WorldWideScience

Sample records for acoustic electron spin resonance

  1. Acoustic detection of electron spin resonance

    Coufal, H.

    1981-07-01

    The ESR-signal of DPPH was recorded by detecting the modulation of the absorbed microwave power with a gas-coupled microphone. This photo-acoustic detection scheme is compared with conventional ESR-detection. Applications of the acoustical detection method to other modulation spectroscopic techniques, particularly NMR, are discussed.

  2. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  3. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    N. I. Polzikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator (HBAR formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  4. Spin-electron acoustic soliton and exchange interaction in separate spin evolution quantum plasmas

    Separate spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics is generalized to include the Coulomb exchange interaction, which is considered as interaction between the spin-down electrons being in quantum states occupied by one electron. The generalized model is applied to study the non-linear spin-electron acoustic waves. Existence of the spin-electron acoustic soliton is demonstrated. Contributions of concentration, spin polarization, and exchange interaction to the properties of the spin electron acoustic soliton are studied

  5. Spin-electron acoustic soliton and exchange interaction in separate spin evolution quantum plasmas

    Andreev, Pavel A., E-mail: andreevpa@physics.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Separate spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics is generalized to include the Coulomb exchange interaction, which is considered as interaction between the spin-down electrons being in quantum states occupied by one electron. The generalized model is applied to study the non-linear spin-electron acoustic waves. Existence of the spin-electron acoustic soliton is demonstrated. Contributions of concentration, spin polarization, and exchange interaction to the properties of the spin electron acoustic soliton are studied.

  6. Theoretical foundations of electron spin resonance

    Harriman, John E

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Foundations of Electron Spin Resonance deals with the theoretical approach to electron paramagnetic resonance. The book discusses electron spin resonance in applications related to polyatomic, probably organic, free radicals in condensed phases. The book also focuses on essentially static phenomena, that is, the description and determination of stationary-state energy levels. The author reviews the Dirac theory of the electron in which a four-component wave function is responsible for the behavior of the electron. The author then connects this theory with the nonrelativistic wave f

  7. Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (stawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after γ-treatment, a weak triplet (aH ∼30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, raspberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time. (author)

  8. Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide

    Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David

    1987-01-01

    Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.

  9. Separated spin-up and spin-down quantum hydrodynamics of degenerated electrons: Spin-electron acoustic wave appearance

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-03-01

    The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model of charged spin-1/2 particles contains physical quantities defined for all particles of a species including particles with spin-up and with spin-down. Different populations of states with different spin directions are included in the spin density (the magnetization). In this paper I derive a QHD model, which separately describes spin-up electrons and spin-down electrons. Hence electrons with different projections of spins on the preferable direction are considered as two different species of particles. It is shown that the numbers of particles with different spin directions do not conserve. Hence the continuity equations contain sources of particles. These sources are caused by the interactions of the spins with the magnetic field. Terms of similar nature arise in the Euler equation. The z projection of the spin density is no longer an independent variable. It is proportional to the difference between the concentrations of the electrons with spin-up and the electrons with spin-down. The propagation of waves in the magnetized plasmas of degenerate electrons is considered. Two regimes for the ion dynamics, the motionless ions and the motion of the degenerate ions as the single species with no account of the spin dynamics, are considered. It is shown that this form of the QHD equations gives all solutions obtained from the traditional form of QHD equations with no distinction of spin-up and spin-down states. But it also reveals a soundlike solution called the spin-electron acoustic wave. Coincidence of most solutions is expected since this derivation was started with the same basic equation: the Pauli equation. Solutions arise due to the different Fermi pressures for the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons in the magnetic field. The results are applied to degenerate electron gas of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metals in the external magnetic field. The dispersion of the spin-electron acoustic waves in the partially spin

  10. Cavities for electron spin resonance: predicting the resonant frequency

    Colton, John; Miller, Kyle; Meehan, Michael; Spencer, Ross

    Microwave cavities are used in electron spin resonance to enhance magnetic fields. Dielectric resonators (DRs), pieces of high dielectric material, can be used to tailor the resonant frequency of a cavity. However, designing cavities with DRs to obtain desired frequencies is challenging and in general can only be done numerically with expensive software packages. We present a new method for calculating the resonant frequencies and corresponding field modes for cylindrically symmetric cavities and apply it to a cavity with vertically stacked DRs. The modes of an arbitrary cavity are expressed as an expansion of empty cavity modes. The wave equation for D gives rise to an eigenvalue equation whose eigenvalues are the resonant frequencies and whose eigenvectors yield the electric and magnetic fields of the mode. A test against theory for an infinitely long dielectric cylinder inside an infinite cavity yields an accuracy better than 0.4% for nearly all modes. Calculated resonant frequencies are also compared against experiment for quasi-TE011 modes in resonant cavities with ten different configurations of DRs; experimental results agree with predicted values with an accuracy better than 1.0%. MATLAB code is provided at http://www.physics.byu.edu/research/coltonlab/cavityresonance.

  11. Resonance fluorescence and electron spin in semiconductor quantum dots

    Zhao, Yong

    2009-11-18

    The work presented in this dissertation contains the first observation of spin-resolved resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot and its application of direct measurement of electron spin dynamics. The Mollow triplet and the Mollow quintuplet, which are the hallmarks of resonance fluorescence, are presented as the non-spin-resolved and spin-resolved resonance fluorescence spectrum, respectively. The negligible laser background contribution, the near pure radiative broadened spectrum and the anti-bunching photon statistics imply the sideband photons are background-free and near transform-limited single photons. This demonstration is a promising step towards the heralded single photon generation and electron spin readout. Instead of resolving spectrum, an alternative spin-readout scheme by counting resonance fluorescence photons under moderate laser power is demonstrated. The measurements of n-shot time-resolved resonance fluorescence readout are carried out to reveal electron spin dynamics of the measurement induced back action and the spin relaxation. Hyperfine interaction and heavy-light hole mixing are identified as the relevant mechanisms for the back action and phonon-assistant spin-orbit interaction dominates the spin relaxation. After a detailed discussion on charge-spin configurations in coupled quantum dots system, the single-shot readout on electron spin are proposed. (orig.)

  12. Surface spin-electron acoustic waves in magnetically ordered metals

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate plasmas with motionless ions show existence of three surface waves: the Langmuir wave, the electromagnetic wave, and the zeroth sound. Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to half-space plasma we demonstrate the existence of the surface spin-electron acoustic wave (SSEAW). We study dispersion of the SSEAW. We show that there is hybridization between the surface Langmuir wave and the SSEAW at rather small spin polarization. In the hybridization area the dispersion branches are located close to each other. In this area there is a strong interaction between these waves leading to the energy exchange. Consequently, generating the Langmuir waves with the frequencies close to hybridization area we can generate the SSEAWs. Thus, we report a method of creation of the SEAWs.

  13. Electron spin resonance investigations on polycarbonate irradiated with U ions

    Electron spin resonance investigations on polycarbonate irradiated with uranium ions are reported. The dependence of the resonance line parameters (line intensity, line width, double integral) on penetration depth and dose is studied. The nature of free radicals induced in polycarbonate by the incident ions is discussed in relation with the track structure. The presence of severe exchange interactions among free radicals is noticed

  14. Spin-flip induction of Fano resonance upon electron tunneling through atomic-scale spin structures

    Val' kov, V. V., E-mail: vvv@iph.krasn.ru; Aksenov, S. V., E-mail: asv86@iph.krasn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Kirensky Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Ulanov, E. A. [Siberian State Aerospace University (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The inclusion of inelastic spin-dependent electron scatterings by the potential profiles of a single magnetic impurity and a spin dimer is shown to induce resonance features due to the Fano effect in the transport characteristics of such atomic-scale spin structures. The spin-flip processes leading to a configuration interaction of the system's states play a fundamental role for the realization of Fano resonance and antiresonance. It has been established that applying an external magnetic field and a gate electric field allows the conductive properties of spin structures to be changed radically through the Fano resonance mechanism.

  15. Electron spin resonance study of NiO antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of antiferromagnetic nanoparticle NiO specimens have been investigated as a function of temperature at x-band (microwave) frequencies. Below the nominal Neel temperature, the x-band resonances arising from the bulk antiferromagnets, including NiO particles with diameters greater than 100 A, all vanish due to the emergence of large molecular exchange fields. The ESR resonance signals of 60 A antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, however, persist to the lowest temperatures. These nanoparticle resonance lines shift to lower fields rapidly as the temperature is decreased, while the lineshapes broaden and distort

  16. Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins

    Artzi, Yaron; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-02-23

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ∼34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging.

  17. Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ∼34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging

  18. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Stern, M.; Zhou, X.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Julsgaard, B.; Mølmer, K.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.

    2016-03-01

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ˜0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.

  19. Phonon-magnon resonant processes with relevance to acoustic spin pumping

    Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-23

    The recently described phenomenon of resonant acoustic spin pumping is due to resonant coupling between an incident elastic wave and spin waves in a ferromagnetic medium. A classical one-dimensional discrete model of a ferromagnet with two forms of magnetoelastic coupling is treated to shed light on the conditions for resonance between phonons and magnons. Nonlinear phonon-magnon interactions in the case of a coupling restricted to diagonal terms in the components of the spin degrees of freedom are analyzed within the framework of the multiple timescale perturbation theory. In that case, one-phonon-two-magnon resonances are the dominant mechanism for pumping. The effect of coupling on the dispersion relations depends on the square of the amplitude of the phonon and magnon excitations. A straightforward analysis of a linear phonon-magnon interaction in the case of a magnetoelastic coupling restricted to off-diagonal terms in the components of the spins shows a one-phonon to one-magnon resonance as the pumping mechanism. The resonant dispersion relations are independent of the amplitude of the waves. In both cases, when an elastic wave with a fixed frequency is used to stimulate magnons, application of an external magnetic field can be used to approach resonant conditions. Both resonance conditions exhibit the same type of dependency on the strength of an applied magnetic field.

  20. The temperature dependence of quantum spin pumping generated using electron spin resonance with three-magnon splittings

    NAKATA, KOUKI

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the Schwinger–Keldysh formalism, we have closely investigated the temperature dependence of quantum spin pumping generated using electron spin resonance. We have clarified that three-magnon splittings excite non-zero modes of magnons and characterize the temperature dependence of quantum spin pumping generated using electron spin resonance.

  1. Electron-spin resonance and Rabi oscillations on helium nanodroplets

    Full text: Superfluid helium nanodroplets provide a versatile substrate for cooling atoms and molecules and, if desired, assemble weakly bound complexes. Electron-spin resonance (ESR) is a versatile probe of the electronic environment in radicals and, via spin tags, in ESR-silent species. We demonstrate the first application of ESR to doped helium nanodroplets and exploit the scheme of optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). We measure sharp, hyperfine-resolved, ESR spectra of single K and Rb atoms isolated on He nanodroplets. The shift of the ESR lines with respect to free atoms directly reflects the distortion of the valence-electron wavefunction due to the He nanodroplet. We are able to follow this change as a function of droplet size. The observation of Rabi oscillations indicates a long decoherence time and demonstrates our ability to perform coherent manipulation of the spin. We are currently constructing a high-temperature pickup source, based on electron bombardment, to extend the method to transition metal atoms with high spin-multiplicity. (author)

  2. Randomized benchmarking of quantum gates implemented by electron spin resonance

    Park, Daniel K.; Feng, Guanru; Rahimi, Robabeh; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Spin systems controlled and probed by magnetic resonance have been valuable for testing the ideas of quantum control and quantum error correction. This paper introduces an X-band pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer designed for high-fidelity coherent control of electron spins, including a loop-gap resonator for sub-millimeter sized samples with a control bandwidth ∼40 MHz. Universal control is achieved by a single-sideband upconversion technique with an I-Q modulator and a 1.2 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. A single qubit randomized benchmarking protocol quantifies the average errors of Clifford gates implemented by simple Gaussian pulses, using a sample of gamma-irradiated quartz. Improvements in unitary gate fidelity are achieved through phase transient correction and hardware optimization. A preparation pulse sequence that selects spin packets in a narrowed distribution of static fields confirms that inhomogeneous dephasing (1 / T2∗) is the dominant source of gate error. The best average fidelity over the Clifford gates obtained here is 99.2 % , which serves as a benchmark to compare with other technologies.

  3. Spin dependent electron transport through a magnetic resonant tunneling diode

    Havu, Paula; Tuomisto, Noora; Vaananen, Riikka; Puska, Martti J.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron transport properties in nanostructures can be modeled, for example, by using the semiclassical Wigner formalism or the quantum mechanical Green's functions formalism. We compare the performance and the results of these methods in the case of magnetic resonant-tunneling diodes. We have implemented the two methods within the self-consistent spin-density-functional theory. Our numerical implementation of the Wigner formalism is based on the finite-difference scheme whereas for the Green...

  4. A capacitive probe for Electron Spin Resonance detection

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Dolci, David; Carlà, Marcello; Mannini, Matteo; Piuzzi, Barbara; Caneschi, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    The use of the magnetic field associated with Maxwell displacement current in a capacitor is proposed for the detection of Electron Spin Resonance. A probe based on this concept is realized and successfully tested with CW radio-frequency in the band going from 200 MHz to 1 GHz with a DPPH sample. A significant increase of Signal to Noise Ratio is observed while increasing the frequency.

  5. Force detected electron spin resonance at 94 GHz.

    Cruickshank, Paul A S; Smith, Graham M

    2007-01-01

    Force detected electron spin resonance (FDESR) detects the presence of unpaired electrons in a sample by measuring the change in force on a mechanical resonator as the magnetization of the sample is modulated under magnetic resonance conditions. The magnetization is coupled to the resonator via a magnetic field gradient. It has been used to both detect and image distributions of electron spins, and it offers both extremely high absolute sensitivity and high spatial imaging resolution. However, compared to conventional induction mode ESR the technique also has a comparatively poor concentration sensitivity and it introduces complications in interpreting and combining both spectroscopy and imaging. One method to improve both sensitivity and spectral resolution is to operate in high magnetic fields in order to increase the sample magnetization and g-factor resolution. In this article we present FDESR measurements on the organic conductor (fluoranthene)(2)PF(6) at 3.2 T, with a corresponding millimeter-wave frequency of 93.5 GHz, which we believe are the highest field results for FDESR reported in the literature to date. A magnet-on-cantilever approach was used, with a high-anisotropy microwave ferrite as the gradient source and employing cyclic saturation to modulate the magnetization at the cantilever fundamental frequency. PMID:17503940

  6. Electron spin resonance studies on reduction process of nitroxyl spin radicals used in molecular imaging

    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM 14N labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters such as signal intensity ratio, line width, g-value, hyperfine coupling constant and rotational correlation time were determined. The half life time was estimated for 1mM 14N labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. The ESR study reveals that the TEMPONE has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL. From the results, TEMPONE has long half life time and high stability compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL radical. Therefore, this study reveals that the TEMPONE radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for molecular imaging

  7. Electron spin resonance as a method of dating

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating is closely related to thermoluminescence (TL) dating. The principle and procedures of ESR are described together with the application to archaeological materials excavated at Petralona cave in Greece. Atomic models of defects responsible for TL and ESR in calcite are discussed. The age is deduced from the archaeological dose, the total dose of the natural radiation determined by ESR signal intensities, and from the dose rate. The ages by ESR dating are compared with those by TL and 14C dating and also by U-Th dating. The applications to geological and anthropological materials are described with main emphasis on cave deposits. (author)

  8. Electron spin resonance of Er3+ in YBiPt

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments at 4.15 K of Er3+ in YBiPt show that Er3+ is in a site of cubic local symmetry, with a Γ(3)8 ground state and an overall crystal field splitting of ∝85(10) K. We inferred from the spectra the existence of lattice distortions at the rare-earth (RE) site. These results may help in understanding the heavy-fermion system YbBiPt, which has the same structure as YBiPt. (orig.)

  9. Spin-electron acoustic waves: The Landau damping and ion contribution in the spectrum

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2016-06-01

    Separated spin-up and spin-down quantum kinetics is derived for more detailed research of the spin-electron acoustic waves (SEAWs). This kinetic theory allows us to obtain the spectrum of the SEAWs including the effects of occupation of quantum states more accurately than the quantum hydrodynamic theory. We derive and apply the quantum kinetic theory to calculate the Landau damping of the SEAWs. We consider the contribution of ions dynamics into the SEAW spectrum. We obtain the contribution of ions in the Landau damping in the temperature regime of classic ions. Kinetic analysis for the ion-acoustic, zero sound, and Langmuir waves at the separated spin-up and spin-down electron dynamics is presented as well.

  10. Nuclear Tuning and Detuning of the Electron Spin Resonance in a Quantum Dot

    Danon, Jeroen; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2007-01-01

    We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at small frequency mismatch the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the stable states the field accurately tunes the electron spin splitting to resonance. In this state the nuclear field fluctuations are strongly suppressed and nuclear spin relaxation is accelerated.

  11. Nuclear Tuning and Detuning of the Electron Spin Resonance in a Quantum Dot: Theoretical Consideration

    Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y. V.

    2008-01-01

    We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at a small frequency mismatch, the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch, its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the stable states, the field accurately tunes the electron spin splitting to resonance. In this state, the nuclear field fluctuations are strongly suppressed, and nuclear spin relaxation is accelerated.

  12. Hybrid Electron Spin Resonance and Whispering Gallery Mode Resonance Spectroscopy of Fe3+ in Sapphire

    Benmessai, Karim; Farr, Warrick G.; Creedon, Daniel L.; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Floch, Jean-Michel Le; Duty, Timothy; Tobar, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new era of quantum devices requires an understanding of how paramagnetic dopants or impurity spins behave in crystal hosts. Here, we describe a new spectroscopic technique which uses traditional Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) combined with the measurement of a large population of electromagnetic Whispering Gallery (WG) modes. This allows the characterization of the physical parameters of paramagnetic impurity ions in the crystal at low temperatures. We present measurements...

  13. Electron spin resonance in the study of diamond

    The role of electron spin resonance in the study of both natural and synthetic diamond is reviewed in this article. A brief survey of the physical significance of the constants in the spin Hamiltonian, as well as experimental technique, is given. The review then deals in some detail with the various nitrogen centres found in diamond, treating exchange-interaction, Jahn-Teller and relaxation effects associated with these centres. Acceptor impurities and transition-ion impurities are briefly discussed. The rest of the review is then devoted to centres created by irradiation, subsequent heat treatment, mechanical deformation and ion implantation. The spin Hamiltonian parameters of these centres are tabled and the results are discussed within the framework of the defect molecule approach. In conclusion, the correlation between optical effects and the ESR measurements in the case of four defect centres are discussed in some detail as this seems to be a powerful method of testing the various models suggested for the observed defects. It is hoped that the tables given of the observed centres found in diamond up to the present will be useful to researchers in this field. 155 references. (author)

  14. Site directed spin labelling and pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (double electron-electron resonance) of force activation in muscle

    The recent development of site specific spin labelling and advances in pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) have established spin labelling as a viable structural biology technique. Specific protein sites or whole domains can be selectively targeted for spin labelling by cysteine mutagenesis. The secondary structure of the proteins is determined from the trends in EPR signals of labels attached to consecutive residues. Solvent accessibility or label mobility display periodicities along the labelled polypeptide chain that are characteristic of β-strands (periodicity of 2 residues) or α-helices (3.6 residues). Low-resolution 3D structure of proteins is determined from the distance restraints. Two spin labels placed within 60-70 A of each other create a local dipolar field experienced by the other spin labels. The strength of this field is related to the interspin distance, ∝ r-3. The dipolar field can be measured by the broadening of the EPR lines for the short distances (8-20 A) or for the longer distances (17-70 A) by the pulsed EPR methods, double electron-electron resonance(DEER) and double quantum coherence (DQC). A brief review of the methodology and its applications to the multisubunit muscle protein troponin is presented below

  15. Spin-electron acoustic waves: Linear and nonlinear regimes, and applications

    Andreev, Pavel

    2015-11-01

    Considering the spin-up and spin-down electrons as two different fluids we find corresponding hydrodynamic and kinetic equations from the Pauli equation. We find different pressure the spin-up and spin-down electrons due to different concentrations of electrons in the magnetized electron gas. This difference leads to existence of new branches of linear longitudinal waves propagating with small damping. These waves are called the spin-electron acoustic waves (SEAWs) due to linear dispersion dependence at small wave vectors. We obtain two waves at oblique propagation and one wave at propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external magnetic field. Dispersion dependences of these waves are calculated. Contribution of the Coulomb exchange interaction is included in the model and spectrums. Area of existence of nonlinear SEAWs appearing as a spin-electron acoustic soliton is found for the regime of wave propagation parallel to the external magnetic field. It is obtained that the SEAWs lead to formation of the Cooper pairs. This application of our results to the superconductivity phenomenon reveals in a model of the high-temperature superconductivity with the transition temperatures up to 300 K.

  16. Identification of irradiated chicken meat using electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Studies were carried out on detection of irradiation treatment in chicken using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The effect of gamma- irradiation treatment on radiation induced signal in different types of chicken namely, broiler, deshi and layers was studied. Irradiation treatment induced a characteristic ESR signal that was not detected in non-irradiated samples. The shape of the signal was not affected by type of the bone. The intensity of radiation induced ESR signal was affected by factors such as absorbed radiation dose, bone type irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage, post-irradiation cooking and age of the bird. Deep-frying resulted in the formation of a symmetric signal that had a different shape and was weaker than the radiation induced signal. This technique can be effectively used to detect irradiation treatment in bone-in chicken meat even if stored and/or subjected to various traditional cooking procedures. (author)

  17. Electron spin resonance intercomparison studies on irradiated foodstuffs

    The results of intercomparison studies organized by the Community Bureau of Reference on the use of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the identification of irradiated food are presented. A qualitative intercomparison was carried out using beef and trout bones, sardine scales, pistachio nut shells, dried grapes and papaya. A quantitative intercomparison involving the use of poultry bones was also organized. There was no difficulty in identifying meat bones, dried grapes and papaya. In the case of fish bones there is a need for further kinetic studies using different fish species. The identification of pistachio nut shells is more complicated and further research is needed prior to the organization of a further intercomparison. Laboratories were able to distinguish between chicken bones irradiated in the range 1 to 3 KGy or 7 to 10 KGy although there was a partial overlap between the results from different laboratories

  18. Electron Spin Resonance Imaging Utilizing Localized Microwave Magnetic Field

    Furusawa, Masahiro; Ikeya, Motoji

    1990-02-01

    A method for two-dimensional electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging utilizing a localized microwave field is presented with an application of the image processing technique. Microwaves are localized at the surface of a sample by placing a sample in contact with a pinholed cavity wall. A two-dimensional ESR image can be obtained by scanning the sample in contact with the cavity. Some ESR images which correspond to distribution of natural radiation damages and paramagnetic impurities in carbonate fossils of a crinoid and an ammonite are presented as applications in earth science. Resolution of a raw ESR image is restricted by the diameter of the hole (1 mm). Higher resolution of 0.2 mm is obtained by using a deconvolution algorithm and instrument function for the hole. Restored images of a test sample of DPPH and of a fossil crinoid are presented.

  19. Electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy (and electron spin-echo envelope modulation spectroscopy) in bioinorganic chemistry

    Hoffman, Brian M.

    2003-01-01

    This perspective discusses the ways that advanced paramagnetic resonance techniques, namely electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, can help us understand how metal ions function in biological systems.

  20. Sensitivity and spatial resolution for electron-spin-resonance detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    The signal intensity of electron spin resonance in magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) experiments employing periodic saturation of the electron spin magnetization is determined by four parameters: the rf field H1, the modulation level of the bias field Hm, the spin relaxation time τ1, and the magnetic size R(∂H/∂z) of the sample. Calculations of the MRFM spectra obtained from a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl particle have been performed for various conditions. The results are compared with experimental data and excellent agreement is found. The systematic variation of the signal intensity as a function of H1 and Hm provides a powerful tool to characterize the MRFM apparatus. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Controlling the Spin Polarization of the Electron Current in a Semimagnetic Resonant-Tunneling Diode

    Beletskii, N. N.; Berman, G. P.; Borysenko, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The spin filtering effect of the electron current in a double-barrier resonant-tunneling diode (RTD) consisting of ZnMnSe semimagnetic layers has been studied theoretically. The influence of the distribution of the magnesium ions on the coefficient of the spin polarization of the electron current has been investigated. The dependence of the spin filtering degree of the electron current on the external magnetic field and the bias voltage has been obtained. The effect of the total spin polariza...

  2. Detection of nanoscale electron spin resonance spectra demonstrated using nitrogen-vacancy centre probes in diamond

    Hall, L. T.; Kehayias, P.; Simpson, D. A.; Jarmola, A.; Stacey, A.; Budker, D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) describes a suite of techniques for characterizing electronic systems with applications in physics, chemistry, and biology. However, the requirement for large electron spin ensembles in conventional ESR techniques limits their spatial resolution. Here we present a method for measuring ESR spectra of nanoscale electronic environments by measuring the longitudinal relaxation time of a single-spin probe as it is systematically tuned into resonance with the target electronic system. As a proof of concept, we extracted the spectral distribution for the P1 electronic spin bath in diamond by using an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centres, and demonstrated excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. As the response of each nitrogen-vacancy spin in this experiment is dominated by a single P1 spin at a mean distance of 2.7 nm, the application of this technique to the single nitrogen-vacancy case will enable nanoscale ESR spectroscopy of atomic and molecular spin systems.

  3. Electron Spin Resonance and Related Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Structures

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Deals with the discussion of the development of spin resonance in low dimensional structures, such as two-dimensional electron systems, quantum wires, and quantum dots. This title discusses opportunities for spin resonance techniques, with emphasis on fundamental physics, nanoelectronics, spintronics, and quantum information processing

  4. Nuclear Tuning and Detuning of the Electron Spin Resonance in a Quantum Dot: Theoretical Consideration

    Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2008-01-01

    We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at a small frequency mismatch, the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch, its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the

  5. Mechanical detection of electron spin resonance beyond 1 THz

    Takahashi, Hideyuki [Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohmichi, Eiji [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, Hitoshi [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-11-02

    We report the cantilever detection of electron spin resonance (ESR) in the terahertz (THz) region. This technique mechanically detects ESR as a change in magnetic torque that acts on the cantilever. The ESR absorption of a tiny single crystal of Co Tutton salt, Co(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O, was observed in frequencies of up to 1.1 THz using a backward travelling wave oscillator as a THz-wave source. This is the highest frequency of mechanical detection of ESR till date. The spectral resolution was evaluated with the ratio of the peak separation to the sum of the half-width at half maximum of two absorption peaks. The highest resolution value of 8.59 ± 0.53 was achieved at 685 GHz, while 2.47 ± 0.01 at 80 GHz. This technique will not only broaden the scope of ESR spectroscopy application but also lead to high-spectral-resolution ESR imaging.

  6. Identification of irradiated rice noodles by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been applied to the identification of the irradiation of a wide variety of foods. In this study, ESR was applied to identify irradiated rice noodles. A detailed ESR investigation of irradiated noodles was carried out in the dose range 0.5–3 kGy. The stability of the radiation-induced ESR signal at cold (−4 °C) and room (25 °C) temperatures was studied over a storage period of 24 weeks. Irradiated rice noodle samples exhibited a strong, symmetric doublet ESR signal centered at g = 2.0, whereas unirradiated noodle exhibited a very weak signal. The ESR signal intensity increased linearly with radiation dose ranging from 0.5 to 3 kGy. Keeping the samples at −4 °C and 25 °C for 24 weeks caused decreases of 50% and 90% in the ESR signal intensities, respectively. However, long-term decay data at room temperature showed that the ESR technique could be used to identify irradiated rice noodles up to 24 weeks following irradiation.

  7. Effects of the electron-electron interaction in the spin resonance in 2D systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    Krishtopenko, S. S., E-mail: sergey.krishtopenko@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system.

  8. Impurity color centers in quartz and trapped electron dating - Electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence studies.

    Mcmorris, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of impurity-related electron-hole traps that are known to be sensitive to ionizing radiations. Electron spin resonance (ESR) equivalent natural doses were determined for the Al hole trap in virgin specimens; the doses agreed with estimates based on published data for the Ge electron trap. The 0.17 deg/sec 180 and 300 C thermoluminescence (TL) peaks in natural specimens were found to have activation energies approximately correct for the Ge trap. The 300 C peak was also found to be correlated with annealing of the Ge electron resonance in gamma-irradiated, step-annealed specimens. Although the 300 C peak occurs in virgin specimens, the corresponding natural Ge electron resonance was not observed.

  9. Detection of single electron spin resonance in a double quantum dota)

    Koppens, F. H. L.; Buizert, C.; Vink, I. T.; Nowack, K. C.; Meunier, T.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2007-04-01

    Spin-dependent transport measurements through a double quantum dot are a valuable tool for detecting both the coherent evolution of the spin state of a single electron, as well as the hybridization of two-electron spin states. In this article, we discuss a model that describes the transport cycle in this regime, including the effects of an oscillating magnetic field (causing electron spin resonance) and the effective nuclear fields on the spin states in the two dots. We numerically calculate the current flow due to the induced spin flips via electron spin resonance, and we study the detector efficiency for a range of parameters. The experimental data are compared with the model and we find a reasonable agreement.

  10. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using a direct current-SQUID magnetometer directly coupled to an electron spin ensemble

    Toida, Hiraku; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Zhu, Xiaobo; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate electron spin polarization detection and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using a direct current superconducting quantum interference device (dc-SQUID) magnetometer. Our target electron spin ensemble is directly bonded to the dc-SQUID magnetometer that detects electron spin polarization induced by an external magnetic field or EPR in a micrometer-sized area. The minimum distinguishable number of polarized spins and sensing volume of the electron spin polarization detection and the EPR spectroscopy are estimated to be ˜106 and ˜10-10 cm3 (˜0.1 pl), respectively.

  11. Electron Spin Resonance of Tetrahedral Transition Metal Oxyanions (MO4n-) in Solids.

    Greenblatt, M.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines general principles in observing sharp electron spin resonance (ESR) lines in the solid state by incorporating the transition metal ion of interest into an isostructural diamagnetic host material in small concentration. Examples of some recent studies are described. (CS)

  12. Study of f electron correlations in nonmagnetic Ce by means of spin resolved resonant photoemission

    Yu, S; Komesu, T; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Morton, S A; Tobin, J G

    2005-11-28

    We have studied the spin-spin coupling between two f electrons of nonmagnetic Ce by means of spin resolved resonant photoemission using circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. The two f electrons participating in the 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 4f resonance process are coupled in a singlet while the coupling is veiled in the 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 4f process due to an additional Coster-Kronig decay channel. The identical singlet coupling is observed in the 4d {yields} 4f resonance process. Based on the Ce measurements, it is argued that spin resolved resonant photoemission is a unique approach to study the correlation effects, particularly in the form of spin, in the rare-earths and the actinides.

  13. Subterahertz acoustical pumping of electronic charge in a resonant tunneling device.

    Young, E S K; Akimov, A V; Henini, M; Eaves, L; Kent, A J

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate that controlled subnanosecond bursts of electronic charge can be transferred through a resonant tunneling diode by successive picosecond acoustic pulses. The effect exploits the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of the device and its asymmetric response to the compressive and tensile components of the strain pulse. This acoustoelectronic pump opens new possibilities for the control of quantum phenomena in nanostructures. PMID:23003634

  14. Understanding and controlling spin-systems using electron spin resonance techniques

    Martens, Mathew

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) posses multi-level energy structures with properties that make them attractive candidates for implementation into quantum information technologies. However there are some major hurdles that need to be overcome if these systems are to be used as the fundamental components of an eventual quantum computer. One such hurdle is the relatively short coherence times these systems display which severely limits the amount of time quantum information can remain encoded within them. In this dissertation, recent experiments conducted with the intent of bringing this technology closer to realization are presented. The detailed knowledge of the spin Hamiltonian and mechanisms of decoherence in SMMs are absolutely essential if these systems are to be used in technologies. To that effect, experiments were done on a particularly promising SMM, the complex K6[VIV15AsIII 6O42(H2O)] · 8H2O, known as V15. High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were performed on this system at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The resulting spectra allowed for detailed analysis of the V15 spin Hamiltonian which will be presented as well as the most precise values yet reported for the g-factors of this system. Additionally, the line widths of the ESR spectra are studied in depth and found to reveal that fluctuations within the spin-orbit interaction are a mechanism for decoherence in V15. A new model for decoherence is presented that describes very well both the temperature and field orientation dependences of the measured ESR line widths. Also essential is the ability to control spin-states of SMMs. Presented in this dissertation as well is the demonstration of the coherent manipulation of the multi-state spin system Mn2+ diluted in MgO by means of a two-tone pulse drive. Through the detuning between the excitation and readout radio frequency pulses it is possible to select the number of photons involved in a Rabi oscillation as well as increase

  15. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fr...

  16. Electron spin resonance in thin film silicon after low temperature electron irradiation

    Astakhov, O. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Photovoltaics, 52425 Juelich (Germany); National Science Center-Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, 61108, Kharkov (Ukraine)], E-mail: o.astakhov@fz-juelich.de; Finger, F.; Carius, R.; Lambertz, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Photovoltaics, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Petrusenko, Yu.; Borysenko, V.; Barankov, D. [National Science Center-Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, 61108, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2007-07-16

    Paramagnetic defects in amorphous and microcrystalline silicon (a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H) with various structure compositions and doping levels were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Samples were prepared by PECVD. The defect density was varied with 2 MeV electron bombardment at 100 K and stepwise annealing in the range of 80 K-433 K. In intrinsic material the spin density of the dominant ESR signal, presumably originating from dangling bonds (db), increases by up to 3 orders of magnitude after irradiation. In doped {mu}c-Si:H material the pronounced conduction electron (CE) resonance disappears after irradiation and is replaced by the db resonance like in the irradiated intrinsic material. Generally the initial spin density and the line shape can be restored upon annealing at 433 K. Additional features at g-values of g {approx} 2.010 and g {approx} 2.000 in the ESR spectra are observed after irradiation together with the strongly enhanced Si db line at about g = 2.004-2.005. These features decrease rapidly on the first annealing steps and cannot be observed after the final annealing stage.

  17. Electron-atom scattering resonances: Complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method for B-shape resonances

    Tsednee, Tsogbayar; Yeager, Danny L.

    2015-06-01

    We develop the complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (CMCSTEP) technique for the theoretical determination of resonance parameters with electron-atom-molecule systems including open-shell and highly correlated (nondynamical correlation) atoms and molecules. The multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method developed and implemented by Yeager and his coworkers in real space gives very accurate and reliable ionization potentials and electron affinities. The CMCSTEP method uses a complex-scaled multiconfigurational self-consistent field state as an initial state along with a dilated Hamiltonian where all of the electronic coordinates are scaled by a complex factor. We apply the CMCSTEP and the related M1 methods to get the B-shape resonance parameters using 14 s 11 p and 14 s 11 p 5 d basis sets with 1 s 2 s 2 p 3 s , 1 s 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p , 1 s 2 s 2 p 3 d , 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p , 2 s 2 p 3 d , and 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p 3 d complete active spaces. The CMCSTEP and M1 resonance positions and widths are obtained for the 1 s22 s22 p21D , 1 s22 s 2 p33D , and 1 s 2 s22 p33D , 3S , and 3P shape resonances.

  18. Radiosterilization dosimetry by electron-spin resonance spectroscopy. Cefotetan

    Basly, J.P.; Longy, I. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Bromatologie, UFR de Pharmacie, Limoges (France); Bernard, M. [Laboratoire de Physique et Biophysique Pharmaceutique, UFR de Pharmacie, Limoges (France)

    1998-02-19

    As an alternative to heat and gas exposure sterilization, ionizing radiation is gaining interest as a sterilization process for medicinal products. Nevertheless, essentially for economic profit, unauthorized and uncontrolled use of radiation processes may be expected. In this context, it is necessary to find methods of distinguishing between irradiated and nonirradiated pharmaceuticals. In the absence of suitable detection methods, our attention was focused on electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. A third generation cephalosporin, cefotetan, was chosen as a model; this antibiotic is a potential candidate for radiation treatment due to its thermosensitivity. While the ESR spectra of a nonirradiated sample presents no signal, a nonsymmetrical signal, dependent on the irradiation dose, is found in irradiated samples. The number of free radicals was estimated by comparing the second integral from radiosterilized samples and a diphenylpicryl hydrazyl reference. Estimation of the number of free radicals gives 7x10{sup 17} radicals g{sup -1} at 20kGy (1.1x10{sup 16} radicals in 15mg). From this result, the G-value (number of radicals (100eV){sup -1}) could be estimated as 0.6. Decay of radicals upon storage were modeled using a bi-exponential function. The limit of detection of free radicals after irradiation at 25kGy is up to two years. This result agrees with those obtained on other cephalosporins. Aside from qualitative detection, ESR spectrometry can be used for dose estimation. Linear regression is applicable for doses lower than 20kGy. Since the radiation dose selected must always be based upon the bioburden of the products and the degree of sterility required (EN 552 and ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137), 25kGy could no longer be accepted as a `routine` dose for sterilizing a pharmaceutical. Doses in the 5-20kGy range could be investigated and linear regression appeared to be the least expensive route to follow. The best results for the integration of the curves were

  19. Hysteresis loops of spin-dependent electronic current in a paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode

    Nonlinear properties of the spin-dependent electronic transport through a semiconductor resonant tunnelling diode with a paramagnetic quantum well are considered. The spin-dependent Wigner–Poisson model of the electronic transport and the two-current Mott’s formula for the independent spin channels are applied to determine the current–voltage curves of the nanodevice. Two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops are found in the current–voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current. The physical interpretation of these two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops is given based on the analysis of the spin-dependent electron densities and the potential energy profiles. The differences between the current–voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current allow us to explore the changes of the spin polarization of the current for different electric fields and determine the influence of the electronic current hysteresis on the spin polarization of the current flowing through the paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode. (paper)

  20. Hysteresis loops of spin-dependent electronic current in a paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode

    Wójcik, P.; Spisak, B. J.; Wołoszyn, M.; Adamowski, J.

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear properties of the spin-dependent electronic transport through a semiconductor resonant tunnelling diode with a paramagnetic quantum well are considered. The spin-dependent Wigner-Poisson model of the electronic transport and the two-current Mott’s formula for the independent spin channels are applied to determine the current-voltage curves of the nanodevice. Two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops are found in the current-voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current. The physical interpretation of these two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops is given based on the analysis of the spin-dependent electron densities and the potential energy profiles. The differences between the current-voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current allow us to explore the changes of the spin polarization of the current for different electric fields and determine the influence of the electronic current hysteresis on the spin polarization of the current flowing through the paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode.

  1. Using Markov models to simulate electron spin resonance spectra from molecular dynamics trajectories

    Sezer, Deniz; Freed, Jack H.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Simulating electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra directly from molecular dynamics simulations of a spin labeled protein necessitates a large number (hundreds or thousands) of relatively long (hundreds of ns) trajectories. To meet this challenge, we explore the possibility of constructing accurate stochastic models of the spin label dynamics from atomistic trajectories. A systematic, two-step procedure, based on the probabilistic framework of hidden Markov models, is developed to build a discr...

  2. Observation of vacuum-enhanced electron spin resonance of levitated nanodiamonds

    Hoang, Thai M; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2015-01-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this novel system, we also investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. Our results show that optical levitation of nanodiamonds in vacuum not only can improve the mechanical quality of its oscillation, but also enhance the ESR contrast, which pave the way towards a novel levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. The results also indicate potenti...

  3. Flexible structured high-frequency film bulk acoustic resonator for flexible wireless electronics

    Flexible electronics have inspired many novel and very important applications in recent years and various flexible electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, circuits, sensors, and radiofrequency (RF) passive devices including antennas and inductors have been reported. However, the lack of a high-performance RF resonator is one of the key bottlenecks to implement flexible wireless electronics. In this study, for the first time, a novel ultra-flexible structured film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is proposed. The flexible FBAR is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate using piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride (AlN) for acoustic wave excitation. Both the shear wave and longitudinal wave can be excited under the surface interdigital electrodes configuration we proposed. In the case of the thickness extension mode, a flexible resonator with a working frequency as high as of 5.2325 GHz has been realized. The resonators stay fully functional under bending status and after repeated bending and re-flattening operations. This flexible high-frequency resonator will serve as a key building block for the future flexible wireless electronics, greatly expanding the application scope of flexible electronics. (paper)

  4. Electron spin resonance of copper labelled myoglobin crystals

    Single crystals of sperm whale met mioglobin were doped with Cu2+ by immersion in a satured solution of NH3(SO4) containing diluted Cu(SO4). Angular variations of the EPR espectra were measured in the planes: ab, ac* and bc* (c* is an axis perpendicular to the ab plane of the monoclinic crystal). A fitting using a spin Hamiltonian with axial symmetry calculated up to second order gives the EPR hyperfine constants g = (2.328+-0.002), g = (2.069+-0.002), A = (162+-3) gauss and A = (20+-3) gauss. The parallel axis makes an angle of (390 +- 20) with the crystaline b axis. A super hyperfine spectra was evidenciated in a perpendicular direction associated with gxx or gyy. This splitting may be attributed to a spread of a wavefunction of the unpaired electron over one nitrogene of the imidazole ring of the Histidine A10 in Mb: Cu2+

  5. Radiation-sterilized bone grafts evaluated by electron spin resonance technique and mechanical tests

    The activities of the Central Tissue Bank in Poland are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on evaluation of changes in the mechanical properties of bone tissue subjected to lyophilization and radiosterilization and the application of the electron spin resonance technique in the research of mineralizing tissues. The following topics are discussed: technology of tissue conservation; clinical results of conserved tissue application; mechanical properties of preserved bone; free radicals and other paramagnetic substances in radiosterilized bone grafts; electron spin resonance studies of irradiated bone tissue; electron spin resonance analysis of irradiated hydroxyapatites in the course of their synthesis in vitro; stable paramagnetic centers as labels in research on bone graft resorption, creeping substitution, and new bone formation; determination of crystallinity of various mineralized tissues; and dosimetry of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation

  6. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  7. Baseband Detection of Bistatic Electron Spin Signals in Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)

    Yip, C; Rugar, D; Fessler, J A; Yip, Chun-yu; Hero, Alfred O.; Rugar, Daniel; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    In single spin Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM), the objective is to detect the presence of an electron (or nuclear) spin in a sample volume by measuring spin-induced attonewton forces using a micromachined cantilever. In the OSCAR method of single spin MRFM, the spins are manipulated by an external rf field to produce small periodic deviations in the resonant frequency of the cantilever. These deviations can be detected by frequency demodulation followed by conventional amplitude or energy detection. In this paper, we present an alternative to these detection methods, based on optimal detection theory and Gibbs sampling. On the basis of simulations, we show that our detector outperforms the conventional amplitude and energy detectors for realistic MRFM operating conditions. For example, to achieve a 10% false alarm rate and an 80% correct detection rate our detector has an 8 dB SNR advantage as compared with the conventional amplitude or energy detectors. Furthermore, at these detection rates it co...

  8. Estimation of the Postmortem Duration of Mouse Tissue by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

    Toshiko Sawaguchi; Hideko Kanazawa; Tomohisa Mori; Shinobu Ito

    2011-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) method is a simple method for detecting various free radicals simultaneously and directly. However, ESR spin trap method is unsuited to analyze weak ESR signals in organs because of water-induced dielectric loss (WIDL). To minimize WIDL occurring in biotissues and to improve detection sensitivity to free radicals in tissues, ESR cuvette was modified and used with 5,5-dimethtyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). The tissue samples were mouse brain, hart, lung, liver, kid...

  9. Magnetic defects in chemically converted graphene nanoribbons: electron spin resonance investigation

    Srinivasa Rao Singamaneni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic spin transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are influenced by the presence of adatoms, adsorbates and edge functionalization. To improve the understanding of the factors that influence the spin properties of GNRs, local (element spin-sensitive techniques such as electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy are important for spintronics applications. Here, we present results of multi-frequency continuous wave (CW, pulse and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE ESR spectroscopy measurements performed on oxidatively unzipped graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, which were subsequently chemically converted (CCGNRs with hydrazine. ESR spectra at 336 GHz reveal an isotropic ESR signal from the CCGNRs, of which the temperature dependence of its line width indicates the presence of localized unpaired electronic states. Upon functionalization of CCGNRs with 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate, the ESR signal is found to be 2 times narrower than that of pristine ribbons. NH3 adsorption/desorption on CCGNRs is shown to narrow the signal, while retaining the signal intensity and g value. The electron spin-spin relaxation process at 10 K is found to be characterized by slow (163 ns and fast (39 ns components. HYSCORE ESR data demonstrate the explicit presence of protons and 13C atoms. With the provided identification of intrinsic point magnetic defects such as proton and 13C has been reported, which are roadblocks to spin travel in graphene-based materials, this work could help in advancing the present fundamental understanding on the edge-spin (or magnetic-based transport properties of CCGNRs.

  10. A point of view about identification of irradiated foods by electron spin resonance

    Principles and conditions required for using electron spin resonance (ESR) in identifying irradiated foods are first put forth. After a literature review, examples of irradiated cereals and French prunes are described in order to derive general conclusions concerning the future of ESR in this field

  11. Electron spin resonance in neutron-irradiated graphite. Dependence on temperature and effect of annealing

    The temperature dependence of the electron spin resonance signal from neutron irradiated graphite has been studied. The results lead to an interpretation of the nature of the paramagnetic centers created by irradiation. In annealing experiments on graphite samples, which had been irradiated at low temperature, two annealing peaks and one anti-annealing peak were found. Interpretations are proposed for these peaks. (author)

  12. Induction-Detection Electron Spin Resonance with Sensitivity of 1000 Spins: En Route to Scalable Quantum Computations

    Blank, Aharon; Shklyar, Roman; Twig, Ygal

    2013-01-01

    Spin-based quantum computation (QC) in the solid state is considered to be one of the most promising approaches to scalable quantum computers. However, it faces problems such as initializing the spins, selectively addressing and manipulating single spins, and reading out the state of the individual spins. We have recently sketched a scheme that potentially solves all of these problems5. This is achieved by making use of a unique phosphorus-doped 28Si sample (28Si:P), and applying powerful new electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques for parallel excitation, detection, and imaging in order to implement QCs and efficiently obtain their results. The beauty of our proposed scheme is that, contrary to other approaches, single-spin detection sensitivity is not required and a capability to measure signals of ~100-1000 spins is sufficient to implement it. Here we take the first experimental step towards the actual implementation of such scheme. We show that, by making use of the smallest ESR resonator constructed to ...

  13. Experimental and theoretical study of conduction electron spin resonance in aluminum

    The purpose of the present work is to contribute to the elucidation of the spin resonance properties of conduction electron in pure metals. We follow three complementary ways: 1) We compare between them all metals where spin resonance has been observed. We show the influence of spin-orbit and of the metal valence, and we deduce the likely importance of the Fermi surface complexity, in particular concerning the g factor. 2) We have assembled an original EPR spectrometer, working at 350 MHz. This 'low' frequency enables to minimize the line broadenings due to g factor distributions over the Fermi surface. Nevertheless we were unable to detect any new resonance. This apparatus performed some experiments on aluminum, an exemplary metal: spin relaxation on dislocations and surfaces; study of g between 50 and 110 K. 3) We calculate the g factor at every point of the Fermi surface of aluminum, by introducing the spin-orbit potential as a perturbation. An important difficulty remains, linked to the choice of the wave function phase. Moreover we propose a phenomenological model based on the narrowing of the so calculated g distribution by two types of motion: a random one corresponding to diffusion of electrons on the crystalline imperfections, and a coherent one around the cyclotron orbits. A qualitative model accounts relatively well for the experimental facts

  14. Interaction of bee venom melittin with zwitterionic and negatively charged phospholipid bilayers : a spin-label electron spin resonance study

    Kleinschmidt, Jörg H.; Mahaney, James E.; Thomas, David D.; Marsh, Derek

    1997-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to study the penetration and interaction of bee venom melittin with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and ditetradecylphosphatidylglycerol (DTPG) bilayer membranes. Melittin is a surface-active, amphipathic peptide and serves as a useful model for a variety of membrane interactions, including those of presequences and signal peptides, as well as the charged subdomain of the cardiac regulatory protein phospholamban. Derivatives of phospha...

  15. Rashba coupling in three-dimensional wurtzite structure electron gas at electric-dipole spin resonance

    Ungier, W.

    2014-05-01

    Theoretical description of Rashba effects in three-dimensional electron gas at electric-dipole spin resonance conditions is presented in the frame of conductivity tensor formalism. The details due to anisotropy of the effective mass tensor, as well as the Lande factor, are considered. The absorbed power is calculated for arbitrary orientation of the sample with respect to external fields: constant magnetic field and rf electric field. The differences between resonance signals in two- and three-dimensional electron gas are pointed out.

  16. Electron spin resonance of radicals and metal complexes

    The materials are a collection of extended synopsis of papers presented at the conference sessions. The broad area of magnetic techniques applications has been described as well as their spectra interpretation methods. The ESR, NMR, ENDOR and spin echo were applied for studying the radiation and UV induced radicals in chemical and biological systems. Also in the study of complexes of metallic ions (having the paramagnetic properties) and their interaction with the matrix, the magnetic techniques has been commonly used. They are also very convenient tool for the study of reaction kinetics and mechanism as well as interaction of paramagnetic species with themselves and crystal lattice or with the surface as for thee catalytic processes

  17. Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond

    Bourgeois, E.; Jarmola, A.; Siyushev, P.; Gulka, M.; Hruby, J.; Jelezko, F.; Budker, D.; Nesladek, M.

    2015-01-01

    The readout of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centre electron spins is essential for applications in quantum computation, metrology and sensing. Conventional readout protocols are based on the detection of photons emitted from nitrogen-vacancy centres, a process limited by the efficiency of photon collection. We report on an alternative principle for detecting the magnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centres, allowing the direct photoelectric readout of nitrogen-vacancy centres spin state in an all-diamond device. The photocurrent detection of magnetic resonance scheme is based on the detection of charge carriers promoted to the conduction band of diamond by two-photon ionization of nitrogen-vacancy centres. The optical and photoelectric detection of magnetic resonance are compared, by performing both types of measurements simultaneously. The minima detected in the measured photocurrent at resonant microwave frequencies are attributed to the spin-dependent ionization dynamics of nitrogen-vacancy, originating from spin-selective non-radiative transitions to the metastable singlet state. PMID:26486014

  18. Electron spin resonance study of Na_{1-x}Li_xV_2O_5

    Lohmann, M.; von Nidda, H. -A. Krug; Loidl, A.; Morre, E.; Dischner, M.; Geibel, C

    1999-01-01

    We measured X-band electron-spin resonance of single crystalline sodium vanadate doped with lithium, Na_{1-x}Li_xV_2O_5 for 0 < x < 1.3% . The phase transition into a dimerized phase that is observed at 34 K in the undoped compound, was found to be strongly suppressed upon doping with lithium. The spin susceptibility was analyzed to determine the transition temperature and the energy gap with respect to the lithium content. The transition temperature Tsp is suppressed following a square depen...

  19. Optical rotation and electron spin resonance of an electro-optically active polythiophene

    Graphical abstract: The electro-chiroptical polythiophene displays optical rotation at wavelengths corresponding to the doping band observable in the absorption spectra. The formation of polarons on the main-chain is confirmed by electron spin resonance measurements. - Abstract: A chiroptical polythiophene, is synthesized by electrolytic polymerization in a cholesteric liquid crystal electrolyte solution. The polymer displays a fingerprint texture similar to that of the cholesteric electrolyte solution. Upon electrochemical doping, the polymer displays optical rotation at wavelengths corresponding to the doping band observable in the absorption spectra. The formation of polarons on the main-chain is confirmed by electron spin resonance measurements. The results demonstrate the intermolecular chirality of polarons in this π-conjugated polymer, indicating continuum delocalized polarons are in a three-dimensional helical environment.

  20. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: Application to Proof of Structure of Organic Ketones.

    Russell, G A; Talaty, E R

    1965-05-28

    Many ketones containing an alpha-methylene group can be converted to alpha-diketone radical anions in dimethyl sulfoxide solution. The resulting radical anions can usually be unambiguously identified by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and the structure of the starting ketone may be deduced, often without reference to model compounds. The technique is also applicable to alpha-diketones, alpha-bromoketones, and alpha-hydroxyketones. PMID:17748118

  1. Electron spin resonance study of the demagnetization fields of the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic films

    I.I. Gimazov, Yu.I. Talanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the electron spin resonance study of the La1-xCaxMnO3 manganite and the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl thin films for the magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to plane of the films are presented. The temperature dependence of the demagnetizing field is obtained. The parameters of the Curie-Weiss law are estimated for the paramagnetic thin film.

  2. Electron spin resonance of paramagnetic defects and related charge carrier traps in complex oxide scintillators

    Laguta, Valentyn; Nikl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 2 (2013), s. 254-260. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GAP204/12/0805; GA AV ČR IAA100100810 Grant ostatní: SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillators * point defects * electron spin resonance * polarons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013

  3. Spin-dependent electron transport through a magnetic resonant tunneling diode

    Havu, P.; Tuomisto, N.; R. Väänänen; Puska, Martti J.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron-transport properties in nanostructures can be modeled, for example, by using the semiclassical Wigner formalism or the quantum-mechanical Green’s function formalism. We compare the performance and the results of these methods in the case of magnetic resonant-tunneling diodes. We have implemented the two methods within the self-consistent spin-density-functional theory. Our numerical implementation of the Wigner formalism is based on the finite-difference scheme whereas for the Green’...

  4. Electron spin resonance measurement of radical scavenging activity of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice

    Stefka Valcheva-Kuzmanova; Branka Blagovic; Srecko Valic

    2012-01-01

    Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot contain large amounts of phenolic substances, mainly procyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The ability of phenolic substances to act as antioxidants has been well established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the radical scavenging activity of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ). Materials and Methods: The method used was electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl free radical wa...

  5. Methodological considerations of electron spin resonance spin trapping techniques for measuring reactive oxygen species generated from metal oxide nanomaterials

    Jeong, Min Sook; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Ah Young; Song, Mi Ryoung; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Jun Sung

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated on the surfaces of nanomaterials are important for understanding their toxicity and toxic mechanisms, which are in turn beneficial for manufacturing more biocompatible nanomaterials in many industrial fields. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a useful tool for detecting ROS formation. However, using this technique without first considering the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and proper conditions of the spin trapping agent (such as incubation time) may lead to misinterpretation of the resulting data. In this report, we suggest methodological considerations for ESR as pertains to magnetism, sample preparation and proper incubation time with spin trapping agents. Based on our results, each spin trapping agent should be given the proper incubation time. For nanomaterials having magnetic properties, it is useful to remove these nanomaterials via centrifugation after reacting with spin trapping agents. Sonication for the purpose of sample dispersion and sample light exposure should be controlled during ESR in order to enhance the obtained ROS signal. This report will allow researchers to better design ESR spin trapping applications involving nanomaterials.

  6. Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Based on Copper(II) Reduction.

    Li, Dan; Jiang, Jia; Han, Dandan; Yu, Xinyu; Wang, Kun; Zang, Shuang; Lu, Dayong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2016-04-01

    A new method is proposed for measuring the antioxidant capacity by electron spin resonance spectroscopy based on the loss of electron spin resonance signal after Cu(2+) is reduced to Cu(+) with antioxidant. Cu(+) was removed by precipitation in the presence of SCN(-). The remaining Cu(2+) was coordinated with diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into n-butanol and determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Eight standards widely used in antioxidant capacity determination, including Trolox, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were investigated. The standard curves for determining the eight standards were plotted, and results showed that the linear regression correlation coefficients were all high enough (r > 0.99). Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values for the antioxidant standards were calculated, and a good correlation (r > 0.94) between the values obtained by the present method and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity method was observed. The present method was applied to the analysis of real fruit samples and the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of these fruits. PMID:26927869

  7. Field and frequency modulated sub-THz electron spin resonance spectrometer

    Caspers, Christian; da Silva, Pedro Freire; Soundararajan, Murari; Haider, M. Ali; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    260-GHz radiation is used for a quasi-optical electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer which features both field and frequency modulation. Free space propagation is used to implement Martin-Puplett interferometry with quasi-optical isolation, mirror beam focusing, and electronic polarization control. Computer-aided design and polarization pathway simulation lead to the design of a compact interferometer, featuring lateral dimensions less than a foot and high mechanical stability, with all components rated for power levels of several Watts suitable for gyrotron radiation. Benchmark results were obtained with ESR standards (BDPA, DPPH) using field modulation. Original high-field ESR of 4f electrons in Sm3+-doped Ceria was detected using frequency modulation. Distinct combinations of field and modulation frequency reach a signal-to-noise ratio of 35 dB in spectra of BDPA, corresponding to a detection limit of about 1014 spins.

  8. Parametrization, molecular dynamics simulation and calculation of electron spin resonance spectra of a nitroxide spin label on a poly-alanine alpha helix

    Sezer, Deniz; Freed, Jack H.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    The nitroxide spin label 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline-3-methyl-methanethiosulfonate (MTSSL), commonly used in site-directed spin labeling of proteins, is studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After developing force field parameters for the nitroxide moiety and the spin label linker, we simulate MTSSL attached to a poly-alanine alpha helix in explicit solvent to elucidate the factors affecting its conformational dynamics. Electron spin resonance spectra at 9 and 250 GHz are ...

  9. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the study of nanomaterial-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species

    Weiwei He

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the biological applications and effects of nanomaterials are attributed to their ability to facilitate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy is a direct and reliable method to identify and quantify free radicals in both chemical and biological environments. In this review, we discuss the use of ESR spectroscopy to study ROS generation mediated by nanomaterials, which have various applications in biological, chemical, and materials science. In addition to introducing the theory of ESR, we present some modifications of the method such as spin trapping and spin labeling, which ultimately aid in the detection of short-lived free radicals. The capability of metal nanoparticles in mediating ROS generation and the related mechanisms are also presented.

  10. Electron spin resonance observation of dehydration-induced spin excitations in quasi-one-dimensional iodo-bridged diplatinum complexes

    Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Iguchi, Hiroaki; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-02-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements have been performed on a series of quasi-one-dimensional iodo-bridged diplatinum complexes K2[C3H5R(NH3)2][Pt2(pop)4I]·4H2O (pop = P2H2O52-; R = H, CH3, or Cl), where dehydration/rehydration of the crystalline water switches the electronic state reversibly with retention of single crystallinity. We have observed a nonmagnetic nature in as-grown samples, whereas in the dehydrated samples, a clear enhancement of the spin susceptibility has been observed above ˜80 K with the activation energy ranging 50-60 meV. The activated spins originate from isolated Pt3+ state on the chain, as confirmed from the principal g values. Concomitantly, the ESR linewidth exhibits a prominent motional narrowing, suggesting that the activated Pt3+ spins are mobile solitons generated in the doubly degenerate charge-density-wave states of the dehydrated salts.

  11. Spin electronics

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  12. The electron spin resonance study of heavily nitrogen doped 6H SiC crystals

    Savchenko, Dariia

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2015), "045708-1"-"045708-6". ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-06697P; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant ostatní: SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron spin resonance * conduction electrons * 6H SiC * insulator-metal transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  13. Estimation of the Postmortem Duration of Mouse Tissue by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

    Shinobu Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR method is a simple method for detecting various free radicals simultaneously and directly. However, ESR spin trap method is unsuited to analyze weak ESR signals in organs because of water-induced dielectric loss (WIDL. To minimize WIDL occurring in biotissues and to improve detection sensitivity to free radicals in tissues, ESR cuvette was modified and used with 5,5-dimethtyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO. The tissue samples were mouse brain, hart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, muscle, skin, and whole blood, where various ESR spin adduct signals including DMPO-ascorbyl radical (AsA∗, DMPO-superoxide anion radical (OOH, and DMPO-hydrogen radical (H signal were detected. Postmortem changes in DMPO-AsA∗ and DMPO-OOH were observed in various tissues of mouse. The signal peak of spin adduct was monitored until the 205th day postmortem. DMPO-AsA∗ in liver (y=113.8–40.7 log (day, R1=-0.779, R2=0.6, P<.001 was found to linearly decrease with the logarithm of postmortem duration days. Therefore, DMPO-AsA∗ signal may be suitable for detecting an oxidation stress tracer from tissue in comparison with other spin adduct signal on ESR spin trap method.

  14. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation spectroscopic studies on the structure and reactivity of Pd(I) species in SAPO-11 molecular sieves

    This paper explores the possibility of using Pd ions in SAPO-11 by adding [Pd(NH3)4]2+ during the synthesis of SAPO-11 to form PdSAPO-11, which is compared with solid-state ion exchange PdSAPO-11 and impregnation PdH-SAPO-11 in which palladium is in an extraframework position. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation spectroscopies are used to determine if the palladium position in PdSAPO-11 is located in a framework or extraframework

  15. Effect of ionising radiation on potassium pentacyanonitrosyl ruthenate(II): an electron spin resonance study

    Vugman, Ney V.; Pinhal, Nelson M.; Amorim, Helio S. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica dos Solidos. E-mail: ney@if.ufrj.br; Santos, Cristina M.P. dos; Faria, Roberto B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    2000-06-01

    Amorphous potassium pentacyanonitrosyl ruthenate (II) was synthesized and characterized by UV, IR, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy reveals the presence of paramagnetic ruthenate (i) complexes and NO{sub 2} radicals in the X-irradiated diamagnetic salt. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the [Ru (CN){sub 5} N O]{sup 3-} complex (g=2.0064, A ({sup 14} N) = 60.7 MHz, g = 1.999, A ({sup 14} N) = 77.3 MHz) support an electron capture in a {pi}{sup *} molecular orbital of the nitrosyl group mixed with d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} ruthenium orbitals as recently predicted by theoretical calculations. Silver ions, present as impurities, are reduced to Ag(o) by X-irradiation and coordinate to four magnetically equivalent nitrogens in a distorted site, giving to a well resolved anisotropic ESR powder spectrum. (author)

  16. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose.

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fruit's quality predictive models based on EN, SAWR, and EN combined with SAWR were developed, respectively. Weight loss and human sensory evaluation results demonstrated that Kiwi fruit's quality decline and overall acceptance decrease during the storage. Experiment result indicated that the PCA method could qualitatively discriminate all Kiwi fruit samples with different storage time. Both SR and SAWR frequency analysis methods could successfully discriminate samples with high regression coefficients (R = 0.98093 and R = 0.99014, respectively). The validation experiment results showed that the mixed predictive model developed using EN combined with SAWR present higher quality prediction accuracy than the model developed either by EN or by SAWR. This method exhibits some advantages including high accuracy, non-destructive, low cost, etc. It provides an effective way for fruit quality rapid analysis. PMID:25551334

  17. Electron Spin Resonance Study of Electrons Trapped in Solid Molecular Hydrogen Films

    Sheludiakov, S.; Ahokas, J.; Järvinen, J.; Vainio, O.; Lehtonen, L.; Zvezdov, D.; Khmelenko, V.; Lee, D. M.; Vasiliev, S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the measurements of electrons trapped in solid molecular films of H2, HD, and D2. A narrow ESR line associated with the trapped electrons was detected with g=2.00233(5), which turned out to be shifted by -0.3 G from the free electron resonance. Comparison is made with earlier measurements where a similar line has been seen. In addition, for a text {D}2{:}text {H}2 mixture, after raising the temperature above 1 K, we observe a strong line at the location of the electron cyclotron resonance. The line amplitude is dependent on temperature and has an activation energy of 26 K. We believe that at elevated temperatures, electrons diffuse from the bulk of the film to the surface.

  18. Indirect identification of irradiated foodstuff by electron spin resonance measurements at synthetic packaging materials

    Goal of this work was to proof, whether an indirect identification of irradiated foodstuffs can be performed by electron spin resonance measurements on specific radicals built in synthetic packaging materials like polyethylene, polypropylene or polystyrene. For e.s.r. measurements two different spectrometers were used: a newly designed routine spectrometer and a research instrument. All measurements were carried out at ambient temperature. The following synthetic materials were studied: Polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethyleneterephtalate and acrylnitril-butadiene-styrene-copolymere. The first three mentioned materials are commonly used in food industry. Investigations were performed with standard samples (granulate, balls) of the pure polymere and additionally with commercially used packaging materials. (orig./MG)

  19. Electron spin resonance measurements in CoFe2O4 free rotor nanoparticles

    Recently, a new magnetic behaviour has been observed in the nanoparticles that rotate freely in response to an applied static magnetic field (i.e., 'free rotor behaviour') after conditioning the material in a cycling magnetic field. On the other hand, in an electron spin resonance (ESR) experiment where microwave power excites a free magnetic moment without any anisotropy a zero-field-absorption in the spectrum is predicted at all temperatures and independent of the microwave frequency. In this contribution we present ESR measurements on CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with free-rotor behaviour, and the zero-field-absorption results will be discussed

  20. Study by electron spin resonance of the free radicals created under irradiation in glycine

    The free radicals created by different radiations in glycine are measured by electron spin resonance and their number is evaluated in function of the absorbed dose. This number decreases when the LET of the radiations increases ; in other words,high LET radiations gives less radiochemical effects; in contrary with the fact that high LET radiations creates more damage in biological materials. The decreasing with time of the number of free radicals and the speed of this decrease is a function of temperature; by the study of the kinetics of this decrease, an attempt has been made to prove the presence of three radicals. (authors)

  1. Magnetic properties and electron spin resonance of Ecuadorian obsidians. Application to provenance research of archeological samples

    Obsidians from major Ecuadorian sources were analyzed by SQUID magnetometry and electron spin resonance (ESR). The association of these two techniques permits to differentiate obsidians from the sources of Cotopaxi volcano and from the Quiscatola and Mullumica-Callejones sources of the Chacana caldera, taking into account various parameters arising from the M vs. H cycles and the X-band ESR spectra. The analysis of 27 archeological samples coming from the prehispanic site of La Mana allowed us to infer that most of them come from the Mullumica-Callejones source

  2. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies on irradiated cocoa beans and niger seeds

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of irradiated (10kGy) and unirradiated cocoa beans and niger seeds have been compared. Unirradiated cocoa beans failed to give any ESR signal, whereas after irradiation (10kGy) an ESR signal at g = 2.0042 was observed. However, ESR signals are given by both irradiated and unirradiated niger seeds. The intensity of signal was found to be dose-dependent up to 10kGy for both seeds. The signals were stable up to 180 days in both cases. The results indicate the possibility of using ESR for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated cocoa beans but not for niger seeds

  3. Use of thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance for identification of irradiated vital wheat gluten

    The effects of ionizing gamma-radiation on wheat gluten's chemical properties and induced phenomena are investigated by thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance. The vital wheat gluten can be considered as a whole sample of protein-containing foodstuffs. The water, protein and starch content and water-absorbing capacity have been measured. It was found that some chemical parameters are changed due to irradiation, and the identification of irradiated samples as function of both radiation dose and storage time is done by the methods used. (author)

  4. Electron spin resonance dosimetry of teeth of Goiania radiation accident victims

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is used to assess absorbed doses of six teeth belonging to victims of the highly irradiated group of Goiania accident. The influence of the broad background signal at g=2.0040 as well as of the unstable fraction of CO-2 radicals was taken into account in dose estimates. Three victims teeth showed absorbed doses comparable to those estimated by chromosomal analysis. For the other three teeth, the doses were higher by a factor of 1.3, 1.8 and 2.2

  5. An Electron Spin Resonance Study of Stearic Acid Interactions in Model Wheat Starch and Gluten Systems

    Pearce, L. E.; Davis, E. A.; Gordon, J.; Miller, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to examine interactions of 16- Doxyl stearic acid in wheat starch-water (starch:water "'1: 1), vital wheat gluten-water and glut en-starch-water model systems, Immobilization of the 16-Doxyl stearic acid, shown by broadIine ESR powder patterns , occurred in wheat starch model systems. In contrast to the starch systems, 16-Doxylstearic acid in gluten-water systems did not display broad line powder patterns. Broadened 3- line ESR spectra were recorded for ...

  6. Retrospective Dosimetry: Dose Analysis From Tooth Enamel Using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

    The radiation dose should be accurately measured in order to relate its effect to the cells. The assessment of dose usually performed using biological dosimetry techniques. However, the reduction of lymphocytes (white blood cells) after the time period results in inaccuracy of dose measurement. An alternative method used is the application of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) using tooth enamel. In this study, tooth enamels were evaluated and used to measure the individual absorbed dose from the background. The basic tooth features that would affect dose measurement were discussed. The results show this technique is capable and effective for retrospective dose measurement and useful for the study of radiation effect to human. (author)

  7. Electron spin resonance (ESR) in multiferroic TbMnO3

    We report temperature dependent X-Band (ν∼9.4GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement in a single crystal of TbMnO3. A single Lorentzian ESR line with an isotropic g∼ 1.96 was observed for T>=120K up to 600K. The ESR signal is attributed to the Mn3+ ions in a insulator environment. For the three crystallographic axes the temperature dependence ESR linewidth shows a strong broadening as the temperature decreases due to the presence of short range magnetic correlations

  8. Determination of the feasibility of directly dating quartz by electron spin resonance

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses have been made of natural quartz samples ranging in age from 100 ka to 1.4 Ga. Signal intensities of two ESR centres that can be associated with Schottky-Frenkel (SF) defects are significantly correlated with age. These defects are thought to accumulate naturally as a result of elastic collisions in the quartz lattice initiated by the recoil of alpha-emitting nuclides present in the impurities. Preliminary indications are that recoil-induced SF defects can be significantly more abundant than original SF defects in samples older than several million years. These considerations provide the theoretical basis for a long-ranging quartz geochronometer

  9. Detection of Nitric Oxide by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spin-Trapping with Iron-Dithiocarbamates.

    Maia, Luisa B; Moura, José J G

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is the ideal methodology to identify radicals (detection and characterization of molecular structure) and to study their kinetics, in both simple and complex biological systems. The very low concentration and short life-time of NO and of many other radicals do not favor its direct detection and spin-traps are needed to produce a new and persistent radical that can be subsequently detected by EPR spectroscopy.In this chapter, we present the basic concepts of EPR spectroscopy and of some spin-trapping methodologies to study NO. The "strengths and weaknesses" of iron-dithiocarbamates utilization, the NO traps of choice for the authors, are thoroughly discussed and a detailed description of the method to quantify the NO formation by molybdoenzymes is provided. PMID:27094413

  10. Electron-atom resonances: The complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method for the 2P Be- shape resonance problem

    Tsednee, Tsogbayar; Liang, Liyuan; Yeager, Danny L.

    2015-02-01

    We propose and develop the complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (CMCSTEP) technique for theoretical determination of resonance parameters with electron-atom and electron-molecule systems including open-shell and highly correlated atoms and molecules. The multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (MCSTEP) method developed and implemented by Yeager and co-workers in real space gives very accurate and reliable ionization potentials and attachment energies. The CMCSTEP method uses a complex-scaled multiconfigurational self-consistent field (CMCSCF) state as an initial state along with a dilated Hamiltonian where all of the electronic coordinates are scaled by a complex factor. The CMCSCF was developed and applied successfully to resonance problems earlier. We apply the CMCSTEP method to get 2P Be- shape resonance parameters using 14 s 11 p 5 d ,14 s 14 p 2 d , and 14 s 14 p 5 d basis sets with a 2 s 2 p 3 d complete active space. The obtained values of the resonance parameters are compared to previous results. Here CMCSTEP has been developed and used for a resonance problem. It appears to be among the most accurate and reliable techniques. Vertical ionization potentials and attachment energies in real space are typically within ±0.2 eV or better of excellent experimental results and full configuration-interaction calculations with a good basis set. We expect the same sort of agreement in complex space.

  11. Light-free magnetic resonance force microscopy for studies of electron spin polarized systems

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy is a scanned probe technique capable of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Its excellent sensitivity opens the possibility for magnetic resonance studies of spin accumulation resulting from the injection of spin polarized currents into a para-magnetic collector. The method is based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance which requires low noise detection of cantilever displacement; so far, this has been accomplished using optical interferometry. This is undesirable for experiments on doped silicon, where the presence of light is known to enhance spin relaxation rates. We report a non-optical displacement detection scheme based on sensitive microwave capacitive readout

  12. Field-assisted electron transport through a symmetric double-well structure with spin-orbit coupling and the Fano-resonance induced spin filtering

    Zhang Cun-Xi; Nie Yi-Hang; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated theoretically the field-driven electron-transport through a double-quantum-well semiconductor-heterostructure with spin-orbit coupling. The numerical results demonstrate that the transmission spectra are divided into two sets due to the bound-state level-splitting and each set contains two asymmetric resonance peaks which may be selectively suppressed by changing the difference in phase between two driving fields. When the phase difference changes from O to π, the dip of asymmetric resonance shifts from one side of resonance peak to the other side and the asymmetric Fano resonance degenerates into the symmetric Breit-Wigner resonance at a critical value of phase difference. Within a given range of incident electron energy, the spin polarization of transmission current is completely governed by the phase difference which may be used to realize the tunable spin filtering.

  13. The fate of allogenic radiation sterilized bone grafts controlled by the electron spin resonance spectrometry

    The normal fate of bone grafts is their resorption and substitution by the own host's bone tissue. This phenomenon described as creeping substitution process was controlled using biopsies from the grafted region in allogenic experimental system. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was used for independent evaluation of resorption and substitution processes. The measurements were based on the process of induction in the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals of bone mineral of stable paramagnetic centers which can be detected by ESR spectrometry. The loss of total amount of spins connected with the paramagnetic centers expressed in percent describes the kinetics of resorption. The changes in the concentration of spins due to the ''dilution'' of spins implanted with the graft by the nonirradiated ingrowing host's own bone describe the kinetics of the substitution process. Allogenic bone of calvaria was grafted orthotopically into rabbits after lyophilization and radiation sterilization with a dose of 3.5 Mrads. The process of graft's rebuilding was evaluated using the described ESR method. The application of the described technique in the human clinic is possible. (author)

  14. Electron spin resonance and cyclotron resonance for fractional quantum Hall states in narrow-gap QW heterostructures

    We report a theoretical study of the energies of cyclotron resonance (CR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) for fractional quantum Hall states (FQHS) in n-type narrow-gap quantum well (QW) heterostructures. Using the generalized single-mode approximation (GSMA) based on the 8-band k ⋅p Hamiltonian, we calculate the many-body corrections to the CR and ESR energies for FQHS, providing theoretical evidence of the Kohn and Larmor theorem violation in narrow-gap QWs. We predict the correlation-induced reduction of CR energies and the correlation-induced enhancement of ESR energies as compared with the values obtained within the Hartree–Fock approximation. We demonstrate a nonlinear dependence of the CR and ESR energies on a Landau level filling factor. (paper)

  15. Resonant Spin-Flavor Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: Dependence on Electron Mole Fraction

    Yoshida, T; Kimura, K; Yokomakura, H; Kawagoe, S; Kajino, T

    2009-01-01

    Detailed dependence of resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos on electron mole fraction Ye is investigated. Supernova explosion forms a hot-bubble and neutrino-driven wind region of which electron mole fraction exceeds 0.5 in several seconds after the core collapse. When a higher resonance of the RSF conversion is located in the innermost region, flavor change of the neutrinos strongly depends on the sign of 1-2Ye. At an adiabatic high RSF resonance the flavor conversion of bar{nu}_e -> nu_{mu,tau} occurs in Ye 0.5 and inverted mass hierarchy. In other cases of Ye values and mass hierarchies, the conversion of nu_e -> bar{nu}_{mu,tau} occurs. The final bar{nu}_e spectrum is evaluated in the cases of Ye 0.5 taking account of the RSF conversion. Based on the obtained result, time variation of the event number ratios of low bar{nu}_e energy to high bar{nu}_e energy is discussed. In normal mass hierarchy, an enhancement of the event ratio should be seen in the period when the electron frac...

  16. Optical and electron spin resonance spectroscopy of Ti3+-doped yttrium and gadolinium aluminoborates

    Single crystals of Ti3+-doped aluminoborates YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB) and GdAl3(BO3)4 (GAB) have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth technique, and the optical absorption, photoluminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) properties of Ti3+ dopants measured at low temperature. The optical absorption spectrum of Ti3+ comprises two broad bands with peaks at 514 and 576 nm in YAB and at 520 and 586 nm in GAB. The energy separation of the two bands in each crystal is due to the static Jahn-Teller splitting of the excited 2E state of the Ti3+ ions. Photoluminescence from excited Ti3+ ions occurs as a broad band in the near-infrared region with a peak at λ = 747 nm in YAB and 754 nm in GAB when measured at 14 K. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra are strongly polarized. The spin Hamiltonian parameters for Ti3+ ions substituting at trigonally symmetric Al3+ sites in YAB have been determined from the orientation dependence of the ESR spectra. The measured shifts in the components of the g-tensor from the free electron g-value of 2.0023 are interpreted in terms of the mixing of the higher component of the 2T2 ground states and of the 2E excited state into the lowest 2T2 ground state by spin-orbit interaction. (author)

  17. Many-body effects in electron spin resonance in 2D systems with Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    We report effects of electron–electron (e–e) interaction on electron spin resonance (ESR) in two-dimensional (2D) systems with Rashba spin–orbit interaction (SOI). Using the Hartree–Fock approximation, we demonstrate that Rashba SOI results in non-zero many-body corrections to the ESR energy. We discover that e–e interaction in 2D systems with SOI can not only enhance the ESR energy but also lead to the ESR energy reduction. The magnitude of this effect exhibits remarkable features in a wide range of parameters relevant to experiment: it is found to be rather sensitive to the sign of g-factor and the filling factor of Landau levels ν. We derive analytical expressions for many-body corrections to ESR energy and energy dispersion of spin wave excitations for the case of ν⩽2. We have found out that e–e interaction does not affect the ESR energy in the case of filling of the lowest Landau level (ν⩽1) in 2D systems with positive g-factors even at arbitrarily large values of Rashba constant. The many-body renormalization of ESR energy in the case of fractional Quantum Hall effect is also discussed. (papers)

  18. Air oxidation of the kerogen/asphaltene vanadyl porphyrins: an electron spin resonance study

    MIRJANA S. PAVLOVIC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of vanadyl porphyrins was studied by electron spin resonance during heating of kerogens, isolated from the La Luna (Venezuela and Serpiano (Switzerland bituminous rocks, at 25°C for 1 to 20 days in the presence of air. During the thermal treatment of the kerogens, the vanadyl porphyrins resonance signals decrease monotonically and become quite small after 6 days of heating. Concomitantly, new vanadyl signals appear and, at longer heating times, dominate the spectrum. It is suggested that the secondary vanadyl species must have been formed from vanadyl porphyrins. Similar conversions of vanadyl porphyrins are observed under the same experimental conditions for asphaltenes extracted from the La Luna and Serpiano rocks, and floating asphalt from the Dead Sea (Israel. A comparison of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for vanadyl porphyrins and the vanadyl compounds obtained during pyrolysis of the kerogens/asphaltenes suggests that the latter are of a non-porphyrin type. For comparison a study was conducted on Western Kentucky No. 9 coal enriched with vanadium (>>400 ppm from six mines. All the coal samples show only the presence of predominant by non-porphyrin vanadyl compounds, similar to those generated through laboratory heating of the kerogens/asphaltenes in air. In addition, some samples also contain a minor amount of vanadyl porphyrins.

  19. Multifrequency spin resonance in diamond

    Childress, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance techniques provide a powerful tool for controlling spin systems, with applications ranging from quantum information processing to medical imaging. Nevertheless, the behavior of a spin system under strong excitation remains a rich dynamical problem. In this paper, we examine spin resonance of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond under conditions outside the regime where the usual rotating wave approximation applies, focusing on effects of multifrequency excitation and excitation with orientation parallel to the spin quantization axis. Strong-field phenomena such as multiphoton transitions and coherent destruction of tunneling are observed in the spectra and analyzed via numerical and analytic theory. In addition to illustrating the response of a spin system to strong multifrequency excitation, these observations may inform techniques for manipulating electron-nuclear spin quantum registers.

  20. Spin-dependent Fano resonance induced by a conducting chiral helimagnet contained in a quasi-one-dimensional electron waveguide

    Fano resonance appears for conduction through an electron waveguide containing donor impurities. In this work, we consider the thin-film conducting chiral helimagnet (CCH) as the donor impurity in a one-dimensional waveguide model. The transmission and conductance for an arbitrary CCH spiral period are obtained. Due to the spin-spiral coupling, interference between the direct and inter-subband transmission channels gives rise to a spin-dependent Fano resonance effect. The spin-dependent Fano resonance is sensitively dependent on the helicity of the spiral. By tuning the CCH potential well depth and the incident energy, this provides a potential way to detect the spin-spiral period in the CCH.

  1. The electron spin resonance study of heavily nitrogen doped 6H SiC crystals

    Savchenko, D. V., E-mail: dariyasavchenko@gmail.com [Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague 182 21, Czech Republic and V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NASU, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine)

    2015-01-28

    The magnetic and electronic properties of heavily doped n-type 6H SiC samples with a nitrogen concentration of 10{sup 19} and 4 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} were studied with electron spin resonance (ESR) at 5–150 K. The observed ESR line with a Dysonian lineshape was attributed to the conduction electrons (CE). The CE ESR (CESR) line was fitted by Lorentzian (insulating phase) (T < 40 K) and by Dysonian lineshape (metallic phase) above 40 K, demonstrating that Mott insulator-metal (IM) transition takes place at ∼40 K, accompanied by significant change in the microwave conductivity. The temperature dependence of CESR linewidth follows the linear Korringa law below 40 K, caused by the coupling of the localized electrons (LE) and CE, and is described by the exponential law above 40 K related to the direct relaxation of the LE magnetic moments via excited levels driven by the exchange interaction of LE with CE. The g-factor of the CESR line (g{sub ‖} = 2.0047(3), g{sub ⊥} = 2.0034(3)) is governed by the coupling of the LE of nitrogen donors at hexagonal and quasi-cubic sites with the CE. The sharp drop in CESR line intensity (25–30 K) was explained by the formation of antiferromagnetic ordering in the spin system close to the IM transition. The second broad ESR line overlapped with CESR signal (5–25 K) was attributed to the exchange line caused by the hopping motion of electrons between occupied and non-occupied positions of the nitrogen donors. Two mechanisms of conduction, hopping and band conduction, were distinguished in the range of T = 10–25 K and T > 50 K, respectively.

  2. Antiferromagnetic ordering in spin-chain multiferroic Gd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5} studied by electronic spin resonance

    Guo, Y. M.; Ruan, M. Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Sun, Y. C. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ouyang, Z. W., E-mail: zwouyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Xia, Z. C. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Rao, G. H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-06-14

    High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) has been employed to study the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering state (T < T{sub N} = 55 K) of spin-chain multiferroic Gd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5}. The spin reorientation at T{sub SR} = 24 K is well characterized by the temperature-dependent ESR spectra. The magnetization data evidence a field-induced spin-flop transition at 2 K. The frequency-field relationship of the ESR data can be explained by conventional AFM resonance theory with uniaxial anisotropy, in good agreement with magnetization data. Related discussion on zero-field spin gap is presented.

  3. Electron spin resonance probed competing states in NiMnInSi Heusler alloy

    Chen, Y. S.; Lin, J. G.; Titov, I. S.; Granovsky, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Shape memory Heusler alloy Ni50Mn35In12Si3 is investigated with electron spin resonance (ESR) technique in a temperature range of 200-300 K. ESR is a dynamic probe allowing us to separate the responses from various magnetic phases, thus to study the complex phase transitions. The sample shows three transition temperatures: TcA (271 K), TM (247 K) and TcM (212 K), where TcA is the Curie temperature of austenitic phase, TM and TcM are the temperatures of magnetostructural martensitic transition and the Curie temperature of martensitic phase, respectively. Furthermore, ESR data reveals the coexistence of two magnetic modes in whole temperature range of 200-300 K. Particularly in martensitic phase, two magnetic modes are attributed to two different kinds of lattice deformation, the slip and twinning deformations.

  4. The use of sugar pellets in ESR [electron spin resonance] dosimetry

    Table sugar (sucrose) is a convenient, common, tissue-equivalent material suitable for electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry of ionising radiation. The simple free radical signal in irradiated sugar is stabilised if the sugar is made into pellets using an inert silicone elastomer (Dow Corning 732). Such pellets, which offer greater convenience and signal stability and reproducibility, have been prepared and tested for their radiation response, sensitivity and post-irradiation stability. Irradiated sugar is detectable at ≥0.1 Gy, the signal intensity is linear with dose, and the fading of the signal, post-irradiation, is minimal for samples kept under ambient conditions. These pellets themselves, given sufficient post-irradiation signal stability, may be useful for environmental monitoring to determine long-term exposures in remote areas or at strategic locations. (Author)

  5. ESR (electron spin resonance)-determined osmotic behavior of bull spermatozoa

    Du, J.; Kleinhans, F.W.; Spitzer, V.J.; Critser, J.K. (Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (USA). Dept. of Medical Research); Horstman, L. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). School of Veterinary Medicine); Mazur, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Our laboratories are pursuing a fundamental approach to the problems of semen cryopreservation. For many cell types (human red cells, yeast, HeLa) it has been demonstrated that there is an optimum cooling rate for cryopreservation. Faster rates allow insufficient time for cell dehydration and result in intracellular ice formation and cell death. It is possible to predict this optimal rate provided that the cell acts as an ideal osmometer and several other cell parameters are known such as the membrane hydraulic conductivity. It is the purpose of this work to examine the osmotic response of bull sperm to sucrose and NaCl utilizing electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure cell volume. For calibration purposes we also measured the ESR response of human red cells (RBC), the osmotic response of which is well documented with other methods. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  6. DETECTION OF SOME IRRADIATED NUTS BY ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE (ESR) TECHNIQUE

    The present investigation was carried out to establish the electron spin resonance (ESR) detection method for identifying irradiated nuts (almond and pistachio). Samples were irradiated with 2, 4 and 6 kGy and stored at room temperature (25± 20C) for six months to study the possibility of detecting its previous irradiation treatments by ESR spectroscopy. Analysis was carried out just after irradiation treatment and during ambient storage period. The ESR signal intensities of irradiated samples were markedly increased correspondingly with irradiation dose as a result of free radicals generated by gamma irradiation so, all irradiated samples under investigation could be differentiated from non-irradiated ones immediately after irradiation treatment. The decay in radicals responsible of ESR signals showed the identification of irradiated almond (shell or edible part) and pistachio (edible part) was impossible after six months of ambient storage

  7. Electron spin resonance dating of teeth from Western Brazilian megafauna - preliminary results

    Kinoshita, Angela, E-mail: angela.kinoshita@usc.br [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Universidade Sagrado Coracao, Rua Irma Arminda 10-50, 17011-160 Bauru - Sao Paulo (Brazil); Jose, Flavio A. [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Sundaram, Dharani; Paixao, Jesus da S.; Soares, Isabella R.M. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Departamento de Geologia Geral, 78090-000 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Figueiredo, Ana Maria [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), 05422-970 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) was applied to determine ages of Haplomastodon teeth from Western Brazilian Megafauna. The Equivalent Doses (D{sub e}) of (1.3 {+-} 0.2)kGy, (800 {+-} 100)Gy and (140 {+-} 20)Gy were found and the software ROSY ESR dating was employed to convert D{sub e} in age, using isotope concentrations determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and other information, resulting in (500 {+-} 100)ka, (320 {+-} 50) and (90 {+-} 10)ka considering the Combination Uptake (CU) model for Uranium uptake, set as an Early Uptake (EU) for dentine and Linear Uptake (LU) for enamel. There are scarce reports about Pleistocene Megafauna in this area. This paper presents the first dating of megafauna tooth and this study could contribute to improve the knowledge about the paleoclimate and paleoenvironment of this region and prompt more investigations in this area.

  8. Inversion of electron spin resonance signal of P1-center in synthetic crystalline diamond

    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) of a 0.59 carat synthetic diamond single crystal at room temperature. The crystal was grown on a 'split-sphere' apparatus in the Fe-Ni-C system by the temperature gradient method. After high-temperature/high-pressure treatment of the diamond, it was observed that as the microwave power supplied to the sample increased from 70 μW to 70 mW in an H102 cavity, the ESR signal from the P1 center (a nitrogen atom substituting for carbon at a lattice point of the diamond crystal: C-form nitrogen) is inverted. In the original diamond (before high-temperature/high-pressure treatment), no inversion of the ESR signal was observed. (authors)

  9. Electron Spin Resonance Dating of Some Animal Teeth Enamel and Shell Fossils

    Full text: Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was conducted for some ungulate tooth enamel samples and shell fossils of the the Tham Lod rock shelter Area I (S23W10) located in Highland Archaeology Project in Pang Mapha District, Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand. Age estimation for wave-induced breaching of the cavity and initial sand deposition (Level 19-29) was 33,200 - 18,700 years and 32,300 years for teeth enamel and the shell fossils of Nodularia scobinata sp. (Carditidae) respectively. ESR spectra showed g-factor g1 (gll, gcenter) = 2.0030 - 2.0036, g2 = 2.0040 - 2.0041 and g3 (g?) = 1.997 - 1.9988 formed by CO2- orthorhombic free radical for teeth enamel and g-factor (gcenter) = 2.0042 + 0.0003 formed by SO3- free radical for fresh shell fossils

  10. Electron spin resonance measurement of radical scavenging activity of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Blagović, Branka; Valić, Srećko

    2012-01-01

    Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot contain large amounts of phenolic substances, mainly procyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The ability of phenolic substances to act as antioxidants has been well established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the radical scavenging activity of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ). Materials and Methods: The method used was electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl free radical was used as a scavenging object. AMFJ was added to the galvinoxyl free radical solution. The measure of the radical scavenging activity was the decrease of signal intensity. Results: AMFJ showed a potent antiradical activity causing a strong and rapid decrease of signal intensity as a function of time and juice concentration. This effect of AMFJ was probably due to the activity of its phenolic constituents. Conclusion: The ESR measurements in this study showed a pronounced radical scavenging effect of AMFJ, an important mechanism of its antioxidant activity. PMID:22701293

  11. Electron spin resonance measurement of radical scavenging activity of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice

    Stefka Valcheva-Kuzmanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx. Elliot contain large amounts of phenolic substances, mainly procyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The ability of phenolic substances to act as antioxidants has been well established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the radical scavenging activity of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ. Materials and Methods: The method used was electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl free radical was used as a scavenging object. AMFJ was added to the galvinoxyl free radical solution. The measure of the radical scavenging activity was the decrease of signal intensity. Results: AMFJ showed a potent antiradical activity causing a strong and rapid decrease of signal intensity as a function of time and juice concentration. This effect of AMFJ was probably due to the activity of its phenolic constituents. Conclusion: The ESR measurements in this study showed a pronounced radical scavenging effect of AMFJ, an important mechanism of its antioxidant activity.

  12. Electron spin resonance dating of teeth from Western Brazilian megafauna - preliminary results

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) was applied to determine ages of Haplomastodon teeth from Western Brazilian Megafauna. The Equivalent Doses (De) of (1.3 ± 0.2)kGy, (800 ± 100)Gy and (140 ± 20)Gy were found and the software ROSY ESR dating was employed to convert De in age, using isotope concentrations determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and other information, resulting in (500 ± 100)ka, (320 ± 50) and (90 ± 10)ka considering the Combination Uptake (CU) model for Uranium uptake, set as an Early Uptake (EU) for dentine and Linear Uptake (LU) for enamel. There are scarce reports about Pleistocene Megafauna in this area. This paper presents the first dating of megafauna tooth and this study could contribute to improve the knowledge about the paleoclimate and paleoenvironment of this region and prompt more investigations in this area.

  13. Detection of organic free radicals in irradiated pepper by electron spin resonance

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed various free radicals in a Japanese commercially available black pepper before and after γ-irradiation. The representative ESR spectrum of the pepper is composed of a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value and a singlet at g=4.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine interactions of Mn2+ ion (7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical. The third one may be originated from Fe3+ ion of the non-hem Fe in proteins. A pair of signals appeared in the black pepper after γ-irradiation. The progressive saturation behavior reconfirmed the signal identification for the radicals in the black pepper. (author)

  14. Detection of irradiated fruits and vegetables by gas-chromatographic methods and electron spin-resonance

    Gas chromatographic methods detected some hydrocarbons esp. 17:1, 16:2, 15:0 and 14:1 in irradiated, Avocado, Papaya, Mangoes with 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 kGy and Apricot with 0.5 and 3.0 kGy. The detection of hydrocarbons was clearly at high doses but the low doses need more sensitive conditions using Liquid-Liquid-Gas chromatographic method as used here. Using Electron Spin-Resonance, produce a specific signal from irradiated onion (dried leaves) as well as apricot (hard coat of kernels) after some weeks of irradiation process but not clear with the other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  15. Identification of irradiated peppers by electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity

    White and black pepper purchased in local retailers were analysed by electron spin resonance (ESR), thermoluminescence (TL) and viscosimetry (VISC) in order to establish a viable method for identifying possibly irradiated peppers. Samples studied were non irradiated or irradiated in a cobalt-60 plant with the absorbed doses of 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Confirming the data found in the literature TL was revealed by our results the best method to identify irradiated peppers. Nevertheless, the dose received by the samples could not be estimated. The ESR signal of irradiated peppers is similar to the spectrum of cellulose radical but very short lived at ambient temperature. The study on the alteration of viscosity of heat-treated alkaline pepper suspensions indicate that VISC is a very promising method for detection of irradiated peppers. (Author)

  16. Myosin cross-bridge orientation in rigor and in the presence of nucleotide studied by electron spin resonance.

    Ajtai, K; French, A R; Burghardt, T P

    1989-01-01

    The tilt series electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum from muscle fibers decorated with spin labeled myosin subfragment 1 (S1) was measured from fibers in rigor and in the presence of MgADP. ESR spectra were measured at low amplitude modulation of the static magnetic field to insure that a minimum of spectral lineshape distortion occurs. Ten tilt series ESR data sets were fitted simultaneously by the model-independent methodology described in the accompanying paper (Burghardt, T. P., and A. ...

  17. Spectroscopy study of electron spin resonance of coal oxidation of different rank

    The present work constitutes an initial step for the knowledge of the coal oxidation, with the purpose of preventing the adverse influences caused by this phenomenon in the physical-chemical characteristics and in the tendency to the spontaneous combustion. Since the knowledge the influence of the free radicals in this process, their relative concentration was measured by means of the use of the technique of resonance spin electron. This technique measures the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, generally in the microwaves region, for the materials that not have electrons matched up in a strong magnetic field. In the essays of oxidation three coal of different range and different characteristics of mass were used and it was studied the influence of the temperature, particle size and the range. The results showed that the coal of Guacheta (bituminous low in volatile) it presents bigger concentration of free radicals, after the reaction with the atmospheric oxygen, with regard to the coal of the Cerrejon (bituminous high in volatile B) and Amaga (bituminous high in volatile C). Although this doesn't indicate that the coal of Guacheta is that more easily is oxidized, but rather it possibly presents stabilization of radicals for resonance. It concluded that there are differences in the oxidation mechanism between coal of different rank and different agglomeration properties

  18. Doppler effect at the electron cyclotron and spin resonances and its applications for plasma diagnostics and electron polarization in a warm beam

    In the Ref.[1] it is considered the method of electron polarization using the Doppler effect at the electron spin resonance (ESR),in the case of the monoenergetic electron beam.In this work the development of the method is discussed for the warm beam,i.e.,for the kinetic case instead of the hydrodynamic one

  19. Magnetic dipole-dipole sensing at atomic scale using electron spin resonance STM

    Choi, T.; Paul, W.; Rolf-Pissarczyk, S.; MacDonald, A.; Yang, K.; Natterer, F. D.; Lutz, C. P.; Heinrich, A. J.

    Magnetometry having both high magnetic field sensitivity and atomic resolution has been an important goal for applications in diverse fields covering physics, material science, and biomedical science. Recent development of electron spin resonance STM (ESR-STM) promises coherent manipulation of spins and studies on magnetic interaction of artificially built nanostructures, leading toward quantum computation, simulation, and sensors In ESR-STM experiments, we find that the ESR signal from an Fe atom underneath a STM tip splits into two different frequencies when we position an additional Fe atom nearby. We measure an ESR energy splitting that decays as 1/r3 (r is the separation of the two Fe atoms), indicating that the atoms are coupled through magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. This energy and distance relation enables us to determine magnetic moments of atoms and molecules on a surface with high precision in energy. Unique and advantageous aspects of ESR-STM are the atom manipulation capabilities, which allow us to build atomically precise nanostructures and examine their interactions. For instance, we construct a dice cinque arrangement of five Fe atoms, and probe their interaction and energy degeneracy. We demonstrate the ESR-STM technique can be utilized for quantum magnetic sensors.

  20. Use of spin labels to study membrane proteins by high-frequency electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy

    Orlinkskii, S.B.; Borovykh, I.V.; Zielke, V.; Steinhoff, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of spin labels to study membrane proteins by high-frequency electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy is demonstrated. With the use of bacteriorhodopsin embedded in a lipid membrane as an example, the spectra of protons of neighboring amino acids are recorded, electric field g

  1. Electron spin resonance investigation of undoped and Li-doped CdWO.sub.4./sub. scintillator crystals

    Buryi, Maksym; Laguta, Valentyn; Hybler, Jiří; Nikl, Martin; Rosa, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 248, č. 4 (2011), s. 993-996. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : defects * electron spin resonance * scintillators * wolframite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2011

  2. Experimental setup for investigation of nanoclusters at cryogenic temperatures by electron spin resonance and optical spectroscopies

    Mao, S., E-mail: maoshunghost@tamu.edu; Meraki, A.; McColgan, P. T.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M. [Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Shemelin, V. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    We present the design and performance of an experimental setup for simultaneous electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical studies of nanoclusters with stabilized free radicals at cryogenic temperatures. A gas mixture of impurities and helium after passing through a RF discharge for dissociation of molecules is directed onto the surface of superfluid helium to form the nanoclusters of impurities. A specially designed ESR cavity operated in the TE{sub 011} mode allows optical access to the sample. The cavity is incorporated into a homemade insert which is placed inside a variable temperature insert of a Janis {sup 4}He cryostat. The temperature range for sample investigation is 1.25–300 K. A Bruker EPR 300E and Andor 500i optical spectrograph incorporated with a Newton EMCCD camera are used for ESR and optical registration, respectively. The current experimental system makes it possible to study the ESR and optical spectra of impurity-helium condensates simultaneously. The setup allows a broad range of research at low temperatures including optically detected magnetic resonance, studies of chemical processes of the active species produced by photolysis in solid matrices, and investigations of nanoclusters produced by laser ablation in superfluid helium.

  3. Magnetic phase transitions in ferrite nanoparticles characterized by electron spin resonance

    Flores-Arias, Yesica, E-mail: yeika01@hotmail.com; Vázquez-Victorio, Gabriela; Ortega-Zempoalteca, Raul; Acevedo-Salas, Ulises; Valenzuela, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Ammar, Souad [Laboratoires ITODYS, Université de Paris-Diderot, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR 7086, 75205 Paris Cedex (France)

    2015-05-07

    Ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in the composition Zn{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by the polyol method, with an average size of 8 nm. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were carried out at a frequency of 9.45 GHz in the 100–500 K temperature range. Obtained results exhibited a characteristic ESR signal in terms of resonance field, H{sub res}, linewidth, ΔH, and peak ratio, R, for each magnetic phase. At low temperatures, the ferrimagnetic phase showed low H{sub res}, broad ΔH, and asymmetric R. At high temperatures, these parameters exhibited opposite values: high H{sub res}, small ΔH, and R ∼ 1. For intermediate temperatures, a different phase was observed, which was identified as a superparamagnetic phase by means of zero-field cooling-field cooling and hysteresis loops measurements. The observed differences were explained in terms of the internal fields and especially due to the cubic anisotropy in the ordered phase.

  4. Cyclic voltammetry, spectroelectrochemistry and electron spin resonance as combined tools to study thymoquinone in aprotic medium

    Nigella sativa has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for a number of chronic and age-related diseases. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of its extracts, has recently received particular attention and has been tested for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in the biological activities of this natural quinone and, among these, in its antioxidant properties, the redox-system of TQ and its interaction with superoxide was studied in aprotic medium by cyclic voltammetry, spectroelectrochemistry and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). The electrochemical behavior of dithymoquinone (DTQ), the photodimer of TQ, was also studied in the same medium. Experimental data evidenced the formation of the radical anion TQ·− by cathodic reduction of TQ at potential values very close to coenzymes Q ones, by electron transfer (ET) between TQ and superoxide, as KO2 or electrogenerated, by chemical comproportionation between TQ and the dianion TQ−− and by fast cleavage of the electrogenerated radical anion DTQ·−. Spectroelectrochemical data evidenced that TQ·−, in the presence of TQ, evolves to the hydroquinone monoanion TQH−, suggesting that an H-atom transfer (HT) may occur, likely from the isopropylic side-chain of TQ to TQ·− The H-atom donating ability of TQ may be also supported by Bond Dissociation Energy values and ESR data.

  5. Electron Spin Resonance Characterization of Damage and Recovery of Si/SiO2 Interfaces from Electron Beam Lithography

    Kim, Jin-Sung; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    Electron beam lithography (EBL) is an essential tool for the fabrication of few electron silicon quantum devices. However, high-energy electrons and photons from the EBL process create shallow traps and other defects at the Si/SiO2 interface, inhibiting the control of electron populations through electrostatic gating. To reduce defect densities, high temperature and forming gas anneals are commonly used. We studied the effect of these anneals on the reduction of shallow traps created by EBL by fabricating two sets of large area (~1cm2) MOSFETs and characterizing them using transport and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. One set was exposed to a typical EBL dosage (10kV, 40 μC/cm2) and the other remained unexposed. All MOSFETs were fabricated from the same commercially grown gate stack (30nm dry thermal oxide, 200nm amorphous silicon gate layer) and were annealed at 900C in N2 and at 435C in forming gas. Our transport data indicate that these annealing steps recover the EBL exposed sample's low temperature (4.2K) peak mobility to 85 % of the unexposed sample's. Additionally, our ESR data indicate that annealing the EBL exposed sample reduces its density of shallow traps (2-4 meV) to the same density as the unexposed sample.

  6. Applications of electron spin resonance to some problems of radiation chemistry

    The electron spin resonance (E.S.R.) spectra of gamma irradiated polar organic glasses, at 77 K, shows a single line centered at g ∼ 2, attributed to solvated electrons. The radicals produced on scavenging this species by electron acceptors, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, nitro-compounds and azines have been studied by E.S.R. In most cases, the radicals from these solutes, the spectra of which are observed after elimination by warming of the radicals from the matrices, are produced by protonation of the anions formed by scavenging of electrons at 77 K. Thus, in the case of glassy solutions of nitro-compounds, the radicals R NO2H are formed. They are characterized by aN = 15 G (nitrobenzene) or aN = 28 G (nitro-alkane). These radicals are also generated by U.V, photolysis at room temperature of solutions of nitro-compounds in alcohols and are shown to be the precursors of nitroxide radicals R - N - R (with N - O) observed simultaneously. Gamma irradiation of solutions of pyridine and of the three diazines, in alcohol glasses at 77 K, produces the radical formed by hydrogen addition to these compounds. The value of the coupling constant of the additional proton (7-10 G) indicates that it is bound to a nitrogen in the sp2 hydridation state. One has shown, taking pyridine as an example, that the addition to a carbon gives a much greater value of the coupling constant, of the order of 50-60 G. (author)

  7. Simulation of electron spin resonance spectroscopy in diverse environments: An integrated approach

    Zerbetto, Mirco; Polimeno, Antonino; Barone, Vincenzo

    2009-12-01

    We discuss in this work a new software tool, named E-SpiReS (Electron Spin Resonance Simulations), aimed at the interpretation of dynamical properties of molecules in fluids from electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The code implements an integrated computational approach (ICA) for the calculation of relevant molecular properties that are needed in order to obtain spectral lines. The protocol encompasses information from atomistic level (quantum mechanical) to coarse grained level (hydrodynamical), and evaluates ESR spectra for rigid or flexible single or multi-labeled paramagnetic molecules in isotropic and ordered phases, based on a numerical solution of a stochastic Liouville equation. E-SpiReS automatically interfaces all the computational methodologies scheduled in the ICA in a way completely transparent for the user, who controls the whole calculation flow via a graphical interface. Parallelized algorithms are employed in order to allow running on calculation clusters, and a web applet Java has been developed with which it is possible to work from any operating system, avoiding the problems of recompilation. E-SpiReS has been used in the study of a number of different systems and two relevant cases are reported to underline the promising applicability of the ICA to complex systems and the importance of similar software tools in handling a laborious protocol. Program summaryProgram title: E-SpiReS Catalogue identifier: AEEM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPL v2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 311 761 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 039 531 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (core programs) and Java (graphical interface) Computer: PC and Macintosh Operating system: Unix and Windows Has the code been vectorized or

  8. Studies on electronic spectrum and electron spin resonance of vanadium (IV) complexes with organophosphorus compounds and high molecular weight amines

    In the extraction of vanadium (IV) from aqueous solutions containing hydrochloric acid and/or a mixture of hydrochloric acid and lithium chloride by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogenphosphate (DEHPA; HX), trioctylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), trioctylamine (TOA), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and tributyl phosphate (TBP), the complexes formed in the organic phases have been examined by spectrophotometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. It is found that in the extraction by DEHPA, the vanadium in the organic phase exists as the monomeric species, VO(X2H)2, or the polymeric one, (VOX2)sub(n), and that in the extractions by Aliquat-336, TOA, TOPO, and TBP, tetravalent vanadium complexes are stable in the organic phases extracted from a mixed solution of hydrochloric acid and lithium chloride, while complexes containing pentavalent vanadium and VOV4+ ions are formed in the organic phases extracted from hydrochloric acid solutions. (author)

  9. Comparison of defects in crystalline oxide semiconductor materials by electron spin resonance

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi, E-mail: toki@rins.ryukoku.ac.jp; Kimura, Mutsumi [Department of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ryukoku University, 1-438, 1-5 Yokotani, Seta Oe-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194, Japan and Joint Research Center for Science and Technology, Ryukoku University, 1-5 Yokotani, Seta Oe-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Defects in crystalline InGaZnO{sub 4} (IGZO) induced by plasma were investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). Thermal stabilities and g factors of two ESR signals (A and B observed at g = 1.939 and 2.003, respectively) in IGZO were different from those of the ESR signals observed in component materials such as Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (signal observed at g = 1.969), In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (no signal), and ZnO (signal observed at g = 1.957). Signal A in IGZO increased upon annealing at 300 °C for 1 h, but decreased when annealing was continued for more than 2 h. On the other hand, signal B decreased upon annealing at 300 °C for 1 h. The ESR signal in ZnO decayed in accordance with a second-order decay model with a rate constant of 2.1 × 10{sup −4} s{sup −1}; however, this phenomenon was not observed in other materials. This difference might have been due to randomly formed IGZO lattices such as asymmetrical (Ga, Zn)O and In-O layers. Defects in signals A and B in IGZO were formed in trap states (at the deep level) and tail states, respectively.

  10. Antioxidant activity in hepatopancreas of the shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri) by electron paramagnetic spin resonance spectrometry.

    Díaz, Ana C; Fernández Gimenez, Analía V; Mendiara, Sara N; Fenucci, Jorge L

    2004-05-19

    Free radical scavenging properties of hepatopancreas extracts of Pleoticus muelleri were evaluated by electron paramagnetic spin resonance spectrometry methods (EPR) against the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The present study was carried out to characterize different physiological stages of the shrimp under environmental and nutritional stress, evaluating the effect on growth, survival, and functional morphology of the hepatopancreas. Feeding trials were carried out on juveniles (1 g initial weight) held in aquaria. Each diet, with different concentrations of vitamins A and E, was tested in triplicate groups during 25 days. The control groups were fed with fresh squid mantle and with a vitamin-free diet. For all of the diets, the extracts exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity, suggesting that the tissue is a powerful natural antioxidant. Individuals fed with different concentrations of vitamin E showed the strongest effect on the DPPH radicals, reducing the DPPH radicals to 50%, after an incubation period of 3 min. In contrast, the extracts of control animals, fed with squid mantle, had the weakest antioxidant activity (4%). These data indicated that the presence of vitamin E in the diet can provide immediate protection against free radicals. PMID:15137874

  11. Electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence in powder form of clear fused quartz: effects of grinding

    Ranjbar, A H; Randle, K

    1999-01-01

    Clear fused quartz (CFQ) tubes were powdered either manually by using a mortar and pestle (for coarse production) or mechanically, using a micronising mill (for fine production). A high and multisignal electron spin resonance (ESR) background was found in the fine powder even after annealing it at 900 deg. C for 20 min. In the case of the coarse powder, the signal (ESR background) varied inversely with particle size and was quite high for particle sizes lower than 38 mu m. In a subsidiary experiment, using fine SiO sub 2 powder (99.8% pure, with the particle size of approx 0.007 mu m), manufactured by using flame hydrolysis, only a weak background signal was found. The sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-ray irradiated powders (approx 22 Gy) were subjected to ESR analysis or thermoluminescence (TL) readout. The ESR intensity of the coarse powder varied directly with particle size. Thus, the intensity for a particle size of 20-38 mu m was very low and almost the same as the unirradiated intensity. In TL readout the results w...

  12. Gas chromatographic and electron spin resonance investigations of gamma-irradiated frog legs

    Several very sensitive techniques to measure radiation-induced products in frog legs were investigated. Presented here are results from the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and capillary gas chromatography (GC) to measure radiolysis products in γ-irradiated frog legs. When bone is irradiated, a characteristic ESR signal develops and is easily measured. The intensity of the ESR signal is dose-dependent and stable for several months at room temperature. When triglycerides or fatty acids are irradiated, some of the major stable products formed are hydrocarbons with one less carbon than the precursor fatty acids. These hydrocarbons are formed as the result of the loss of CO2 during various free radical reactions. A capillary GC procedure was developed to monitor the formation of these hydrocarbons in γ-irradiated frog legs. Since frog legs contain large amounts of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, the formation of the hydrocarbons (pentadecane, heptadecane, 8-heptadecene, and 6,9-heptadecadiene, respectively) from the decarboxylation of these fatty acids was monitored. The yields of these hydrocarbons were found to be linear with applied dose. A sample from a lot of imported frog legs that were believed to have been treated with ionizing radiation was also analyzed. The ESR technique, in conjunction with the GC data on the hydrocarbons, appears to be a useful approach for identifying and monitoring frog legs that have been treated with ionizing radiation. (author)

  13. Electron spin resonance investigation of irradiated Si-SiO2

    The point defects of Pb and E' in two kinds of Si-SiO2 formed by different technological process, before and after irradiation with different dosage and bias field, have been examined using electron spin resonance (ESR). The experimental results show that there are Pb defects in both kinds of Si-SiO2 no matter whether they are irradiated, and the radiation of 60Co can generate more Pb defects in the Si-SiO2 systems. In the first kind of Si-SiO2 the E' defects can be observed after irradiation with positive bias field, while with free field these defects appear only when the irradiation dosage is as high as 50 kGy(Si). But there are not any E' in the second kind of Si-SiO2 even if they are irradiated. Besides, the ΔH(peak to peak) of Pb and E' in the ESR spectra indicates that Pb is referred to a slow relaxation defect but E' to a fast relaxation defect. Finally, the experimental results are qualitatively explained

  14. Estimation of the absorbed dose in gamma irradiated food containing bone by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    The use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to accurately evaluate the absorbed dose to radiationprocessed bones (and thus meats) is examined. The exposure of foodstuffs containing bone to a dose of ionizing radiation results in the formation of long lived free radicals which give rise to characteristics ESR signals. The yield of radicals was found to be proportional to absorbed dose. Additive re-irradiation of previously irradiated bone was used to estimate the absorbed dose in the irradiated chicken bone. Simple non-linear rational equation was found to fit to the data and yields good dose estimates for irradiated bone in the range of doses (1.0 - 5.0 kGy). Decay of the ESR signal intensity was monitored at different dose levels (2.0 and 7.0 kGy) up to 22 days. The absorbed dose in irradiated chicken (2.Om 3.0 and 6.0 kGy) was assessed at 2, 6 and 12 days after irradiation. Relatively good results were obtained when measurements were made within the following days (up to 12 days) after irradiation. The ability of the dose additive method to provide accurate dose assessments is tested here

  15. Characterization of fluorine-doped silicon dioxide films by Raman spectroscopy and Electron-spin resonance

    We have measured Raman and Electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectra of fluorine-doped SiO2 films deposited by two different methods. In high-density plasma (HDP) films, the Raman band at about 490 cm-1 becomes drastically stronger as the F/Si ratio increases, whereas the Raman band from threefold ring defect is independent of the F/Si ratio. The unusual increase of the intensity of the 490 cm-1 band in HDP films has been interpreted in terms of the existence of Si-Si clusters. From a comparison between Raman spectra of HDP film and plasma chemical vapor deposition using tetraethoxysilane (p-TEOS) film with the same F/Si ratios it has been found that HDP film has more Si-Si bonds and threefold ring defects than p-TEOS film. Furthermore, the polarized Raman spectra in the 810 cm-1 bands indicate that inhomogeneous SiO2 clusters of various sizes should exist in the network structure of HDP film. The result of the ESR measurement shows that HDP films have fewer dangling bonds than p-TEOS films. It is considered that many Si-Si clusters, threefold ring defects, and inhomogeneous SiO2 cluster sizes, and the few dangling bonds in HDP films give rise to the film properties of low stress, good adhesion with Si substrate, and low water permeation

  16. Characterization of fluorine-doped silicon dioxide films by Raman spectroscopy and Electron-spin resonance

    Matsuda, K. [Toray Research Center, Inc. Sonoyama 3-3-7, Otsu, Shiga, 520-8567 (Japan)]. E-mail: keiko_matsuda@trc.toray.co.jp; Yamaguchi, Y. [Toray Research Center, Inc. Sonoyama 3-3-7, Otsu, Shiga, 520-8567 (Japan); Morita, N. [Toray Research Center, Inc. Sonoyama 3-3-7, Otsu, Shiga, 520-8567 (Japan); Matsunobe, T. [Toray Research Center, Inc. Sonoyama 3-3-7, Otsu, Shiga, 520-8567 (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [Toray Research Center, Inc. Sonoyama 3-3-7, Otsu, Shiga, 520-8567 (Japan)

    2007-06-13

    We have measured Raman and Electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectra of fluorine-doped SiO{sub 2} films deposited by two different methods. In high-density plasma (HDP) films, the Raman band at about 490 cm{sup -1} becomes drastically stronger as the F/Si ratio increases, whereas the Raman band from threefold ring defect is independent of the F/Si ratio. The unusual increase of the intensity of the 490 cm{sup -1} band in HDP films has been interpreted in terms of the existence of Si-Si clusters. From a comparison between Raman spectra of HDP film and plasma chemical vapor deposition using tetraethoxysilane (p-TEOS) film with the same F/Si ratios it has been found that HDP film has more Si-Si bonds and threefold ring defects than p-TEOS film. Furthermore, the polarized Raman spectra in the 810 cm{sup -1} bands indicate that inhomogeneous SiO{sub 2} clusters of various sizes should exist in the network structure of HDP film. The result of the ESR measurement shows that HDP films have fewer dangling bonds than p-TEOS films. It is considered that many Si-Si clusters, threefold ring defects, and inhomogeneous SiO{sub 2} cluster sizes, and the few dangling bonds in HDP films give rise to the film properties of low stress, good adhesion with Si substrate, and low water permeation.

  17. Identification of irradiated wheat by germination test, DNA comet assay and electron spin resonance

    Barros, Adilson C.; Freund, Maria Teresa L.; Villavicencio, Ana Lúcia C. H.; Delincée, Henry; Arthur, Valter

    2002-03-01

    In several countries, there has been an increase in the use of radiation for food processing thus improving the quality and sanitary conditions, inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms, delaying the natural aging process and so extending product lifetime. The need to develop analytical methods to detect these irradiated products is also increasing. The goal of this research was to identify wheat irradiated using different radiation doses. Seeds were irradiated with a gamma 60Co source (Gammacell 220 GC) in the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares. Dose rate used were 1.6 and 5.8kGy/h. Applied doses were 0.0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0kGy. After irradiation, seeds were analysed over a 6 month period. Three different detection methods were employed to determine how irradiation had modified the samples. Screening methods consisted of a germination test measuring the inhibition of shooting and rooting and analysis of DNA fragmentation. The method of electron spin resonance spectroscopy allowed a better dosimetric evaluation. These techniques make the identification of irradiated wheat with different doses possible.

  18. Identification of gamma ray irradiated wheat by electron spin resonance, DNA comet assay and germination test

    In several countries, there has been an increase in the use of radiation for food processing thus improving the quality and sanitary conditions, inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms, delaying the natural aging process and so extending product lifetime. The need to develop analytical methods to detect these irradiated products is also increasing. The goal of this research was to identify wheat irradiated using three different techniques: Electron spin resonance, DNA comet assay and germination test, for comparison. Wheat variety IAC 289 and husked wheat variety IAC 355 was from Instituto Agronomico de Campinas. Grains were irradiated with a gamma 60Co source (Gammacell 220 GC) in the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. Dose rate used were 1.6 kGy/h and 5.8 kGy/h. Applied doses were 0.0 kGy ; 0.10 kGy ; 0.25 kGy ; 0.50 kGy ; 0.75 kGy ; 1.0 kGy and 2.0 kGy. After irradiation, grains were analyzed over a 6 month period. It is possible to use E8R to identify irradiated husked wheat until 3 weeks after the date of irradiation. Comet assay was a qualitative test that we used to identify irradiated wheat at least 6 months after storage. The germination test make possible the identification and the better criteria was the shoot length. (author)

  19. Gas chromatographic and electron spin resonance investigations of gamma-irradiated frog legs

    Morehouse, Kim M.; Ku, Yuoh; Albrecht, Heidi L.; George C., Yang

    Several very sensitive techniques to measure radiation-induced products in frog legs were investigated. Presented here are results from the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and capillary gas chromatography (GC) to measure radiolysis products in γ-irradiated frog legs. When bone is irradiated, a characteristic ESR signal develops and is easily measured. The intensity of the ESR signal is dose-dependent and stable for several months at room temperature. When triglycerides or fatty acids are irradiated, some of the major stable products formed are hydrocarbons with one less carbon than the precursor fatty acids. These hydrocarbons are formed as the result of the loss of CO 2 during various free radical reactions. A capillary GC procedure was developed to monitor the formation of these hydrocarbons in γ-irradiated frog legs. Since frog legs contain large amounts of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, the formation of the hydrocarbons (pentadecane, heptadecane, 8-heptadecene, and 6,9-heptadecadiene, respectively) from the decarboxylation of these fatty acids was monitored. The yields of these hydrocarbons were found to be linear with applied dose. A sample from a lot of imported frog legs that were believed to have been treated with ionizing radiation was also analyzed. The ESR technique, in conjunction with the GC data on the hydrocarbons, appears to be a useful approach for identifying and monitoring frog legs that have been treated with ionizing radiation.

  20. High Radiation Doses from Radiotherapy Measured by Electron Spin Resonance in Dental Enamel

    For radiotherapy, an error in the complicated treatment planning or treatment procedure is a possibility, however remote. Thus, in the present study electron spin resonance (ESR) in dental enamel was investigated for the first time as a means of retrospective dosimetry for validating applied radiotherapy doses to the head and neck regions. Total absorbed radiation doses measured by ESR in dental enamel were compared to the doses determined by treatment planning for 19 patients who received radiotherapy for intra-oral, pharyngeal or laryngeal malignancies, or total-body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplants (BMT). For the 15 tumour irradiations there was, within the framework of the tooth positions as presented, general agreement between the treatment planned and ESR dose determinations. There were, however, both significant and minor discrepancies. For the BMT patients there were major discrepancies for two of the four patients investigated. This study indicates that ESR in dental enamel may be useful as the only means of retrospective dosimetry for validating applied radiotherapy doses after treatment. However, further research must be carried out before this technique can be accepted as accurate and reliable. (author)

  1. ESR (Electronic Spin Resonance Spectroscopy) study of irradiated paper for biomedical material wrapping

    Ionising radiation treatments are used for sterilization, microbiological decontamination, disinfection, insect disinfestation and food preservation. This ionising radiation generates free radicals (FR) in matter, which can be detected by Electronic Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (ESR). For this work it had analysed different kind of irradiated package papers of syringes, surgical gloves and dressings by ESR. These were irradiated with doses between 20 and 35 kGy of gamma radiation (Cobalt 60). The processed samples were measured in a Bruker ECS 106 spectrometer. The obtained results were: 1-) The irritated samples showed a central peak and two satellites induced by the applied radiation; 2-) The non-irradiated samples did not show the characteristic satellite peaks of the irritated ones; 3-) A linear relationship between the signal heights per unit mass and the applied doses was found; and 4-) The signals were highly stable, with half-time values between 240 and 370 days for 20 and 30 kGy, permitting more than one year of monitoring proceedings. In conclusion, the ESR allows the detection, quantification and time monitoring processes of this kind of irradiated materials. (author)

  2. Identification of irradiated wheat by germination test, DNA comet assay and electron spin resonance

    Barros, Adilson C. E-mail: acbarros@cena.usp.br; Freund, Maria Teresa L. E-mail: mtfreund@if.usp.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Arthur, Valter E-mail: vaarthur@pira.cena.usp.br

    2002-03-01

    In several countries, there has been an increase in the use of radiation for food processing thus improving the quality and sanitary conditions, inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms, delaying the natural aging process and so extending product lifetime. The need to develop analytical methods to detect these irradiated products is also increasing. The goal of this research was to identify wheat irradiated using different radiation doses. Seeds were irradiated with a gamma {sup 60}Co source (Gammacell 220 GC) in the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. Dose rate used were 1.6 and 5.8 kGy/h. Applied doses were 0.0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy. After irradiation, seeds were analysed over a 6 month period. Three different detection methods were employed to determine how irradiation had modified the samples. Screening methods consisted of a germination test measuring the inhibition of shooting and rooting and analysis of DNA fragmentation. The method of electron spin resonance spectroscopy allowed a better dosimetric evaluation. These techniques make the identification of irradiated wheat with different doses possible.

  3. Ternary complexes of albumin-Mn(II)-bilirubin and Electron Spin Resonance studies of gallstones

    Chikvaidze, E N; Kirikashvili, I N; Mamniashvili, G I

    2009-01-01

    The stability of albumin-bilirubin complex was investigated depending on pH of solution. It was shown that the stability of complex increases in presence of Mn(II) ions. It was also investigated the paramagnetic composition of gallstones by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. It turned out that all investigated gallstones contain a free bilirubin radical-the stable product of its radical oxidation. Accordingly the paramagnetic composition gallstones could be divided on three main types: cholesterol, brown pigment and black pigment stones. ESR spectra of cholesterol stones is singlet with g=2.003 and splitting between components 1.0 mT. At the same time the brown gallstones, besides aforementioned signal contain the ESR spectrum which is characteristics for Mn(II) ion complexes with inorganic compounds and, finally, in the black pigment stones it was found out Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes with organic compounds and a singlet of bilirubin free radical. It is supposed that crystallization centers of gallst...

  4. Identification of γ-irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by γ-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to γ-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of γ-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in γ-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author)

  5. An electron spin resonance study of γ-ray irradiated pepper

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed four radical species in the irradiated pepper. The representative ESR spectrum of the pepper is composed of a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value, a singlet at g=4.0 and side peaks near g=2.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn2+ ion (hf constant=7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical that may be induced by the (γ-ray irradiation. The third one may be originated from Fe3+ ion in the non-hem proteins. Those three signals were found in the pepper sample before irradiation. The fourth signals were found at the symmetric position of the organic free radical, i.e., the second signal. The progressive saturation method of the ESR microwave power indicated quite different relaxation behaviors of those radicals. The method reflects four independent radical species in the irradiated pepper. Relaxation time for the singlet signal centered at g=2.0 revealed that the signal is due to the typical organic free radical. (author)

  6. Electron spin resonance characterization of radical components in irradiated black pepper skin and core

    Characteristics of free radical components of irradiated black pepper fruit (skin) and the pepper seed (core) were analyzed using electron spin resonance. A weak signal near g=2.005 was observed in black pepper before irradiation. Complex spectra near g=2.005 with three lines (the skin) or seven lines (the core) were observed in irradiated black pepper (both end line width; ca. 6.8 mT). The spectral intensities decreased considerably at 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of the content and the stability of radical components derived from plant constituents, including fiber, starch, polyphenol, mono- and disaccharide, were in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that the signal intensities derived from fiber in the skin for an absorbed dose were higher, and the rates of decrease were lower, than that in the core. In particular, the cellulose radical component in the skin was highly stable. - Highlights: → We identified the radical components in irradiated black pepper skin and core. → The ESR spectra near g=2.005 with 3-7 lines were emerged after irradiation. → Spectra simulated basing on the content and the stability of radical from the plant constituents. → Cellulose radical component in black pepper skin was highly stable. → Single signal near g=2.005 was the most stable in black pepper core.

  7. Identification of irradiated wheat by germination test, DNA comet assay and electron spin resonance

    In several countries, there has been an increase in the use of radiation for food processing thus improving the quality and sanitary conditions, inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms, delaying the natural aging process and so extending product lifetime. The need to develop analytical methods to detect these irradiated products is also increasing. The goal of this research was to identify wheat irradiated using different radiation doses. Seeds were irradiated with a gamma 60Co source (Gammacell 220 GC) in the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. Dose rate used were 1.6 and 5.8 kGy/h. Applied doses were 0.0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy. After irradiation, seeds were analysed over a 6 month period. Three different detection methods were employed to determine how irradiation had modified the samples. Screening methods consisted of a germination test measuring the inhibition of shooting and rooting and analysis of DNA fragmentation. The method of electron spin resonance spectroscopy allowed a better dosimetric evaluation. These techniques make the identification of irradiated wheat with different doses possible

  8. Tooth enamel electron spin resonance dosimetry of people living in the area with lime tobacco custom

    Objective: To study the effect of the custom of long term chewing lime tobacco on human tooth enamel electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry. Methods: A total of 20 enamel samples from lingual parts of adults teeth collected in Bombay, India were obtained by mechanical method. Some enamel samples from Japanese adults were extracted and 10 mixed samples were prepared. Enamel samples were exposed to different doses of 60Co γ-rays several times, and ESR spectra were measured after exposure. Results: ESR background signals of 9 Bombay samples were found 1.5-3.3 times higher than those of Japanese mixed samples. The γ-ray dose responses of dosimetric signal with higher background level were a little lower, and the average sensitivity was (0.42±0.03) mGy, which was close to that of Japanese mixed samples. Conclusions: The average level of background signals of Bombay samples was much higher than that of other non-chewing tobacco area, which was possibly caused by tobacco area, which was possibly caused by tobacco lime, the main component in chewing tobacco productions, and it would help to explore its special influences on ESR, and improve dose reconstruction in accuracy. (authors)

  9. New sensitive agents for detecting singlet oxygen by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.

    Igarashi, T; Sakurai, K; Oi, T; Obara, H; Ohya, H; Kamada, H

    1999-05-01

    Free radicals are well-established transient intermediates in chemical and biological processes. Singlet oxygen, though not a free radical, is also a fairly common reactive chemical species. It is rare that singlet oxygen is studied with the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique in biological systems, because there are few suitable detecting agents. We have recently researched some semiquinone radicals. Specifically, our focus has been on bipyrazole derivatives, which slowly convert to semiquinone radicals in DMSO solution in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide and oxygen. These bipyrazole derivatives are dimers of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and have anti-ischemic activities and free radical scavenging properties. In this work, we synthesized a new bipyrazole derivative, 4,4'-bis(1p-carboxyphenyl-3-methyl-5-hydroxyl)-pyrazole, DRD156. The resulting semiquinone radical, formed by reaction with singlet oxygen, was characterized by ESR spectroscopy. DRD156 gave no ESR signals from hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide. DRD156, though, gives an ESR response with hypochlorite. This agent, nevertheless, has a much higher ability to detect singlet oxygen than traditional agents with the ESR technique. PMID:10381208

  10. Identification of. gamma. -irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio (National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by {gamma}-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to {gamma}-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of {gamma}-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in {gamma}-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author).

  11. Resonant microwave cavity for 8.5-12 GHz optically detected electron spin resonance with simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance

    Colton, J. S.; Wienkes, L. R.

    2009-03-01

    We present a newly developed microwave resonant cavity for use in optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) experiments. The cylindrical quasi-TE011 mode cavity is designed to fit in a 1 in. magnet bore to allow the sample to be optically accessed and to have an adjustable resonant frequency between 8.5 and 12 GHz. The cavity uses cylinders of high dielectric material, so-called "dielectric resonators," in a double-stacked configuration to determine the resonant frequency. Wires in a pseudo-Helmholtz configuration are incorporated into the cavity to provide frequencies for simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The system was tested by measuring cavity absorption as microwave frequencies were swept, by performing ODMR on a zinc-doped InP sample, and by performing optically detected NMR on a GaAs sample. The results confirm the suitability of the cavity for ODMR with simultaneous NMR.

  12. Detection of reactive oxygen species in isolated, perfused lungs by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Schudt Christian

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sources and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in intact organs are largely unresolved. This may be related to methodological problems associated with the techniques currently employed for ROS detection. Electron spin resonance (ESR with spin trapping is a specific method for ROS detection, and may address some these technical problems. Methods We have established a protocol for the measurement of intravascular ROS release from isolated buffer-perfused and ventilated rabbit and mouse lungs, combining lung perfusion with the spin probe l-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH and ESR spectroscopy. We then employed this technique to characterize hypoxia-dependent ROS release, with specific attention paid to NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide formation as a possible vasoconstrictor pathway. Results While perfusing lungs with CPH over a range of inspired oxygen concentrations (1–21 %, the rate of CP• formation exhibited an oxygen-dependence, with a minimum at 2.5 % O2. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD to the buffer fluid illustrated that a minor proportion of this intravascular ROS leak was attributable to superoxide. Stimulation of the lungs by injection of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA into the pulmonary artery caused a rapid increase in CP• formation, concomitant with pulmonary vasoconstriction. Both the PMA-induced CPH oxidation and the vasoconstrictor response were largely suppressed by SOD. When the PMA challenge was performed at different oxygen concentrations, maximum superoxide liberation and pulmonary vasoconstriction occurred at 5 % O2. Using a NADPH oxidase inhibitor and NADPH-oxidase deficient mice, we illustrated that the PMA-induced superoxide release was attributable to the stimulation of NADPH oxidases. Conclusion The perfusion of isolated lungs with CPH is suitable for detection of intravascular ROS release by ESR spectroscopy. We employed this technique to

  13. Electron spin resonance microscopic imaging of oxygen concentration in cancer spheroids

    Hashem, Mada; Weiler-Sagie, Michal; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Neufeld, Gera; Neeman, Michal; Blank, Aharon

    2015-07-01

    Oxygen (O2) plays a central role in most living organisms. The concentration of O2 is important in physiology and pathology. Despite the importance of accurate knowledge of the O2 levels, there is very limited capability to measure with high spatial resolution its distribution in millimeter-scale live biological samples. Many of the current oximetric methods, such as oxygen microelectrodes and fluorescence lifetime imaging, are compromised by O2 consumption, sample destruction, invasiveness, and difficulty to calibrate. Here, we present a new method, based on the use of the pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) microimaging technique to obtain a 3D mapping of oxygen concentration in millimeter-scale biological samples. ESR imaging requires the incorporation of a suitable stable and inert paramagnetic spin probe into the desirable object. In this work, we use microcrystals of a paramagnetic spin probe in a new crystallographic packing form (denoted tg-LiNc-BuO). These paramagnetic species interact with paramagnetic oxygen molecules, causing a spectral line broadening that is linearly proportional to the oxygen concentration. Typical ESR results include 4D spatial-spectral images that give an indication about the oxygen concentration in different regions of the sample. This new oximetry microimaging method addresses all the problems mentioned above. It is noninvasive, sensitive to physiological oxygen levels, and easy to calibrate. Furthermore, in principle, it can be used for repetitive measurements without causing cell damage. The tissue model used in this research is spheroids of Human Colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) with a typical diameter of ∼600 μm. Most studies of the microenvironmental O2 conditions inside such viable spheroids carried out in the past used microelectrodes, which require an invasive puncturing of the spheroid and are also not applicable to 3D O2 imaging. High resolution 3D oxygen maps could make it possible to evaluate the

  14. Spin wave acoustics of antiferromagnetic structures as magnetoacoustic metamaterials

    Gulyaev, Yurii V; Tarasenko, Sergei V; Shavrov, Vladimir G

    2011-06-30

    This is a review of research results on conditions under which spatially restricted low-temperature antiferromagnets and their composites can be considered as a special class of acoustic magnetic metamaterials (magnetoacoustic metamaterials). In these, the dynamic magnetoacoustic interaction produces a number of effects that are acoustic analogs of polariton effects and which are currently intensively studied in nonmagnetic acoustic metamaterials. It is shown that the elastostatic approach to the analysis of the magnetoelastic dynamics of spatially restricted compensated magnetics is an effective tool in the search for new types of resonance acoustic anomalies, part of which are typical of the magnetostatic spin wave physics (elastostatic bulk and surface spin waves, nonuniform spin-spin resonances with their participation, etc.). (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Spin wave acoustics of antiferromagnetic structures as magnetoacoustic metamaterials

    This is a review of research results on conditions under which spatially restricted low-temperature antiferromagnets and their composites can be considered as a special class of acoustic magnetic metamaterials (magnetoacoustic metamaterials). In these, the dynamic magnetoacoustic interaction produces a number of effects that are acoustic analogs of polariton effects and which are currently intensively studied in nonmagnetic acoustic metamaterials. It is shown that the elastostatic approach to the analysis of the magnetoelastic dynamics of spatially restricted compensated magnetics is an effective tool in the search for new types of resonance acoustic anomalies, part of which are typical of the magnetostatic spin wave physics (elastostatic bulk and surface spin waves, nonuniform spin-spin resonances with their participation, etc.). (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Tuning of the spin distribution between ligand- and metal-based spin: electron paramagnetic resonance of mixed-ligand molybdenum tris(dithiolene) complex anions.

    Fekl, Ulrich; Sarkar, Biprajit; Kaim, Wolfgang; Zimmer-De Iuliis, Marco; Nguyen, Neilson

    2011-09-19

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of homoleptic and mixed-ligand molybdenum tris(dithiolene) complex anions [Mo(tfd)(m)(bdt)(n)](-) (n + m = 3; bdt = S(2)C(6)H(4); tfd = S(2)C(2)(CF(3))(2)) reveal that the spin density has mixed metal-ligand character with more ligand-based spin for [Mo(tfd)(3)](-) and a higher degree of metal-based spin for [Mo(bdt)(3)](-): the magnitude of the isotropic (95,97)Mo hyperfine interaction increases continuously, by a factor of 2.5, on going from the former to the latter. The mixed complexes fall in between, and the metal character of the spin increases with the bdt content. The experiments were corroborated by density functional theory computations, which reproduce this steady increase in metal-based character. PMID:21853970

  17. Mechanism of initiation of oxidation in mayonnaise enriched with fish oil as studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Thomsen, M.K.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Skibsted, L.H.

    2000-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (spin trapping technique) has been used to identify the most important single factor for initiation of lipid oxidation in mayonnaise enriched with fish oil. Low pH increases the formation of radicals during incubation under mildly accelerated conditions at 37...... degreesC as quantified using 12-doxylstearic acid. Sugar, NaCl and potassium sorbate have no effect on radical formation while EDTA (down to 50 mug/g) has an antioxidative effect. Iron bound to phosvitin in egg yolk, inactive at pH similar to6, is considered to be exposed to the solvent (the aqueous phase...

  18. l-Tryptophan Radical Cation Electron Spin Resonance Studies: Connecting Solution-derived Hyperfine Coupling Constants with Protein Spectral Interpretations

    Connor, Henry D.; Sturgeon, Bradley E.; Mottley, Carolyn; Sipe, Herbert J.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2008-01-01

    Fast-flow electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been used to detect a free radical formed from the reaction of l-tryptophan with Ce4+ in an acidic aqueous environment. Computer simulations of the ESR spectra from l-tryptophan and several isotopically modified forms strongly support the conclusion that the l-tryptophan radical cation has been detected by ESR for the first time. The hyperfine coupling constants (HFCs) determined from the well-resolved isotropic ESR spectra support expe...

  19. Electron Spin Resonance study of charge trapping in α-ZnMoO.sub.4./sub. single crystal scintillator

    Buryi, Maksym; Spassky, D.A.; Hybler, Jiří; Laguta, Valentyn; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, Sep (2015), 244-250. ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Electron Spin Resonance * scintillator * charge traps * zinc molybdate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  20. Electrical Detection of Electron Spin Resonance in Microcrystalline Silicon pin Solar Cells

    Behrends, Jan; Schnegg, Alexander; Fehr, Matthias; Lambertz, Andreas; Haas, Stefan; F. Finger; Rech, Bernd; Lips, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance (pEDMR) was employed to study spin-dependent processes that influence charge transport in microcrystalline (?c-Si:H) pin solar cells. Special emphasis was put on the identification of the signals with respect to the individual layers of the cell structure. For this to achieve, we systematically modulated the morphology of the highly doped n- and p-layers from amorphous to microcrystalline. By combining the information obtaine...

  1. In situ electrochemical-electron spin resonance investigations of multi-electron redox reaction for organic radical cathodes

    Huang, Qian; Walter, Eric D.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Lemmon, John P.

    2016-02-29

    Organic radical batteries (ORBs) bearing robust radical polymers as energy storage species, are emerging promisingly with durable high energy and power characteristics by unique tunable redox properties. Here we report the development and application of in situ electrochemical-electron spin resonance (ESR) methodologies to identify the charge transfer mechanism of Poly(2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate) (PTMA) based organic radical composite cathodes in the charge-discharge process of lithium half cells. The in situ experiments allow each electrochemical state to be associated with the chemical state (or environment) of the radical species upon the cell cycling. In situ ESR spectra of the composite cathode demonstrate a two-electron redox reaction of PTMA. Moreover, two different local environments of radical species are found in the composite electrode that includes both concentrated and isolated radicals. These two types of radicals show similarities during the redox reaction process while behave quite differently in the non-faradic reaction of ion sorption/desorption on the electrode surface.

  2. Use of electron spin resonance technique for identifying of irradiated foods

    The present investigation was carried out to establish the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique for identifying of some irradiated foodstuffs, i.e. dried fruits (fig and raisin), nuts (almond and pistachio) and spices (fennel and thyme). Gamma rays were used as follows: 0, 1, 3 and 5 kGy were given for dried fruits, while 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy were given for nuts. In addition, 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were given for spices. All treatments were stored at room temperature (25±2 degree C) for six months to study the possibility of detecting its irradiation treatment by ESR spectroscopy. The obtained results indicated that ESR signal intensities of all irradiated samples were markedly increased correspondingly with irradiation dose as a result of free radicals generated by gamma irradiation. So, all irradiated samples under investigation could be differentiated from unirradiated ones immediately after irradiation treatment. The decay that occur in free radicals which responsible of ESR signals during storage periods at ambient temperature showed a significant minimize in ESR signal intensities of irradiated samples. Therefore, after six months of ambient storage the detection was easily possible for irradiated dried fig with dose ≥ 3 kGy and for all irradiated raisin and pistachio (shell). Also, it was possible for irradiated fennel with dose ≥ 10 kGy and for irradiated thyme with dose ≥15 kGy. In contrast, the identification of all irradiated samples of almond (shell as well as edible part) and pistachio (edible part) was impossible after six months of ambient storage.

  3. A study on the characteristics of enamel to electron spin resonance spectrum for retrospective dosimetry

    Hong, Dae Seok; Lee, Kun Jai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is one of the methods applicable to retrospective dosimetry. The retrospective dosimetry is a part of dose reconstruction for estimation of exposed dose occurred years before the estimation. A tooth can be separated as enamel, dentine and cementum. Among the three parts, enamel is known as to show the best sensitivity to the absorbed dose and is most widely used. Since the later 80s, ESR dosimetry with tooth enamel has been studied and applied for the retrospective dosimetry. There are some factors affecting the sensitivity of enamel to absorbed dose. One of the factors is a size of enamel. Grain size of the 1.0mm{approx}0.1mm range is commonly used and 0.6mm{approx}0.25mm is recommended in other study. But the sensitivity can be varied by the grain size. In this study, the granular effect of enamel to the sensitivity is examined for application to retrospective dosimetry. In the enamel separation, to minimize the physically induced ESR spectrum, only chemical separation method was used. Separated enamels were divided by their size. The sizes of each sample is 1.0mm{approx}0.71mm, 0.5mm{approx}0.3mm, and below 0.1mm, respectively. All enamel samples show ESR spectrum related to the absorbed dose and the ESR spectrum shows linearity to the absorbed dose. The sensitivities are similar for each sample. But the enamel of size below 0.1mm shows poor characteristics relative to other enamel size. So, it is not recommended to use enamel samples below 0.1mm.

  4. Electron spin resonance. Part two: a diagnostic method in the environmental sciences.

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    A review is presented of some of the ways in which electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy may be useful to investigate systems of relevance to the environmental sciences. Specifically considered are: quantititave ESR, photocatalysis for pollution control; sorption and mobility of molecules in zeolites; free radicals produced by mechanical action and by shock waves from explosives; measurement of peroxyl radicals and nitrate radicals in air; determination of particulate matter polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), soot and black carbon in air; estimation of nitrate and nitrite in vegetables and fruit; lipid-peroxidation by solid particles (silica, asbestos, coal dust); ESR of soils and other biogenic substances: formation of soil organic matter carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and no-till farming; detection of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants under light stress; molecular mobility and intracellular glasses in seeds and pollen; molecular mobility in dry cotton; characterisation of the surface of carbon black used for chromatography; ESR dating for archaeology and determining seawater levels; measurement of the quality of tea-leaves by ESR; green-catalysts and catalytic media; studies of petroleum (crude oil); fuels; methane hydrate; fuel cells; photovoltaics; source rocks; kerogen; carbonaceous chondrites to find an ESR-based marker for extraterrestrial origin; samples from the Moon taken on the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions to understand space-weathering; ESR studies of organic matter in regard to oil and gas formation in the North Sea; solvation by ionic liquids as green solvents, ESR in food and nutraceutical research. PMID:22308901

  5. Electron spin resonance detection of radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals: application to four nitrofurans.

    Basly, J P; Basly, I; Bernard, M

    1998-08-01

    The detection and dosimetry of radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals is a growing concern to numerous government regulatory agencies worldwide. In the absence of suitable detection methods, attention was focused on electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. This paper reports experimental data on ESR dosimetry of irradiated nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, nifuroxazide, nifurzide and nifurtoinol). Whereas the ESR spectrum of a non-irradiated sample shows no signal, a signal, that is dependent on the irradiation dose is observed with irradiated samples. The number of free radicals was calculated by comparing the second integral from radiosterilized samples and a Bruker strong pitch reference; the values were in the range 1.1 x 10(18)-1.5 x 10(19) radicals mol-1 (G = 0.003-0.03). In addition to qualitative detection, ESR spectrometry can be used for dose determination. When a bi-exponential function is applied to the variation of the peak-to-peak amplitude versus dose, the function correlates well with the data. However, an exponential function, easier to use than a bi-exponential function, will probably be sufficient for dose determination by retrospective dosimetry. Decay of radicals upon storage was modelled using a bi-exponential function. From this, the time limit from the irradiation (25 kGy) for identification of irradiated nitrofurans by ESR can be evaluated. With regard to the commercial aspects of drugs, radicals should be detected up to 2 years after irradiation. The kinetic decrease makes discrimination between irradiated and non-irradiated nitrofurans possible even after storage for up to 2 years, except for nifurtoinol. PMID:10071389

  6. Geochemistry and electron spin resonance of hydrothermal dickite (Nowa Ruda, Lower Silesia, Poland): vanadium and chromium

    Premović, Pavle I.; Ciesielczuk, Justyna; Bzowska, Grażyna; Đorđević, Miloš G.

    2012-06-01

    Geochemical analyses for trace V and Cr have been done on a representative sample of a typical hydrothermal dickite/kaolinite filling vein at Nowa Ruda. The mineralogy of the sample is comparatively simple, dickite being the principal component (ca. 91 % of the total sample). Geochemical fractionation and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) indicate that most (> 90 % of total metal) of the V and Cr reside in the dickite. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) shows that most (> 70 %) of the V in the dickite structure is in the form of vanadyl (VO2+) ions. A high concentration of Cr3+ is also detected in this structure by ESR. The combination of geochemical and spectroscopic tools applied to VO2+ and Cr3+ allow one to specify the Eh (> 0.4 V, highly oxidizing) and pH (≤4.0, highly acidic) of the solution during the formation of dickite from the Nowa Ruda Basin. Substantial proportions of the V and Cr (as well as VO2+ and Cr3+) in the dickite structure were probably contained in an original hydrothermal acid water. We suggest that hot hydrothermal waters leached the surrounding varieties of gabbroids enriched in V and Cr for the dickite-forming solution. The results of this work have shown V and Cr are potentially reliable indicators for geochemical characterization of the physicochemical conditions of their formation. The bulk-rock V/Cr ratio in hydrothermal dickites and kaolinites from Nowa Ruda, Sonoma (California, USA), Cigar Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada) and Teslić (Bosnia and Hercegovina) is also briefly explored here as a potential tracer of redox state during their formation.

  7. Electron spin resonance investigaton of semiconductor materials for application in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Xiao, Lihong

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, hydrogenated silicon and its alloys silicon carbide and silicon oxide have been investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). The microstructure of these materials ranges from highly crystalline to amorphous. The correlation between the paramagnetic defects, microstructure, optical and electrical properties has been discussed. Correspondingly, these properties were characterized by the spin density (N{sub S}), g-value and the lineshape of ESR spectra, Infrared (I{sup IR}{sub C}) and/or Raman crystallinity (I{sup RS}{sub C}) as well as optical absorption and electrical dark conductivity ({sigma}{sub D}). 1. As the light absorber, Si layers essentially should have low defect density and good stability against light exposure. The spin density (N{sub S}) measured by ESR is often used as a measure for the paramagnetic defect density (N{sub D}) in the material. However, ESR sample preparation procedures can potentially cause discrepancy between N{sub S} and N{sub D}. Using Mo-foil, Al-foil and ZnO:Al-covered glass as sacrificial substrates, {mu}c-Si:H and a-Si:H films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and ESR powder samples have been prepared with corresponding procedures. Possible preparation-related metastability and instability effects have been investigated in terms of substrate dependence, HCl-etching and atmosphere exposure. A sequence of 'preparation - annealing - air-exposure - annealing' has been designed to investigate the metastability and instability effects. N{sub S} after post-preparation air exposure is higher than in the annealed states, especially for the highly crystalline {mu}c-Si:H material the discrepancy reached one order of magnitude. Low temperature ESR measurements at 40 K indicated that atmospheric exposure leads to a redistribution of the defect states which in turn influence the evaluated N{sub S}. In annealed conditions the samples tend to have lower N{sub S} presumably due

  8. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance

    Yasuda, Satoshi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Space and Earth Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hara, Hideyuki [Bruker Biospin, Yokohama, Kanagawa 215-0022 (Japan); Tokunaga, Fumio [Department of Space and Earth Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Arata, Toshiaki, E-mail: arata@bio.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Space and Earth Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of spin labeling and PELDOR to measure inter-rhodopsin distance in ROS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong decay of PELDOR signal indicated a high density (mM range) of rhodopsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decay was modeled by rhodopsin monomers dispersed in a planar membrane. -- Abstract: We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at {approx}1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  9. Critical Electron-Paramagnetic-Resonance Spin Dynamics in NiCl2

    Birgeneau, R.J.; Rupp, L.W.; Guggenheim, H.J.;

    1973-01-01

    We have studied the critical behavior of the electron-paramagnetic-resonance linewidth in the planar XY antiferromagnet NiCl2; it is found that the linewidth diverges like ξ∼(T-TN)-0.7 rather than ξ5/2 predicted by the current random-phase-approximation theory.......We have studied the critical behavior of the electron-paramagnetic-resonance linewidth in the planar XY antiferromagnet NiCl2; it is found that the linewidth diverges like ξ∼(T-TN)-0.7 rather than ξ5/2 predicted by the current random-phase-approximation theory....

  10. Higher-order Zeeman and spin terms in the electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian; their description in irreducible form using Cartesian, tesseral spherical tensor and Stevens' operator expressions.

    McGavin, Dennis G; Tennant, W Craighead

    2009-06-17

    In setting up a spin Hamiltonian (SH) to study high-spin Zeeman and high-spin nuclear and/or electronic interactions in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments, it is argued that a maximally reduced SH (MRSH) framed in tesseral combinations of spherical tensor operators is necessary. Then, the SH contains only those terms that are necessary and sufficient to describe the particular spin system. The paper proceeds then to obtain interrelationships between the parameters of the MRSH and those of alternative SHs expressed in Cartesian tensor and Stevens operator-equivalent forms. The examples taken, initially, are those of Cartesian and Stevens' expressions for high-spin Zeeman terms of dimension BS(3) and BS(5). Starting from the well-known decomposition of the general Cartesian tensor of second rank to three irreducible tensors of ranks 0, 1 and 2, the decomposition of Cartesian tensors of ranks 4 and 6 are treated similarly. Next, following a generalization of the tesseral spherical tensor equations, the interrelationships amongst the parameters of the three kinds of expressions, as derived from equivalent SHs, are determined and detailed tables, including all redundancy equations, set out. In each of these cases the lowest symmetry, [Formula: see text] Laue class, is assumed and then examples of relationships for specific higher symmetries derived therefrom. The validity of a spin Hamiltonian containing mixtures of terms from the three expressions is considered in some detail for several specific symmetries, including again the lowest symmetry. Finally, we address the application of some of the relationships derived here to seldom-observed low-symmetry effects in EPR spectra, when high-spin electronic and nuclear interactions are present. PMID:21693947

  11. Multipurpose High Frequency Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometer for Condensed Matter Research

    Nagy, Kalman L; Quintavalle, Dario; Feher, Titusz; Janossy, Andras

    2009-01-01

    We describe a quasi-optical multifrequency ESR spectrometer operating in the 75-225 GHz range and optimized at 210 GHz for general use in condensed matter physics, chemistry and biology. The quasi-optical bridge detects the change of mm wave polarization at the ESR. A controllable reference arm maintains a mm wave bias at the detector. The attained sensitivity of 2x10^10 spin/G/(Hz)1/2, measured on a dilute Mn:MgO sample in a non-resonant probe head at 222.4 GHz and 300 K, is comparable to co...

  12. Spin degrees of freedom in electron nucleon scattering in the resonance region

    Some aspects of using polarized electrons and/or polarized targets in electron-nucleon scattering experiments are discussed. Polarization measurements can be used to extend the knowledge of nucleon form-factor measurements to higher Q2 and are indispensable for a model-independent extraction of the helicity amplitudes of exclusive meson production. Measurements of polarization asymmetries may also help in revealing the excitation of weaker resonances

  13. Concepts in spin electronics

    2006-01-01

    A new branch of physics and nanotechnology called spin electronics has emerged, which aims at simultaneously exploiting the charge and spin of electrons in the same device. The aim of this book is to present new directions in the development of spin electronics in both the basic physics and the future electronics.

  14. Aluminum doped silicon carbide thin films prepared by hot-wire CVD: Investigation of defects with electron spin resonance

    Al-doped p-type μc-SiC:H is prepared in a wide range of HWCVD preparation parameters like Al-doping ratio, deposition pressure, substrate and filament temperatures. We investigate the structural and electrical properties, and focus on identification of paramagnetic defect states by electron spin resonance (ESR). Nominally undoped μc-SiC:H is of a high n-type conductivity (σD = 10-6-10-1 S/cm) and shows a narrow central ESR line (g ∼ 2.003, peak-to-peak linewidth ΔHpp ∼ 4 G) with two pairs of satellites and a spin density NS = 1019 cm-3. Al-doping results in the compensation of dark conductivity to as low as σD = 10-11 S/cm and at higher doping concentrations to effective p-type material. Increase of Al-doping results in reduction of crystallinity (ICIR), ESR line shifts to g ∼ 2.01 and becomes as broad as ΔHpp ∼ 30 G, not unlike to the resonance of singly occupied paramagnetic valence band tail states in a-Si:H. ESR spectrum of highly crystalline Al-doped μc-SiC:H however has a g-value very close to undoped μc-SiC:H. Electron spin density in compensated material decreases to 5 x 1017 cm-3 before it increases again for the highly doped material.

  15. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  16. Electron doping evolution of the neutron spin resonance in NaFe1 -xCoxAs

    Zhang, Chenglin; Lv, Weicheng; Tan, Guotai; Song, Yu; Carr, Scott V.; Chi, Songxue; Matsuda, M.; Christianson, A. D.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Harriger, L. W.; Dai, Pengcheng

    2016-05-01

    Neutron spin resonance, a collective magnetic excitation coupled to superconductivity, is one of the most prominent features shared by a broad family of unconventional superconductors including copper oxides, iron pnictides, and heavy fermions. In this paper, we study the doping evolution of the resonances in NaFe1 -xCoxAs covering the entire superconducting dome. For the underdoped compositions, two resonance modes coexist. As doping increases, the low-energy resonance gradually loses its spectral weight to the high-energy one but remains at the same energy. By contrast, in the overdoped regime we only find one single resonance, which acquires a broader width in both energy and momentum but retains approximately the same peak position even when Tc drops by nearly a half compared to optimal doping. These results suggest that the energy of the resonance in electron overdoped NaFe1 -xCoxAs is neither simply proportional to Tc nor the superconducting gap but is controlled by the multiorbital character of the system and doped impurity scattering effect.

  17. Dramatic enhancement of fullerene anion formation in polymer solar cells by thermal annealing: Direct observation by electron spin resonance

    Liu, Dong; Nagamori, Tatsuya; Yabusaki, Masaki; Yasuda, Takeshi; HAN, LIYUAN; Marumoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we clarified the origin of the efficiency degradation of polymer solar cells containing a lithium-fluoride (LiF) buffer layer created by a thermal annealing process after the deposition of an Al electrode (post-annealing). The device structure was indium-tin-oxide/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)/poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM)/LiF/Al. Three samples consisting of quartz/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al, qua...

  18. Real-time In Situ Electron Spin Resonance Measurements on Fungal Spores of Penicillium digitatum during Exposure of Oxygen Plasmas

    Ishikawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tamiya, Kazuhiro; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Iseki, Sachiko; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    We report the kinetic analysis of free radicals on fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with atomic oxygen generated plasma electric discharge using real time in situ electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. We have obtained information that the ESR signal from the spores was observed and preliminarily assignable to semiquinone radical with a g-value of around 2.004 and a line width of approximately 5G. The decay of the signal is possibly linked to the inactivation of the fungal spore. The real-time in situ ESR has proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens.

  19. Backbone Dynamics of Alamethicin Bound to Lipid Membranes: Spin-Echo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of TOAC-Spin Labels

    Bartucci, Rosa; Guzzi, Rita; De Zotti, Marta; Toniolo, Claudio; Sportelli, Luigi; Marsh, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Alamethicin F50/5 is a hydrophobic peptide that is devoid of charged residues and that induces voltage-dependent ion channels in lipid membranes. The peptide backbone is likely to be involved in the ion conduction pathway. Electron spin-echo spectroscopy of alamethicin F50/5 analogs in which a selected Aib residue (at position n = 1, 8, or 16) is replaced by the TOAC amino-acid spin label was used to study torsional dynamics of the peptide backbone in association with phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes. Rapid librational motions of limited angular amplitude were observed at each of the three TOAC sites by recording echo-detected spectra as a function of echo delay time, 2τ. Simulation of the time-resolved spectra, combined with conventional EPR measurements of the librational amplitude, shows that torsional fluctuations of the peptide backbone take place on the subnanosecond to nanosecond timescale, with little temperature dependence. Associated fluctuations in polar fields from the peptide could facilitate ion permeation. PMID:18096632

  20. Studi Spektroskopi Electron Spin Resonance (Esr Lapisan Tipis Amorf Silikon Karbon (A-Sic:H Hasil Deposisi Metode Dc Sputtering

    Rosari Saleh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The dangling bond defect density in sputtered amorphous silicon carbon alloys have been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR. The results show that the spin density decreased slightly with increasing methane fl ow rate (CH4. The infl uence of carbon and hydrogen incorporation on g-value revealed that for CH4 fl ow rate up to 8 sccm, the ESR signal is dominated by defects characteristic of a-Si:H fi lms and for CH4 fl ow rate higher than 8 sccm the g-value decreased towards those usually found in a-C:H fi lms. Infrared (IR results suggest that as CH4 fl ow rate increases more carbon and hydrogen is incorporated into the fi lms to form Si-H, Si-C and C-H bonds. A direct relation between the IR results and the defect density and g-value is observed.

  1. Electron spin resonance studies of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase: identification of activator cation ligands.

    Miziorko, H M; Sealy, R C

    1984-01-31

    Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (RuBP carboxylase)forms a stable model complex containing stoichiometric amounts of enzyme sites, activator C0(2), divalent activator cation, and the transition-state analogue carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate (CABP). Incorporation of Mn(2+) in the model complex permits investigation of the environment of the activator cation by electron spin resonance (ESR)techniques. Measurements at 9 GHz on the Mn(2+)-containing complex prepared by using dimeric Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme produce a spectrum which indicates that the cation is bound in an anisotropic environment. Measurements at 9 GHz on the spinach enzyme model complex produce a spectrum in which several of the fine structure transitions are obvious. In contrast, the spectrum produced from Mn(2+) bound to R. rubrum enzyme exhibits an intense powder pattern for the central fine structure transition; the other four fine structure transitions produce powder patterns that are in homogeneously broadened and therefore are not as apparent.Low-temperature measurements at high field (35 GHz) result in substantially simplified spectra. The spectrum of Mn(2+) bound to the R. rubrum enzyme shows less fine structure than the spectrum of Mn(2+) bound in the octameric spinach enzyme complex, where substantial hyperfine splitting is resolved in three of the five fine structure transitions. Measurements at 35 GHz on Mn (2+) bound in the dimeric R. rubrum enzyme complex produce spectra in which only the central fine structure transition produces a prominent signal. However, these samples are characterized by several narrow spectral features which permit investigation of the identity of Mn(2+)ligands by 170 perturbation techniques. Preparation of the R. rubrum RuBP carboxylase model complex in (17)O-enriched water results in a sample which exhibits an obviously broadened 35-GHz Mn(2+) spectrum in comparison to unenriched samples. Removal of H(2)(17)O by gel filtration abolished the spectral

  2. Acoustic metasurface with hybrid resonances.

    Ma, Guancong; Yang, Min; Xiao, Songwen; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2014-09-01

    An impedance-matched surface has the property that an incident wave generates no reflection. Here we demonstrate that by using a simple construction, an acoustically reflecting surface can acquire hybrid resonances and becomes impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies, such that no reflection is generated. Each resonant cell of the metasurface is deep-subwavelength in all its spatial dimensions, with its thickness less than the peak absorption wavelength by two orders of magnitude. As there can be no transmission, the impedance-matched acoustic wave is hence either completely absorbed at one or multiple frequencies, or converted into other form(s) of energy, such as an electrical current. A high acoustic-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 23% is achieved. PMID:24880731

  3. Towards Long Range Spin-Spin Interactions via Mechanical Resonators

    Kabcenell, Aaron; Gieseler, Jan; Safira, Arthur; Kolkowitz, Shimon; Zibrov, Alexander; Harris, Jack; Lukin, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen vacancy centers (NVs) are promising candidates for quantum computation, with room temperature optical spin read-out and initialization, microwave manipulability, and weak coupling to the environment resulting in long spin coherence times. The major outstanding challenge involves engineering coherent interactions between the spin states of spatially separated NV centers. To address this challenge, we are working towards the experimental realization of mechanical spin transducers. We have successfully fabricated magnetized high quality factor (Q> 105) , doubly-clamped silicon nitride mechanical resonators integrated close to a diamond surface, and report on experimental progress towards achieving the coherent coupling of the motion of these resonators with the electronic spin states of individual NV centers under cryogenic conditions. Such a system is expected to provide a scalable platform for mediating effective interactions between isolated spin qubits.

  4. Analysis of dose in teeth for estimation of effective dose by the electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry using dental enamels

    Dose in teeth was studied to develop a method that can predict effective dose from results by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dosimetry using dental enamels for external photon exposure. Absorbed dose in teeth and effective dose were calculated by the Electron Gamma Shower Code Version 4 (EGS4). In the Monte Carlo calculations, a region for teeth was newly added to a mathematical human model. Experiments were carried out with a head phantom, which is made of tissue equivalent materials. ESR dosimetry was made with dental enamels irradiated at teeth-part in the head phantom. The absorbed dose in a mouth was also measured with TLDs exposed to gamma rays as the teeth. The Monte Carlo calculation and the experiment gave a quantitative relationship between absorbed dose in teeth and effective dose. The obtained data are considered to be useful for the retrospective individual dose assessment with ESR dosimetry using dental enamels. (author)

  5. Acoustic Fano resonators

    Amin, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    The resonances with asymmetric Fano line-shapes were originally discovered in the context of quantum mechanics (U. Fano, Phys. Rev., 124, 1866-1878, 1961). Quantum Fano resonances were generated from destructive interference of a discrete state with a continuum one. During the last decade this concept has been applied in plasmonics where the interference between a narrowband polariton and a broader one has been used to generate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) (M. Rahmani, et al., Laser Photon. Rev., 7, 329-349, 2013).

  6. 电子自旋共振扫描隧道显微镜%Electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope

    郭阳; 李健梅; 陆兴华

    2015-01-01

    单电子自旋极有可能发展成为未来信息学的基础。以电子自旋为核心的新型单分子或单原子器件将最终成为基本信息单元,基于单电子的自旋态将有可能构筑未来量子计算机的量子比特。但是,如何实现对单个电子自旋及其相干态和纠缠态的测量和控制,目前仍然是一个很大的挑战。作为调控单个电子自旋的重要实验手段,电子自旋共振扫描隧道显微镜的发展一直备受关注。文章简要介绍了电子自旋共振扫描隧道显微镜的基本概念,阐述了其发展历史和最新进展,归纳了机理探索的研究成果,论述了该设备研发面临的挑战与对策,并对未来的发展和应用做了展望。%It is highly expected that the future informatics will be based on the spins of in-dividual electrons. The development of elementary information unit will eventually leads to novel single-molecule or single-atom devices based on electron spins;the quantum computer in the fu-ture can be constructed with single electron spins as the basic quantum bits. However, it is still a great challenge in detection and manipulation of a single electron spin, as well as its coherence and entanglement. As an ideal experimental tool for such tasks, the development of electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope (ESR-STM) has attracted great attention for decades. This paper briefly introduces the basic concept of ESR-STM. The development history of this in-strument and recent progresses are reviewed. The underlying mechanism is explored and summa-rized. The challenges and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, the prospect of future direction and applications are presented.

  7. Temperature dependent behavior of localized and delocalized electrons in nitrogen-doped 6H SiC crystals as studied by electron spin resonance

    Savchenko, Dariia; Kalabukhova, E.; Shanina, B.; Cichoň, Stanislav; Honolka, Jan; Kiselov, V.; Mokhov, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 4 (2016), "045701-1"-"045701-7". ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-06697P; GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA AV ČR(CZ) Purkyně Fellowship Grant ostatní: SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron spin resonance * SiC * nitrogen donors * conduction electrons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  8. Spin polarized low energy electron microscopy of quantum well resonances in Fe films on the Cu-covered W(110) surface.

    Wu, Qiang; Altman, M S

    2013-07-01

    Spin polarized low energy electron microscopy has been used to investigate the quantum size effect (QSE) in electron reflectivity from Fe films grown on a pseudomorphic Cu layer on a W(110) surface. Intensity oscillations caused by the QSE as functions of Fe film thickness and incident electron energy identify quantum well resonance conditions in the film. Evaluation of these intensity oscillations using the phase accumulation model provides information on the unoccupied spin polarized band structure in the Fe film above the vacuum level. We also find evidence that the presence of the non-magnetic Cu layer shifts spin polarized quantum well resonances in the Fe layer uniformly downward in energy by 1.1eV compared to Fe/W(110) films without an interface Cu layer, suggesting that the Cu layer gives a small degree of control over the quantum well resonances. PMID:23628648

  9. Electron doping evolution of the neutron spin resonance in NaFe$_{1-x}$Co$_{x}$As

    Zhang, Chenglin; Lv, Weicheng; Tan, Guotai; Song, Yu; Carr, Scott V.; Chi, Songxue; Matsuda, M.; Christianson, A. D.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Harriger, L. W.; Dai, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Neutron spin resonance, a collective magnetic excitation coupled to superconductivity, is one of the most prominent features shared by a broad family of unconventional superconductors including copper oxides, iron pnictides, and heavy fermions. In this work, we study the doping evolution of the resonances in NaFe$_{1-x}$Co$_x$As covering the entire superconducting dome. For the underdoped compositions, two resonance modes coexist. As doping increases, the low-energy resonance gradually loses ...

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance studies of hydration and local water dynamics in micelle and vesicle assemblies.

    McCarney, Evan R; Armstrong, Brandon D; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi

    2008-09-16

    We present a unique analysis tool for the selective detection of local water inside soft molecular assemblies (hydrophobic cores, vesicular bilayers, and micellar structures) suspended in bulk water. Through the use of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the (1)H NMR signal of water is amplified, as it interacts with stable radicals that possess approximately 658 times higher spin polarization. We utilized stable nitroxide radicals covalently attached along the hydrophobic tail of stearic acid molecules that incorporate themselves into surfactant-based micelle or vesicle structures. Here, we present a study of local water content and fluid viscosity inside oleate micelles and vesicles and Triton X-100 micelles to serve as model systems for soft molecular assemblies. This approach is unique because the amplification of the NMR signal is performed in bulk solution and under ambient conditions with site-specific spin labels that only detect the water that is directly interacting with the localized spin labels. Continuous wave (cw) electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis provides rotational dynamics of the spin-labeled molecular chain segments and local polarity parameters that can be related to hydration properties, whereas we show that DNP-enhanced (1)H NMR analysis of fluid samples directly provides translational water dynamics and permeability of the local environment probed by the spin label. Our technique therefore has the potential to become a powerful analysis tool, complementary to cw ESR, to study hydration characteristics of surfactant assemblies, lipid bilayers, or protein aggregates, where water dynamics is a key parameter of their structure and function. In this study, we find that there is significant penetration of water inside the oleate micelles with a higher average local water viscosity (approximately 1.8 cP) than in bulk water, and Triton X-100 micelles and oleate vesicle bilayers mostly exclude water while allowing for considerable surfactant chain

  11. Electron spin resonance studies of radiation effects. Final report, 1964-1979 (including annual progress reports for 1978 and 1979)

    The discovery of new free radicals, largely in irradiated single crystals of nonmetallic solids, and the determination of the molecular and electronic structures of these paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, have been carried out using a wide variety of organic and inorganic materials. The mechanisms of production of radicals in solids, their motions, and their reactions have been investigated and some applicable general principles deduced. Emphasis has been on aliphatic free radicals from irradiated carboxylic acids and amides and their halogen-substituted derivatives, organometallic radicals and substituted cyclic hydrocarbon radicals; inorganic radicals studied include V centers, hypervalent radicals and electron adducts. Extensive investigations of paramagnetic transition metal complexes, particularly cyanides and fluorides, have been made. In all cases quantum mechanical calculations have been employed as far as possible in interpreting the data. An improved method for analyzing experimental ESR spectra of single crystals has been developed and a number of crystal structures have been determined to supplement the ESR studies. Applications of nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy to the study of structure and bonding in inorganic solids have been made and a method for using nuclear magnetic relaxation data for estimating quadrupole coupling constants in liquids has been developed

  12. Electron spin resonance studies of radiation effects. Final report, 1964-1979 (including annual progress reports for 1978 and 1979)

    Rogers, M.T.

    1979-07-01

    The discovery of new free radicals, largely in irradiated single crystals of nonmetallic solids, and the determination of the molecular and electronic structures of these paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, have been carried out using a wide variety of organic and inorganic materials. The mechanisms of production of radicals in solids, their motions, and their reactions have been investigated and some applicable general principles deduced. Emphasis has been on aliphatic free radicals from irradiated carboxylic acids and amides and their halogen-substituted derivatives, organometallic radicals and substituted cyclic hydrocarbon radicals; inorganic radicals studied include V centers, hypervalent radicals and electron adducts. Extensive investigations of paramagnetic transition metal complexes, particularly cyanides and fluorides, have been made. In all cases quantum mechanical calculations have been employed as far as possible in interpreting the data. An improved method for analyzing experimental ESR spectra of single crystals has been developed and a number of crystal structures have been determined to supplement the ESR studies. Applications of nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy to the study of structure and bonding in inorganic solids have been made and a method for using nuclear magnetic relaxation data for estimating quadrupole coupling constants in liquids has been developed.

  13. Electron spin resonance investigations on ion beam irradiated single-wall carbon nanotubes

    ESR investigations on single-wall carbon nanotubes irradiated with accelerated protons, helium ions, and neon ions are reported. All spectra were accurately simulated assuming that the resonance line is a convolution of up to 4 lines originating from catalyst residues, amorphous carbon, and electrons delocalized over the conducting domains of nanotubes. The faint line observed in irradiated nanotubes at g > 2.25 was assigned to magnetic impurities. However, there are no sufficient data to confirm that this line is connected to radiation-induced magnetism in carbon nanotubes. The generation of paramagnetic defects due to the bombardment of single-wall carbon nanotubes by accelerated ions is reported. These data correlate with previous Raman and thermal investigations on the same single-wall carbon nanotubes and reveals their sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The temperature dependence of ESR spectra in the range 25-250 K was used to identify the components of the ESR spectra

  14. Development of electron spin resonance spectroscopy to detect irradiated foods in routine testing

    Electrospin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for the detection of paramagnetic molecules and ions, and can supply information about their structures. ESR signals are specific of a given radical and are determined by the electronical and sterical properties of the radical species. ESR may be used to identify irradiated food if products contain solid and dry zones. If so, radicals will be formed by ionizing radiation in the dry areas which will not dereact or very slowly so by chemical reaction in their environment (mainly with water contained in the sample). Suitability of ESR measurement for doubtless detection is based on the ratio of the life of the formed radical and the general shelf life of the foods involved. The authors present the radicals and paramagnetic compounds observed in foods and report on the progress achieved at the Federal Health Agency (BGA) last year. (orig.UHE)

  15. Electron spin resonance and optical absorption spectroscopic studies of Cu2+ ions in aluminium lead borate glasses

    Highlights: ► It is for the first time to study optical absorption and EPR in these glasses. ► The thermal properties are new and interesting in this glass system. ► It is for the first time to report three optical bands for Cu2+ in oxide glasses. ► The interesting optical results are due to excellent sample preparation. - Abstract: Electron Spin Resonance and optical absorption spectral studies of Cu2+ ions in 5 Al2O3 + 75 B2O3 + (20-z) PbO + z CuO (where z = 0.1–1.5 mol.% of CuO) glasses have been reported. The EPR spectra of all the glasses show resonance signals characteristic of Cu2+ ions at both room and low temperatures. The number of spins and Gibbs energy were calculated at different concentrations and temperatures. From the plot of the ratio of logarithmic number of spins and absolute temperature and the reciprocal of absolute temperature, the entropy and enthalpy have been evaluated. The optical absorption spectra of all the glasses exhibit three bands and these bands have been assigned to 2B1g → 2Eg, 2B1g → 2B2g, and 2B1g → 2A1g transitions in the decreasing order of energy. It is for the first time to observe three optical absorption bands for Cu2+ ions in oxide glasses. Such type of results is due to excellent sample preparation. From the EPR and optical absorption spectroscopies data, the molecular orbital coefficients have been evaluated.

  16. Study of irradiation effects in the silicon carbide cubic polytype by photoluminescence and electron spin resonance spectroscopies

    This experimental work has consisted in the study of point defects induced by an electronic irradiation in the cubic crystallographic structure of silicon carbide with low temperature photoluminescence and electron spin resonance spectroscopies. The first one of these measurement tools has allowed to estimate the displacement threshold energy in the silicon sub-lattice and then to analyze the thermal stability of the irradiation defects in the low temperature range: (10-300 K) and then in the high temperature range: (300-1400 K). Besides, on the base of a recent theoretical model, this thesis has confirmed the proposition of the isolated silicon antisite for the D1 center whose running beyond the nominal running temperature of fission nuclear reactors (generation IV), for which SiC is in part intended, seems to be particularly problematic. Measurements carried out by ESR under lighting have at last allowed to detect a new defect in its metastable spin state S=1, possibly associated to a silicon interstitial configuration. (O.M.)

  17. Thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance studies of x-irradiated L-alanine:Cr3+ single crystals

    Single crystals of x-irradiated L-alanine:Cr3+ have been studied between 90 and 300 K by electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. Ultraviolet (uv) photobleaching of the Cr3+ electron traps and L-alanine radical centers was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the x-ray generated radical centers can be destroyed by uv-induced electron transport activity, and this destruction follows first order kinetics. Also, the transformation of the primary neutral radical species to a secondary radical in L-alanine was found not to be induced by intermolecular electron transport. The TL glow was determined to proceed by first-order kinetics at a temperature of 160 K with an activation energy of 0.3 eV and a frequency factor of 1.0 x 108 s-1. It is suggested that the TL glow may arise from both the decay of the primary cation radical species in L-alanine and the bleaching of the Cr3+ electron traps, and that the Cr3+ impurity acts to enhance the free radical thermoluminescence

  18. Alkaline denaturation of dentin. A simple way to isolate human tooth enamel for electron spin resonance dosimetry

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) of tooth enamel is a recently developed method for the retrospective dose estimation of human radiation exposures. The assay requires isolation of enamel from dentin, which is difficult because the boundary between enamel and dentin is not easily discernible. Here we describe a simple method for isolating enamel by alkaline denaturation of dentin. The method requires 4 weeks, but scratching of the denatured and hence softened dentin is needed only once a week. Above all, no special skill is required. We found that the alkaline treatment did not cause deterioration of the ESR signal recorded in enamel exposed to 2 Gy of γ-rays prior to its isolation. The assay is particularly suited for teeth containing many cracks that were generated during long-term storage after extraction of the teeth. Such teeth tend to disintegrate during enamel isolation processes, which poses difficulties to isolate enamel mechanically from individual small pieces. (author)

  19. Possibilities of thermoluminescence dating and electron spin resonance dating within the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences

    The Nuclear Sciences Review suggested that we establish thermoluminescence dating in this Institute. The technique is reviewed and it is suggested that electron spin resonance (ESR), a parallel technique would be more appropriate. The Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited already has experience in the technique and has published in the field. Equipment is available on campus. The main use could be for dating quartz, perhaps as old as 1 Ma. However the technique is labour intensive and expensive; it is also subject to more uncertainties than existing techniques in use here. It is recommended that it be used, but as a technique often requiring support and confirmation from other techniques. Usually it will be useful in the age range 0-350 ka, about the same as U/Th series dating. Commercial application of thermoluminescence (and hence probably ESR as well) would not be profitable because of the subsidised analysis offered in the Wollongong University Laboratory. (author) 13 refs

  20. Thermal evolution process of organic free radicals in γ-ray irradiated pepper studied by electron spin resonance

    An increase behavior of radicals in black pepper induced by the γ-ray irradiation was analyzed using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. A sharp signal at g=2.0, observed in the ESR spectrum of pepper due to organic free radicals produced by γ-ray irradiation, increased exponentially in the early stage of heating procedure and then leveled off at a certain value. The increase behavior was analyzed following to a first order differential equation, and obtained a general solution under the restrictions of initial and boundary conditions. Based on the general solution, we carried out the functional prediction using the nonlinear least squares method, and determined a rigorous solution for the time constant of the radical increase. (author)

  1. Thermal decay process of organic free radicals in γ-ray irradiated pepper as studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed the thermal decay process of radicals as induced by γ-ray irradiation on pepper. Upon irradiation, the satellite signals were newly generated at the symmetric positions of the organic free radical, i.e., the g=2.0 signal. By heat treatment, the satellite signals decreased exponentially to heating duration. The ESR signal of the pepper heated for more than 10 min was essentially the same as that before irradiation. In order to evaluate the radical decay during heating, we derived a time-dependent master equation. Based upon the general solution of the equation, we evaluated the time constant of the radical decay through the nonlinear least squares method. (author)

  2. Electron Spin Resonance of 87Rb Monomers on Superfluid Helium Nanodroplets and Introduction of a Simple Model for Optical Pumping

    Full text: Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on superfluid helium nanodroplets (HeN) has recently been performed for 85Rb. Electronic perturbation of the alkali-metal atom induced by the HeN leads to a droplet size dependent change of the hyperfine constant aHFS. The investigation of ESR silent species inside HeN, by measuring their interaction with an alkali-metal atom situated on the droplet surface, is expected to be more sensitive for 87Rb because of its larger hyperfine coupling (aHFS = 3417 MHz). We present new ESR spectra of single 87Rb atoms on HeN. The amplitude of ESR transitions measured by means of optically detected magnetic resonance, turned out to strongly depend on the laser polarization and power. A simple model for optical pumping on HeN has been established. Modelling of changes in the observed line shapes is expected to reveal new information concerning the droplet size dependence of aHFS and is object of current work. (author)

  3. Theory of electron spin resonance in bulk topological insulators Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.

    Ly, O; Basko, D M

    2016-04-20

    We report a theoretical study of electron spin resonance in bulk topological insulators, such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3. Using the effective four-band model, we find the electron energy spectrum in a static magnetic field and determine the response to electric and magnetic dipole perturbations, represented by oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the static field. We determine the associated selection rules and calculate the absorption spectra. This enables us to separate the effective orbital and spin degrees of freedom and to determine the effective g factors for electrons and holes. PMID:26987653

  4. Electron spin resonance studies of radiation-induced defect centers in pure and doped amorphous silicon dioxide: A review

    Over the past twenty years immense progress has been made in interpreting the electron spin resonance spectra of defect centers in various amorphous forms of silicon dioxide produced, e.g., by flame fusion, plasma deposition, or sol-gel methods. Structural models are firmly based on spin Hamiltonian parameters extracted by means of 29Si and 17O isotopic substitution experiments and computer simulation methods. Families of intrinsic defects identified include several species of E' centers (triple-bond Si·), nonbridging oxygen hole centers (triple-bond Si-O·), peroxy radicals (triple-bond Si-O-O·), and self-trapped holes. Atomic hydrogen, HCO, atomic chlorine, and a nitrogen center number among the well-characterized extrinsic defects observed in nominally pure materials. Silicas deliberately doped with B, Ge, or P display a full range of dopant-associated defects. The production and decay kinetics of these centers have been followed as functions of ionizing radiation dose (or excimer laser photon fluence) and post-irradiation anneals. The decay of radiolytic H0 in fused silica is found to obey fractal kinetics

  5. Electron spin relaxation in graphene from a microscopic approach: Role of electron-electron interaction

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin relaxation in graphene on a substrate is investigated from the fully microscopic kinetic spin Bloch equation approach. All the relevant scatterings, such as the electron-impurity, electron--acoustic-phonon, electron--optical-phonon, electron--remote-interfacial-phonon, as well as electron-electron Coulomb scatterings, are explicitly included. Our study concentrates on clean intrinsic graphene, where the spin-orbit coupling from the adatoms can be neglected. We discuss the effect...

  6. Instrumental aspects of high-field force-detected electron spin resonance

    Cruickshank, Paul Alexander Sawchuk

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a new measurement technique combining scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and MR spectroscopy, offering the potential of high resolution chemical specific imaging. MRFM is based on the principle of force detection of magnetic resonance (FDMR) in which the magnetisation of a sample in a magnetic field is coupled to an atomic force microscopy cantilever via a field gradient. Magnetic resonance is used to modulate the sample magnetisation ...

  7. Study of complexing of neodymium (3) with L-histidine by electron spin resonance and electron spectroscopic methods

    Nd(3) complexing with L-histidine in aqueous solution is studied by the paramagnetic resonance and electron spectroscopy methods. It has been found that neodymium forms molecular complexes with L-histidine in aqueous solutions at pH<=6.2, at higher pH values -chelate complexes with deprotonated ligand form. Data are given on structure, composition and stability of Nd chelate complexes, obtained with electron absorption spectra of series of solutions with stable pH (7.24) value and various Nd and histidine (from 1:1 to 1:8) ratios, as well as with Nd:histidine=1:4 ratio and various pH (from 6.2 to 8.0) values

  8. Dramatic enhancement of fullerene anion formation in polymer solar cells by thermal annealing: Direct observation by electron spin resonance

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we clarified the origin of the efficiency degradation of polymer solar cells containing a lithium-fluoride (LiF) buffer layer created by a thermal annealing process after the deposition of an Al electrode (post-annealing). The device structure was indium-tin-oxide/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)/poly (3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM)/LiF/Al. Three samples consisting of quartz/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al, quartz/P3HT:PCBM/Al, and quartz/PCBM/LiF/Al were investigated and compared. A clear ESR signal from radical anions on the PCBM was observed after LiF/Al was deposited onto a P3HT:PCBM layer because of charge transfer at the interface between the PCBM and the LiF/Al, which indicated the formation of PCBM−Li+ complexes. The number of radical anions on the PCBM was enhanced remarkably by the post-annealing process; this enhancement was caused by the surface segregation of PCBM and by the dissociation of LiF at the Al interface by the post-annealing process. The formation of a greater number of anions enhanced the electron scattering, decreased the electron-transport properties of the PCBM molecules, and caused an energy-level shift at the interface. These effects led to degradation in the device performance.

  9. First observation of alkyne radical anions by electron spin resonance spectroscopy: Hexyne/n-hexane mixed crystals

    The radical anions of alkynes have been first observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy following alkene anions previously studied. Hexyne radical anions were formed in 1-, 2-, or 3-hexyne/n--hexane mixed crystals irradiated at 4.2 or 77 K. The characters of the anions were as follows; (a) the α-proton hyperfine coupling is very large (∼4.5 mT for the 1-hexyne anion), (b) the β-proton couplings are very small (∼1.0 mT for C--Hβ proton with the conformational angle of 0 degree), and (c) the radicals show a negative g shift (2.0014). From these observations, it was found that the anions have a nonlinear(bent) molecule structure in the anticonfiguration (trans C--C≡C--C) with the bend angle ∼60 degree, and that the unpaired electron orbital is approximately composed of the anticombination of the sp2 hybrid orbitals of the C≡C carbon atoms. A discussion based on complete neglect of differential overlap (CNDO) molecular orbital (MO) calculations was given for the observed negative g shift, which was shown to be characteristic of the alkyne anions which have a high-lying unpaired electron orbital and an antibonding 2p--2p π carbon orbital just above it on the upper energy side

  10. Electron spin resonance study of x-irradiated single crystals of ammonium chloroacetate

    The quadrupole interaction was considered to be a second order perturbation. Using perturbation theory, formulas were derived for the positions and relative intensities of both allowed (Δm = 0) and forbidden (Δm = +- 1, +- 2) transitions. Using this information, expected spectral patterns were constructed for comparison with observed spectra. It has also been possible to determine the signs of chlorine hyperfine coupling parameters. In this way the complete chlorine coupling tensors were obtained for both the magnetic and quadrupole interactions in the CClHCOONH4 radical. The chlorine magnetic hyperfine couplings are A/sub x/ = 20.5 G perpendicular to the radical plane, A/sub y/ = -5.2 G perpendicular to the C-Cl bond (in the radical plane) and A/sub z/ = -6.3 G in the direction of the C-Cl bond. The quadrupole couplings are P/sub x/ = 2.3 G perpendicular to the radical plane, P/sub y/ = 2.1 G perpendicular to the C-Cl bond (in the plane) and P/sub z/ = -4.4 G in the direction of the C-Cl bond. The hydrogen hyperfine tensor components are A/sub x//sup H/ = -21.8 G perpendicular to the radical plane, A/sub y//sup H/ = -9.3 G in the direction of the C-H bond and A/sub z//sup H/ = -32.5 G perpendicular to the C-H bond (in the radical plane). The g-factor has the values g/sub x/ = 2.0021 perpendicular to the radical plane, g/sub y/ = 2.0080 perpendicular to the C-Cl bond (in the radical plane) and g/sub z/ = 2.0081 in the C-Cl bond. The direction of the C-Cl bond of the radical was inferred. Evaluation of the hydrogen hyperfine couplings has led to the determination of the direction of the C-H bond. From this information the radical was determined to be a planar π-radical. A determination was made of the spin densities of the unpaired electron in the various orbitals: C2p/sub x/ = +0.76, Cl 3s = +0.0017, Cl 3p/sub x/ = +0.175, and Cl 3p/sub z/ = -0.012

  11. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br metamagnet

    A. Zorko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  12. A method for accurate electron-atom resonances: The complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method for the $^2P\\, \\mbox{Be}^{-}$ shape resonance problem

    Tsednee, Tsogbayar; Yeager, Danny L

    2015-01-01

    We propose and develop the complex scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (CMCSTEP) technique for theoretical determination of resonance parameters with electron-atom/molecule systems including open-shell and highly correlated atoms and molecules. The multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method (MCSTEP) developed and implemented by Yeager his coworkers in real space gives very accurate and reliable ionization potentials and attachment energies. The CMCSTEP method uses a complex scaled multiconfigurational self-consistent field (CMCSCF) state as an initial state along with a dilated Hamiltonian where all of the electronic coordinates are scaled by a complex factor. CMCSCF was developed and applied successfully to resonance problems earlier. We apply the CMCSTEP method to get $^2 P\\,\\mbox{Be}^{-}$ shape resonance parameters using $14s11p5d$, $14s14p2d$, and $14s14p5d$ basis sets with a $2s2p3d$\\,CAS. The obtained value of the resonance parameters are compared to previous res...

  13. On the spin distribution in bridged anthracene-viologen molecules : an electron-nuclear double resonance study

    Sariciftci, Serdar; Werner, Andreas; Grupp, Arthur; Mehring, Michael; Götz, Günther; Bäuerle, Peter; Effenberger, Franz

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the spin distribution in the radical state of anthracene-σ bridge viologen supermolecules with different bridge units are reported. Electronnuclear double resonance experiments (ENDOR) were performed on electrochemically reduced molecules. Proton hyperfine coupling constants at different molecular sites were obtained and are discussed in detail. The experimentally determined values are compared with quantum chemical calculations of the INDO type. The observed spin distribution...

  14. Examination of gamma-irradiated fruits and vegetables by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    The ESR spectra of the seeds, pits, shells, and skins of a variety of irradiated fruits and vegetables were measured. All spectra, control and irradiated, contained a single resonance with a g-factor of 2.00. Additional resonances due to Mn2+ were observed for the drupelets of blackberries and red raspberries. An unusual radiation-induced radical was observed for irradiated mango seed; however, the signal decayed completely within a few days. It was concluded that only in a few specialized cases could the ESR resonances observed be suitable for postirradiation monitoring or dosimetry. (author)

  15. Examination of gamma-irradiated fruits and vegetables by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the seeds, pits, shells, and skins of a variety of irradiated fruits and vegetables were measured. All spectra, control and irradiated, contained a single resonance with a g-factor of 2.00. Additional resonances due to Mn 2+ were observed for the drupelets of blackberries and red raspberries. An unusual radiation-induced radical was observed for irradiated mango seed; however, the signal decayed completely within a few days. It was concluded that only in a few specialized cases could the ESR resonances observed be suitable for postirradiation monitoring or dosimetry.

  16. Examination of gamma-irradiated fruits and vegetables by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Desrosiers, M.F.; McLaughlin, W.L. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NML), Gaithersburg, MD (USA). Center for Radiation Research)

    1989-01-01

    The ESR spectra of the seeds, pits, shells, and skins of a variety of irradiated fruits and vegetables were measured. All spectra, control and irradiated, contained a single resonance with a g-factor of 2.00. Additional resonances due to Mn{sup 2+} were observed for the drupelets of blackberries and red raspberries. An unusual radiation-induced radical was observed for irradiated mango seed; however, the signal decayed completely within a few days. It was concluded that only in a few specialized cases could the ESR resonances observed be suitable for postirradiation monitoring or dosimetry. (author).

  17. Electron spin resonance study of the La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes

    Kim, Dowan; Lee, Kyu Won [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, E.H. [Department of Electrophysics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Eui, E-mail: rscel@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Inverse spin susceptibilities obtained by integration of the distinct ESR line components of the LSMO-CNTs system as a function of temperature. - Highlights: • Spin/charge dynamics in La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3}-decorated CNTs studied by EPR. • One spin species revealed only paramagnetic–superparamagnetic phase transition. • Another spin species manifested reflected weak localization of spin/charge carriers. • Spins participating in the magnetic phase transition and the itinerant spins well separated by EPR. - Abstract: We have studied La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by means of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in view of our previous work on the magnetic and electrical properties of the system. One of the line components of the ESR spectrum reflected a paramagnetic–superparamagnetic phase transition at T{sub SP}∼200 K, which is accompanied by a concomitant metal–insulator transition (MIT) associated with charge transport taking place through the CNTs network triggered by the LSMO nanoparticles. On the other hand, another ESR line component revealed anomalies at T{sub WL}∼170 K as well, attributable to a 2D weak localization effect of the spin/charge carriers. Thus, magnetic interactions and dynamics of the distinct spin species were sensitively reflected in the LSMO-CNTs system.

  18. Electron spin resonance study of the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes

    Graphical abstract: Inverse spin susceptibilities obtained by integration of the distinct ESR line components of the LSMO-CNTs system as a function of temperature. - Highlights: • Spin/charge dynamics in La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-decorated CNTs studied by EPR. • One spin species revealed only paramagnetic–superparamagnetic phase transition. • Another spin species manifested reflected weak localization of spin/charge carriers. • Spins participating in the magnetic phase transition and the itinerant spins well separated by EPR. - Abstract: We have studied La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSMO) nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by means of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in view of our previous work on the magnetic and electrical properties of the system. One of the line components of the ESR spectrum reflected a paramagnetic–superparamagnetic phase transition at TSP∼200 K, which is accompanied by a concomitant metal–insulator transition (MIT) associated with charge transport taking place through the CNTs network triggered by the LSMO nanoparticles. On the other hand, another ESR line component revealed anomalies at TWL∼170 K as well, attributable to a 2D weak localization effect of the spin/charge carriers. Thus, magnetic interactions and dynamics of the distinct spin species were sensitively reflected in the LSMO-CNTs system

  19. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  20. IRS and ESR characterizations of nanocomposite thin films derived from alkanethiolates and gold nanoparticles[Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance

    Zheng, W.X.; Leibowitz, F.L.; Maye, M.M.; Gilbert, D.C.; Doetschman, D.C.; Zhong, C.J.

    2000-07-01

    A key to the ultimate technological applications of core-shell nanoparticle materials is the understanding of the structure-property correlation. This work focuses on the characterizations of te structural properties for composite thin films derived from gold nanoparticles and thiolates using infrared reflectance spectroscopic (IRS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques. IRS provides information on molecular packing and ordering of the shell components in the films, which relates to the molecular interactions and interfacial reactivities. ESR probes the conduction electron spin resonance properties of the nanosized cores, which can be correlated with the network or environmental electronic effects on the crystal cores. Results are discussed in terms of their correlation with the nanoparticle core sizes and the organic shell functionality.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance-paramagnetic relaxation enhancements: Influence of spatial quantization of the electron spin when the zero-field splitting energy is larger than the Zeeman energy

    Abernathy, S. M.; Miller, J. C.; Lohr, L. L.; Sharp, R. R.

    1998-09-01

    Dissolved paramagnetic ions generally provide an efficient mechanism for the relaxation of nuclear spins in solution, a phenomenon called the nuclear magnetic resonance-paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (NMR-PRE). Metal ions with electron spins S⩾1 exhibit rich NMR relaxation phenomena originating in the properties of the zero-field splitting (zfs) interaction, which vanishes for spin-1/2 ions but which is nonzero for S⩾1 ions in site symmetry lower than cubic. For S⩾1 ions in the vicinity of the zfs-limit, i.e., at magnetic-field strengths low enough that the zfs energy exceeds the Zeeman energy, the NMR-PRE depends strongly on the detailed structure of the electron spin energy levels as well as on the spatial quantization of the spin motion. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the NMR-PRE produced by integer spins can be influenced strongly by the small intradoublet zero-field splittings, i.e., the splittings between the components of the non-Kramers doublets, which are produced by noncylindrical components of the crystal field potential. These small splittings produce relatively low-frequency oscillations in the dipolar field associated with (the spin component along the molecule-fixed ẑ axis). These motions decouple the nuclear spin from the electron spin, thereby depressing, in some cases very strongly, the NMR-PRE. The presence of a relatively small Zeeman field, comparable in magnitude to the intradoublet spacing but small compared to the larger interdoublet zfs splittings, causes a major change in the spin wave functions which has profound effects on the motions of the electron spin. When the Zeeman energy exceeds the small zfs splitting, the oscillatory motion of damps out, with the result that the electron spin couples more effectively to the nuclear spin, providing a more efficient NMR relaxation pathway. NMR-PRE data are presented for the S=1 complex Ni(II)(o-pda)2Cl2 (o-pda=ortho-phenylenediamine) which confirm the importance of

  2. Orientation and Lipid-Peptide Interactions of Gramicidin A in Lipid Membranes: Polarized Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy and Spin-Label Electron Spin Resonance

    Kóta, Zoltán; Páli, Tibor; Marsh, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Gramicidin A was incorporated at a peptide/lipid ratio of 1:10 mol/mol in aligned bilayers of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), phosphatidylserine (DMPS), phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), and phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), from trifluoroethanol. Orientations of the peptide and lipid chains were determined by polarized attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Lipid-peptide interactions with gramicidin A in DMPC bilayers were studied with different spin-labeled lipid species by using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In DMPC membranes, the orientation of the lipid chains is comparable to that in the absence of peptide, in both gel and fluid phases. In gel-phase DMPC, the effective tilt of the peptide exceeds that of the lipid chains, but in the fluid phase both are similar. For gramicidin A in DMPS, DMPG, and DMPE, the degree of orientation of the peptide and lipid chains is less than in DMPC. In the fluid phase of DMPS, DMPG, and DMPE, gramicidin A is also less well oriented than are the lipid chains. In DMPE especially, gramicidin A is largely disordered. In DMPC membranes, three to four lipids per monomer experience direct motional restriction on interaction with gramicidin A. This is approximately half the number of lipids expected to contact the intramembranous perimeter of the gramicidin A monomer. A selectivity for certain negatively charged lipids is found in the interaction with gramicidin A in DMPC. These results are discussed in terms of the integration of gramicidin A channels in lipid bilayers, and of the interactions of lipids with integral membrane proteins. PMID:14990479

  3. Acoustic resonance for nonmetallic mine detection

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of acoustic resonance for detection of plastic mines was investigated by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Instrumentation and Controls Division under an internally funded program. The data reported in this paper suggest that acoustic resonance is not a practical method for mine detection. Representative small plastic anti-personnel mines were tested, and were found to not exhibit detectable acoustic resonances. Also, non-metal objects known to have strong acoustic resonances were tested with a variety of excitation techniques, and no practical non-contact method of exciting a consistently detectable resonance in a buried object was discovered. Some of the experimental data developed in this work may be useful to other researchers seeking a method to detect buried plastic mines. A number of excitation methods and their pitfalls are discussed. Excitation methods that were investigated include swept acoustic, chopped acoustic, wavelet acoustic, and mechanical shaking. Under very contrived conditions, a weak response that could be attributed to acoustic resonance was observed, but it does not appear to be practical as a mine detection feature. Transfer properties of soil were investigated. Impulse responses of several representative plastic mines were investigated. Acoustic leakage coupling, and its implications as a disruptive mechanism were investigated.

  4. Influence of Metallic Molar Ratio on the Electron Spin Resonance and Thermal Diffusivity of Zn–Al Layered Double Hydroxide

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The coprecipitation method was used to prepare Zn–Al layered double hydroxide (Zn–Al–NO3-LDH at pH 7.5 and different Zn2+/Al3+ molar ratios of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The elemental, structural, and textural properties of prepared samples were studied. The crystallinity of prepared LDH nanostructure decreases as Zn2+/Al3+ molar ratio increases. The electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy of different LDH samples showed new ESR spectra. These spectra were produced due to the presence of different phases with formed LDH such as ZnO phase and ZnAl2O4 spinel. At low Zn2+/Al3+ molar ratio, the ESR signals were produced from the presence of free nitrate anions in the LDH interlayer. Above Zn2+/Al3+ = 2, the ESR signals were attributed to the existence of ZnO phase and ZnAl2O4 spinel in the samples. Because the nuclear magnetic moment of 67Zn is lower than 27Al, the increasing in Zn2+/Al3+ molar ratio causes a reduction of the magnetic activity of ZnAl2O4 spinel. Thermal diffusivity versus in situ temperature showed nonlinear relation for different samples due to the changing in the water content of LDH as temperature increases. The dc conductivity of samples decreased as Zn2+/Al3+ molar ratio.

  5. Electron Spin Resonance of Ascorbyl (Vitamin C) Radicals in Synthetic CaCO3 by UV Irradiation

    Sato, Hideo; Tani, Atsushi; Ikeya, Motoji

    2003-02-01

    Free radicals ascribed to ascorbic acid (AscH2), vitamin C, in the solid matrix of synthetic calcium carbonate have been studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) after UV irradiation. A new ESR signal with g-factors of g\\|=2.0024 and g\\bot=2.0053 was found together with a broad singlet signal around g=2.005 and a doublet signal at g=2.0053 separated by 0.18 mT due to the ascorbyl radical (Asc•-). The molecular orbitals of Asc•- and two other types of ascorbyl radical (AscH•-) were calculated using the semi-empirical PM3 unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) method, which indicated that the hyperfine splitting due to hydrogen bonded to one of the carbons in the pentagonal ring was dominant. The axial signal was ascribed to AscH•-, while the doublet signal was ascribed to Asc•- in CaCO3. Possible pharmaceutical and nutritional applications of embedding unstable active molecules into the crystalline lattice of CaCO3 and a new nondestructive method for determination of vitamin C contents are discussed because the vitamin C has higher thermal stability in the carbonate than that in aqueous solution.

  6. Thermal behavior of organic free radicals in γ-ray irradiated pepper studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed heating effects on irradiated pepper. The representative ESR spectrum of the irradiated pepper is consisted of four components a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value, a singlet at g=4.0 and side peaks near g=2.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn2+ (hf constant=7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical that is induced by the γ-ray irradiation. The third one may originated from Fe3+ in the nonhem proteins. The fourth signal was found at the symmetric positions of the organic free radical, i.e., the second signal. Upon heating, the forth signals decreased monotonicaly. The ESR signal of the pepper heated for more than 10 min was essentially the same as that before the irradiation. On the other hand, the second signal increased and then leveled off at a constant value by further heating. This is indicative the occurrence of some biochemical reactions such as Maillard reaction during heating procedures. (author)

  7. Electron spin resonance study of Rb xC 60 and K xC 60 powders

    Feng, S. Q.; Jia, Y. Q.; Zhu, S. L.; Fu, J. S.; Wu, E.; Mao, J. C.; Han, R. S.; Gu, Z. N.; Zhou, X. H.; Jin, Z. X.

    1993-11-01

    Rb and K doped C 60 compounds are prepared by the vapor-solid reaction method. Superconductive shielding fraction is determined as 35-75% for Rb xC 60 and 10% for K xC 60. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements in absorption mode are performed in the temperature range of 5-300 K. A strong ESR signal at g=2.002 for Rb xC 60 and g=2.003 for K xC 60 has been observed. The g-value is nearly independent upon temperature for both Rb xC 60 and K xC 60 while the linewidth behaves differently, increasing from 2.0 G at 5 K to 6.0 G at 250 K in Rb xC 60 and remaining constant of 2.3 G in K xC 60. No drastic change of the ESR spectra is observed with the onset of superconductivity, leading to a conclusion that the observed dominant ESR signal originates from a non-superconducting phase.

  8. Electron spin resonance dating of fault gouge from Desamangalam, Kerala: Evidence for Quaternary movement in Palghat gap shear zone

    T K Gundu Rao; C P Rajendran; George Mathew; Biju John

    2002-06-01

    The field investigations in the epicentral area of the 1994 Wadakkancheri (Desamangalam), Kerala, earthquake (M 4.3) indicate subtle, but clearly recognizable expressions of geologically recent fault zone, consisting of fracture sets showing brittle displacement and a gouge zone. The fracture zone confines to the crystalline basement, and is spatially coincident with the elongation of the isoseismals of the 1994 mainshock and a 10-km-long WNW-ESE trending topographic lineament. The preliminary results from the electron spin resonance (ESR) dating on the quartz grains from the fault gouge indicate that the last major faulting in this site occurred 430 ± 43 ka ago. The experiments on different grain sizes of quartz from the gouge showed consistent decrease in age to a plateau of low values, indicating that ESR signals in finer grains were completely zeroed at the time of faulting due to frictional heat. The results show a relatively young age for displacement on the fault that occurs within a Precambrian shear zone. Discrete reactivated faults in such areas may be characterized by low degree of activity, but considering the ESR age of the last significant faulting event, the structure at Desamangalam may be categorized as a potentially active fault capable of generating moderate earthquakes, separated by very long periods of quiescence.

  9. Accuracy of dose planning for prostate radiotherapy in the presence of metallic implants evaluated by electron spin resonance dosimetry

    Radiotherapy is one of the main approaches to cure prostate cancer, and its success depends on the accuracy of dose planning. A complicating factor is the presence of a metallic prosthesis in the femur and pelvis, which is becoming more common in elderly populations. The goal of this work was to perform dose measurements to check the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment planning under these complicated conditions. To accomplish this, a scale phantom of an adult pelvic region was used with alanine dosimeters inserted in the prostate region. This phantom was irradiated according to the planned treatment under the following three conditions: with two metallic prostheses in the region of the femur head, with only one prosthesis, and without any prostheses. The combined relative standard uncertainty of dose measurement by electron spin resonance (ESR)/alanine was 5.05%, whereas the combined relative standard uncertainty of the applied dose was 3.35%, resulting in a combined relative standard uncertainty of the whole process of 6.06%. The ESR dosimetry indicated that there was no difference (P>0.05, ANOVA) in dosage between the planned dose and treatments. The results are in the range of the planned dose, within the combined relative uncertainty, demonstrating that the treatment-planning system compensates for the effects caused by the presence of femur and hip metal prostheses

  10. Accuracy of dose planning for prostate radiotherapy in the presence of metallic implants evaluated by electron spin resonance dosimetry

    Alves, G.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Kinoshita, A. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade Sagrado Coração, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, H.F. de; Guimarães, F.S.; Amaral, L.L. [Serviço de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Baffa, O. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-26

    Radiotherapy is one of the main approaches to cure prostate cancer, and its success depends on the accuracy of dose planning. A complicating factor is the presence of a metallic prosthesis in the femur and pelvis, which is becoming more common in elderly populations. The goal of this work was to perform dose measurements to check the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment planning under these complicated conditions. To accomplish this, a scale phantom of an adult pelvic region was used with alanine dosimeters inserted in the prostate region. This phantom was irradiated according to the planned treatment under the following three conditions: with two metallic prostheses in the region of the femur head, with only one prosthesis, and without any prostheses. The combined relative standard uncertainty of dose measurement by electron spin resonance (ESR)/alanine was 5.05%, whereas the combined relative standard uncertainty of the applied dose was 3.35%, resulting in a combined relative standard uncertainty of the whole process of 6.06%. The ESR dosimetry indicated that there was no difference (P>0.05, ANOVA) in dosage between the planned dose and treatments. The results are in the range of the planned dose, within the combined relative uncertainty, demonstrating that the treatment-planning system compensates for the effects caused by the presence of femur and hip metal prostheses.