extract the laser phase and residual phase-lock loop noise in post-processing through TDI. This uncovers the GW modulation signal buried under the laser noise. The results are then compared to the requirements defined by the LISA science collaboration.

  18. Measurement of neutron electric charge by the spin interferometry technique

    Full text: New experiment for checking neutron electro neutrality is proposed. The main idea of this experiment is to use the spin interferometry technique. Such technique is used in SESANS (Spin Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering) installations for condense matter investigations. There is a spatial splitting of neutron on two eigenstates with different projection of spin on magnetic field. After passing through the working area these two eigenstates are reduced back. So, the phase of the interference pattern, i.e. azimuthal spin direction, is defined by phase difference of two neutron eigenstates, accumulated in working area. If such system is placed into uniform electric field E, then two neutron eigenstates, due to their spatial splitting, will be under different electric potentials. With presence of electric charge of neutron qn it will give the energy splitting ΔEe=qn E Δz and, respectively, will give additional phase shift Δφe=ΔEe τ/ℎ, where Δz - value of spatial splitting, τ - time of staying of the neutron in electric field. So, one can see that such system is sensitive to neutron electric charge. Preliminary estimations show the using of technique mentioned above can improve the recent restriction on neutron electric charge on order of magnitude as minimum and it can reach the value better than σ(qn)∼10-22e. (author)

  19. Range Surveillance Using Radio Interferometry and TDOA Techniques Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize a small network of remote sensors (Figure 2.1) to perform Radio Interferometry (RI) and Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA)...

  20. Cross check of electron density distribution by Moire-Schlieren technique and Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    Simultaneous measurements of the electron density in a plasma focus by a Moire-Schlieren technique and Mach-Zehnder interferometry were carried out to investigate the unavoidable error in the interferometry generated by refraction of the probe beam by the density gradient. The pefraction angle was measured precisely by the Moire-Schlieren technique, and the spatial distribution of the electron density calculated from the refraction angle agreed well with that obtained by Mach-Zehnder interferometry. The error produced by the refraction is found to be negligible if an N2-laser is employed as the light source for the plasma focus. (author)

  1. Water induced geohazards measured with spaceborne interferometry techniques

    Poncos, V.; Serban, F.; Teleaga, D.; Ciocan, V.; Sorin, M.; Caranda, D.; Zamfirescu, F.; Andrei, M.; Copaescu, S.; Radu, M.; Raduca, V.

    2012-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic occurrence of groundwater is inducing surficial crustal deformation processes that can be accurately measured with high spatial density from space, regardless of the ground access conditions. The detection of the surface deformation allows uncovering spatial and temporal patterns of subsurface processes such as land subsidence, cave-ins and differential ground settlement related to water content. InSAR measurements combined with ground truth data permit estimation of the mechanical properties of the rocks and the development of models and scenarios to predict disaster events such as cave-ins, landslides and soil liquefaction in the case of an Earthquake. A number of three sites in Romania that suffer of ground instability because of the water component will be presented. The DInSAR, Interferograms Stacking and Persistent Scatterers Interferometry techniques were applied to retrieve as accurate as possible the displacement information. The first studied site is the city of Bucharest; using 7 years of ERS data ground instability was detected on a large area that represents the historical watershed of the Dambovita river. A network of water wells shows that the ground instability is directly proportional to the groundwater depth. The second site is the Ocnele Mari brine extraction area. The exploitation of the Ocnele Mari salt deposit started from the Roman Empire time using the mining technology and from 1954 the salt dissolution technology which involves injecting water into the ground using a well and extracting the brine (water and salt) through another well. The extraction of salt through dissolution led to slow ground subsidence but the flooding and dissolution of the Roman caves led to catastrophic cave-ins and the relocation of an entire village. The water injection technique is still applied and the Roman cave system is an unknown, therefore further catastrophic events are expected. The existing theoretical simulations of the

  2. Active monitoring of formaldehyde diffusion into histological tissues with digital acoustic interferometry.

    Bauer, Daniel R; Stevens, Benjamin; Chafin, David; Theiss, Abbey P; Otter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The preservation of certain labile cancer biomarkers with formaldehyde-based fixatives can be considerably affected by preanalytical factors such as quality of fixation. Currently, there are no technologies capable of quantifying a fixative's concentration or the formation of cross-links in tissue specimens. This work examined the ability to detect formalin diffusion into a histological specimen in real time. As formaldehyde passively diffused into tissue, an ultrasound time-of-flight (TOF) shift of several nanoseconds was generated due to the distinct sound velocities of formalin and exchangeable fluid within the tissue. This signal was resolved with a developed digital acoustic interferometry algorithm, which compared the phase differential between signals and computed the absolute TOF with subnanosecond precision. The TOF was measured repeatedly across the tissue sample for several hours until diffusive equilibrium was realized. The change in TOF from 6-mm thick ex vivo human tonsil fit a single-exponential decay ([Formula: see text]) with rate constants that varied drastically spatially between 2 and 10 h ([Formula: see text]) due to substantial heterogeneity. This technology may prove essential to personalized cancer diagnostics by documenting and tracking biospecimen preanalytical fixation, guaranteeing their suitability for diagnostic assays, and speeding the workflow in clinical histopathology laboratories. PMID:26866049

  3. Performance Analysis of Acoustic Echo Cancellation Techniques

    Rajeshwar Dass

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mainly, the adaptive filters are implemented in time domain which works efficiently in most of the applications. But in many applications the impulse response becomes too large, which increases the complexity of the adaptive filter beyond a level where it can no longer be implemented efficiently in time domain. An example of where this can happen would be acoustic echo cancellation (AEC applications. So, there exists an alternative solution i.e. to implement the filters in frequency domain. AEC has so many applications in wide variety of problems in industrial operations, manufacturing and consumer products. Here in this paper, a comparative analysis of different acoustic echo cancellation techniques i.e. Frequency domain adaptive filter (FDAF, Least mean square (LMS, Normalized least mean square (NLMS &Sign error (SE is presented. The results are compared with different values of step sizes and the performance of these techniques is measured in terms of Error rate loss enhancement (ERLE, Mean square error (MSE& Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR.

  4. The Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed: Enabling Techniques for High Angular Resolution Astronomy

    Rinehart, S. A.; Armstrong, T.; Frey, Bradley J.; Jung, J.; Kirk, J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Lyon, R.; Maher, Stephen; Martino, Anthony J.; Pauls, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT) was designed to develop techniques for wide-field of view imaging interferometry, using "double-Fourier" methods. These techniques will be important for a wide range of future spacebased interferometry missions. We have provided simple demonstrations of the methodology already, and continuing development of the testbed will lead to higher data rates, improved data quality, and refined algorithms for image reconstruction. At present, the testbed effort includes five lines of development; automation of the testbed, operation in an improved environment, acquisition of large high-quality datasets, development of image reconstruction algorithms, and analytical modeling of the testbed. We discuss the progress made towards the first four of these goals; the analytical modeling is discussed in a separate paper within this conference.

  5. Frequency-Shifted Interferometry — A Versatile Fiber-Optic Sensing Technique

    Fei Ye; Yiwei Zhang; Bing Qi; Li Qian

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI). This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applicati...

  6. Photoacoustic tomography based on the Green's function retrieval with ultrasound interferometry for sample partially behind an acoustically scattering layer

    Acoustically inhomogeneous mediums with multiple scattering are often the nightmare of photoacoustic tomography. In order to break this limitation, a photoacoustic tomography scheme combining ultrasound interferometry and time reversal is proposed to achieve images in acoustically scattering medium. An ultrasound interferometry is developed to determine the unknown Green's function of strong scattering tissue. Using the determined Greens' function, a time-reversal process is carried out to restore images behind an acoustically inhomogeneous layer from the scattering photoacoustic signals. This method effectively decreases the false contrast, noise, and position deviation of images induced by the multiple scattering. Phantom experiment is carried out to validate the method. Therefore, the proposed method could have potential value in extending the biomedical applications of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomogeneous tissue

  7. Photoacoustic tomography based on the Green's function retrieval with ultrasound interferometry for sample partially behind an acoustically scattering layer

    Yin, Jie [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Automation, Nanjing Polytechnic Institute, 210048 Nanjing (China); Tao, Chao, E-mail: taochao@nju.edu.cn; Cai, Peng; Liu, Xiaojun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-06-08

    Acoustically inhomogeneous mediums with multiple scattering are often the nightmare of photoacoustic tomography. In order to break this limitation, a photoacoustic tomography scheme combining ultrasound interferometry and time reversal is proposed to achieve images in acoustically scattering medium. An ultrasound interferometry is developed to determine the unknown Green's function of strong scattering tissue. Using the determined Greens' function, a time-reversal process is carried out to restore images behind an acoustically inhomogeneous layer from the scattering photoacoustic signals. This method effectively decreases the false contrast, noise, and position deviation of images induced by the multiple scattering. Phantom experiment is carried out to validate the method. Therefore, the proposed method could have potential value in extending the biomedical applications of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomogeneous tissue.

  8. A comparison between heterodyne and homodyne interferometry to realise the SI unit of acoustic pressure in water

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos; Robinson, Stephen; Rajagopal, Srinath; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2016-04-01

    Optical approaches for hydrophone calibrations offer significant advantages over existing methods based on reciprocity. In particular, heterodyne and homodyne interferometry can accurately measure particle velocity and displacements at a specific point in space thus enabling the acoustical pressure to be measured in an absolute, direct, assumption-free manner, with traceability through the SI definition of the metre. The calibration of a hydrophone can then be performed by placing the active element of the sensor at the point where the acoustic pressure field was measured and monitoring its electrical output. However, it is crucial to validate the performance and accuracy of such optical methods by direct comparison rather than through device calibration. Here we report on the direct comparison of two such optical interferometers used in underwater acoustics and ultrasonics in terms of acoustic pressure estimation and their associated uncertainties in the frequency range 200 kHz-3.5 MHz, with results showing agreement better than 1% in terms of pressure and typical expanded uncertainties better than 3% for both reported methods.

  9. Fast Holographic Deconvolution: a new technique for precision radio interferometry

    Sullivan, Ian; Morales, Miguel; Hazelton, Bryna; Arcus, Wayne; Barnes, David; Bernardi, Gianni; Briggs, Frank; Bowman, Judd D.; Bunton, John; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Deshpande, Avinash; deSouza, Ludi; Emrich, David; Gaensler, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Fast Holographic Deconvolution method for analyzing interferometric radio data. Our new method is an extension of A-projection/software-holography/forward modeling analysis techniques and shares their precision deconvolution and wide-field polarimetry, while being significantly faster than current implementations that use full direction-dependent antenna gains. Using data from the MWA 32 antenna prototype, we demonstrate the effectiveness and precision of our new algorithm. F...

  10. Fast holographic deconvolution: a new technique for precision radio interferometry

    Goeke, Robert F.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Morgan, Edward H.; Remillard, Ronald Alan; Williams, Christopher Leigh

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Fast Holographic Deconvolution method for analyzing interferometric radio data. Our new method is an extension of A-projection/software-holography/forward modeling analysis techniques and shares their precision deconvolution and wide-field polarimetry, while being significantly faster than current implementations that use full direction-dependent antenna gains. Using data from the MWA 32 antenna prototype, we demonstrate the effectiveness and precision of our new algorithm. F...

  11. X-ray phase radiography and tomography with grating interferometry and the reverse projection technique

    X-ray grating interferometry provides substantially increased contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging methods, and therefore new and complementary information. Compared with other phase-contrast imaging techniques, x-ray grating interferometry can overcome some of the problems that have impaired the applications of x-ray phase-contrast radiography and phase tomography. Recently, special attention has been paid to the development of quantitative phase retrieval methods, which is mandatory to perform x-ray phase tomography, to achieve material identification, to differentiate distinct tissues, etc. Typically, the phase-stepping approach has been utilized for phase retrieval in grating interferometry. This method requires a grating scanning and acquisition of multiple radiographic projections, and therefore is disadvantageous in terms of imaging speed and radiation damage. Here we present an innovative, highly sensitive approach, dubbed ‘reverse projection’ (RP), for quantitative phase retrieval. Compared with the phase-stepping approach, the present RP method abandons grating scanning completely, and thus is advantageous due to its much higher efficiency and the reduced radiation dose, without the degradation of reconstruction quality. This review presents a detailed explanation of the principle of the RP method. Both radiography and phase tomography experiments are performed to validate the RP method. We believe that this new technique will find widespread applications in biomedical imaging and in vivo studies. (paper)

  12. Development of High Speed Interferometry Imaging and Analysis Techniques for Compressible Dynamic Stall

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Carr, L. W.; Wilder, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a high-speed, phase-locked, realtime, point diffraction interferometry system for quantitative imaging unsteady separated flows is described. The system enables recording of up to 224 interferograms of the dynamic stall flow over an oscillating airfoil using a drum camera at rates of up to 40 KHz controlled by custom designed electronic interlocking circuitry. Several thousand interferograms of the flow have been obtained using this system. A comprehensive image analysis package has been developed for automatic processing of this large number of images. The software has been specifically tuned to address the special characteristics of airfoil flow interferograms. Examples of images obtained using the standard and the high-speed interferometry techniques are presented along with a demonstration of the image processing routine's ability to resolve the fine details present in these images.

  13. Fast Holographic Deconvolution: a new technique for precision radio interferometry

    Sullivan, Ian; Hazelton, Bryna; Arcus, Wayne; Barnes, David; Bernardi, Gianni; Briggs, Frank; Bowman, Judd D; Bunton, John; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Deshpande, Avinash; deSouza, Ludi; Emrich, David; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, Robert; Greenhill, Lincoln; Herne, David; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Kaplan, David; Kasper, Justin; Kincaid, Barton; Koenig, Ronald; Kratzenberg, Eric; Lonsdale, Colin; Lynch, Mervyn; McWhirter, Russell; Mitchell, Daniel; Morgan, Edward; Oberoi, Divya; Ord, Stephen; Pathikulangara, Joseph; Prabu, Thiagaraj; Remillard, Ron; Rogers, Alan; Roshi, Anish; Salah, Joseph; Sault, Robert; Shankar, Udaya; Srivani, K; Stevens, Jamie; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Tingay, Steven; Wayth, Randall; Waterson, Mark; Webster, Rachel; Whitney, Alan; Williams, Andrew; Williams, Chris; Wyithe, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Fast Holographic Deconvolution method for analyzing interferometric radio data. Our new method is an extension of A-projection/software-holography/forward modeling analysis techniques and shares their precision deconvolution and widefield polarimetry, while being significantly faster than current implementations that use full direction-dependent antenna gains. Using data from the MWA 32 antenna prototype, we demonstrate the effectiveness and precision of our new algorithm. Fast Holographic Deconvolution may be particularly important for upcoming 21 cm cosmology observations of the Epoch of Reionization and Dark Energy where foreground subtraction is intimately related to the precision of the data reduction.

  14. Laser desorption/vaporization/ionization techniques for matter-wave interferometry

    Full text: Testing the delocalization of individual massive objects is an exciting experimental challenge of modern quantum physics and substantial progress in matter-wave interferometry with complex particles has led to the establishment of quantum-assisted molecule metrology and advanced investigations at the boundary between the classical and quantum mechanical evolution of very massive objects. New interferometers have led to demonstrations of the quantum wave nature of organic molecules beyond 10 000 amu and even of clusters of molecules. One of the major challenges for future interference experiments with large particles is the production of a neutral and slow molecular beam. We aim at particles with a mass beyond 104 u that should travel with sufficient intensity, low internal temperature and low transverse velocity. Here we present a series of experiments characterizing different laser desorption sources for future quantum interference experiments, the Quantum LIMES (Laser Induced Molecule Evaporation Sources). We describe the matrix-free laser desorption and laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) with subsequent UV/VUV photoionization in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We present mass spectra and velocity distributions of large tailor-made perfluoroalkyl-functionalized molecules as well as more thermo labile biomolecules and we discuss the suitability of LIAD for matter wave interferometry. (author)

  15. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  16. Techniques for Primary Acoustic Thermometry to 800 K

    Ripple, D. C.; Defibaugh, D. R.; Moldover, M. R.; Strouse, G. F.

    2003-09-01

    The NIST Primary Acoustic Thermometer will measure the difference between the International Temperature Scale of 1990 and the Kelvin Thermodynamic Scale throughout the range 273 K to 800 K with uncertainties of only a few millikelvins. The acoustic thermometer determines the frequencies of the acoustic resonances of pure argon gas contained within a spherical cavity with uncertainties approaching one part in 106. To achieve this small uncertainty at these elevated temperatures we developed new acoustic transducers and new techniques for the maintenance of gas purity and for temperature control. The new electro-acoustic transducers are based on the capacitance between a flexible silicon wafer and a rigid backing plate. Without the damping usually provided by polymers, mechanical vibrations caused unstable, spurious acoustic signals. We describe our techniques for suppression of these vibrations. Our acoustic thermometer allows the argon to be continuously flushed through the resonator, thereby preventing the build up of hydrogen that evolves from the stainless-steel resonator. We describe how the argon pressure is stabilized while flushing. The argon exiting from the resonator is analyzed with a customized gas chromatograph. Because the acoustic resonator was so large—it has an outer diameter of 20 cm—a sophisticated furnace, based on surrounding the resonator with three concentric aluminum shells, was designed to maintain thermal uniformity and stability of the resonator at a level of 1 mK. We describe the design, modeling, and operational characteristics of the furnace.

  17. Physically-Based Interactive Flow Visualization Based on Schlieren and Interferometry Experimental Techniques

    Brownlee, C.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry, and schlieren imaging for centuries, which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. Interferometry tracks changes in phase-shift resulting in bands appearing. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Applications of our method to multifield data and custom application-dependent color filter creation are explored. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are finally presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Ecological Insights from Pelagic Habitats Acquired Using Active Acoustic Techniques

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.; Lawson, Gareth L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine pelagic ecosystems present fascinating opportunities for ecological investigation but pose important methodological challenges for sampling. Active acoustic techniques involve producing sound and receiving signals from organisms and other water column sources, offering the benefit of high spatial and temporal resolution and, via integration into different platforms, the ability to make measurements spanning a range of spatial and temporal scales. As a consequence, a variety of questions concerning the ecology of pelagic systems lend themselves to active acoustics, ranging from organism-level investigations and physiological responses to the environment to ecosystem-level studies and climate. As technologies and data analysis methods have matured, the use of acoustics in ecological studies has grown rapidly. We explore the continued role of active acoustics in addressing questions concerning life in the ocean, highlight creative applications to key ecological themes ranging from physiology and behavior to biogeography and climate, and discuss emerging avenues where acoustics can help determine how pelagic ecosystems function.

  19. Combined Photoacoustic-Acoustic Technique for Crack Imaging

    Zakrzewski, J.; Chigarev, N.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear imaging of a crack by combination of a common photoacoustic imaging technique with additional acoustic loading has been performed. Acoustic signals at two different fundamental frequencies were launched in the sample, one photoacoustically through heating of the sample surface by the intensity-modulated scanning laser beam and another by a piezoelectrical transducer. The acoustic signal at mixed frequencies, generated due to system nonlinearity, has been detected by an accelerometer. Different physical mechanisms of the nonlinearity contributing to the contrast in linear and nonlinear photoacoustic imaging of the crack are discussed.

  20. Frequency-Shifted Interferometry — A Versatile Fiber-Optic Sensing Technique

    Fei Ye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI. This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applications in fiber length and dispersion measurement, locating weak reflections along a fiber link, fiber-optic sensor multiplexing, and high-sensitivity cavity ring-down measurement. Detailed analysis of FSI system parameters is also presented.

  1. Non-contact acoustic emission measurement for condition monitoring of bearings in rotating machines using laser interferometry

    For advanced maintenance and safety in nuclear power plants, it is necessary to combine various technologies that are used to monitor the status of different equipment. Non-contact measurement methods offer technical advantages over contact measurement methods, such as the ability to perform spot measurements, adapt to high-temperature environments, and inspect dynamic parts. The acoustic emission (AE) method can detect earlier abnormal signs in bearings than vibration analysis, which is commonly used in power plants. The AE method is also able to detect various other events such as wear and leakage of materials. However, currently, non-contact AE measurement is not used for condition monitoring in power plants. To verify the feasibility of a non-contact AE measurement method using laser interferometry for condition monitoring technology, laboratory tests were conducted using a rotating machine fitted with bearings that had deliberately been made defective. The AE signals propagating from these defects were measured using a Michelson interferometer on the rotating polished shaft, and a piezoelectric sensor positioned on the bearing housing. This paper demonstrates that the non-contact AE method can detect various stages of deterioration in bearings, and therefore, the method can be considered as a useful future tool for condition monitoring of bearings in rotating machines. (author)

  2. A low cost meteor observation system using radio forward scattering and the interferometry technique

    Madkour, Waleed; Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Mizumoto, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    We present a low cost meteor observation system based on the radio forward scattering and interferometry technique at Kochi University of Technology (KUT). The system can be a suitable model for low budget educational institutes that target practical learning of astronomical objects and upper atmospheric characteristics. The system methodology for the automatic counting of meteor echoes, filtering noise and detecting meteor echo directions is described. Detection of the meteor echo directions, which is the basic element for determining the meteor trajectories and the orbital parameters of parent comets, is based on a software system developed for analysis of phase differences detected by interferometry. Randomly selected observation samples measured by the radio interferometer are compared to simultaneous optical observations by video cameras to verify the system accuracy. Preliminary error analysis revealed that the system accuracy is directly related to the duration of observed meteor echoes. Eighty percent of meteor echo samples with durations longer than 3 s showed agreement in azimuth and elevation angles measurements to within a 10° error range, while meteor echo samples with shorter durations showed lower agreement levels probably due to the low system sampling resolution of 0.1 s. The reasonable agreement level of meteor echoes with duration longer than 3 s demonstrated the applicability of the system methodology. Accurate observation of shorter duration meteor echoes could possibly be achieved by improving the system resolution.

  3. Comparison of channel equalization filtering techniques in underwater acoustic communications

    Kuchler, Ryan J.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, underwater acoustic communications signal processing techniques, which are used to equalize the distortional effects associated with the ocean as a communications channel, are investigated for a shallow water ocean environment. The majority of current signal processing techniques employ a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter. Three equalization filters were investigated and presented as alternatives; they were the passive time-reversed filter, the inverse filter, and the Infin...

  4. Frequency scanning interferometry. A versatile, high precision, multiple distance measurement technique

    Frequency Scanning Interferometry (FSI) has been developed for high precision, simultaneous, absolute distance measurements along multiple lines of sight. In the ATLAS semiconductor tracker, FSI will be used to measure lines of sight between nodes of a geodetic grid, attached to the support structure. Movements of the detector modules on the order of ten microns will be monitored by measuring changes in grid line lengths on the order of one micron. In this paper, the FSI technique is explained and FSI measurement results, demonstrating achievement of the required precision, are presented. These measurements have been made using interferometer components of the final ATLAS design. This interferometer design complies with the following requirements: low mass, rugged, radiation hard, able to fit into the small spaces allocated and insensitive to all conceivable changes in interferometer alignment. Future plans for using FSI within alignment systems for survey and operation of the next generation of linear colliders will also be discussed. (author)

  5. Vibration-immune high-sensitivity profilometer built with the technique of composite interferometry.

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Chang, Chun-Wei; Hou, Max T; Hsu, I-Jen

    2016-03-10

    A prototype of a profilometer was built with the technique of composite interferometry for measurement of the distribution of both the amplitude and phase information of the surface of a material simultaneously. The composite interferometer was composed of a Michelson interferometer for measuring the surface profile of the sample and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for measuring the phase deviation caused by the scanning component and environmental perturbations. A high-sensitivity surface profile can be obtained by use of the phase compensation mechanism through subtraction of the phases of the interferograms detected in the two interferometers. With the new design and improvement of robustness of the optical system, the measurement speed and accuracy were significantly improved. Furthermore, an additional optical delay component results in a higher sensitivity of the interference signal. This prototype of vibration-immune profilometer was examined to have a displacement sensitivity of 0.64 nm. PMID:26974777

  6. Applicability of coda wave interferometry technique for measurement of acoustoelastic effect of concrete

    Shim, Sung Woo [Dept. of of Safety Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we examined the applicability of coda wave interferometry (CWI) technique, which was developed to characterize seismic waves, to detect and evaluate change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to acoustoelastic effect. Ultrasonic wave measurements and compressive loading tests were conducted on a concrete specimen. The measured wave signals were processed with CWI to detect and evaluate the relative velocity change with respect to the stress state of the specimen. A phase change due to the acoustoelastic effect of concrete was clearly detected in the late-arriving coda wave. This shows that the relative velocity change of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to the acoustoelastic effect can be evaluated successfully and precisely using CWI.

  7. Intraoperative neuromonitoring techniques in the surgical management of acoustic neuromas.

    Oh, Taemin; Nagasawa, Daniel T; Fong, Brendan M; Trang, Andy; Gopen, Quinton; Parsa, Andrew T; Yang, Isaac

    2012-09-01

    Unfavorable outcomes such as facial paralysis and deafness were once unfortunate probable complications following resection of acoustic neuromas. However, the implementation of intraoperative neuromonitoring during acoustic neuroma surgery has demonstrated placing more emphasis on quality of life and preserving neurological function. A modern review demonstrates a great degree of recent success in this regard. In facial nerve monitoring, the use of modern electromyography along with improvements in microneurosurgery has significantly improved preservation. Recent studies have evaluated the use of video monitoring as an adjunctive tool to further improve outcomes for patients undergoing surgery. Vestibulocochlear nerve monitoring has also been extensively studied, with the most popular techniques including brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring, electrocochleography, and direct compound nerve action potential monitoring. Among them, direct recording remains the most promising and preferred monitoring method for functional acoustic preservation. However, when compared with postoperative facial nerve function, the hearing preservation is only maintained at a lower rate. Here, the authors analyze the major intraoperative neuromonitoring techniques available for acoustic neuroma resection. PMID:22937857

  8. DETECTION OF EPR USING A PULSED MICROWAVE ACOUSTIC TECHNIQUE

    Netzelmann, U.; Lerchner, H.; Pelzl, J.; Sigrist, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new pulsed microwave acoustic method is shown to be suited for the detection of EPR. Pressure amplitudes obtained for DPPH in n-hexane agree with theoretical predictions. Our calculations clearly demonstrate that temperature gradients within the sample are important for generating large signal amplitudes. Hence this technique is of special interest for samples with an inhomogeneous distribution of paramagnetic centers or for the study of interfaces.

  9. Failure Mechanism of Rock Bridge Based on Acoustic Emission Technique

    Guoqing Chen; Yan Zhang; Runqiu Huang; Fan Guo; Guofeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) technique is widely used in various fields as a reliable nondestructive examination technology. Two experimental tests were carried out in a rock mechanics laboratory, which include (1) small scale direct shear tests of rock bridge with different lengths and (2) large scale landslide model with locked section. The relationship of AE event count and record time was analyzed during the tests. The AE source location technology and comparative analysis with its actual failu...

  10. Digital stroboscopic holographic interferometry for power flow measurements in acoustically driven membranes

    Keustermans, William; Pires, Felipe; De Greef, Daniël; Vanlanduit, Steve J. A.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of the eardrum and the ossicles in the hearing chain, it remains an open question how acoustical energy is transmitted between them. Identifying the transmission path at different frequencies could lead to valuable information for the domain of middle ear surgery. In this work a setup for stroboscopic holography is combined with an algorithm for power flow calculations. With our method we were able to accurately locate the power sources and sinks in a membrane. The setup enabled us to make amplitude maps of the out-of-plane displacement of a vibrating rubber membrane at subsequent instances of time within the vibration period. From these, the amplitude maps of the moments of force and velocities are calculated. The magnitude and phase maps are extracted from this amplitude data, and form the input for the power flow calculations. We present the algorithm used for the measurements and for the power flow calculations. Finite element models of a circular plate with a local energy source and sink allowed us to test and optimize this algorithm in a controlled way and without the present of noise, but will not be discussed below. At the setup an earphone was connected with a thin tube which was placed very close to the membrane so that sound impinges locally on the membrane, hereby acting as a local energy source. The energy sink was a little piece of foam carefully placed against the membrane. The laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the vibration period using a 30 mW HeNe continuous wave laser (red light, 632.8 nm) in combination with an acousto-optic modulator. A function generator controls the phase of these illumination pulses and the holograms are recorded using a CCD camera. We present the magnitude and phase maps as well as the power flow measurements on the rubber membrane. Calculation of the divergence of this power flow map provides a simple and fast way of identifying and locating an energy source or sink. In conclusion

  11. Characterization of Nb SRF cavity materials by white light interferometry and replica techniques

    Much work has shown that the topography of the interior surface is an important contributor to the performance of Nb superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities. Micron-scale topography is implicated in non-linear loss mechanisms that limit the useful accelerating gradient range and impact cryogenic cost. Aggressive final chemical treatments in cavity production seek to reliably obtain “smoothest” surfaces with superior performance. Process development suffers because the cavity interior surface cannot be viewed directly without cutting out pieces, rendering the cavities unavailable for further study. Here we explore replica techniques as an alternative, providing imprints of cavity internal surface that can be readily examined. A second matter is the topography measurement technique used. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven successful, but too time intensive for routine use in this application. We therefore introduce white light interferometry (WLI) as an alternative approach. We examined real surfaces and their replicas, using AFM and WLI. We find that the replica/WLI is promising to provide the large majority of the desired information, recognizing that a trade-off is being made between best lateral resolution (AFM) and the opportunity to examine much more surface area (WLI).

  12. Acoustic source identification using a Generalized Weighted Inverse Beamforming technique

    Presezniak, Flavio; Zavala, Paulo A. G.; Steenackers, Gunther; Janssens, Karl; Arruda, Jose R. F.; Desmet, Wim; Guillaume, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    In the last years, acoustic source identification has gained special attention, mainly due to new environmental norms, urbanization problems and more demanding acoustic comfort expectation of consumers. From the current methods, beamforming techniques are of common use, since normally demands affordable data acquisition effort, while producing clear source identification in most of the applications. In order to improve the source identification quality, this work presents a method, based on the Generalized Inverse Beamforming, that uses a weighted pseudo-inverse approach and an optimization procedure, called Weighted Generalized Inverse Beamforming. To validate this method, a simple case of two compact sources in close vicinity in coherent radiation was investigated by numerical and experimental assessment. Weighted generalized inverse results are compared to the ones obtained by the conventional beamforming, MUltiple Signal Classification, and Generalized Inverse Beamforming. At the end, the advantages of the proposed method are outlined together with the computational effort increase compared to the Generalized Inverse Beamforming.

  13. Acoustical Characteristics of Mastication Sounds: Application of Speech Analysis Techniques

    Brochetti, Denise

    Food scientists have used acoustical methods to study characteristics of mastication sounds in relation to food texture. However, a model for analysis of the sounds has not been identified, and reliability of the methods has not been reported. Therefore, speech analysis techniques were applied to mastication sounds, and variation in measures of the sounds was examined. To meet these objectives, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, a digital sound spectrograph generated waveforms and wideband spectrograms of sounds by 3 adult subjects (1 male, 2 females) for initial chews of food samples differing in hardness and fracturability. Acoustical characteristics were described and compared. For all sounds, formants appeared in the spectrograms, and energy occurred across a 0 to 8000-Hz range of frequencies. Bursts characterized waveforms for peanut, almond, raw carrot, ginger snap, and hard candy. Duration and amplitude of the sounds varied with the subjects. In the second experiment, the spectrograph was used to measure the duration, amplitude, and formants of sounds for the initial 2 chews of cylindrical food samples (raw carrot, teething toast) differing in diameter (1.27, 1.90, 2.54 cm). Six adult subjects (3 males, 3 females) having normal occlusions and temporomandibular joints chewed the samples between the molar teeth and with the mouth open. Ten repetitions per subject were examined for each food sample. Analysis of estimates of variation indicated an inconsistent intrasubject variation in the acoustical measures. Food type and sample diameter also affected the estimates, indicating the variable nature of mastication. Generally, intrasubject variation was greater than intersubject variation. Analysis of ranks of the data indicated that the effect of sample diameter on the acoustical measures was inconsistent and depended on the subject and type of food. If inferences are to be made concerning food texture from acoustical measures of mastication

  14. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) technique: A test case of the Mars Express Phobos fly-by

    Duev, D. A.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Cimò, G.; Molera Calvés, G.; Bocanegra Bahamón, T. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Kettenis, M. M.; Kania, J.; Tudose, V.; Rosenblatt, P.; Marty, J.-C.; Lainey, V.; de Vicente, P.; Quick, J.; Nickola, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Ploetz, C.; Haas, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Orlati, A.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kharinov, M. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Stevens, J.; Gulyaev, S. A.; Natush, T.; Weston, S.; Wang, W. H.; Xia, B.; Yang, W. J.; Hao, L.-F.; Kallunki, J.; Witasse, O.

    2016-09-01

    Context. The closest ever fly-by of the Martian moon Phobos, performed by the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft, gives a unique opportunity to sharpen and test the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) technique in the interest of studying planet-satellite systems. Aims: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a technique of providing high precision positional and Doppler measurements of planetary spacecraft using the Mars Express spacecraft. The technique will be used in the framework of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments in various planetary missions, in particular in fly-by mode. Methods: We advanced a novel approach to spacecraft data processing using the techniques of Doppler and phase-referenced very long baseline interferometry spacecraft tracking. Results: We achieved, on average, mHz precision (30 μm/s at a 10 s integration time) for radial three-way Doppler estimates and sub-nanoradian precision for lateral position measurements, which in a linear measure (at a distance of 1.4 AU) corresponds to ~50 m.

  15. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) technique: A test case of the Mars Express Phobos fly-by

    Duev, Dmitry A; Cimò, Giuseppe; Calvés, Guifré Molera; Bahamón, Tatiana M Bocanegra; Gurvits, Leonid I; Kettenis, Mark M; Kania, Joseph; Tudose, Valeriu; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Marty, Jean-Charles; Lainey, Valery; de Vicente, Pablo; Quick, Jonathan; Nickola, Marisa; Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Haas, Rüdiger; Lindqvist, Michael; Orlati, Andrea; Ipatov, Alexander V; Kharinov, Mikhail A; Mikhailov, Andrey G; Lovell, Jim; McCallum, Jamie; Stevens, Jamie; Gulyaev, Sergei A; Natush, Tim; Weston, Stuart; Wang, Weihua; Xia, Bo; Yang, Wenjun; Hao, Long-Fei; Kallunki, Juha; Witasse, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The closest ever fly-by of the Martian moon Phobos, performed by the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft, gives a unique opportunity to sharpen and test the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) technique in the interest of studying planet - satellite systems. The aim of this work is to demonstrate a technique of providing high precision positional and Doppler measurements of planetary spacecraft using the Mars Express spacecraft. The technique will be used in the framework of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments in various planetary missions, in particular in fly-by mode. We advanced a novel approach to spacecraft data processing using the techniques of Doppler and phase-referenced very long baseline interferometry spacecraft tracking. We achieved, on average, mHz precision (30 {\\mu}m/s at a 10 seconds integration time) for radial three-way Doppler estimates and sub-nanoradian precision for lateral position measurements, which in a linear measure (at a d...

  16. A novel technique of in situ phase-shift interferometry applied for faint dissolution of bulky montmorillonite in alkaline solution

    The effect of alkaline pH on the dissolution rate of bulky aggregated montmorillonite samples at 23°C was investigated for the first time by using an enhanced phase-shift interferometry technique combined with an internal refraction interferometry method developed for this study. This technique was applied to provide a molecular resolution during the optical observation of the dissolution phenomena in real time and in situ while remaining noninvasive. A theoretical normal resolution limit of this technique was 0.78 nm in water for opaque material, but was limited to 6.6 nm for montmorillonite due to the transparency of the montmorillonite crystal. Normal dissolution velocities as low as 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-3 nm/s were obtained directly by using the measured temporal change in height of montmorillonite samples set in a reaction cell. The molar dissolution fluxes of montmorillonite obtained in this study gave considerably faster dissolution rates in comparison to those obtained in previous investigations by solution analysis methods. The pH dependence of montmorillonite dissolution rate determined in this study was qualitatively in good agreement with those reported in the previous investigations. The dissolution rates to be used in safety assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes should be obtained for bulky samples. This goal has been difficult to achieve using conventional powder experiment technique and solution analysis method, but has been shown to be feasible using the enhanced phase-shift interferometry. (author)

  17. Progress on acoustic techniques for LMFBR structural surveillance

    Acoustic techniques are being developed to monitor remotely the incipient events of various modes of failure. Topics have been selected from the development programme which are either of special importance or in which significant advances have been made recently. Ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel welds is difficult and one alternative approach which is being explored is to identify manufacturing defects during fabrication by monitoring the welding processes. Preliminary measurements are described of the acoustic events measured during deliberately defective welding tests in the laboratory and some initial analysis using pattern recognition techniques is described. The assessment of structural failures using probability analysis has emphasised the potential value of continuous monitoring during operation and this has led to the investigation into the use of vibrational analysis and acoustic emission as monitoring techniques. Mechanical failure from fatigue may be anticipated from measurement of vibrational modes and experience from PFR and from models have indicated the depth of detailed understanding required to achieve this. In the laboratory a vessel with an artificial defect has been pressurised to failure. Detection of the weak stress wave emissions was possible but difficult and the prospects for on-line monitoring are discussed. Ultrasonic technology for providing images of components immersed in the opaque sodium of LMFBRs is being developed. Images are cormed by the physical scanning of a target using transducers in a pulse-echo mode. Lead zirconate transducers have been developed which can be deployed during reactor shut-down. The first application will be to examine a limited area of the core of PFR. Handling the data from such an experiment involves developing methods for reading and storing the information from such ultrasonic echo. Such techniques have been tested in real time by simulation in a water model. Methods of enhancing the images to be

  18. Water vapor as an error source in microwave geodetic systems: Background and survey of calibration techniques. [very long base interferometry

    Claflin, E. S.; Resch, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Water vapor as an error source in radio interferometry systems is briefly examined. At microwave frequencies, the delay imposed by tropospheric water vapor becomes a limiting error source for high accuracy geodetic systems. The mapping of tropospheric induced errors into 'solved-for' parameters depends upon baseline length and observing strategy. Simulation analysis (and experience) indicates that in some cases, errors in estimating tropospheric delay can be magnified in their effect on baseline components. The various techniques by which tropospheric water can be estimated or measured are surveyed with particular consideration to their possible use as a calibration technique in support to very long baseline interferometry experiments. The method of remote sensing using a microwave radiometer seems to be the most effective way to provide an accurate estimate of water vapor delay.

  19. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry technique for the measurement of complex mechanical structures for aero-spatial applications

    Restrepo, René; Uribe-Patarroyo, Néstor; Garranzo, Daniel; Pintado, José M.; Frovel, Malte; Belenguer, Tomás

    2010-09-01

    Using the electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) technique in the in-plane arrangement, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a composite material that will be used in a passive focusing mechanism of an aerospace mission was measured. This measurement with ESPI was compared with another interferometric method (Differential Interferometer), whose principal characteristic is its high accuracy, but the measurement is only local. As a final step, the results have been used to provide feedback with the finite element analysis (FEA). Before the composite material measurements, a quality assessment of the technique was carried out measuring the CTE of Aluminum 6061-T6. Both techniques were compared with the datasheet delivered by the supplier. A review of the basic concepts was done, especially with regards to ESPI, and the considerations to predict the quality in the fringes formation were explained. Also, a review of the basic concepts for the mechanical calculation in composite materials was done. The CTE of the composite material found was 4.69X10-6 +/- 3X10-6K-1. The most important advantage between ESPI and differential interferometry is that ESPI provides more information due to its intrinsic extended area, surface deformation reconstruction, in comparison with the strictly local measurement of differential interferometry

  20. Forest parameter estimation using polarimetric SAR interferometry techniques at low frequencies

    Lee, Seung-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (Pol-InSAR) is an active radar remote sensing technique based on the coherent combination of both polarimetric and interferometric observables. The Pol-InSAR technique provided a step forward in quantitative forest parameter estimation. In the last decade, airborne SAR experiments evaluated the potential of Pol-InSAR techniques to estimate forest parameters (e.g., the forest height and biomass) with high accuracy over various local forest test sites. This dissertation addresses the actual status, potentials and limitations of Pol-InSAR inversion techniques for 3-D forest parameter estimations on a global scale using lower frequencies such as L- and P-band. The multi-baseline Pol-InSAR inversion technique is applied to optimize the performance with respect to the actual level of the vertical wave number and to mitigate the impact of temporal decorrelation on the Pol-InSAR forest parameter inversion. Temporal decorrelation is a critical issue for successful Pol-InSAR inversion in the case of repeat-pass Pol-InSAR data, as provided by conventional satellites or airborne SAR systems. Despite the limiting impact of temporal decorrelation in Pol-InSAR inversion, it remains a poorly understood factor in forest height inversion. Therefore, the main goal of this dissertation is to provide a quantitative estimation of the temporal decorrelation effects by using multi-baseline Pol-InSAR data. A new approach to quantify the different temporal decorrelation components is proposed and discussed. Temporal decorrelation coefficients are estimated for temporal baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 54 days and are converted to height inversion errors. In addition, the potential of Pol-InSAR forest parameter estimation techniques is addressed and projected onto future spaceborne system configurations and mission scenarios (Tandem-L and BIOMASS satellite missions at L- and P-band). The impact of the system parameters (e.g., bandwidth

  1. Cross-Sectional Residual Stresses in Thermal Spray Coatings Measured by Moiré Interferometry and Nanoindentation Technique

    Zhu, Jianguo; Xie, Huimin; Hu, Zhenxing; Chen, Pengwan; Zhang, Qingming

    2012-09-01

    A plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) was deposited on a stainless steel substrate. The residual stresses were firstly measured by moiré interferometry combined with a cutting relaxation method. The fringe patterns in the cross-section of the specimen clearly demonstrate the deformation caused by the residual stress in thermal spray coatings. However, restricted by the sensitivity of moiré interferometry, there are few fringes in the top coat, and large errors may exist in evaluating the residual stress in the top coat. Then, the nanoindentation technique was used to estimate the residual stresses across the coating thickness. The stress/depth profile shows that the process-induced stresses after thermal spray are compressive in the top coat and a tendency to a more compressive state toward the interface. In addition, the stress gradient in the substrate is nonlinear, and tensile and compressive stresses appear simultaneously for self-equilibrium in the cross-section.

  2. Precise measurement technique for the stable acoustic cavitation bubble

    HUANG Wei; CHEN Weizhong; LIU Yanan; GAO Xianxian; JIANG Lian; XU Junfeng; ZHU Yifei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the periodic oscillation of the stable acoustic cavitation bubble, we present a precise measurement technique for the bubble evolution. This technique comprises the lighting engineering of pulsing laser beam whose phase can be digitally shifted, and the long distance microphotographics. We used a laser, an acousto-optic modulator, a pulse generator, and a long distance microscope. The evolution of a levitated bubble can be directly shown by a series of bubble's images at different phases. Numerical simulation in the framework of the Rayleigh-Plesset bubble dynamics well supported the experimental result, and the ambient radius of the bubble, an important parameter related to the mass of the gas inside the bubble, was obtained at the same time.

  3. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  4. Digital holographic interferometry: A novel optical calorimetry technique for radiation dosimetry

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a novel optical calorimetry method to determine radiation absorbed dose in a transparent medium. Methods: The calorimetric property of water is measured during irradiation by means of an interferometer, which detects temperature-induced changes in the refractive index that can be mathematically related to absorbed dose. The proposed method uses a technique called digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which comprises an optical laser interferometer setup and consecutive physical reconstruction of the recorded wave fronts by means of the Fresnel transform. This paper describes the conceptual framework and provides the mathematical basis for DHI dosimetry. Dose distributions from a high dose rate Brachytherapy source were measured by a prototype optical setup to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Results: The developed DHI dosimeter successfully determined absorbed dose distributions in water in the region adjacent to a high dose rate Brachytherapy source. A temperature change of 0.0381 K across a distance of 6.8 mm near the source was measured, corresponding to a dose of 159.3 Gy. The standard deviation in a typical measurement set was ±3.45 Gy (corresponding to an uncertainty in the temperature value of ±8.3 × 10−4 K). The relative dose fall off was in agreement with treatment planning system modeled data. Conclusions: First results with a prototype optical setup and a Brachytherapy source demonstrate the proof-of-principle of the approach. The prototype achieves high spatial resolution of approximately 3 × 10−5 m. The general approach is fundamentally independent of the radiation type and energy. The sensitivity range determined indicates that the method is predominantly suitable for high dose rate applications. Further work is required to determine absolute dose in all three dimensions

  5. Detection of cavitation vortex in hydraulic turbines using acoustic techniques

    Cavitation phenomena are known for their destructive capacity in hydraulic machineries and are caused by the pressure decrease followed by an implosion when the cavitation bubbles find an adverse pressure gradient. A helical vortex appears in the turbine diffuser cone at partial flow rate operation and can be cavitating in its core. Cavity volumes and vortex frequencies vary with the under-pressure level. If the vortex frequency comes close to one of the eigen frequencies of the turbine, a resonance phenomenon may occur, the unsteady fluctuations can be amplified and lead to important turbine and hydraulic circuit damage. Conventional cavitation vortex detection techniques are based on passive devices (pressure sensors or accelerometers). Limited sensor bandwidths and low frequency response limit the vortex detection and characterization information provided by the passive techniques. In order to go beyond these techniques and develop a new active one that will remove these drawbacks, previous work in the field has shown that techniques based on acoustic signals using adapted signal content to a particular hydraulic situation, can be more robust and accurate. The cavitation vortex effects in the water flow profile downstream hydraulic turbines runner are responsible for signal content modifications. Basic signal techniques use narrow band signals traveling inside the flow from an emitting transducer to a receiving one (active sensors). Emissions of wide band signals in the flow during the apparition and development of the vortex embeds changes in the received signals. Signal processing methods are used to estimate the cavitation apparition and evolution. Tests done in a reduced scale facility showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal -- vortex interaction is seen as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Wide band acoustic transducers have a higher dynamic range over mechanical elements; the system

  6. The acoustic simulation and analysis of complicated reciprocating compressor piping systems, I: Analysis technique and parameter matrices of acoustic elements

    To, C. W. S.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes the mathematical formulation, equations, and procedures employed in the development of a comprehensive digital computer program for acoustic simulation and analysis of large and complicated piping systems. The analysis technique used is the transfer matrix method in which the piping system, with or without multiple inputs and outputs, is represented by a combination of discrete acoustic elements interconnected to one another at two stations such that the acoustic pressure and volume velocity at one station are uniquely related to those at the other by a two-by-two parameter matrix. Parameter matrices of 19 acoustic elements are included in this paper. By making use of these parameter matrices and the analysis technique, any complicated practical reciprocating compressor piping system can be modelled or analyzed.

  7. Computational and experimental techniques for coupled acoustic/structure interactions.

    Sumali, Anton Hartono; Pierson, Kendall Hugh; Walsh, Timothy Francis; Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn; Reese, Garth M.; Day, David Minot

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results obtained during a one-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative aimed at investigating coupled structural acoustic interactions by means of algorithm development and experiment. Finite element acoustic formulations have been developed based on fluid velocity potential and fluid displacement. Domain decomposition and diagonal scaling preconditioners were investigated for parallel implementation. A formulation that includes fluid viscosity and that can simulate both pressure and shear waves in fluid was developed. An acoustic wave tube was built, tested, and shown to be an effective means of testing acoustic loading on simple test structures. The tube is capable of creating a semi-infinite acoustic field due to nonreflecting acoustic termination at one end. In addition, a micro-torsional disk was created and tested for the purposes of investigating acoustic shear wave damping in microstructures, and the slip boundary conditions that occur along the wet interface when the Knudsen number becomes sufficiently large.

  8. Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals using WaveletTransformation Technique

    S.V. Subba Rao

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE monitoring is carried out during proof pressure testing of pressurevessels to find the occurrence of any crack growth-related phenomenon. While carrying out AEmonitoring, it is often found that the background noise is very high. Along with the noise, thesignal includes various phenomena related to crack growth, rubbing of fasteners, leaks, etc. Dueto the presence of noise, it becomes difficult to identify signature of the original signals related to the above phenomenon. Through various filtering/ thresholding techniques, it was found that the original signals were getting filtered out along with noise. Wavelet transformation technique is found to be more appropriate to analyse the AE signals under such situations. Wavelet transformation technique is used to de-noise the AE data. The de-noised signal is classified to identify a signature based on the type of phenomena.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4, pp.559-564, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1677

  9. Holograph and Interferometry.

    Altman, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a method to create holograms for use in different interferometry techniques. Students utilize these techniques in experiments to study the structural integrity of a clarinet reed and the effects of temperature on objects. (MDH)

  10. Observations of atmospheric gravity waves by radio interferometry: are results biased by the observational technique?

    C. Mercier; Jacobson, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a quantitative comparison between a large data base of medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) observed by radio interferometry of transionospheric radio sources and the results of a numerical simulation of the observed effects. The simulation includes: (i) the propagation and dissipation of AGWs up to ionospheric heights and (ii) the calculation of the subsequent slant TEC perturbations integrated along the path to the radio sources. We show that the observed a...

  11. Damage detection in wind turbine blades using acoustic techniques

    Juengert, A., E-mail: anne.juengert@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de [Univ. of Stuttgart, Materialpruefungsanstalt Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Facing climate change, the use of renewable energy gains importance. The wind energy sector grows very fast. Bigger and more powerful wind turbines will be built in the coming decades and the safety and reliability of the turbines will become more important. Wind turbine blades have to be inspected at regular intervals, because they are highly stressed during operation and a blade breakdown can cause big economic damages. The turbine blades consist of fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP/CFRP) and sandwich areas containing wood or plastic foam. The blades are manufactured as two halves and glued together afterwards. Typical damages are delaminations within the GFRP or the sandwich and missing adhesive or deficient bond at the bonding surfaces. The regular inspections of wind turbine blades are performed manually by experts and are limited to visual appraisals and simple tapping tests. To improve the inspections of wind turbine blades non-destructive testing techniques using acoustic waves are being developed. To detect delaminations within the laminates of the turbine blade, a local resonance spectroscopy was used. To detect missing bond areas from the outside of the blade the impulse-echo-technique was applied. This paper is an updated reprint of an article published on ndt.net in 2008. (author)

  12. Damage detection in wind turbine blades using acoustic techniques

    Facing climate change, the use of renewable energy gains importance. The wind energy sector grows very fast. Bigger and more powerful wind turbines will be built in the coming decades and the safety and reliability of the turbines will become more important. Wind turbine blades have to be inspected at regular intervals, because they are highly stressed during operation and a blade breakdown can cause big economic damages. The turbine blades consist of fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP/CFRP) and sandwich areas containing wood or plastic foam. The blades are manufactured as two halves and glued together afterwards. Typical damages are delaminations within the GFRP or the sandwich and missing adhesive or deficient bond at the bonding surfaces. The regular inspections of wind turbine blades are performed manually by experts and are limited to visual appraisals and simple tapping tests. To improve the inspections of wind turbine blades non-destructive testing techniques using acoustic waves are being developed. To detect delaminations within the laminates of the turbine blade, a local resonance spectroscopy was used. To detect missing bond areas from the outside of the blade the impulse-echo-technique was applied. This paper is an updated reprint of an article published on ndt.net in 2008. (author)

  13. Effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of Western operatic singing voices

    Larrouy, Pauline; Magis, David; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The operatic singing technique is frequently employed in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Methods: Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic...

  14. Acoustic monitoring techniques for corrosion degradation in cemented waste canisters

    This report describes work carried out to investigate acoustic emission as a monitor of corrosion and degradation of wasteforms where the waste is potentially reactive metal. Electronic monitoring equipment has been designed, built and tested to allow long-term monitoring of a number of waste packages simultaneously. Acoustic monitoring experiments were made on a range of 1 litre cemented Magnox and aluminium samples cast into canisters comparing the acoustic events with hydrogen gas evolution rates and electrochemical corrosion rates. The attenuation of the acoustic signals by the cement grout under a range of conditions has been studied to determine the volume of wasteform that can be satisfactorily monitored by one transducer. The final phase of the programme monitored the acoustic events from full size (200 litre) cemented, inactive, simulated aluminium swarf wastepackages prepared at the AEA waste cementation plant at Winfrith. (Author)

  15. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  16. Holographic interferometry techniques using photorefractive crystals of sillenite family Bi12SiO20 (BSO) and their applications in analysis of surfaces

    Gesualdi, M. R. R.; Soga, Diogo; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    2001-08-01

    The Holographic interferometry is a non-destructive testing of analysis on surfaces in basic research, technological and biomedical fields. However, the holographic interferometry techniques in real-time with conventional materials present serious difficulties. The photorefractives crystal are present as an attractive holographic recording medium. The phenomenon that characterizes these crystals in the photorefractive effect, consists of the refractive index modulation through photo-induced and linear electro-optic effect, allows the register of holograms of phase. Also it presents advantages as in situ self-proceeding of the recording medium and its indefinite reusability, i.e. it does not present fatigue. Thus, the objective of this work is the development of a holographic interferometer that uses the photorefractive crystal of the selenite family Bi12SiO20 as holographic recording medium. In this direction, we search to characterize BSO crystal determining some figures of merit in diffusive regime and drift regime. The holographic techniques of metrology are presented in three methods: real time holographic interferometry, double- exposure holographic interferometry, and time-average holographic interferometry had been studied with some applications in analysis of statics and dynamics processes on surfaces.

  17. Neural Fuzzy Techniques In Vehicle Acoustic Signal Classification

    Sampan, Somkiat

    1998-01-01

    Vehicle acoustic signals have long been considered as unwanted traffic noise. In this research acoustic signals generated by each vehicle will be used to detect its presence and classify its type. Circular arrays of microphones were designed and built to detect desired signals and suppress unwanted ones. Circular arrays with multiple rings have an interesting and important property that is constant sidelobe levels. A modified genetic algorithm that can work directly with real numbers is u...

  18. A novel Communication Technique for Nanobots based on acoustic signals

    Loscri, Valeria; Natalizio, Enrico; Mannara, Valentina; Gianluca ALOI

    2012-01-01

    International audience In this work we present the simulation of a swarm of nanobots that behave in a distributed fashion and communicate through vibrations, permitting a decentralized control to treat endogenous diseases of the brain. Each nanobot is able to recognize a cancer cell, eliminate it and announces through a communication based on acoustic signals the presence of the cancer to the other nanobots. We assume that our nano-devices vibrate and these vibrations cause acoustic waves ...

  19. Studies on acoustic modelling techniques for CANDU reactors

    This paper reviews the current technology being used to predict acoustic resonance in fluid-filled piping systems. The paper also reports on the analysis of a simple benchmark experiment that yielded some valuable insights and understanding into acoustic damping. A volumetric drag formula for the ABAQUS code is presented. Its application in experiments has yielded better results than previously obtained using a constant volumetric drag. (author). 24 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  20. Comparison of acoustic and strain gauge techniques for crack closure measurements

    Buck, O.; Inman, R. V.; Frandsen, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative study on the systems performances of the COD gauge and the acoustic transmission techniques to elastic deformation of part-through crack and compact tension specimens has been conducted. It is shown that the two instruments measure two completely different quantities: The COD gauge yields information on the length change of the specimen whereas the acoustic technique is sensitive directly to the amount of contract area between two surfaces, interfering with the acoustic signal. In another series of experiments, compression tests on parts with specifically prepared surfaces were performed so that the surface contact area could be correlated with the transmitted acoustic signal, as well as the acoustic with the COD gauge signal. A linear relation between contact area and COD gauge signal was obtained until full contact had been established.

  1. Fabrication of Capacitive Acoustic Resonators Combining 3D Printing and 2D Inkjet Printing Techniques

    Rubaiyet Iftekharul Haque; Erick Ogam; Christophe Loussert; Patrick Benaben; Xavier Boddaert

    2015-01-01

    A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing and two-dimensional (2D) printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive ...

  2. Monitoring of rapid sand filters using an acoustic imaging technique

    Allouche, N.; Simons, D.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel instrument is developed to acoustically image sand filters used for water treatment and monitor their performance. The instrument consists of an omnidirectional transmitter that generates a chirp with a frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz, and an array of hydrophones. The instrument was e

  3. Mapping Ground Subsidence Phenomena in Ho Chi Minh City through the Radar Interferometry Technique Using ALOS PALSAR Data

    Dinh Ho Tong Minh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly developing urbanization since the last decade of the 20th century has led to extensive groundwater extraction, resulting in subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Recent advances in multi-temporal spaceborne SAR interferometry, especially with a persistent scatters interferometry (PSI approach, has made this a robust remote sensing technique for measuring large-scale ground subsidence with millimetric accuracy. This work has presented an advanced PSI analysis, to provide an unprecedented spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage of the subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City from 2006 to 2010. The study shows that subsidence is most severe in the Holocene silt loam areas along the Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city. The groundwater extraction resulting from urbanization and urban growth is mainly responsible for the subsidence. Subsidence in turn leads to more flooding and water nuisance. The correlation between the reference leveling velocity and the estimated PSI result is R2 = 0.88, and the root mean square error is 4.3 (mm/year, confirming their good agreement. From 2006 to 2010, the estimation of the average subsidence rate is -8.0 mm/year, with the maximum value up to -70 mm/year. After four years, in regions along Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city, the land has sunk up to -12 cm. If not addressed, subsidence leads to the increase of inundation, both in frequency and spatial extent. Finally, regarding climate change, the effects of subsidence should be considered as appreciably greater than those resulting from rising sea level. It is essential to consider these two factors, because the city is inhabited by more than 7.5 million people, where subsidence directly impacts urban structures and infrastructure.

  4. Application of interferometry and Faraday rotation techniques for density measurements on the next generation of tokamaks

    The next generation of tokamaks present unique challenges to plasma diagnostic design due to the physical size of the devices and the radiation environment. The need for a density measurement for density feedback control for a prototype reactor such as ITER is well established and several proposals for line average measurements have been put forward. In this paper, a design for a line average density diagnostic for ITER using collinear interferometry and Faraday rotation measurements will be presented. Plasma effects on both types of measurements and density resolution and will be discussed along with the possibility of combining the information from the two collinear measurements to improve the reliability and quality of the density profile. Survivability of the plasma facing mirrors, in particular the surface flatness and surface roughness, are critical issues and preliminary analysis suggests these may limit the wavelength of probing beams. Thermal and stress analysis of the plasma facing mirrors will be presented along with a discussion of mirror material selection based on thermal, nuclear and sputtering considerations

  5. Monitoring of rapid sand filters using an acoustic imaging technique

    Allouche, N.; Simons, D.G.; Rietveld, L. C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel instrument is developed to acoustically image sand filters used for water treatment and monitor their performance. The instrument consists of an omnidirectional transmitter that generates a chirp with a frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz, and an array of hydrophones. The instrument was extensively tested in a lab before being deployed in an industrial rapid sand filter, made available by a Dutch drinking water company. This filter was monitored over a period of 10 days. We perform...

  6. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver Deployment and Mooring Techniques for Use in Large Rivers and Estuaries

    Titzler, P. Scott; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Carter, Jessica A.

    2010-08-01

    Autonomous acoustic receivers are often deployed across a range of aquatic habitats to study aquatic species. The Juvenile Salmon Telemetry System autonomous acoustic receiver packages we deployed in the Columbia River and its estuary were comprised of an acoustic receiver, acoustic release, and mooring line sections and were deployed directly on the river bottom. Detection ranges and reception data from past optimization deployments helped determine acoustic receiver spacing in order to achieve acceptable detection probabilities for juvenile salmon survival estimation. Methods used in 2005, which resulted in a high equipment loss rate, were modified and used between 2006 and 2008 to increase crew safety and optimize receiver deployment and recovery operations in a large river system. By eliminating surface buoys and taglines (for anchor recovery), we experienced a recovery success rate greater than previous acoustic receiver deployment techniques used in the Columbia River and elsewhere. This autonomous acoustic receiver system has optimized deployment, recovery, and servicing efficiency to successfully detect acoustic-tagged salmonids in a variety of river environments.

  7. A Survey of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Networking Techniques

    Khan Rehan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the details of recent developments and innovations in the field of Underwater Acoustic Communication (UWAC and networking that may be act as a requisite platform for the individuals who want to involve in the research of this emerging field. Ocean exploration/monitoring applications make design of robust UWAC and networking systems more demanding for recent researchers. The main objective of these studies is to establish a standard, low complex and real-time acoustic network having the capabilities to handle the extremely complex and continuously time varying nature of sea. During last decade, major contribution in this field has been carried out; many efficient methodologies and algorithms have also been proposed. In terms of physical layer, coherent MIMO-OFDM based communication is considered as feasible solution for the band limited/frequency selective underwater channel with more spectral efficiency, high data rates and reliable links. Considering the implications of complicated aquatic channel characteristics (extremely limited bandwidth, noise, Doppler spread, multipath, complex propagation delay, many researchers are also focusing for the developments of effective MAC protocols in terms of capacity and reduced consumption of power. Routing strategies that establish efficient data delivery paths in underwater environment is another demanding requirement. Designing of Transport layer protocol for fluctuated aquatic environment is an open research area.

  8. Identification of vibration excitations from acoustic measurements using near field acoustic holography and the force analysis technique

    Pézerat, C.; Leclère, Q.; Totaro, N.; Pachebat, M.

    2009-10-01

    This study presents a method of using acoustic holography and the force analysis technique to identify vibration sources from radiated noise measurements. The structure studied is a plate excited by a shaker on which three measurements were performed: the first is a reference measurement of plate velocity obtained by scanning laser vibrometry, the second is based on sound pressure measurements in the near field of the structure, and the third is the measurement of normal acoustic velocities by using a p-U probe recently developed by Microflown Technologies. This was followed by the application of classical NAH, known as pressure-to-velocity holography and velocity-to-velocity holography to predict the plate velocity field from acoustic measurements at distances of 1 and 5 cm. Afterwards, the force analysis technique, also known as the RIFF technique, is applied with these five data sets. The principle is to inject the displacement field of the structure into its equation of motion and extract the resulting force distribution. This technique requires regularization done by a low-pass filter in the wavenumber domain. Apart from pressure-to-velocity holography at 5 cm, the reconstructed force distribution allows localizing the excitation point in the measurement area. FAT regularization is also shown to improve results as its cutoff wavenumber is optimized with the natural wavenumber of the plate. Lastly, quantitative force values are extracted from force distributions at all frequencies of the band 0-4 kHz studied and compared with the force spectrum measured directly by a piezoelectric sensor.

  9. A new CT technique for the evaluation of intracanalicular acoustic neuromas

    A preliminary report is presented on a new technique for the detection and the diagnosis of intracanalicular acoustic neuromas. The technique consists of preliminary CT scans on petrous bones, after iv administration of a bolus of contrast medium. The scans are performed at a predetermined level of the middle portion of the internal auditory canals. The early enhancement is then evaluated of the soft tissues contained into the auditory canal on the side with retrocochlear neurosensorial hypoacusia. The images obtained are then processed by an image processing program, thus enhancing the contrast resolution and allowing an optimal depiction of the lesion. In the past 10 months, 67 patients with clinical suspicion of acoustic neuromas were studied. This technique allowed the diagnosis of 2 acoustic neuromas with a purely intracanalicular involvement

  10. Application of acoustic emission technique for check valve monitoring

    Very limited choice is available in monitoring the health of check valves during service. Ultrasonics, magnetic flux leakage and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring are three methods, of which AE is the prominent. The paper describes work done on swing check valves in the ECCS circuit of Cirus using AE. It indicates that the valves can be monitored for any abnormal behaviour during their stable operation and during opening and closing. AE can also sense any abnormality at the hinge pin, hinge arm, disc etc., if they give AE emission. However, many of these may require background data from a spare valve of similar design or a working stand by. In absence of such a valve, data from the present study will be used as a baseline data for comparison with signatures taken during future inspections. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy

    Gerber, S; Tietje, I C; Allkofer, Y R; Trezzi, D; Dassa, L; Rienacker, B; Khalidova, O; Ferrari, G; Krasnicky, D; Perini, D; Cerchiari, G; Belov, A; Boscolo, I; Sacerdoti, M G; Ferragut, R O; Nedelec, P; Testera, G; Hinterberger, A; Al-qaradawi, I; Malbrunot, C L S; Brusa, R S; Prelz, F; Manuzio, G; Riccardi, C; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Haider, S; Haug, F; Merkt, F; Turbabin, A; Castelli, F; Doser, M; Penasa, L; Gninenko, S; Cataneo, F; Zenoni, A; Cabaret, L; Comparat, D P; Zmeskal, J; Scampoli, P; Dudarev, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Lagomarsino, V E; Mariazzi, S; Fesel, J V; Nesteruk, K P; Eisel, W T; Carraro, C; Zavatarelli, S M

    The AEGIS experiment (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) has the aim of carrying out the first measurement of the gravitational interaction of antimatter to a precision of 1%, by applying techniques from atomic physics, laser spectroscopy and interferometry to a beam of antihydrogen atoms. A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight.

  12. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan;

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation and......) the status of the airborne interferometry activities at DCRS, including the present system configuration, recent results, and some scientific applications of the system....

  13. Spatial and temporal monitoring of urbanization by Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique

    Casagli N.; Del Conte S.; Proietti C.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) has shown in recent years its capabilities in providing precise measurements of ground displacement. In the case of slow movements (up to few cm/year) affecting urban areas, the multi-interferogram techniques, such as the Permanent Scatterers (PS) (developed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa, a spin-off company of the Politecnico di Milano University), are able to retrieve the spatial distribution of displacements and their evolu...

  14. An acoustic-array based structural health monitoring technique for wind turbine blades

    Aizawa, Kai; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Baqersad, Javad; Inalpolat, Murat; Heilmann, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a non-contact measurement technique for health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic beamforming techniques. The technique works by mounting an audio speaker inside a wind turbine blade and observing the sound radiated from the blade to identify damage within the structure. The main hypothesis for the structural damage detection is that the structural damage (cracks, edge splits, holes etc.) on the surface of a composite wind turbine blade results in changes in the sound radiation characteristics of the structure. Preliminary measurements were carried out on two separate test specimens, namely a composite box and a section of a wind turbine blade to validate the methodology. The rectangular shaped composite box and the turbine blade contained holes with different dimensions and line cracks. An acoustic microphone array with 62 microphones was used to measure the sound radiation from both structures when the speaker was located inside the box and also inside the blade segment. A phased array beamforming technique and CLEAN-based subtraction of point spread function from a reference (CLSPR) were employed to locate the different damage types on both the composite box and the wind turbine blade. The same experiment was repeated by using a commercially available 48-channel acoustic ring array to compare the test results. It was shown that both the acoustic beamforming and the CLSPR techniques can be used to identify the damage in the test structures with sufficiently high fidelity.

  15. Numerical techniques in linear duct acoustics - A status report

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented covering both finite difference and finite element analysis of small amplitude (linear) sound propagation in straight and variable area ducts with flow, as might be found in a typical turbojet engine duct, muffer, or industrial ventilation system. Both 'steady' state and transient theories are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advantages and limitations associated with the various numerical techniques. Examples of practical problems are given for which the numerical techniques have been applied.

  16. Ground deformation detection of the greater area of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece using radar interferometry techniques

    D. Raucoules

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study SAR interferometric techniques (stacking of conventional interferograms and Permanent Scatterers, using images from satellites ERS-1 and 2, have been applied to the region of Thessaloniki (northern Greece. The period covered by the images is 1992–2000. Both techniques gave good quantitative and qualitative results. The interferometric products were used to study ground surface deformation phenomena that could be related to the local tectonic context, the exploitation of underground water and sediments compaction.

    The city of Thessaloniki shows relatively stable ground conditions. Subsidence in four locations, mainly in the area surrounding the city of Thessaloniki, has been detected and assessed. Two of the sites (Sindos-Kalochori and Langadhas were already known from previous studies as subsiding areas, using ground base measurements. On the contrary the other two sites in the northern suburbs of Thessaloniki (Oreokastro and in the south-east (airport area were unknown as areas of subsidence. A further investigation based on fieldwork is needed in these two areas. Finally, an attempt to interpret the observed deformation, according to the geological regime of the area and its anthropogenic activities, has been carried out.

  17. Quantitative characterization of X-ray lenses from two fabrication techniques with grating interferometry.

    Koch, Frieder J; Detlefs, Carsten; Schröter, Tobias J; Kunka, Danays; Last, Arndt; Mohr, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Refractive X-ray lenses are in use at a large number of synchrotron experiments. Several materials and fabrication techniques are available for their production, each having their own strengths and drawbacks. We present a grating interferometer for the quantitative analysis of single refractive X-ray lenses and employ it for the study of a beryllium point focus lens and a polymer line focus lens, highlighting the differences in the outcome of the fabrication methods. The residuals of a line fit to the phase gradient are used to quantify local lens defects, while shape aberrations are quantified by the decomposition of the retrieved wavefront phase profile into either Zernike or Legendre polynomials, depending on the focus and aperture shape. While the polymer lens shows better material homogeneity, the beryllium lens shows higher shape accuracy. PMID:27137533

  18. Advanced signal processing techniques for acoustic detection of sodium/water reaction

    In this paper results of development of a neural network technique for processing of acoustic background noise and injection noise of various media (argon, water steam, hydrogen) at test rigs and industrial steam generator are presented. (author). 3 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Acoustics

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  20. Novel Design of Sagnac Interferometry Assisted with Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensor Technique

    Li, Yu-Chu M.; Huang, Chao-Ming; Chang, Wei-Chin; Lin, Kai-Jan; Chang, Sheng-Chih; Yao, Sheng-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel design to investigate interfacial reaction of optical activity materials, utilizing a Sagnac interferometer assisted with surface plasmon resonance based sensor technique. Upon application to interrogate optical activity, the type-2 optical configuration of close loop in this work can entirely encircle the interaction zone of surface plasmon resonance reacting with optical activity medium, while the type-1 optical configuration of close loop does partially. The greater the geometrical phase owing to the encircled interaction zone between optical activity medium and polarized light, the larger the phase shift of interference pattern modulated by the concentration of optical activity medium. The slope of phase shift in interference phase pattern of p-wave vs. concentration of dextrose solution determined with this method is greatly improved, 3000 times better than that with Lee's method, 18,600 times with Lin's method, and 222,000 times with Chou's method. Besides, the pinch point of phase shift vs. concentration indicates the ending of interference pattern phase shift as the concentration of each tested optical activity medium keeps climbing up, and can reflect the strong dependence of molecular shape during interfacial adsorption.

  1. New graphical techniques for studying acoustic ray stability

    Bódai, T.; Fenwick, A. J.; Wiercigroch, M.

    2009-07-01

    Alternatives to the standard Poincaré section are proposed to cater for some conditions arising in the study of chaotic ray propagation where the usual method of dimension reduction by the Poincaré section is inadequate because the driving is not periodic. There are three alternatives proposed which all use the same surface of intersection, but which differ in their use of the values of the dependent variables at the intersections of the rays with the surface. The new reduction techniques are used to examine ray behaviour in a harmonically perturbed Munk profile which supports ray chaos. It is found that all three techniques provide a graphical means of distinguishing between regular and irregular motions, and that the space of the mapping associated with one of them is partitioned into nonintersecting regular and chaotic regions as with the Poincaré section. A further model with quasiperiodic time dependence of the Hamiltonian is examined, and it turns out that the quasiperiodic nature of the motion is revealed as Lissajous curves by one technique.

  2. Acoustic impedance rhinometry (AIR): a technique for monitoring dynamic changes in nasal congestion

    We describe a simple and inexpensive method for monitoring nasal air flow resistance using measurement of the small-signal acoustic input impedance of the nasal passage, similar to the audiological measurement of ear drum compliance with acoustic tympanometry. The method requires generation of a fixed sinusoidal volume–velocity stimulus using ear-bud speakers, and an electret microphone to monitor the resultant pressure fluctuation in the nasal passage. Both are coupled to the nose via high impedance silastic tubing and a small plastic nose insert. The acoustic impedance is monitored in real-time using a laptop soundcard and custom-written software developed in LabView 7.0 (National Instruments). The compact, lightweight equipment and fast time resolution lends the technique to research into the small and rapid reflexive changes in nasal resistance caused by environmental and local neurological influences. The acoustic impedance rhinometry technique has the potential to be developed for use in a clinical setting, where the need exists for a simple and inexpensive objective nasal resistance measurement technique. (paper)

  3. Non-destructive evaluation of nuclear material storage container integrity using an acoustic technique

    A non-intrusive method for determining the gas mixture in a sealed container using acoustics has been conceived. Analysis has shown that it is possible to both excite the acoustic resonance of the gas cavity, and detect when resonance occurs from the outside surface of the container. The resonant frequency of the acoustic cavity is dependent on the molecular weight of the gas that fills it. A change in the mixture of gases within the cavity alters the gas molecular weight and can produce a detectable change in the resonant frequency of the cavity. This concept provides a method of monitoring and/or analyzing the gas mixture in a sealed container without taking physical samples. An advantage of this technique is that it eliminates safety and contamination risks associated with breaching a pressure boundary and taking a sample of potentially hazardous gases in order to monitor or analyze the mixture

  4. Acoustic emission technique based rubbing identification for Rotor-bearing systems

    2001-01-01

    Rubbing is the frequent and dangerous fault in the rotating machine, and efficient identi-fication of the rubbing is a hot research subject in the field of fault diagnosis. In this paper, a newrubbing identification method is proposed, which is based on the acoustic emission technique. Inthis method, the acoustic emission signal of the rubbing in the multi-support rotor-bearing systemis acquired by the acoustic emission sensor, and then the continuous wavelet transform is utilizedto analyze this signal. Based on the rubbing mechanism, the frequency feature of the multiple fre-quency relation in the instantaneous frequency wave is extracted as the rubbing identification fea-ture. The experimental results prove that the proposed method is efficient and feasible.

  5. Theory and signal processing of acoustic correlation techniques for current velocity measurement

    ZHU Weiqing; FENG Lei; WANG Changhong; WANG Yuling; QIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model and signal processing of acoustic correlation measurements to estimate current velocity are discussed. The sonar space-time correlation function of vol-ume reverberations within Fraunhofer zone is derived. The function, which is in exponential forms, is the theoretical model of acoustic correlation measurements. The characteristics of the correlation values around the maximum of the amplitude of the correlation function, where most information about current velocity is contained, are primarily analyzed. Localized Least Mean Squares (LLMS) criterion is put forward for velocity estimation. Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method is adopted as the optimization method. So the systematic sig-nal processing method of acoustic correlation techniques for current velocity measurement is established. A prototype acoustic correlation current profiler (ACCP) underwent several sea trials, the results show that theoretical model approximately coincides with experimental re-sults. Current profiles including the speed and direction from ACCP are compared with those from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The current profiles by both instruments agree reasonably well. Also, the standard deviation of velocity measurement by ACCP is statistically calculated and it is a little larger than predicted value.

  6. Sound field separation technique with double holographic planes and its applications in acoustic holography

    YU Fei; CHEN Jian; CHEN Xinzhao

    2004-01-01

    Sound field separation technique with double holographic planes is proposed, which overcomes the limitation on applications of near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and broadband acoustic holography from intensity measurement (BAHIM). The limitation is that sound field on one side of holographic plane must be free, that is to say, all the sound sources must be confined to the other side; but it is not easy to achieve for industrial measurements. The technique builds the sound field separation formula in wave number domain according to the wave field extrapolation theorem, and the sound pressure caused by sources on one side of holographic plane can be obtained as expected by taking two-dimensional Fourier transform of the formula. The derivation of the principle verifies the technique theoretically. The numerical simulations demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  7. Study on the High Precision Acoustic Measurement Techniques for Determining Temperature Field Around Seafloor Hydrothermal Vent

    CAI Yong; FAN Wei; ZHOU Yan; FU Xian-qiao; FANG Hui; JIN Tao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the basis of acoustic method used for temperature field measurement of seafloor hydrothermal vent and two techniques of the parabolic interpolation and the bending compensation of propagation paths of acoustic signal are introduced.Experimental research is performed to exactly rebuild the temperature field around hot springs on the floor of Qiezishan Lake,Yunnan,China.The accuracy of the travel time estimation has been improved based on the aforementioned technique and method.At the same time,by comparison of the results of temperature field with different means,the max absolute error,the maximum relative error and the root mean square error are given.It shows that the technique and the method presented in the paper can be applied to the temperature field measurement detector around the seafloor hydrothermal vent.It also has a good accuracy.

  8. Spatial Techniques to Visualize Acoustic Comfort along Cultural and Heritage Routes for a World Heritage City

    Ni Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes. Route-based tourism is crucial to the sustainability of tourism development in historic areas. Applying the concept of route-based tourism to guide tourists rambling along cultural and heritage routes can relieve overcrowded condition at hot scenic spots and increase the overall carrying capacity of the city. However, acoustic comfort along tourist routes is rarely addressed in academic studies and decision-making. Taking Macao as an example, this paper has studied pedestrian exposure to traffic noise along the cultural and heritage routes. The study is based on a GIS-based traffic noise model system with a high spatial resolution down to individual buildings along both sides of the street. Results show that tourists suffer from excessive traffic noise at certain sites, which may have negative impact on the promotion of route-based tourism in the long run. In addition, it is found that urban growth affects urban form and street layout, which in turn affect traffic flow and acoustic comfort in urban area. The present study demonstrates spatial techniques to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes, and the techniques are foreseen to be used more frequently to support effective tourism planning in the future.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigation of a low-frequency measurement technique: differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy

    Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu

    2016-06-01

    Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500–2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.

  10. Development and validation of a MRgHIFU non-invasive tissue acoustic property estimation technique.

    Johnson, Sara L; Dillon, Christopher; Odéen, Henrik; Parker, Dennis; Christensen, Douglas; Payne, Allison

    2016-11-01

    MR-guided high-intensity focussed ultrasound (MRgHIFU) non-invasive ablative surgeries have advanced into clinical trials for treating many pathologies and cancers. A remaining challenge of these surgeries is accurately planning and monitoring tissue heating in the face of patient-specific and dynamic acoustic properties of tissues. Currently, non-invasive measurements of acoustic properties have not been implemented in MRgHIFU treatment planning and monitoring procedures. This methods-driven study presents a technique using MR temperature imaging (MRTI) during low-temperature HIFU sonications to non-invasively estimate sample-specific acoustic absorption and speed of sound values in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Using measured thermal properties, specific absorption rate (SAR) patterns are calculated from the MRTI data and compared to simulated SAR patterns iteratively generated via the Hybrid Angular Spectrum (HAS) method. Once the error between the simulated and measured patterns is minimised, the estimated acoustic property values are compared to the true phantom values obtained via an independent technique. The estimated values are then used to simulate temperature profiles in the phantoms, and compared to experimental temperature profiles. This study demonstrates that trends in acoustic absorption and speed of sound can be non-invasively estimated with average errors of 21% and 1%, respectively. Additionally, temperature predictions using the estimated properties on average match within 1.2 °C of the experimental peak temperature rises in the phantoms. The positive results achieved in tissue-mimicking phantoms presented in this study indicate that this technique may be extended to in vivo applications, improving HIFU sonication temperature rise predictions and treatment assessment. PMID:27441427

  11. Characterization of seepage surfaces from Space-borne radar interferometry stacking techniques, Southern Dead Sea area, Jordan

    Tessari, Giulia; Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib; Atzori, Simone; Fiaschi, Simone; Floris, Mario; Pasquali, Paolo; Riccardi, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake located in a pull-apart basin of the Dead Sea Transform fault zone. It is the lowest emerged place on Earth at about -428 m bsl. Since the 1960s, the over-pumping of its tributaries leads to a decrease in the water level. Eventually, it became more pronounced decades after decades. In 2014, it is more than 1m/year. The overall drop is around 33 m. With salinity ten times greater than the ocean water one, the lake body and its underground lateral extensions act as a high density layer over which the fresh ground waters are in hydrostatic equilibrium. The slope of the interface between saline and fresh waters is ten times shallower than normally expected near the ocean. According to a number of wells along the Jordanian Dead Sea coast, the water table level does not drop at the same speed than the Dead Sea. An increasingly important gradient is constantly being created along the coastal zone. In many places, the fresh ground waters move very rapidly towards the base level to compensate for the imbalance. This statement is supported by a body of observations: a) appearance of vegetation (Tamarisk) in arid areas (precipitation: 50 to 70 mm/year) dominated by salt deposits such as the Lisan peninsula; b) presence of submarine circular collapses visible along the coast. Their diameters decreasing with distance from the shore line; c) appearances of springs and recurring landslides along the coast. With the exception of the submarine features, all these elements are located in the land strip that emerged progressively from the 1960s, 33 m in elevation, ranging from a few decameters up to several kilometers wide. In many places, the surface is characterized by superficial seepages causing subtle to very pronounced subsidence, and sinkholes. In this contribution, we show that advanced differential radar interferometry techniques applied to ERS, ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed images stacks are able to underscore the most affected places. The mapping

  12. The Development and Clinical Application of Acoustical Technique in Hip Joint

    黄晓琳; 邝适存; 郑振耀

    2002-01-01

    Summary: A non-invasive acoustical system was developed for the measurement of transmissionproperties of acoustic waves in the hip joints. The instrumentation consisted of three sub-systems.An excitation system employed a vibratory force at the sacrum of the test subjects. A transductionsystem included a pair of identical microphones installed in the tubes of two stethoscopes, whichwere placed at the greater trochanters on both sides for picking up the acoustical signals transmit-ted across the hip joints. The data acquisition and analysis system was a portable signal analyzerwith a program of dual channel digital filter for measuring the power of acoustical signal in 1/3-oc-tave frequency bands. 27 normal adults, 20 normal pre-school children and 40 normal neonateswere randomly selected for testing. Coherence function (CF) and discrepancy(D) was measuredduring the testing. Results from the three groups showed that there was a high coherence of thesignals (CF>0. 9) and a small discrepancy (D<3 dB) between bilateral hips in the frequencyrange of 200-315 Hz. For normal neonates, there was a wider frequency range of 160-315 Hz inwhich the acoustical signals maintained a high coherence (CF>0. 93) and a smaller discrepancy (D<2 dB) was observed. This study showed that the development of the acoustical technique pro-vided a practical method with objective parameters. The results obtained in this study can offer abaseline for further investigation of hip disorders particularly those related to structural abnormali-ties of the hip.

  13. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique

    Ahmad, Moiz; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Xiang, Liangzhong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-1101 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 10{sup 6} per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic

  14. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 106 per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic range

  15. Acoustic emissions for particle sizing of powders through signal processing techniques

    Bastari, A.; Cristalli, C.; Morlacchi, R.; Pomponi, E. [Loccioni Group (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    The present work introduces an innovative method for measuring particle size distribution of an airborne powder, based on the application of signal processing techniques to the acoustic emission signals produced by the impacts of the powder with specific metallic surfaces. The basic idea of the proposed methodology lies on the identification of the unknown relation between the acquired acoustic emission signals and the powder particle size distribution, by means of a multi-step procedure. In the first step, wavelet packet decomposition is used to extract useful features from the acoustic emission signals: the dimensionality of feature space is further reduced through multivariate data analysis techniques. As a final step, a neural network is properly trained to map the feature vector into the particle size distribution. The proposed solution has several advantages, such as low cost and low invasiveness which allow the system based on this technique to be easily integrated in pre-existing plants. It has been successfully applied to the PSD measurement of coal powder produced by grinding mills in a coal-fired power station, and the experimental results are reported in the paper. The measurement principle can also be applied to different particle sizing applications, whenever a solid powder is carried in air or in other gases.

  16. Acoustic Emission Technique, an Overview as a Characterization Tool in Materials Science

    C. R. Ríos-Soberanis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the mechanical behavior of a composite during its service life, it is important to evaluate its mechanical response under different types of external stresses by studying the initiation and development of cracks and the effects induced by damage and degradation. The onset of damage is related to the structural integrity of the component and its fatigue life. For this, among other reasons, non-destructive techniques such as acoustic emission(AE have been widely used nowadays for composite materials haracterization. This method has demonstrated excellent results on detecting and identifying initiations sites, cracking propagation and fracture mechanisms of polymer matrix composite and ceramic materials. This paper focuses on commenting the importance of the acoustic emission technique as a unique tool for characterizing mechanical parameters in response to external stresses and degradation processes by reviewing previous investigations carried out by the author as participant. Acoustic emission was employed to monitor the micro-failure mechanisms in composites in relation to the stress level in real-time during the tests carried out. Some results obtained from different analysis are discussed to support the significance of using AE, technique that will be increasingly employed in the composite materials field due to its several lternatives for understanding the mechanical behavior; therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to involve the benefits andadvantages of AE in the characterization of materials.

  17. Interferometry with atoms

    Optics and interferometry with matter waves is the art of coherently manipulating the translational motion of particles like neutrons, atoms and molecules. Coherent atom optics is an extension of techniques that were developed for manipulating internal quantum states. Applying these ideas to translational motion required the development of techniques to localize atoms and transfer population coherently between distant localities. In this view position and momentum are (continuous) quantum mechanical degrees of freedom analogous to discrete internal quantum states. In our contribution we start with an introduction into matter wave optics in sect. 1, discuss coherent atom optics and atom interferometry techniques for molecular beams in sect. 2 and for trapped atoms in sect. 3. In sect. 4 we then describe tools and experiments that allow to probe the evolution of quantum states of many-body systems by atom interference.

  18. Fabrication of Capacitive Acoustic Resonators Combining 3D Printing and 2D Inkjet Printing Techniques

    Rubaiyet Iftekharul Haque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D printing and two-dimensional (2D printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency.

  19. Fabrication of capacitive acoustic resonators combining 3D printing and 2D inkjet printing techniques.

    Haque, Rubaiyet Iftekharul; Ogam, Erick; Loussert, Christophe; Benaben, Patrick; Boddaert, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing and two-dimensional (2D) printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency. PMID:26473878

  20. Acoustic signature recognition technique for Human-Object Interactions (HOI) in persistent surveillance systems

    Alkilani, Amjad; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Handling, manipulation, and placement of objects, hereon called Human-Object Interaction (HOI), in the environment generate sounds. Such sounds are readily identifiable by the human hearing. However, in the presence of background environment noises, recognition of minute HOI sounds is challenging, though vital for improvement of multi-modality sensor data fusion in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS). Identification of HOI sound signatures can be used as precursors to detection of pertinent threats that otherwise other sensor modalities may miss to detect. In this paper, we present a robust method for detection and classification of HOI events via clustering of extracted features from training of HOI acoustic sound waves. In this approach, salient sound events are preliminary identified and segmented from background via a sound energy tracking method. Upon this segmentation, frequency spectral pattern of each sound event is modeled and its features are extracted to form a feature vector for training. To reduce dimensionality of training feature space, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique is employed to expedite fast classification of test feature vectors, a kd-tree and Random Forest classifiers are trained for rapid classification of training sound waves. Each classifiers employs different similarity distance matching technique for classification. Performance evaluations of classifiers are compared for classification of a batch of training HOI acoustic signatures. Furthermore, to facilitate semantic annotation of acoustic sound events, a scheme based on Transducer Mockup Language (TML) is proposed. The results demonstrate the proposed approach is both reliable and effective, and can be extended to future PSS applications.

  1. Characterization of the multi-component driving land subsidence using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Ravenna case of study (Italy)

    Bonì, Roberta; Fiaschi, Simone; Calcaterra, Domenico; Di Martire, Diego; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Meisina, Claudia; Perini, Luisa; Ramondini, Massimo; Tessitore, Serena; Floris, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Land subsidence represents a kind of hazard, which affects an increasing number of worldwide regions, densely populated, causing damage to the environment and infrastructures. Settlements can be related to multiple processes both natural and anthropic (i.e. vadose zone processes, soil consolidation, aquifer compaction, solid and fluid extraction and load-induced compaction) which take place at different spatio-temporal scale. Over the last decades, advanced subsidence studies exploited Synthetic-Aperture Radar (SAR) data, a recent remote sensing tool, to investigate land subsidence phenomena around the world. In particular, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique, allowing a quantitative estimation at high resolution of the surface deformations, has already been successfully applied to monitor the phenomenon evolution; PSI measurements represent the cumulative displacement, deriving from the contribution of natural and anthropic components, both superficial and deep. The overlapping of several causative factors makes more difficult to accurately interpret the resulting deformations; therefore, it is essential to implement a suitable methodology to distinguish the shallow and deep components of motion. The aim of our research is to introduce a PSI-based approach not only to monitoring but also to understand the land subsidence mechanism, in order to disentangle the natural and anthropic components of motion. The methodology consists of three main phases: 1) Post-processing elaborations (i.e. interpolation of the cumulated displacements and isokinetics map implementation); 2) Characterization of the subsidence areas (i.e. subsidence pattern recognition by means of automatic time series classification); 3) Mechanisms recognition (i.e. identification of the predisposing and triggering factors and comparison with lito-technical model of subsoil, and with earth measurements). In this work, the methodology has been applied to the Ravenna area, Italy, using

  2. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines

    Lara del Val

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM. The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation—based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM to separate the person from the background, masking—to reduce the dimensions of images—and binarization—to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements.

  3. Acoustic levitation technique for containerless processing at high temperatures in space

    Rey, Charles A.; Merkley, Dennis R.; Hammarlund, Gregory R.; Danley, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    High temperature processing of a small specimen without a container has been demonstrated in a set of experiments using an acoustic levitation furnace in the microgravity of space. This processing technique includes the positioning, heating, melting, cooling, and solidification of a material supported without physical contact with container or other surface. The specimen is supported in a potential energy well, created by an acoustic field, which is sufficiently strong to position the specimen in the microgravity environment of space. This containerless processing apparatus has been successfully tested on the Space Shuttle during the STS-61A mission. In that experiment, three samples wer successfully levitated and processed at temperatures from 600 to 1500 C. Experiment data and results are presented.

  4. A Novel Femtosecond-Gated, High-Resolution, Frequency-Shifted Shearing Interferometry Technique for Probing Pre-Plasma Expansion in Ultra-Intense Laser Experiments

    Feister, S; Morrison, J T; Frische, K D; Orban, C; Chowdhury, E A; Roquemore, W M

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10$^{18}$ W/cm$^{2}$) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser "noise" (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-femtosecond time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond p...

  5. Atom interferometry

    We will first present a development of the fundamental principles of atom interferometers. Next we will discuss a few of the various methods now available to split and recombine atomic De Broglie waves, with special emphasis on atom interferometers based on optical pulses. We will also be particularly concerned with high precision interferometers with long measurement times such those made with atomic fountains. The application of atom interferometry to the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity will be detailed. We will also develop the atom interferometry based on adiabatic transfer and we will apply it to the measurement of the photon recoil in the case of the Doppler shift of an atomic resonance caused by the momentum recoil from an absorbed photon. Finally the outlook of future developments will be given. (A.C.)

  6. An Approach to Acoustic Emission Technique Applications to Evaluate Damage Mechanisms in Composite Materials

    Rios-Soberanis C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission technique is a versatile method for characterization in materials science. It is considered to be a “passive” non-destructive method since damage can be only evaluated when de defects are being developed during the test which, at the end of the day, it is considered an advantage because failure mechanisms and damage process can be monitored and identified during the load history. When a failure mechanism is activated due to a discontinuity in the material such as crack propagation, part of the total strain energy is dissipated as an elastic waves that propagate from the damage source through the medium. Therefore, this released energy can be detected by piezoelectric sensors that perceive the emitted signal from the damage notation site by the surface dynamic movement and convert it in an electrical response. Acoustic emission signals can be correlated with the onset of damage process occurring in the tested materials and also to de diverse failure mechanisms such as matrix cracking, interface damage, fiber fracture, etc. This paper proposes to discuss our information and results on acoustic emission materials characterization undertaken on different types of materials.

  7. Structural investigation and simulation of acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using artificial intelligence technique

    Research highlights: → Simulation the acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using one of the artificial intelligence techniques (artificial neural network). → The glass network is strengthened by enhancing the linkage of Te-O chains. The tellurite network will also come to homogenization, because of uniform distribution of Nb5+ ions among the Te-O chains, though some of the tellurium-oxide polyhedra still link each other in edge sharing. → Excellent agreements between the measured values and the predicted values were obtained for over 50 different tellurite glass compositions. → The model we designed gives a better agreement as compared with Makishima and Machenzie model. - Abstract: The developments in the field of industry raise the need for simulating the acoustic properties of glass materials before melting raw material oxides. In this paper, we are trying to simulate the acoustic properties of some tellurite glasses using one of the artificial intelligence techniques (artificial neural network). The artificial neural network (ANN) technique is introduced in the current study to simulate and predict important parameters such as density, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities and elastic moduli (longitudinal and shear moduli). The ANN results were found to be in successful good agreement with those experimentally measured parameters. Then the presented ANN model is used to predict the acoustic properties of some new tellurite glasses. For this purpose, four glass systems xNb2O5-(1 - x)TeO2, 0.1PbO-xNb2O5-(0.9 - x)TeO2, 0.2PbO-xNb2O5-(0.8 - x)TeO2 and 0.05Bi2O3-xNb2O5-(0.95 - x)TeO2 were prepared using melt quenching technique. The results of ultrasonic velocities and elastic moduli showed that the addition of Nb2O5 as a network modifier provides oxygen ions to change [TeO4] tbps into [TeO3] tps.

  8. Efficient Fast Stereo Acoustic Echo Cancellation Based on Pairwise Optimal Weight Realization Technique

    Yukawa Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation (SAEC problem, fast and accurate tracking of echo path is strongly required for stable echo cancellation. In this paper, we propose a class of efficient fast SAEC schemes with linear computational complexity (with respect to filter length. The proposed schemes are based on pairwise optimal weight realization (POWER technique, thus realizing a "best" strategy (in the sense of pairwise and worst-case optimization to use multiple-state information obtained by preprocessing. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed schemes significantly improve the convergence behavior compared with conventional methods in terms of system mismatch as well as echo return loss enhancement (ERLE.

  9. Fatigue damage monitoring for basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites using acoustic emission technique

    Wang, Wentao; Li, Hui; Qu, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) is a structural material with superior mechanical properties. In this study, unidirectional BFRP laminates with 14 layers are made with the hand lay-up method. Then, the acoustic emission technique (AE) combined with the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) technique is employed to monitor the fatigue damage evolution of the BFRP plates in the fatigue loading tests. Time-frequency analysis using the wavelet transform technique is proposed to analyze the received AE signal instead of the peak frequency method. A comparison between AE signals and SEM images indicates that the multi-frequency peaks picked from the time-frequency curves of AE signals reflect the accumulated fatigue damage evolution and fatigue damage patterns. Furthermore, seven damage patterns, that is, matrix cracking, delamination, fiber fracture and their combinations, are identified from the time-frequency curves of the AE signals.

  10. Advanced interpretation of ground motion using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case of study

    Bonì, Roberta; Herrera, Gerardo; Meisina, Claudia; Notti, Davide; Zucca, Francesco; Bejar, Marta; González, Pablo; Palano, Mimmo; Tomás, Roberto; Fernandez, José; Fernández-Merodo, José; Mulas, Joaquín; Aragón, Ramón; Mora, Oscar

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence related to fluid withdrawal has occurred in numerous regions of the world. The phenomena is an important hazard closely related to the development of urban areas. The analysis of the deformations requires an extensive and continuous spatial and temporal monitoring to prevent the negative effects of such risks on structures and infrastructures. Deformation measurements are fundamental in order to identify the affected area extension, to evaluate the temporal evolution of deformation velocities and to identify the main control mechanisms. Differential SAR interferometry represents an advanced remote sensing tool, which can map displacements at very high spatial resolution. The Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique is a class of SAR interferometry that uses point-wise radar targets (PS) on the ground whose phase is not interested by temporal and geometrical decorrelation. This technique generates starting from a set of images two main products: the displacement rate along line of sight (LOS) of single PS; and the LOS displacement time series of individual PS. In this work SAR data with different spatio-temporal resolution were used to study the displacements that occur from 1992 to 2012 in the Alto Guadalentin Basin (southern Spain), where is located the city of Lorca The area is affected by the highest rate of subsidence measured in Europe (>10 cm/yr-1) related to long-term exploitation of the aquifer (González et al. 2011). The objectives of the work were 1) to analyse land subsidence evolution over a 20-year period with PSI technique; 2) to compare the spatial and temporal resolution of SAR data acquired by different sensors, 3) to investigate the causes that could explain this land motion. The SAR data have been obtained with ERS-1/2 & ENVISAT (1992-2007), ALOS PALSAR (2007-2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (2011-2012) images, processed with the Stable Point Network (SPN) technique. The PSI data obtained from different satellite from 1992 to 2012

  11. Optimal Suturing Technique and Number of Sutures for Surgical Implantation of Acoustic Transmitters in Juvenile Salmonids

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Boyd, James W.; Eppard, M. B.; Seaburg, Adam

    2012-01-02

    The size reduction of acoustic transmitters has led to a reduction in the length of incision needed to implant a transmitter. Smaller suture knot profiles and fewer sutures may be adequate for closing an incision used to surgically implant an acoustic microtransmitter. As a result, faster surgery times and reduced tissue trauma could lead to increased survival and decreased infection for implanted fish. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five suturing techniques on mortality, tag and suture retention, incision openness, ulceration, and redness in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha implanted with acoustic microtransmitters. Suturing was performed by three surgeons, and study fish were held at two water temperatures (12°C and 17°C). Mortality was low and tag retention was high for all treatments on all examination days (7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-surgery). Because there was surgeon variation in suture retention among treatments, further analyses included only the one surgeon who received feedback training in all suturing techniques. Incision openness and tissue redness did not differ among treatments. The only difference observed among treatments was in tissue ulceration. Incisions closed with a horizontal mattress pattern had more ulceration than other treatments among fish held for 28 days at 17°C. Results from this study suggest that one simple interrupted 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 suture is adequate for closing incisions on fish under most circumstances. However, in dynamic environments, two simple interrupted 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 sutures should provide adequate incision closure. Reducing bias in survival and behavior tagging studies is important when making comparisons to the migrating salmon population. Therefore, by minimizing the effects of tagging on juvenile salmon (reduced tissue trauma and reduced surgery time), researchers can more accurately estimate survival and behavior.

  12. Acoustic puncture assist device versus loss of resistance technique for epidural space identification

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Goel, Nitesh; Chowdhury, Itee; Shah, Shagun Bhatia; Singh, Brijesh Pratap; Jakhar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The conventional techniques of epidural space (EDS) identification based on loss of resistance (LOR) have a higher chance of complications, patchy analgesia and epidural failure, which can be minimised by objective confirmation of space before catheter placement. Acoustic puncture assist device (APAD) technique objectively confirms EDS, thus enhancing success, with lesser complications. This study was planned with the objective to evaluate the APAD technique and compare it to LOR technique for EDS identification and its correlation with ultrasound guided EDS depth. Methods: In this prospective study, the lumbar vertebral spaces were scanned by the ultrasound for measuring depth of the EDS and later correlated with procedural depth measured by either of the technique (APAD or LOR). The data were subjected to descriptive statistics; the concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis with 95% confidence limits. Results: Acoustic dip in pitch and descent in pressure tracing on EDS localisation was observed among the patients of APAD group. Analysis of concordance correlation between the ultrasonography (USG) depth and APAD or LOR depth was significant (r ≥ 0.97 in both groups). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean difference of 0.171cm in group APAD and 0.154 cm in group LOR. The 95% limits of agreement for the difference between the two measurements were − 0.569 and 0.226 cm in APAD and − 0.530 to 0.222 cm in LOR group. Conclusion: We found APAD to be a precise tool for objective localisation of the EDS, co-relating well with the pre-procedural USG depth of EDS. PMID:27212720

  13. Acoustic puncture assist device versus loss of resistance technique for epidural space identification

    Amit Kumar Mittal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The conventional techniques of epidural space (EDS identification based on loss of resistance (LOR have a higher chance of complications, patchy analgesia and epidural failure, which can be minimised by objective confirmation of space before catheter placement. Acoustic puncture assist device (APAD technique objectively confirms EDS, thus enhancing success, with lesser complications. This study was planned with the objective to evaluate the APAD technique and compare it to LOR technique for EDS identification and its correlation with ultrasound guided EDS depth. Methods: In this prospective study, the lumbar vertebral spaces were scanned by the ultrasound for measuring depth of the EDS and later correlated with procedural depth measured by either of the technique (APAD or LOR. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics; the concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis with 95% confidence limits. Results: Acoustic dip in pitch and descent in pressure tracing on EDS localisation was observed among the patients of APAD group. Analysis of concordance correlation between the ultrasonography (USG depth and APAD or LOR depth was significant (r ≥ 0.97 in both groups. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean difference of 0.171cm in group APAD and 0.154 cm in group LOR. The 95% limits of agreement for the difference between the two measurements were − 0.569 and 0.226 cm in APAD and − 0.530 to 0.222 cm in LOR group. Conclusion: We found APAD to be a precise tool for objective localisation of the EDS, co-relating well with the pre-procedural USG depth of EDS.

  14. Preliminary studies for monitoring erosion in pipelines by the acoustic emission technique

    Tiboni, G.B. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais; Marquardt, T.A.S; SantaMaria, V.A.R.; Silva, C.H. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present some applications of Acoustic Emission (AE), which is a powerful technique for nondestructive testing in Tribology, treated here as tests of friction, wear by contact fatigue, wear by slip and wear by erosion. In this work a special attention is given to solid particle erosion and hydro-abrasive erosion, problems found in almost every pipeline that lead to local loss of material and eventually rupture of the line. The technique of AE can be used as an efficient online tool when, primarily, to monitor tribological aspects such as the rate of wear of materials, as well as detect the spread of flaws in them. In wear by erosion, specifically, the parameters of RMS and acoustic energy are capable of correlation with the type of mechanism for removal of material. As a preliminary goal, erosive tests were performed with gas (air) without erosive particles, monitored by AE, varying the surface of the samples and the internal diameter the nozzle, taking the differences in signs of AE. Correlation between parameters of RMS and amplitude were noticed with the variables of the tests, such as roughness and fluid velocity. The RMS parameter showed a exponential correction with the fluid velocity, however the amplitude signals had a linear behavior. The knowledge of these parameters is essential for the development of a system that is able to quantify the wear rate of a pipeline without taking it out of operation. (author)

  15. Using Complementary Acoustic and Optical Techniques for Quantitative Monitoring of Biomolecular Adsorption at Interfaces

    Rupert Konradi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The great wealth of different surface sensitive techniques used in biosensing, most of which claim to measure adsorbed mass, can at first glance look unnecessary. However, with each technique relying on a different transducer principle there is something to be gained from a comparison. In this tutorial review, different optical and acoustic evanescent techniques are used to illustrate how an understanding of the transducer principle of each technique can be exploited for further interpretation of hydrated and extended polymer and biological films. Some of the most commonly used surface sensitive biosensor techniques (quartz crystal microbalance, optical waveguide spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance are briefly described and five case studies are presented to illustrate how different biosensing techniques can and often should be combined. The case studies deal with representative examples of adsorption of protein films, polymer brushes and lipid membranes, and describe e.g., how to deal with strongly vs. weakly hydrated films, large conformational changes and ordered layers of biomolecules. The presented systems and methods are compared to other representative examples from the increasing literature on the subject.

  16. The near field acoustic holography technique for cyclostationary sound field and its experimental research

    WAN Quan; JIANG Weikang

    2005-01-01

    One near field acoustic holography (NAH) technique is proposed for analyzing cyclostationary sound field. The signal of this kind of sound field has very serious modulation phenomenon generally, in spectrum of which obvious sidebands exist. It is difficult for the traditional NAH to possess demodulation function, so virtual power of sidebands exists in its hologram. Replacing the Fourier's transform with the second-order cyclic statistics, the proposed NAH technique uses the cyclic spectrum density (CSD) function as reconstructed physical quantity, instead of the spectrum or power spectrum density of sound pressure signal.The CSD function can demodulate cyclostationary signals, which makes no virtual power of sidebands in its hologram. The results of simulation and experiment show that the proposed NAH can extract more information about cyclostationary sound field than traditional NAH, by which sound field can be known more clearly.

  17. Coal fire interferometry

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  18. Acoustic source location in the secondary mixing region of a jet-blown flap using a cross-correlation technique

    Becker, R. S.; Maus, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the acoustic sources in the secondary mixing region of a laboratory-scale jet-flap was made using a causality correlation technique. The processed signal of a hot-film anemometer probe was cross correlated with the output signal of a far-field microphone. Axial acoustic source strength distributions were measured for three far-field microphone locations: plus or minus 45 deg in the flyover plane and 45 deg in the sideline plane. These measurements showed that the acoustic sources in the secondary mixing region are highly directional, radiating much more effectively to the -45 deg-microphone, located below the plane of the flap surface. A relative maximum in the acoustic source strength measured for the microphones in the flyover plane occurred very near the flap trailing edge, which may be due to an edge amplification effect predicted by the theoretical work of Ffowcs Williams and Hall.

  19. Experimental analysis of crack evolution in concrete by the acoustic emission technique

    J. Saliba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fracture process zone (FPZ was investigated on unnotched and notched beams with different notch depths. Three point bending tests were realized on plain concrete under crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD control. Crack growth was monitored by applying the acoustic emission (AE technique. In order to improve our understanding of the FPZ, the width and length of the FPZ were followed based on the AE source locations maps and several AE parameters were studied during the entire loading process. The bvalue analysis, defined as the log-linear slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of acoustic emissions, was also carried out to describe quantitatively the influence of the relative notch depth on the fracture process. The results show that the number of AE hits increased with the decrease of the relative notch depth and an important AE energy dissipation was observed at the crack initiation in unnotched beams. In addition, the relative notch depth influenced the AE characteristics, the process of crack propagation, and the brittleness of concrete.

  20. Acoustic emission source location in complex structures using full automatic delta T mapping technique

    Al-Jumaili, Safaa Kh.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Holford, Karen M.; Eaton, Mark J.; Pullin, Rhys

    2016-05-01

    An easy to use, fast to apply, cost-effective, and very accurate non-destructive testing (NDT) technique for damage localisation in complex structures is key for the uptake of structural health monitoring systems (SHM). Acoustic emission (AE) is a viable technique that can be used for SHM and one of the most attractive features is the ability to locate AE sources. The time of arrival (TOA) technique is traditionally used to locate AE sources, and relies on the assumption of constant wave speed within the material and uninterrupted propagation path between the source and the sensor. In complex structural geometries and complex materials such as composites, this assumption is no longer valid. Delta T mapping was developed in Cardiff in order to overcome these limitations; this technique uses artificial sources on an area of interest to create training maps. These are used to locate subsequent AE sources. However operator expertise is required to select the best data from the training maps and to choose the correct parameter to locate the sources, which can be a time consuming process. This paper presents a new and improved fully automatic delta T mapping technique where a clustering algorithm is used to automatically identify and select the highly correlated events at each grid point whilst the "Minimum Difference" approach is used to determine the source location. This removes the requirement for operator expertise, saving time and preventing human errors. A thorough assessment is conducted to evaluate the performance and the robustness of the new technique. In the initial test, the results showed excellent reduction in running time as well as improved accuracy of locating AE sources, as a result of the automatic selection of the training data. Furthermore, because the process is performed automatically, this is now a very simple and reliable technique due to the prevention of the potential source of error related to manual manipulation.

  1. A study of condition monitoring of check valve using acoustic emission and neural network technique

    The check valve is one of typical component being extensively used in safety systems of nuclear power plants. The failures of check valves have resulted in significant maintenance efforts, on occasion, have resulted in water hammer, over-pressurization of low-pressure systems, and damage to flow system components. The objective of this research is to demonstrate condition-monitoring system based on acoustic emission, AE detection that can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance/ replacement could be preformed prior to loss of safety function. This work is also focused on the capability of neural network technique to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and degradation, check valve failures and undesirable operating modes

  2. An acoustic technique for the determination of liquor level in tanks

    The design, development and application of a prototype suitable for the measurement of liquor levels in tanks is described. The technique involves directing an acoustic pulse down a constraining tube to the liquor surface and measuring the time of return of the reflected pulse. Using the equipment it is possible to determine the position of a solid surface with a total error of less than 1 mm. The prototype instrument was used to measure the volume of liquors contained in rectangular slab tanks used for accountancy purposes at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. The total error obtained in an individual measurement of volume was less than 0.2 litres (95% confidence limits). The instrument may be used as a replacement for a Pneumercator system in existing installations. (author)

  3. Application of Acoustic Technique to Surveying a Buried Fault in Tianjin

    Chen Yukun; Zheng Yanpeng; Gao Wuping; Wang Zhisheng

    2008-01-01

    We carried out surveying on the shallow structure and faulted-stratum of the Haihe fault in Tianjin using acoustic surveying methods such as the single-channel seismic technique. The result shows that the method can obtain satisfactory results in wide and deep river courses. It also shows that in the Tanggu area of Tianjin, the upper fault point of Haihe fault is about 30m beneath the river bed and the corresponding latest active period is Q3p~Q1h, which is consistent with the former borehole survey result. In the offshore area of the Bohai Sea, Haihe fault shows as a NWW-NEE strike dense fault zone and its upper fault point is less than 30m beneath the seabed. It shows that the active characteristics of Haihe fault in the Bohai Sea correspond to the Tanggu area.

  4. EXPLORATION OF SOURCE FREQUENCY PHASE REFERENCING TECHNIQUES FOR ASTROMETRY AND OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK SOURCES WITH HIGH FREQUENCY SPACE VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    Space very long baseline interferometry (S-VLBI) observations at high frequencies hold the prospect of achieving the highest angular resolutions and astrometric accuracies, resulting from the long baselines between ground and satellite telescopes. Nevertheless, space-specific issues, such as limited accuracy in the satellite orbit reconstruction and constraints on the satellite antenna pointing operations, limit the application of conventional phase referencing. We investigate the feasibility of an alternative technique, source frequency phase referencing (SFPR), to the S-VLBI domain. With these investigations we aim to contribute to the design of the next generation of S-VLBI missions. We have used both analytical and simulation studies to characterize the performance of SFPR in S-VLBI observations, applied to astrometry and increased coherence time, and compared these to results obtained using conventional phase referencing. The observing configurations use the specifications of the ASTRO-G mission for their starting point. Our results show that the SFPR technique enables astrometry at 43 GHz, using alternating observations with 22 GHz, regardless of the orbit errors, for most weathers and under a wide variety of conditions. The same applies to the increased coherence time for the detection of weak sources. Our studies show that the capability to carry out simultaneous dual frequency observations enables application to higher frequencies, and a general improvement of the performance in all cases, hence we recommend its consideration for S-VLBI programs.

  5. An application of acoustic emission technique for detecting fatigue crack in steel bridge members

    The basic study about the application of acoustic emission technique was performed for detecting fatigue crack in steel bridge. The most serious problem of AE technique in steel bridge structure is the noise problem. The characteristics of crack signal and crack propagation should be identified to filter the noise effectively and to determine the crack detectability of the technique. Laboratory experiment was carried out to identify AE characteristics of real fatigue crack. Through all of tests, load amplitude of specimen affected significantly to the results such as the crack growth rate and the amount of generating AE signals. The straight curve obtained from theoretical calculation by Paris equation was well correlated to the experimental results. AE location events were not early detected although several AE hits from each sensor were generated in the early of the test. However the features of three parameters, that is, crack growth length, AE location events and cumulative AE events, shooed almost same trend in their increase with the number of cycles. Peak amplitude of AE signal which determining detectability increased in accordance with stress intensity factor. It implies that correlation between peak amplitude and stress intensity factor could be quantified. Although there were somewhat scattered location in the vicinity of upper flange, which were considered as environmental noises, good locations near the actual crack tip were obtained. Post filtering work was carried out to eliminate these unwanted location, good results were obtained from filtering work using AE parameters.

  6. Condition monitoring of a check valve for nuclear power plants by means of acoustic emission technique

    The primary object of this work is to investigate advanced condition monitoring systems based on acoustic emission (AE) detection that can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance/replacement could be performed prior to loss of safety function. The research is focused on the capability of AE technique to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and degradation, check valve failures and undesirable operating modes. The systematic approach to classify the dynamic responses of AE signatures associated with typical failure modes of check valve for nuclear power plants is performed in this study. The characteristics of AE signature responses of internal parts of check valves due to local aging and degradation is analyzed by extracting effective AE parameters. This work also includes the investigation and adaptation of several advanced sensor technologies such as accelerometer and advanced ultrasonic technique. In addition, this work will develop advanced sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms from check valve degradation. (author)

  7. Basics of interferometry

    Hariharan, P

    1991-01-01

    This book is for those who have some knowledge of optics, but little or no previous experience in interferometry. Accordingly, the carefully designed presentation helps readers easily find and assimilate the interferometric techniques they need for precision measurements. Mathematics is held to a minimum, and the topics covered are also summarized in capsule overviews at the beginning and end of each chapter. Each chapter also contains a set of worked problems that give a feel for numbers.The first five chapters present a clear tutorial review of fundamentals. Chapters six and seven discus

  8. Ocean acoustic remote sensing using ambient noise: results from the Florida Straits

    Brown, M. G.; Godin, O. A.; Zang, X.; Ball, J. S.; Zabotin, N. A.; Zabotina, L. Y.; Williams, N. J.

    2016-07-01

    Noise interferometry is the process by which approximations to acoustic Green's functions, which describe sound propagation between two locations, are estimated by cross-correlating time series of ambient noise measured at those locations. Noise-interferometry-based approximations to Green's functions can be used as the basis for a variety of inversion algorithms, thereby providing a purely passive alternative to active-source ocean acoustic remote sensing. In this paper we give an overview of results from noise interferometry experiments conducted in the Florida Straits at 100 m depth in December 2012, and at 600 m depth in September/October 2013. Under good conditions for noise interferometry, estimates of cross-correlation functions are shown to allow one to perform advanced phase-coherent signal processing techniques to perform waveform inversions, estimate currents by exploiting non-reciprocity, perform time-reversal/back-propagation calculations and investigate modal dispersion using time-warping techniques. Conditions which are favourable for noise interferometry are identified and discussed.

  9. A simulation technique for 3D MR-guided acoustic radiation force imaging

    Payne, Allison, E-mail: apayne@ucair.med.utah.edu [Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Bever, Josh de [Department of Computer Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Farrer, Alexis [Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Coats, Brittany [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Parker, Dennis L. [Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108 (United States); Christensen, Douglas A. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: In magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies, the in situ characterization of the focal spot location and quality is critical. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a technique that measures the tissue displacement caused by the radiation force exerted by the ultrasound beam. This work presents a new technique to model the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model. Methods: When a steady-state point-source force acts internally in an infinite homogeneous medium, the displacement of the material in all directions is given by the Somigliana elastostatic tensor. The radiation force field, which is caused by absorption and reflection of the incident ultrasound intensity pattern, will be spatially distributed, and the tensor formulation takes the form of a convolution of a 3D Green’s function with the force field. The dynamic accumulation of MR phase during the ultrasound pulse can be theoretically accounted for through a time-of-arrival weighting of the Green’s function. This theoretical model was evaluated experimentally in gelatin phantoms of varied stiffness (125-, 175-, and 250-bloom). The acoustic and mechanical properties of the phantoms used as parameters of the model were measured using independent techniques. Displacements at focal depths of 30- and 45-mm in the phantoms were measured by a 3D spin echo MR-ARFI segmented-EPI sequence. Results: The simulated displacements agreed with the MR-ARFI measured displacements for all bloom values and focal depths with a normalized RMS difference of 0.055 (range 0.028–0.12). The displacement magnitude decreased and the displacement pattern broadened with increased bloom value for both focal depths, as predicted by the theory. Conclusions: A new technique that models the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model theory has been rigorously validated through comparison

  10. Phase estimation in optical interferometry

    Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Phase Estimation in Optical Interferometry covers the essentials of phase-stepping algorithms used in interferometry and pseudointerferometric techniques. It presents the basic concepts and mathematics needed for understanding the phase estimation methods in use today. The first four chapters focus on phase retrieval from image transforms using a single frame. The next several chapters examine the local environment of a fringe pattern, give a broad picture of the phase estimation approach based on local polynomial phase modeling, cover temporal high-resolution phase evaluation methods, and pre

  11. High-Speed Digital Interferometry

    De Vine, Glenn; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Ware, Brent; Spero, Robert E.; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry (DI) is a laser metrology technique employing pseudo-random noise (PRN) codes phase-modulated onto an optical carrier. Combined with heterodyne interferometry, the PRN code is used to select individual signals, returning the inherent interferometric sensitivity determined by the optical wavelength. The signal isolation arises from the autocorrelation properties of the PRN code, enabling both rejection of spurious signals (e.g., from scattered light) and multiplexing capability using a single metrology system. The minimum separation of optical components is determined by the wavelength of the PRN code.

  12. Identification of the fragmentation of brittle particles during compaction process by the acoustic emission technique.

    Favretto-Cristini, Nathalie; Hégron, Lise; Sornay, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Some nuclear fuels are currently manufactured by a powder metallurgy process that consists of three main steps, namely preparation of the powders, powder compaction, and sintering of the compact. An optimum between size, shape and cohesion of the particles of the nuclear fuels must be sought in order to obtain a compact with a sufficient mechanical strength, and to facilitate the release of helium and fission gases during irradiation through pores connected to the outside of the pellet after sintering. Being simple to adapt to nuclear-oriented purposes, the Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to control the microstructure of the compact by monitoring the compaction of brittle Uranium Dioxide (UO2) particles of a few hundred micrometers. The objective is to identify in situ the mechanisms that occur during the UO2 compaction, and more specifically the particle fragmentation that is linked to the open porosity of the nuclear matter. Three zones of acoustic activity, strongly related to the applied stress, can be clearly defined from analysis of the continuous signals recorded during the compaction process. They correspond to particle rearrangement and/or fragmentation. The end of the noteworthy fragmentation process is clearly defined as the end of the significant process that increases the compactness of the material. Despite the fact that the wave propagation strongly evolves during the compaction process, the acoustic signature of the fragmentation of a single UO2 particle and a bed of UO2 particles under compaction is well identified. The waveform, with a short rise time and an exponential-like decay of the signal envelope, is the most reliable descriptor. The impact of the particle size and cohesion on the AE activity, and then on the fragmentation domain, is analyzed through the discrete AE signals. The maximum amplitude of the burst signals, as well as the mean stress corresponding to the end of the recorded AE, increase with increasing mean diameter of

  13. LARA. Localization of an automatized refueling machine by acoustical sounding in breeder reactors - implementation of artificial intelligence techniques

    The automatic control of the machine which handles the nuclear subassemblies in fast neutron reactors requires autonomous perception and decision tools. An acoustical device allows the machine to position in the work area. Artificial intelligence techniques are implemented to interpret the data: pattern recognition, scene analysis. The localization process is managed by an expert system. 6 refs.; 8 figs

  14. Simulation of acoustic scattering from an aluminum cylinder near a rough interface using the elastodynamic finite integration technique

    Calvo, D.C.; Rudd, K.E.; Zampolli, M.; Sanders, W.M.; Bibee, L.D.

    2010-01-01

    We present calculations of acoustic scattering from an aluminum cylinder near a rough interface computed using the elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT): a time-domain numerical method useful for pulse propagation in inhomogeneous fluid–elastic environments. These calculations are releva

  15. Novel Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Algorithms Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polarimetric radar interferometry (PolInSAR) is a new SAR imaging mode that is rapidly becoming an important technique for bare earth topographic mapping, tree...

  16. Fundamental physics research and neutron interferometry

    Ioffe, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The possibility of the use of an extremely sensitive neutron interferometry technique for the study of electromagnetic structure of the neutron and the parity non-conservative effects in neutron spin rotation is discussed. (author)

  17. The application of the acoustic emission technique to stone decay by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests

    Grossi, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission was monitored during salt crystallisation cycles in order to study the mechanisms of rock deterioration by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests. Some porous carbonate stones used in Spanish monuments (Cathedral of Oviedo, Murcia and Seo Vella of Lérida were selected for this study. The acoustic emission detected during the different stages of the cycles (immersion, drying and cooling was interpreted to be the result of the salt behaviour inside the stone. The use of this technique has confirmed that this behaviour depends on salt characteristics (solubility, hydration state and polymorphism of anhydrous sodium sulphate and stone porosity and pore network.

    Para determinar los mecanismos de deterioro de las rocas debidos a la acción del sulfato de sodio, se ha registrado la emisión acústica durante ensayos de cristalización de sales en el laboratorio. Para ello, se han seleccionado tres piedras porosas carbonatadas utilizadas como materiales de construcción en monumentos españoles (Catedrales de Oviedo, Murcia y Seo Vella de Lérida. La emisión acústica detectada durante las diferentes etapas de los ciclos (inmersión, secado y enfriamiento se ha interpretado como debida al comportamiento de la sal en el interior de la piedra. Mediante esta técnica se ha confirmado que este comportamiento depende de las características de la sal (solubilidad, diferentes estados de hidratación y el polimorfismo del sulfato de sodio anhidro y de la porosidad y configuración del sistema poroso de las rocas.

  18. Ground-Based Real-Aperture Radar Interferometry: Techniques and Potential for Measurement of mm-Scale Motion

    Werner, C. L.; Wiesmann, A.; Kos, A.; Caduff, R.; Strozzi, T.; Wegmüller, U.

    2011-12-01

    Ground-based radar interferometry is an emerging geodetic imaging technology that has been applied to measurement of landslides, rockfalls, glaciers, and mines. Geo-technical observations have been performed of infrastructure including bridges and dams. Compared with spaceborne radar systems, ground-based observations have advantages with respect to the selection of the imaging geometry to optimize visibility and sensitivity to deformation, shorter repeat intervals for monitoring rapidly moving features, and higher sensitivity to motion along the line-of-sight (LOS) due to the shorter wavelength and potential for averaging of multiple observations. The GPRI instrument developed by Gamma Remote Sensing is an FM-CW radar operating at 17.2 GHz (λ: 17.4 mm) with a range resolution of 90 cm along the line of sight and an operational range from 20 meters to 16 km. The GPRI is a real-aperture instrument using a 2.06 m long waveguide antenna to generate a fan-beam that is 0.4 x 35 degrees. During data acquisition, the radar performs a rotary scan of the scene at a programmable rate between 0.5 and 10 degrees/sec. Azimuth resolution is linearly proportional to slant range with a value of 7m at 1 km distance. Differential motion of 8.71 mm results in 2PI radians of measurable phase between observations. The GPRI incorporates two receivers enabling simultaneous interferometric observation with a vertical baseline variable between 25 and 60 cm. The single transmitting antenna and 2 receiving antennas are mounted parallel to one another on a rigid tower attached to a rotary positioner. An internal GPS receiver provides a time and frequency reference permitting simultaneous operation of multiple GPRI systems. The GPRI operates in four possible data acquisition modes permitting a wide range of applications. The first mode is the simultaneous interferometric mode using the upper and lower receiving antennas. The interferometric phase can be used to derive an elevation model

  19. Development of leak detection system of heat exchanger using acoustic emission technique

    Acoustic Emission(AE) technique has been applied to not only mechanical property testing but also on-line monitoring of the entire structure or a limit zone only. Although several AE devices have already been developed for on-line monitoring, the price of these systems is very high and it is difficult for the field to apply yet. In this study, we developed a specially designed PC-based leak detection system using A/D board. In this paper, AE technique has been applied to detect leak for heat exchanger by analyzing the characteristics of signal obtained from leak. It was confirmed that the characteristics of the signal generated by the turbulence of gas in the heat exchanger is narrow band signal having between 130-250kHz. Generally, the amplitude of leak signal is increased as the leak size increasing, but showed no significant change at frequency characteristic. Leak source location can be found by determining for the point of highest signal amplitude by comparing with several fixed sensors. In this paper, AE results are compared with the PC-based leak detection system using A/D board

  20. Stellar acoustic radii, mean densities and ages from seismic inversion techniques

    Buldgen, Gaël; Dupret, Marc-Antoine; Samadi, Réza

    2014-01-01

    Context. Determining stellar characteristics such as the radius, the mass or the age is crucial when studying stellar evolution, exoplanetary systems or characterising stellar populations in the Galaxy. Asteroseismology is the golden path to accurately obtain these characteristics. In this context, a key question is how to make these methods less model-dependant. Aims. Building on the work of Reese et al. (2012), we wish to extend the SOLA inversion technique to new stellar global characteristics in addition to the mean density. The goal is to provide a general framework in which to estimate these characteristics as accurately as possible in low mass main sequence stars. Methods. First, we describe our framework and discuss the reliability of the inversion technique and the possible sources of error.We then apply this methodology to the acoustic radius, an age indicator based on the sound speed derivative and the mean density and compare it to estimates based on the average large and small frequency separatio...

  1. A Study of the Development of PC-Based Source Location System using Acoustic Emission Technique

    Acoustic emission (AE) technique has been applied to not only mechanical property testing but also on-line monitoring of the el)tire structure or a limit zone only. Although several AE devices have already been developed for the on-line monitoring, the price of these systems is very high and it is difficult for the field to apply yet. In this study, wc developed a specially designed PC-based source location system using the A/D board. The source location technique is very important to identify the source, such as crack, leak detection. However, since the AE waveforms obtained from transducers are very difficult to distinguish the defect signals, therefore, it is necessary to consider the signal analyses of the transient waveform. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a powerful tool for processing transient signals with temporally varying spectra that helps to resolve high and low frequency transients components effectively In this study, the analyses of the AE signals are presented by employing the WT analyses. AE results are compared the PC-based source location system using A/D board with the commercial AE system

  2. Detection of steam leaks into sodium in fast reactor steam generators by acoustic techniques - An overview of Indian programme

    Realising the potential of acoustic leak detection technique, an experimental programme was initiated a few years back at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) to develop this technique. The first phase of this programme consists of experiments to measure background noise characteristics on the steam generator modules of the 40 MW (thermal) Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam and experiments to establish leak noise characteristics with the help of a leak simulation set up. By subjecting the measured data from these experiments to signal analysis techniques, a criterion for acoustic leak detection for FBTR steam generator will be evolved. Second phase of this programme will be devoted to developing an acoustic leak detection system suitable for installation in the 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). This paper discusses the first phase of the experimental programme, results obtained from measurements carried out on FBTR steam generators and results obtained from leak simulation experiments. Acoustic leak detection system being considered for PFBR is also briefly described. 4 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  3. Monitoring the viscosity of diesel engine lubricating oil by using acoustic emission technique, the selection of measurement parameters

    Acoustic emission technique has been developed through years of monitoring and diagnosis of bearing, but it is still new in the diagnosis and monitoring of lubrication oil to bearings drive. The propagation of acoustic emission signal is generated when the signal piston on the cylinder liner lubricating oil which is a par. The signal is analyzed in time domain to obtain the parameters of root mean squared, amplitude, energy and courtesy. Lubricant viscosity will undergo changes due to temperature, pressure and useful. This study focuses on the appropriate parameters for the diagnosis and monitoring of lubricating oil viscosity. Studies were conducted at a constant rotational speed and temperature, but use a different age. The results showed that the energy parameter is the best parameter used in this monitoring. However, this parameter cannot be used directly and it should be analyzed using mathematical formulas. This mathematical formula is a relationship between acoustic emission energy with the viscosity of lubricating oil. (author)

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of a hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of obstructive sleep apnea assessed with acoustic reflection technique

    S S Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Various treatment modalities include behavior modification therapy, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, oral appliance therapy, and various surgical modalities. Oral appliances are noninvasive and recommended treatment modality for snoring, mild to moderate OSA cases and severe OSA cases when patient is not compliant to CPAP therapy and unwilling for surgery. Acoustic reflection technique (ART is a relatively new modality for three-dimensional assessment of airway caliber in various clinical situations. The accuracy and reproducibility of acoustic rhinometry and acoustic pharyngometry assessment are comparable to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case report highlights the therapeutic efficacy of an innovative customized acrylic hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of polysomnography diagnosed OSA cases, and the treatment results were assessed by ART.

  5. Deep diving odontocetes foraging strategies and their prey field as determined by acoustic techniques

    Giorli, Giacomo

    Deep diving odontocetes, like sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and pilot whales are known to forage at deep depths in the ocean on squid and fish. These marine mammal species are top predators and for this reason are very important for the ecosystems they live in, since they can affect prey populations and control food web dynamics through top-down effects. The studies presented in this thesis investigate deep diving odontocetes. foraging strategies, and the density and size of their potential prey in the deep ocean using passive and active acoustic techniques. Ecological Acoustic Recorders (EAR) were used to monitor the foraging activity of deep diving odontocetes at three locations around the world: the Josephine Seamount High Sea Marine Protected Area (JHSMPA), the Ligurian Sea, and along the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. In the JHSMPA, sperm whales. and beaked whales. foraging rates do not differ between night-time and day-time. However, in the Ligurian Sea, sperm whales switch to night-time foraging as the winter approaches, while beaked whales alternate between hunting mainly at night, and both at night and at day. Spatial differences were found in deep diving odontocetes. foraging activity in Hawaii where they forage most in areas with higher chlorophyll concentrations. Pilot whales (and false killer whales, clustered together in the category "blackfishes") and Risso's dolphins forage mainly at night at all locations. These two species adjust their foraging activity with the length of the night. The density and size of animals living in deep sea scattering layers was studied using a DIDSON imaging sonar at multiple stations along the Kona coast of Hawaii. The density of animals was affected by location, depth, month, and the time of day. The size of animals was influenced by station and month. The DIDSON proved to be a successful, non-invasive technique to study density and size of animals in the deep sea. Densities were found to be an

  6. Digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry: Limitations and prospects

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    Since shearing interferometry, also called shearography, does not depict fringes caused by object tilt, it is a tool well suited for either nondestructive testing of objects under load or for quantitative evaluation of flexural strains. In traditional shearing interferometry, observation of fringes...... requires optical processing of double exposed interferograms. Hence the technique is not in real time. This paper explores the possibilities and limitations for real time shearing fringe observation using the electronic speckle pattern interferometry technique. Prospects for quantitative determination of...

  7. Application of acoustic emission technique and friction welding for excavator hose nipple

    Kong, Yu Sik [A-plus linc institute, Bukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Friction welding is a very useful joining process to weld metals which have axially symmetric cross section. In this paper, the feasibility of industry application was determined by analyzing the mechanical properties of weld region for a specimen of tube-to-tube shape for excavator hose nipple with friction welding, and optimized welding variables were suggested. In order to accomplish this object, friction heating pressure and friction heating time were selected as the major process variables and the experiment was performed in three levels of each parameter. An acoustic emission(AE) technique was applied to evaluate the optimal friction welding conditions nondestructively. AE parameters of accumulative count and event were analyzed in terms of generating trend of AE signals across the full range of friction weld. The typical waveform and frequency spectrum of AE signals which is generated by friction weld were discussed. From this study the optimal welding variables could be suggested as rotating speed of 1300 rpm, friction heating pressure of 15 MPa, and friction heating time of 10 sec. AE event was a useful parameter to estimate the tensile strength of tube-to tube specimen with friction weld.

  8. Application of acoustic emission technique and friction welding for excavator hose nipple

    Friction welding is a very useful joining process to weld metals which have axially symmetric cross section. In this paper, the feasibility of industry application was determined by analyzing the mechanical properties of weld region for a specimen of tube-to-tube shape for excavator hose nipple with friction welding, and optimized welding variables were suggested. In order to accomplish this object, friction heating pressure and friction heating time were selected as the major process variables and the experiment was performed in three levels of each parameter. An acoustic emission(AE) technique was applied to evaluate the optimal friction welding conditions nondestructively. AE parameters of accumulative count and event were analyzed in terms of generating trend of AE signals across the full range of friction weld. The typical waveform and frequency spectrum of AE signals which is generated by friction weld were discussed. From this study the optimal welding variables could be suggested as rotating speed of 1300 rpm, friction heating pressure of 15 MPa, and friction heating time of 10 sec. AE event was a useful parameter to estimate the tensile strength of tube-to tube specimen with friction weld.

  9. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-24

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  10. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  11. A Study on the Evaluation of Valve Leak Rates Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    Lee, Sang Guk; Lee, Jun Shin; Lee, Sun Ki; Shon, Seok Man; Lee, Wook Ryun; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yong Jae; Choo, Kee Young [Hana Evertech Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the feasibility of acoustic emission method for the internal leak from the valves. In this study, two types of valve(a 3 1/2 inch glove valve for 600 psi steam and a 4 inch ball valve water ) leak tests using three different leak path and numerous leak rates were performed in order to analyze acoustic emission properties when leaks arise in valve seat. As a result of leak test for specimens simulated valve seat, we conformed that leak sound amplitude increased in proportion to the increase of leak rate, and leak rates were plotted versus peak acoustic amplitudes recorded within those two narrow frequency bands on each spectral plot. The resulting plots of leak rate versus peak acoustic amplitude were the primary basis for determining the feasibility of quantifying leak acoustically. The large amount of data collected also allowed a grief investigation of the effects of different leak paths, leakage rates, pressure differentials and transducers on the acoustic amplitude spectra. From the experimental results, it was suggested that the acoustic emission method for monitoring of leak was feasible.

  12. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  13. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.; Tinto, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  14. Application of acoustic emission technique to limoges enamels for damage assessment

    Jenny Studer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L'éclairage de tungstène-halide a été mis en cause quant à son impact dans les vitrines. Un tel risque n'est pas facile à évaluer : c’est la technique d'émission acoustique qui a été utilisée pour détecter de microdégâts sur des émaux de Limoges, puisque des recherches précédentes avaient mis en évidence la fragilité et vulnérabilité de ceux-ci. Avant d'appliquer la technique aux originaux, les échantillons d'émail ont été utilisés dans des tests et exposés aux variations de température pour évaluer leur réponse à la détérioration induite. La distribution d'humidité relative et de température dans deux vitrines a été mesurée afin d'évaluer le changement thermique. De plus, la performance de méthodes actuelles pour contrôler l'humidité relative, le taux de renouvellement de l’air et les risques de polluants carbonyl dans les vitrines a été aussi évaluée. Cette analyse a abouti à plusieurs modifications pour améliorer le microenvironnement lors de la présentation-exposition.Tungsten-halide lighting has been found to cause significant temperature distributions within showcases. The risk from such medium scale heating events is not easy to assess; therefore the acoustic emission technique was used to detect micro damage within Limoges enamels, as previous research has shown how vulnerable these enamels are. Prior to applying the technique to the originals, enamel samples were used in flexure tests and exposed to variations of temperature to assess their response to stress induced deterioration. The temperature and relative humidity distribution in two display cases were measured with data loggers at different points to assess the thermal loading. In addition, the performance of current methods to control relative humidity, the air exchange rate, and the risks from carbonyl pollutants within the showcases were also assessed. This analysis resulted in several changes to improve the display

  15. Study of the uniform corrosion of non alloy and stainless steels: combined utilization of acoustic emission and electrochemical techniques

    In chemical and petrochemical industry, uniform corrosion induces important economic and security disappointments. The mechanisms of this damaging corrosion mode are well understood, but methods for on-line detection are badly missing. Acoustic emission technique presents, to palliate this lack, potentialities that have been studied in an instrumented laboratory loop allowing the simulation of industrial uniform corrosion conditions. In acidic media, acoustic activity is related to the hydrogen evolution resulting from proton reduction; it is therefore well correlated to the damage severity. In neutral aerated media, the deposit formation of corrosion products is not very emissive. Yet, a specific study of frequency parameters allows detection of corrosion evolution, but in that case, the quantification of corrosion rate remains difficult. A subsidiary study confirms the technique applicability in the case of 'acidic' corrosion, even in very noisy conditions. (author)

  16. Using radar interferometry and SBAS technique to detect surface subsidence relating to coal mining in Upper Silesia from 1993-2000 and 2003-2010

    Nádudvari Ádám

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented research ERS1-2 and Envisat ASAR archive data were used for the periods 1993 – 2000 and 2003 – 2010. The radar images were acquired over Upper Silesia in southern Poland. DinSAR (Differential InSAR and SBAS (Small Baseline Subset methods were applied for the detection of the most subsided areas. The DinSAR images were layer stacked for an image using 26 interferometry pairs of ERS1-2 SAR and 16 pairs from Envisat ASAR images in an ascending-descending orbit combination. The stacking of these images showed the most subsided parts of these cities even under low coherent areas, but the results are less precise. In the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, intensive underground coal exploitation has resulted in several surface deformations under Bytom (~8-17 km2, Piekary Śląskie (~9-15 km2, Ruda Śląska (~32-42 km2 and Katowice (~20-23 km2 with 25-40 cm of subsidence (in general in the studied time periods. The SBAS technique has also shown that coal mining caused subsidence in the cities of Bytom, Katowice, and Piekary Śląskie of 5-7 cm/yr. The presented SBAS method did not work for low coherent areas, e.g. dense forested areas. DInSAR data also pointed to several decreasingly less active mining areas, which relate to the mine closures in Bytom and Ruda Śląska, which is also verified by the time series analysis.

  17. Spectral modulation interferometry for quantitative phase imaging

    Shang, Ruibo; Chen, Shichao; Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose a spectral-domain interferometric technique, termed spectral modulation interferometry (SMI), and present its application to high-sensitivity, high-speed, and speckle-free quantitative phase imaging. In SMI, one-dimensional complex field of an object is interferometrically modulated onto a broadband spectrum. Full-field phase and intensity images are obtained by scanning along the orthogonal direction. SMI integrates the high sensitivity of spectral-domain interferometry with the h...

  18. Spatial Techniques to Visualize Acoustic Comfort along Cultural and Heritage Routes for a World Heritage City

    Ni Sheng; U Wa Tang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes. Route-based tourism is crucial to the sustainability of tourism development in historic areas. Applying the concept of route-based tourism to guide tourists rambling along cultural and heritage routes can relieve overcrowded condition at hot scenic spots and increase the overall carrying capacity of the city. However, acoustic comfort along tourist routes is rarely addressed in academic studies and decision-making. Taking...

  19. Acoustic Emission Technique for Characterizing Deformation and Fatigue Crack Growth in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Raj, Baldev; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2003-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) during tensile deformation and fatigue crack growth (FCG) of austenitic stainless steels has been studied. In AISI type 316 stainless steel (SS), AE has been used to detect micro plastic yielding occurring during macroscopic plastic deformation. In AISI type 304 SS, relation of AE with stress intensity factor and plastic zone size has been studied. In AISI type 316 SS, fatigue crack growth has been characterised using acoustic emission.

  20. Numerical Techniques for Acoustic Modelling and Design of Brass Wind Instruments

    Noreland, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic horns are used in musical instruments and loudspeakers in order to provide an impedance match between an acoustic source and the surrounding air. The aim of this study is to develop numerical tools for the analysis and optimisation of such horns, with respect to their input impedance spectra. Important effects such as visco-thermal damping and modal conversion are shown to be localised to different parts of a typical brass instrument. This makes it possible to construct hybrid method...

  1. Development of Generic Methodology for Designing a Structural Health Monitoring Installation Based on the Acoustic Emission Technique

    Gagar, D.; Martinez, M.J.; Foote, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Acoustic Emission (AE) technique can be used to perform damage detection and localisation for structural health monitoring purposes. Implementation in aircraft structures however poses a significant challenge as its performance in terms of damage detection and localisation is not well understood when used with complex structural geometries and variable operational service environments. This paper presents initial developments towards a generic methodology for optimal design of a structura...

  2. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission techniques

    P Kulandaivelu; P Senthil Kumar; S Sundaram

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines the flank and crater wear characteristics of coated carbide tool inserts during dry turning of steel workpieces. A brief review of tool wear mechanisms is presented together with new evidence showing that wear of the TiC layer on both flank and rake faces is dominated by discrete plastic deformation, which causes the coating to be worn through to the underlying carbide substrate when machining at high cutting speeds and feed rates. Wear also occurs as a result of abrasion, as well as cracking and attrition, with the latter leading to the wearing through the coating on the rake face under low speed conditions. When moderate speeds and feeds are used, the coating remains intact throughout the duration of testing. Wear mechanism maps linking the observed wear mechanisms to machining conditions are presented for the first time. These maps demonstrate clearly that transitions from one dominant wear mechanism to another may be related to variations in measured tool wear rates. Comparisons of the present wear maps with similar maps for uncoated carbide tools show that TiC coatings dramatically expand the range of machining conditions under which acceptable rates of tool wear might be experienced. However, the extent of improvement brought about by the coatings depends strongly on the cutting conditions, with the greatest benefits being seen at higher cutting speeds and feed rates. Among these methods, tool condition monitoring using Acoustic Techniques (AET) is an emerging one. Hence, the present work was carried out to study the stability, applicability and relative sensitivity of AET in tool condition monitoring in turning.

  3. Investigation of the Qadimah Fault in Western Saudi Arabia using Satellite Radar Interferometry and Geomorphology Analysis Techniques

    Smith, Robert

    2012-07-01

    The Qadimah Fault has been mapped as a normal fault running through the middle of a planned $50 billion city. For this reason, there is an urgent need to evaluate the seismic hazard that the fault poses to the new development. Although several geophysical studies have supported the existence of a fault, the driving mechanism remains unclear. While a fault controlled by gravity gliding of the overburden on a mobile salt layer is unlikely to be of concern to the city, one caused by the continued extension of a normal rotational fault due to Red Sea rifting could result in a major earthquake. A number of geomorphology and geodetic techniques were used to better understand the fault. An analysis of topographic data revealed a sharp discontinuity in slope aspect and hanging wall tilting which strongly supports the existence of a normal fault. A GPS survey of an emergent reef platform which revealed a tilted coral surface also indicates that deformation has occurred in the region. An interferometric synthetic aperture radar investigation has also been performed to establish whether active deformation is occurring on the fault. Ground movements that could be consistent with inter-seismic strain accumulation have been observed, although the analysis is restricted by the limited data available. However, a simple fault model suggests that the deformation is unlikely due to continued crustal stretching. This, in addition to the lack of footwall uplift in the topography data, suggests that the fault is more likely controlled by a shallow salt layer. However, more work will need to be done in the future to confirm these findings.

  4. Detecting Faults in Southern California using Computer-Vision Techniques and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Interferometry

    Barba, M.; Rains, C.; von Dassow, W.; Parker, J. W.; Glasscoe, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Knowing the location and behavior of active faults is essential for earthquake hazard assessment and disaster response. In Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images, faults are revealed as linear discontinuities. Currently, interferograms are manually inspected to locate faults. During the summer of 2013, the NASA-JPL DEVELOP California Disasters team contributed to the development of a method to expedite fault detection in California using remote-sensing technology. The team utilized InSAR images created from polarimetric L-band data from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) project. A computer-vision technique known as 'edge-detection' was used to automate the fault-identification process. We tested and refined an edge-detection algorithm under development through NASA's Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) project. To optimize the algorithm we used both UAVSAR interferograms and synthetic interferograms generated through Disloc, a web-based modeling program available through NASA's QuakeSim project. The edge-detection algorithm detected seismic, aseismic, and co-seismic slip along faults that were identified and compared with databases of known fault systems. Our optimization process was the first step toward integration of the edge-detection code into E-DECIDER to provide decision support for earthquake preparation and disaster management. E-DECIDER partners that will use the edge-detection code include the California Earthquake Clearinghouse and the US Department of Homeland Security through delivery of products using the Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) service. Through these partnerships, researchers, earthquake disaster response teams, and policy-makers will be able to use this new methodology to examine the details of ground and fault motions for moderate to large earthquakes. Following an earthquake, the newly discovered faults can

  5. Range-resolved signal processing for fibre segment interferometry applied to dynamic long-gauge length strain sensing

    Kissinger, Thomas; Correia, Ricardo; Charrett, Thomas O. H.; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2015-09-01

    A range-resolved interferometric signal processing technique using sinusoidal optical frequency modulation is applied to fibre segment interferometry. Here, six optical fibre segments of gauge length 12.5 cm are used as interferometric strain sensors and are formed between seven weak, broadband fibre Bragg gratings, acting as in-fibre partial reflectors. In a very simple and cost-effective optical setup using injection current modulation of a laser diode source, interferometric measurement of acoustic wave propagation in a metal rod is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique.

  6. Tomorrow optical interferometry: astrophysical prospects and instrumental issues

    Malbet, F.

    2006-01-01

    Interferometry has brought many new constraints in optical astronomy in the recent years. A major leap in this field is the opening of large interferometric facilities like the Very Large Telescope Interferometer and the Keck Interferometer to the astronomical community. Planning for the future is both easy --most specialists know in which directions to develop interferometry-- and difficult because of the increasing complexity of the technique. I present a short status of interferometry toda...

  7. On the use of a variational technique based on integral equations for plane acoustic and vibro-acoustic problems

    Brunskog, Jonas; Richard, Antoine Philippe André

    2016-01-01

    Problems such as sound insulation and absorption of plane structures in laboratory conditions can theoretically be described as an integral or integral-differential equation. This equation contains the Green’s function integrated over the surface, which describes the radiation from the surface....... A variational technique, well described by Morse and Ingard, has successfully been used for both absorption and sound insulation for a plane incident wave. The resulting formulas are surprisingly simple, accurate and robust. Moreover, they capture the physics of sound radiation of a finite surface well. However...

  8. Virtual Reference Interferometry: Theory & Experiment

    Galle, Michael Anthony

    This thesis introduces the idea that a simulated interferogram can be used as a reference for an interferometer. This new concept represents a paradigm shift from the conventional thinking, where a reference is the phase of a wavefront that traverses a known path. The simulated interferogram used as a reference is called a virtual reference. This thesis develops the theory of virtual reference interferometry and uses it for the characterization of chromatic dispersion in short length (development of many photonic systems. The current generation of short-length dispersion measurement techniques are either easy to operate but lack sufficient accuracy, or have sufficient accuracy but are difficult to operate. The use of a virtual reference combines the advantages of these techniques so that it is both accurate and easy to operate. Chromatic dispersion measurements based on virtual reference interferometry have similar accuracy as the best conventional measurement techniques due to the ability to measure first and second order dispersion directly from the interference pattern. Unique capabilities of virtual reference interferometry are demonstrated, followed by a derivation of the operational constraints and system parameters. The technique is also applied to the characterization of few-mode fibers, a hot topic in telecommunications research where mode division multiplexing promises to expand network bandwidth. Also introduced is the theory of dispersive virtual reference interferometry, which can be used to overcome the bandwidth limitations associated with the measurement of near-zero dispersion-length optical components via compression of the interference pattern. Additionally, a method for utilizing the virtual reference interferometer in a low-coherence setup is introduced, enabling characterization in new wavelength ranges and further reducing the cost of characterization.

  9. Acoustic emission non-destructive testing of structures using source location techniques.

    Beattie, Alan G.

    2013-09-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) testing has been advanced and used at Sandia for the past 40 years. AE has been used on structures including pressure vessels, fire bottles, wind turbines, gas wells, nuclear weapons, and solar collectors. This monograph begins with background topics in acoustics and instrumentation and then focuses on current acoustic emission technology. It covers the overall design and system setups for a test, with a wind turbine blade as the object. Test analysis is discussed with an emphasis on source location. Three test examples are presented, two on experimental wind turbine blades and one on aircraft fire extinguisher bottles. Finally, the code for a FORTRAN source location program is given as an example of a working analysis program. Throughout the document, the stress is on actual testing of real structures, not on laboratory experiments.

  10. Detection of stress corrosion cracking of high-strength steel used in prestressed concrete structures by acoustic emission technique

    Ramadan, S.; Gaillet, L.; Tessier, C.; Idrissi, H.

    2008-02-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of high-strength steel used in prestressed concrete structures was studied by acoustic emission technique (AE). A simulated concrete pore (SCP) solution at high-alkaline (pH ≈ 12) contaminated by sulphate, chloride, and thiocyanate ions was used. The evolution of the acoustic activity recorded during the tests shows the presence of several stages related respectively to cracks initiation due to the local corrosion imposed by corrosives species, cracks propagation and steel failure. Microscopic examinations pointed out that the wires exhibited a brittle fracture mode. The cracking was found to propagate in the transgranular mode. The role of corrosives species and hydrogen in the rupture mechanism of high-strength steel was also investigated. This study shows promising results for an potential use in situ of AE for real-time health monitoring of eutectoid steel cables used in prestressed concrete structures.

  11. Intensity interferometry in subatomic physics

    The intensity interferometry technique, commonly referred to as the Hanbury-Brown/Twiss effect, has been applied to nuclear and elementary-particle collisions as a method of investigating their space-time evolution. In this review the theoretical framework of the technique is presented, describing the formulations in common use. A survey is made of its application to subatomic collisions, ranging from high-energy elementary-particle reactions to low-energy nuclear reactions. Results derived from experimental data analysis are compiled and discussed. A critique is made of the interpretational difficulties associated with the use of the technique in reaction studies

  12. Attosecond interferometry: techniques and spectroscopy

    Kroon, David

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between an intense laser pulse and a gas medium leads to the emission of coherent bursts of light in the extreme ultraviolet range. This process, known as high-order harmonic generation, has today, almost three decades after its discovery, developed into a reliable source of extremely short (on the order of 100 as) pulses of electromagnetic radiation, with a wide range of applications in the atomic, molecular and optical sciences. The access to radiation with attosecond durati...

  13. Highspeed multiplexed heterodyne interferometry.

    Isleif, Katharina-S; Gerberding, Oliver; Köhlenbeck, Sina; Sutton, Andrew; Sheard, Benjamin; Goßler, Stefan; Shaddock, Daniel; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry is a metrology technique that uses pseudo-random noise codes for modulating the phase of the laser light. Multiple interferometric signals from the same beam path can thereby be isolated based on their propagation delay, allowing one to use advantageous optical layouts in comparison to classic laser interferometers. We present here a high speed version of this technique for measuring multiple targets spatially separated by only a few centimetres. This allows measurements of multiplexed signals using free beams, making the technique attractive for several applications requiring compact optical set-ups like for example space-based interferometers. In an experiment using a modulation and sampling rate of 1.25 GHz we are able to demonstrate multiplexing between targets only separated by 36 cm and we achieve a displacement measurement noise floor of <3 pm/√Hz at 10 Hz between them. We identify a limiting excess noise at low frequencies which is unique to this technique and is probably caused by the finite bandwidth in our measurement set-up. Utilising an active clock jitter correction scheme we are also able to reduce this noise in a null measurement configuration by one order of magnitude. PMID:25322043

  14. Effects of different analysis techniques and recording duty cycles on passive acoustic monitoring of killer whales.

    Riera, Amalis; Ford, John K; Ross Chapman, N

    2013-09-01

    Killer whales in British Columbia are at risk, and little is known about their winter distribution. Passive acoustic monitoring of their year-round habitat is a valuable supplemental method to traditional visual and photographic surveys. However, long-term acoustic studies of odontocetes have some limitations, including the generation of large amounts of data that require highly time-consuming processing. There is a need to develop tools and protocols to maximize the efficiency of such studies. Here, two types of analysis, real-time and long term spectral averages, were compared to assess their performance at detecting killer whale calls in long-term acoustic recordings. In addition, two different duty cycles, 1/3 and 2/3, were tested. Both the use of long term spectral averages and a lower duty cycle resulted in a decrease in call detection and positive pod identification, leading to underestimations of the amount of time the whales were present. The impact of these limitations should be considered in future killer whale acoustic surveys. A compromise between a lower resolution data processing method and a higher duty cycle is suggested for maximum methodological efficiency. PMID:23968036

  15. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Dhurandhar Sanjeev V.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  16. Direct photon interferometry

    Peressounko, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider recent developments in the theory of the two-photon interferometry in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions with emphasis on the difference between photon and hadron interferometry. We review the available experimental results and discuss possibilities of measurement of the photon Bose-Einstein correlations in ongoing and future experiments.

  17. Analysis of acoustic to seismic coupling technique for buried landmines detection

    WANG Chi; XIE Yulai; LI Xingfei; SUN Fei; ZHANG Guoxiong

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical interaction between the induced seismic waves and landmines was analyzed according to acoustic-to-seismic coupling theory. And a geophone array based exper-imental system for landmine detection was developed. By modeling a compliant mine and the soil on top of the mine as a mass-spring system, analytic method was adopted to study the resonance mechanism of the system. A loudspeaker was employed as energy source to excite a swept sine tone over the soil. We also used a geophone array to measure the vibration velocity of the ground surface. In order to analysis the landmine effect on the surface vibration, the magnitude spectra curves of the measured velocity values on-and-off mine were plotted. The results showed that the data measured on mine is much bigger than that off target and the proposed system can be applied to further investigation of acoustic landmines detection.

  18. Signal recovery technique based on a physical method of underwater acoustics

    Guo, Xinyi; Wu, Guoqing; Ma, Li

    2010-09-01

    In the underwater sound channel we often use an array to receive signals from distant sources. The received signals are often mixed with environmental interference. In the complex acoustic environment, received signals are distorted greatly and elongated in time. In many practical applications such as sound communications, sound remote sensing and active sonar signals, we hope to obtain the original signal's waveform. In general theory, the received signals are the convolution of emission signals and Green's function of environment. In unknown Green's function of environment, simply relying on the array to record the information to determine the sound source signal wave propagation features and the environment is not enough. However, in certain circumstances, based on a physics method of underwater acoustics, the spread of recovery technology is successful.

  19. Battlefield acoustics

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  20. Characterization of sediment dynamics in an estuary environment using acoustic techniques

    Hermand, J.-P.; L. Perichon; Verbanck, M.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic-based methods have been developed to characterize the dynamical behavior of loose sediments and bed deposits in very shallow water environments. In this paper, we present preliminary results on the estimation of the dynamic changes in an estuarine environment using data from dual-frequency echosounding at high resolution and contemporaneous hydrological measurements including suspended matter concentration, density subbottom profiling, and data assimilation based on ...

  1. Network Lifetime Extension Based On Network Coding Technique In Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Padmavathy.T.V; T.V, Gayathri.V; Indumathi V; Karthika.G

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are playing a lot of interest in ocean applications, such as ocean pollution monitoring, ocean animal surveillance, oceanographic data collection, assisted- navigation, and offshore exploration, UWASN is composed of underwater sensors that engage sound to transmit information collected in the ocean. The reason to utilize sound is that radio frequency (RF) signals used by terrestrial sensor networks (TWSNs) can merely transmit a few meters in the wa...

  2. A New Fault Location Approach for Acoustic Emission Techniques in Wind Turbines

    Carlos Quiterio Gómez Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy industry is undergoing continuous improvement and development worldwide, wind energy being one of the most relevant renewable energies. This industry requires high levels of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS for wind turbines. The blades are critical components in wind turbines. The objective of this research work is focused on the fault detection and diagnosis (FDD of the wind turbine blades. The FDD approach is composed of a robust condition monitoring system (CMS and a novel signal processing method. CMS collects and analyses the data from different non-destructive tests based on acoustic emission. The acoustic emission signals are collected applying macro-fiber composite (MFC sensors to detect and locate cracks on the surface of the blades. Three MFC sensors are set in a section of a wind turbine blade. The acoustic emission signals are generated by breaking a pencil lead in the blade surface. This method is used to simulate the acoustic emission due to a breakdown of the composite fibers. The breakdown generates a set of mechanical waves that are collected by the MFC sensors. A graphical method is employed to obtain a system of non-linear equations that will be used for locating the emission source. This work demonstrates that a fiber breakage in the wind turbine blade can be detected and located by using only three low cost sensors. It allows the detection of potential failures at an early stages, and it can also reduce corrective maintenance tasks and downtimes and increase the RAMS of the wind turbine.

  3. Holographic interferometry in construction analysis

    Hartikainen, T.

    1995-12-31

    In this work techniques for visualizing phase and opaque objects by ruby laser interferometry are introduced. A leakage flow as a phase object is studied by holographic interferometry and the intensity distribution of the interferograms presenting the leakage flow are computer-simulated. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leakage flow is made. The analysis is based on the experimental and theoretical results presented in this work. The holographic setup and the double pass method for visualizing leakage flow are explained. A vibrating iron plate is the opaque object. Transient impact waves are generated by a pistol bullet on the iron plate and visualized by holographic interferometry. An apparatus with the capability of detecting and calculating the delays necessary for laser triggering is introduced. A time series of interferograms presenting elastic wave formation in an iron plate is shown. A computer-simulation of the intensity distributions of these interferograms is made. An analysis based on the computer-simulation and the experimental data of the transient elastic wave is carried out and the results are presented. (author)

  4. Optical interferometry in astronomy

    Here I review the current state of the field of optical stellar interferometry, concentrating on ground-based work although a brief report of space interferometry missions is included. We pause both to reflect on decades of immense progress in the field as well as to prepare for a new generation of large interferometers just now being commissioned (most notably, the CHARA, Keck and VLT Interferometers). First, this review summarizes the basic principles behind stellar interferometry needed by the lay-physicist and general astronomer to understand the scientific potential as well as technical challenges of interferometry. Next, the basic design principles of practical interferometers are discussed, using the experience of past and existing facilities to illustrate important points. Here there is significant discussion of current trends in the field, including the new facilities under construction and advanced technologies being debuted. This decade has seen the influence of stellar interferometry extend beyond classical regimes of stellar diameters and binary orbits to new areas such as mapping the accretion discs around young stars, novel calibration of the cepheid period-luminosity relation, and imaging of stellar surfaces. The third section is devoted to the major scientific results from interferometry, grouped into natural categories reflecting these current developments. Lastly, I consider the future of interferometry, highlighting the kinds of new science promised by the interferometers coming on-line in the next few years. I also discuss the longer-term future of optical interferometry, including the prospects for space interferometry and the possibilities of large-scale ground-based projects. Critical technological developments are still needed to make these projects attractive and affordable

  5. Dislodgement and removal of dust-particles from a surface by a technique combining acoustic standing wave and airflow.

    Chen, Di; Wu, Junru

    2010-01-01

    It is known that there are many fine particles on the moon and Mars. Their existence may cause risk for the success of a long-term project for NASA, i.e., exploration and habitation of the moon and Mars. These dust-particles might cover the solar panels, making them fail to generate electricity, and they might also penetrate through seals on space suits, hatches, and vehicle wheels causing many incidents. The fine particles would be hazardous to human health if they were inhaled. Development of robust dust mitigation technology is urgently needed for the viable long-term exploration and habilitation of either the moon or Mars. A feasibility study to develop a dust removal technique, which may be used in space-stations or other enclosures for habitation, is reported. It is shown experimentally that the acoustic radiation force produced by a 13.8 kHz 128 dB sound-level standing wave between a 3 cm-aperture tweeter and a reflector separated by 9 cm is strong enough to overcome the van der Waals adhesive force between the dust-particles and the reflector-surface. Thus the majority of fine particles (>2 microm diameter) on a reflector-surface can be dislodged and removed by a technique combining acoustic levitation and airflow methods. The removal efficiency deteriorates for particles of less than 2 microm in size. PMID:20058949

  6. Advanced numerical technique for analysis of surface and bulk acoustic waves in resonators using periodic metal gratings

    Naumenko, Natalya F.

    2014-09-01

    A numerical technique characterized by a unified approach for the analysis of different types of acoustic waves utilized in resonators in which a periodic metal grating is used for excitation and reflection of such waves is described. The combination of the Finite Element Method analysis of the electrode domain with the Spectral Domain Analysis (SDA) applied to the adjacent upper and lower semi-infinite regions, which may be multilayered and include air as a special case of a dielectric material, enables rigorous simulation of the admittance in resonators using surface acoustic waves, Love waves, plate modes including Lamb waves, Stonely waves, and other waves propagating along the interface between two media, and waves with transient structure between the mentioned types. The matrix formalism with improved convergence incorporated into SDA provides fast and robust simulation for multilayered structures with arbitrary thickness of each layer. The described technique is illustrated by a few examples of its application to various combinations of LiNbO3, isotropic silicon dioxide and silicon with a periodic array of Cu electrodes. The wave characteristics extracted from the admittance functions change continuously with the variation of the film and plate thicknesses over wide ranges, even when the wave nature changes. The transformation of the wave nature with the variation of the layer thicknesses is illustrated by diagrams and contour plots of the displacements calculated at resonant frequencies.

  7. Optical Intensity Interferometry through Atmospheric Turbulence

    Tan, Peng Kian; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrowband spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photon detectors (APDs), the Solar $g^{(2)}(\\tau)$ signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of $g^{(2)}(\\tau) = 1.693 \\pm 0.003$ from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement scheme...

  8. Prospects and Techniques for Eddy-Resolving Acoustic Tomography in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Caruthers, J. W.; Nechaev, D.; Roman, D. A.; Sidorovskaia, N. A.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J.; Yaremchuk, M.

    2007-05-01

    For several decades monitoring and modeling the dynamics and physical structure of the Gulf of Mexico have been major efforts undertaken by oceanographers of the United States and other American countries. There are very interesting physical oceanographic features in the Gulf, not the least of which are the Gulf Loop Current and the eddies it spawns. Satellite sensing of IR and altimeter imagery has been a major input to modeling those features. Such efforts are very important to the economy and well being of much of the United States and Mexico, including fisheries, mineral economies, hurricane strengths and paths in the summer, and severe snow storms in the eastern US in the winter. A major shortcoming of the present monitoring of the Gulf is the lack of subsurface input to the dynamic models of the Gulf. Acoustic tomography is a viable means of providing that missing input. Several universities have come together to investigate the prospects for establishing a Gulf Eddy Monitoring System (GEMS) for the deep eastern half of the Gulf using acoustic tomography. The group has conducted several acoustics experiments and propagation studies to determine the feasibility of long-range propagation in the eastern Gulf and the mitigation of adverse effects on marine mammal populations in that region under the Office of Naval Research project entitled the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC). The group has also convened an invited session for the 9th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (WMSCI 2005) Orlando, FL, July 2005. This paper discusses prospects for establishing the GEMS tomographic system, its technical characteristics, and its contributions to advancing the knowledge of the dynamics of the Gulf. This presentation will concentrate on the characteristics of a single-slice tomographic system, called GEMS Phase I, across the approaches to the DeSoto Canyon in the northeastern Gulf and its prospect for monitoring the movements of

  9. Using radar interferometry and SBAS technique to detect surface subsidence relating to coal mining in Upper Silesia from 1993-2000 and 2003-2010

    Nádudvari Ádám

    2016-01-01

    In the presented research ERS1-2 and Envisat ASAR archive data were used for the periods 1993 – 2000 and 2003 – 2010. The radar images were acquired over Upper Silesia in southern Poland. DinSAR (Differential InSAR) and SBAS (Small Baseline Subset) methods were applied for the detection of the most subsided areas. The DinSAR images were layer stacked for an image using 26 interferometry pairs of ERS1-2 SAR and 16 pairs from Envisat ASAR images in an ascending-descending orbit combination. The...

  10. [Acoustic emission diagnostic techniques for high-field high current-density super inducting poles

    Acoustic emission technology was introduced in the late 1970's to monitor superconducting magnets. It has now been firmly established that acoustic signals in superconducting magnets are emitted principally by mechanical events such as conductor strain, conductor motion, frictional motion, and epoxy cracking. Despite earlier suggestions, flux motion, except during flux jumping, does not appear to be an important source of AE signals in superconducting magnets. Of these several potential sources of AE signals in superconducting magnets, mechanical disturbances have been identified to be most important in high-performance, ''adiabatic'' magnets such as the dipoles used in accelerators. These mechanical disturbances are transitory, each generating a packet of AE signals that can be located with sensors. Source identification and location has been achieved with a number of superconducting magnets. In this section, the basic principle for the operation of adiabatic magnets is discussed, followed by presentation of some of the important experimental results relevant to the question of premature quench obtained at MIT

  11. Damage Modes Recognition and Hilbert-Huang Transform Analyses of CFRP Laminates Utilizing Acoustic Emission Technique

    WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-04-01

    Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry

    Goldberg, K A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-01

    EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources

  13. Geometric time delay interferometry

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using time delay interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the interspacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new and intuitive approach to extend this interpretation to all TDI observables. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of second-generation TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent arm lengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have improved high-frequency gravitational-wave sensitivity in realistic noise conditions (because they have fewer nulls in the gravitational-wave and noise response functions), and are less susceptible to instrumental gaps and glitches (because their component phase measurements span shorter time periods)

  14. Geometric Time Delay Interferometry

    Vallisneri, M

    2005-01-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA--ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using Time Delay Interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the inter-spacecraft phase measurements. In this paper I present_Geometric TDI_, a new, intuitive approach to derive the TDI observables and to understand them as the virtual measurements of a synthesized multi-beam interferometer. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of _second-generation_ TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent armlengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have imp...

  15. Polarization effects in neutron interferometry

    Neutron interferometry represents a new technique for the investigation of magnetic substances. Instead of cross sections the phase shifs due to the magnetic interaction are measured. Experiments about the spinor rotation within magnetized samples and about the investigation of the magnetic domain structure are described. A discussion is presented about the advantage of polarized neutrons and of an extreme angular resolution for certain experiments. Most of the experiments described have been carried out or are in progress at the interferometer set-up at the ILL in Grenoble or are proposed to be performed there. (author)

  16. Measurement of pipe wall thinning by ultra acoustic resonance technique using optical fiber

    This is the novel system for Pipe Wall Thickness measurement which is combined EAMT(Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) and Optical Fiber Sensor. The conventional ultrasonic thickness meter is using in pipe wall thickness measurement. However, it is necessary to remove a heat insulator from pipe line. A characteristic of this novel system is that it is possible to measure without removing a heat insulator and on-line monitoring, because of measurement probe is attached between pipe surface and heat insulator. As a result of measured with this system, we could measure 30 mm thickness of carbon and stainless steel at the maximum and pipe specimen of elbow shape. Heat-resistant characteristic confirmed at 200 degrees C until about 7000 hours. (author)

  17. Localization of acoustic emission sources in tensile and ct specimens using a broadband acquisition technique.

    Fleischmann, P; Rouby, D; Malaprade, G; Lanchon, I

    1981-11-01

    The acoustic emission sources in a conventional cylindrical tensile test sample of short transversely-cut carbon manganese steel are localized. There is not always a good correlation between the localization of the first signals and the zone which eventually fractures. During the Lüder's plateau, the ae signals are emitted in the deformation band and, in the hardening range, there is no significant ae in the gauge length of the sample. In ct samples precracked by fatigue, the signals are due to the growth of the plastic zone around the crack tip, and the plastic zone size, measured by source localization, agrees with those provided by models derived from fracture mechanics. PMID:7292774

  18. Network Lifetime Extension Based On Network Coding Technique In Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Padmavathy.T.V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs are playing a lot of interest in ocean applications, such as ocean pollution monitoring, ocean animal surveillance, oceanographic data collection, assisted- navigation, and offshore exploration, UWASN is composed of underwater sensors that engage sound to transmit information collected in the ocean. The reason to utilize sound is that radio frequency (RF signals used by terrestrial sensor networks (TWSNs can merely transmit a few meters in the water. Unfortunately, the efficiency of UWASNs is inferior to that of the terrestrial sensor networks (TWSNs. Some of the challenges in under water communication are propagation delay, high bit error rate and limited bandwidth. Our aim is to minimize the power consumption and to improve the reliability of data transmission by finding the optimum number of clusters based on energy consumption.

  19. A Methodological Review of Piezoelectric Based Acoustic Wave Generation and Detection Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

    Zhigang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transducers have a long history of applications in nondestructive evaluation of material and structure integrity owing to their ability of transforming mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. As condition based maintenance has emerged as a valuable approach to enhancing continued aircraft airworthiness while reducing the life cycle cost, its enabling structural health monitoring (SHM technologies capable of providing on-demand diagnosis of the structure without interrupting the aircraft operation are attracting increasing R&D efforts. Piezoelectric transducers play an essential role in these endeavors. This paper is set forth to review a variety of ingenious ways in which piezoelectric transducers are used in today’s SHM technologies as a means of generation and/or detection of diagnostic acoustic waves.

  20. Thermal properties of compressed liquids: Experimental determination via an indirect acoustic technique and modeling using the volume fluctuations approach

    During this research, we present an acoustic method used for determination of the thermal properties, such as the thermal expansivities and heat capacities from 293.15 K to 313.15 K of compressed liquid α,ω-dibromo-alkanes. A designed in our lab experimental apparatus has been used to measure the speed of sound in liquid dibromo-alkanes on five isotherms between 293 and 313 K and at pressures up to 100 MPa. The measurement technique is based on a traditional single-reflector pulse-echo method with a single piezo-ceramic transducer. The speed of sound data were combined with values of density and isobaric heat capacity along one isobar at atmospheric pressure to calculate the density, thermal expansivity and heat capacity over the whole temperature and pressure range by means of the acoustic numerical method. To explore the possibility of analytical description of the data, we propose the method based on the continuation of inverse reduced volume fluctuations into a single-phase region. The resulting expression contains two parameters characterizing the inverse volume fluctuations in the liquid and the isobaric heat capacity along the referent line and allows to predict the density and the isobaric heat capacity for the whole studied region with the accuracy, which does not exceed 0.1% and 1% correspondingly. (authors)

  1. Study of acoustic fingerprinting of nitromethane and some triazole derivatives using UV 266 nm pulsed photoacoustic pyrolysis technique

    Rao, K. S.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Yehya, F.; Kumar, A. Sudheer

    2015-08-01

    We report a comparative study of acoustic fingerprints of nitromethane, nitrobenzene and some nitro rich triazole derivatives using pulsed photoacoustic technique. UV 266 nm wavelength i.e. Fourth harmonic of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser having pulse duration 7 ns and 10 Hz repetition rate is employed to record the time resolved PA spectrum. The PA fingerprint is produced due to absorption of incident UV light by molecule itself and photo dissociation of nitromethane and nitrobenzene at room temperature while in case of triazole it is attributed to the combination of thermal and photo-dissociation process. The entire dissociation process follows the root of cleavage of C-NO2 bond to produce free NO, NO2 and other by product gases due to π∗ ← n excitation. In addition, we have studied the thermal stability criteria of nitro rich triazoles based on the quality factor of acoustic resonance frequencies of the PA cavity. We have also studied the effect of data acquisition time to ascertain the decay behavior of HEMs samples.

  2. Monitoring of the deformation and fracture process of dual phase steels employing acoustic emission techniques

    Highlights: ► Acoustic emission (AE) signals from a tensile test of dual phase steels (DPS)s with various morphologies were captured. ► By utilizing sentry function we tried to relate the AE signals and micromechanisms of fracture of these steels. ► SEM observations for verification of results, indicate that AE monitoring is an efficient tool to detect micromechanisms identifying failure in DPSs. - Abstract: In this paper, continuing our previous works, a new approach for detection of fracture micro mechanisms of ferrite–martensite dual-phase steels (DPSs) with various microstructures was investigated. For this purpose, dual phase steels with different volume fractions of martensite (VM) were produced by various heat treatment methods on a low carbon steel (0.1% C), and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was then used during tensile testing of these DPSs. The AE signals from a tensile test using DPS in the range of 12–73% VM and various morphologies, like equiaxed or fibrous martensite phase, were captured. Principally, to understand the AE response and behavior of the martensite or ferrite phase separately, some samples of martensite and heat treated ferrite were tested. After the tests, by utilizing a new function named “sentry function”, we tried to relate the AE signals to various failure mechanisms of these steels. In confirmation of our earlier works, the results show that AE monitoring and sentry function are efficient tools to detect failure micromechanisms, consisting of ferrite–martensite interface decohesion and/or martensite phase fracture, identifying the correlation of failure mechanisms to microstructure in DPS. The results were verified with scanning electron microscopic observations and they indicate that AE monitoring is an efficient tool to detect micromechanisms identifying failure in DPSs.

  3. Advances in Small-Telescope Speckle Interferometry

    Rowe, David J.

    2016-06-01

    The current revolution in CMOS camera technology has enabled a new generation of small telescope systems targeted at the measurement of close binary systems using the techniques of speckle interferometry and bispectrum analysis. These inexpensive, ultra-sensitive, high resolution cameras are now outperforming CCD technology, and come at a truly affordable price. In addition, dedicated, user-friendly speckle interferometry reduction software has been developed for the amateur, making it easy to perform the otherwise complicated data processing tasks. This talk will address these recent advances in hardware and software, and describe some of the results of the informal amateur-professional collaboration that has formed around them.

  4. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  5. Demonstration of X-ray talbot interferometry

    Momose, A; Kawamoto, S; Hamaishi, Y; Takai, K; Suzuki, Y

    2003-01-01

    First Talbot interferometry in the hard X-ray region was demonstrated using a pair of transmission gratings made by forming gold stripes on glass plates. By aligning the gratings on the optical axis of X-rays with a separation that caused the Talbot effect by the first grating, moire fringes were produced inclining one grating slightly against the other around the optical axis. A phase object placed in front of the first grating was detected by moire-fringe bending. Using the technique of phase-shifting interferometry, the differential phase corresponding to the phase object could also be measured. This result suggests that X-ray Talbot interferometry is a novel and simple method for phase-sensitive X-ray radiography. (author)

  6. Hadronic interferometry in heavy-ion collisions

    The primary goal of intensity interferometry is to learn about the lifetime of the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. From this information, it should be possible to further understand the possible formation of quark-gluon plasma. At unrelativistic energies, present interest is focused on two-pion correlations. At intermediate energies, the two-proton interferometry technique is the main topic of review. Recent experiments have been able to yield quantitative information regarding the space-time extensin of nuclear reactions. This review focuses on both the theoretical basis for hadronic interferometry as well as the experimental determination of correlation functions and their calculation via nuclear transport theory. 170 refs., 6 figs

  7. Demonstration of X-ray talbot interferometry

    First Talbot interferometry in the hard X-ray region was demonstrated using a pair of transmission gratings made by forming gold stripes on glass plates. By aligning the gratings on the optical axis of X-rays with a separation that caused the Talbot effect by the first grating, moire fringes were produced inclining one grating slightly against the other around the optical axis. A phase object placed in front of the first grating was detected by moire-fringe bending. Using the technique of phase-shifting interferometry, the differential phase corresponding to the phase object could also be measured. This result suggests that X-ray Talbot interferometry is a novel and simple method for phase-sensitive X-ray radiography. (author)

  8. Determination of Initial Crack Strength of Silicon Die Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    Chen, Pei-Chi; Su, Yen-Fu; Yang, Shin-Yueh; Liang, Steven Y.; Chiang, Kuo-Ning

    2015-07-01

    The current market demand for high-efficiency, high-performance, small-sized electronic products has focused attention on the use of three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits (IC) in the design of electronic packaging. Silicon wafers can be ground and polished to reduce their thickness and increase the chip stacking density. However, microcracks can result from the thinning and stacking process or during use of an electronic device over time; therefore, estimation of the cracking strength is an important issue in 3D IC packaging. This research combined the ball breaker test (BBT) with an acoustic emission (AE) system to measure the allowable force on a silicon die. To estimate the initial crack strength of a silicon die, the BBT was combined with finite-element (FE) analysis. The AE system can detect the initial crack and the subsequent bulk failure of the silicon die individually, thus avoiding overestimation of the die strength. In addition, the results of the modified ball breaker test showed that edge chipping did not affect the silicon die strength. However, the failure force and silicon die strength were reduced as the surface roughness of the test specimen increased. Thus, surface roughness must be controlled in the BBT to prevent underestimation of the silicon die strength.

  9. Development of Methodology to Assess the Failure Behaviour of Bamboo Single Fibre by Acoustic Emission Technique

    Alam, Md. Saiful; Gulshan, Fahmida; Ahsan, Qumrul; Wevers, Martine; Pfeiffer, Helge; van Vuure, Aart-Willem; Osorio, Lina; Verpoest, Ignaas

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) was used as a tool for detecting, evaluating and for better understanding of the damage mechanism and failure behavior in composites during mechanical loading. Methodology was developed for tensile test of natural fibres (bamboo single fibre). A series of experiments were performed and load drops (one or two) were observed in the load versus time graphs. From the observed AE parameters such as amplitude, energy, duration etc. significant information corresponding to the load drops were found. These AE signals from the load drop occurred from such failure as debonding between two elementary fibre or from join of elementary fibre at edge. The various sources of load at first load drop was not consistent for the different samples (for a particular sample the value is 8 N, stress: 517.51 MPa). Final breaking of fibre corresponded to saturated level AE amplitude of preamplifier (99.9 dB) for all samples. Therefore, it was not possible to determine the exact AE energy value for final breaking. Same methodology was used for tensile test of three single fibres, which gave clear indication of load drop before the final breaking of first and second fibre.

  10. A novel technique for acoustic emission monitoring in civil structures with global fiber optic sensors

    The application of acoustic emission (AE)-based damage detection is gaining interest in the field of civil structural health monitoring. Damage progress can be detected and located in real time and the recorded AEs hold information on the fracture process which produced them. One of the drawbacks for on-site application in large-scale concrete and masonry structures is the relatively high attenuation of the ultrasonic signal, which limits the detection range of the AE sensors. Consequently, a large number of point sensors are required to cover a certain area. To tackle this issue, a global damage detection system, based on AE detection with a polarization-modulated, single mode fiber optic sensor (FOS), has been developed. The sensing principle, data acquisition and analysis in time and frequency domain are presented. During experimental investigations, this AE-FOS is applied for the first time as a global sensor for the detection of crack-induced AEs in a full-scale concrete beam. Damage progress is monitored during a cyclic four-point bending test and the AE activity, detected with the FOS, is related to the subsequent stages of damage progress in the concrete element. The results obtained with the AE-FOS are successfully linked to the mechanical behavior of the concrete beam and a qualitative correspondence is found with AE data obtained by a commercial system. (papers)

  11. Acoustic Modifications of the Ames 40x80 Foot Wind Tunnel and Test Techniques for High-Speed Research Model Testing

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NFAC 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames is being refurbished with a new, deep acoustic lining in the test section which will make the facility nearly anechoic over a large frequency range. The modification history, key elements, and schedule will be discussed. Design features and expected performance gains will be described. Background noise reductions will be summarized. Improvements in aeroacoustic research techniques have been developed and used recently at NFAC on several wind tunnel tests of High Speed Research models. Research on quiet inflow microphones and struts will be described. The Acoustic Survey Apparatus in the 40x80 will be illustrated. A special intensity probe was tested for source localization. Multi-channel, high speed digital data acquisition is now used for acoustics. And most important, phased microphone arrays have been developed and tested which have proven to be very powerful for source identification and increased signal-to-noise ratio. Use of these tools for the HEAT model will be illustrated. In addition, an acoustically absorbent symmetry plane was built to satisfy the HEAT semispan aerodynamic and acoustic requirements. Acoustic performance of that symmetry plane will be shown.

  12. Numerical techniques in linear duct acoustics. [finite difference and finite element analyses

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    Both finite difference and finite element analyses of small amplitude (linear) sound propagation in straight and variable area ducts with flow, as might be found in a typical turboject engine duct, muffler, or industrial ventilation system, are reviewed. Both steady state and transient theories are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advantages and limitations associated with the various numerical techniques. Examples of practical problems are given for which the numerical techniques have been applied.

  13. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  14. Quantum interferometry with complex molecules

    Arndt, Markus; Hornberger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent experiments on matter wave interferometry with large molecules. Starting from an elementary introduction to matter wave physics we discuss far-field diffraction and near-field interferometry with thermally excited many-body systems. We describe the constraints imposed by decoherence and dephasing effects, and present an outlook to the future challenges in macromolecule and cluster interferometry.

  15. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  16. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  17. Simultaneous neutron-neutron proton-neutron and proton-proton interferometry measurements

    This paper describes a technique to perform simultaneous neutron-neutron, proton-neutron and proton-proton nuclear interferometry measurements. Experimental arrangements for intermediate energy heavy ion interferometry experiments are presented and their limitations are investigated. The construction of correlation functions, particularly with respect to normalization and background corrections is discussed. Some new results on correlation functions from the reaction 30 A MeV 40Ar+12C are shown and possibilities to improve the interferometry technique are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Characterisation of partial melting and solidification of granite E93/7 by the acoustic emission technique

    The acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to detect and characterise the processes associated with generation of stress waves during melting and solidification of granite E93/7 at a pressure of 0.15 GPa. The AE signals recorded as a result of partial melting of the granite at a temperature of 780 deg. C and subsequent solidification during cooling were distinguished from the equipment noise and their parameters used to characterise the AE sources associated with the phase transformations during melting and solidification of the granite. The mechanisms generating AE during granite melting were differentiated by AE signals with their highest peaks in the frequency spectrum at 170 and 268 kHz. The transformation of the liquid into glass during solidification of the partially melted granite generated AE waves in an essentially broad range of frequencies between 100 and 300 kHz. This preliminary work demonstrates the potential of the AE technique for use in applications related to deep borehole disposal of radioactive wastes. (authors)

  19. Damage Characterization of Glass/Epoxy Composite Under Three-Point Bending Test Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    Pashmforoush, Farzad; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2012-07-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) technique is an efficient non-destructive method for detection and identification of various damage mechanisms in composite materials. Discrimination of AE signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in the use of this technique. For this purpose, integration of k-means algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA) was used in this study to cluster AE events of glass/epoxy composite during three-point bending test. Performing clustering analysis, three clusters with separate frequency ranges were obtained, each one representing a distinct damage mechanism. Furthermore, time-frequency analysis of AE signals was performed based on wavelet packet transform (WPT). In order to find the dominant components associated with different damage mechanisms, the energy distribution criterion was used. The frequency ranges of the dominant components were then compared with k-means genetic algorithm (KGA) outputs. Finally, SEM observation was utilized to validate the results. The obtained results indicate good performance of the proposed methods in the damage characterization of composite materials.

  20. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    Rasmussen, Knud

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  1. The Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed: Recent Progress

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was designed to demonstrate the practicality and application of techniques for wide-field spatial-spectral ("double Fourier") interferometry. WIIT is an automated system, and it is now producing substantial amounts of high-quality data from its state-of-the-art operating environment, Goddard's Advanced Interferometry and Metrology Lab. In this paper, we discuss the characterization and operation of the testbed and present the most recent results. We also outline future research directions. A companion paper within this conference discusses the development of new wide-field double Fourier data analysis algorithms.

  2. In-situ Moire Interferometry Technique and ts Applications to Microelectronic Packages%云纹干涉法现场测量技术及其在微电子封装中的应用

    史训清; 戴福隆

    2002-01-01

    In this study, an in-situ multifunctional micro-moire interferometry system (M3I) was developed. The system can be used to conduct the deformation measurement of electronic packages subjected to thermal/thermal cycling, thermal/moisture, and thermal/mechanical loadings. With the system, the long-term reliability of a plastic ball grid array (BGA) assembly was studied. The fatigue life predicted by the in-situ moire interferometry technique was found to be very close to that obtained from the accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) tests. The system was also employed to investigate the fracture behavior of a copper/solder/copper sandwiched sample. It was found that the system is a useful experimental tool for a multilayer material bonded system for the determination of stress intensity factors (SIFs), strain energy release rate, and phase angle.%本文研制了多功能微观云纹干涉仪系统.该系统可以现场测量电子封装组件热疲劳、热湿耦合、热载荷引起的变形,被应用于电子封装组件的可靠性分析中.由现场云纹干涉技术测得的疲劳寿命与加速热循环实验的结果相吻合.本系统还被应用于铜焊点的断裂行为分析中.实验证明本系统可以测量多层结构材料的应力强度因子、应变能释放率以及位相角.

  3. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  4. Simulation of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Media Using Dynamic Programming Technique

    Botkin, Nikolai; Turova, Varvara

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the Hamiltonian of the eikonal equation for an anisotropic medium may be nonconvex, which excludes the application of Fermat’s minimum-time principle related to minimum-time control problems. The idea proposed in this paper consists in finding a conflict control problem (differential game) whose Hamiltonian coincides with the Hamiltonian of the eikonal equation. It turns out that this is always possible due to Krasovskii’s unification technique. Having such a differential gam...

  5. An Evaluation of the Acoustic Signal processing Techniques for Sodium-Water Reaction Detection in KALIMER-600

    Hur, Seop; Seong, S. H.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, S. O. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. K. [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    KALIMER-600 is a pool type fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as a coolant. Although it has the several advantages such as long-term fuel cycle and enhanced safety concepts, it is possible to leak the secondary side water/steam into sodium boundary. This event could make the plant abnormal condition. One of the major design issues in KALIMER-600 is, therefore, to develop the system which can early detect the sodium-water reaction to protect the sodium-water reaction event. After evaluating the various signal processing techniques for passive acoustic leak detection, we have proposed the early leak detection logics. the signal processing techniques for evaluation were the spectral estimation using the linear modeling, the estimation error of linear modeling, the system adaptation rate using an adaptive signal processing, and the background noise cancellation using adaptive and fixed filtering. As the analysis results regarding the stationary and the cross-correlation of leak signals and background noises, the two signal systems met a wide-dense stationary process and there was only the week cross correlation relationship between two signals. It is ,therefore, possible to use the linear/harmonic modeling of signal systems, and the leak signal in sensor outputs can be discriminated. As the results of the evaluation of the various spectral estimation methods, the spectral estimation method based on autoregressive modeling was more practical comparing with other methods in the sodium-water reaction detection. The passive acoustic leak detection logics were suggested based on above evaluations. the logics consist of 3 levels; transient identification, leak determination and leak symptom identification. The simulation results using sodium-water reaction signals showed that it was possible to determine the leak at above -3dB of SNR, while between -3 dB and -10 dB of SNR the logics determined the leak symptom identification. The detection sensitivity can be enhanced

  6. Numerical spatial marching techniques in duct acoustics. [noise source calculation from far field pressure measurements

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Direct calculation of the internal structure of a ducted noise source from farfield pressure measurements is regarded as an initial value problem, where the pressure and pressure gradient (farfield impedance) are assumed to be known along a line in the farfield. If pressure and impedance are known at the boundary of the farfield, the pressure can be uniquely determined in the vicinity of the inlet and inside the inlet ducting. A marching procedure is developed which, with this information obtained from measurements, enables a description of a ducted noise source. The technique uses a finite difference representation of the homogeneous Helmholtz equation.

  7. Development of acoustic model-based iterative reconstruction technique for thick-concrete imaging

    Almansouri, Hani; Clayton, Dwight; Kisner, Roger; Polsky, Yarom; Bouman, Charles; Santos-Villalobos, Hector

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well's health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.1

  8. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    Almansouri, Hani [Purdue University; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bouman, Charlie [Purdue University; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well's health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  9. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    Almansouri, Hani [Purdue University; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bouman, Charlie [Purdue University; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well s health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  10. Study of tympanic membrane displacements with digital holographic interferometry

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Muñoz-Solís, Silvino

    2010-09-01

    The study of the tympanic membrane is fundamental because it is one of the most important components of the middle ear. By finding the membrane's vibration patterns and quantifying the induced displacement, it is possible to characterize and determine its physiological state. Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) has proved to be a promising optical non-invasive and quasi-real time method for the investigation of different mechanical parameters of biological tissues. In this paper, we present a digital holographic interferometry setup used to measure the frequency response of the tympanic membrane in post-mortem cats subject to acoustic stimuli in the range of 485 Hz up to 10 kHz. We show the resonant vibration patterns found for this range of frequencies and the corresponding displacement amplitudes induced by the acoustic waves. The results show the potential that this method has to help improve the understanding of the tympanic membrane's working mechanisms.

  11. Underwater Applications of Acoustical Holography

    P. C. Mehta

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the basic technique of acoustical holography. Requirements for recording the acoustical hologram are discussed with its ability for underwater imaging in view. Some practical systems for short-range and medium-range imaging are described. The advantages of acoustical holography over optical imaging, acoustical imaging and sonars are outlined.

  12. Applications of holographic interferometry to cryogenic ICF target characterization

    Uniformity of condensed layers of DT fuel in cryogenic ICF targets is a crucial parameter in their design. Measurements by classical interferometry lacks resolution to determine DT layer uniformity for targets with thick glass shells and/or thick ablative polymer coatings. We have developed holographic interferometry as an alternative tool for layer uniformity determination. This method is sensitive only to the fuel layer itself. We describe the technique and interference pattern analysis, and present preliminary results

  13. A Possible Future for Space-Based Interferometry

    Labadie, L.; Leger, A.; Malbet, F.; Danchi, William C.; Lopez, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the question of space interferometry following the recent outcome of the science themes selection by ESA for the L2/L3 missions slots. We review the current context of exoplanetary sciences and its impact for an interferometric mission. We argue that space interferometry will make a major step forward when the scientific communities interested in this technique will merge their efforts into a coherent technology development plan.

  14. In-Process Fast Surface Measurement Using Wavelength Scanning Interferometry

    Gao, F.; H. Muhamedsalih; Jiang, X.

    2012-01-01

    A wavelength scanning interferometry system for fast areal surface measurement of micro and nano-scale surfaces which is immune to environmental noise is introduced in this paper. It can be used for surface measurement of discontinuous surface profiles by producing phase shifts without any mechanical scanning process. White light spectral scanning interferometry, together with an acousto-optic tuneable filtering technique, is used to measure both smooth surfaces and those with ...

  15. Acoustic Emission Signal Processing Technique to Characterize Reactor In-Pile Phenomena

    Vivek Agarwal; Magdy Samy Tawfik; James A Smith

    2014-07-01

    Existing and developing advanced sensor technologies and instrumentation will allow non-intrusive in-pile measurement of temperature, extension, and fission gases when coupled with advanced signal processing algorithms. The transmitted measured sensor signals from inside to the outside of containment structure are corrupted by noise and are attenuated, thereby reducing the signal strength and signal-to-noise ratio. Identification and extraction of actual signal (representative of an in-pile phenomenon) is a challenging and complicated process. In this paper, empirical mode decomposition technique is proposed to reconstruct actual sensor signal by partially combining intrinsic mode functions. Reconstructed signal corresponds to phenomena and/or failure modes occurring inside the reactor. In addition, it allows accurate non-intrusive monitoring and trending of in-pile phenomena.

  16. Acoustic emission signal processing technique to characterize reactor in-pile phenomena

    Agarwal, Vivek, E-mail: vivek.agarwal@inl.gov [Department of Human Factors, Controls, and Statistics, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Tawfik, Magdy S., E-mail: magdy.tawfik@inl.gov [Nuclear Science and Technology Directorate, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Smith, James A., E-mail: james.smith@inl.gov [Department of Fuel Performance and Design, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Existing and developing advanced sensor technologies and instrumentation will allow non-intrusive in-pile measurement of temperature, extension, and fission gases when coupled with advanced signal processing algorithms. The transmitted measured sensor signals from inside to the outside of containment structure are corrupted by noise and are attenuated, thereby reducing the signal strength and the signal-to-noise ratio. Identification and extraction of actual signal (representative of an in-pile phenomenon) is a challenging and complicated process. In the paper, empirical mode decomposition technique is utilized to reconstruct actual sensor signal by partially combining intrinsic mode functions. Reconstructed signal will correspond to phenomena and/or failure modes occurring inside the reactor. In addition, it allows accurate non-intrusive monitoring and trending of in-pile phenomena.

  17. Study of the tensile behavior of AISI type 316 stainless steel using acoustic emission and infrared thermography techniques

    Thodamrakandy Haneef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE and infrared thermography technique (IRT have been used to study the tensile behavior of AISI type 316 stainless steel. Strain rates of tensile testing were varied from 1.4 × 10−3 s−1 to 1.4 × 10−2 s−1. AE root mean square voltage increases with increase in strain rate due to the increase in source activation. Dominant frequency of the AE signals generated during different regions of tensile deformation has also been used to compare the results for different strain rates. The dominant frequency increases from elastic region to around 590 kHz during work hardening and 710 kHz around ultimate tensile strength (UTS for all the strain rates. Temperature changes during different regions of deformation are monitored using infrared thermography. The temperature rise in the work hardening region is found to approximately increase linearly with time and from the slopes of the linear regression analyses the rate of temperature rise in the work-hardening region is obtained which is found to be very sensitive to strain rates. From the experimental results an empirical equation that relates the rate of temperature increase with strain rate and thermal hardening coefficient is obtained. The correlation between the variation of AE dominant frequency and temperature rise during different deformation regions provided better insight into the tensile behavior of AISI type 316 SS for different strain rates.

  18. Software tools for optical interferometry

    Thureau, Nathalie D.; Ireland, Michael; Monnier, John D.; Pedretti, Ettore

    2006-06-01

    We describe a set of general purpose utilities for visualizing and manipulating optical interferometry data stored in the FITS-based OIFITS data format. This class of routines contains code like the OiPlot navigation/visualization tool which allows the user to extract visibility, closure phase and UV-coverage information from the OIFITS files and to display the information in various ways. OiPlot also has basic data model fitting capabilities which can be used for a rapid first analysis of the scientific data. More advanced image reconstruction techniques are part of a dedicated utility. In addition, these routines allow data from multiple interferometers to be combined and used together. Part of our work also aims at developing software specific to the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC). Our experience designing a flexible and robust graphical user interfaced based on sockets using python libraries has wide applicability and this paper will discuss practicalities.

  19. Photon intensity interferometry with multidetectors

    The technique of two-photon interferometry in heavy ion collisions at the intermediate energies is discussed and the importance of a new methodology, used in the treatment of the experimental data, is evidenced. For the first time, both the relative momentum, qrel, and the relative energy, q0, of the two correlated photons have been simultaneously used to extract the source size and lifetime of the emitting source. As an application, the performances of the BaF2 ball of the MEDEA multidetector as a photon intensity interferometer have been evaluated. The response of such a detector to correlated pairs of photons has been studied through full GEANT3 simulations. The effects of the experimental filter on the photon correlation function have been investigated, and the noise, induced in the correlation signal by cosmic radiation, neutral pion decay, and γ-conversion, has also been estimated. ((orig.))

  20. Chameleon Dark Energy and Atom Interferometry

    Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin; Haslinger, Philipp; Jaffe, Matt; Müller, Holger; Hamilton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Atom interferometry experiments are searching for evidence of chameleon scalar fields with ever-increasing precision. As experiments become more precise, so too must theoretical predictions. Previous work has made numerous approximations to simplify the calculation, which in general requires solving a 3-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we introduce a new technique for calculating the chameleonic force, using a numerical relaxation scheme on a uniform g...

  1. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new, with potential for operational applications, but currently not exploited to full advantage. Here we investigate how to optimally assess and monitor the structural health of civil infrastructure usi...

  2. Iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry

    Al-Hagan, Ola

    2014-05-02

    In refraction tomography, the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) can be a major obstacle in picking the first-break arrivals at the far-offset receivers. To increase the S/N, we evaluated iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry (ISVI), which is an extension of the supervirtual refraction interferometry method. In this method, supervirtual traces are computed and then iteratively reused to generate supervirtual traces with a higher S/N. Our empirical results with both synthetic and field data revealed that ISVI can significantly boost up the S/N of far-offset traces. The drawback is that using refraction events from more than one refractor can introduce unacceptable artifacts into the final traveltime versus offset curve. This problem can be avoided by careful windowing of refraction events.

  3. A LISA Interferometry Primer

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for all gravitational wave detectors in the detection of changes in the fractional difference between pairs of test masses with sufficient precision to measure astrophysical strains with amplitudes on the order of approx.10(exp -21). ln the case of the five million km arms of LISA, this equates to distance measurements on the ten picometer level. LISA interferometry utilizes a decentralized topology, in which each of the sciencecraft houses its own light sources, detectors, and electronics. The measurements made at each of the sciencecraft are then telemetered to ground and combined to extract the strain experienced by the constellation as a whole. I will present an overview of LISA interferometry and highlight some of the key components and technologies that make it possible.

  4. Digitally Enhanced Heterodyne Interferometry

    Shaddock, Daniel; Ware, Brent; Lay, Oliver; Dubovitsky, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Spurious interference limits the performance of many interferometric measurements. Digitally enhanced interferometry (DEI) improves measurement sensitivity by augmenting conventional heterodyne interferometry with pseudo-random noise (PRN) code phase modulation. DEI effectively changes the measurement problem from one of hardware (optics, electronics), which may deteriorate over time, to one of software (modulation, digital signal processing), which does not. DEI isolates interferometric signals based on their delay. Interferometric signals are effectively time-tagged by phase-modulating the laser source with a PRN code. DEI improves measurement sensitivity by exploiting the autocorrelation properties of the PRN to isolate only the signal of interest and reject spurious interference. The properties of the PRN code determine the degree of isolation.

  5. Perspectives in holografic interferometry

    Vít, T.; Lédl, Vít; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    Lisabon : Instituto Superior Técnico, 2013 - (Coelho, P.; Costa, M.), s. 91-91 ISBN 978-972-8620-23-3. [World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, and Thermodynamics /8./. Lisabon (PT), 16.06.2013-20.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : holographic interferometry * synthetic jet * tomographic reconstruction Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts

  6. Interferometry for rotating sources

    Velle, S.; Pari, S. Mehrabi; Csernai, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The two particle interferometry method to determine the size of the emitting source after a heavy ion collision is extended. Following the extension of the method to spherical expansion dynamics, here we extend the method to rotating systems. It is shown that rotation of a cylindrically symmetric system leads to modifications, which can be perceived as spatial asymmetry by the "azimuthal HBT" method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion r...

  7. High signal-to-noise ratio acoustic sensor using phase shifted gratings interrogated by the Pound-Drever-Hall technique

    Kung, Peter; Comanici, Maria I.

    2015-03-01

    Optical fiber is made of glass, an insulator, and thus it is immune to strong electromagnetic interference. Therefore, fiber optics is a technology ideally suitable for sensing of partial discharge (PD) both in transformers and generators. Extensive efforts have been used to develop a cost effective solution for detecting partial discharge, which generates acoustic emission, with signals ranging from 30 kHz to 200 kHz. The requirement is similar to fiber optics Hydro Phone, but at higher frequencies. There are several keys to success: there must be at least 60 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, which will ensure not only PD detection but later on provide diagnostics and also the ability to locate the origin of the events. Defects that are stationary would gradually degrade the insulation and result in total breakdown. Transformers currently need urgent attention: most of them are oil filled and are at least 30 to 50 years old, close to the end of life. In this context, an issue to be addressed is the safety of the personnel working close to the assets and collateral damage that could be caused by a tank explosion (with fire spilling over the whole facility). This paper will describe the latest achievement in fiber optics PD sensor technology: the use of phase shifted-fiber gratings with a very high speed interrogation method that uses the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. More importantly, this is based on a technology that could be automated, easy to install, and, eventually, available at affordable prices.

  8. High signal-to-noise acoustic sensor using phase-shifted gratings interrogated by the Pound-Drever-Hall technique

    Kung, Peter; Comanici, Maria I.

    2014-11-01

    Optical fiber is made of glass, an insulator, and thus it is immune to strong electromagnetic interference. Therefore, fiber optics is a technology ideally suitable for sensing of partial discharge (PD) both in transformers and generators. Extensive efforts have been used to develop a cost effective solution for detecting partial discharge, which generates acoustic emission, with signals ranging from 30 kHz to 200 kHz. The requirement is similar to fiber optics Hydro Phone, but at higher frequencies. There are several keys to success: there must be at least 60 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, which will ensure not only PD detection but later on provide diagnostics and also the ability to locate the origin of the events. Defects that are stationary would gradually degrade the insulation and result in total breakdown. Transformers currently need urgent attention: most of them are oil filled and are at least 30 to 50 years old, close to the end of life. In this context, an issue to be addressed is the safety of the personnel working close to the assets and collateral damage that could be caused by a tank explosion (with fire spilling over the whole facility). This paper will describe the latest achievement in fiber optics PD sensor technology: the use of phase shifted-fiber gratings with a very high speed interrogation method that uses the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. More importantly, this is based on a technology that could be automated, easy to install, and, eventually, available at affordable prices.

  9. Phase contrast laminography based on Talbot interferometry.

    Altapova, Venera; Helfen, Lukas; Myagotin, Anton; Hänschke, Daniel; Moosmann, Julian; Gunneweg, Jan; Baumbach, Tilo

    2012-03-12

    Synchrotron laminography is combined with Talbot grating interferometry to address weakly absorbing specimens. Integrating both methods into one set-up provides a powerful x-ray diagnostical technique for multiple contrast screening of macroscopically large flat specimen and a subsequent non-destructive three-dimensional (3-D) inspection of regions of interest. The technique simultaneously yields the reconstruction of the 3-D absorption, phase, and the so-called dark-field contrast maps. We report on the theoretical and instrumental implementation of of this novel technique. Its broad application potential is exemplarily demonstrated for the field of cultural heritage, namely study of the historical Dead Sea parchment. PMID:22418532

  10. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  11. Results of Infrasound Interferometry in Netherlands

    Fricke, J. T.; Ruigrok, E. N.; Evers, L. G.; Simons, D. G.; Wapenaar, K.

    2012-04-01

    with an aperture of around 100 km. The in-house developed microbarometers are able to measure infrasound up to a period of 1000 seconds, which is in the acoustic-gravity wave regime. The results will also be directly applicable to the verification of the 'Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty' (CTBT), where uncertainties in the atmospheric propagation of infrasound play a dominant role. This research is made possible by the support of the 'Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research' (NWO). Haney, M., 2009. Infrasonic ambient noise interferometry from correlations of microbaroms, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L19808, doi:10.1029/2009GL040179

  12. The Development of Automated Detection Techniques for Passive Acoustic Monitoring as a Tool for Studying Beaked Whale Distribution and Habitat Preferences in the California Current Ecosystem

    Yack, Tina M.

    California Bight (SCB). The preliminary measurement of the visually validated Baird's beaked whale echolocation signals recorded from the ship-based towed array were used as a basis for identifying Baird's signals in the seafloor-mounted autonomous recorder data. The passive acoustic detection algorithms for beaked whales developed using data from Chapters 2 and 3 were field tested during a three year period to test the reliability of acoustic beaked whale monitoring techniques and to use these methods to describe beaked whale habitat in the SCB. In 2009 and 2010, PAM methods using towed hydrophone arrays were tested. These methods proved highly effective for real-time detection of beaked whales in the SCB and were subsequently implemented in 2011 to successfully detect and track beaked whales during the ongoing Southern California Behavioral Response Study (SOCAL-BRS). The final step in this research was to utilize the passive acoustic detection techniques developed herin to predictively model beaked whale habitat use and preferences in the CCE. This chapter uses a multifaceted approach to model beaked whale encounter rates in the CCE. Beaked whale acoustic encounters are utilized to inform Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) of encounter rate for beaked whales in the CCE and compare these to visual based models. Acoustic and visual based models were independently developed for a small beaked whale group and Baird's beaked whales. Two models were evaluated for visual and acoustic encounters, one that also included Beaufort sea state as a predictor variable in addition to those listed and one that did not include Beaufort sea state. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research

    Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Optical interferometry techniques were applied to the investigation of transonic airfoil flow fields in large wind tunnels. Holographic interferometry techniques were used to study 2 dimensional symmetric NACA 64A010 and Douglas Aircraft Co. DSMA671 supercritical airfoil performance in the NASA Ames 2 x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. Quantitative data obtained from the interferograms were compared to the surface pressure data. The agreement obtained verified the accuracy of the flow visualization and demonstrated the potential for acquiring quantitative scalar results. Measurements of the inviscid flow speed and the boundary layer and wake velocity profiles were extracted from the interferograms and compared to laser Doppler velocimeter measurements. These results were also in good agreement. A method for acquiring real time interferometric data in large scale facilities was developed. This method, based on the point diffraction interferometer, was successfully tested in the 2 x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. The holographic and real time interferometry methods were applied to the investigations of circulation control airfoils utilizing the Coanda effect. These results reveals the details of the jet interacting with the trailing edge boundary layer and the other parameters affecting the lift augmentation.

  14. A qualitative and quantitative investigation of the uncracked and cracked condition of concrete beams using impulse excitation, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic pulse velocity techniques

    Iliopoulos, S.; Iliopoulos, A.; Pyl, L.; Sol, H.; Aggelis, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    The Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) is a useful tool for characterizing the structural condition of concrete. Processing the obtained dynamic parameters (damping ratio, response frequency) as a function of response amplitude, clear and systematic differences appear between intact and cracked specimens, while factors like age and sustained load are also influential. Simultaneously, Acoustic Emission (AE) and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) techniques are used during the three point bending test of the beams in order to supply additional information on the level of damage accumulation which resulted in the specific dynamic behavior revealed by the IET test.

  15. Optical interferometry for biology and medicine

    Nolte, David D

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental physics of optical interferometry as applied to biophysical, biological and medical research. Interference is at the core of many types of optical detection and is a powerful probe of cellular and tissue structure in interfererence microscopy and in optical coherence tomography. It is also the root cause of speckle and other imaging artefacts that limit range and resolution. For biosensor applications, the inherent sensitivity of interferometry enables ultrasensitive detection of molecules in biological samples for medical diagnostics. In this book, emphasis is placed on the physics of light scattering, beginning with the molecular origins of refraction as light propagates through matter, and then treating the stochastic nature of random fields that ultimately dominate optical imaging in cells and tissue. The physics of partial coherence plays a central role in the text, with a focus on coherence detection techniques that allow information to be selectively detected out of ...

  16. Use of interferometry in preschool children.

    Richman, J E; Kozol, N; Crawford, R D

    1989-05-01

    Any procedure that can help to predict the outcome of treatment for a vision disorder is a desired clinical goal. Interferometry has shown such an ability for predicting the post-treatment visual acuities in amblyopia and other vision disorders. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of using interferometry with preschool children, aged 3-5 years. We determined that they can be reliably tested in 5-10 minutes using a non-verbal, forced choice technique. Due to developmental differences, the 3-year-olds needed slightly more time to test and were more variable in their responses than the 4-years-olds. Overall, the prognostic value of interferometer visual acuity measures should be considered for use in preschool children with visual acuity disorders, e.g., amblyopia. PMID:2732416

  17. Nanoscale optical interferometry with incoherent light.

    Li, Dongfang; Feng, Jing; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Optical interferometry has empowered an impressive variety of biosensing and medical imaging techniques. A widely held assumption is that devices based on optical interferometry require coherent light to generate a precise optical signature in response to an analyte. Here we disprove that assumption. By directly embedding light emitters into subwavelength cavities of plasmonic interferometers, we demonstrate coherent generation of surface plasmons even when light with extremely low degrees of spatial and temporal coherence is employed. This surprising finding enables novel sensor designs with cheaper and smaller light sources, and consequently increases accessibility to a variety of analytes, such as biomarkers in physiological fluids, or even airborne nanoparticles. Furthermore, these nanosensors can now be arranged along open detection surfaces, and in dense arrays, accelerating the rate of parallel target screening used in drug discovery, among other high volume and high sensitivity applications. PMID:26880171

  18. A study on the condition monitoring of check valve at nuclear power plants using the acoustic emission and a neural network technique

    Lee, Min Rae; Lee, Joon Hyun [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Teak [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The analysis of Acoustic Emission (AE) signals produced during object leakage is promising for condition monitoring of the components. In this study, an advanced condition monitoring technique based on acoustic emission detection and artificial neural networks was applied to a check valve, one of the components being used extensively in a safety system of a nuclear power plant. AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and evaluate disk movement for valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference in a check valve. It is clearly demonstrated that the evaluation of different types of failure modes such as disk wear and check valve leakage were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters. It is also shown that the leak size can be determined with an artificial neural network.

  19. A study on the condition monitoring of check valve at nuclear power plants using the acoustic emission and a neural network technique

    The analysis of Acoustic Emission (AE) signals produced during object leakage is promising for condition monitoring of the components. In this study, an advanced condition monitoring technique based on acoustic emission detection and artificial neural networks was applied to a check valve, one of the components being used extensively in a safety system of a nuclear power plant. AE testing for a check valve under controlled flow loop conditions was performed to detect and evaluate disk movement for valve degradation such as wear and leakage due to foreign object interference in a check valve. It is clearly demonstrated that the evaluation of different types of failure modes such as disk wear and check valve leakage were successful by systematically analyzing the characteristics of various AE parameters. It is also shown that the leak size can be determined with an artificial neural network

  20. Determination of Young's modulus of silica aerogels using holographic interferometry

    Chikode, Prashant P.; Sabale, Sandip R.; Vhatkar, Rajiv S.

    2016-05-01

    Digital holographic interferometry technique is used to determine elastic modulus of silica aerogels. Tetramethoxysilane precursor based Silica aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel process followed by supercritical methanol drying. The alcogels were prepared by keeping the molar ratio of tetramethoxysilane: methyltrimethoxysilane: H2O constant at 1:0.6:4 while the methanol / tetramethoxysilane molar ratio (M) was varied systematically from 12 to 18. Holograms of translucent aerogel samples have been successfully recorded using the digital holographic interferometry technique. Stimulated digital interferograms gives localization of interference fringes on the aerogel surface and these fringes are used to determine the surface deformation and Young's modulus (Y) of the aerogels.

  1. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications

  2. Practical optical interferometry imaging at visible and infrared wavelengths

    Buscher, David F

    2015-01-01

    Optical interferometry is a powerful technique to make images on angular scales hundreds of times smaller than is possible with the largest telescopes. This concise guide provides an introduction to the technique for graduate students and researchers who want to make interferometric observations and acts as a reference for technologists building new instruments. Starting from the principles of interference, the author covers the core concepts of interferometry, showing how the effects of the Earth's atmosphere can be overcome using closure phase, and the complete process of making an observation, from planning to image reconstruction. This rigorous approach emphasizes the use of rules-of-thumb for important parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratios, requirements for sampling the Fourier plane and predicting image quality. The handbook is supported by web resources, including the Python source code used to make many of the graphs, as well as an interferometry simulation framework, available at www.cambridg...

  3. Pipeline monitoring with interferometry in non-arid regions

    McCardle, Adrian; Rabus, Bernhard; Ghuman, Parwant [MacDonald Dettwiler, Richmond, BC (Canada); Freymueller, Jeff T. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Interferometry has become a proven technique for accurately measuring ground movements caused by subsidence, landslides, earthquakes and volcanoes. Using space borne sensors such as the ERS, ENVISAT and RADARSAT satellites, ground deformation can be monitored on a millimeter level. Traditionally interferometry has been limited to arid areas however new technology has allowed for successful monitoring in vegetated regions and areas of changing land-cover. Analysis of ground movement of the Trans-Alaskan pipeline demonstrates how these techniques can offer pipeline engineers a new tool for observing potential dangers to pipeline integrity. Results from Interferometric Point Target Analysis were compared with GPS measurements and speckle tracking interferometry was demonstrated to measure a major earthquake. (author)

  4. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  5. Interferometry in the Era of Very Large Telescopes

    Barry, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Research in modern stellar interferometry has focused primarily on ground-based observatories, with very long baselines or large apertures, that have benefited from recent advances in fringe tracking, phase reconstruction, adaptive optics, guided optics, and modern detectors. As one example, a great deal of effort has been put into development of ground-based nulling interferometers. The nulling technique is the sparse aperture equivalent of conventional coronography used in filled aperture telescopes. In this mode the stellar light itself is suppressed by a destructive fringe, effectively enhancing the contrast of the circumstellar material located near the star. Nulling interferometry has helped to advance our understanding of the astrophysics of many distant objects by providing the spatial resolution necessary to localize the various faint emission sources near bright objects. We illustrate the current capabilities of this technique by describing the first scientific results from the Keck Interferometer Nuller that combines the light from the two largest optical telescopes in the world including new, unpublished measurements of exozodiacal dust disks. We discuss prospects in the near future for interferometry in general, the capabilities of secondary masking interferometry on very large telescopes, and of nulling interferometry using outriggers on very large telescopes. We discuss future development of a simplified space-borne NIR nulling architecture, the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer, capable of detecting and characterizing an Earth twin in the near future and how such a mission would benefit from the optical wavelength coverage offered by large, ground-based instruments.

  6. Interferometry for rotating sources

    Velle, S.; Mehrabi Pari, S.; Csernai, L. P.

    2016-06-01

    The two particle interferometry method to determine the size of the emitting source after a heavy ion collision is extended. Following the extension of the method to spherical expansion dynamics, here we extend the method to rotating systems. It is shown that rotation of a cylindrically symmetric system leads to modifications, which can be perceived as spatial asymmetry by the "azimuthal HBT" method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion reactions. We consider a source that is azimuthally symmetric in space around the axis of rotation, and discuss the features of the resulting two particle correlation function. This shows the azimuthal asymmetry arising from the rotation. We show that this asymmetry leads to results similar to those given by spatially asymmetric sources.

  7. Decoherence Free Neutron Interferometry

    Pushin, Dmitry A; Cory, David G

    2016-01-01

    Perfect single-crystal neutron interferometers are adversely sensitive to environmental disturbances, particularly mechanical vibrations. The sensitivity to vibrations results from the slow velocity of thermal neutrons and the long measurement time that are encountered in a typical experiment. Consequently, to achieve a good interference solutions for reducing vibration other than those normally used in optical experiments must be explored. Here we introduce a geometry for a neutron interferometer that is less sensitive to low-frequency vibrations. This design may be compared with both dynamical decoupling methods and decoherence-free subspaces that are described in quantum information processing. By removing the need for bulky vibration isolation setups, this design will make it easier to adopt neutron interferometry to a wide range of applications and increase its sensitivity.

  8. Bandwidth in bolometric interferometry

    Charlassier, R; Hamilton, J -Ch; Kaplan, J; Malu, S

    2009-01-01

    Bolometric Interferometry is a technology currently under development that will be first dedicated to the detection of B-mode polarization fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background. A bolometric interferometer will have to take advantage of the wide spectral detection band of its bolometers in order to be competitive with imaging experiments. A crucial concern is that interferometers are presumed to be importantly affected by a spoiling effect known as bandwidth smearing. In this paper, we investigate how the bandwidth modifies the work principle of a bolometric interferometer and how it affects its sensitivity to the CMB angular power spectra. We obtain analytical expressions for the broadband visibilities measured by broadband heterodyne and bolometric interferometers. We investigate how the visibilities must be reconstructed in a broadband bolometric interferometer and show that this critically depends on hardware properties of the modulation phase shifters. Using an angular power spectrum estimator ...

  9. Interferometry using undulator sources

    Optical systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography need to use optical components with subnanometer surface figure error tolerances to achieve diffraction-limited performance [M.D. Himel, in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A.M. Hawryluk and R.H. Stulen, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1993), 18, 1089, and D. Attwood et al., Appl. Opt. 32, 7022 (1993)]. Also, multilayer-coated optics require at-wavelength wavefront measurement to characterize phase effects that cannot be measured by conventional optical interferometry. Furthermore, EUV optical systems will additionally require final testing and alignment at the operational wavelength for adjustment and reduction of the cumulative optical surface errors. Therefore, at-wavelength interferometric measurement of EUV optics will be the necessary metrology tool for the successful development of optics for EUV lithography. An EUV point diffraction interferometer (PDI) has been developed at the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) and has been already in operation for a year [K. Goldberg et al., in Extreme Ultra Lithography, D.T. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1994), K. Goldberg et al., Proc. SPIE 2437, to be published, and K. Goldberg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2923 (1995)] using an undulator radiation source and coherent optics beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An overview of the PDI interferometer and some EUV wavefront measurements obtained with this instrument will be presented. In addition, future developments planned for EUV interferometry at CXRO towards the measurement of actual EUV lithography optics will be shown. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. USE OF SCALE MODELING FOR ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS

    ERÖZ, Ferhat

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic science and hearing has become important. Acoustic design used in tests of acoustic devices is crucial. Sound propagation is a complex subject, especially inside enclosed spaces. From the 19th century on, the acoustic measurements and tests were carried out using modeling techniques that are based on room acoustic measurement parameters.In this study, the effects of architectural acoustic design of modeling techniques and acoustic parameters were studied. In this con...

  11. Digital holographic interferometry applied to the study of tympanic membrane displacements

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Pérez López, Carlos; Muñoz Solís, Silvino; Esquivel, Jesús

    2011-06-01

    Quantitative studies of the mechanical properties of tympanic membrane (TM) are needed for better understanding of its role in detailed clinical evaluation, its research being of extreme importance because it is one of the most important structures of the middle ear. By finding the membrane's vibration patterns and quantifying the induced displacement it is possible to characterize and determine its physiological status. Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) has proved to be a reliable optical non-invasive and full-field-of-view technique for the investigation of different mechanical parameters of biological tissues, i.e., DHI has demonstrated an ability to detect displacement changes in quasi-real time and without the need to contact the sample's surface under study providing relevant information, such as clinical and mechanical sample properties. In this research fresh tympanic membrane specimens taken from post-mortem cats are subjected to acoustic stimuli in the audible frequency range producing resonant vibration patterns on the membrane, a feature that results in an ideal application for DHI. An important feature of this approach over other techniques previously used to study the tympanic membrane vibrations is that it only requires two images and less hardware to carry out the measurements, making of DHI a simpler and faster technique as compared to other proposed approaches. The results found show a very good agreement between the present and past measurements from previous research work, showing that DHI is a technique that no doubt will help to improve the understanding of the tympanic membrane's working mechanisms.

  12. Coda Wave Interferometry Method Applied in Structural Monitoring to Assess Damage Evolution in Masonry and Concrete Structures

    In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a 'damage-gauge' for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.

  13. Coda Wave Interferometry Method Applied in Structural Monitoring to Assess Damage Evolution in Masonry and Concrete Structures

    Masera, D; Bocca, P; Grazzini, A, E-mail: davide.masera@polito.it [Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering - Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2011-07-19

    In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a 'damage-gauge' for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.

  14. Coda Wave Interferometry Method Applied in Structural Monitoring to Assess Damage Evolution in Masonry and Concrete Structures

    Masera, D.; Bocca, P.; Grazzini, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a "damage-gauge" for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.

  15. High-speed imaging of sound using parallel phase-shifting interferometry.

    Ishikawa, Kenji; Yatabe, Kohei; Chitanont, Nachanant; Ikeda, Yusuke; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Onuma, Takashi; Niwa, Hayato; Yoshii, Minoru

    2016-06-13

    Sound-field imaging, the visualization of spatial and temporal distribution of acoustical properties such as sound pressure, is useful for understanding acoustical phenomena. This study investigated the use of parallel phase-shifting interferometry (PPSI) with a high-speed polarization camera for imaging a sound field, particularly high-speed imaging of propagating sound waves. The experimental results showed that the instantaneous sound field, which was generated by ultrasonic transducers driven by a pure tone of 40 kHz, was quantitatively imaged. Hence, PPSI can be used in acoustical applications requiring spatial information of sound pressure. PMID:27410311

  16. Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.

    Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274

  17. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  18. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will...... present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  19. A Technique of Deformed Specimen Grating Replication for In-Situ Measurement of Moiré Interferometry%云纹干涉法现场测量中的变形试件栅复制技术

    邬柱; 戴福隆

    2002-01-01

    An in-situ measurement method of moiré interferometry is investigated in this paper. In the method, deformed specimen grating is replicated during an in-situ measurement.The replicated grating containing the load induced deformation. This deformation can be extracted easily by moiré interferometry. This practical method maintains all the advantages of moité interferometry but it make moiré interferometry extended to other application fields out of optical laboratories.%本文研究了云纹干涉法的现场测量技术.该方法在现场测量过程中复制变形的试件栅.试件栅上保留了载荷引起的变形信息,通过云纹干涉法可以得到这些变形信息.该方法不但具有云纹干涉法的所有优点,并且使云纹干涉法可以在光学实验室以外场合中应用.

  20. Optical Interferometry Motivation and History

    Lawson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A history and motivation of stellar interferometry is presented. The topics include: 1) On Tides, Organ Pipes, and Soap Bubbles; 2) Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896); 3) Fizeau Suggests Stellar Interferometry 1867; 4) Edouard Stephan (1837-1923); 5) Foucault Refractor; 6) Albert A. Michelson (1852-1931); 7) On the Application of Interference Methods to Astronomy (1890); 8) Moons of Jupiter (1891); 9) Other Applications in 19th Century; 10) Timeline of Interferometry to 1938; 11) 30 years goes by; 12) Mount Wilson Observatory; 13) Michelson's 20 ft Interferometer; 14) Was Michelson Influenced by Fizeau? 15) Work Continues in the 1920s and 30s; 16) 50 ft Interferometer (1931-1938); 17) Light Paths in the 50 ft Interferometer; 18) Ground-level at the 50 ft; 19) F.G. Pease (1881-1938); 20) Timeline of Optical Interferometry to 1970; 21) A New Type of Stellar Interferometer (1956); 22) Intensity Interferometer (1963- 1976; 23) Robert Hanbury Brown; 24) Interest in Optical Interferometry in the 1960s; 25) Interferometry in the Early 1970s; and 26) A New Frontier is Opened up in 1974.

  1. Acoustic emission source localization and velocity determination of the fundamental mode A0 using wavelet analysis and a Newton-based optimization technique

    This paper investigates the development of an in situ impact detection monitoring system able to identify in real-time the acoustic emission location. The proposed algorithm is based on the differences of stress waves measured by surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers. A joint time–frequency analysis based on the magnitude of the continuous wavelet transform was used to determine the time of arrival of the wavepackets. A combination of unconstrained optimization technique associated with a local Newton's iterative method was employed to solve a set of nonlinear equations in order to assess the impact location coordinates and the wave speed. With the proposed approach, the drawbacks of a triangulation method in terms of estimating a priori the group velocity and the need to find the best time–frequency technique for the time-of-arrival determination were overcome. Moreover, this algorithm proved to be very robust since it was able to converge from almost any guess point and required little computational time. A comparison between the theoretical and experimental results carried out with piezoelectric film (PVDF) and acoustic emission transducers showed that the impact source location and the wave velocity were predicted with reasonable accuracy. In particular, the maximum error in estimation of the impact location was less than 2% and about 1% for the flexural wave velocity

  2. Interferometry from Space: A Great Dream

    Høg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    During some thirty years, 1980-2010, technical studies of optical interferometry from instruments in space were pursued as promising for higher spatial resolution and for higher astrometric accuracy. Nulling interferometry was studied for both high spatial resolution and high contrast. These studies were great dreams deserving further historical attention. ESA's interest in interferometry began in the early 1980s. The studies of optical interferometry for the global astrometry mission GAIA began in 1993 and ended in 1998 when interferometry was dropped as unsuited for the purpose, and the Gaia mission to be launched in 2013 is not based on interferometry. \\c{opyright} Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  4. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry based on geodetic estimation theory

    Van Leijen, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth's surface is continuously deforming due to natural and anthropogenic processes, such as tectonics, landslides, oil and gas extraction, and groundwater level changes. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry is a technique that provides measurements of this surface motion based on satellite rada

  5. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator.

    Cohen, Justin D; Meenehan, Seán M; MacCabe, Gregory S; Gröblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Painter, Oskar

    2015-04-23

    In optics, the ability to measure individual quanta of light (photons) enables a great many applications, ranging from dynamic imaging within living organisms to secure quantum communication. Pioneering photon counting experiments, such as the intensity interferometry performed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure the angular width of visible stars, have played a critical role in our understanding of the full quantum nature of light. As with matter at the atomic scale, the laws of quantum mechanics also govern the properties of macroscopic mechanical objects, providing fundamental quantum limits to the sensitivity of mechanical sensors and transducers. Current research in cavity optomechanics seeks to use light to explore the quantum properties of mechanical systems ranging in size from kilogram-mass mirrors to nanoscale membranes, as well as to develop technologies for precision sensing and quantum information processing. Here we use an optical probe and single-photon detection to study the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a silicon nanomechanical resonator, and perform a measurement similar to that used by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure correlations in the emitted phonons as the resonator undergoes a parametric instability formally equivalent to that of a laser. Owing to the cavity-enhanced coupling of light with mechanical motion, this effective phonon counting technique has a noise equivalent phonon sensitivity of 0.89 ± 0.05. With straightforward improvements to this method, a variety of quantum state engineering tasks using mesoscopic mechanical resonators would be enabled, including the generation and heralding of single-phonon Fock states and the quantum entanglement of remote mechanical elements. PMID:25903632

  6. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator

    Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Seán M.; Maccabe, Gregory S.; Gröblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Painter, Oskar

    2015-04-01

    In optics, the ability to measure individual quanta of light (photons) enables a great many applications, ranging from dynamic imaging within living organisms to secure quantum communication. Pioneering photon counting experiments, such as the intensity interferometry performed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure the angular width of visible stars, have played a critical role in our understanding of the full quantum nature of light. As with matter at the atomic scale, the laws of quantum mechanics also govern the properties of macroscopic mechanical objects, providing fundamental quantum limits to the sensitivity of mechanical sensors and transducers. Current research in cavity optomechanics seeks to use light to explore the quantum properties of mechanical systems ranging in size from kilogram-mass mirrors to nanoscale membranes, as well as to develop technologies for precision sensing and quantum information processing. Here we use an optical probe and single-photon detection to study the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a silicon nanomechanical resonator, and perform a measurement similar to that used by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure correlations in the emitted phonons as the resonator undergoes a parametric instability formally equivalent to that of a laser. Owing to the cavity-enhanced coupling of light with mechanical motion, this effective phonon counting technique has a noise equivalent phonon sensitivity of 0.89 +/- 0.05. With straightforward improvements to this method, a variety of quantum state engineering tasks using mesoscopic mechanical resonators would be enabled, including the generation and heralding of single-phonon Fock states and the quantum entanglement of remote mechanical elements.

  7. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Group

    1997-12-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

  8. Interferometry from Space: A Great Dream

    Høg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    During some thirty years, 1980-2010, technical studies of optical interferometry from instruments in space were pursued as promising for higher spatial resolution and for higher astrometric accuracy. Nulling interferometry was studied for both high spatial resolution and high contrast. These studies were great dreams deserving further historical attention. ESA's interest in interferometry began in the early 1980s. The studies of optical interferometry for the global astrometry mission GAIA be...

  9. Communication Acoustics

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  10. Coupling creep and damage in concrete under high sustained loading: Experimental investigation on bending beams and application of Acoustic Emission technique

    Saliba, J.; Loukili, A.; Grondin, F.

    2010-06-01

    effect on concrete, probably because of the consolidation of the hardened cement paste. The influence of creep on fracture energy, fracture toughness, and characteristic length of concrete is also studied. The fracture energy and the characteristic length of concrete increases slightly when creep occurs prior to failure and the size of the fracture process zone increases too. The load-CMOD relationship is linear in the ascending portion and gradually drops off after the peak value in the descending portion. The length of the tail end portion of the softening curve increases with beams subjected to creep. Relatively more ductile fracture behavior was observed with beams subjected to creep. The contribution of non-destructive and instrumental investigation methods is currently exploited to check and measure the evolution of some negative structural phenomena, such as micro-and macro-cracking, finally resulting in a creep-like behaviour. Among these methods, the non-destructive technique based on acoustic Emission proves to be very effective, especially to check and measure micro-cracking that takes place inside a structure under mechanical loading. Thus as a part of the investigation quantitative acoustic emission techniques were applied to investigate microcracking and damage localization in concrete beams. The AE signals were captured with the AE WIN software and further analyzed with Noesis software analysis of acoustic emission data. AE waveforms were generated as elastic waves in concrete due to crack nucleation. And a multichannel data acquisition system was used to record the AE waveforms. During the three point bending tests, quantitative acoustic emission (AE) techniques were used to monitor crack growth and to deduce micro fracture mechanics in concrete beams before and after creep. Several specimens are experimented in order to match each cluster with corresponding damage mechanism of the material under loading. At the same time acoustic emission was used to

  11. Real-time measurement of protein adsorption on electrophoretically deposited hydroxyapatite coatings and magnetron sputtered metallic films using the surface acoustic wave technique.

    Meininger, M; Schmitz, T; Wagner, T; Ewald, A; Gbureck, U; Groll, J; Moseke, C

    2016-04-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensors are highly sensitive for mass binding and are therefore used to detect protein-protein and protein-antibody interactions. Whilst the standard surface of the chips is a thin gold film, measurements on implant- or bone-like surfaces could significantly enhance the range of possible applications for this technique. The aim of this study was to establish methods to coat biosensor chips with Ti, TiN, and silver-doped TiN using physical vapor deposition as well as with hydroxyapatite by electrophoresis. To demonstrate that protein adsorption can be detected on these surfaces, binding experiments with fibronectin and fibronectin-specific antibodies have been performed with the coatings, which successfully proved the applicability of PVD and EPD for SAW biosensor functionalization. PMID:26838860

  12. Thin film thickness measurements using Scanning White Light Interferometry

    Maniscalco, B.; Kaminski, P.M.; Walls, J.M., E-mail: J.M.Walls@lboro.ac.uk

    2014-01-01

    Scanning White Light Interferometry is a well-established technique for providing accurate surface roughness measurements and three dimensional topographical images. Here we report on the use of a variant of Scanning White Light Interferometry called coherence correlation interferometry which is now capable of providing accurate thickness measurements from transparent and semi-transparent thin films with thickness below 1 μm. This capability will have many important applications which include measurements on optical coatings, displays, semiconductor devices, transparent conducting oxides and thin film photovoltaics. In this paper we report measurements of thin film thickness made using coherence correlation interferometry on a variety of materials including metal-oxides (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2}), a metal-nitride (SiN{sub x}:H), a carbon-nitride (SiC{sub x}N{sub y}:H) and indium tin oxide, a transparent conducting oxide. The measurements are compared with those obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry and in all cases excellent correlation is obtained between the techniques. A key advantage of this capability is the combination of thin film thickness and surface roughness and other three-dimensional metrology measurements from the same sample area. - Highlights: • Capability to make thin film measurements with sub-nanometre accuracy • Measurements of thin film thickness made on metal-oxides, nitrides and carbon-nitrides • Excellent correlation with thickness measurements using spectroscopic ellipsometry • Thin film measurement and nanometrology from the same sample area.

  13. Thin film thickness measurements using Scanning White Light Interferometry

    Scanning White Light Interferometry is a well-established technique for providing accurate surface roughness measurements and three dimensional topographical images. Here we report on the use of a variant of Scanning White Light Interferometry called coherence correlation interferometry which is now capable of providing accurate thickness measurements from transparent and semi-transparent thin films with thickness below 1 μm. This capability will have many important applications which include measurements on optical coatings, displays, semiconductor devices, transparent conducting oxides and thin film photovoltaics. In this paper we report measurements of thin film thickness made using coherence correlation interferometry on a variety of materials including metal-oxides (Nb2O5 and ZrO2), a metal-nitride (SiNx:H), a carbon-nitride (SiCxNy:H) and indium tin oxide, a transparent conducting oxide. The measurements are compared with those obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry and in all cases excellent correlation is obtained between the techniques. A key advantage of this capability is the combination of thin film thickness and surface roughness and other three-dimensional metrology measurements from the same sample area. - Highlights: • Capability to make thin film measurements with sub-nanometre accuracy • Measurements of thin film thickness made on metal-oxides, nitrides and carbon-nitrides • Excellent correlation with thickness measurements using spectroscopic ellipsometry • Thin film measurement and nanometrology from the same sample area

  14. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  15. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  16. Acoustic Neuroma

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. The tumor ... press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms ...

  17. Acoustic Neuroma

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  18. Spin dynamics in polarized neutron interferometry

    Since its first implementation in 1974, perfect crystal neutron interferometry has become an extremely successful method applicable to a variety of research fields. Moreover, it proved as an illustrative and didactically valuable experiment for the demonstration of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the neutron being an almost ideal probe for the detection of various effects, as it interacts by all four forces of nature. For instance, the first experimental verification of the 4-pi-periodicity of spinor wave functions was performed with perfect crystal neutron interferometry, and it remains the only method known which demonstrates the quantum mechanical wave-particle-duality of massive particles at a macroscopic separation of the coherent matter waves of several centimeters. A particular position is taken herein by polarized neutron interferometry, which as a collective term comprises all techniques and experiments which not only aim at the coherent splitting and macroscopic separation of neutron beams in the interferometer with the purpose of their separate treatment, but which aim to do so with explicit employment of the spin-magnetic properties of the neutron as a fermion. Remarkable aspects may arise, for example, if nuclear and magnetic potentials are concurrently applied to a partial beam of the interferometer: among other results, it is found that - in perfect agreement to the theoretical predictions - the neutron beam leaving the interferometer features non-zero polarization, even if the incident neutron beam, and hence either of the partial beams, is unpolarized. The main emphasis of the present work lies on the development of an appropriate formalism that describes the effect of simultaneous occurrence of nuclear and magnetic interaction on the emerging intensity and polarization for an arbitrary number of sequential magnetic regions, so-called domains. The confrontation with subtle theoretical problems was inevitable during the experimental

  19. A novel closure based approach for fatigue crack length estimation using the acoustic emission technique in structural health monitoring applications

    Use of Acoustic Emission (AE) for detecting and locating fatigue cracks in metallic structures is widely reported but studies investigating its potential for fatigue crack length estimation are scarce. Crack growth information enables prediction of the remaining useful life of a component using well established fracture mechanics principles. Hence, the prospects of AE for use in structural health monitoring applications would be significantly improved if it could be demonstrated not only as a means of detecting crack growth but also for estimation of crack lengths. A new method for deducing crack length has been developed based on correlations between AE signals generated during fatigue crack growth and corresponding cyclic loads. A model for crack length calculation was derived empirically using AE data generated during fatigue crack growth tests in 2 mm thick SEN aluminium 2014 T6 specimens subject to a tensile stress range of 52 MPa and an R ratio of 0.1. The model was validated using AE data generated independently in separate tests performed with a stress range of 27 MPa. The results showed that predictions of crack lengths over a range of 10 mm to 80 mm can be obtained with the mean of the normalised absolute errors ranging between 0.28 and 0.4. Predictions were also made using existing AE feature-based methods and the results compared to those obtained with the novel approach developed. (paper)

  20. Self-calibrating common-path interferometry.

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative phase measuring technique is presented that estimates the object phase from a series of phase shifted interferograms that are obtained in a common-path configuration with unknown phase shifts. The derived random phase shifting algorithm for common-path interferometers is based on the Generalized Phase Contrast theory [pl. Opt.40(2), 268 (2001)10.1063/1.1404846], which accounts for the particular image formation and includes effects that are not present in two-beam interferometry. It is shown experimentally that this technique can be used within common-path configurations employing nonlinear liquid crystal materials as self-induced phase filters for quantitative phase imaging without the need of phase shift calibrations. The advantages of such liquid crystal elements compared to spatial light modulator based solutions are given by the cost-effectiveness, self-alignment, and the generation of diminutive dimensions of the phase filter size, giving unique performance advantages. PMID:25836191

  1. Chameleon Dark Energy and Atom Interferometry

    Elder, Benjamin; Haslinger, Philipp; Jaffe, Matt; Müller, Holger; Hamilton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Atom interferometry experiments are searching for evidence of chameleon scalar fields with ever-increasing precision. As experiments become more precise, so too must theoretical predictions. Previous work has made numerous approximations to simplify the calculation, which in general requires solving a 3-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we introduce a new technique for calculating the chameleonic force, using a numerical relaxation scheme on a uniform grid. This technique is more general than previous work, which assumed spherical symmetry to reduce the PDE to a 1-dimensional ordinary differential equation (ODE). We examine the effects of approximations made in previous efforts on this subject, and calculate the chameleonic force in a set-up that closely mimics the recent experiment of Hamilton et al. Specifically, we simulate the vacuum chamber as a cylinder with dimensions matching those of the experiment, taking into account the backreaction of the source mass, its o...

  2. Deflectometry challenges interferometry: the competition gets tougher!

    Faber, Christian; Olesch, Evelyn; Krobot, Roman; Häusler, Gerd

    2012-09-01

    Deflectometric methods that are capable of providing full-field topography data for specular freeform surfaces have been around for more than a decade. They have proven successful in various fields of application, such as the measurement of progressive power eyeglasses, painted car body panels, or windshields. However, up to now deflectometry has not been considered as a viable competitor to interferometry, especially for the qualification of optical components. The reason is that, despite the unparalleled local sensitivity provided by deflectometric methods, the global height accuracy attainable with this measurement technique used to be limited to several microns over a field of 100 mm. Moreover, spurious reflections at the rear surface of transparent objects could easily mess up the measured signal completely. Due to new calibration and evaluation procedures, this situation has changed lately. We will give a comparative assessment of the strengths and - now partly revised - weaknesses of both measurement principles from the current perspective. By presenting recent developments and measurement examples from different applications, we will show that deflectometry is now heading to become a serious competitor to interferometry.

  3. Understanding seafloor morphology using remote high frequency acoustic methods: An appraisal to modern techniques and its effectiveness

    Chakraborty, B.

    are well established. Echo-sounding through use of hull mounted transducer became familiar during the II world war. Advantage of this technique lies with the rapid depth data acquisition. Due to the improvement of the material science, the designing... of the low cost but high quality transducers become familiar during the year 1950. The high resolution single beam echo-sounder (higher frequency and narrower beam-width) was available in 1970. Besides single beam echo-sounding technique, which provides...

  4. Electro-optic dual-comb interferometry over 40-nm bandwidth

    Duran, Vicente; Torres-Company, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb interferometry is a measurement technique that uses two laser frequency combs to retrieve complex spectra in a line-by-line basis. This technique can be implemented with electro-optic frequency combs, offering intrinsic mutual coherence, high acquisition speed and flexible repetition-rate operation. A challenge with the operation of this kind of frequency comb in dual-comb interferometry is its limited optical bandwidth. Here, we use coherent spectral broadening and demonstrate electro-optic dual-comb interferometry over the entire telecommunications C band (200 lines covering ~ 40 nm, measured within 10 microseconds at 100 signal-to-noise ratio per spectral line). These results offer new prospects for electro-optic dual-comb interferometry as a suitable technology for high-speed broadband metrology, for example in optical coherence tomography or coherent Raman microscopy.

  5. Experimental steps towards a digital revival of Stellar Intensity Interferometry

    Matthews, Nolan; Kieda, David; Lebohec, Stephan; Abeysekara, Udara

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in using Stellar intensity interferometry (sii) for high-resolution imaging of hot stars in the optical and uv. In contrast to standard amplitude interferometry, the sii technique is unaffected by atmospheric turbulence allowing for extremely large baselines (>100m) and angular resolution scales down to tens of micro-arcseconds. The technique can be applied to existing and planned observatories which employ imaging air cherenkov telescopes (iacts) due to the similar requirements of large light collection areas and nano-second time resolution capabilities. The university of utah operates the starbase-utah observatory, located in Grantsville, ut, consisting of dual three meter diameter telescopes serving as a test-bed for sii instrumentation. I will summarize the sii technique and highlight the motivation for using sii. I will also present laboratory results in the reconstruction of artificial sources using pseudo-thermal light and the development of starbase-utah.

  6. Seismic interferometry by midpoint integration

    Ruigrok, E.N.; Almagro Vidal, C.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    With seismic interferometry reflections can be retrieved between station positions. In the classical form, the reflections are retrieved by an integration over sources. For a specific dataset, however, the actual source distribution might not be sufficient to approximate the source integral. Yet, th

  7. Meteorology Gauges for Spatial Interferometry

    Gursel, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Heterodyne interferometers have been commercially available for many years. In addition, many versions have been built at JPL for various projects. This activity is aimed at improving the accuracy of such interferometers from the 1-30 nanometer level to the picometer level for use in the proposes Stellar Interferometry Mission (SIM) as metrology gauges.

  8. On the Synchronization of Acoustic Gravity Waves

    Lonngren, Karl E.; Bai, Er-Wei

    Using the model proposed by Stenflo, we demonstrate that acoustic gravity waves found in one region of space can be synchronized with acoustic gravity waves found in another region of space using techniques from modern control theory.

  9. Acoustic remote sensing of ocean flows

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.

    Acoustic techniques have become powerful tools for measurement of ocean circulation mainly because of the ability of acoustic signals to travel long distances in water, and the inherently non-invasive nature of measurement. The satellite remote...

  10. Very long baseline interferometry applied to polar motion, relativity, and geodesy. Ph.D. thesis

    The causes and effects of diurnal polar motion are described. An algorithm was developed for modeling the effects on very long baseline interferometry observables. A selection was made between two three-station networks for monitoring polar motion. The effects of scheduling and the number of sources observed on estimated baseline errors are discussed. New hardware and software techniques in very long baseline interferometry are described

  11. Mechancial Characterization of Unplasticised Polyvinylchloride Thick Pipes Using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Mihaylova, Emilia; Potelon, Benjamin; Reddy, Shridhar; Toal, Vincent; Smith, Ciaran

    2004-01-01

    In this work a number of techniques (electronic speckle pattern interferometry, holographic interferometry, strain gauge and finite element method) are brought to bear in order to establish consistency in the results of strain measurement. This is necessary if optical nondestructive testing methods, such as those used here, are to gain acceptance for routine industrial use. The FE model provides a useful check. Furthermore, ESPI fringe data facilitates the extension of FE models, an approach ...

  12. Fast surface measurement using wavelength scanning interferometry with compensation of environmental noise

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Wang, Kaiwei; Gao, Feng; Muhamedsalih, Hussam

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new optical interferometry system for fast areal surface measurement of microscale and nanoscale surfaces that are immune to environmental noise. Wavelength scanning interferometry together with an acousto-optic tunable filtering technique is used to measure surfaces with large step heights. An active servo control system serves as a phase-compensating mechanism to eliminate the effects of environmental noise. The system can be used for online or in-process measurem...

  13. Imaging the heart of astrophysical objects with optical long-baseline interferometry

    Berger, J.-P.; Malbet, F.; Baron, F; Chiavassa, A.; Duvert, G.; Elitzur, M.; Freytag, B.; Gueth, F.; Hönig, S.; Hron, J; Jang-Condell, H.; Bouquin, J. -B. Le; Monin, J.-L.; Monnier, J. D.; PERRIN, G.

    2012-01-01

    The number of publications of aperture-synthesis images based on optical long-baseline interferometry measurements has recently increased due to easier access to visible and infrared interferometers. The interferometry technique has now reached a technical maturity level that opens new avenues for numerous astrophysical topics requiring milli-arcsecond model-independent imaging. In writing this paper our motivation was twofold: 1) review and publicize emblematic excerpts of the impressive cor...

  14. Cost-effective MR diagnosis of acoustic neuroma without contrast media using 3 DFT-fast recovery fast spin echo technique

    Momoshima, Suketaka [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-11-01

    To clarify the characteristics of 3-dimensional Fourier transform fast recovery fast spin echo (3 DFT-FRFSE), a novel technique for fast MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of acoustic neuroma (AN). Sixty-five subjects including 30 ANs, 10 postoperative ANs, and 25 without pathology, were studied by T2-weighted 3 DFT-FRFSE and Gadolinium (Gd) enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Three radiologists graded the images independently for the presence of pathology in the cerebellopontine cisterns. Sensitivity and specificity of FRFSE were 100% and 98.5% while those of Gd-enhanced T1-weighted images were 100% and 99.3%. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were 0.9992 and 0.9997 respectively without statistically significant difference. FRFSE is a pulse sequence based on fast spin echo with additional 180 deg y and -90 deg x pulses that flip the remaining transverse spins back to the longitudinal axis at the end of each data acquisition, thus producing T2-weighted images of high quality with shorter repetition time as compared with conventional techniques. T2-weighted imaging by 3 DFT-FRFSE was essentially equivalent to postcontrast T1-weighted imaging in its diagnostic power for AN, and could be a cost-effective screening procedure in place of the latter by reducing the screening cost approximately by half. (author)

  15. Debonding damage analysis in composite-masonry strengthening systems with polymer- and mortar-based matrix by means of the acoustic emission technique

    Verstrynge, E.; Wevers, M.; Ghiassi, B.; Lourenço, P. B.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of strengthening systems, based on fiber reinforced materials, are under investigation for external strengthening of historic masonry structures. A full characterization of the bond behavior and of the short- and long-term failure mechanisms is crucial to ensure effective design, compatibility with the historic substrate and durability of the strengthening solution. Therein, non-destructive techniques are essential for bond characterization, durability assessment and on-site condition monitoring. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) technique is evaluated for debonding characterization and localization on fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and steel reinforced grout-strengthened clay bricks. Both types of strengthening systems are subjected to accelerated ageing tests under thermal cycles and to single-lap shear bond tests. During the reported experimental campaign, AE data from the accelerated ageing tests demonstrated the thermal incompatibility between brick and epoxy-bonded FRP composites, and debonding damage was successfully detected, characterized and located. In addition, a qualitative comparison is made with digital image correlation and infrared thermography, in view of efficient on-site debonding detection.

  16. Magneto-photo-acoustic imaging

    Qu, Min; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Truby, Ryan; Homan, Kimberly; Joshi, Pratixa; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Sokolov, Konstantin; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Magneto-photo-acoustic imaging, a technique based on the synergy of magneto-motive ultrasound, photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging, is introduced. Hybrid nanoconstructs, liposomes encapsulating gold nanorods and iron oxide nanoparticles, were used as a dual-contrast agent for magneto-photo-acoustic imaging. Tissue-mimicking phantom and macrophage cells embedded in ex vivo porcine tissue were used to demonstrate that magneto-photo-acoustic imaging is capable of visualizing the location of cel...

  17. Observation of Aharonov-Bohm effects by neutron interferometry

    The special and unique techniques of neutron interferometry have been used to observe a number of topological effects. These include the quantum mechanical phase shift of a neutron due to the Earth's rotation (the quantum analog of the Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment with light), the phase shift of a particle carrying a magnetic moment (a neutron) encircling a line charge (the Aharonov-Casher effect) and the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect, observed with a pulsed magnetic field solenoid and time-of-flight neutron detection. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Aharonov-Bohm paper, we provide an overview of the neutron interferometry technique and a description of these three historic experiments.

  18. Picosecond resolution soft x-ray laser plasma interferometry

    Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Ng, A; Shlyaptsev, V; Dunn, J; Hunter, J; Keenan, R; Marconi, M; Filevich, J; Rocca, J; Smith, R

    2003-12-01

    We describe a soft x-ray laser interferometry technique that allows two-dimensional diagnosis of plasma electron density with picosecond time resolution. It consists of the combination of a robust high throughput amplitude division interferometer and a 14.7 nm transient inversion soft x-ray laser that produces {approx} 5 ps pulses. Due to its picosecond resolution and short wavelength scalability, this technique has potential for extending the high inherent precision of soft x-ray laser interferometry to the study of very dense plasmas of significant fundamental and practical interest, such as those investigated for inertial confined fusion. Results of its use in the diagnostics of dense large scale laser-created plasmas are presented.

  19. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  20. Ultrafast electrooptic dual-comb interferometry

    Duran, Vicente; Torres-Company, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The femtosecond laser frequency comb has enabled the 21st century revolution in optical synthesis and metrology. A particularly compelling technique that relies on the broadband coherence of two laser frequency combs is dual-comb interferometry. This method is rapidly advancing the field of optical spectroscopy and empowering new applications, from nonlinear microscopy to laser ranging. Up to now, most dual-comb interferometers were based on modelocked lasers, whose repetition rates have restricted the measurement speed to ~ kHz. Here we demonstrate a novel dual-comb interferometer that is based on electrooptic frequency comb technology and measures consecutive complex spectra at a record-high refresh rate of 25 MHz. These results pave the way for novel scientific and metrology applications of frequency comb generators beyond the realm of molecular spectroscopy, where the measurement of ultrabroadband waveforms is of paramount relevance.

  1. Radio-frequency low-coherence interferometry.

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R; Mora, José; Maestre, Haroldo; Corral, Pablo

    2014-06-15

    A method for retrieving low-coherence interferograms, based on the use of a microwave photonics filter, is proposed and demonstrated. The method is equivalent to the double-interferometer technique, with the scanning interferometer replaced by an analog fiber-optics link and the visibility recorded as the amplitude of its radio-frequency (RF) response. As a low-coherence interferometry system, it shows a decrease of resolution induced by the fiber's third-order dispersion (β3). As a displacement sensor, it provides highly linear and slope-scalable readouts of the interferometer's optical path difference in terms of RF, even in the presence of third-order dispersion. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate 20-μm displacement readouts using C-band EDFA sources and standard single-mode fiber. PMID:24978555

  2. Refractive index determination by coherence scanning interferometry.

    Yoshino, H; Kaminski, P M; Smith, R; Walls, J M; Mansfield, D

    2016-05-20

    Coherence scanning interferometry is established as a powerful noncontact, three-dimensional, metrology technique used to determine accurate surface roughness and topography measurements with subnanometer precision. The helical complex field (HCF) function is a topographically defined helix modulated by the electrical field reflectance, originally developed for the measurement of thin films. An approach to extend the capability of the HCF function to determine the spectral refractive index of a substrate or absorbing film has recently been proposed. In this paper, we confirm this new capability, demonstrating it on surfaces of silicon, gold, and a gold/palladium alloy using silica and zirconia oxide thin films. These refractive index dispersion measurements show good agreement with those obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry. PMID:27411157

  3. Ultrafast electrooptic dual-comb interferometry.

    Durán, Vicente; Tainta, Santiago; Torres-Company, Victor

    2015-11-16

    Dual-comb interferometry is a particularly compelling technique that relies on the phase coherence of two laser frequency combs for measuring broadband complex spectra. This method is rapidly advancing the field of optical spectroscopy and empowering new applications, from nonlinear microscopy to laser ranging. Up to now, most dual-comb interferometers were based on modelocked lasers, whose repetition rates have restricted the measurement speed to ~kHz. Here we demonstrate a dual-comb interferometer that is based on electrooptic frequency combs and measures consecutive complex spectra at an ultra-high refresh rate of 25 MHz. These results pave the way for novel scientific and metrology applications of frequency comb generators beyond the realm of molecular spectroscopy, where the measurement of ultrabroadband waveforms is of paramount relevance. PMID:26698533

  4. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Precision Radial Velocimetry

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J; Lloyd, J; Herter, T; Feuerstein, W M; Muirhead, P; Wishnow, E

    2007-01-01

    Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is the series combination of a fixed-delay field-widened Michelson interferometer with a dispersive spectrograph. This combination boosts the spectrograph performance for both Doppler velocimetry and high resolution spectroscopy. The interferometer creates a periodic spectral comb that multiplies against the input spectrum to create moire fringes, which are recorded in combination with the regular spectrum. The moire pattern shifts in phase in response to a Doppler shift. Moire patterns are broader than the underlying spectral features and more easily survive spectrograph blurring and common distortions. Thus, the EDI technique allows lower resolution spectrographs having relaxed optical tolerances (and therefore higher throughput) to return high precision velocity measurements, which otherwise would be imprecise for the spectrograph alone.

  5. Laboratory coda wave interferometry for the monitoring of rock property variations

    Schmittbuhl, Jean; Chaintreuil, Marie; Lengliné, Olivier; Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Mike; Baud, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    A significant effort is on-going in the community to continuously monitor deep geothermal reservoirs using ambient seismic noise tomography (e.g. Calo et al, 2013; Lehujeur et al, 2015). It is a method that determines the Green's function between a pair of receivers by correlating sufficiently long seismic noise records. Very small changes of the medium are accessible using this new monitoring technique (significantly smaller than those deduced from direct arrivals). In particular, very small variations of seismic velocities are shown to appear both in time and space during the stimulation of the reservoir. A central question is how to interpret these transient or lateral variations of the seismic velocities for a precise 4D tomography of the reservoir properties. In this study, we address the direct problem of monitoring small variations in seismic velocities when small variations in stress or temperature are slowly applied to the sample. We use a network of piezo-electric sensors on laboratory samples (sandstone and granite from Soultz-sous-Forêts core samples) to perform coda wave interferometry from the multiple scattering of well-controlled seismic pulses (Grêt et al, 2006). The data collected are estimates of the relative variation of travel time. We combine acoustic measurements and strain gauges to differentiate between travel time variations due to seismic velocity changes and those due to deformation effects. We expect this approach to provide useful information for large scale seismic tomography despite the significant difference of considered wavelengths.

  6. Acoustical Imaging

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  7. Mode engineering for realistic quantum-enhanced interferometry

    Jachura, Michał; Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Quantum metrology overcomes standard precision limits by exploiting collective quantum superpositions of physical systems used for sensing, with the prominent example of non-classical multiphoton states improving interferometric techniques. Practical quantum-enhanced interferometry is, however, vulnerable to imperfections such as partial distinguishability of interfering photons. Here we introduce a method where appropriate design of the modal structure of input photons can alleviate deleteri...

  8. Reconstruction of 3-D Temperature Field in Holographic Interferometry

    2001-01-01

    The tomography technique is commonly used for the reconstruction of holographic interferometry. However, the current reconstruction method doesn't consider the measurement errors which are non-avoidable in the measurement and will degrade the reconstruction quality. The factors affecting the reconstruction quality are analyzed and the distribution law of the reconstruction error with experimental errors is discussed. Finally, a method to improve the reconstruction quality—the Kalman filter method is presented.

  9. The place of interferometry in massive star multiplicity sudies

    Sana, H.; Bouquin, J. -B. Le

    2009-01-01

    While it is well known that most massive stars are found to be part of binary or multiple systems, an accurate characterization of the statistical properties of these multiple objects is still lacking. In the present talk, we will review the current status of the field, emphasizing the need of using complementarity techniques to cover the large parameter space. We will also describe what we think is the place of interferometry in this context.

  10. (Strange) meson interferometry at RHIC

    We make predictions for the kaon interferometry measurements in Au+Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). A first-order phase transition from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma (QGP) to a gas of hadrons is assumed for the transport calculations. The fraction of kaons that are directly emitted from the phase boundary is considerably enhanced at large transverse momenta KT ∼ 1 GeV/c. In this kinematic region, the sensitivity of the Rout/Rside ratio to the QGP properties is enlarged. The results of the one-dimensional correlation analysis are presented. The extracted interferometry radii, depending on KT, are not unusually large and are strongly affected by finite momentum resolution effects. (author)

  11. Frequency-scanning interferometry for dynamic absolute distance measurement using Kalman filter.

    Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo; Zhou, Yangli

    2014-12-15

    We propose a frequency-scanning interferometry using the Kalman filtering technique for dynamic absolute distance measurement. Frequency-scanning interferometry only uses a single tunable laser driven by a triangle waveform signal for forward and backward optical frequency scanning. The absolute distance and moving speed of a target can be estimated by the present input measurement of frequency-scanning interferometry and the previously calculated state based on the Kalman filter algorithm. This method not only compensates for movement errors in conventional frequency-scanning interferometry, but also achieves high-precision and low-complexity dynamic measurements. Experimental results of dynamic measurements under static state, vibration and one-dimensional movement are presented. PMID:25503050

  12. Phase stepping in Lau interferometry

    Ángel-Toro, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Henao, Rodrigo

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of phase shifting interferometry to analyze the Lau interferometric fringe patterns is proposed. The fundamentals of this application are theoretically discussed and the basis of the phase map interpretation is outlined. The three steps algorithm is used to depict the phase maps of lens-like test objects and an application for measuring focal lengths of lenses is reported. Experimental results are presented. q1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of the Acoustic Emission technique in the understanding and the modelling of the coupling between creep and damage in concrete

    In order to design reliable concrete structures, prediction of long term behaviour of concrete is important. In fact, creep deformation can cause mechanical deterioration and cracking, stress redistribution, loss in prestressed members and rarely ruin the structure. The aim of this research is to have a better understanding of the interaction between creep and crack growth in concrete. An experimental investigation on the fracture properties of concrete beams submitted to creep bending tests with high levels of sustained load is reported. The influence of creep on residual capacity and fracture energy of concrete is studied. In parallel, the acoustic emission technique (AE) was used to monitor crack development. The results give wealth information on damage evolution and show a decrease in the width of the fracture process zone (FPZ) characterizing a more brittle behaviour for beams subjected to creep. The AE shows that this may be due to the development of microcracking detected under creep. Based on those experimental results, a mesoscopic numerical study was proposed by coupling a damage model based on the micro-plan theory and a viscoelastic creep model defined by several Kelvin-voigt chains. The numerical results on concrete specimens in tension and in bending confirm the development of microcracks during creep at the mortar-aggregate interface. (author)

  14. Evaluation of damage progression and mechanical behavior under compression of bone cements containing core-shell nanoparticles by using acoustic emission technique.

    Pacheco-Salazar, O F; Wakayama, Shuichi; Sakai, Takenobu; Cauich-Rodríguez, J V; Ríos-Soberanis, C R; Cervantes-Uc, J M

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the effect of the incorporation of core-shell particles on the fracture mechanisms of the acrylic bone cements by using acoustic emission (AE) technique during the quasi-static compression mechanical test was investigated. Core-shell particles were composed of a poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) rubbery core and a methyl methacrylate/styrene copolymer (P(MMA-co-St)) outer glassy shell. Nanoparticles were prepared with different core-shell ratio (20/80, 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50) and were incorporated into the solid phase of bone cement at several percentages (5, 10 and 15 wt%). It was observed that the particles exhibited a spherical morphology averaging ca. 125 nm in diameter, and the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) thermograms revealed the desired structuring pattern of phases associated with core-shell structures. A fracture mechanism was proposed taking into account the detected AE signals and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. In this regard, core-shell nanoparticles can act as both additional nucleation sites for microcracks (and crazes) and to hinder the microcrack propagation acting as a barrier to its growth; this behavior was presented by all formulations. Cement samples containing 15 wt% of core-shell nanoparticles, either 40/60 or 50/50, were fractured at 40% deformation. This fact seems related to the coalescence of microcracks after they surround the agglomerates of core-shell nanoparticles to continue growing up. This work also demonstrated the potential of the AE technique to be used as an accurate and reliable detection tool for quasi-static compression test in acrylic bone cements. PMID:25792411

  15. Radiation acoustics

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  16. Determining Equilibrium Position For Acoustical Levitation

    Barmatz, M. B.; Aveni, G.; Putterman, S.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium position and orientation of acoustically-levitated weightless object determined by calibration technique on Earth. From calibration data, possible to calculate equilibrium position and orientation in presence of Earth gravitation. Sample not levitated acoustically during calibration. Technique relies on Boltzmann-Ehrenfest adiabatic-invariance principle. One converts resonant-frequency-shift data into data on normalized acoustical potential energy. Minimum of energy occurs at equilibrium point. From gradients of acoustical potential energy, one calculates acoustical restoring force or torque on objects as function of deviation from equilibrium position or orientation.

  17. Surface displacement studies using differential SAR interferometry: an overview

    Gupta, Sonal; Sajith V., K.; Arora, Manoj K.; Sharma, Mukut L.

    2006-12-01

    The differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) has been increasing used to monitor ground surface displacements, which may be caused by various natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, mining activities, avalanches etc. Conventionally, these displacements were being estimated through field measurements, which are time consuming, hazardous and with data collected over few point locations. Since all the development and rehabilitation works after a natural disaster strikes is carried out on regional basis, any information at spatial level is advantageous in planning, management and monitoring activities. In recent years, the application of Differential SAR interferometry is gaining momentum to estimate the surface displacements at millimeter level accuracy. The displacement maps produced via this technique provide information at spatial level in the region thereby assisting in judicious developmental and planning works in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the use of Differential SAR Interferometry (DinSAR) technology for the study of surface displacements. As a case study, land subsidence occurred due to coal mining in Jharia coal fields, Jharkhand, have been estimated through this technique. All the procedural steps in implementing the approach based on DinSAR have been explained in a simplified manner.

  18. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths, a powerful tool for scientific discovery, We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers,

  19. Plasmonic interferometry: Probing launching dipoles in scanning-probe plasmonics

    Mollet, Oriane; Bachelier, Guillaume; Genet, Cyriaque; Huant, Serge; Drezet, Aurélien

    2014-03-01

    We develop a semi-analytical method for analyzing surface plasmon interferometry using scanning-probe tips as SP launchers. We apply our approach to Young double-hole interferometry experiments in a scanning tunneling microscope discussed recently in the literature as well as to new experiments—reported here—with an aperture near-field scanning optical microscope source positioned near a ring-like aperture slit in a thick gold film. In both experimental configurations, the agreement between experiments and model is very good. Our work reveals the role of the launching dipole orientations and magnetic versus electric dipole contributions to the interference imaging process. It also stresses the different orientations of the effective dipoles associated with the two different scanning-probe techniques.

  20. Tow-dimensional Strain Analysis by Fourier Transform Moire Interferometry

    Moire interferometry using a diffraction grating and a laser is a powerful technique for analyzing small deformation of a specimen. In the method, the x and y-directional fringe patterns are obtained by using the x and y-directional sets of two beams. If the both sets of two beams are simultaneously incident to the specimen, the x and y-directional fringe patterns are super imposed. In this case, it is difficult to separate each directional fringe pattern. Therefore each fringe pattern has been separately recorded by selecting each set of two beams. In order to analyze a two-dimensional strain changing with time, Moire interferometry using the two-dimensional fourier transform method is proposed and the x and y-directional fringes are separated. By this method, the thermal deformation of a glass plate is analyzed

  1. Non-destructive inspection of semiconductor package by laserspeckle interferometry

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry(ESPI) is a common method for measuring vibration and surface displacement. And also this method has been used for the non-destructive testing to defect, delamination or crack failures in composite materials with high reliability. Recently, ESPI has been newly applied to the non-destructive testing in semiconductors. A semiconductor is a key component used in the electro-mechanical device, the personal computer, the image processing device, and so on. The reliability of a semiconductor itself is effected to the performance of electronic or mechanical system. The proposed technique based on the non-contact and non-destructive laser speckle interferometry, dramatically solves the problems of the semiconductor packaging such as time-consuming and radiations.

  2. Speckle interferometry diagnostic for erosion/redeposition measurements in tokamaks

    In order to measure erosion/redeposition during long duration discharges, a new diagnostic based on speckle interferometry is proposed. First experiments performed on carbon fiber composite materials have shown that this technique is able to measure a modification of the surface in the range of 1 μm. Further experiments have been performed on different materials using a second wavelength in order to increase the dynamic range from 0.1 to 100 μm and to perform 3D measurements of the surface. A diagnostic based on two-wavelength speckle interferometry to measure in situ erosion/redeposition during a single discharge on the CIEL limiter is under development

  3. MAGIA - using atom interferometry to determine the Newtonian gravitational constant

    We describe our experiment MAGIA (misura accurata di G mediante interferometria atomica), in which we will use atom interferometry to perform a high precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Free-falling laser-cooled atoms in a vertical atomic fountain will be accelerated due to the gravitational potential of nearby source masses (SMs). Detecting this acceleration with techniques of Raman atom interferometry will enable us to assign a value to G. To suppress systematic effects we will implement a double-differential measurement. This includes launching two atom clouds in a gradiometer configuration and moving the SMs to different vertical positions. We briefly summarize the general idea of the MAGIA experiment and put it in the context of other high precision G-measurements. We present the current status of the experiment and report on analyses of the expected measurement accuracy

  4. Quadrature wavelength scanning interferometry.

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-07-10

    A novel method to double the measurement range of wavelength scanning interferometery (WSI) is described. In WSI the measured optical path difference (OPD) is affected by a sign ambiguity, that is, from an interference signal it is not possible to distinguish whether the OPD is positive or negative. The sign ambiguity can be resolved by measuring an interference signal in quadrature. A method to obtain a quadrature interference signal for WSI is described, and a theoretical analysis of the advantages is reported. Simulations of the advantages of the technique and of signal errors due to nonideal quadrature are discussed. The analysis and simulation are supported by experimental measurements to show the improved performances. PMID:27409307

  5. Holographic interferometry of plasma electron density diagnosis

    Holographic interferometry is an effective measurement method to diagnose the electronic density of laser plasma. It has very high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultraviolet Holographic interferometry system on 'XG-II' is explained briefly, and the experimental results are presented. A windows-based data processing software is developed

  6. Quantum Interferometry with Electrons: Outstanding Challenges

    Gefen, Yuval

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments involving semiconducting quantum dots embedded in Aharonov-Bohm interferometry setups suggest that information concerning the phase of electron wavefunctions can be obtained from transport measurements. Here we review the basics of the theory of electron interferometry, some of the relevant experimental results, and recent theoretical developments attempting to shed light on the outstanding dilemmas.

  7. Laser Wakefield diagnostic using holographic longitudinal interferometry

    Volfbeyn, P.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    1999-03-26

    We propose a diagnostic technique for wakefield measurement in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor Heater scheme was proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen previously. It makes use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort (sub 100 fs) laser pulse, is brought to a line focus using a cylindrical lens to ionize the gas. The Heater pulse (160 ps long) is used to heat the existing spark via in-verse Bremsstrahlung. The hydrodynamic shock expansion creates a partially evacuated plasma channel with a density minimum on axis. Such a channel has properties of an optical waveguide. This technique allows creation of plasma channels in low atomic number gases, such as hydrogen, which is of importance for guiding of highly intense laser pulses. Laser pulses injected into such plasma channels produce a plasma wake that has a phase velocity close to the speed of light. A discussion of plasma wake measurements, using a Longitudinal Interferometry Wakefield Diagnostic Based on Time Domain Rayleigh Refractometry with Holographic Inversion, will be presented.

  8. Optical and Acoustical Techniques for Non-viral Gene Delivery to Mammalian Cells and In-situ Study of Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    Ma, Zili

    surface acoustic waves, which not only achieved a high efficiency of cells permeabilization in a quick speed, but also allowed us to observe the permeabilization process in real time by microscope. This device is also compatible with biophotonics studies based on fs laser, which can be further developed as a powerful tool for optical gene delivery with the capability of precisely controlling the fluid on-chip by SAW. SAW devices could also achieve exogenous gene delivery through the cell membrane without the need of adding chemical agents. Our results showed that the membrane of mammalian adherent cells could be effectively perforated transiently by applying a SAW. The transfection of pEGFP plasmids into endothelial cells was carried out successfully via this SAW-induced cell perforation. The expression of GFP was observed after 24-hour incubation subsequent to the SAW treatment. In regard to the application of fs lasers in cellular and subcellular level studies, we applied the optical nanoscissoring technique based on fs lasers in biomechanical studies to study the mechanical properties of single SF in-situ. Integrated into a confocal microscope, the fs laser showed great power in manipulating targeted in-situ subcellular structures under real-time imaging without damaging nearby regions. Here, how oxidative challenges would alter the mechanical properties of SFs in myoblasts was firstly investigated using the optical nanoscissoring technique to comprehend the whole picture of muscle tissue injury and repair from the basics. The prestress of stress fibers after the oxidative challenges was found through our modified viscoelastic retraction model and experiment result.

  9. A fast one-pass-training feature selection technique for GMM-based acoustic event detection with audio-visual data

    Butko, Taras; Nadeu Camprubí, Climent

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic event detection becomes a difficult task, even for a small number of events, in scenarios where events are produced rather spontaneously and often overlap in time. In this work, we aim to improve the detection rate by means of feature selection. Using a one-against-all detection approach, a new fast one-pass-training algorithm, and an associated highly-precise metric are developed. Choosing a different subset of multimodal features for each acoustic event class, the results obtain...

  10. Full-wave acoustic and thermal modeling of transcranial ultrasound propagation and investigation of skull-induced aberration correction techniques: a feasibility study

    Kyriakou, Adamos; Neufeld, Esra; Werner, Beat; Székely, Gábor; Kuster, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcranial focused ultrasound (tcFUS) is an attractive noninvasive modality for neurosurgical interventions. The presence of the skull, however, compromises the efficiency of tcFUS therapy, as its heterogeneous nature and acoustic characteristics induce significant distortion of the acoustic energy deposition, focal shifts, and thermal gain decrease. Phased-array transducers allow for partial compensation of skull-induced aberrations by application of precalculated phase and ampl...

  11. Full-wave acoustic and thermal modeling of transcranial ultrasound propagation and investigation of skull-induced aberration correction techniques: a feasibility study

    Kyriakou, Adamos; Neufeld, Esra; Werner, Beat; Székely, Gábor; Kuster, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transcranial focused ultrasound (tcFUS) is an attractive noninvasive modality for neurosurgical interventions. The presence of the skull, however, compromises the efficiency of tcFUS therapy, as its heterogeneous nature and acoustic characteristics induce significant distortion of the acoustic energy deposition, focal shifts, and thermal gain decrease. Phased-array transducers allow for partial compensation of skull-induced aberrations by application of precalculated phase and amp...

  12. Advanced numerical techniques for the acoustic modelling of materials and noise control devices in the exhaust system of internal combustion engines

    Sánchez Orgaz, Eva María

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This Thesis is focused on the development and implementation of efficient numerical methods for the acoustic modelling and design of noise control devices in the exhaust system of combustion engines. Special attention is paid to automotive perforated dissipative silencers, in which significant differences are likely to appear in their acoustic behaviour, depending on the temperature variations within the absorbent material. Also, material heterogeneities can alter the silencer attenuatio...

  13. The use of holographic interferometry and electron speckle pattern interferometry for diffusion measurement in biochemical and pharmaceutical engineering applications

    Axelsson, Anders; Marucci, Mariagrazia

    2008-12-01

    In this review holographic interferometry and electron speckle pattern interferometry are discussed as efficient techniques for diffusion measurements in biochemical and pharmaceutical applications. Transport phenomena can be studied, quantitatively and qualitatively, in gels, liquids and membranes. Detailed information on these phenomena is required to design effective chromatography bioseparation processes using gel beads or ultrafiltration membranes, and in the design of controlled-release pharmaceuticals using membrane-coated pellets or tablets. The influence of gel concentration, ion strength in the liquid and the size of diffusing protein molecules can easily be studied with good accuracy. When studying membranes, the resistance can be quantified, and it is also possible to discriminate between permeable and semi-permeable membranes. In this review the influence of temperature, natural convection and light deflection on the accuracy of the diffusion measurements is also discussed.

  14. Optical Biosensing: Kinetics of Protein A-IGG Binding Using Biolayer Interferometry

    Wilson, Jo Leanna; Scott, Israel M.; McMurry, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment has been developed using biolayer interferometry (BLI), an optical biosensing technique similar to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), in which students obtain and analyze kinetic data for a protein-protein interaction. Optical biosensing is a technique of choice to determine kinetic and affinity…

  15. The method of intensity interferometry

    Some methods and concepts found in the field of Quantum Optics are applied to clarify concepts useful in Nuclear Physics. The experiments and the coherence function from first and second-order interferences are discussed. The interaction of a particle with a system as a whole, described by one-body optical potential, is analyzed. The Kooning's analysis and the photon interferometry are discussed. It is shown that the second order correlation pattern is sensitive to the statistics and to the state of the source

  16. Golographic interferometry of physical processes

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the contribution of Yuri Ostrovsky to holographic interferometry, one of the fundamental scientific and practical applications of holography. The title of this paper is the same as the title of his doctoral thesis that he defended in 1974, and, as it seems to me, reflects most of the specific features of the majority of his scientific publications, viz., an inseparable link of the methods developed by him with the results obtained with the help of these methods in a wide range of investigations of physical processes and phenomena.

  17. Displacement measurement with intracavity interferometry

    Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Fejfar, Antonín; Stuchlík, Jiří; Kočka, Jan; Oulehla, Jindřich; Číp, Ondřej

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2014, 913210:1-6. ISSN 0277-786X. [Optical Micro- and Nanometrology /5./. Brussels (BE), 15.04.2014-17.04.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016; GA TA ČR TA02010711; GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA TA ČR TA01010995; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : antireflective coatings * Fabry–Perot interferometers * interferometry * lasers * photodetectors * refractive index * silicon Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  18. Measurement of temperature profile of a two-dimensional slot burner (pre-mixed laminar) flame using laser speckle, photography and laser speckle shearing interferometry

    Nirala, A.K.; Shakher, C. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1995-09-01

    Temperature profile of a two-dimensional slot burner flame has been investigated using laser speckle photography and laser speckle shearing interferometry. Temperature profiles obtained by these two techniques are compared with the temperature profiles measured by Talbot interferometry with circular gratings. Good agreement among them is seen. (authors). 37 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  20. High signal-to-noise ratio acoustic sensor using phase-shifted gratings interrogated by the Pound-Drever-Hall technique

    Kung, Peter; Comanici, Maria I.

    2014-06-01

    Optical fiber is made of glass, an insulator, and thus it is immune to strong electromagnetic interference. Therefore, fiber optics is a technology ideally suitable for sensing of partial discharge (PD) both in transformers and generators. Extensive efforts have been used to develop a cost effective solution for detecting partial discharge, which generates acoustic emission, with signals ranging from 30 kHz to 200 kHz. The requirement is similar to fiber optics Hydro Phone, but at higher frequencies. There are several keys to success: there must be at least 60 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, which will ensure not only PD detection but later on provide diagnostics and also the ability to locate the origin of the events. Defects that are stationary would gradually degrade the insulation and result in total breakdown. Transformers currently need urgent attention: most of them are oil filled and are at least 30 to 50 years old, close to the end of life. In this context, an issue to be addressed is the safety of the personnel working close to the assets and collateral damage that could be caused by a tank explosion (with fire spilling over the whole facility). This paper will describe the latest achievement in fiber optics PD sensor technology: the use of phase shifted-fiber gratings with a very high speed interrogation method that uses the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. More importantly, this is based on a technology that could be automated, easy to install, and, eventually, available at affordable prices

  1. Acoustical Imaging

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  2. Acoustic telemetry

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine movements of green turtles in the nearshore foraging areas, we deployed acoustic tags and determined their movements through active and passive...

  3. Acoustics Research

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  4. Study and monitoring by acoustic emission coupled with electrochemical techniques of steel and rubber steel corrosion in acid medium; Etude et suivi par emission accoustique associe a des techniques electrochimiques de la corrosion d'acier et d'acier revetu d'elastomeres en milieu acide

    Idrissi, H. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, INSA, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Boulif, R.; Maghnouj, J. [CERPHOS, Groupe Office Cherifienne des Phosphates, OCP, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    During the past ten years the application of the acoustic emission technique in the field of corrosion allowed a detection and a characterization on factory site of the stress corrosion and corrosion-abrasion phenomena. In this spirit, its use can be extended to the monitoring of general corrosion and of corrosion under deposit. This work constitutes the base of a study aiming to a better understanding and a better controlling of corrosion phenomenon of steels covered or not, with a later objective: the development of a simple follow-up technique on industrial site. Within this framework, our objective is not only to study by electrochemical and acoustics techniques the general corrosion of various ordinary steels naked or covered with an elastomer coating, but also to develop a procedure, based on the acoustic emission, allowing the early detection of these steels corrosion when the protective coatings used are damaged. So, series of electrochemical tests coupled with the acoustic emission, such as the layouts of the volt-amperometric curves and measurements of the resistance of polarization, were carried out on two steels XC48 and A60 at ambient temperature and in concentrated phosphoric acid with 30% of P2O5 with the presence of impurities of Cl -, F -, SO42 -. For the covered samples we insisted more particularly on the presence or not of defects in the elastomer coating used. The obtained results made it possible, first to show the principal emissive sources during corrosion, secondly to specify the characteristics of the acoustic signals and finally to correlate these signals with traditional electrochemical measurements and the micrographic observations after tests. The characterization of the acoustic and electrochemical parameters enabled us to specify the sensitivity of the EA to this corrosion phenomenon of steels naked or covered with an elastomer coating. (authors)

  5. The Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT): Recent Progress and Results

    Rinehart, Stephen A.; Frey, Bradley J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Martino, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Continued research with the Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT) has achieved several important milestones. We have moved WIIT into the Advanced Interferometry and Metrology (AIM) Laboratory at Goddard, and have characterized the testbed in this well-controlled environment. The system is now completely automated and we are in the process of acquiring large data sets for analysis. In this paper, we discuss these new developments and outline our future research directions. The WIIT testbed, combined with new data analysis techniques and algorithms, provides a demonstration of the technique of wide-field interferometric imaging, a powerful tool for future space-borne interferometers.

  6. Fundamental research with neutron interferometry

    The invention of neutron interferometry in 1974 stimulated many experiments related to the wave-particle dualism of quantum mechanics. Widely separated coherent beams can be produced within a perfect crystal interforemeter which can be influenced by nuclear, magnetic and gravitational interaction. High order interferences have been observed connected with the occurrence of an interferometric spectral modeling. This effect has been demonstrated by a proper post-selection procedure showing a persisting action of plane wave components outside the wave packets. The verification of the 4π-symmetry of spinor wave functions and of the spin superposition law at a macroscopic scale and the observation of gravitational effects including the Sagnac effect have been widely debated in literature. The coupling of the neutron magnetic moment to resonator coils permitted the coherent energy exchange between the neutron quantum system and the macroscopic resonator. This phenomenon provided the basis for the observation of the magnetic Josephson effect with an energy sensitivity of 10-19 eV. Partial beam path detection experiments are in close connection with the development of quantum mechanical measurement theory. The very high sensitivity of neutron interferometry may be used in future for new fundamental-, solid-state and nuclear-physics application. Further steps towards advanced neutron quantum optical methods are envisaged. (author)

  7. Experimental demonstration of deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Schwarze, Thomas S; Mehmet, Moritz; Heinzel, Gerhard; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán

    2016-01-25

    Experiments for space and ground-based gravitational wave detectors often require a large dynamic range interferometric position readout of test masses with 1 pm/√Hz precision over long time scales. Heterodyne interferometer schemes that achieve such precisions are available, but they require complex optical set-ups, limiting their scalability for multiple channels. This article presents the first experimental results on deep frequency modulation interferometry, a new technique that combines sinusoidal laser frequency modulation in unequal arm length interferometers with a non-linear fit algorithm. We have tested the technique in a Michelson and a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer topology, respectively, demonstrated continuous phase tracking of a moving mirror and achieved a performance equivalent to a displacement sensitivity of 250 pm/Hz at 1 mHz between the phase measurements of two photodetectors monitoring the same optical signal. By performing time series fitting of the extracted interference signals, we measured that the linearity of the laser frequency modulation is on the order of 2% for the laser source used. PMID:26832546

  8. Geometric phase modulation for stellar interferometry

    Full text: In a long baseline optical interferometer, the fringe visibility is normally measured by modulation of the optical path difference between the two arms of the instruments. To obtain accurate measurements, the spectral bandwidth must be narrow, limiting the sensitivity of the technique. The application of geometric phase modulation technique to stellar interferometry has been proposed by Tango and Davis. Modulation of the geometric phase has the potential for improving the sensitivity of optical interferometers, and specially the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI), by allowing broad band modulation of the light signals. This is because a modulator that changes the geometric phase of the signal is, in principle, achromatic. Another advantage of using such a phase modulator is that it can be placed in the common path traversed by the two orthogonally polarized beams emerging from the beam combiner in a stellar interferometer. Thus the optical components of the modulator do not have to be interferometric quality and could be relatively easily introduced into SUSI. We have investigated the proposed application in a laboratory-based experiment using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with white-light source. This can be seen as a small model of an amplitude stellar interferometer where the light source takes the place of the distant star and two corner mirrors replaces the entrance pupils of the stellar interferometer

  9. Neutron Interferometry at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Neutron interferometry has proved to be a very precise technique for measuring the quantum mechanical phase of a neutron caused by a potential energy difference between two spatially separated neutron paths inside interferometer. The path length inside the interferometer can be many centimeters (and many centimeters apart) making it very practical to study a variety of samples, fields, potentials, and other macroscopic medium and quantum effects. The precision of neutron interferometry comes at a cost; neutron interferometers are very susceptible to environmental noise that is typically mitigated with large, active isolated enclosures. With recent advances in quantum information processing especially quantum error correction (QEC) codes we were able to demonstrate a neutron interferometer that is insensitive to vibrational noise. A facility at NIST’s Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) has just been commissioned with higher neutron flux than the NCNR’s older interferometer setup. This new facility is based on QEC neutron interferometer, thus improving the accessibility of neutron interferometry to the greater scientific community and expanding its applications to quantum computing, gravity, and material research

  10. Neutron Interferometry at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    D. A. Pushin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron interferometry has proved to be a very precise technique for measuring the quantum mechanical phase of a neutron caused by a potential energy difference between two spatially separated neutron paths inside interferometer. The path length inside the interferometer can be many centimeters (and many centimeters apart making it very practical to study a variety of samples, fields, potentials, and other macroscopic medium and quantum effects. The precision of neutron interferometry comes at a cost; neutron interferometers are very susceptible to environmental noise that is typically mitigated with large, active isolated enclosures. With recent advances in quantum information processing especially quantum error correction (QEC codes we were able to demonstrate a neutron interferometer that is insensitive to vibrational noise. A facility at NIST’s Center for Neutron Research (NCNR has just been commissioned with higher neutron flux than the NCNR’s older interferometer setup. This new facility is based on QEC neutron interferometer, thus improving the accessibility of neutron interferometry to the greater scientific community and expanding its applications to quantum computing, gravity, and material research.

  11. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  12. Terahertz Detection Based on Spectral-Domain Interferometry Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Ibrahim, Akram; Sharma, Gargi; Singh, Kanwarpal; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to improve the performance of terahertz electric field measurements based on spectral-domain interferometry. The interferometer is introduced into the probe beam line to improve the temporal overlap between the two probe pulses. The probe pulse in the sample arm of the interferometer passes through the detection crystal and overlaps with the terahertz pulse, while the probe pulse in the reference arm does not. We measure the phase change between spectral components of these two pulses using spectral-domain interferometry. Using this new technique, we enable an unlimited temporal scanning window without the loss in the signal-to-noise ratio, thus overcoming the major limitation of conventional spectral-domain interferometry techniques for terahertz electric field detection.

  13. Imaging the heart of astrophysical objects with optical long-baseline interferometry

    Berger, J -P; Baron, F; Chiavassa, A; Duvert, G; Elitzur, M; Freytag, B; Gueth, F; Hönig, S; Hron, J; Jang-Condell, H; Bouquin, J -B Le; Monin, J -L; Monnier, J D; Perrin, G; Plez, B; Ratzka, T; Renard, S; Stefl, S; Thiébaut, E; Tristram, K; Verhoelst, T; Wolf, S; Young, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of publications of aperture-synthesis images based on optical long-baseline interferometry measurements has recently increased due to easier access to visible and infrared interferometers. The interferometry technique has now reached a technical maturity level that opens new avenues for numerous astrophysical topics requiring milli-arcsecond model-independent imaging. In writing this paper our motivation was twofold: 1) review and publicize emblematic excerpts of the impressive corpus accumulated in the field of optical interferometry image reconstruction; 2) discuss future prospects for this technique by selecting four representative astrophysical science cases in order to review the potential benefits of using optical long baseline interferometers. For this second goal we have simulated interferometric data from those selected astrophysical environments and used state-of-the-art codes to provide the reconstructed images that are reachable with current or soon-to-be facilities. The image reconstru...

  14. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  15. VLTI/AMBER differential interferometry of the broad-line region of the quasar 3C273

    Petrov, Romain G.; Millour, Florentin; Lagarde, Stéphane; Vannier, Martin; Rakshit, Suvendu; Marconi, Alessandro; Weigelt, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Unveiling the structure of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of AGNs is critical to understand the quasar phenomenon. Resolving a few BLRs by optical interferometry will bring decisive information to confront, complement and calibrate the reverberation mapping technique, basis of the mass-luminosity relation in quasars. BLRs are much smaller than the angular resolution of the VLT and Keck interferometers and they can be resolved only by differential interferometry very accurate measurements of diff...

  16. Parasitic interference in nulling interferometry

    Matter, Alexis; Danchi, William C; Lopez, Bruno; Absil, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Nulling interferometry aims to detect faint objects close to bright stars. Its principle is to produce a destructive interference along the line-of-sight so that the stellar flux is rejected, while the flux of the off-axis source can be transmitted. In practice, various instrumental perturbations can degrade the nulling performance. Any imperfection in phase, amplitude, or polarization produces a spurious flux that leaks to the interferometer output and corrupts the transmitted off-axis flux. One of these instrumental pertubations is the crosstalk phenomenon, which occurs because of multiple parasitic reflections inside transmitting optics, and/or diffraction effects related to beam propagation along finite size optics. It can include a crosstalk of a beam with itself, and a mutual crosstalk between different beams. This can create a parasitic interference pattern, which degrades the intrinsic transmission map - or intensity response - of the interferometer. In this context, we describe how this instrumental ...

  17. Interferometry with referencing of wavelength

    Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej; Čížek, Martin; Hrabina, Jan; Buchta, Zdeněk

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2011, 80010X:1-6. ISBN 978-0-8194-8575-5. [International Conference on Applications of Optics and Photonics. Braga (PT), 03.05.2011-07.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA ČR GA102/09/1276; GA ČR GPP102/11/P820; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MPO FR-TI1/241; GA MPO FR-TI2/705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : refractometry * nanopositioning * interferometry * nanometrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  18. Binary Cepheids from optical interferometry

    Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Monnier, J D; Pietrzyński, J Breitfelder G; Gieren, W

    2013-01-01

    Classical Cepheid stars have been considered since more than a century as reliable tools to estimate distances in the universe thanks to their Period-Luminosity (P-L) relationship. Moreover, they are also powerful astrophysical laboratories, providing fundamental clues for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. When in binary systems, we can investigate the age and evolution of the Cepheid, estimate the mass and distance, and constrain theoretical models. However, most of the companions are located too close to the Cepheid (1-40 mas) to be spatially resolved with a 10-meter class telescope. The only way to spatially resolve such systems is to use long-baseline interferometry. Recently, we have started a unique and long-term interferometric program that aims at detecting and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions, with as main objectives the determination of accurate masses and geometric distances.

  19. Uncertainty formulations for multislit interferometry

    Biniok, Johannes C. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the context of (far-field) multislit interferometry we investigate the utility of two formulations of uncertainty in accounting for the complementarity of spatial localization and fringe width. We begin with a characterization of the relevant observables and general considerations regarding the suitability of different types of measures. The detailed analysis shows that both of the discussed uncertainty formulations yield qualitatively similar results, confirming that they correctly capture the relevant tradeoff. One approach, based on an idea of Aharonov and co-workers, is intuitively appealing and relies on a modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The other approach, developed by Uffink and Hilgevoord for single- and double-slit experiments, is readily applied to multislits. However, it is found that one of the underlying concepts requires generalization and that the choice of the parameters requires more consideration than was known.

  20. Two particle interferometry at RHIC

    Laue, F

    2002-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a pion interferometry analysis of Au+Au collisions at square root (S/sub NN/)=130 GeV, recorded with the STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC) detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The evaluation of three-dimensional correlation functions indicates increasing source sizes with increasing event centrality. The dependence of the calculated HBT radii on transverse momentum is attributed to strong space-momentum correlations (transverse flow). In the study presented in this paper we have not observed anomalously large source sizes as have been predicted as a signal for quark-qluon plasma formation. However, the measured HBT radii seem to follow the trend established at lower energies (AGS/SPS). We find the ratio R/sub o//R/sub s/ approximately =1, suggesting a short duration of pion emission. The "universal" pion phase space density, observed at AGS/SPS, seems to hold also at RHIC. (26 refs).

  1. The ionosphere and radio interferometry

    T. A. Th. Spoelstra

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the effects of the ionosphere on radio astronomjcal observations, what we can learn about the ionosphere from radio interferometry, and a procedure to correct for these effects. This study analyzes the results obtained from observations of celestial point soUl.ces with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, WSRT, in the Netherlands from the period 1970-1991. The main conc1usions are: 1 A1though seasona1 effects are c1ear, the occurrence and "strength" of ionospheric irregu1arities show no dependence on solar activity. 2 Assuming that the frequency of occurrence of ionospheric disturbances in Spring and Autumn are similar, Ihe "ionospheric" Winter starts on day 348 ± 3 and ali seasons last for three months. 3 Travelling ionospheric disturbances, TIDs, occur most frequently during daytime in Winter periods. 4 The propagation parameters of these travelling ionospheric irregularities and their periods indicate that these belong main1y to the c1ass of medium sca]e TIDs. 5 Radio interferometry is a powerful tool to locate irregularities causing scintillation and to determine their dimensions. 6 The occurrence of non-periodic irregu1arities is, however, not a function of time of day. 7 The daily variation in the amplitude and frequency of occurrence of the TIDs suggest that the generation of gravity waves may be caused by winds and tides in the lower thermosphere/mesosphere. On the basis of the availab1e data, a definition of a "disturbance measure" indicating to what extent the ionosphere is "quiet" is proposed. Procedures to correct for ionospheric effects and an eva1uation of the different methods to obtain information on the ionospheric e1ectron content are reviewed in sections 8 and 9, respectively.

  2. Some applications of holographic interferometry in biomechanics

    Ebbeni, Jean P. L.

    1992-03-01

    Holographic interferometry is well adapted for the determination of 2D strain fields in osseous structures. The knowledge of those strain fields is important for the understanding of structure behavior such as arthrosis.

  3. Novel Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Algorithms Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polarimetric SAR interferometry (PolInSAR) is a recently developed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mode that combines the capabilities of radar polarimetry...

  4. Techniques of cranioplasty in resection of acoustic neuromas by retrosigmoid approach%听神经瘤乙状窦后入路骨瓣成形术技术探讨

    吴小军; 侯立军; 胡国汉; 骆纯; 丁学华; 卢亦成

    2011-01-01

    Objective To introduce a modified cranioplasty in acoustic neuromas resection via reirosigmoid approach. Methods A total of 45 cases of acoustic neuromas were treated by surgery via the modified retrosigmoid approach. Considering the anatomic landmarks on the surface of posterior cranial fossa, such as asterion, parietal notch and occipitomastoid suture, resection of acoustic neuromas was performed by using the techniques such as modified "C-type" skin incision, straticulate dissection of the posterior cranial fossa muscles, drilling on the surface of the sigmoid sinus, transverse sinus and the conjunction with electric drill. After the resection of the tumor and reset of bone flap, techniques including watertight saturation of the posterior cranial fossa dura, straticulate saturation of the posterior cranial fossa muscles, running suturation of the subcutaneous tissue and intradermal saturation of the skin were used. Results Cranioplasty was performed successfully after the removal of the acoustic neuromas with no recurrence of rupture of the venous sinus and laceration of the dura. Bone flap was well-restored and the dura, muscles and skin were tightly sutured. Conclusion This modified cranioplasty is helpful for the accurate location of venous sinus, which is safe, rapid and minimal invasive for the resection of acoustic neuromas via retrosigmoid approach, in combination with other surgical techniques.%目的 介绍一种改良的听神经瘤乙状窦后入路骨瓣成形术.方法 采用改良“C”形切口,肌肉分层切开,参考星点、顶切迹、乳突沟等解剖标志,在横窦、乙状窦、两窦交界处电钻钻孔后骨瓣开颅,结合关颅时骨瓣复位,严密缝合硬膜,分层缝合肌肉,皮下连续缝合,皮肤皮内缝合等技术,行乙状窦后入路听神经瘤切除术45例.结果 全部病例成功完成骨瓣开颅,未发生静脉窦或者硬膜严重损伤,关颅时颅骨完全复位,硬膜、肌肉、皮肤缝合严密.结论

  5. Planar Integrated Optics and astronomical interferometry

    Kern, Pierre; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Haguenauer, Pierre; Malbet, Fabien; Perraut, Karine

    2001-01-01

    16 pages Integrated optics (IO) is an optical technology that allows to reproduce optical circuits on a planar substrate. Since 1996, we have investigated the potentiality of IO in the framework of astronomical single mode interferometry. We review in this paper the principles of IO, the requirements for interferometry and the corresponding solutions offered by IO, the results of component characterization and the possible fields of application.

  6. Time Delay Interferometry with Moving Spacecraft Arrays

    Tinto, M; Armstrong, J W; Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, Frank B.; Armstrong, adn J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time-varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up- and down-links. Reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter non-symmetric up- and downlink light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and downlink time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four inter-spacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time-dependence of the light...

  7. New source for matter wave interferometry

    Full text: In order to explore the transition between the quantum and the classical world we investigate the possibility of seeing non-classical interference effects with big molecules. This requires new interferometer concepts but also efficient methods to bring neutral molecules into the gas phase and to detect them selectively and efficiently after the interference. Up to now all macromolecule interference experiments were using thermal sources. But for thermo-labile particles such as for instance biomolecules even weak heating can lead to fragmentation, so that a different method is needed. We have successfully implemented a jet-cooled laser desorption source in which the molecules are first desorbed from a surface in a nanosecond laser pulse and then injected into an adiabatically expanding cooling jet of noble gas atoms. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method for the amino acids tryptophan (204 u) and the polypeptide gramicidin(1900 u) and we shed some light on the challenges and chances for proteins such as insulin (5700 u). We show that translational temperatures as low as 15 K can be reached for amino acids. Techniques for volatizing large neutral molecules will be the basis for future quantum interferometry experiments, but they will also enable further studies in the domain of slowing, cooling and spectroscopy of macromolecules. (author)

  8. Acoustic emission

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  9. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  10. Simplified Rotation In Acoustic Levitation

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Trinh, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    New technique based on old discovery used to control orientation of object levitated acoustically in axisymmetric chamber. Method does not require expensive equipment like additional acoustic drivers of precisely adjustable amplitude, phase, and frequency. Reflecting object acts as second source of sound. If reflecting object large enough, close enough to levitated object, or focuses reflected sound sufficiently, Rayleigh torque exerted on levitated object by reflected sound controls orientation of object.

  11. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter Michelson interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  12. Thermal characterization of optical fibers using wavelength-sweeping interferometry.

    Perret, Luc; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Serio, Bruno; Twardowski, Patrice

    2010-06-20

    In this paper, we report a new method of thermal characterization of optical fibers using wavelength-sweeping interferometry and discuss its advantages compared to other techniques. The setup consists of two temperature-stabilized interferometers, a reference Michelson and a Mach-Zehnder, containing the fiber under test. The wavelength sweep is produced by an infrared tunable laser diode. We obtained the global phase shift coefficients of a large effective area fiber and gold-coated fiber optics with a 10(-7) accuracy. PMID:20563215

  13. Thermal characterization of optical fibers using wavelength-sweeping interferometry

    In this paper, we report a new method of thermal characterization of optical fibers using wavelength-sweeping interferometry and discuss its advantages compared to other techniques. The setup consists of two temperature-stabilized interferometers, a reference Michelson and a Mach-Zehnder, containing the fiber under test. The wavelength sweep is produced by an infrared tunable laser diode. We obtained the global phase shift coefficients of a large effective area fiber and gold-coated fiber optics with a 10-7 accuracy.

  14. Thermal characterization of optical fibers using wavelength-sweeping interferometry

    Perret, Luc; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Serio, Bruno; Twardowski, Patrice

    2010-06-20

    In this paper, we report a new method of thermal characterization of optical fibers using wavelength-sweeping interferometry and discuss its advantages compared to other techniques. The setup consists of two temperature-stabilized interferometers, a reference Michelson and a Mach-Zehnder, containing the fiber under test. The wavelength sweep is produced by an infrared tunable laser diode. We obtained the global phase shift coefficients of a large effective area fiber and gold-coated fiber optics with a 10{sup -7} accuracy.

  15. BETTII: The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding the universe. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII),8oeight-meter Michelson interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks io young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  16. Semiconductor Laser Linewidth Measurements for Space Interferometry Applications

    Dougherty, D. J.; Guttierrez, R. C.; Dubovitsky, S.; Forouhar, S.

    2000-01-01

    Narrow linewidth (lasers are expected to be a key technology in NASA's stellar interferometry missions to search for planets around nearby stars. Long coherence length lasers are needed for precise (20 pm to 5 mn) measurements of the optical path difference. This work discusses results using the self-heterodyne delay technique to measure 1.3 micrometer InP based DFB lasers. We will also address practical issues concerning detection and elimination of back reflections, choice of fiber length and resolution, and measurement of laser 1/f and current supply noise.

  17. Variational denoising method for electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Fang Zhang; Wenyao Liu; Chen Tang; Jinjiang Wang; Li Ren

    2008-01-01

    Traditional speckle fringe patterns by electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) are inherently noisy and of limited visibility, so denoising is the key problem in ESPI. We present the variational denoising method for ESPI. This method transforms the image denosing to minimizing an appropriate penalized energy function and solving a partial differential equation. We test the proposed method on computer-simulated and experimental speckle correlation fringes, respectively. The results show that this technique is capable of significantly improving the quality of fringe patterns. It works well as a pre-processing for the fringe patterns by ESPI.

  18. Development of hydroacoustical techniques for the monitoring and classification of benthic habitats in Puck Bay: Modeling of acoustic waves scattering by seagrass

    Raczkowska, A.; Gorska, N.

    2012-12-01

    Puck Bay is an area of high species biodiversity belonging to the Coastal Landscape Park of Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) and is also included in the list of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and covered by the protection program "Natura 2000". The underwater meadows of the Puck Bay are important for Europe's natural habitats due to their role in enhancing the productivity of marine ecosystems and providing shelter and optimal feeding conditions for many marine organisms. One of the dominant species comprising the underwater meadows of the Southern Baltic Sea is the seagrass Zostera marina. The spatial extent of underwater seagrass meadows is altered by pollution and eutrophication; therefore, to properly manage the area one must monitor its ecological state. Remote acoustic methods are useful tools for the monitoring of benthic habitats in many marine areas because they are non-invasive and allow researchers to obtain data from a large area in a short period of time. Currently there is a need to apply these methods in the Baltic Sea. Here we present an analysis of the mechanism of scattering of acoustic waves on seagrass in the Southern Baltic Sea based on the numerical modeling of acoustic wave scattering by the biological tissues of plants. The study was conducted by adapting a model developed on the basis of DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation) developed by Stanton and Chu (2005) for fluid-like objects, including the characteristics of the Southern Baltic seagrass. Input data for the model, including the morphometry of seagrass leaves, their angle of inclination and the density plant cover, was obtained through the analysis of biological materials collected in the Puck Bay in the framework of a research project financed by the Polish Government (Development of hydroacoustic methods for studies of underwater meadows of Puck Bay, 6P04E 051 20). On the basis of the developed model, we have analyzed the dependence of the target strength of a single

  19. Homomorphic partial differential equation filtering method for electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringes based on fringe density

    Fang Zhang; Wenyao Liu; Lin Xia; Jinjiang Wang; Yue Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Noise reduction is one of the most exciting problems in electronic speckle pattern interferometry. We present a homomorphic partial differential equation filtering method for interferometry fringe patterns. The diffusion speed of the equation is determined based on the fringe density. We test the new method on the computer-simulated fringe pattern and experimentally obtain the fringe pattern, and evaluate its filtering performance. The qualitative and quantitative analysis shows that this technique can filter off the additive and multiplicative noise of the fringe patterns effectively, and avoid blurring high-density fringe. It is more capable of improving the quality of fringe patterns than the classical filtering methods.

  20. Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics

    Havelock, David; Vorländer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics presents signal processing as it is practiced in the field of acoustics. The Handbook is organized by areas of acoustics, with recognized leaders coordinating the self-contained chapters of each section. It brings together a wide range of perspectives from over 100 authors to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Success in acoustic applications often requires juggling both the acoustic and the signal processing parameters of the problem. This handbook brings the key issues from both into perspective and is complementary to other reference material on the two subjects. It is a unique resource for experts and practitioners alike to find new ideas and techniques within the diversity of signal processing in acoustics.

  1. Differential interferometry for measurement of density fluctuations and fluctuation-induced transport (invited)

    Differential interferometry employs two parallel laser beams with a small spatial offset (less than beam width) and frequency difference (1-2 MHz) using common optics and a single mixer for a heterodyne detection. The differential approach allows measurement of the electron density gradient, its fluctuations, as well as the equilibrium density distribution. This novel interferometry technique is immune to fringe skip errors and is particularly useful in harsh plasma environments. Accurate calibration of the beam spatial offset, accomplished by use of a rotating dielectric wedge, is required to enable broad application of this approach. Differential interferometry has been successfully used on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch plasma to directly measure fluctuation-induced transport along with equilibrium density profile evolution during pellet injection. In addition, by combining differential and conventional interferometry, both linear and nonlinear terms of the electron density fluctuation energy equation can be determined, thereby allowing quantitative investigation of the origin of the density fluctuations. The concept, calibration, and application of differential interferometry are presented.

  2. A New Approach for Longterm Monitoring of Deformations by Differential SAR Interferometry

    Usai, S.

    2001-01-01

    SAR Interferometry is a radar technique which allows to measure terrain deformations by comparing the phase information of two SAR images taken at different times. The result is an image of the deformations occurred in the meantime, with an accuracy of the order of a few millimetres. The major drawb

  3. Shear wave seismic interferometry for lithospheric imaging : Application to southern Mexico

    Frank, J. G.; Ruigrok, E. N.; Wapenaar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic interferometry allows for the creation of new seismic traces by cross correlating existing ones. With sufficient sampling of remote-source positions, it is possible to create a virtual source record by transforming a receiver location into a virtual source. The imaging technique developed he

  4. The Distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud Global Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)

    Unwin, S.; Shao, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the prospects for global astrometric measurements with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). SIM will perform four microarcsecond astrometric measurements onpoint-like objects as dim as 20th magnitude using optical interferometric techniques with a 10m baseline.

  5. Shear wave seismic interferometry for lithospheric imaging: Application to southern Mexico

    Frank, J.G.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic interferometry allows for the creation of new seismic traces by cross correlating existing ones. With sufficient sampling of remote-source positions, it is possible to create a virtual source record by transforming a receiver location into a virtual source. The imaging technique developed he

  6. Measuring Acoustic Wave Transit Time in Furnace Based on Active Acoustic Source Signal

    Zhen Luo; Feng Tian; Xiao-Ping Sun

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of transit time for acoustic wave between two sensors installed on two sides of a furnace is a key to implementing the temperature field measurement technique based on acoustical method. A new method for measuring transit time of acoustic wave based on active acoustic source signal is proposed in this paper, which includes the followings: the time when the acoustic source signal arrives at the two sensors is measured first; then, the difference of two arriving time arguments is computed, thereby we get the transit time of the acoustic wave between two sensors installed on the two sides of the furnace. Avoiding the restriction on acoustic source signal and background noise, the new method can get the transit time of acoustic wave with higher precision and stronger ability of resisting noise interference.

  7. Deformation measurement of the bone fixed with external fixator using holographic interferometry

    Kojima, Arata; Ogawa, Ryokei; Izuchi, N.; Yamamoto, Manabu; Nishimoto, T.; Matsumoto, Toshiro

    1991-08-01

    Mechanical properties of tibia fixed with an external fixative device (external fixator) were investigated under some simulated loading conditions. Deformation measurements were performed using double exposure holographic interferometry and real-time holographic interferometry. According to the results of the holographic interferometry, strains on the fixation pins and rods were also measured using strain gauges. The results showed that, with most types of external fixator, dislocations of both fractured ends were mainly caused by decrease in strength of the fixation pins. With increase in strength of fixation pins, angular deformation of the rod was more obvious. Increase in the strength of the rod was not always effective in decreasing dislocation of both fractured ends. Changes in bracing technique with marked change in rigidity of external fixator were useful to decrease dislocation of both fractured ends.

  8. Non-contact angle measurement based on parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry

    We present a novel precise angle measurement scheme based on parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry (PLFI), which outputs two parallel laser beams and thus their displacement difference reflects the angle variation of the target. Due to its ultrahigh sensitivity to the feedback light, PLFI realizes the direct non-contact measurement of non-cooperative targets. Experimental results show that PLFI has an accuracy of 8″ within a range of 1400″. The yaw of a guide is also measured and the experimental results agree with those of the dual-frequency laser interferometer Agilent 5529A. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. A comparison of two acoustic parabolic equation transmission loss models for compatibility with the Wavenumber Technique in the determination of source depth.

    Blanchard, Joe Lane, II

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The Brock version of the Split-Step Fast Fourier Transform (SSFFT) and the Jeager version of the Implicit Finite Difference (IFD) acoustic parabolic equation models are compared with a Lloyd mirror interference pattern in the range domain. The SSFFT displays the inability to place the transmission loss nulls at the correct ranges. It is also unable to utilize bottom loss information correctly. The IFD produced nulls a...

  10. Theory of supervirtual refraction interferometry

    Bharadwaj, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    Inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution by refraction traveltime tomography is a well-accepted imaging method by both the exploration and earthquake seismology communities. A significant drawback, however, is that the recorded traces become noisier with increasing offset from the source position, and so accurate picking of traveltimes in far-offset traces is often prevented. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the far-offset traces, we present the theory of supervirtual refraction interferometry where the SNR of far-offset head-wave arrivals can be theoretically increased by a factor proportional to; here, N is the number of receiver or source positions associated with the recording and generation of the head-wave arrival. There are two steps to this methodology: correlation and summation of the data to generate traces with virtual head-wave arrivals, followed by the convolution of the data with the virtual traces to create traces with supervirtual head-wave arrivals. This method is valid for any medium that generates head-wave arrivals recorded by the geophones. Results with both synthetic traces and field data demonstrate the feasibility of this method. There are at least four significant benefits of supervirtual interferometry: (1) an enhanced SNR of far-offset traces so the first-arrival traveltimes of the noisy far-offset traces can be more reliably picked to extend the useful aperture of the data, (2) the SNR of head waves in a trace that arrive later than the first arrival can be enhanced for accurate traveltime picking and subsequent inversion by later-arrival traveltime tomography, (3) common receiver-pair gathers can be analysed to detect the presence of diving waves in the first arrivals, which can be used to assess the nature of the refracting boundary, and (4) the source statics term is eliminated in the correlation operations so that the timing of the virtual traces is independent of the source excitation time. This suggests the

  11. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  12. Tracking changes in volcanic systems with seismic Interferometry

    Haney, Matt; Alicia J. Hotovec-Ellis; Ninfa L. Bennington; Silvio De Angelis; Clifford Thurber

    2014-01-01

    use ambient noise tomography (ANT) to map the 3D structure of a volcanic interior (at Piton de la Fournaise). Subsequent studies have imaged volcanoes with ANT at Okmok (Masterlark et al. 2010), Toba (Stankiewicz et al. 2010), Katmai (Thurber et al. 2012), Asama (Nagaoka et al. 2012), Uturuncu (Jay et al. 2012), and Kilauea (Ballmer et al. 2013b). In addition, Ma et al. (2013) have imaged a scatterer in the volcanic region of southern Peru by applying array techniques to ambient noise correlations. Prior to and in tandem with the development of ANT, researchers discovered that repeating earthquakes, which often occur at volcanoes, could be used to monitor subtle time-dependent changes with a technique known as the doublet method or coda wave interferometry (CWI) (Poupinet et al. 1984; Roberts et al. 1992; Ratdomopurbo and Poupinet 1995; Snieder et al. 2002; Pandolfi et al. 2006; Wegler et al. 2006; Martini et al. 2009; Haney et al. 2009; De Angelis 2009; Nagaoka et al. 2010; Battaglia et al. 2012; Erdem and Waite 2005; Hotovec-Ellis et al. 2014). Chaput et al. (2012) have also used scattered waves from Strombolian eruption coda at Erebus volcano to image the reflectivity of the volcanic interior with body wave interferometry. However, CWI in its original form was limited in that repeating earthquakes, or doublets, were not always guaranteed to occur. With the widespread use of noise correlations in seismology following the groundbreaking work by Campillo and Paul (2003) and Shapiro et al. (2005), it became evident that the nature of the ambient seismic field, due to its oceanic origin, enabled the continuous monitoring of subtle, time-dependent changes at both fault zones (Wegler and Sens-Schönfelder 2007; Brenguier et al. 2008b; Wegler et al. 2009; Sawazaki et al. 2009; Tatagi et al. 2012) and volcanoes (Sens-Schönfelder and Wegler 2006; Brenguier et al. 2008a) without the need for repeating earthquakes. Seismic precursors to eruptions based on ambient noise we

  13. Seismic tomography and ambient noise reflection interferometry on Reykjanes, SW Iceland

    Jousset, Philippe; Verdel, Arie; Ágústsson, Kristján; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, Malte; Ryberg, Trond; Weemstra, Cornelius; Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in volcano-seismology and seismic noise interferometry have introduced new processing techniques for assessing subsurface structures and controls on fluid flow in geothermal systems. We present tomographic results obtained from seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We obtain 3D velocity images from two fundamentally different tomography methods. First, we used local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity models of velocities by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and lateral velocity anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. Second, we performed ambient noise cross-correlation techniques in order to derive an S velocity model, especially where earthquakes did not occur. Cross-correlation techniques involve the computation of cross- correlation between seismic records, from which Green's functions are estimated. Surface wave inversion of the Green's functions allows derivation of an S wave velocity model. Noise correlation theory furthermore shows that zero-offset P-wave reflectivity at selected station locations can be

  14. Structural influences on intensity interferometry

    Maji, Arup; Harris, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Intensity interferometry (II) is an alternate form of creating images of distant objects. It is significantly less sensitive to atmospheric distortions and aberrations of telescope surfaces than conventional amplitude-based imaging. The deficiencies of II can be overcome as photodetectors' read-out rates are becoming faster and computers more powerful. In recognition of the possibility of very large space-based imaging systems, this paper investigates how the deformation of a large, thin optical surface would influence the accuracy of II. Based on the theoretical foundation of II, an optical ray-tracing algorithm was used to examine how the statistics of a photon stream changes from the source to the detector. Ray-tracing and finite element analyses of the structure were thereafter integrated to quantify how the correlation of the intensity field changes as the reflective structure deforms. Varying the positions of the detector from the focal plane and the surface profile of the mirror provided an understanding and quantification of how the various scenarios affect the statistics of the detected light and the correlation measurement. This research and analysis provide the means to quantify how structural perturbations of focal mirrors affect the statistics of photon stream detections inherent in II instrumentation.

  15. ARISE - Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Linfield, R. P.; Wannier, P. G.; Preston, R. A.; Hirabayashi, H.; Zensus, J. A.; Veal, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    A mission is described called ARISE, Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth. ARISE will will provide affordable very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) using second- generation VLBI and one or more inflatable space radio telescopes.

  16. Effects of collective flow on two pion interferometry

    The effect of collective flow on two pion interferometry is studied using two pion interferometry at small relative momentum. The analytical relation between the apparent radius and real radius of the pion source is given

  17. Opto-acoustic cell permeation

    Visuri, S R; Heredia, N

    2000-03-09

    Optically generated acoustic waves have been used to temporarily permeate biological cells. This technique may be useful for enhancing transfection of DNA into cells or enhancing the absorption of locally delivered drugs. A diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at kHz repetition rates was used to produce a series of acoustic pulses. An acoustic wave was formed via thermoelastic expansion by depositing laser radiation into an absorbing dye. Generated pressures were measured with a PVDF hydrophone. The acoustic waves were transmitted to cultured and plated cells. The cell media contained a selection of normally- impermeable fluorescent-labeled dextran dyes. Following treatment with the opto-acoustic technique, cellular incorporation of dyes, up to 40,000 Molecular Weight, was noted. Control cells that did not receive opto-acoustic treatment had unremarkable dye incorporation. Uptake of dye was quantified via fluorescent microscopic analysis. Trypan Blue membrane exclusion assays and fluorescent labeling assays confirmed the vitality of cells following treatment. This method of enhanced drug delivery has the potential to dramatically reduce required drug dosages and associated side effects and enable revolutionary therapies.

  18. Burg algorithm for enhancing measurement performance in wavelength scanning interferometry

    Woodcock, Rebecca; Muhamedsalih, Hussam; Martin, Haydn; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2016-06-01

    Wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI) is a technique for measuring surface topography that is capable of resolving step discontinuities and does not require any mechanical movement of the apparatus or measurand, allowing measurement times to be reduced substantially in comparison to related techniques. The axial (height) resolution and measurement range in WSI depends in part on the algorithm used to evaluate the spectral interferograms. Previously reported Fourier transform based methods have a number of limitations which is in part due to the short data lengths obtained. This paper compares the performance auto-regressive model based techniques for frequency estimation in WSI. Specifically, the Burg method is compared with established Fourier transform based approaches using both simulation and experimental data taken from a WSI measurement of a step-height sample.

  19. Acoustic lenses

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  20. Electron beam, ion beam, X-ray optical techniques for fabricating surface-acoustic-wave and thin-film optical devices

    Most surface-acoustic-wave and thin-film optical devices are made by the planar fabrication process. The exposure of the pattern in the polymer film is the first and most crucial step in ensuring desired device geometry, dimensional control, and freedom from pattern distortion. The methods of exposing the polymer film include: optical projection, conventional contact printing, conformable photomask contact printing, holographic recording, scanning electron beam lithography, projection electron lithography, and x-ray lithography. In this paper scanning electron beam lithography, conformable photomask contact printing, holographic recording, and x-ray lithography are discussed. In the last section, ion beam etching of relief structures is discussed

  1. Samuel A. Werner Pioneer of Neutron Interferometry

    Full text: In 1975, Sam Werner and his collaborators on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to the University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. The Interferometry and Coherence session at this conference has been organized in his honour and the collected papers presented by his friends, collaborators and former students form his Festschrift. (author)

  2. Pion and kaon interferometry of nuclear collisions

    In the study complex reactions, the simple space-time interpretation of pion interferometry often breaks down due to strong correlations between spatial and momentum coordinates. In those cases, pion interferometry is still useful as a complementary test of specific dynamic models, but a refined formalism must be used, as discussed in the introduction. With this formalism, we show that recent NA35 data on O + Au → π-π- + X at 200 AGeV are consistent with both hadronic resonance and quark-gluon plasma models for this reaction. The sensitivity of the outward and sideward transverse projected correlation function for pions is investigated. Finally, we compare pion and kaon interferometry predictions of these two models. 31 refs., 3 figs

  3. Holographic interferometry for aerosol particle characterization

    Using simulations based on Mie theory, this work shows how double-exposure digital holography can be used to measure the change in size of an expanding, or contracting, spherical particle. Here, a single particle is illuminated by a plane wave twice during its expansion: once when the particle is 27λ in radius, and again when it is 47λ. A hologram is formed from each illumination stage from the interference of the scattered and unscattered, i.e., incident, light. The two holograms are then superposed to form a double exposure. By applying the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction theory to the double-exposed hologram, a silhouette-like image of the particle is computationally reconstructed that is superposed with interference fringes. These fringes are a direct result of the change in particle size occurring between the two illumination stages. The study finds that expansion on the scale of ∼6λ is readily discerned from the reconstructed particle image. This work could be important for improved characterization of single and multiple aerosol particles in situ. For example, by illuminating an aerosol particle with infrared light, it may be possible to measure photothermally induced particle expansion, thus providing insight into a particle's material properties simultaneous with an image of the particle. - Highlights: • A computational model to simulate digital holography is developed. • The model is used to image a multi-wavelength sized, expanding spherical particle. • An interferometry technique is described that can measure the particle expansion. • Implications for laboratory-based aerosol particle characterization are described

  4. Soft x-ray interferometry

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  5. Parasitic interference in nulling interferometry

    Matter, A.; Defrère, D.; Danchi, W. C.; Lopez, B.; Absil, O.

    2013-05-01

    Nulling interferometry aims to detect faint objects close to bright stars. Its principle is to produce a destructive interference along the line of sight so that the stellar flux is rejected, while the flux of the off-axis source can be transmitted. In practice, various instrumental perturbations can degrade the nulling performance. Any imperfection in phase, amplitude or polarization produces a spurious flux that leaks to the interferometer output and corrupts the transmitted off-axis flux. One of these instrumental perturbations is the crosstalk phenomenon, which occurs because of multiple parasitic reflections inside transmitting optics, and/or diffraction effects related to beam propagation along finite size optics. It can include a crosstalk of a beam with itself, and a mutual crosstalk between different beams. This can create a parasitic interference pattern, which degrades the intrinsic transmission map - or intensity response - of the interferometer. In this context, we describe how this instrumental effect impairs the performance of a Bracewell interferometer. A simple formalism is developed to derive the corresponding modified intensity response of the interferometer, as a function of the two parameters of interest: the crosstalk level (or contamination rate) and the phase shift between the primary and secondary - parasitic - beams. We then apply our mathematical approach to a few scientific cases, both analytically and using the GENIESIM simulation software, adapted to handle coherent crosstalk. Our results show that a coherent crosstalk level of about 1 per cent implies a 20 per cent drop of the signal-to-noise ratio at most. Careful attention should thus be paid to reduce the crosstalk level inside an interferometric instrument and ensure an instrumental stability that provides the necessary sensitivity through calibration procedures.

  6. Pattern recognition methods for acoustic emission analysis

    Models have been developed that relate the rate of acoustic emissions to structural integrity. The implementation of these techniques in the field has been hindered by the noisy environment in which the data must be taken. Acoustic emissions from noncritical sources are recorded in addition to those produced by critical sources, such as flaws. A technique is discussed for prescreening acoustic events and filtering out those that are produced by noncritical sources. The methodology that was investigated is pattern recognition. Three different pattern recognition techniques were applied to a data set that consisted of acoustic emissions caused by crack growth and acoustic signals caused by extraneous noise sources. Examination of the acoustic emission data presented has uncovered several features of the data that can provide a reasonable filter. Two of the most valuable features are the frequency of maximum response and the autocorrelation coefficient at Lag 13. When these two features and several others were combined with a least squares decision algorithm, 90% of the acoustic emissions in the data set were correctly classified. It appears possible to design filters that eliminate extraneous noise sources from flaw-growth acoustic emissions using pattern recognition techniques

  7. An Optimisation Approach for Room Acoustics Design

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss on a conceptual level the value of optimisation techniques in architectural acoustics room design from a practical point of view. It is chosen to optimise one objective room acoustics design criterium estimated from the sound field inside the room. The sound field is modeled...

  8. Acoustic detection of electron spin resonance

    Coufal, H.

    1981-07-01

    The ESR-signal of DPPH was recorded by detecting the modulation of the absorbed microwave power with a gas-coupled microphone. This photo-acoustic detection scheme is compared with conventional ESR-detection. Applications of the acoustical detection method to other modulation spectroscopic techniques, particularly NMR, are discussed.

  9. Acoustic emission testing

    Grosse, Christian U

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques have been studied in civil engineering for a long time. The techniques are recently going to be more and more applied to practical applications and to be standardized in the codes. This is because the increase of aging structures and disastrous damages due to recent earthquakes urgently demand for maintenance and retrofit of civil structures in service for example. It results in the need for the development of advanced and effective inspection techniques. Thus, AE techniques draw a great attention to diagnostic applications and in material testing. The book covers all levels from the description of AE basics for AE beginners (level of a student) to sophisticated AE algorithms and applications to real large-scale structures as well as the observation of the cracking process in laboratory specimen to study fracture processes.

  10. Application of an Aligned and Unaligned Signal Processing Technique to Investigate Tones and Broadband Noise in Fan and Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Acoustic Spectra

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of noise from a two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) is challenging since the shafts are not phase locked in most cases. Consequently, phase averaging of the acoustic data keyed to a single shaft rotation speed is not meaningful. An unaligned spectrum procedure that was developed to estimate a signal coherence threshold and reveal concealed spectral lines in turbofan engine combustion noise is applied to fan and CROR acoustic data in this paper (also available as NASA/TM-2015-218865). The NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject supported the current work. The fan and open rotor data were obtained under previous efforts supported by the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project and the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project of the Integrated Systems Research Program in collaboration with GE Aviation, respectively. The overarching goal of the Advanced Air Transport (AATT) Project is to explore and develop technologies and concepts to revolutionize the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of fixed wing transport aircrafts. These technological solutions are critical in reducing the impact of aviation on the environment even as this industry and the corresponding global transportation system continue to grow.

  11. Altimetry Using GPS-Reflection/Occultation Interferometry

    Cardellach, Estel; DeLaTorre, Manuel; Hajj, George A.; Ao, Chi

    2008-01-01

    A Global Positioning System (GPS)- reflection/occultation interferometry was examined as a means of altimetry of water and ice surfaces in polar regions. In GPS-reflection/occultation interferometry, a GPS receiver aboard a satellite in a low orbit around the Earth is used to determine the temporally varying carrier- phase delay between (1) one component of a signal from a GPS transmitter propagating directly through the atmosphere just as the GPS transmitter falls below the horizon and (2) another component of the same signal, propagating along a slightly different path, reflected at glancing incidence upon the water or ice surface.

  12. Application of acoustic diagnosis for rotating machines

    This report describes the effectiveness of the application of acoustic diagnosis using vibration data for inspecting rotating machines. We usually apply the vibration diagnosis for the inspection of rotating machines on CBM (Condition Based Maintenance). However, with the vibration diagnosis, sometimes we cannot discover the cause of abnormal sounds from rotating machines. Therefore, we tried another diagnosis. We converted the vibration data to the acoustic data and then inspected the abnormal sounds. We used the frequency filters in the acoustic analyzer for the diagnosis. This acoustic diagnosis method is helpful in transmitting the inspection techniques of rotating machines to the next generation. (author)

  13. Development of a compact transmitter array for the acoustic neutrino detection calibration

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Bou-Cabo, M; Larosa, G; Llorens, C D; Martínez-Mora, J A

    2011-01-01

    Parametric acoustic sources technique has been widely used in several fields of acoustics, especially in underwater acoustics with the aim to obtain very directive transducers. In this paper we present different studies and developments done during last years to develop a compact acoustic calibrator that allows emitting acoustic neutrino like signal with the goal to calibrate arrays of acoustic receiver sensors to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  14. X-Ray Grating Interferometry for Phase-Contrast Imaging and Optics Metrology Applications

    David, Christian; Rutishauser, Simon; Thüring, Thomas; Donath, Tilman; Stampanoni, Marco

    2010-04-01

    We report on a hard x-ray interferometry technique based on diffraction gratings fabricated using microlithography techniques. Compared to other x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods, the grating interferometer only has very moderate requirements in terms of coherence. This makes it possible to use the method with standard x-ray tubes, which opens up a huge range of applications e.g. in medical imaging.

  15. Shear wave seismic interferometry for lithospheric imaging: Application to southern Mexico

    Frank, J.G.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Wapenaar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic interferometry allows for the creation of new seismic traces by cross correlating existing ones. With sufficient sampling of remote-source positions, it is possible to create a virtual source record by transforming a receiver location into a virtual source. The imaging technique developed here directly retrieves reflectivity information from the subsurface. Other techniques, namely receiver-function and tomography, rely on mode-converted energy and perturbations in a velocity field, r...

  16. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    Ardid, Miguel; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to...

  17. Prototype acoustic resonance spectroscopy monitor

    This report reports on work performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Program Office for Technical Assistance (POTAS). In this work, we investigate possible applications of nondestructive acoustics measurements to facilitate IAEA safeguards at bulk processing facilities. Two different acoustic techniques for verifying the internal structure of a processing tank were investigated. During this effort we also examined two acoustic techniques for assessing the fill level within a processing tank. The fill-level measurements could be made highly portable and have an added safeguards advantage that they can also detect stratification of fill material. This later application may be particularly useful in confirming the absence of stratification in plutonium processing tanks before accountability samples are withdrawn

  18. Cold neutron interferometry and its application. 2. Coherency and cold neutron spin interferometry

    The second workshop entitled 'Interference studies and cold neutron spin interferometry' was held on 10 and 11 March 1998 at KUR (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori). Cold neutron spin interferometry is a new field. So it is very important for its development to learn the studies of X-ray and neutron optics which are rapidly developing with long history. In the workshop, the issues related to interference were reviewed such as experimental studies on cold neutron spin interferometry, theoretical and experimental approach on tunneling time, interference experiments by neutrons and its application, interference studies using synchrotron radiation, topics on silicon interferometry and quantum measurement problem and cold neutron interference experiment related to quantum measurement problem. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Interferometry in astrophysics as a roadmap for interferometry in multiparticle dynamics

    Gurvits, L.I.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometry is one of the most powerful experimental tools of modern astrophysics. Some of its methods are considered in view of potential applicability to studies of correlations in multiparticle dynamics.

  20. Interferometry of carbon rich AGB stars

    Johnson JHK broad-band filters, and some narrow filters defined ad hoc to sample features of the infrared spectra of C-stars. These profiles are computed for a specified set of hydrodynamic models for stars with different mass-loss rates. Most of the previous studies concerning interferometry of red giant stars used simple approximations for interpreting visibility profiles. Following the same approach used in literature as for M-stars, the computed visibility profiles are fitted with analytical functions (uniform discs) to investigate their dependence on wavelength, pulsation phase and stellar parameters. It was found that the radius predicted by the models increases with wavelength, and the dependence on pulsation phase is not strictly sinusoidal. The L-band turned out to be crucial region for parameter determinations. In the second part of this work newly obtained spectroscopic and interferometric data are presented for a sample of five objects with very limited dynamic effects. The observations are compared with models and the full set of stellar parameters (Teff , C/O, mass and log(g)) could be derived. The parameters determined in this way are then compared with evolutionary tracks. The distance determination remains a crucial problem. Nevertheless, very accurate effective temperature determinations can be obtained from L-band spectroscopy, and interferometry is the only tool that can give access to the mass of the object. In the third and fourth part of the work the radial structure of the atmosphere of the C-rich semiregular variable R Scl and the carbon-Mira R For are investigated with spectrointerferometric observations in the mid-infrared. The N-band variability, the stratification of the atmosphere, and the geometry of the circumstellar envelope are presented. The observations are compared with dynamic model atmospheres confirming the interferometric technique as a very powerful tool to constrain our knowledge of dynamic processes (i.e. dust formation and mass

  1. First measurement of laser Wakefield oscillations by longitudinal interferometry

    Because the electrostatic fields present in plasma waves can exceed those achievable in conventional accelerators and approach atomic scale values (Ea ∼ 500 GV/m), plasma based accelerators have received considerable attention as compact sources of high-energy electron pulses. Although stimulated Raman scattering or terahertz radiation at wp provided spatially averaged optical signatures of the plasma wave's existence, new diagnostic techniques are required to map the the temporal and spatial structure of the plasma wave directly since such information is vital for addressing fundamental issues of wakefield generation and propagation. In this paper, we report femtosecond time resolved measurements of the longitudinal and radial structure of laser wakefield oscillations using an all optical technique known as interferometric ''photon acceleration'' or Longitudinal Interferometry

  2. Optoelectronic information encryption with phase-shifting interferometry.

    Tajahuerce, E; Matoba, O; Verrall, S C; Javidi, B

    2000-05-10

    A technique that combines the high speed and the high security of optical encryption with the advantages of electronic transmission, storage, and decryption is introduced. Digital phase-shifting interferometry is used for efficient recording of phase and amplitude information with an intensity recording device. The encryption is performed by use of two random phase codes, one in the object plane and another in the Fresnel domain, providing high security in the encrypted image and a key with many degrees of freedom. We describe how our technique can be adapted to encrypt either the Fraunhofer or the Fresnel diffraction pattern of the input. Electronic decryption can be performed with a one-step fast Fourier transform reconstruction procedure. Experimental results for both systems including a lensless setup are shown. PMID:18345139

  3. Sonification of acoustic emission data

    Raith, Manuel; Große, Christian

    2014-05-01

    While loading different specimens, acoustic emissions appear due to micro crack formation or friction of already existing crack edges. These acoustic emissions can be recorded using suitable ultrasonic transducers and transient recorders. The analysis of acoustic emissions can be used to investigate the mechanical behavior of different specimens under load. Our working group has undertaken several experiments, monitored with acoustic emission techniques. Different materials such as natural stone, concrete, wood, steel, carbon composites and bone were investigated. Also the experimental setup has been varied. Fire-spalling experiments on ultrahigh performance concrete and pullout experiments on bonded anchors have been carried out. Furthermore uniaxial compression tests on natural stone and animal bone had been conducted. The analysis tools include not only the counting of events but the analysis of full waveforms. Powerful localization algorithms and automatic onset picking techniques (based on Akaikes Information Criterion) were established to handle the huge amount of data. Up to several thousand events were recorded during experiments of a few minutes. More sophisticated techniques like moment tensor inversion have been established on this relatively small scale as well. Problems are related to the amount of data but also to signal-to-noise quality, boundary conditions (reflections) sensor characteristics and unknown and changing Greens functions of the media. Some of the acoustic emissions recorded during these experiments had been transferred into audio range. The transformation into the audio range was done using Matlab. It is the aim of the sonification to establish a tool that is on one hand able to help controlling the experiment in-situ and probably adjust the load parameters according to the number and intensity of the acoustic emissions. On the other hand sonification can help to improve the understanding of acoustic emission techniques for training

  4. High sensitivity Moire interferometry with phase shifting at nano resolution

    Chen, Bicheng

    Due to insatiate demand for miniaturization of electronics, there is a need for new techniques to measure full-field strain at micro-scale structures. In addition, Micro-Electronic-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require a high resolution and high sensitivity material property characterization technique. In this study, a theoretic model for a high sensitivity Moire Interferometry (MI) for measuring nano-scale strain field has been developed. The study also includes the application of the proposed measurement technique for the study of reliability of next generation nano-electronics/power electronics. The study includes both theoretical and experimental work. In the theoretical part, a far field modeling of a Moire Interferometer (MI) using the mode decomposition method is proposed according to the analytical formulation from the scalar diffraction theory. The wave propagation within the defined MI far field domain is solved analytically for a single frequency surface relieved grating structure following the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld formulation under the paraxial approximation. It is shown that the far-field electrical field and the intensity interferogram can be calculated using the mode decomposition method. Furthermore, the near-field (propagation distance electromagnetic (EM) theory; and the EM fields are simulated in a few microns region above the surface of the diffraction grating. The study shows that there is a strong correlation (correlation factor R = 0.869) of spatial frequency response between EM field and strain field at the nanoscale. Experimentally, a 164 nm/pixel spatial resolution Moire Interferometer with automated full strain field calculation is proposed. Accurate full strain field maps are generated automatically by a combination of phase shifting technique (temporal data redundancy) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) (spatial data redundancy). A thermal experiment on BGA packaging is used to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed new design. To

  5. Moiré interferometry studies of PBX9501

    Rae, Philip; Goldrein, H. Timothy; Palmer, Stewart; Proud, William

    2001-06-01

    Moiré interferometry studies of PBX9501. P.J. Rae, H.T. Goldrein, S.J.P. Palmer, W.G. Proud Moiré interferometry is a sensitive technique for measuring in-plane displacements. Here, we measure one component of in-plane displacement with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 μm and a displacement sensitivity which can approach 10 nm. We have studied the deformation of real and mock PBX501 specimens in a variety of loading geometries. Specimens are polished and stained to reveal the microstructure, and a thin 1200 lines/mm phase grating is cast on its surface using a low-modulus epoxy resin. The specimen is illuminated symmetrically with two light beams from the same laser such that the first-order diffracted beams enter a camera system. As the specimen deforms, each extra fringe in the interference pattern represents 0.4 μm of surface displacement. Accurate interpolation between fringes gives high sensitivity. With a semi-transparent grating, it is possible to record white-light images of the specimen microstructure in exact registration with the displacements maps. Thus the influence of the microstructure on the strain distribution can be studied, allowing great insight into the failure mechanisms which may be at work. Applications to various PBX9501 specimens will be described.

  6. Advances in space-borne SAR interferometry and its application to ground deformation monitoring

    LIU Zhen-guo; BIAN Zheng-fu

    2011-01-01

    The development of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR), in terms of its evolution from classic to advanced forms, such as Least-Squares approach, Permanent Scatterer Interferometry, Small Baseline Subset, and Coherent Pixel Technique, is reviewed, describing concisely the main principles of each method and highlighting the difference and relationship between them. Applications of InSAR technology in China were then introduced, together with the obstacles to overcome and feasible strategies, such as integrating MERIS/MODIS data to compensate for the atmospheric effect and GPS, and multi-platform SAR data to make InSAR technique practical and operational under various conditions. The latest developments were then analyzed along with high-quality SAR data, available thanks to the newly launched high-tech satellites, TerraSAR-X, and Cosmo Sky-med, and conclusions were drawn about the main limitations of the technique.

  7. Protein–ligand interactions investigated by thermal shift assays (TSA) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI)

    The biophysical characterization of protein–ligand interactions in solution using techniques such as thermal shift assay, or on surfaces using, for example, dual polarization interferometry, plays an increasingly important role in complementing crystal structure determinations. Over the last decades, a wide range of biophysical techniques investigating protein–ligand interactions have become indispensable tools to complement high-resolution crystal structure determinations. Current approaches in solution range from high-throughput-capable methods such as thermal shift assays (TSA) to highly accurate techniques including microscale thermophoresis (MST) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) that can provide a full thermodynamic description of binding events. Surface-based methods such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI) allow real-time measurements and can provide kinetic parameters as well as binding constants. DPI provides additional spatial information about the binding event. Here, an account is presented of new developments and recent applications of TSA and DPI connected to crystallography

  8. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  9. Airborne Repeat Pass Interferometry for Deformation Measurements

    Groot, J.; Otten, M.; Halsema, E. van

    2000-01-01

    In ground engineering the need for deformation measurements is urgent. SAR interferometry can be used to measure small (sub-wavelength) deformations. An experiment to investigate this for dike deformations was set up, using the C-band SAR system PHARUS (PHased ARray Universal SAR). This paper descri

  10. Astronomical Optical Interferometry. I. Methods and Instrumentation

    Jankov, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous decade has seen an achievement of large interferometricprojects including 8-10m telescopes and 100m class baselines. Modern computerand control technology has enabled the interferometric combination of lightfrom separate telescopes also in the visible and infrared regimes. Imagingwith milli-arcsecond (mas resolution and astrometry with micro-arcsecond($mu$as precision have thus become reality. Here, I review the methods andinstrumentation corresponding to the current state in the field ofastronomical optical interferometry. First, this review summarizes thedevelopment from the pioneering works of Fizeau and Michelson. Next, thefundamental observables are described, followed by the discussion of the basicdesign principles of modern interferometers. The basic interferometrictechniques such as speckle and aperture masking interferometry, aperture synthesisand nulling interferometry are disscused as well. Using the experience ofpast and existing facilities to illustrate important points, I considerparticularly the new generation of large interferometers that has beenrecently commissioned (most notably, the CHARA, Keck, VLT and LBTInterferometers. Finally, I discuss the longer-term future of opticalinterferometry, including the possibilities of new large-scale ground-based projects and prospects for space interferometry.

  11. Detection of deoxynivalenol using biolayer interferometry

    Biolayer interferometry allows for the real time monitoring of the interactions between molecules without the need for reagents with enzymatic, fluorescent, or radioactive labels. The technology is based upon the changes in interference pattern of light reflected from the surface of an optical fiber...

  12. The acoustics of snoring.

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of

  13. Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods

    Sanichiro Yoshida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea.

  14. Interferometric and acoustic measurements in superfluid (3)He-B and wetting studies in (3)He/(4)He mixtures. Doctoral thesis

    Alles, H.

    1995-06-22

    In this thesis work superfluid (3)He was investigated by two methods. First, ultrasonic experiments on (3)He-B were carried out using two coincident zero sound pulses. The second technique is optics, a novel method for ultra low temperatures. The developed method, two-beam interferometry, was employed successfully for studies of wetting phenomena in liquid (3)He/(4)He mixtures as well. This publication contains the results of a acoustic spectroscopy on (3)He-B. Most importantly, the real squashing collective mode (rsq) was excited by two simultaneous sound pulses yielding two phonon absorption (TPA). This nonlinear phenomenon was applied to study the dispersion relation of the rsq-mode. Zeeman splitting of the nonlinearly excited rsq-mode was investigated in a magnetic field. By means of TPA, an anomalous behavior was found also near the pair-breaking edge.

  15. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  16. Nonlinear acoustic-gravity waves

    Stenflo, Lennart; Shukla, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Previous results on nonlinear acoustic-gravity waves are reconsidered. It turns out that the mathematical techniques used are somewhat similar to those already adopted by the plasma physics community. Consequently, a future interaction between physicists On different fields, e.g in meteorology and plasma physics, can be very fruitful.

  17. High Temperature Acoustic Noise Reduction Materials Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use combustion synthesis techniques to manufacture ceramic-based acoustic liners capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2500?C....

  18. Azimuthally sensitive Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry measured with the ALICE experiment

    Gramling, Johanna Lena

    2011-07-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations of identical pions emitted in high-energy particle collisions provide information about the size of the source region in space-time. If analyzed via HBT Interferometry in several directions with respect to the reaction plane, the shape of the source can be extracted. Hence, HBT Interferometry provides an excellent tool to probe the characteristics of the quark-gluon plasma possibly created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. This thesis introduces the main theoretical concepts of particle physics, the quark gluon plasma and the technique of HBT interferometry. The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is explained and the first azimuthallyintegrated results measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV with ALICE are presented. A detailed two-track resolution study leading to a global pair cut for HBT analyses has been performed, and a framework for the event plane determination has been developed. The results from azimuthally sensitive HBT interferometry are compared to theoretical models and previous measurements at lower energies. Oscillations of the transverse radii in dependence on the pair emission angle are observed, consistent with a source that is extended out-of-plane.

  19. Azimuthally sensitive Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry measured with the ALICE experiment

    Bose-Einstein correlations of identical pions emitted in high-energy particle collisions provide information about the size of the source region in space-time. If analyzed via HBT Interferometry in several directions with respect to the reaction plane, the shape of the source can be extracted. Hence, HBT Interferometry provides an excellent tool to probe the characteristics of the quark-gluon plasma possibly created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. This thesis introduces the main theoretical concepts of particle physics, the quark gluon plasma and the technique of HBT interferometry. The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is explained and the first azimuthallyintegrated results measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √(sNN)=2.76 TeV with ALICE are presented. A detailed two-track resolution study leading to a global pair cut for HBT analyses has been performed, and a framework for the event plane determination has been developed. The results from azimuthally sensitive HBT interferometry are compared to theoretical models and previous measurements at lower energies. Oscillations of the transverse radii in dependence on the pair emission angle are observed, consistent with a source that is extended out-of-plane.

  20. Acoustic hemostasis

    Crum, L.; Andrew, M.; Bailey, M.; Beach, K.; Brayman, A.; Curra, F.; Kaczkowski, P.; Kargl, S.; Martin, R.; Vaezy, S.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past several years, the Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound (CIMU) at the Applied Physics Laboratory in the University of Washington has undertaken a broad research program in the general area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Our principal emphasis has been on the use of HIFU to induce hemostasis; in particular, CIMU has sought to develop a small, lightweight, portable device that would use ultrasound for both imaging and therapy. Such a technology is needed because nearly 50% of combat casualty mortality results from exsanguinations, or uncontrolled bleeding. A similar percentage occurs for civilian death due to trauma. In this general review, a presentation of the general problem will be given, as well as our recent approaches to the development of an image-guided, transcutaneous, acoustic hemostasis device. [Work supported in part by the USAMRMC, ONR and the NIH.

  1. Acoustic microscopy applied to resonator characterization

    This paper describes the characteristics of acoustic resonators and the techniques used to characterize the standing wave patterns. It is shown that these patterns can be observed by the acoustic microscope in a transmission mode. Results are presented for circular and rectangular transducers showing the effects of supporting mount leads and defects on the vibration characteristics. The development of new more direct techniques for observing the acoustic resonances of piezoelectric transducers is of considerable interest since some of the other methods previously applied are indirect in nature and suffer from different limitations

  2. Acoustic telemetry.

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  3. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available Educational Video Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video ... for pre- and post-treatment acoustic neuroma patients. Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic ...

  4. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...

  5. Acoustic resonance for nonmetallic mine detection

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of acoustic resonance for detection of plastic mines was investigated by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Instrumentation and Controls Division under an internally funded program. The data reported in this paper suggest that acoustic resonance is not a practical method for mine detection. Representative small plastic anti-personnel mines were tested, and were found to not exhibit detectable acoustic resonances. Also, non-metal objects known to have strong acoustic resonances were tested with a variety of excitation techniques, and no practical non-contact method of exciting a consistently detectable resonance in a buried object was discovered. Some of the experimental data developed in this work may be useful to other researchers seeking a method to detect buried plastic mines. A number of excitation methods and their pitfalls are discussed. Excitation methods that were investigated include swept acoustic, chopped acoustic, wavelet acoustic, and mechanical shaking. Under very contrived conditions, a weak response that could be attributed to acoustic resonance was observed, but it does not appear to be practical as a mine detection feature. Transfer properties of soil were investigated. Impulse responses of several representative plastic mines were investigated. Acoustic leakage coupling, and its implications as a disruptive mechanism were investigated.

  6. Acoustic design and research on the auditorium of Shanghai Grand Theatre

    ZHANG Kuisheng

    2000-01-01

    Shanghai Grand Theatre is a great modern theatre with the largest formula, the highest investment, the most advanced technique and excellent acoustic quality in China. This article mainly introduced Shanghai Grand Theatre's characteristics of formula, technical requirements of acoustic design of Auditorium, characteristics of figure design, reverberation control, acoustic simulation research, acoustic performance and subjective evaluation.

  7. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    Carlos D. Llorens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars, high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters.

  8. Assessment of the stress corrosion cracking in a chloride medium of cables used in prestressed concrete structures by the acoustic emission technique

    Ramadan, S.; Gaillet, L.; Tessier, C.; Idrissi, H.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, two main types of corrosion, localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cables used in prestressed concrete structures, were characterized and identified by acoustic emission (AE) analysis using extracted AE parameters. A novel analysis of the AE parameters using the principal component analysis (PCA) was done to discriminate localized corrosion from SCC. First, K-mean was used as an unsupervised method, and then to validate the clustering analysis k-nearest neighbour was used as a supervised method. The correlations of the AE parameters including amplitude, counts, hits and time were also used to identify corrosion mechanisms. In addition, the corrosion process characteristics of each type were explained by applying the AE signal analysis (time-frequency). Experimental results show the ability of AE to evaluate a crack propagation rate of 10-7 m s-1 in a chloride medium. Microscopic examinations revealed a mixed mode of crack propagation, modes I (shear-like mechanism) and II (cleavage-like mechanism), characterized by a multi-terrace appearance on the fractured steel surface.

  9. Feasibility studies for speckle interferometry used to measure deformation in nuclear fuel cladding

    Speckle interferometry is an optical technique able to measure and to image displacement of surface. An original setup is used to investigate the measurement of a deformed cylinder as a feasibility study. This shape allows us to determine the capability of this technique to measure nuclear fuel rod cladding. Indeed, in a nuclear reactor, the fuel rod undergoes different physical phenomena that induce dimensional changes in the cladding. The aim of this study is to quantify the amplitude of local ridges appearing on the outer cladding surface due to the 'hourglass shape' assumed by the pellets under irradiation. Because of the environmental constraints imposed by testing, an optical measuring device will be used to experimentally characterize mechanical strain induced by the interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets. The aim of this paper is to examine the experimental feasibility of speckle interferometry using model samples. An experimental setup based on the speckle interferometry technique was therefore implemented to measure local deformation in nuclear fuel cladding. Different experiments on model samples have shown that this technique is well adapted to the measuring range, shape, and condition of the surface as well as the working distance. (authors)

  10. Acoustic dispersive prism

    Hussein Esfahlani; Sami Karkar; Herve Lissek; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic ...

  11. Acoustic Communication for Medical Nanorobots

    Hogg, Tad

    2012-01-01

    Communication among microscopic robots (nanorobots) can coordinate their activities for biomedical tasks. The feasibility of in vivo ultrasonic communication is evaluated for micron-size robots broadcasting into various types of tissues. Frequencies between 10MHz and 300MHz give the best tradeoff between efficient acoustic generation and attenuation for communication over distances of about 100 microns. Based on these results, we find power available from ambient oxygen and glucose in the bloodstream can readily support communication rates up to 10,000 bits/second between micron-sized robots. We discuss techniques, such as directional acoustic beams, that can increase this rate. The acoustic pressure fields enabling this communication are unlikely to damage nearby tissue, and short bursts at considerably higher power could be of therapeutic use.

  12. Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM

    Rosenhave, P.E. [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.

  13. The Palomar Kernel Phase Experiment: Testing Kernel Phase Interferometry for Ground-based Astronomical Observations

    Pope, Benjamin; Hinkley, Sasha; Ireland, Michael J; Greenbaum, Alexandra; Latyshev, Alexey; Monnier, John D; Martinache, Frantz

    2015-01-01

    At present, the principal limitation on the resolution and contrast of astronomical imaging instruments comes from aberrations in the optical path, which may be imposed by the Earth's turbulent atmosphere or by variations in the alignment and shape of the telescope optics. These errors can be corrected physically, with active and adaptive optics, and in post-processing of the resulting image. A recently-developed adaptive optics post-processing technique, called kernel phase interferometry, uses linear combinations of phases that are self-calibrating with respect to small errors, with the goal of constructing observables that are robust against the residual optical aberrations in otherwise well-corrected imaging systems. Here we present a direct comparison between kernel phase and the more established competing techniques, aperture masking interferometry, point spread function (PSF) fitting and bispectral analysis. We resolve the alpha Ophiuchi binary system near periastron, using the Palomar 200-Inch Telesco...

  14. Characterization of drying paint coatings by dynamic speckle and holographic interferometry measurements.

    Budini, N; Mulone, C; Balducci, N; Vincitorio, F M; López, A J; Ramil, A

    2016-06-10

    In this work we implemented dynamic speckle and holographic interferometry techniques to characterize the drying process of solvent-based paint coatings. We propose a simple way to estimate drying time by measuring speckle activity and incrementally fitting experimental data through standard regression algorithms. This allowed us to predict drying time after about 20-30 min of paint application, which is fast compared to usual times required to reach the so-called tack-free state (≈2  h). In turn, we used holographic interferometry to map small thickness variations in the coating surface during drying. We also demonstrate that results obtained from both techniques correlate with each other, which allows us to improve the accuracy of the drying time estimation. PMID:27409029

  15. X-ray grating interferometry at photon energies over 180 keV

    We report on the implementation and characterization of grating interferometry operating at an x-ray energy of 183 keV. With the possibility to use this technique at high x-ray energies, bigger specimens could be studied in a quantitative way. Also, imaging strongly absorbing specimens will benefit from the advantages of the phase and dark-field signals provided by grating interferometry. However, especially at these high photon energies the performance of the absorption grating becomes a key point on the quality of the system, because the grating lines need to keep their small width of a couple of micrometers and exhibit a greater height of hundreds of micrometers. The performance of high aspect ratio absorption gratings fabricated with different techniques is discussed. Further, a dark-field image of an alkaline multicell battery highlights the potential of high energy x-ray grating based imaging

  16. Versatile compact atomic source for high resolution dual atom interferometry

    Müller, T; Gilowski, M; Jentsch, C; Rasel, E M; Ertmer, W

    2007-01-01

    We present a compact $^{87}$Rb atomic source for high precision dual atom interferometers. The source is based on a double-stage magneto-optical trap (MOT) design, consisting of a 2-dimensional (2D)-MOT for efficient loading of a 3D-MOT. The accumulated atoms are precisely launched in a horizontal moving molasses. Our setup generates a high atomic flux ($>10^{10}$ atoms/s) with precise and flexibly tunable atomic trajectories as required for high resolution Sagnac atom interferometry. We characterize the performance of the source with respect to the relevant parameters of the launched atoms, i.e. temperature, absolute velocity and pointing, by utilizing time-of-flight techniques and velocity selective Raman transitions.

  17. Mode engineering for realistic quantum-enhanced interferometry

    Jachura, Michał; Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Quantum metrology overcomes standard precision limits by exploiting collective quantum superpositions of physical systems used for sensing, with the prominent example of non-classical multiphoton states improving interferometric techniques. Practical quantum-enhanced interferometry is, however, vulnerable to imperfections such as partial distinguishability of interfering photons. Here we introduce a method where appropriate design of the modal structure of input photons can alleviate deleterious effects caused by another, experimentally inaccessible degree of freedom. This result is accompanied by a laboratory demonstration that a suitable choice of spatial modes combined with position-resolved coincidence detection restores entanglement-enhanced precision in the full operating range of a realistic two-photon Mach–Zehnder interferometer, specifically around a point which otherwise does not even attain the shot-noise limit due to the presence of residual distinguishing information in the spectral degree of freedom. Our method highlights the potential of engineering multimode physical systems in metrologic applications. PMID:27125782

  18. Fast processing spectral discrimination for hyperspectral imagers based on interferometry

    Hyperspectral imagers based on interferometry associate with each pixel of the image the spectrum calculated with the Fourier transform of the measured interferogram. This class of hyperspectral imagers is intrinsically faster than imagers based on optical filters and on dispersive means when the noise is dominated by detector noise. This speed advantage could be hampered by the large computing power necessary to extract the spectral content of the image from the large number of data acquired by the camera. We have realized a real-time algorithm to discriminate different spectra of the pixels of a scene directly from the acquired interferograms. The technique showed very good discrimination of pixels illuminated by narrow band radiation. This algorithm is based on principal component analysis and could be implemented directly in the camera processor to discriminate spectra in the image in real time using factorization with singular value decomposition. (paper)

  19. All-optical optoacoustic microscope based on wideband pulse interferometry.

    Wissmeyer, Georg; Soliman, Dominik; Shnaiderman, Rami; Rosenthal, Amir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-05-01

    Optical and optoacoustic (photoacoustic) microscopy have been recently joined in hybrid implementations that resolve extended tissue contrast compared to each modality alone. Nevertheless, the application of the hybrid technique is limited by the requirement to combine an optical objective with ultrasound detection collecting signal from the same micro-volume. We present an all-optical optoacoustic microscope based on a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (π-FBG) with coherence-restored pulsed interferometry (CRPI) used as the interrogation method. The sensor offers an ultra-small footprint and achieved higher sensitivity over piezoelectric transducers of similar size. We characterize the spectral bandwidth of the ultrasound detector and interrogate the imaging performance on phantoms and tissues. We show the first optoacoustic images of biological specimen recorded with π-FBG sensors. We discuss the potential uses of π-FBG sensors based on CRPI. PMID:27128047

  20. Rapid microcantilever-thickness determination by optical interferometry

    Silicon microcantilevers are widely used in scanning-probe microscopy and in cantilever-sensing applications. However, the cantilever thickness is not well controlled in conventional lithography and, since it is also difficult to measure, it is the most important undefined factor in mechanical variability. An accurate method to measure this parameter is thus essential. We demonstrate the capability to measure microcantilever thicknesses rapidly (>1 Hz) and accurately (±2 nm) by optical interferometry. This is achieved with standard microscopy equipment and so can be implemented as a standard technique in both research and in batch control for commercial microfabrication. In addition, we show how spatial variations in the thickness of individual microcantilevers can be mapped, which has applications in the precise mechanical calibration of cantilevers for force spectroscopy. (paper)