WorldWideScience

Sample records for acoustic drillhole logging

  1. Unification of acoustic drillhole logging data

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. The site characterization at Olkiluoto has included comprehensive geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations airborne, on ground and in drillholes since 1988. One of key techniques in geophysical drillhole surveys has been acoustic full waveform logging, which has been implemented since 1994. Various tools have been used in acquisition of acoustic data and several processing techniques have been applied. The logging work and processing to P and S wave velocities has been previously carried out on single drillhole basis. Comparisons to actual values and levels have not been made, and the results have not been calibrated. Therefore results for different drillholes have not been comparable. Resolution of the P and S wave velocity has been rather coarse, and depth correlation to the core data has been on tentative level. As the investigation data has been accumulating, it has become possible to correlate the results to geological and laboratory control data and to calibrate the results of separate measurement campaigns and different drillholes together onto same reference level and resolution. The presented technique has been applied for drillhole OL-KR29 onwards and has set the processing standard, settings and reference levels for later surveys. This approach will further assist the application of the method for mapping and numerical description of lithology variation and possible effect of alteration and deformation on it. Further on, the P and S wave velocity data together with density can be used in computing of dynamic in situ rock mechanical parameters, and possibly in correlating rock strength laboratory data to P and S wave velocity logging data. The acoustic logging data from drillholes OL-KR1

  2. Geophysical logging and imaging of shallow drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-274 at Olkiluoto in 2010

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of shallow drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 at ONKALO in the investigation niche ONK-TKU-4 (Hydco) in May and in December 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  3. Geophysical logging and imaging of characterisation drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 at ONKALO in June-July 2010 and in March 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  4. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at Olkiluoto in 2010 and 2011

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between August 2010 and January 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. New focused resistivity, susceptibility, natural gamma and density probes were tested and compared with old probes. This report describes the major features of new probes and the comparison with old probes. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  5. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR45, OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at Olkiluoto in 2009

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging, acoustic imaging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR45 (re-measurements), OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during January-November 2009. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. The missing density logging of drillhole OL-KR45 was carried out successfully. Dynamic rock mechanical parameters and natural gamma data were re-processed and this report includes updated WellCAD and Excel files. Acoustic imaging was also carried out in OL-KR45 after 700 meters depth. Acoustic imaging was used instead of optical imaging after 350 meters in OL-KR49 and 700 meters in OL-KR50. (orig.)

  6. Semi-automated fracture classification procedure based on geophysical drillhole logging data

    Posiva Oy is responsible for preparation of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. The knowledge about existing network of fractures is important for the safety and feasibility of the final repository. The bedrock properties essential for safety case are analysed in investigations of Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC). One subtask in RSC is avoidance of large (long) fractures adjacent to disposal holes. The long fractures have been defined in tunnel mapping to indicate tunnel cross-cutting features (TCF) or full perimeter intersections (FPI). This work has assessed possibilities to detect and classify the significant fractures from the geophysical data of a pilot drillhole, drilled on the centre line of the tunnel. The data from the pilot drillholes ONK-PH08-PH14 and ONK-PH16-PH17 were used. Anomaly value and corresponding local background value was picked from logging profile at the fracture location. Picking used method specific windows. Also average and standard deviation was picked, and a gradient was computed. Standard deviation was used as threshold value in selection, and gradient in rejection of anomalies caused by other reasons than a fracture. Anomaly values have been normalised within each method at range 0 - 100 % and the contributions of several logging methods was added together. The applicability of different methods and their combinations in detection and classification was analysed. The match between anomalies and tunnel mapped long fractures (TCF) projected to core intersection, have been examined in the analysis. Considering the fractures reported from core, some of these produce geophysical anomalies, and many others will not. A part of the logging methods gives a weak response for majority of fractures, but may be prominent for few fractures (like in density). The results based on electrical conductivity and full waveform sonic data match the examined TCF fractures fairly well. The sum of anomalies is describing the significant

  7. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at Olkiluoto in 2009 and 2010

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between November 2009 and February 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  8. Methods of generating synthetic acoustic logs from resistivity logs for gas-hydrate-bearing sediments

    Lee, Myung W.

    1999-01-01

    Methods of predicting acoustic logs from resistivity logs for hydrate-bearing sediments are presented. Modified time average equations derived from the weighted equation provide a means of relating the velocity of the sediment to the resistivity of the sediment. These methods can be used to transform resistivity logs into acoustic logs with or without using the gas hydrate concentration in the pore space. All the parameters except the unconsolidation constants, necessary for the prediction of acoustic log from resistivity log, can be estimated from a cross plot of resistivity versus porosity values. Unconsolidation constants in equations may be assumed without rendering significant errors in the prediction. These methods were applied to the acoustic and resistivity logs acquired at the Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well drilled at the Mackenzie Delta, northern Canada. The results indicate that the proposed method is simple and accurate.

  9. Drillhole gamma-ray spectrum logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, 2007 and 2008

    The aim of the detailed drillhole surveys is to increase the knowledge of the bedrock on the study area and to supplement the investigations made earlier. As a part of the detailed investigations Astrock Oy carried out drillhole spectrometer logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 2007 and 2008. This report describes the logging, data processing and the results. For the first time the results contains moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio, because the variability of Th/K ratio is a reasonably good indicator of alteration zones. This report includes also moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio from earlier measured and reported drillholes OL-KR40-43 and OL-KR40B-43B. (orig.)

  10. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH12

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH12 was drilled from ONKALO chainage 4092 to chainage 4215 in January 2010. The length of the hole is 123.96 metres. The drilling method was orientated core drilling. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester -equipment. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test, sections of 0.5 m with increments of 0.1 m were used. Water loss measurements were conducted in the drillhole section 5.0-123.85 m dhd. Geophysical logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. Groundwater sampling was not applicable because no

  11. Design of a cross-dipole array acoustic logging tool

    Lu Junqiang; Ju Xiaodong; Cheng Xiangyang

    2008-01-01

    When entering an anisotropic formation,a shear wave splits into a fast wave and a slow wave.Based on the principle of four-component cross-dipole acoustic wave measurement,the anisotropy of HTI (Horizontal Transverse Isotropy) formation can be determined.The method of calculating the fast and slow wave data when a shear wave propagates along the borehole axis in anisotropic formation was analyzed,and the implementation of a cross-dipole acoustic logging tool was demonstrated.The tool was composed of transmitter electronics,transmitter mandrel,acoustic isolator,receiver mandrel and main control electronics.Sonde,transmitter circuit,signal receiving and processing circuit,data acquisition system,system control circuit and telemetry interface circuit were presented and analyzed.The test model was used in production wells and standard wells in various areas and the four-component cross-dipole waves were acquired and processed.The waves had good signal-to-noise ratio and clear characteristics,and the fast and slow waveforms,processed slowness curves,anisotropy and fast shear wave azimuth well matched with each other.

  12. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH7

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH7 was drilled from chainage 1880 to chainage 1980.31 in February 2007. The length of the hole is 100.31 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. Besides flow logging Single Point Resistance (SPR), Electric Conductivity (EC) and temperature of the drillhole water were also measured. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss measurements were conducted between the hole depth of 1.18 m and the hole bottom. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as

  13. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH11

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH11 was drilled from chainage 3922 to chainage 4053 in October 2009. The length of the hole is 131.21 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. During flow measurements also electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements were performed after drilling was completed by the drilling company. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, RQD, fractured zones, weathering and possible intersections. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The rock strength and deformation were determined with Rock Tester -equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. The groundwater samples were collected from the open hole without any packers. The collected groundwater samples were

  14. Analyses on Water Logging in Drill-hole in Bench Mining of Quarry and Its Handling Method%对石场梯段开采中钻孔积水的分析和处理方法的探讨

    胡柏阳

    2001-01-01

    The influence of water logging in drill-hole on blasting implementation is descriled, the water logging reasons and its characteristics are analyzed, and the methods of handling the water inside and outside the drill-hole are put forward, also the applicability is evaluated.%从爆破工作的实际出发,阐述了钻孔内积水对爆破工作造成的影响,分析了钻孔积水的成因及其特点,初步提出孔内和孔外处理钻孔内积水的方法,对其适用性进行评价。

  15. Characterization of geological formations by physical parameters obtained through full waveform acoustic logging

    In this paper, we will show through a field example that full wave form acoustic logging allows a quantitative evaluation of geological formations. For that purpose, conventional logs and their associated standard deviation (Std) must be computed (formation velocities, amplitudes, frequencies, etc.) since the Std is used to estimate the uncertainties associated with the log and to edit other logs. The missing values are then reconstructed by geostatistical interpolation (ordinary kriging and co-kriging). The shear velocity and density of the formation are also estimated in order to obtain mechanical parameters such as Poisson's ratio or shear modulus. Since the converted refracted shear waves can be recorded in fast formations, a joint method based on the local measurement of the shear velocity by picking the arrival times of the refracted S wave and interpolation by co-kriging with P-wave velocity log has been used to compute a continuous shear velocity log. The Analysis of the dispersive properties of the Stoneley modes has then been used to estimate density variations and build iteratively a density log from an a priori density model. Furthermore, we will show that a dimensionless shape index can be used as a qualitative acoustic attribute to detect the presence of interfering waves, anomalic zones and to obtain a measurement of the attenuation. We will also show that P-wave attenuation, P-wave frequency and acoustic porosity logs can be fruitfully used to compute an acoustic permeability log. (authors)

  16. THE APPLICATION OF ACOUSTIC LOGGING METHOD IN THE MODEL AND PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION OF ROCK MASS

    于师建

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the new method that is introduced into prediction of subsidence using system engineering method with acoustic logging and density logging. According to the result of acoustic logging, the real and complex rock beds are divided into a set of different bed groups and the equivalent mechanical model is to be built. Based on the modern control theory, according to the input data (convergence or settlement of the roof) and the output data (surface movement and deformation) of the system, the static parameters of equivalent rock beds can be derived from back calculation using the optimum method. Then the regression relationship between the dynamic and static parameters can be built. So the prediction of rock and ground movements for other areas in the same district can be done, when using this relationship with the acoustic logging data and density logging data in situ.

  17. The application of acoustic logging method in the model and parameters identification of rock mass

    Yu, S. [Shandong Mining Institute, Tai' an (China)

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes a new method that is introduced into prediction of subsidence; it uses a system engineering method with acoustic logging and density logging. According to the result of acoustic logging, the real and complex rock beds are divided into a set of different bed groups and the equivalent mechanical model is built. Based on the modern control theory, according to the input data (convergence or settlement of the roof) and the output data (surface movement and deformation) of the system, the static parameters of equivalent rock beds can be derived from back calculation using the optimum method. Then the regression relationship between the dynamic and static parameters can be built. So the prediction of rock and ground movements for other areas in the same district can be done, when using this relationship with the acoustic logging data and density logging data in situ. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Gas hydrate saturation from acoustic impedance and resistivity logs in the shenhu area, south china sea

    Wang, X.; Wu, S.; Lee, M.; Guo, Y.; Yang, S.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    During the China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition -1 (GMGS-1), gas hydrate was discovered in layers ranging from 10 to 25 m above the base of gas hydrate stability zone in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Water chemistry, electrical resistivity logs, and acoustic impedance were used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the chloride concentrations range from 0 to 43% of the pore space. The higher gas hydrate saturations were present in the depth from 152 to 177 m at site SH7 and from 190 to 225 m at site SH2, respectively. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity using Archie equation have similar trends to those from chloride concentrations. To examine the variability of gas hydrate saturations away from the wells, acoustic impedances calculated from the 3 D seismic data using constrained sparse inversion method were used. Well logs acquired at site SH7 were incorporated into the inversion by establishing a relation between the water-filled porosity, calculated using gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity logs, and the acoustic impedance, calculated from density and velocity logs. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from acoustic impedance of seismic data are ???10-23% of the pore space and are comparable to those estimated from the well logs. The uncertainties in estimated gas hydrate saturations from seismic acoustic impedances were mainly from uncertainties associated with inverted acoustic impedance, the empirical relation between the water-filled porosities and acoustic impedances, and assumed background resistivity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH13

    . Groundwater samples were not collected due to too low inflow to the drillhole. Geophysical surveys included natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, magnetic susceptibility, Wenner resistivity, short and long normal resistivity, single point resistance, drillhole radar and full waveform sonic measurements as well as optical and acoustic imaging. The results were joined with the available geological data received from Posiva. A group of geoscientists produced an integrated interpretation based on the investigation results of ONK-PH13. In single-hole interpretation the objective is to identify and describe the general characteristics of major rock units and possible deformation zones within a drillhole. A single-hole interpretation involves integrated interpretation of the data from the geological mapping, geophysical logging as well as hydrogeological investigations. The method is regarded useful for integrated and detailed modelling for the use of the RSC (Rock Suitability Criteria) program. (orig.)

  20. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH6

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH6 was drilled from chainage 1404 to chainage 1559 in September 2006. The length of the hole is 155.04 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. One steering operation by wedging was made at the hole depth of 94.05 metres (top of the wedge). Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. Besides flow logging Single Point Resistance (SPR), Electric Conductivity (EC) and temperature of the drillhole water were also measured. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss tests were conducted in the hole excluding the section 89.04 - 101.04 metres due to the wedge. Geophysical logging

  1. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes. (paper)

  2. Drillings and associated drillhole measurements of the investigation holes in the EDZ tunnel at Chainage 3620

    for repeat investigations after excavation to recognise the excavation induced changes in the parameters measured. In addition to the two pilot holes, seven shorter, 5 - 8 m long investigation drillholes (ONK-PP202 -PP205 and ONK-PP207 -PP209) were drilled for the purpose of defining hydrological baseline conditions under the tunnel floor before excavation inside the EDZ tunnel. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. Core logging follows the normal Posiva's core logging procedures. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured with Posiva Flow Log / Difference flow method in drillholes ONK-PP200, ONK-PP204, ONK-PP205 and ONK-PP207 - PP209. The measurements were done in three phases. During flow measurements also electric conductivity, the single point resistance and temperature were measured. The drillholes were measured with a 0.5 m section length using a 0.1 m and/or 0.02 m point interval. The measured drillholes were open. The surrounding drillholes were open or in overpressure by using packers. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. (orig.)

  3. Effects of boundary conditions on vibrating mode of acoustic logging dipole transducer

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic transducer is an important part of acoustic well logging tool. In this paper,ANSYS software package is used to design acoustic dipole transducer and simulate vibrating mode of the dipole transducer in different mechanical boundary conditions. The results show that boundary conditions influence the number of vibrating mode in the same frequency band and the frequency value of the same vibrating mode. Several acoustic dipole transducers are designed according to the results of numerical simulation and laboratory measurements. The basic frequency of vibrating mode of experi-ment has good agreement with that of simulation. The numerical simulation plays a good guidance role in designing,producing and correctly installing the acoustic dipole transducer.

  4. Core drilling of REPRO drillholes in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010-2011

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled ten drillholes for the Posiva's Experiments to investigate Rock Matrix Retention Properties (REPRO) in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2010 - 2011. The drillholes are used for geological characterization, hydrological and geophysical studies and instrumenting in research for retention of radionuclides to rock matrix. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled in March 2010 and the drillholes ONKPP318... 324 and ONK-PP326...327 in October - December 2011. The lengths of the drillholes range from 4.90 to 21.65 metres. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled for pretesting in the investigation niche 4 at access tunnel chainage 3747 and the rest of the drillholes in the investigation niche 5 at access tunnel chainage 4219. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The starting directions of the close spaced drillholes were controlled with an aligner assembly to be as parallel as possible. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and quartz gneiss (skarn rock). The average fracture frequency in drill cores is 1.2 pcs/m and the average RQD value 98.6 %. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of performance of Son Tek Argonaut acoustic doppler velocity log in tow tank and sea

    Joseph, A.; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Dias, M.; Tengali, S.; Methar, A.

    Performance of a 500-kHz, 3-beam downward-looking Sontex Argonaut acoustic Doppler velocity log (DVL) based on measurements at tow-tank and sea is addressed. Its accuracy and linearity under tow-tank measurements were largely scattered...

  6. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH9

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH9 was drilled from chainage 3263 to chainage 3413.27 in November 2008. The length of the hole is 150.3 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also electric conductivity, grounding resistance and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements were performed after drilling was completed by the drilling company. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The rock strength and deformation were determined with Rock Tester equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study

  7. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH8

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH8 was drilled from chainage 3116 to chainage 3266.29 in June- July 2008. The length of the hole is 150.29 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance, electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements failed. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester-equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of the composition of ONKALO

  8. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH10

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH10 was drilled from chainage 3459 to chainage 3639 in March 2009. The length of the hole is 180.00 metres. The drilling was done as orientated core drilling. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester -equipment. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test, sections of 0.5 m with increments of 0.1 m were used. Water loss measurements were conducted in the hole section 3.70-180.00 m dhd. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of the composition of

  9. Difference flow measurements in Greenland, drillhole DH-GAP04 in July 2011

    Poellaenen, J.; Heikkinen, P. [Poyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Lehtinen, A.

    2012-07-15

    To improve the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project began in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. In 2011, deep drillhole DH-GAP04 was drilled at the study site and Posiva Flow Log measurements were carried out in the drillhole. The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of transmissivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. The aim of the measurements was to find high transmissive fractures, which would define the target for water sampling, i.e. the location for the packers in the drillhole. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillhole DH-GAP04 in July 2011. The length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was 10 m (section length). Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the hydraulic head (h) of the fractures are shown in the results. Measurements were carried out in drillhole length interval 184 - 675 m without pumping. During pumping, measurements were conducted in drillhole length interval 274 - 675 m due to permafrost condition above this level. The risk for the drillhole freezing over in the permafrost area was remarkable. Due to lack of time, the

  10. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PVA9 and ONK-PVA10 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2011

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for groundwater monitoring stations in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2011. The groundwater monitoring stations are used for monitoring changes in groundwater conditions. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in March 2011 and the drillhole ONK-PVA10 in June 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are 15.95 and 20.10 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in a niche of the access tunnel at chainage 4366 and the ONK-PVA10 in the access tunnel wall at chainage 3851. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in drill cores are 2.9 pcs/m (ONK-PVA9) and 2.3 pcs/m (ONK-PVA10) and the average RQD values 81.6 % and 96.2 % respectively. (orig.)

  11. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PVA9 and ONK-PVA10 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2011

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for groundwater monitoring stations in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2011. The groundwater monitoring stations are used for monitoring changes in groundwater conditions. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in March 2011 and the drillhole ONK-PVA10 in June 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are 15.95 and 20.10 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in a niche of the access tunnel at chainage 4366 and the ONK-PVA10 in the access tunnel wall at chainage 3851. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in drill cores are 2.9 pcs/m (ONK-PVA9) and 2.3 pcs/m (ONK-PVA10) and the average RQD values 81.6 % and 96.2 % respectively. (orig.)

  12. Core drilling of hydco drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for HYDCO-program in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2010. The drillhole ONK-PP262 was drilled in May 2010 and the drillhole ONK-PP274 in December 2010. The lengths of the drillholes are 25.02 and 23.88 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in the investigation niche 4 at the access tunnel chainage 3747. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in both drill cores are 1.4 pcs/m. The average RQD values in the drillcores are 97.2 % (ONK-PP262) and 98.6 % (ONK-PP274). (orig.)

  13. Core drilling of drillhole ONK-PVA11 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2014

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a drillhole for groundwater monitoring station in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2014. The groundwater monitoring stations are used for monitoring changes in groundwater conditions. The drillhole ONK-PVA11 was drilled in February 2014. The length of the drillhole is 30.05 metres. The drillhole is 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PVA11 was drilled in the left wall of the ONK-TT-4399 (tunnel chainage 50) between the demonstration tunnel ONK-TDT-4399-44 and 56 openings. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillhole was measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcore was logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillcore are veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in drill core is 2.3 pcs/m and the average RQD value 95.2 %. (orig.)

  14. Core drilling of drillhole ONK-PVA11 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2014

    Toropainen, V. [Drillcon SMOY, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a drillhole for groundwater monitoring station in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2014. The groundwater monitoring stations are used for monitoring changes in groundwater conditions. The drillhole ONK-PVA11 was drilled in February 2014. The length of the drillhole is 30.05 metres. The drillhole is 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PVA11 was drilled in the left wall of the ONK-TT-4399 (tunnel chainage 50) between the demonstration tunnel ONK-TDT-4399-44 and 56 openings. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillhole was measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcore was logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillcore are veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in drill core is 2.3 pcs/m and the average RQD value 95.2 %. (orig.)

  15. Test-bench system for a borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool

    Liu, Xianping; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong; Liu, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool (BAAR) is a new generation of imaging logging tool, which is able to investigate stratums in a relatively larger range of space around the borehole. The BAAR is designed based on the idea of modularization with a very complex structure, so it has become urgent for us to develop a dedicated test-bench system to debug each module of the BAAR. With the help of a test-bench system introduced in this paper, test and calibration of BAAR can be easily achieved. The test-bench system is designed based on the client/server model. The hardware system mainly consists of a host computer, an embedded controlling board, a bus interface board, a data acquisition board and a telemetry communication board. The host computer serves as the human machine interface and processes the uploaded data. The software running on the host computer is designed based on VC++. The embedded controlling board uses Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Machines 7 (ARM7) as the micro controller and communicates with the host computer via Ethernet. The software for the embedded controlling board is developed based on the operating system uClinux. The bus interface board, data acquisition board and telemetry communication board are designed based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. To examine the feasibility of the test-bench system, it was set up to perform a test on BAAR. By analyzing the test results, an unqualified channel of the electronic receiving cabin was discovered. It is suggested that the test-bench system can be used to quickly determine the working condition of sub modules of BAAR and it is of great significance in improving production efficiency and accelerating industrial production of the logging tool.

  16. Posiva microseismic network. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PP348...351 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2012

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four drillholes for the Posiva's ONKALO microseismic network in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2012. The drillholes are used for geophone instrumentation and geological characterization. The drillholes ONKPP348... 351 were core drilled in February 2012. All the drillholes are ∼ 9.40 m by length. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in deep angles to the floors of the access tunnel and three niches near each other at access tunnel chainages 3019 - 3080. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillcores are diatexitic gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency of the drillcores range from 1.2 to 2.4 pc/m and the average RQD value from 96.6 % to 98.6 %. Two fractured zones were intersected. (orig.)

  17. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH4

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are mostly aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH4 was drilled in October 2005. The length of the hole is 96.01 metres. During the drilling work core samples were oriented as much as possible. The deviation of the hole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Geological logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the hole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) were used to give background information for the grouting design. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole PH4 included the field work of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of composition of ONKALO

  18. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR56, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR56, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between February 2012 and May 2012. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  19. A debugging system for azimuthally acoustic logging tools based on modular and hierarchical design ideas

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of modular and hierarchical design ideas, this study presents a debugging system for an azimuthally sensitive acoustic bond tool (AABT). The debugging system includes three parts: a personal computer (PC), embedded front-end machine and function expansion boards. Modular and hierarchical design ideas are conducted in all design and debug processes. The PC communicates with the front-end machine via the Internet, and the front-end machine and function expansion boards connect each other by the extended parallel bus. In this method, the three parts of the debugging system form stable and high-speed data communication. This study not only introduces the system-level debugging and sub-system level debugging of the tool but also the debugging of the analogue signal processing board, which is important and greatly used in logging tools. Experiments illustrate that the debugging system can greatly improve AABT verification and calibration efficiency and that, board-level debugging can examine and improve analogue signal processing boards. The design thinking is clear and the design structure is reasonable, thus making it easy to extend and upgrade the debugging system.

  20. Core Drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP72...OL-PP89 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled eighteen drillholes to survey the ground and bedrock conditions in the encapsulation plant building site at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011. Soil quality, bedrock depth and quality of near surface bedrock were investigated in this project. The drillholes were drilled between 19th of October and 8th of November 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are mostly between 7 to 9 metres, except for the drillhole OL-PP79, which is 15 metres by length. The drillholes are 76 mm by diameter, and the core diameter is 60.2 mm. The lightweight GM75 drilling rig with rubber tracks was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO area research building freshwater pipeline and sodium fluorescein was added as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were not left open. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The average natural fracture frequencies of the drillcores range from 2.5 pc/m (OL-PP77) to 11.8 pc/m (OL-PP86). The average RQD ranges from 55.1 % (OL-PP86) to 96.4 % (OL-PP77). The penetrated soils are mostly ground fill (blast rock), but some clays and sands are lying below the fill layer. (orig.)

  1. Core Drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP72...OL-PP89 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled eighteen drillholes to survey the ground and bedrock conditions in the encapsulation plant building site at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011. Soil quality, bedrock depth and quality of near surface bedrock were investigated in this project. The drillholes were drilled between 19th of October and 8th of November 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are mostly between 7 to 9 metres, except for the drillhole OL-PP79, which is 15 metres by length. The drillholes are 76 mm by diameter, and the core diameter is 60.2 mm. The lightweight GM75 drilling rig with rubber tracks was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO area research building freshwater pipeline and sodium fluorescein was added as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were not left open. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The average natural fracture frequencies of the drillcores range from 2.5 pc/m (OL-PP77) to 11.8 pc/m (OL-PP86). The average RQD ranges from 55.1 % (OL-PP86) to 96.4 % (OL-PP77). The penetrated soils are mostly ground fill (blast rock), but some clays and sands are lying below the fill layer. (orig.)

  2. Inverse temperature gradient method for estimating thermal conductivity in drillholes

    The inverse temperature gradient method is based on Fourier's first law of heat conduction. Assuming the heat flow to be known apparent thermal conductivity can be calculated from measured temperature gradient data and the results can be applied for studies of heterogeneity and scales of variation of thermal conductivity. We present theoretical and experimental results on the method. Theoretical finite difference modeling was done with a 2D model including an inclined 10 m thick layer of higher conductivity. Drillhole measurements were simulated by picking model results along vertical and inclined drillhole paths corresponding to typical drilling geometries. The results obtained using thermal conductivity and heat flow values representative for the Olkiluoto case suggest that the method can be used for local estimation of conductivity variations in drillholes. Using conductivity contrasts of 2.8 vs. 3.2 Wm-1K-1 and heat flow of 40 mWm-2 yields gradient variations are of the order of 1 mK/m. In order to record such small variations in a borehole the temperature data must have a very good temperature resolution and be recorded at very short reading intervals. The method was tested using novel temperature data in drillhole OL-KR46 in Olkiluoto. The borehole is dominated by pegmatitic granite, veined gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. High resolution temperature data (1 mK in temperature, 0.02 m reading interval) was recorded as a continuous log with a memory logger probe. The data density allows detection of local gradient variations with accuracy of about 0.15 mK/m and apparent conductivity variations of the order of 0.1 Wm-1K-1 over 1 m intervals. The determined apparent conductivity logs indicate local conductivity variations with an amplitude of about 0.1 - 0.5 Wm-1K-1 in scales ranging from tens of cm to several meters. The drill core conductivity data from OL-KR46 are in agreement with apparent conductivity logs but do not fit exactly. It can be

  3. Core drilling of drillholes OL-PP66-69 at Olkiluoto 2008

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four 24.88 - 25.39 m long investigation drillholes at Olkiluoto in June 2008. The identification numbers of the holes are OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. Drillholes were core drilled with the diamond drill rig Diamec 1000. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The labelled drilling water was driven to the drilling places in a tank. In addition to drilling the drill cores were logged and reported by geologist. During geological investigation the following parameters were logged: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are diatexitic and veined gneisses and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in holes varied from 3.9 pcs/m to 5.8 pcs/m. The average RQD values varied from 84 % to 93 %. In the drillhole OL-PP66 two fractured zones were penetrated and in OL-PP69 one fractured zone. The drill cores OL-PP67 and OL-PP68 showed no fractured zones. Smoy also carried out optical imaging of the drillholes. The assignment included the field work and the data processing. This report describes the field operation, the equipment as well as the processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and PDF format. (orig.)

  4. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010 - 2011

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled three drillholes ONK-KR13 (120.45 m), ONK-KR14 (75.27 m) and ONK-KR15 (79.96 m) in ONKALO, at Olkiluoto in June 2010 - March 2011. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water, and the drillholes were washed and flushed after the drilling. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. The core samples were logged according to Posiva's normal procedure for drillholes. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses and pegmatitic granite. The average natural fracture frequencies and RQDs of the core samples are 1.6 pcs/m and 97.0 % (ONK-KR13), 0.5 pcs/m and 99.3 % (ONK-KR14) and 1.6 pcs/m and 97.3 % (ONK-KR15). In drillhole ONK-KR13 one, and in drillhole ONK-KR15 three fractured zones were intersected. There was no fractured zones in drillhole ONK-KR14. Rock mechanical tests were performed to core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 143.2 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 57.3 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.25. (orig.)

  5. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2009, Drillholes OL-KR22, -KR30, -KR31, -KR35, -KR36 and -KR40

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR22, -KR30, -KR31, -KR35, -KR36 and -KR40 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2009. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme (OMO). The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in most of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  6. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2008. Drillholes OL-KR4 and OL-KR27

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR4 and OL-KR27 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2008. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in most of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  7. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2011, drillholes OL-KR41, -KR42, -KR45, -KR46 and ONK-KR13

    Komulainen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR41, -KR42, -KR45, -KR46 and ONK-KR13 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2011. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The used device includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in all of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  8. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2011 and September 2011. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  9. Pre- and post-stimulation characterization of geothermal well GRT-1, Rittershoffen, France: insights from acoustic image logs of hard fractured rock

    Vidal, Jeanne; Genter, Albert; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Geothermal well GRT-1 (Rittershoffen, Alsace) was drilled in 2012. Its open-hole section (extending down to a depth of 2.6 km) penetrated fractured sandstones and granite. In 2013, the well was subjected to Thermal, Chemical and Hydraulic (TCH) stimulation, which improved the injectivity index fivefold. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of the stimulation by comparing pre- and post-stimulation well-logging (acoustic and temperature [T] logs) and mud-logging data. This comparison revealed modifications of almost all the natural fractures. However, not all of these fractures are associated with permeability enhancement, and the post-stimulation T logs are important for characterizing this enhancement. Chemical alteration due to mechanical erosion at the tops and bottoms of the fractures was observed in the sandstones. These zones display indications of very small new permeability after the TCH stimulation. Because a major fault zone caved extensively where it crosses the borehole, it was not imaged in the acoustic logs. However, this originally permeable zone was enhanced as demonstrated by the T logs. Based on the natural injectivity of this fault zone, hydraulic erosion and thermal microcracking of its internal quartz veins are associated with this permeability enhancement. Although local changes in the borehole wall observed in the acoustic images cannot be directly linked to the improved injectivity index, the comparison of the acoustic image logs allows for identification of fracture zones impacted by the TCH stimulation.

  10. Monitoring measurements by difference flow method during the year 2006, drillholes OL-KR1, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR10, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR27 and KR28

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow Method can be used for a relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. In this method, a flow meter with a flow guide is used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR1, -KR2, -KR4, -KR7, -KR8, -KR10, -KR14, -KR22, -KR22B, -KR27 and -KR28 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2006. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. Two different section lengths (2 m and 0.5 m) were used in the flow logging measurements. The flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section. Measurements were carried out both in natural conditions and when the drillhole was pumped. The transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head (h) of zones were calculated and are presented in the results. The measurement device also includes a sensor for single-point resistance (SPR) measurements. SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements. SPR is measured when the tool is moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in selected fractures in some of the drillholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the drillhole. In addition to this some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was measured separately. (orig.)

  11. Pre- and post-stimulation characterization of geothermal well GRT-1, Rittershoffen, France: insights from acoustic image logs of hard fractured rock

    Vidal, Jeanne; Genter, Albert; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Geothermal well GRT-1 (Rittershoffen, Alsace) was drilled in 2012. Its open-hole section (extending down to a depth of 2.6 km) penetrated fractured sandstones and granite. In 2013, the well was subjected to Thermal, Chemical and Hydraulic (TCH) stimulation, which improved the injectivity index five-fold. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of the stimulation by comparing pre- and post-stimulation logs and well-logging (temperature [T] log) and mud-logging data. This comparison revealed modifications of almost all the natural fractures. However, not all of these fractures are associated with permeability enhancement, and the post-stimulation T logs are important for characterizing this enhancement. Chemical alteration due to mechanical erosion at the tops and bottoms of the fractures was observed in the sandstones. These zones display indications of very small new permeability after the TCH stimulation. Because a major fault zone caved extensively where it crosses the borehole, it was not imaged in the acoustic logs. However, this originally permeable zone was enhanced as demonstrated by the T logs. Based on the natural injectivity of this fault zone, hydraulic erosion and thermal microcracking of its internal quartz veins are associated with this permeability enhancement. Although local changes in the borehole wall observed in the acoustic images cannot be directly linked to the improved injectivity index, the comparison of the acoustic image logs allows for identification of fracture zones impacted by the TCH stimulation.

  12. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of the Fracture Spatial Morphology for Water Pressure Blasting in a Drillhole Under True Triaxial Stress

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng

    2015-07-01

    The present literature on the morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not sufficient and does not take triaxial confining stress into account. Because the spatial morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not clear, the operations lack an exact basis. Using a large true triaxial water pressure blasting experimental system and an acoustic emission 3-D positioning system, water pressure blasting experiments on cement mortar test blocks (300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm) were conducted to study the associated basic law of the fracture spatial morphology. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting does not always generate bubble pulsation. After water pressure blasting under true triaxial stress, a crushed compressive zone and a blasting fracture zone are formed from the inside, with the blasting section of the naked drillhole as the center, to the outside. The shape of the outer edges of the two zones is ellipsoidal. The range of the blasting fracture is large in the radial direction of the drillhole, where the surrounding pressure is large, i.e., the range of the blasting fracture in the drillhole radial cross-section is approximately ellipsoidal. The rock near the drillhole wall is affected by a tensile stress wave caused by the test block boundary reflection, resulting in more flake fractures appearing in the fracturing crack surface in the drillhole axial direction and parallel to the boundary surface. The flake fracture is thin, presenting a small-range flake fracture. The spatial morphology of the water pressure blasting fracture in the drillhole along the axial direction is similar to a wide-mouth Chinese bottle: the crack extent is large near the drillhole orifice, gradually narrows inward along the drillhole axial direction, and then increases into an approximate ellipsoid in the internal naked blasting section. Based on the causes of the crack generation, the blasting cracks are divided into three

  13. Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data

    Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate–bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave velocity data from the Mallik 5L-38 permafrost gas hydrate research well in Canada and applied to well log data from hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaskan permafrost, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Cascadia margin. Velocity-based gas hydrate saturation estimates are in good agreement with Nuclear Magneto Resonance and resistivity log estimates over the complete range of observed gas hydrate saturations.

  14. Monitoring measurements with the Difference Flow Method in drillholes OL-KR32, -KR33, -KR42 and ONK-KR13, and with the transverse flow method in drillholes OL-KR31, -KR33, KR-35 and -KR36 during the year 2012

    Pentti, E.; Poellaenen, J.; Komulainen, J.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in actures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of the measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR32, -KR33, -KR42 and ONK-KR13 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2012. Posiva Flow Log, Transverse Flow Method (PFL TRANS) was also used. The measurements during the year 2012 in drillholes OL-KR31, -KR33, -KR35 and -KR36 are presented. All the reported measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme (OMO). The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. Both devices used include a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in all of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  15. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2009, Drillholes OL-KR22, -KR30, -KR31, -KR35, -KR36 and -KR40, Part 2

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR22, -KR30, -KR31, -KR35, -KR36 and -KR40 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2009. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme (OMO). The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in most of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  16. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2007, drillholes OL-KR2, -KR7, -KR8, -KR14, -KR22, -KR22B, -KR27 and -KR28

    The Posiva Flow Log Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of water conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes KR2, KR7, KR8, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR27 and KR28 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2007. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in most of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  17. Drilling and associated Drillhole measurements of the Pilot Hole ONK-PH14

    The construction of ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. During the construction, investigations serving both research and construction purposes need to be done. Investigations can be done for example in so called pilot holes. Pilot holes are cored drillholes to be drilled to the tunnel profile. The length of the holes varies from some tens of metres to some hundreds of metres. The purpose of the holes is to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, especially to identify water conductive fractures/fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH14 was drilled in June 2010. Drilling was started in chainage 4313.6. The length of the hole was 150.80 metres. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling. Additionally, oriented core samples were collected from the drill core and the electric conductivity of returning water was measured. Logging of the core samples included following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The strength and deformation properties of the rock were defined by using Rock-Tester equipment. Hydraulic measurements were made by using the PFL DIFF (Posiva Flow log, Difference Flow Method). PFL DIFF measurements were performed with a 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m length increments. With PFL DIFF tool the locations of transmissive fractures were detected. Simultaneously, the electric conductivity (EC) of the drillhole water and fracture specific water, temperature of the drillhole water, single point resistance (SPR) of the drillhole wall and the prevailing water pressure were measured. Water loss measurements were done after the drilling by the tool developed by Posiva. The tool was in test use during the measurements. The groundwater sample was

  18. Identification of gas-saturated strata in chemogenic deposits of Dnepr-Don basin using acoustic and pulse neutron-neutron logging combination

    The technique for qualitative interpretation of geophysical materials is elucidated to identify gas-saturated strata in a chemogenic cut. The technique is based on the combined interpretation of the acoustic logging curve and integral curve of pulse neutron-neutron logging (PNNL), normalized according to a certain law. Conclusions are made that for the nonproductive part of the chemogenic cut a linear dependence between logarithm of the interval time of longitudinal wave run (acoustic logging data) in a stratum and logarithm of the PNNL integral curve value against the same stratum is observed. The points corresponding to the productive strata are located below the direct line, obtained for the non-productive part of chemogenic cut

  19. Well logging for physical properties

    Hearst, J.R.; Nelson, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications.

  20. Well logging for physical properties

    This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications

  1. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-9 (C-2950)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-19

    SNL-9 (permitted by the State Engineer as C-2950) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation within a proposed re-entrant of the margin of halite dissolved from the upper part of the Salado near Livingston Ridge. SNL-9 is located in the southeast quarter of section 23, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-9 was drilled to a total depth of 845 ft below the ground surface. Below surface dune sand and the Berino soil, SNL-9 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Gatuna, Dewey Lake, Rustler, and uppermost Salado Formations. Two intervals were cored: 1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and 2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and Los Meda?os Members and into the uppermost Salado Formation. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to total depth, and the drillhole was successfully completed with a screened interval open across the Culebra.

  2. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-5 (C-3002)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-18

    SNL-5 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-3002) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation in an area north of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site where data are sparse and where a pumping or monitoring well for the northern pumping test is needed. SNL-5 is located in the southeast quarter of section 6, T22S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-5 was drilled to a total depth of 687 ft below ground level (bgl), based on driller's measurements. Below the caliche pad, SNL-5 encountered the Mescalero caliche, Gatu?a, Dewey Lake, and Rustler Formations. Two intervals of the Rustler were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and into the upper Los Meda?os Members. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to a depth of ~672 ft. No water was observed to flow into the open drillhole until the Culebra was penetrated. includes horizontal beds and laminae near the base, and the uppermost part shows some inclined bedding. The mudstone unit shows mostly reddish brown claystone and siltstone with some gray mottling. Clasts or intraclasts are also included in the unit. The upper Tamarisk sulfate is somewhat brecciated near the base.

  3. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-12 (C-2954)

    Powers, Dennis W. [Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (United States)

    2005-01-20

    SNL-12 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2954) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation near the margin of dissolution of halite in the upper part of the Salado south of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). SNL-12 is located in the southeast quarter of section 20, T23S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-12 was drilled to a total depth of 905 ft below the ground level. Below surface dune sand and the Berino soil, SNL-12 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Gatu?a, Dewey Lake, Rustler, and uppermost Salado Formations. Two intervals were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and Los Meda?os Members and into the uppermost Salado Formation. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to total depth, and the drillhole was successfully completed with a screened interval open across the Culebra. At SNL-12, the uppermost Salado cores display displacive halite crystals in clastic-rich units below an amalgamated sulfate at the top of the formation. There is no indication of thinning of the upper Salado due to postdepositional dissolution, and this is consistent with predrilling expectations.

  4. Flow measurements and hydraulic interference tests at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR14, OL-KR30, OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69

    Komulainen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    The measurements described in this report are part of the infiltration experiment carried out at Olkiluoto. The emphasis of these measurements is on obtaining more detailed data on hydraulically significant fractures in the infiltration experiment area. The selected fractures or sections were pumped in turn and flow responses were observed in the other holes by the PFL DIFF-tool. The flow measurements were carried out in drillholes OL-KR14, OL-KR30, OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69 on the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2013 and July 2013. Two different flowmeters were used for the measurements. Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in the drillholes. PFL DIFF flow logging was conducted in all the drillholes mentioned above. Posiva Flow Log, Transverse flow method (PFL TRANS) was used to determine groundwater flow direction and flow rate across a drillhole. The transverse flow method was used in drillholes OL-KR14 and OL-PP69. PFL DIFF and PFL TRANS measurements had been carried out earlier in drillholes OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69. The most recent measurements were conducted in 2011. Those measurements were carried out when drillhole OL-KR14 was pumped at packed-off section 13 m - 18 m. Both PFL DIFF and PFL TRANS flowmeters include an electrode for measuring single point resistance (SPR). The device has a high depth resolution and the results were used for depth synchronisation between consecutive DIFF and TRANS measurements. (orig.)

  5. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH5

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH5 was drilled from chainage 991.4 to chainage 1194 in January 2006. The length of the hole is 202.64 m and the vertical depth of the hole from zero level is about 88.2-107.5 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. One steering operation by wedging was made at the hole depth of 128.58 metres. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Due to high inflow (c. 200 L/min) mainly from the depth section 56-58 metres no geophysical surveys were carried out in the hole. Flow logging was carried out only from 58 metres to the bottom of the hole. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Flow

  6. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH5

    Oehberg, A. (ed.) [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland); Jurvanen, T. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kemppainen, K.; Mustonen, A. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Niemonen, J. [Oy Kalajoen Timanttikairaus Ab, Kalajoki (Finland); Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P. [PRG-Tec Oy, Espoo (Finland); Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-09-15

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH5 was drilled from chainage 991.4 to chainage 1194 in January 2006. The length of the hole is 202.64 m and the vertical depth of the hole from zero level is about 88.2-107.5 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. One steering operation by wedging was made at the hole depth of 128.58 metres. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Due to high inflow (c. 200 L/min) mainly from the depth section 56-58 metres no geophysical surveys were carried out in the hole. Flow logging was carried out only from 58 metres to the bottom of the hole. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Flow

  7. Granitic rocks from the geothermal drillholes of ZO-1 and ZO-3 in the Zao area, northern Honshu

    The fracture zones in the granitic rocks deeply seated in the geothermal area were evaluated chemically with reference to continuity of abundance of major and trace elements in rocks from drillholes. The analyzed samples are the cores recovered from the geothermal drillholes of ZO-1 and ZO-3, Zao area, northern Honshu. The pre-Tertiary granitic rocks of 604m core from ZO-1 consist of tonalite, granodiorite and granite, and those of the 50m core from ZO-3 granodiorite and granophyre. The several fracture zones are observed in the granitic rocks from both of the holes. The thirteen major elements were analyzed for 30 samples, and major elements Fe and K, and trace elements Rb, Sr, Zr, Th and U were analyzed for 94 samples. The magnetic susceptibility was also measured for the samples chemically analyzed. The abundance of K, Fe, Rb, and Sr changes remarkably at fracture zones between the different facies. The distribution of trace elements of Zr, Th and U may also change at fracture zones. Ca and Sr are considerably depleted in the altered granitic rocks. On the contrary, depletion or enrichment of K, Rb, Zr, Th and U are small in the alteration zone. Those results indicate that the geochemical logging will be effective for determination of fracture zones in granitic rocks in geothermal drillholes. (author)

  8. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Acoustic and electrical logging for evaluation of resistivity and shear and compressional wave velocities of foundation of Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant

    The construction of unit 3 and 4 of Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant (KAPP) was proposed on the Deccan traps of Cretaceous age, comprising of mostly amygdaloidal basalt overlain by about 7-8 m thick silty soil. Electrical resistivity and shear and compressional wave velocity of subsurface formation were required to be assessed in situ for design of foundation of crucial structures like turbo-generator and reactor building of KAPP units 3 and 4. This paper deals with acoustic and electric logging at KAPP for assessing nature of foundation and determination of in-situ shear and compressional wave velocities of subsurface rock. The resistivity and shear and compressional wave velocities thus determined were utilized for design of crucial structures of KAPP. (author)

  10. Traitement des diagraphies acoustiques. Deuxième partie : séparation des ondes en diagraphie acoustique Full-Waveform Acoustic Data Processing. Second Part: Wave Separation in Acoustic Well Logging

    Gavin P.

    2006-11-01

    'ambiguïté sur l'origine des réflexions. The fule waveforms recorded by an array of receivers in a borehole sonic tool contain a set of waves that can be fruitfully used to obtain detailed information about the nearborehole lithology and structure. Each wave contains information that can be disturbed by the presence of the other waves. The great amount of full-waveform sonic data leads geophysicists and log analysts to implement algorithms for separating waves. The log analyst must pay attention to the choice of parameters for acquisition. The acoustic data must be recorded with well suited spatial and temporal sampling-rates to avoid spatial and temporal aliasings. The efficiency of the wave-separation algorithms depends on the choice of acoustic data gathers. Acoustic data are sorted either in a common-shot gather or in a constant-offset gather. The wave separation filters commonly used are apparent velocity filters. Less usual filters are a Wiener filter and a spectral matrix filter. The efficiency of an apparent velocity filter is enhanced by application of spectrum equalization. The signal to noise ratio is enhanced by spectral matrix filtering. We describe different processing sequences applied to a set of field examples. First field example: full-waveform sonic data in a vertical wellFull-waveform sonic data were acquired in a vertical well drilled in an anticline structure used for underground gas storage by Gaz de France. The sonic tool used was a Schlumberger Dipole Imaging tool. This tool is an eight-receiver/three-transmitter device. The receiver section contains eight dipole-monopole stations spanning 3. 5 ft, each station spaced 6 inches (15 cm from its neighbor. The distance between the monopole transmitter and the first receiver station is 9 ft. The source was fired at equal spacings of 6 inches throughout the open hole section. For this experiment, the monopole transmitter was activated with a low frequency pulse for the purpose of generating low frequency

  11. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-2 (C-2948)

    Powers, Dennis W. [Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (United States)

    2005-01-19

    SNL-2 was drilled in the northwest quarter of Section 12, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 2-1). It is located 574 ft from the north line (fnl) and 859 ft from the west line (fwl) of the section (Figure 2-2). This location places the drillhole east of the Livingston Ridge escarpment among oil wells of the Cabin Lake field. SNL-2 will be used to test hydraulic properties and to monitor ground water levels of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation. SNL-2 was permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2948. [Official correspondence regarding permitting and regulatory information must reference this permit number.] In the plan describing the integrated groundwater hydrology program (Sandia National Laboratories, 2003), SNL-2 is also codesignated WTS-1 because the location also satisfies needs for long-term monitoring of water quality and movement in the Culebra Dolomite for RCRA permitting; this program is under the management of Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS). In the event that additional wells are established on the SNL-2 drillpad to monitor other hydrological units (e.g., the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation), the current drillhole will likely be referred to as SNL-2C because it is completed in the Culebra. Most drillholes at WIPP have been described after completion to provide an account of the geology, hydrology, or other basic data acquired during drilling and immediate completion of the drillhole. In addition, the basic data report provides an account of the drilling procedures and activities that may be helpful to later interpretations of data or for further work in the drillhole, including test activities and eventual plugging and abandoning activities. The basic data report also provides a convenient means of reporting information about administrative activities necessary to drill the hole.

  12. Borehole television surveys and acoustic televiewer logging at the National Hydrology Research Institute's hydrogeological research area in Chalk River, Ontario

    This paper presents the results of studies of the fracture distribution and fracture orientation encountered in 23 boreholes at the National Hydrology Research Institute's Hydrogeological Research Area in Chalk River. Borehole television camera and acoustic televiewer data were used to determine: the fracture distribution as a function of depth; the aperture distribution as a function of depth; and, the predominant fracture sets. Fracture frameworks of the rock mass were constructed based on these data. The rock mass was found to be moderately to well fractured. Many open fractures were detected in the CR-series boreholes, especially in the upper 70 m. Three interconnecting, highly fractured zones are intersected by the CR-series boreholes between elevations of 96.80 m and 56.56 m, 34.91 m and -22.42 m, and -56.56 m and -61.31 m, while two interconnecting fracture zones are encountered by the FS-series boreholes between elevations 103.89 m and 96.64 m, and 108.20 m and 95.08 m. The predominant fracture sets strike east-west, northwest and indeterminably subhorizontal. The predominant set of veins strikes to the south. The subsurface fracture patterns and vein patterns were found to be similar to those observed on surface outcrops

  13. Numerical simulation of monopole acoustic reflection imaging logging in the logging-while-drilling condition%随钻单极子声反射测井数值模拟

    陈雪莲; 魏周拓

    2012-01-01

    In view of practical demand of drilling geology, we compared distributions of the monopole exciting acoustic field both inside and outside a borehole between homogeneous formations and near-borehole geological interfaces in a logging-while-drilling (LWD) condition by applying numerical simulation of the 3D rectangular-coordinate and time-domain finite difference, and examined the influence of a drill collar on radiation intensity of the acoustic field outside a borehole. Because of the shielding effect of a large diameter drill collar, there is a significant difference in the reflected P wave amplitude received from eight different azimuths evenly distributed on the drill collar when the reflection of near-borehole formation interfaces exists. The reflected P wave information on near-borehole formation interfaces can be extracted through vector calculus of signals received from different azimuths. By comparing the reflected P wave intensity of different azimuthal receivers, one can determine the azimuth information of formation interfaces. As the reflected compressional wave is a weak signal in a waveform, it is recommended to keep the distance between the source and receiver within 4 m for data acquisition. The results provided a reference for the development of LWD acoustic reflection tools and data processing as well.%从随钻地质导向的实际需求出发,通过三维直角坐标时域有限差分数值模拟的方法对比了均匀地层和井旁存在地质界面时随钻环境下单极子声源激发的井孔内外声场分布特征,考察了钻铤的存在对井外辐射声场强度的影响.由于硕大钻铤的声场屏蔽效应,井旁存在地层界面时,井周8个方位上接收到的反射纵波信息具有明显差异,通过对不同方位上接收的信号做矢量计算,得到了来自井旁地层界面的反射纵波信息;通过对比不同方位上接收器接收到的反射纵波信号的强弱,还可确定地层界面的方位信息.由

  14. Summary of investigations in personnel shaft pre-grouting drillholes ONK-PP131, -PP134 and -PP137 in Olkiluoto, 2008

    Heikkinen, E.; Ahokas, T. (Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)); Heikkinen, P.; Kristiansson, S. (PRG-Tec Oy, Espoo (Finland)); Tiensuu, K. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)); Pere, T.

    2010-06-15

    Posiva Oy is preparing for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the bedrock at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This act is in accordance with the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in- Principle of the State Council in 2000, and the ratification by Parliament in 2001. The ONKALO underground characterisation facility has been under construction since 2004. Construction work has included excavation of an access tunnel (currently at a depth of c. 350 m) and driving of three vertical shafts using raise-boring. In 2008, geological, hydrological and geophysical measurements were carried out in three vertical drillholes intended for pre-grouting of personnel shaft ONK-KU1 at depth level -177 to -280 m. The drillholes are 76 mm in diameter, 104.5 m long and located 3.2 m apart within the perimeter of vertical shaft to be constructed. The shaft also contains geological and geophysical information from deep drillhole OL-KR24. Goal of survey and integrating interpretation was to investigate variation in bedrock properties and their predictability in small scale. Goal was also to demonstrate appropriate survey techniques. These techniques can be applied for characterization of bedrock in disposal tunnel and specifically in the near field of disposal holes. Information is gained from fracturing with orientations and continuity as well as hydraulic conductivity, and position and continuity of electrically conductive layers and fractures. Surveys included flow logging, crosshole mise-a-la-masse measurements, optical imaging and drillhole radar surveys. Data sets were adjusted to common depth level with core logging according to geological reference points. Results were interpreted for hydraulically conductive fractures and their orientations, fracture orientations, and electrical conductivity features from mise-a-la-masse and radar. Geophysical results were compared with geological information. The drillholes are located in a sparsely fractured rock mass. Rock quality is very good and

  15. Installation of groundwater observation tubes OL-PVP39 - 40 and drilling of shallow drillhole OL-PP90 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2013

    In order to extend the groundwater monitoring network at Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy contracted Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) to install new groundwater observation tubes to two locations and to drill one shallow drillhole with a standpipe. The identification numbers of the groundwater observation tubes are OL-PVP39, OL-PVP40A and 40B, and the shallow drillhole is named OL-PP90. The observation tubes were installed and the shallow hole drilled between July 29th and August 6th in 2013. The drilling rig used in the installation work was a GM-200 rig. Drilling equipment consisted of casing tubes (v 90/77 mm) with drilling bit, 55 mm geo rods and 64 mm drilling bits and T76-equipment for drilling the shallow hole. Monitoring pipes (PVC, v 60/52 mm) were lowered into the holes inside the casings. The monitoring pipes consist of a lower section of riser pipe, a middle section of screen pipe and an upper section of riser pipe. The screen pipe slot size is 0.3 mm and the length of the screen section is two or three metres. Protective stainless steel covers with lock-up caps were installed around the monitoring tubes and the shallow drillholes. In addition to the installation of the tubes, the work included water level measurements after installation. The core samples of the shallow drillhole were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. (orig.)

  16. Difference flow measurements and hydraulic interference test in ONKALO at Olkiluoto drillholes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17

    Komulainen, J.; Pekkanen, J. [Poyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-08-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method as well as the results of the measurements carried out in the underground facilities of ONKALO. The measurements were conducted in pilot holes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17 between October 12 and December 29, 2010. The aim of the measurements was to detect water conducting fractures and hydraulic interference between pilot holes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17. The flow rate into a 0.5 m long test section was measured using 0.1 m point intervals. The flowing fractures in both pilot holes were obtained between 50 m - 80 m. For hydraulic interference test one drillhole was closed with packers to increase its pressure. Flow response to the increased pressure was measured in the other drillhole. The flow guide of the PFL DIFF probe encloses an electrode for single point resistance measurement, which was carried out with 0.01 m point intervals during the automatic flow measurements. The flow measurement and the single point resistance measurement were used to locate flowing fractures and evaluate their transmissivity. Electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature of water were registered during automatic flow logging. The conductivity values are temperature corrected to 25 deg C. The distance between the drillholes is about 14 m. Flow response in fractures of open ONK-PH16 could be detected when pressure was changed in ONK-PH17. (orig.)

  17. Installation of groundwater observation tubes OL-PVP39 - 40 and drilling of shallow drillhole OL-PP90 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2013

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    In order to extend the groundwater monitoring network at Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy contracted Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) to install new groundwater observation tubes to two locations and to drill one shallow drillhole with a standpipe. The identification numbers of the groundwater observation tubes are OL-PVP39, OL-PVP40A and 40B, and the shallow drillhole is named OL-PP90. The observation tubes were installed and the shallow hole drilled between July 29th and August 6th in 2013. The drilling rig used in the installation work was a GM-200 rig. Drilling equipment consisted of casing tubes (v 90/77 mm) with drilling bit, 55 mm geo rods and 64 mm drilling bits and T76-equipment for drilling the shallow hole. Monitoring pipes (PVC, v 60/52 mm) were lowered into the holes inside the casings. The monitoring pipes consist of a lower section of riser pipe, a middle section of screen pipe and an upper section of riser pipe. The screen pipe slot size is 0.3 mm and the length of the screen section is two or three metres. Protective stainless steel covers with lock-up caps were installed around the monitoring tubes and the shallow drillholes. In addition to the installation of the tubes, the work included water level measurements after installation. The core samples of the shallow drillhole were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. (orig.)

  18. Installation of groundwater observation tubes OL-PVP36-38 and drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP70-71 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    In order to widen the groundwater monitoring network at Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy contracted Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) to install new groundwater observation tubes to three locations and to drill two shallow drillholes with standpipes. The identification numbers of the groundwater observation tubes are OL-PVP36, OL-PVP37A, 37B, 37C, OL-PVP38A, 38B, 38C and 38D, and the shallow drillholes are named OL-PP70 and OL-PP71. The observation tubes were installed and the shallow holes drilled between September 22nd and October 12th in 2011. The drilling rig used in the installation work was a GM-200 rig. Drilling equipment consisted of casing tubes (90/77 mm) with drilling bit, 55 mm geo rods and 64 mm drilling bits and T76-equipment for drilling the shallow holes. Monitoring pipes (PVC, 60/52 mm) were lowered into the holes inside the casings. The monitoring pipes consist of a lower section of riser pipe, a middle section of screen pipe and an upper section of riser pipe. The screen pipe slot size is 0.3 mm and the length of the screen section is two metres. Protective stainless steel covers with lock-up caps were installed around the monitoring tubes and the shallow drillholes. In addition to the installation of the tubes, the work included water level measurements after installation. The core samples of the shallow drillholes were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. (orig.)

  19. Acoustics

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  20. Wavelet Transform: Application to Acoustic Logging La transformée en ondelettes : application à la diagraphie acoustique

    Thirion N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The wavelet transform can be used to develop the process which allows group and phase velocity measurement of dispersive waves. The method has been applied to acoustic data to measure formation velocities. The behavior and the accuracy of the method have been checked on synthetic full waveform acoustic data. The method was applied to dispersive waves of the Stoneley type and to flexural modes whose low frequency components are propagated at the formation shear velocity. A raw measurement of the phase velocity of a flexural mode gives an estimate of the shear velocity with an error of about 5%. The use of a wavelet transform yields an accurate study of dispersion and gives a shear velocity measurement with an error of less than 1 %. However, all the examples presented here are based on the use of synthetic data, which are not corrupted by noise and were obtained with a numerical model. This algorithm is complete, to the extent in which it enables simulation of all the seismic arrivals for the considered geometry (cylindrical borehole with a circular section, in an homogeneous medium. Nevertheless, such a model remains a simplified version of what will occur in reality, when the irregularities of the borehole, the cementing defects and the background noise may call into question the excellent precision of the results obtained. The process which is described in this paper must be seen as one possible method for the analysis of field data, but it still has to be applied to many recordings of field data before its effectiveness can really be proved. Les analyses Temps-Fréquence caractérisant un signal dans le plan Temps-Fréquence permettent d'obtenir une bonne localisation des composantes spectrales du signal analysé aussi bien dans le domaine fréquentiel que dans le domaine temporel. Dans ce contexte, la théorie des ondelettes sert de base à différentes méthodes développées dans le cadre d'applications variées en traitement du signal. Le

  1. Petrological and geochemical investigations at the Cajon Pass Deep Drillhole

    Silver, Leon T.; James, Eric W.; Chappell, Bruce W.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical analyses of cores from the Cajon Pass Deep Drillhole confirm vertical lithologic diversity of the basement rocks. They are metaluminous and calcalkaline; weak major element correlations with wide-ranging SiO_2 suggest they are not a simple cogenetic suite. Quartz contents correlate with the thermal gradient profile, supporting conduction as the principal thermal transport mechanism. Abundances of heat producing elements are variable and somewhat lower than average crustal values. Cro...

  2. Exploration of joint systems and major horizontal stress direction in HDR drillholes of the Soultz site (Alsace, France)

    Genter, A. [BRGM/GIG, Orleans (France); Tenzer, H. [Stadtwerke Bad Urach (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Borehole imaging logs enable continuous recording of natural and artificial planar discontinuities on the drillhole wall and data of the drillhole geometry to be made. Efforts were made to resolve the orientation and characterization of the natural joint system, the active fault pattern, the alteration zones, the orientation of microcracks and the direction of maximum horizontal stress. Intense logging operations and measurements were carried out in the HDR drillholes GPK1 and EPS1 between 1000 and 3600 m depth in the Muschelkalk, Bunter and Granite at Soultz sous Forets. With the help of investigations on subvertical fractures the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction was determined as N175 E{+-}17 . These results are consistent with previous investigations performed in the horeholes GPK-1 and EPS-1. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Bohrlochmessungen mit dem akustschen Borehole Televiewer und elektrischen Formation MicroScanner (Imager) sowie dem Azimuthal Resistivity Imager und verschiedenen Sonic-Sonden ermoeglichen eine kontinuierliche Aufnahme sowohl von natuerlichen und kuenstlich erzeugten planaren Diskontinuitaeten an der Bohrlochwand als auch der Bohrlochgeometrie. Es wurden die Orientierung und Charakterisierung des natuerlichen Kluftsystems, das aktive Stoerungsmuster, die Alterationszonen, die Orientierung von Mikrorissen und die Orientierung der maximalen horizontalen Hauptspannungsrichtung ermittelt. Die Verfuegbarkeit von Strukturdaten aus Bohrloechern durch Bohrlochmessungen und hydraulischen Testen ermoeglicht die Bestimmung von hydraulisch aktiven Klueften und deren Beziehung zum regionalen Spannungsfeld. Mit Hilfe spezieller Bohrloch-Logs wurden die Orientierung und Haeufigkeit planarer Diskontinuitaeten und ihre scheinbare Oeffnungsweite sowie die Vorzugsrichtung der verschiedenen scheinbaren Weiten bestimmt. Innerhalb des gemeinsamen europaeischen Hot-Dry-Rock-Geothermal-Forschungsprogramms wurden vielfaeltige Bohrlochmessungen in den

  3. Considering the Epistemic Uncertainties of the Variogram Model in Locating Additional Exploratory Drillholes

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the certainty of the grade block model, it is necessary to increase the number of exploratory drillholes and collect more data from the deposit. The inputs of the process of locating these additional drillholes include the variogram model parameters, locations of the samples taken from the initial drillholes, and the geological block model. The uncertainties of these inputs will lead to uncertainties in the optimal locations of additional drillholes. Meanwhile, the locations of the initial data are crisp, but the variogram model parameters and the geological model have uncertainties due to the limitation of the number of initial data. In this paper, effort has been made to consider the effects of variogram uncertainties on the optimal location of additional drillholes using the fuzzy kriging and solve the locating problem with the genetic algorithm (GA optimization method.A bauxite deposit case study has shown the efficiency of the proposed model.

  4. A study on the processing method for acoustic slowness logging in complex formations%复杂地层声波测井时差处理方法研究

    苏远大; 庄春喜; 唐晓明; 王易安; 贾向东

    2011-01-01

    During acoustic logging in complex formations, the logging waveforms are often distorted by formation velocity changes and by the interference of acoustic reflections from formation bed boundaries. The waveform distortion causes different receivers in the receiver array to have significantly different amplitudes, and the resulting slowness estimation from the array data suffers from large errors due to poor signal coherence. This wave phenomenon, can be seen from a finite difference simulation of acoustic logging for the thin-bed sand-shale sequence model. To improve the slowness estimation accuracy for this situation, we use a Frequency-Wavenumber Coherence Filtering method to suppress the bed-boundary reflection interference in acoustic data and enhance the coherence of formation compressional (P) waves in array. We have applied the technique to both synthetic modeling and field logging data. The results show that this method effectively suppresses the interference of bed-boundaryreflections and significantly improves the coherence of formation P-waves, allowing forincreasing the resolution of the P-wave slowness log curve and detecting the thin-bedcharacteristics of sand-shale sequences in formation.%在复杂地层(如砂—泥岩薄互层)的声波测井中,由于地层声速变化及界面反射波叠加干扰,导致不同接收器的地层纵波波形幅度差异明显,且相关性很差,使得提取的时差误差较大.这一声场特征可从薄互层声波测井的有限差分数值模拟中看到.针对这一现象,本文利用频率—波数域相关滤波处理技术来消除薄互层声波测井的界面反射干扰,以改善地层纵波波形的相关性.本文给出了砂—泥岩薄互层数字声波测井的现场资料处理实例,处理结果证明了该方法有效地消除了界面反射波的干扰,明显改善了地层纵波的相关性,提高了地层纵波时差曲线的分辨率,清晰地刻画出了薄互层特征.

  5. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-5 (C-3002) (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    SNL-5 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-3002) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation in an area north of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site where data are sparse and where a pumping or monitoring well for the northern pumping test is needed. SNL-5 is located in the southeast quarter of section 6, T22S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-5 was drilled to a total depth of 687 ft below ground level (bgl), based on driller's measurements. Below the caliche pad, SNL-5 encountered the Mescalero caliche, Gatuna, Dewey Lake, and Rustler Formations. Two intervals of the Rustler were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and into the upper Los Medanos Members. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to a depth of ∼672 ft. No water was observed to flow into the open drillhole until the Culebra was penetrated. includes horizontal beds and laminae near the base, and the uppermost part shows some inclined bedding. The mudstone unit shows mostly reddish brown claystone and siltstone with some gray mottling. Clasts or intraclasts are also included in the unit. The upper Tamarisk sulfate is somewhat brecciated near the base.

  6. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m3 and 16.8 m3, respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  7. Quality review of transmissivity data from Olkiluoto site - drillholes OL-KR1 - KR57

    Ahokas, H.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland); Kuusela-Lahtinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    This report presents a quality evaluation of transmissivity data measured with the PFL tool, the HTU tool and the data obtained in connection with long-term pumping campaigns until the end of 2010. The magnitude and the distribution of transmissivity data form an essential part of the performance assessment and safety analysis of the disposal repository of spent nuclear fuel. The only possible way for radionuclides to reach the biosphere is to migrate in the groundwater flow and the character of the flow depends on the amount and hydraulic properties of transmissive fractures driven by a pressure field in the bedrock. The performance of technical barriers is also dependent on the character and magnitude of groundwater flow. For this reason, it is necessary to create a site-specific model that reliably describes the distribution of transmissivities. Furthermore, as the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel progresses, it is vital to evaluate and understand the undisturbed baseline conditions prior to construction. A reliable database is a pre-requisite for fulfilling the requirements set for the geohydrological description and model of the site. Transmissivity is measured with the PFL tool by guiding, without pumping, the water flowing into the drillhole or out of the drillhole into the bedrock, and after several days of pumping, the water flowing from the bedrock into the drillhole through the flow sensor of the tool. A corresponding value is determined with the HTU tool by injecting water at constant overpressure from the double-packer section into the bedrock. In the evaluation of transmissivity values, the main focus was on finding out the most representative values among the data set, which in some cases was disturbed by groutings in ONKALO or by ongoing activities in the nearby drillhole(s). The increased yield caused by a hydraulic connection into nearby open drillhole(s) was also taken into account in the evaluation of the data

  8. Quality review of transmissivity data from Olkiluoto site - drillholes OL-KR1 - KR57

    This report presents a quality evaluation of transmissivity data measured with the PFL tool, the HTU tool and the data obtained in connection with long-term pumping campaigns until the end of 2010. The magnitude and the distribution of transmissivity data form an essential part of the performance assessment and safety analysis of the disposal repository of spent nuclear fuel. The only possible way for radionuclides to reach the biosphere is to migrate in the groundwater flow and the character of the flow depends on the amount and hydraulic properties of transmissive fractures driven by a pressure field in the bedrock. The performance of technical barriers is also dependent on the character and magnitude of groundwater flow. For this reason, it is necessary to create a site-specific model that reliably describes the distribution of transmissivities. Furthermore, as the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel progresses, it is vital to evaluate and understand the undisturbed baseline conditions prior to construction. A reliable database is a pre-requisite for fulfilling the requirements set for the geohydrological description and model of the site. Transmissivity is measured with the PFL tool by guiding, without pumping, the water flowing into the drillhole or out of the drillhole into the bedrock, and after several days of pumping, the water flowing from the bedrock into the drillhole through the flow sensor of the tool. A corresponding value is determined with the HTU tool by injecting water at constant overpressure from the double-packer section into the bedrock. In the evaluation of transmissivity values, the main focus was on finding out the most representative values among the data set, which in some cases was disturbed by groutings in ONKALO or by ongoing activities in the nearby drillhole(s). The increased yield caused by a hydraulic connection into nearby open drillhole(s) was also taken into account in the evaluation of the data

  9. Pressure, flow and hydraulic interference measurements in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274

    The general purpose of these studies is to characterize the fracture network and groundwater flow properties in a volume of rock, which is representative of the rock close to deposition holes. As a part of the studies hydraulic tests and flow measurements were applied in two drillholes in hydraulically poorly conductive bedrock. This report presents the principles of the methods as well as the results of the measurements carried out in the underground facilities of ONKALO. The measurements were conducted in drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 between May 9, 2010 and June 9, 2011. The aim of the measurements was to obtain pressure in the closed drillholes, to detect water yielding fractures by flow measurements, to obtain transmissivity with overpressure and drawdown tests and to study hydraulic interference between the drillholes by cross-hole hydraulic tests. The PFL DIFF probe was used to detect flow within single fractures in the drillhole. Transmissive water yielding fractures were found at depths 17.9 m, 16.9 m and 16.4 m in ONK-PP262 and at depths 19.8 m and 19.5 m in ONK-PP274. The cross-hole hydraulic tests included three basic phases. Flow was measured in one drillhole when the other drillhole was open, closed or overpressurized. The cross-hole hydraulic tests were carried out to both directions in the two drillholes. (orig.)

  10. Fracture specific water sampling and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR32, OL-KR41 and OL-KR46

    Ripatti, K.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Lamminmaeki, T.

    2014-10-15

    Fracture-specific water sampling and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed in drillholes OL-KR32, OL-KR41 and OL-KR46 at the Olkiluoto investigation site from May to October in 2013. The measurements were conducted using Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) with a configuration for water sampling. The purpose of the measurements was to get a fracture specific water samples for groundwater analysis. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements and samplings. The main point in the investigation programme was water sampling. The incidental measurements were carried out for controlling the quality of the sampling. Flow and single point resistance (SPR) measurements were performed in order to locate the target fractures for sampling. During sampling at a target fracture the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of the flowing water were also monitored. (orig.)

  11. Electrical conductivity and water sampling measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55

    Fracture-specific water sampling and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed in drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between July 2011 and November 2011. The measurements were conducted using Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) with a configuration for water sampling. The purpose of the measurements was to obtain information on the geochemical properties of the groundwater. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements and samplings. The main point in the investigation programme was water sampling, the incidental measurements were carried out for controlling the quality of the sampling. Flow and single point resistance (SPR) measurements were performed in order to locate the target fractures for sampling. During sampling at a target fracture the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of the flowing water were also monitored. (orig.)

  12. Electrical conductivity and water sampling measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J. [Poyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland); Lamminmaeki, T.

    2012-06-15

    Fracture-specific water sampling and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed in drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between July 2011 and November 2011. The measurements were conducted using Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) with a configuration for water sampling. The purpose of the measurements was to obtain information on the geochemical properties of the groundwater. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements and samplings. The main point in the investigation programme was water sampling, the incidental measurements were carried out for controlling the quality of the sampling. Flow and single point resistance (SPR) measurements were performed in order to locate the target fractures for sampling. During sampling at a target fracture the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of the flowing water were also monitored. (orig.)

  13. Traitement des diagraphies acoustiques. Troisième partie : caractérisation d'un réservoir par diagraphies acoustiques obtenues avec un outil dipolaire Full-Waveform Acoustic Data Processing. Part Three: Reservoir Characterisation Using Acoustic Logs Obtained with the Dipole Sonic Imaging Tool

    Wicquart E.

    2006-11-01

    for generating flexural modes having propagation characteristics in the formation enabling the slowness S of the formation to be measured. The picking of the first arrivals of the different waves making up a total acoustic field recording leads to conventional acoustic logs (slowness, frequency, attenuation as well as to dispersion measurement logs associated with them. The logs are shown in Figs. 5 to 7 for the compression waves, in Figs. 9 and 10 for the shear wave, and in Figs. 13 and 14 for the Stoneley wave. The slowness log of Stoneley waves was used to compute the slowness wave S, using the equation proposed by White (1983 linking the slowness of the S wave (DtS to the slowness of Stoneley waves (DtSt, to the formation density pb, and to the slowness (Dtf and density (pf of the fluid (Fig. 15. Measurement of the slowness of compression and shear waves gives access to the Poisson coefficient (Fig. 16, which is a good lithologic indicator (Fig. 17. It can be used to differentiate compact formations from unconsolidated formations and is a direct indicator of the presence of hydrocarbons in gas sands. For wells crossing through a shaly-sandy formation, the log of the Poisson coefficient and the frequency log of Stoneley waves are used as lithologic indicators of the shaliness (Fig. 18 and of the presence of hydrocarbons (gas. After correction for shaliness, the slowness logs of the compression and shear waves are used in combination with a density log of the Gartner type for estimating the petrophysical parameters of the formation (porosity and gas-saturation indices. Porosity was evaluated by using the slowness log of compression waves with correction for shaliness (Fig. 18 and the Wyllie relationship for formations having a Poisson coefficient higher than 0. 25 by assuming that such formations are water saturated (Dtf = 190 µs/ft. The cutoff made by using the log of the Poisson coefficient is introduced so as to eliminated partially gas-saturated zones in the

  14. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  15. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-10-09

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  16. 随钻声波测井仪维护系统软件设计%Software design of maintenance system for acoustic logging-while-drilling tool

    陈鹏; 师奕兵; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    For solving the difficulties of maintenance for the logging-while-drilling tool, taking the advantages of the chip s3c2440 of Samsung company, the software application of the maintenance system based on Linux embedded operating system was proposed. This application achieved mutual communication ability for this maintenance system with the PC through USB or network. Simultaneously, this system can transport software program to downhole tool and receive data from it through the serial port. It focused on the development of software application based on Linux embedded operating system with Qt and the designation of the USB device driver and the software program for network sever. After the data-transmission test, this system achieved the two-way transmission of a huge number of data with high speed, stable rate and high reliability.%针对随钻测井仪的维护难问题,采用三星公司的s3c2440ARM9微处理器,基于Linux嵌入式系统设计并实现了随钻声波测井仪维护系统的软件部分.该维护系统能够实现与上位机之间的USB和网络双向通信,同时,能够通过串口和井下仪器进行双向数据通信,实现对井下仪器的程序下载和数据读取.着重阐述了基于Linux嵌入式系统的应用程序开发、USB从设备固件程序以及网络服务器端应用程序设计.经过数据测试表明:系统可以实现大数据量的双向传输,数据传输速度快、速率稳定、可靠性高.

  17. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m{sup 3} and 16.8 m{sup 3}, respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  18. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-2 (C-2948) (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    SNL-2 was drilled in the northwest quarter of Section 12, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 2-1). It is located 574 ft from the north line (fnl) and 859 ft from the west line (fwl) of the section (Figure 2-2). This location places the drillhole east of the Livingston Ridge escarpment among oil wells of the Cabin Lake field. SNL-2 will be used to test hydraulic properties and to monitor ground water levels of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation. SNL-2 was permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2948. [Official correspondence regarding permitting and regulatory information must reference this permit number.] In the plan describing the integrated groundwater hydrology program (Sandia National Laboratories, 2003), SNL-2 is also codesignated WTS-1 because the location also satisfies needs for long-term monitoring of water quality and movement in the Culebra Dolomite for RCRA permitting; this program is under the management of Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS). In the event that additional wells are established on the SNL-2 drillpad to monitor other hydrological units (e.g., the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation), the current drillhole will likely be referred to as SNL-2C because it is completed in the Culebra. Most drillholes at WIPP have been described after completion to provide an account of the geology, hydrology, or other basic data acquired during drilling and immediate completion of the drillhole. In addition, the basic data report provides an account of the drilling procedures and activities that may be helpful to later interpretations of data or for further work in the drillhole, including test activities and eventual plugging and abandoning activities. The basic data report also provides a convenient means of reporting information about administrative activities necessary to drill the hole.

  19. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR56 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011 - 2012

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a 1201.65 m deep drillhole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in October 2011 - January 2012. The identification number of the drillhole is OL-KR56. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volume of the used drilling, washing and flushing water was 1628 m{sup 3}. The measured volume of the returning water in the drillhole was 1142 m{sup 3}. The deviation of the drillhole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments Reflex EMS and Reflex Gyro. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, pegmatitic granite and mica gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.4 pcs/m and the average RQD value is 96.2 %. Fifty fractured zones were penetrated by the drillhole. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 120.0 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 38.3 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.22. (orig.)

  20. Logging in Finland.

    Hakkila, Pentti

    1989-01-01

    A review of logging in Finland in relation to new logging technology developed in Nordic countries to meet their own specific requirements and constraints (high salaries, costs of social security, strict ergonomic standards, specific logging conditions, predominance of private ownership, and strong environmental and conservation concerns). Logging technology is based typically on the log-length method and load-carrying forwarders.

  1. Understanding acoustic methods for cement bond logging.

    Wang, Hua; Tao, Guo; Shang, Xuefeng

    2016-05-01

    Well cementation is important for oil/gas production, underground gas storage, and CO2 storage, since it isolates the reservoir layers from aquifers to increase well integrity and reduce environmental footprint. This paper analyzes wave modes of different sonic/ultrasonic methods for cement bonding evaluation. A Two dimensional finite difference method is then used to simulate the wavefield for the ultrasonic methods in the cased-hole models. Waveforms of pulse-echo method from different interfaces in a good bonded well are analyzed. Wavefield of the pitch-catch method for free casing, partial or full bonded models with ultra-low density cement are studied. Based on the studies, the modes in different methods are considered as follows: the zero-order symmetric Leaky-Lamb mode (S0) for sonic method, the first-order symmetric Leaky-Lamb mode (S1) for the pulse-echo method, and the zero-order anti-symmetric Leaky-Lamb mode (A0) for the pitch-catch method. For the sonic method, a directional transmitter in both the azimuth and axial directions can generate energy with a large incidence angle and azimuth resolution, which can effectively generate S0 and break out the azimuth limitation of the conventional sonic method. Although combination of pulse-echo and pitch-catch methods can determine the bonding condition of the third interface for the ultra-low density cement case, the pitch-catch cannot tell the fluid annulus thickness behind casing for the partial bonded cased-hole. PMID:27250137

  2. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 27 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    WIPP 27 was drilled in Eddy County, New Mexico (NM 1/4 sec. 21, T21S, R30E) to investigate evaporite dissolution features and to determine the stratigraphy of surface and near-surface formations. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 79 feet of Quaternary deposits, 73 feet of the Rustler Formation, and 171 feet of the upper portion of the Salado Formation. Consecutive cores were obtained for the entire depth of WIPP 27. Geophysical logs measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids

  3. Hydraulic rock stress measurements in drillholes OL-KR40 and ONK-PP125 at the Olkiluoto site

    Hydraulic rock stress measurements were performed in the surface drillhole OL-KR40 (25 tests) and in the underground drillhole ONK-PP125 (10 tests) at the Olkiluoto site, Finland. The measurements were carried out in two separate campaigns with a total of 6 sleeve fracturing tests (SF), 17 hydraulic fracturing tests (HF), and 12 hydraulic tests on pre-existing fractures (HTPF). This report presents scope, objectives and performance of stress measurements in the two drillholes. Further, a description is given of the employed test equipment, quality assurance, testing methodology, and results of stress determination at the Olkiluoto site. The results of the stress measurement campaign in drillholes OL-KR40 and ONKPP125 were initially not optimal. The primary reason for difficulty in drillhole OLKR40 relates to the drillhole inclination, which is not optimal for hydraulic stress measurements. Hydraulic fracturing theory does not apply and the testing was therefore based primarily on HTPF approach. This technique requires a variety of fracture orientations in order to solve all components with precision. However, as a result of the drillhole inclination, the drillhole wall failed during pressurization and this physical constraint significantly limited the amount of successful HTPF tests. Because the induced fractures have similar orientation, the resolution of maximum horizontal stress magnitude and its orientation was not optimal based on conventional stress calculation. For drillhole ONK-PP125, few tests were undertaken and stress calculation results were not conclusive. For this borehole, despite the application of sleeve and hydraulic fracturing, axial fractures were not produced. As a result of these difficulties, a decision was made to employ en echelon theory. This theory investigates if the observed induced fractures can be explained by tensile or shear failure; thus it is a tool that may provide additional information that may help constrain the stress field

  4. Basic data report for drilling and hydrologic testing of drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIIP) site

    Mercer, J.W.; Beauheim, R.L.; Snyder, R.P.; Fairer, G.M.

    1987-04-01

    Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation. Contrary to several hypotheses, halite layers were thicker in the lower part of the Salado, not thinner as a result of any removal of halite. The upper Castile anhydrite in Drillhole DOE-2 is anomalously thick and is strongly deformed relative to the anhydrite in adjacent drillholes. In contrast, the halite was <8 ft thick and significantly thinner than usually encountered. The lower Castile anhydrite appears to be normal. The depression within the correlated marker beds in the Salado Formation in Drillhole DOE-2 is interpreted as a result of gravity-driven deformation of the underlying Castile Formation. Several stratigraphic units were hydrologically tested in Drillhole DOE-2. Testing of the unsaturated lower portion of the Dewey Lake Red Beds was unsuccessful because of exceptionally small rates of fluid intake. Drill-stem tests were conducted in five intervals in the Rustler Formation, over the Marker Bed 138-139 interval in the Salado formation, and over three sandstone members of the Bell Canyon Formation. A pumping test was conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Pressure-pulse tests were conducted over the entire Salado Formation. Fluid samples were collected from the Culebra Dolomite Member and from the Hays Member of the Bell Canyon Formation. 31 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Basic data report for drilling and hydrologic testing of drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIIP) site

    Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation. Contrary to several hypotheses, halite layers were thicker in the lower part of the Salado, not thinner as a result of any removal of halite. The upper Castile anhydrite in Drillhole DOE-2 is anomalously thick and is strongly deformed relative to the anhydrite in adjacent drillholes. In contrast, the halite was <8 ft thick and significantly thinner than usually encountered. The lower Castile anhydrite appears to be normal. The depression within the correlated marker beds in the Salado Formation in Drillhole DOE-2 is interpreted as a result of gravity-driven deformation of the underlying Castile Formation. Several stratigraphic units were hydrologically tested in Drillhole DOE-2. Testing of the unsaturated lower portion of the Dewey Lake Red Beds was unsuccessful because of exceptionally small rates of fluid intake. Drill-stem tests were conducted in five intervals in the Rustler Formation, over the Marker Bed 138-139 interval in the Salado formation, and over three sandstone members of the Bell Canyon Formation. A pumping test was conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Pressure-pulse tests were conducted over the entire Salado Formation. Fluid samples were collected from the Culebra Dolomite Member and from the Hays Member of the Bell Canyon Formation. 31 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Chemistry and dissolved gases of matrix pore water and fluid inclusions in Olkiluoto bedrock from drillhole ONK-PH9

    Matrix pore water and gas dissolved in matrix pore water in drillcore samples from drillhole ONK-PH9 have been successfully characterised for their chemical and isotopic composition. Based on the comparison of natural tracers in matrix pore water and adjacent fracture groundwater, conclusions about the palaeohydrogeological history of the encountered system are drawn. The investigations are based on naturally saturated core samples from the subhorizontal drillhole ONK-PH9 which was drilled from the ONKALO access tunnel at a vertical depth of 306 m into the bedrock intersecting the water-conducting hydrogeological zone HZ20B. Pore water samples were taken from this highly transmissive water-conducting zone and the adjacent low transmissive bedrock along a continuous eleven metre long profile. Additional samples have been collected at intervals between five and ten metres until 100 m drillhole length (DHL)

  7. Palynology of predominantly Last Glaciation sediments from the Mangaroa Drillhole, Hutt Valley, New Zealand

    Spores and pollen recovered from about 40 m of sediment in a drillhole in the Mangaroa Valley, a tributary of the Hutt Valley, Wellington, indicates that the sediments are predominantly of Last Glaciation age topped by about 4 m of Holocene and modern fill. Two glacial episodes, the Last Glaciation and a much older glaciation, separated by a disconformity, are represented in the drillhole. The pollen samples are in close proximity to two tephras - the Kawakawa Tephra at a depth of 9.2 m, and the Rangitawa Tephra (locally called the Mangaroa Ash) at 38.4 m. These tephras indicate an age of c. 350,000 years for the base, and c. 22,600 years for about the top 8 m. The sediment above the Rangitawa Tephra has been zoned according to the predominant pollen types derived from woody vegetation. The zonation indicates that changes occurred from Nothofagus fusca type above the disconformity, through Phyllocladus (?alpinus) to Nothofagus menziesii, back to Phyllocladus, and finally to Dacrydium cupressinum at the base of the Holocene. Apart from the mid to basal Holocene sample, all samples are dominated by pollen from herbaceous plants, especially grasses, sedges, and occasional rushes. This sequence is similar to sequences identified in Last Glaciation sediments from previous drillholes in the Wellington area and suggests that all productive sediments below the Holocene at Mangaroa represent the Last Glaciation. Although there is the possibility that the boundaries between the pollen zones may be small disconformities, it is likely that only two major breaks occur, both within a metre or so of the top of the two tephras at the upper limits of the Nothofagus fusca and the upper Phyllocladus zones, respectively. This suggests that the sediments represent deposition from only the mid to late Holocene, the Last Glaciation, and the Nemona Glaciation, or an earlier unnamed glaciation. Pollen samples from the latter do not contain palynomorphs.(author). 43 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. http Log Analysis

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data. It...

  9. The application of slowness distance coherence-SDC on array acoustic logging slowness pickup%阵列声波测井时差拾取的慢度距离相关-SDC法

    康晓泉; 苏远大; 程晓东; 徐剑波; 孙利国

    2012-01-01

    high resolution slowness pickup instead of simple merging of several STC. Slowness calculating equation in Hough space is derivated and given in this paper. The Hough space has different partations of compressional wave, shear wave and stoneley wave, so enhanced method is suggested in the processing, furthermore, a short interval log data is processed and verifying SDC result, with other software. At end of this paper compares different wave identification methods, 3-D Hough transform and 2-D Hough transform, STC and SDC in the applications. SDC is a development of STC in the array acoustic slowness pickup.%对于阵列声波测井多个接收器声波波形数据,提出了时差拾取的慢度距离相关-SDC法.其核心思想是阵列声波信号在均质地层中,模式波到达时间和接收器到发射器距离成线性关系,原点到各个模式的距离是不变的,因此在拾取时差中引入Hough变换,而波形识别采用相关性算法.具体是首先选取阵列声波其中一个信号和其余信号做STC,其次把相关系数以时间轴叠加得到时差-距离曲线,最后采用二维Hough变换得到慢度距离相关-SDC图来拾取时差.给出了慢度在Hough空间的计算公式.将Hough空间按照纵波、横波、斯通利波特征分区和采用增强的变换处理办法后,测试了在一段阵列声波测井资料处理中的应用效果.对比分析了三维Hough变换和二维Hough变换、STC和SDC的在应用中的区别,证明了SDC是多个接收器STC方法的一种发展.

  10. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 26 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    WIPP 26 was drilled in Nash Draw (SE 1/4 NE 1/4, sec. 29, T22S, R30E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, surficial deposits (10 ft with full materials for pad), Rustler Formation (299 ft), and the upper 194 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 11 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (503 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  11. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 30 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    WIPP 30 was drilled in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NW 1/4, Sec. 33, T21S, R31E, to obtain drill core for the study of dissolution of near-surface rocks. The borehole encountered from top to bottom, the Dewey Lake Red Beds (449' including artificial fill for drill pad), Rustler Formation (299'), and the upper 160' of the Salado Formation. Continuous core was cut from the surface to total depth. Geophysical logs were taken the full length of the borehole to measure acoustic velocities, density, and distribution of potassium and other radioactive elements. Information from this borehole will be included in an interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt. Administration policy as of February 1980 is to hold the WIPP site in reserve until the first disposal site can be chosen from several potential sites, including the WIPP

  12. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 22 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, WIPP)

    WIPP 22 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1448 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (68'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (492'), the Rustler Formation (311'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (565'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 22 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  13. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 29 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    WIPP 29 was drilled in Nash Draw (SE 1/4, Sec. 34, T22S, R29E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, unnamed Pleistocene deposits (12' with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (203'), Rustler Formation (131'), and the upper 234' of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 105' thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (358'), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  14. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 28 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    WIPP 28 was drilled in Nash Draw (NE 1/4, sec. 18, T.21S., R.31E.) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Mescalero caliche (12 ft with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (203 ft), Rustler Formation (316 ft), and the upper 270 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 58 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (801 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  15. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 30 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    1980-04-01

    WIPP 30 was drilled in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NW 1/4, Sec. 33, T21S, R31E, to obtain drill core for the study of dissolution of near-surface rocks. The borehole encountered from top to bottom, the Dewey Lake Red Beds (449' including artificial fill for drill pad), Rustler Formation (299'), and the upper 160' of the Salado Formation. Continuous core was cut from the surface to total depth. Geophysical logs were taken the full length of the borehole to measure acoustic velocities, density, and distribution of potassium and other radioactive elements. Information from this borehole will be included in an interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt. Administration policy as of February 1980 is to hold the WIPP site in reserve until the first disposal site can be chosen from several potential sites, including the WIPP.

  16. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 19 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    WIPP 19 is an exploratory borehole whose objective was to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between April 6 and May 4, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1038.2 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (7', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (82'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (494'), the Rustler Formation (315'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (143'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 19 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  17. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 21 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 21 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between May 24 and 26, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1046 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (6'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (34'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (487'), the Rustler Formation (308'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (178'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of goephysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 21 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt.

  18. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 25 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    WIPP 25 was drilled on the eastern edge of Nash Draw (SW 1/4, Sec. 15, T22S, R30E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Pleistocene sediments (17 ft with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (215 ft, Rustler Formation (333 ft, and 90 ft of the upper Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 37 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (655 ft, geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  19. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 18 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    WIPP 18 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1060 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (5', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (4'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (129'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (475'), the Rustler Formation (315'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (132'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 18 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  20. Log-concave Observers

    Henningsson, Toivo; Åström, Karl Johan

    2006-01-01

    The Kalman filter is the optimal state observer in the case of linear dynamics and Gaussian noise. In this paper, the observer problem is studied when process noise and measurements are generalized from Gaussian to log-concave. This generalization is of interest for example in the case where observations only give information that the signal is in a given range. It turns out that the optimal observer preserves log-concavity. The concept of strong log-concavity is ...

  1. Fracture diagnostics with tube wave reflection logs

    This paper reports on the Tube Wave Reflection Log (TWRL) which is acoustic logging method which provides information about the height, location and conductivity of hydraulically induced fractures behind perforated casing. The TWRL tool consists of a transmitter and closely spaced receiver. The transmitter is driven with a short, low frequency tone burst to generate long wavelength tube waves which are little attenuated in unperforated casing. They are partially reflected when they pass perforated intervals communicating with a hydraulically induced fracture. The tool listens for such reflections for 0.1 seconds following each excitation burst. As the tool is moved uphole at logging speed, the transmitter is excited at each foot of depth. VDL displays of the TWRL records provide reflection traces whose projections define the uppermost and lower-most perforations communicating with the fracture. The strength of the reflections depends on the ease of fluid flow into the fracture and thus, is an indicator of fracture conductivity

  2. Log-inject-log sand consolidation

    This invention concerns a method of detecting an effective placement of a sand consolidating plastic in a producing formation penetrated by a well. Two logs sensitive to the presence of a tracer in the plastic are run, one before and the other after treating the formaton. Wherever a comparison of the logs shows a zone which was to be consolidated having an insufficient increase in neutron capture indicating insufficient plastic, remedial action such as isolating the zone having insufficient plastic and squeezing additional plastic is performed before resuming production, which avoids the well sanding up and results in great savings. Preferably the method uses lithium, boron, indium and/or cadmium tracers incorporated into the plastic, especially in the form of lithium chloride, boron oxide, or cadmium chloride. (author)

  3. Elephant logging and environment

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  4. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  5. Overcoring rock stress measurements in drillholes ONK-PP169 and ONK-PP170 Olkiluoto

    Three-dimensional overcoring rock stress measurements were conducted in drillholes ONK-PP169 and ONK-PP170 at the 230 m depth level in the ONKALO site ramp. The measurements were performed during the spring of 2008. The objective of the measurements was to obtain better understanding of the in situ stress field for the measured depth levels. Another objective was to increase the confidence and reliability and to diminish the uncertainties concerning the state of stress at shallow depth of ONKALO. Due to problems with bonding of strain gauges, which may have been caused by a thin layer/coating of unknown material on the pilot hole wall, stress measurements results were only achieved in drillhole ONK-PP170 at -230 m level. The initial plan was to conduct measurements at three depth levels, -120 m, -180 m and -220 m levels, in the ONKALO ramp. Two (2) of the conducted measurements could be rated as successful (rating a) two (2) measurement were partly successful (rating b). The results from the measurements assuming isotropic condition, the major principal stress is plunging between 18deg and 35deg and trending between S and WSW. Stress magnitudes (for σ1) varied between 12 and 16 MPa except for test 2:3:3 where a much higher value (47 MPa) was obtained. The orientation of the major principal stress are similar for test 2:3:3 and 2:4:3 (WSW), but are different from the orientation of the major principal stress for test 2:5:1 and 2:6:1 (S). Likewise, the horizontal stresses have the highest values for test 2:3:3 but in this case the orientation is similar to test 2:5:1 and 2:4:3. The horizontal stress magnitudes of test 2:4:3, 2:5:1 and 2:6:1 are similar but the orientation for test 2:6:1 are different from the other three tests. The results from two of the measurements assuming transversely isotropic conditions, the major principal stress is 12.3 MPa and 12.7 MPa, trending WSW and S, plunging 30 deg. (orig.)

  6. 孔、裂隙并存地层中的声波测井理论及多极子声场特征%Numerical study on the characteristics of acoustic logging response in the fluid-filled borehole embedded in crack-porous medium

    陈雪莲; 唐晓明

    2012-01-01

    在油、气储层的勘探和开发中观察到的一个现象是储层岩石中普遍存在孔隙和裂隙.随着近年来孔、裂隙介质弹性波动理论的进展,我们可以将此理论应用于测井技术,以此来指导从声波测井中测量孔、裂隙地层的声学参数.本文计算了孔、裂隙地层里充流体井跟中的多极子声场,分析了声场随裂隙介质的两个主要参数(即裂隙密度和裂隙纵横比)的变化特征.井孔声场的数值计算表明裂隙密度可以大幅度地降低井中声波纵、横波的波速和振幅.随着裂隙密度的增加,在测井频段内也可以看到纵、横波速的频散现象(这种频散在孔隙地层中一般是观察不到的).本文还研究了多极子模式波(即单极的Stoneley波、伪瑞利波以及偶极的弯曲波)随裂隙参数的变化特征,结果表明,这些模式波的振幅激发和速度频散都受裂隙密度的影响.裂隙密度越高影响越大,此外,裂隙还对模式波的传播造成较大的衰减,相对裂隙密度而言,裂隙纵横比是一个频率控制参数,它控制裂隙对声场影响的频率区间.本文的分析结果对裂缝、孔隙型地层的声波测井具有指导意义.%In the exploration and development of hydrocarbon reservoirs, a common observation is the universal presence of cracks and pores in formation rocks. With the recent development of elastic wave theory for the cracked porous rock, it is now possible to utilize the theory as a foundation for measuring elastic properties of such rocks using acoustic logging. We have implemented the theory to calculate the multipole acoustic propagation in the fluid-filled borehole. The acoustic wave characteristics are studied for two controlling parameters of the cracked rock, namely crack density and crack aspect ratio. The calculated full waveforms show that cracks significantly reduce the velocity and amplitude of compressional and shear waves. With the increase of crack

  7. Log4J

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  8. Physical-Property Measurements on Core samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada

    Ponce, David A.; Watt, Janet T.; Casteel, John; Logsdon, Grant

    2009-01-01

    From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 40 km west of Winnemucca, Nev. These data were collected as part of an effort to determine the geophysical setting of the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of geothermal systems throughout the Great Basin. The physical properties of these rocks and other rock types in the area create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that can be used to infer their subsurface geologic structure. Drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 were spudded in alluvium on the western flank of Blue Mountain in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and are about 1 km apart. Drill-hole DB-1 is at a ground elevation of 1,325 m and was drilled to a depth of 672 m and drill-hole DB-2 is at a ground elevation of 1,392 m and was drilled to a depth of 1522 m. Diameter of the core samples is 6.4 cm. These drill holes penetrate Jurassic and Triassic metasedimentary rocks predominantly consisting of argillite, mudstone, and sandstone; Tertiary diorite and gabbro; and younger Tertiary felsic dikes.

  9. Modes of Log Gravity

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity", linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode" solutions, which we categorize as `spin 2' or `Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin 2 modes of the non-critical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin 2 log mode is itself a 'non-gauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

  10. Pollen analysis of predominantly Last Glaciation samples from the Wainuiomata Drillhole, Wainuiomata, Wellington, New Zealand

    Pollen analysis of 15 samples from a drillhole sequence at Wainuiomata, near Wellington, has shown that the sediments below the valley floor are predominantly of Last Glaciation age, with only a thin veneer of Holocene preserved. Radiocarbon dates with a maximum age range between 18,700 and 25,200 yr B.P. at 25.7-27.1 m below ground level, and the Kawakawa Tephra (22,600 yr B.P.) at 4 m depth, together suggest either rapid sedimentation (possible) or spurious radiocarbon dates (more likely). A pollen zonation suggests that the sequence is similar to those reported from elsewhere in the Wellington area and that the ages should be well beyond the limit of C-14 dating. The younger of two major disconformities occurs immediately above the Kawakawa Tephra and represents an estimated 8000-10,000 years (late Last Glaciation and most of the Holocene). The older disconformity is of unknown duration but occurs above a red-weathered horizon at 50.9 m, and possibly represents the early part of the Last Glaciation, the Last Interglacial, and probably several other glacial/interglacial cycles. Below the red-weathered horizon, an enigmatic 10.7 m sequence of highly weathered gravel, with interbedded silt, produced very sparse palynofloras, two of which contain abundant Casuarina pollen. The age and environment are uncertain but the sequence could be as old as late Pliocene and represent a glacial environment. (author). 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Integrating the EPICS IOC LOG into the CSS message LOG

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) includes the 'IOCLogServer', a tool that logs error messages from front-end computers (Input/Output Controllers, IOCs) into a set of text files. Control System Studio (CSS) includes a distributed message logging system with relational database persistence and various log analysis tools. We implemented a log server that forwards IOC messages to the CSS log database, allowing several ways of monitoring and analyzing the IOC error messages. (authors)

  12. Modes of log gravity

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Ei

  13. VEPP-2000 logging system

    The electron-positron collider VEPP-2000 has been constructed in the Budker INP at the beginning of 2007 year. The first experiments on high-energy physics has been started at the end of 2009. The collider state is characterized by many parameters which have to be tracked. These parameters called channels could be divided into continuous (like beam current or beam energy) and pulsed. The main difference is that the first one related to the moment of time while the second one to the beam transport event. There are approximately 3000 continuous channels and about 500 pulsed channels at the VEPP-2000 facility. The Logging system consists of server layer and client layer. Server side are a specialized server with an intermediate embedded database aimed at saving data in case of external database fault. Client layer provide data access via API, CLI and WUI. The system has been deployed and is used as primary logging system on VEPP2000. (author)

  14. Geophysical borehole logging

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  15. Communication Acoustics

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  16. Acoustic Neuroma

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. The tumor ... press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms ...

  17. Acoustic Neuroma

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  18. Pulsed neutron porosity logging

    A borehole logging tool employing a pulsed neutron source and a pair of spaced-apart epithermal neutron detectors is lowered into a borehole traversing a subsurface formation. The formation is irradiated with bursts of fast neutrons and the epithermal neutrons returning to the borehole as a result of such irradiation are detected by the pair of epithermal neutrons detectors. These detected epithermal neutrons are both time resolved and time integrated during their epithermal dieaway spectrum to provide indications of lithology independent porosity and lithology dependent porosity respectively. 6 refs

  19. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  20. Selective Natural Gamma Logging

    Natural gamma logging can be used for determining the bismuth-214 (or RaC) content of uranium-bearing rocks. As the equilibrium coefficient of ores cannot be satisfactorily measured in situ, the log obtained can not be used to determine uranium content directly. The principle of the new technique of selective natural gamma logging is the use of the photoelectric effect due to the presence of uranium in rock. Natural gamma radiations are emitted but then scattered by the ore. The presence of uranium causes a change in the shape of the scattered gamma spectrum and this change can be related to the uranium content. The authors show that, if one applies the similitude principle to the transport equation for gamma radiation, the numerical value of a certain parameter P, representing the ratio of the number of counts obtained in two bands I1 and I2 of the scattered gamma spectrum, depends on the value of the equivalent atomic number of the rock (Zeq). For any given deposit the value of the parameter varies mainly with the uranium content qu and very little with the chemical composition of the matrix. The first laboratory tests were carried out on concrete models of uranium ore. Examination of spectra obtained (using a 400-channel selector) showed that the two boundaries I1 and I2 should range between 100 and 150 keV and 300 and 700 keV respectively. Each value of the parameter P obtained in this manner is divided by the value Ps obtained from one of the models used as a reference. The experiment showed that the normalized parameter, i. e., Px =P/PS, was a function of the content, having the shape log Px = A + Bqu. The coefficients A and B are calibration standards whose precise determination requires measurements taken in as large a number as possible of models with known uranium content. In laboratory conditions the degree of error is between 10 and 20% for contents of about 0.5% A field survey rig mounted on a lorry has been developed. It comprises a Nal

  1. Extracting near-borehole P and S reflections from array sonic logging data

    There has been widespread interest in acoustic reflection logging recently due to its higher resolution compared to seismic exploration and larger lateral extension compared to logging techniques. Acoustic reflection logging is particularly useful for delineating near-borehole subtle structures and fractured reservoirs. The primary data processing of acoustic reflection logging is to extract the reflection signals from the full waveform records which are overwhelmingly dominated by the borehole direct modes. We present in this paper a method combining a frequency–wavenumber (f–k) filter with a modified parametric prediction to separate the direct and reflection waves. Afterwards, we apply dip stacking to enhance and to further separate P–P and S–S reflection signals, and suppress the residual direct waves and other noises. Processing examples obtained with synthetic and real data show the capabilities of the proposed workflow and algorithms

  2. Research and experimental testing of a new kind electrokinetic logging tool

    Li, Feng-Bo; Ju, Xiao-Dong; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Lu, Jun-Qiang; Men, Bai-Rong

    2014-12-01

    We designed a new downhole electrokinetic logging tool based on numerical simulations and petrophysical experiments. Acoustic and electric receivers cannot be arranged at the same depth, and the proposed composite electrokinetic logging tool offers a solution to this problem. The sound field characteristics of the detectors were tested in a water tank in the laboratory. Then, we calculated the sound pressure of the radiated acoustic field and the transmitting voltage response of the transmitting transducers; in addition, we analyzed the directivity and application of the acoustic transmitting probe based on linear phased array. The results suggest that the sound pressure generated at 1500 mm spacing reaches up to 47.2 kPa and decreases with increasing acoustic source frequency. When the excitation signals delay time of adjacent acoustic transmitting subarrays increases, the radiation beam of the main lobe is deflected and its energy gradually increases, which presumably enhances the acoustoelectric conversion efficiency.

  3. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-24

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  4. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  5. Monitoring hydraulic conductivity with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR31 and OL-KR32, in 2010

    In July 2004 Posiva began to construct an underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, at Olkiluoto. The construction of ONKALO and the subsequent construction of the repository of high-level spent nuclear fuel will affect the surrounding rock mass, the groundwater flow system and the environment in general. In December 2003 a programme to monitor these effects during the construction and operation of ONKALO was presented (Posiva 2003). The programme consists of different types of monitoring by different disciplines. HTU (Hydraulic Testing Unit) measurements are a part of the hydrogeological monitoring programme that includes measurements of hydraulic conductivity with HTU in drillholes adjacent to ONKALO. Measurements performed before and in the early stages of the excavation of ONKALO provide a baseline to which later results can be compared. The HTU monitoring measurement program was first completed in 2005 and then repeated in 2006 and in 2007 in drillholes OL-KR8, OL-KR28 and OL-KR31. Of these OL-KR31, including its extension, was measured in 2008 and OL-KR32 was added to the program as a new hole. These same holes were measured also in 2010. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with 2 m packer separation and a nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 15 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity was below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise 5 min before injection, occasionally longer or shorter. Also, the injection and fall-off were extended when necessary to obtain a stationary state. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. In 2010 a total of 237 tests were accomplished covering altogether 475.24 m of drillhole in these two holes. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is

  6. Quality review of in situ TDS data from the Olkiluoto site. Drillholes OL-KR1 - KR53

    Ahokas, H.; Penttinen, T.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    This report presents a quality evaluation and classification of in situ groundwater salinity (TDS) values measured by the PFL tool up to the end of 2010. Values were also compared to the TDS of groundwater samples. The distribution of TDS and its evolution form an essential part of the performance assessment and safety analysis of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The performance of technical barriers is dependent on the level of TDS and, consequently, it is necessary to create a site-specific model that reliably describes the distribution of the TDS of the groundwater. Furthermore, as the construction of the final repository progresses, it is vital to evaluate and understand the undisturbed baseline conditions prior to construction. A reliable database is a prerequisite for fulfilling the requirements set for the hydrogeochemical description and model of the site. The TDS of the groundwater is measured using the PFL tool by guiding the water flowing after several days of pumping from the bedrock through the EC sensor. In the evaluation of in situ TDS values the main focus was on determining the most representative values in the data set, which in several cases were contaminated by intrusion of drilling water and/or groundwater from other fractures which had flowed along the open hole into the bedrock. The measured values were assumed to be most reliable at the depths in the drillholes where inflow of groundwater from the bedrock into the drillhole had prevailed. A total of ca. 1900 in situ PFL values have been measured during the PFL campaigns over the period from 1999 to 2010. The process where uncertain and contaminated values were removed from the database reduced the number of data assumed to represent baseline conditions to 418, some of which were observed only by groundwater sampling methods. The summary Figures and comments presented for each drillhole in this report will help in planning further testing and measurement and also complement the

  7. Monitoring hydraulic conductivity with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR31 and OL-KR32, in 2012

    ONKALO, at Olkiluoto. The construction of ONKALO and the subsequent construction of the repository of high-level spent nuclear fuel will affect the surrounding rock mass, the groundwater flow system and the environment in general. In December 2003 a programme to monitor these effects during the construction and operation of ONKALO was presented (Posiva 2003). The programme consists of different types of monitoring by different disciplines. HTU (Hydraulic Testing Unit) measurements are a part of the hydrogeological monitoring programme that includes measurements of hydraulic conductivity with HTU in drillholes adjacent to ONKALO. Measurements performed before and in the early stages of the excavation of ONKALO provide a baseline to which later results can be compared. The HTU monitoring measurement program was first completed in 2005 and then repeated in 2006 and in 2007 in drillholes OL-KR8, OL-KR28 and OL-KR31. Of these, OL-KR31 including its extension was measured in 2008 and OL-KR32 was added to the program as a new hole. These same holes were measured also in 2012. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with 2 m packer separation and a nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 15 or 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity was below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise 5 min before injection, occasionally longer or shorter. Also, the injection and fall-off were extended when necessary to obtain a stationary state. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. In 2012 a total of 238 tests were accomplished covering altogether 474.89 m of drillhole in these two holes. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy. It was operated by Geopros Oy in OL-KR31 and jointly by Geopros Oy

  8. Acoustical Imaging

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  9. Minimal Log Gravity

    Giribet, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...

  10. Holocene and late Last Glaciation pollen record from drillholes at Miramar and Lambton Harbour, Wellington, New Zealand

    Pollen and spores obtained from condensed late Last Glaciation sequences of carbonaceous silts, with occasional gravel and peat horizons, from drillholes at Miramar and Lambton Harbour, Wellington, indicated a bleak, windswept, grassland/shrubland environment dominated by Poaceae. The dominant tree pollen type is Phyllocladus, probably P. alpinus. The 50.7 m thick Miramar sequence contains the Kawakawa Tephra at 24.5 m below ground level; this tephra was also identified in the field 16-17 m below ground level in two of the Lambton Harbour drillholes, the deepest of which went to 40 m. A disconformity exists between the late Last Glaciation sediments deposited immediately after deposition of the Kawakawa Tephra and the onset of Holocene sedimentation. This disconformity occurs in most sequences of this age in the Wellington area and is caused by unstable climatic and depositional conditions at the time. Recycling of spores, pollen, and dinoflagellates from Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments occurs at both localities. It is inferred that sediments of this age were being locally eroded during the deposition of both Last Glaciation and Holocene sediments. No sediments of corresponding age range crop out close to Wellington today. Holocene spores and pollen at Miramar indicate warm, moist, frost-free conditions during which time podocarp forest dominated by Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, and Dacrydium cupressinum existed. The spores Bryosporis problematicus (Couper) and B. anisopolaris Mildenhall and Bussell occur at Miramar in the Holocene and are now regarded as fossil representatives of two modern species of an unidentified bryophyte. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  12. Radiation acoustics

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  13. Combined logging/penetration methods

    A method is described for studying important soil and rock properties by simultaneous penetration and logging measurements. In penetration measurements, a BORROS Co. probe with a coned tip, 35.6 mm in diameter, a point angle of 60 deg, and with a friction roller 150 cm2 in area was dipped in the soil at a constant speed. Tip resistance and skin friction were measured. At the same time, gamma logging was carried out to determine natural radioactivity, gamma-gamma logging to determine bulk density, neutron-neutron logging to determine bulk density and porosity, and inclinometry. An original probe fitted with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector with a crystal 25 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length was developed for gamma logging. For gamma-gamma logging, a 137Cs emitter probe was used with the emitter/detector distance of 45 cm. A NaI(Tl) crystal 18 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length was used for radiation detection. For neutron-neutron logging, a NIV 2 probe was purchased in the USSR and modified for simultaneous penetration measurements. A Soviet-made UMI 30 inclinometer with a modified case was used for inclinometry. (Ha)

  14. Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Logging Database System

    Sinan Fang; Heping Pan

    2013-01-01

    A lot of logging information (logging and logging interpretation results) have been acquired in borehole of Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling (CCSD). The general management method about these logging information are not satisfied with the need of CCSD logging engineering. In order to manage efficiently, insert and inquiry rapidly, and use efficiently logging information, logging database of CCSD will need be specially established and it’s management software system will need be made. We i...

  15. Did you smooth your well logs the right way for seismic interpretation?

    Correlations between physical properties and seismic reflection data are useful to determine the geological nature of seismic reflections and the lateral extent of geological strata. The difference in resolution between well logs and seismic data is a major hurdle faced by seismic interpreters when tying both data sets. In general, log data have a resolution of at least two orders of magnitude greater than seismic data. Smoothing physical property logs improves correlation at the seismic scale. Three different approaches were used and compared to smooth a density log: binomial filtering, seismic wavelet filtering and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) filtering. Regression plots between the density logs and the acoustic impedance show that the data smoothed with the DWT is the only method that preserves the original relationship between the raw density data and the acoustic impedance. Smoothed logs were then used to generate synthetic seismograms that were tied to seismic data at the borehole site. Best ties were achieved using the synthetic seismogram computed with the density log processed with the DWT. The good performance of the DWT is explained by its adaptive multi-scale characteristic which preserved significant local changes of density on the high-resolution data series that were also pictured at the seismic scale. Since synthetic seismograms are generated using smoothed logs, the choice of the smoothing method impacts on the quality of seismic-to-well ties. This ultimately can have economical implications during hydrocarbon exploration or exploitation phases

  16. Battlefield acoustics

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  17. Acoustical Imaging

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  18. Acoustic telemetry

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine movements of green turtles in the nearshore foraging areas, we deployed acoustic tags and determined their movements through active and passive...

  19. Acoustics Research

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  20. Events Classification in Log Audit

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi; Fahad Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Information security audit is a monitoring/logging mechanism to ensure compliance with regulations and to detect abnormalities, security breaches, and privacy violations; however, auditing too many events causes overwhelming use of system resources and impacts performance. Consequently, a classification of events is used to prioritize events and configure the log system. Rules can be applied according to this classification to make decisions about events to be archived and types of actions in...

  1. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palmdistributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palmdistribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Coxprocess which only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox processin the intensity function. This new result is used to study functionalsummaries for log Gaussian Cox processes.

  2. Integrated analysis of well logs and seismic data to estimate gas hydrate concentrations at Keathley Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    Accurately detecting and quantifying gas hydrate or free gas in sediments from seismic data require downhole well-log data to calibrate the physical properties of the gas hydrate-/free gas-bearing sediments. As part of the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Program, a series of wells were either cored or drilled in the Gulf of Mexico to characterize the physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to calibrate geophysical estimates, and to evaluate source and transport mechanisms for gas within the gas hydrates. Downhole acoustic logs were used sparingly in this study because of degraded log quality due to adverse wellbore conditions. However, reliable logging while drilling (LWD) electrical resistivity and porosity logs were obtained. To tie the well-log information to the available 3-D seismic data in this area, a velocity log was calculated from the available resistivity log at the Keathley Canyon 151-2 well, because the acoustic log or vertical seismic data acquired at the nearby Keathley Canyon 151-3 well were either of poor quality or had limited depth coverage. Based on the gas hydrate saturations estimated from the LWD resistivity log, the modified Biot-Gassmann theory was used to generate synthetic acoustic log and a synthetic seismogram was generated with a fairly good agreement with a seismic profile crossing the well site. Based on the well-log information, a faintly defined bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) in this area is interpreted as a reflection representing gas hydrate-bearing sediments with about 15% saturation overlying partially gas-saturated sediments with 3% saturation. Gas hydrate saturations over 30-40% are estimated from the resistivity log in two distinct intervals at 220-230 and 264-300 m below the sea floor, but gas hydrate was not physically recovered in cores. It is speculated that the poor recovery of cores and gas hydrate morphology are responsible for the lack of physical gas hydrate recovery.

  3. Logging in Java with the JDK 1.4 Logging API and Apache log4j

    Gupta, Samudra

    2005-01-01

    Any Java language based application developer will benefit from the topics covered in this book. Also non-Java developers can benefit by reading this book to understand how to implement and architect a robust logging framework in any language.

  4. User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool

    Brijesh Bakariya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

  5. Basic data report for Drillhole ERDA 10 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Borehole ERDA 10 was drilled to obtain information on possible dissolution of halite within the Castile Formation and on the hydrologic characteristics of the fluid-bearing zones in the Bell Canyon Formation. The borehole is located in Section 34, T23S,R30E in southern Eddy County, New Mexico. ERDA 10 was drilled to a depth of 4431.5 ft. Cores from the Castile were taken to obtain direct information which was supplemented by geophysical logging. Based on preliminary analysis of the data, the ERDA 10 stratigraphic section is interpreted as a sequence of sandstones, siltstones, claystones, and evaporites normal for the area. No evidence of dissolution of significant amounts of halite was observed

  6. Pulsed neutron generator for logging

    A pulsed neutron generator for uranium logging is described. This generator is one component of a prototype uranium logging probe which is being developed by SLA to detect, and assay, uranium by borehole logging. The logging method is based on the measurement of epithermal neutrons resulting from the prompt fissioning of uranium from a pulsed source of 17.6 MeV neutrons. An objective of the prototype probe was that its diameter not exceed 2.75 inches, which would allow its use in conventional rotary drill holes of 4.75-inch diameter. This restriction limited the generator to a maximum 2.375-inch diameter. The performance requirements for the neutron generator specified that it operate with a nominal output of 5 x 106 neutrons/pulse at up to 100 pulses/second for a one-hour period. The development of a neutron generator meeting the preliminary design goals was completed and two prototype models were delivered to SLA. These two generators have been used by SLA to log a number of boreholes in field evaluation of the probe. The results of the field evaluations have led to the recommendation of several changes to improve the probe's operation. Some of these changes will require additional development effort on the neutron generator. It is expected that this work will be performed during 1977. The design and operation of the first prototype neutron generators is described

  7. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    Pardo, David

    2013-02-13

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method that delivers highly accurate solutions of linear visco-elasto-acoustic problems in the frequency domain. The analysis focuses on WL instruments equipped with monopole or dipole sources and LWD instruments with monopole excitation. Analysis of the main propagation modes obtained from frequency dispersion curves indicates that the additional high-order modes arising as a result of borehole-eccentricity interfere with the main modes (i.e., Stoneley, pseudo-Rayleigh and flexural). This often modifies (decreases) the estimation of shear and compressional formation velocities, which should be corrected (increased) to account for borehole-eccentricity effects. Undesired interferences between different modes can occur at different frequencies depending upon the properties of the formation and fluid annulus size, which may difficult the estimation of the formation velocities. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  8. Existence of log canonical closures

    Hacon, Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Let $f:X\\to U$ be a projective morphism of normal varieties and $(X,\\Delta)$ a dlt pair. We prove that if there is an open set $U^0\\subset U$, such that $(X,\\Delta)\\times_U U^0$ has a good minimal model over $U^0$ and the images of all the non-klt centers intersect $U^0$, then $(X,\\Delta)$ has a good minimal model over $U$. As consequences we show the existence of log canonical compactifications for open log canonical pairs, and the fact that the moduli functor of stable schemes satisfies the valuative criterion for properness.

  9. Borehole logging for uranium exploration

    The present text has been prepared taking into account the requirements of both developing countries, which might be at an incipient stage of uranium exploration, and industrialized countries, where more advanced exploration and resource evaluation techniques are commonly in use. While it was felt necessary to include some discussion of exploration concepts and fundamental physical principles underlying various logging methods, it was not the intention of the consultants to provide a thorough, detailed explanation of the various techniques, or even to give a comprehensive listing thereof. However, a list of references has been included, and it is strongly recommended that the serious student of mineral logging consult this list for further guidance

  10. Pulsed neutron porosity logging system

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations and, during the bursts, the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  11. Interpretation of well logs in a carbonate aquifer. Water-resources investigations (final)

    Geophysical logs from two core holes in the Edwards aquifer in Texas were analyzed and the results compared to other geologic and hydrologic data obtained from well tests and core studies. The acoustic velocity, sidewall neutron, and density logs are especially useful in the study of carbonate aquifers because porosity, secondary porosity, rock composition, and bulk density can be determined from them. Under some conditions, deeply focused resistivity logs can be used to calculate formation water resistivity and the cementation exponent. The log analysis methods described can be applied to other carbonate systems by hand plotting and a few simple calculations which can be performed on a pocket calculator. The hydrologist is advised of specific criteria which his logs must meet in order to derive maximum value from the analysis

  12. Acoustic emission

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  13. Basic data report for Drillhole AEC 7 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    AEC 7 is a borehole drilled in western Lea County, New Mexico, in section 31, T.21S.,R.32E. AEC 7 was drilled to 3918 feet in 1974 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sandia deepened the hole to 4732 ft in 1979. The borehole provided stratigraphic and lithologic information in the initial and final drilling. The borehole was used extensively for tests of borehole plugs and plugging operations. AEC 7 penetrated, in descending order, Holocene sands and Mescalero caliche (8 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (109 ft), Dewey Lake Red Beds (542 ft), Rustler Formation (325 ft), Salado Formation (2014 ft), Castile Formation (1521 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (197 ft). Cores were obtained from much of the borehole. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on stratigraphy, lithology, and structure. Beds were in normal stratigraphic sequence and without structural deformation except in the lower Castile. Anhydrite II and Halite II appear to be repeated in the borehole. This section was penetrated during deepening by Sandia; the structural complication is consistent with deformation found nearby in ERDA 6. The potential site on which AEC 7 is located was abandoned in 1976 after ERDA 6 was drilled. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  14. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by /sup 14/C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well.

  15. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by 14C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well

  16. Basic data report for drillhole AEC 8 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    AEC 8 was originally drilled in 1974 to a depth of 3028 ft by Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the initial investigations of a site for radioactive waste disposal. In 1976, Sandia National Laboratories deepened the borehole from the top of the Castile Formation into the Bell Canyon Formation to test the hydraulic properties of the Bell Canyon. The borehole encountered in descending order Holocene sands (20 ft), Mescalero caliche (6 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (143 ft), Dewey Lake Redbeds (491 ft), Rustler Formation (322 ft), Salado Formation (1990 ft), Castile Formation (1335 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (603 ft). The borehole stratigraphy is in normal order and there is no significant deformation. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on the lithology and stratigraphy. The potentiometric surfaces of Bell Canyon fluid-bearing zones are 550 ft (for the zone at 4821 ft to 4827 ft) and 565 ft below land surface (for the zone at 4844 to 4860 ft). The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  17. Basic data report for Drillhole AEC 7 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP). [Lea County, New Mexico

    1983-01-01

    AEC 7 is a borehole drilled in western Lea County, New Mexico, in section 31, T.21S.,R.32E. AEC 7 was drilled to 3918 feet in 1974 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sandia deepened the hole to 4732 ft in 1979. The borehole provided stratigraphic and lithologic information in the initial and final drilling. The borehole was used extensively for tests of borehole plugs and plugging operations. AEC 7 penetrated, in descending order, Holocene sands and Mescalero caliche (8 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (109 ft), Dewey Lake Red Beds (542 ft), Rustler Formation (325 ft), Salado Formation (2014 ft), Castile Formation (1521 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (197 ft). Cores were obtained from much of the borehole. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on stratigraphy, lithology, and structure. Beds were in normal stratigraphic sequence and without structural deformation except in the lower Castile. Anhydrite II and Halite II appear to be repeated in the borehole. This section was penetrated during deepening by Sandia; the structural complication is consistent with deformation found nearby in ERDA 6. The potential site on which AEC 7 is located was abandoned in 1976 after ERDA 6 was drilled. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes.

  18. Decomposable log-linear models

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...

  19. Procesador del Log de HPSA

    González Olmedo, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    El propósito del sistema es el procesamiento y visualización de la información presente en los ficheros de Log de la aplicación HPSA. El sistema proporcionará una forma de realizar consultas sencillas sobre la información tratada anteriormente.

  20. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  1. Advance reservoir evaluation by using NMR logging

    Based on brief explanation of the measurement principle for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging, this paper illustrates the importance of NMR logging in reservoir evaluation through typical case examples. These case examples include: Reservoir characterization and productivity evaluation by using NMR logging, determination of reservoir porosity in complex lithology, identification of oil, water and gas zones under complex reservoir conditions where resistivity log data give poor indication, guiding the implementation of completion and drilling programs, etc. Excellent application results indicate that NMR logging has its special features and advantages in comparison with conventional logging techniques. It is a very practical and very promising logging technology

  2. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR52 and OL-KR47 in 2013 and 2014

    Hurmerinta, E. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-09-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with the HTU-equipment in drillholes OL KR52 and OL KR47 on the Olkiluoto investigation site. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. In OL-KR52 measurements were carried out between February 2013 and April 2013 and in OL-KR47 between October 2013 and February 2014. The total length of the drillhole OL-KR52 is 427.35 m, 376.00 m of which was covered by 188 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR47 is 1008.76 m long and 312 similar tests were conducted in it covering 624.00 m of the drillhole. These numbers include one equipment test measurement near the surface in OL-KR47. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended if longer times were needed to obtain correct results or when suited to the working schedule. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Poeyry Finland Oy in co-operation with Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  3. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  4. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 9 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP)

    ERDA 9 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate and test salt beds for the disposal of nuclear wastes. The hole was placed near the SE corner of section 20, T22S,R31E. It was drilled between April 28 and June 4, 1976, to a depth of 2889 ft (measured from a kelly bushing altitude of 3,420.4 ft MSL). The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Holocene deposits (including artificial fill) of 22 ft, the Pleistocene Mescalero Caliche (5 ft) and Gatuna Formation (27 ft), 9 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, and 487 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 290 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1976 ft of the Salado Formation and 53 ft of the Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cuttings were collected at 5-ft intervals for the land surface to a depth of 1090 ft, and consecutive cores were taken to a depth of 2876.6 ft. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run the full length of the borehole to measure distribution of radioactive elements and hydrogen, and variations in rock density and elastic velocity. On the basis of the borehole findings and related hydrological and geophysical programs, the site was judged suitable to pursue the extensive geological characterization program which followed. The core from ERDA 9 provided a suite of samples extensively tested for rock mechanics, physical properties, and mineralogy. Drill-stem tests in ERDA 9 indicated no significant fluids or permeability in the Salado beds of interest. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  5. Resolving Optimum Magnetic Signatures for Drill-Hole Targeting in Gold Exploration – A Case Study for Mbudzane in Gwanda, Zimbabwe

    Dumisani John Hlatywayo; Emmanuel Sakala

    2014-01-01

    Optimum magnetic signatures for drill-hole targeting in gold exploration in Mbudzane were resolved from induced polarisation-resistivity and magnetic anomalies. Total magnetic field and a gold-in-soil map showed the area is magnetically quiet with high anomalous values along old gold workings. Induced polarisation was carried out along a grid for lines of 500m length, 50m separation and a baseline oriented at 330˚. The survey comprised a gradient array and three real sections. The magnetic su...

  6. The Log-O-Rithmic

    Fischli, Fredi; Olsen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The Log-O-Rithmic Slide Rule is an ephemeral work created by architects Trix and Robert Haussmann. Both were educated in the context of Swiss Modernism, but eventually evolved their approach to the practice. In 1967, they began their collaborative work with Anti-Chair, a fragile chair made of neon tubes, and also opened Allgemeine Entwurfsanstalt, their office for design and architecture. In addition to a wide range of realized buildings and furniture designs, the duo has created a rich body ...

  7. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  8. Acoustic lenses

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  9. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    induration degrees recorded in face logs and boreholes are compared and correlated. Distinct geophysical log markers are used to divide the limestone into three units. These marker horizons are correlated between face logs and geotechnical boreholes. A 3D model of the strength variations recorded within the......The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating...... tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone...

  10. Data Mining of Network Logs

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  11. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  12. Log minimal models according to Shokurov

    Birkar, Caucher

    2008-01-01

    Following Shokurov's ideas, we give a short proof of the following klt version of his result: termination of terminal log flips in dimension d implies that any klt pair of dimension d has a log minimal model or a Mori fibre space. Thus, in particular, any klt pair of dimension 4 has a log minimal model or a Mori fibre space.

  13. LHCb online log analysis and maintenance system

    History has shown, many times computer logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, which could be caused either by a malfunction or an attack. Due to the huge amount of logs that are produced from large-scale IT infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, critical information may be overlooked or simply be drowned in a sea of other messages. This clearly demonstrates the need for an automatic system for long-term maintenance and real time analysis of the logs. We have constructed a low cost, fault tolerant centralized logging system which is able to do in-depth analysis and cross-correlation of every log. This system is capable of handling O(10000) different log sources and numerous formats, while trying to keep the overhead as low as possible. It provides log gathering and management, Offline analysis and online analysis. We call Offline analysis the procedure of analyzing old logs for critical information, while Online analysis refer to the procedure of early alerting and reacting. The system is extensible and cooperates well with other applications such as Intrusion Detection / Prevention Systems. This paper presents the LHCb Online topology, problems we had to overcome and our solutions. Special emphasis is given to log analysis and how we use it for monitoring and how we can have uninterrupted access to the logs. We provide performance plots, code modification in well-known log tools and our experience from trying various storage strategies. (authors)

  14. Acoustic hemostasis

    Crum, L.; Andrew, M.; Bailey, M.; Beach, K.; Brayman, A.; Curra, F.; Kaczkowski, P.; Kargl, S.; Martin, R.; Vaezy, S.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past several years, the Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound (CIMU) at the Applied Physics Laboratory in the University of Washington has undertaken a broad research program in the general area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Our principal emphasis has been on the use of HIFU to induce hemostasis; in particular, CIMU has sought to develop a small, lightweight, portable device that would use ultrasound for both imaging and therapy. Such a technology is needed because nearly 50% of combat casualty mortality results from exsanguinations, or uncontrolled bleeding. A similar percentage occurs for civilian death due to trauma. In this general review, a presentation of the general problem will be given, as well as our recent approaches to the development of an image-guided, transcutaneous, acoustic hemostasis device. [Work supported in part by the USAMRMC, ONR and the NIH.

  15. Acoustic telemetry.

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  16. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available Educational Video Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video ... for pre- and post-treatment acoustic neuroma patients. Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic ...

  17. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...

  18. logR-logT Figure and Unknown Solar System Planets%logR-logT图与太阳系未知行星

    潘彩娟; 王小波; 韦鸿铭

    2011-01-01

    Using logR-logT figure to research the planet-satellite system in Solar system, the moving of satellites are in accordance with the Kepler's Third Law, And there is a relationship between the mass of central celestial body and the straight line distances. The logR-logT figure of the unknown planet-satellite system, Mercury-satellite and Venus-satellite are described, we speculated the mass and the period of the unknown planet, the location and the period of the satellites of Mercury or Venus.%利用log-logT图研究太阳系的行星卫星系统,得出八大行星卫星系统都符合开普勒第三定律,推导出行星卫星系统logR-logT图线截距与中心天体质量的关系;通过描绘未知行星卫星系统、水星卫星系统和金星卫星系统的logR-logT图线,推测未知行星的质量和公转周期,以及水星和金星的未知卫星可能存在的位置与周期.

  19. Acoustic dispersive prism

    Hussein Esfahlani; Sami Karkar; Herve Lissek; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic ...

  20. Mechanical properties of fractures from drillholes, UE25-NRG-4; USW-NRG-6; USW-NRG-7; USW-SD-9, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Rock cores from drillholes UE25-NRG-4, USW-NRG-6, USW-NRG-7, and USW-SD-9 containing natural fractures were obtained from the Sample Management Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. All recoverable fractures were sheared at constant normal stresses from 2.5 to 15 MPa, in the as-received condition (air-dry). Detailed profilometer data were collected from each fracture surface before testing. The tests yielded the normal closure as a function of normal stress, and the shear stress and dilation as functions of shear offset. The constitutive properties obtained from these stress-displacement relations were: normal stiffness, shear stiffness, shear strength, and dilation angle at peak shear stress. Shear strength plotted against normal stress for four thermomechanical units shows that friction angle varies from 370 to 460 and cohesion varies from 0.02 to 1.71 MPa

  1. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR53 in 2010 and 2011

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR53 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2010 and 2011. The total length of the drillhole OL-KR49 is 1060,22 m, 352,00 m of which was covered by 176 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR50 is 939,33 m long and 203 similar tests were made in it covering 406,00 m of the hole and OL-KR53 300,48 m long, 127 tests made covering 354,00 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Final Report

    Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Harris, R. V.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Moran, Traci L.

    2011-08-01

    The focus of this study is the understanding of the technical obstacles that hinder the replacement of and the disadvantages from the loss of extensive interpretation experience based on data accumulated with AmBe. Enhanced acoustic and electromagnetic sensing methods in combination with non-isotope-based well logging techniques have the potential to complement and/or replace existing isotope-based techniques, providing the opportunity to reduce oil industry dependence on isotopic sources such as AmBe.

  3. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  4. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  5. Nuclear data for oil and gas logging

    The widespread use of nuclear logs for qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of rock formations is well established. In the petroleum industry, a primary use of nuclear data is for calculation of reserves of oil and gas. For this and other purposes, quantitative data from nuclear logs and from the laboratory analysis of rock and fluid samples are necessary. To achieve quantitative determination of rock properties, including density, porosity, fluid saturation and rock matrix, the nuclear logs must be well calibrated. This paper will present a review of the nuclear data requirements for providing accurate quantitative analyses of nuclear well logs. The requirements fall into two general categories: (a) measurement in the laboratory of the properties of rocks recovered in the drilling process with primary value being given to cores of the formations, and (b) calibration facilities for accurately determining the responses of commercial logging tools. To interpret pulsed neutron capture logs quantitatively, one needs the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of the rock matrix. Current techniques for making these measurements are reviewed. The principal new porosity logging development is the use of two epithermal neutron detectors and two thermal neutron detectors. This combination improves gas identification and porosity determination in shaly formations. A facility for calibration of natural gamma ray and neutron porosity logging tools is available in the US. A new facility for calibrating natural gamma-ray spectral logs is planned in 1984. A facility for calibrating pulsed neutron logs is urgently needed. Natural gamma-ray spectral logs are now offered by two companies and two additional companies plan to offer commercial service within a year. Spectral analysis of neutron induced gamma rays requires a much more complex system. Logs based on measurement of a broad spectrum of gamma rays induced by 14-MeV neutrons are now in experimental use

  6. Injection well logging using viscous EOR fluids

    A new tool has been developed that overcomes problems associated with logging injection wells in the presence of viscous fluids. The tool was evaluated in the laboratory and the field in water and polymer injection wells. Results indicate that the tool provides better information than conventional equipment. Special attention to log interpretation is required in zones where the flow pattern changes from turbulent to transition flow. A method is suggested to improve log interpretation that considers changes in flow regime

  7. The exactness of the log homotopy sequence

    Hoshi, Yuichiro

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we develop the theory of log homotopy exact sequences associated to proper log smooth morphisms and morphisms whose characteristic sheaves are locally constant with stalks isomorphic to the monoid of natural numbers. In the process of developing this theory, we also show the existence of a logarithmic version of the Stein factorization and develop the theory of algebraization of log formal schemes.

  8. Logging data representation based on XML

    2007-01-01

    As an open standard of data representation, XML breathes new energy to the Web application and the network computing. The development, advantage and status of XML and some standards relating to XML are reviewed. In addition, the authors put forward a method representing logging data and using UML language to establish the conceptual and logical model of logging data; using a logging data, explain how to establish the model as well as how to use XML to display and process geology data.

  9. Detection of gas hydrate with downhole logs and assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) and gas volumes on the Blake Ridge with electrical resistivity log data

    Collett, T.S.; Ladd, J.

    2000-01-01

    Let 164 of the Ocean Drilling Program was designed to investigate the occurrence of gas hydrate in the sedimentary section beneath the Blake Ridge on the southeastern continental margin of North America. Site 994, and 997 were drilled on the Blake Ridge to refine our understanding of the in situ characteristics of natural gas hydrate. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed on Leg 164 included the Schlumberger quad-combination tool (NGT, LSS/SDT, DIT, CNT-G, HLDT), the Formation MicroScanner (FMS), and the Geochemical Combination Tool (GST). Electrical resistivity (DIT) and acoustic transit-time (LSS/SDT) downhole logs from Sites 994, 995, and 997 indicate the presence of gas hydrate in the depth interval between 185 and 450 mbsf on the Blake Ridge. Electrical resistivity log calculations suggest that the gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary section on the Blake Ridge may contain between 2 and 11 percent bulk volume (vol%) gas hydrate. We have determined that the log-inferred gas hydrates and underlying free-gas accumulations on the Blake Ridge may contain as much as 57 trillion m3 of gas.

  10. Acoustic Neurinomas

    Mohammad Faraji Rad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic neuromas (AN are schwann cell-derived tumors that commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve also known as vestibular schwannoma(VS causes unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and unsteadiness. In many cases, the tumor size may remain unchanged for many years following diagnosis, which is typically made by MRI. In the majority of cases the tumor is small, leaving the clinician and patient with the options of either serial scanning or active treatment by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR or microneurosurgery. Despite the vast number of published treatment reports, comparative studies are few. The predominant clinical endpoints of AN treatment include tumor control, facial nerve function and hearing preservation. Less focus has been put on symptom relief and health-related quality of life (QOL. It is uncertain if treating a small tumor leaves the patient with a better chance of obtaining relief from future hearing loss, vertigo or tinnitus than by observing it without treatment.   In this paper we review the literature for the natural course, the treatment alternatives and the results of AN. Finally, we present our experience with a management strategy applied for more than 30 years.

  11. Acoustic Spatiality

    Brandon LaBelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of listening can be appreciated as intensely relational, bringing us into contact with surrounding events, bodies and things. Given that sound propagates and expands outwardly, as a set of oscillations from a particular source, listening carries with it a sensual intensity, whereby auditory phenomena deliver intrusive and disruptive as well as soothing and assuring experiences. The physicality characteristic of sound suggests a deeply impressionistic, locational "knowledge structure" – that is, the ways in which listening affords processes of exchange, of being in the world, and from which we extend ourselves. Sound, as physical energy reflecting and absorbing into the materiality around us, and even one's self, provides a rich platform for understanding place and emplacement. Sound is always already a trace of location.Such features of auditory experience give suggestion for what I may call an acoustical paradigm – how sound sets in motion not only the material world but also the flows of the imagination, lending to forces of signification and social structure, and figuring us in relation to each other. The relationality of sound brings us into a steady web of interferences, each of which announces the promise or problematic of being somewhere.

  12. Springer Handbook of Acoustics

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...

  13. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton;

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design for the...... acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design was...... simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  14. Acoustic evaluation of cementing quality using obliquely incident ultrasonic signals

    Duan Wen-Xing; Qiao Wen-Xiao; Che Xiao-Hua; Xie Hui

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic cement bond logging is a widely used method for evaluating cementing quality. Conventional ultrasonic cement bond logging uses vertical incidence and cannot accurately evaluate lightweight cement bonding. Oblique incidence is a new technology for evaluating cement quality with improved accuracy for lightweight cements. In this study, we simulated models of acoustic impedance of cement and cementing quality using ultrasonic oblique incidence, and we obtained the relation between cementing quality, acoustic impedance of cement, and the acoustic attenuation coeffi cient of the A0-mode and S0-mode Lamb waves. Then, we simulated models of different cement thickness and we obtained the relation between cement thickness and the time difference of the arrival between the A0 and A0′ modes.

  15. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  16. Geophysical well-log measurements in three drill holes at Salt Valley, Utah

    Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material. The following geophysical well-log measurements were made in each of the three drill holes: (1) density, (2) neutron, (3) acoustic velocity, (4) normal resistivity, and (5) gamma ray. Widely spaced resistivity and conductivity well-log measurements were made in the deep drill hole. Each of these well-log measurements shows the division of the evaporite sequence into halite and interbed sections. At the present time the most useful well-logging measurements for determining the individual lithologies in an evaporite sequence are gamma ray, neutron, density, and acoustic velocity. The high resistivity contrast between the drilling fluid (0.5 ohm-m) and salt (10,000 ohm-m) makes it difficult to obtain quantitative measurements of electrical properties in an evaporite sequence. Tests of widely spaced electrode configurations show that the effects of the brine on the resistivity measurements can be reduced, and the depth of investigation increased, by increasing the source-receiver electrode spacing. Tests of a single-coil induction probe show good resolution of the contrasting electrical properties of the various interbed lithologies

  17. Cracking the Code: Web Log Analysis.

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Lievesley, Nat; Withey, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the benefits and problems of using Web log analysis to extract information about the global information customer. The Web logs examined were those of "The Times" and "Sunday Times." Highlights include the measures and metrics; the data and its meaning; and analyses with potential (AEF)

  18. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log...

  19. Geophysical well logging using nuclear techniques

    Nuclear logging of boreholes is in world-wide use for locating and evaluating commercial deposits of hydrocarbons, coal, uranium and certain other useful minerals. Within the petroleum industry the principal uses of nuclear logs are for correlation between wells, for measuring the porosity of rocks, for identifying hydrocarbons and for determining rock type. The long-spaced, dual detector neutron log is especially used to measure porosity and, in combination with a scattered gamma-ray density log to identify gas. Small-diameter borehole accelerators are used as sources of pulsed 14-MeV neutrons to make routinely neutron die-away logs to distinguish hydrocarbons from salt water in cased holes. New accelerator logs based on spectral gamma-ray measurements are being developed to distinguish hydrocarbons from fresh water and to improve lithology determinations. Natural gamma-ray spectral measurements are used to solve correlation problems and to identify uranium-, thorium- and potassium-rich minerals. In coal exploration natural gamma-ray and scattered gamma-ray density logs are used to locate the coal and, in favourable circumstances, to estimate ash content. For oil shale evaluation the density log has been used in small-diameter holes in Colorado oil shale to determine potential oil yield. A new method of uranium detection based on measurement of delayed fission neutrons produced by bombardment of the formations with 14-MeV neutrons from a pulsed accelerator source has recently been described. (author)

  20. LHCb Online Log Analysis and Maintenance System

    Garnier, J-C

    2011-01-01

    History has shown, many times computer logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, which could be caused either by a malfunction or an attack. Due to the huge amount of logs that are produced from large-scale IT infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, critical information may be overlooked or simply be drowned in a sea of other messages. This clearly demonstrates the need for an automatic system for long-term maintenance and real time analysis of the logs. We have constructed a low cost, fault tolerant centralized logging system which is able to do in-depth analysis and cross-correlation of every log. This system is capable of handling O(10000) different log sources and numerous formats, while trying to keep the overhead as low as possible. It provides log gathering and management, Offline analysis and online analysis. We call Offline analysis the procedure of analyzing old logs for critical information, while Online analysis refer to the procedure of early alerting and reacting. ...

  1. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  2. Data logging system upgrade for Indus accelerator

    An accelerator has various subsystems like Magnet Power Supply, Beam Diagnostics and Vacuum etc. which are required to work in a stable manner to ensure required machine performance. Logging of system parameters at a faster rate plays a crucial role in analysing and understanding machine behaviour. Logging all the machine parameters consistently at the rate of typically more than 1 Hz has been the aim of a recent data logging system upgrade. Nearly ten thousand parameters are being logged at varying intervals of one second to one minute in Indus accelerator complex. The present logging scheme is augmented to log all these parameters at a rate equal to or more than 1 Hz. The database schema is designed according to the data type of the parameter. The data is distributed into historical table and intermediate table which comprises of recent data. Machine control applications read the parameter values from the control system and store them into the text files of finite time duration for each sub-system. The logging application of each sub-system passes these text files to database for bulk insertion. The detail design of database, logging scheme and its architecture is presented in the paper. (author)

  3. Write-Combined Logging: An Optimized Logging for Consistency in NVRAM

    Wenzhe Zhang; Kai Lu; Mikel Luján; Xiaoping Wang; Xu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory (e.g., Phase Change Memory) blurs the boundary between memory and storage and it could greatly facilitate the construction of in-memory durable data structures. Data structures can be processed and stored directly in NVRAM. To maintain the consistency of persistent data, logging is a widely adopted mechanism. However, logging introduces write-twice overhead. This paper introduces an optimized write-combined logging to reduce the writes to NVRAM log. By leveraging the fast-r...

  4. Processing well logging data, for example for verification and calibration of well logs

    A method is described of machine processing well logging data derived from borehole exploring devices which investigate earth formations traversed by boreholes. The method can be used for verifying and recalibrating logs, reconstructing missing logs and combining the data to form a statistical model of the traversed earth formations. (U.K.)

  5. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and...

  6. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

  7. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... is ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic ... is ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic ...

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Join/Renew Ways to Give ANA Discussion Forum ... ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Educational Video ...

  9. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... Resources Patient Surveys Related Links Clinical Trials.gov Health Care Insurance Toolkit Additional Resources ANA Public Webinars © 2016 Acoustic Neuroma Association Acoustic Neuroma Association ® • ...

  10. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask ... Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask ...

  11. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Join/Renew ... ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Search ANAUSA. ...

  12. Cystic acoustic neuromas

    Chitkara, Naveen; Chanda, Rakesh; Yadav, S. P. S.; N.K. Sharma

    2002-01-01

    Predominantly cystic acoustic neuromas are rare and they usually present with clinical and radiological features different from their more common solid counterparts. Two cases of cystic acoustic neuromas are reported here.

  13. Sample Log For International Mudlogging Projects

    Wei Xinghua; Yang Haibo; Andrew Romolliwa

    2000-01-01

    Accurate sample logging is very essential part of mud logging at wellsite. During the logging work of the foreign cooperation mudlogging projects, the description of drillling cuttings (sample) required by the foreign companies is quite different from what we did at home.This paper is intended to give some ideas of description of sample at wellsite with the reference of the guidance of standards of several foreign companies and the working experiences of the author, also some problems that the geologists should pay attention to during the description of sample at wellsite.

  14. Computer vision technology in log volume inspection

    2002-01-01

    Log volume inspection is very important in forestry research and paper making engineering. This paper proposed a novel approach based on computer vision technology to cope with log volume inspection. The needed hardware system was analyzed and the details of the inspection algorithms were given. A fuzzy entropy based on image enhancement algorithm was presented for enhancing the image of the cross-section of log. In many practical applications the cross-section is often partially invisible, and this is the major obstacle for correct inspection. To solve this problem, a robust Hausdorff distance method was proposed to recover the whole cross-section. Experiment results showed that this method was efficient.

  15. Radioactive logging parameters for common minerals

    Edmundson, H.; Raymer, L.L.

    1979-09-01

    This paper presents a list of about seventy minerals encountered in sedimentary formations together with their associated radioactive logging parameters. A procedure to calculate the radioactive parameters is given, and exact details are furnished for all logs but the neutron, which requires extensive and complex computation. It is significant that without considering rare elements such as boron, the computed neutron porosities assuming a thermal detecting device are consistently higher in shales, micas and zeolites than with an epithermal detecting device. This confirms our experience in the field. It is hoped that this compilation will serve as a qualititative aid in gauging the effect of most common minerals on the usual radioactive logging devices.

  16. Radioactive logging parameters for common minerals

    This paper presents a list of about seventy minerals encountered in sedimentary formations together with their associated radioactive logging parameters. A procedure to calculate the radioactive parameters is given, and exact details are furnished for all logs but the neutron, which requires extensive and complex computation. It is significant that without considering rare elements such as boron, the computed neutron porosities assuming a thermal detecting device are consistently higher in shales, micas and zeolites than with an epithermal detecting device. This confirms our experience in the field. It is hoped that this compilation will serve as a qualititative aid in gauging the effect of most common minerals on the usual radioactive logging devices

  17. An overview of acoustic telemetry

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quire low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested; existing field test data need to be analyzed for transmission bandwidth and attenuation; and the new and less expensive methods of collecting data on transmission path quality need to be incorporated into this effort. 11 refs.

  18. Selected visualizations and summaries of the contents of the foliation and lithology data regarding drillholes OL-KR1 - OL-KR38

    Posiva Oy has acquired an extensive amount of data on the geology of the Olkiluoto Island. Part of that data is the collection of foliation information, known as the foliation database. In this work, the foliation database was studied and analyzed using data mining techniques aiming to characterize the properties of the database. The goal was to discover previously unknown correlations, patterns, and properties contained within the data. In addition to the foliation database, deviation survey measurements were used as a supporting dataset. The following analyses related to the general properties of the database were carried out: logical discrepancies and potential errors in data; statistics of alphanumeric strings, numeric values, and empty fields; discovery of stereotypic data items whose appearance count deviates significantly from the count that would be expected if the properties were assumed independent; analysis of free text remarks; comparison between reported foliation orientations with those that were recalculated using the core orientations and foliation orientations with respect to core. Rock and foliation type sequences were analysed both in terms of the lengths of contiguous segments and the frequencies in which different sequences appear in the drillholes. The variance of rock types and the density of measurements was assessed by dividing the bedrock volume of interest into cubes and providing numerical values for these quantities for each cube. This was carried out in two resolutions: cube's sides were 500 m and 200 m. The foliation orientations were summarized also with respect to these cubes. In addition to analysis tasks, another task was to come up with alternative bedrock models - in terms of rock type units - based on data that contains rock type classifications and foliation orientation measurements obtained from drillholes. The interpretation of the analysis results was beyond the scope of this work. The assessment of the novelty and the

  19. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    Blaeser, Susan B; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27036268

  20. LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections

    Office of Personnel Management — LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections is a time tracking and voucher preparation system used to schedule employees to cover elections, to document their time...

  1. Well Logging Equipment Updated in China

    Xu Lili

    1996-01-01

    @@ As one of the ten principal disciplines in the petroleum industry, well logging has been developed for about 55years in China and is playing an increasingly important role in the country's oil and gas exploration and development.

  2. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  3. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    A. W. Noraida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there was only harvested area having an impact with 1% significant level. This result indicates that, the harvested area become the most impact towards supply of rubber wood log either in short run or in the long run. While wages as input cost gave less impact in another word it become unburden to the producers.

  4. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices) create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka) [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  5. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  6. DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system

    A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 μCGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 μCGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists

  7. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  8. Applying time series analysis to performance logs

    Kubacki, Marcin; Sosnowski, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary computer systems provide mechanisms for monitoring various performance parameters (e.g. processor or memory usage, disc or network transfers), which are collected and stored in performance logs. An important issue is to derive characteristic features describing normal and abnormal behavior of the systems. For this purpose we use various schemes of analyzing time series. They have been adapted to the specificity of performance logs and verified using data collected from real systems. The presented approach is useful in evaluating system dependability.

  9. Defect core detection in radiata pine logs

    Internal defect cores in Pinus radiata logs arise primarily from the practice in New Zealand of pruning trees to increase the amount of clear wood. Realising the benefits of this practice when milling the logs is hampered by the lack of a practical method for detecting the defect cores. This report attempts to establish industry requirements for detections and examine techniques which may be suitable. Some trials of a novel technique are described. (author) 19 refs.; 11 figs

  10. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers

    Carlos Martinez-Motta, J; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-01-01

    Introduction We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Methods Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes an...

  11. Geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estimates of the geological and hydrogeological properties of the sequences penetrated at the Harwell site. Quantitative estimates of the mineral composition and porosity of the cores samples were made. (UK)

  12. ONKALO POSE experiment. Determination of in situ thermal properties of rocks in drillholes ONK-PP340, ONK-PP346, ONK-PP398, ONK-PP399, ONK-PP405, ONK-PP411

    Korpisalo, A.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kukkonen, I. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Koskinen, T. [Stips Oy, Kalkkinen (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    The thermal drillhole device TERO76 (for diameter 76 mm drillholes) used in this study for determining thermal properties of rocks in situ was developed at the Geological Survey of Finland for Posiva in the early 2000's. The measurement method is based on monitoring the temperature variation of a cylindrical heating source in a drillhole. The measured data can be interpreted with full numerical 3D codes as well as with an analytical infinite line source method, a 'rapid interpretation tool', which makes it possible to calculate the first estimates of thermal properties already in the field. Both methods were applied in this study. Because of the unique measurement geometry, only the thermal conductivities can accurately be estimated using the late times of heating periods (accuracy ± 2%). The cylindrical source method cannot directly give the thermal diffusivity or volumetric heat capacity at a sufficient accuracy. Thermal diffusivities are estimated by using the average specific heat capacities and densities of the rock type at the measurement point, or the laboratory results on the general diffusivity-conductivity relationship for different Olkiluoto rock types. The latter technique was applied in this study. Thermal properties were determined in four shallow drillholes (ONK-PP398, ONK-PP399, ONK-PP405, ONK-PP411) located in the ONKALO investigation niche 3 (ONK-TKU-3620) at the access tunnel chainage of 3620 m. The measurement positions (17) were strictly selected on the grounds that approximately an equal number of in situ results would be available in both veined gneiss (VGN) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). The results from the drillholes ONK-PP340 and ONK-PP346 measured in a previous project are also presented in this report. In veined gneiss, the average conductivity determined with numerical model of the present measurements is 3.49 (2.83) Wm{sup -1}K{sup -1} and diffusivity 1.89 x 10{sup -6} (1.3 10{sup -6}) m{sup 2}s{sup -1}. The laboratory

  13. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  14. The evolution of the LEP logging database

    Billen, R

    1995-01-01

    In January 1992, a project was started to create a system, using an on-line ORACLE database, to allow logging of a multitude of data on the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP). The aim of this project was to log particle beam characteristics, physics parameters, hardware settings and environmental conditions. Storing and keeping track of this heterogeneous data for a period of at least one year would permit a better understanding of the behavior of the fairly new LEP Collider.After using the logging system for almost four years, nearly three years of which in full operation, the reliability and performance has been proved, endorsing the design of the database and surrounding software. Moreover, the large number of users of the logging database and the huge amount of new requests for data logging shows the high activity and usefulness of this system. Furthermore, in the context of the 1993 and 1995 energy scans, the logged data turns out to be indispensable for thorough monitoring of the LEP beam energy, wh...

  15. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  16. On-site assessment of rock discontinuities from resistivity logs. T-L log: A new logging technique

    Tselentis, Gerasimos-Akis

    1986-03-01

    The direct on-site assessment of the vertical distribution of discontinuities to rock masses is very important since it can give a first estimation of the hydraulic properties of the strata and has many practical applications, such as groundwater resources investigations, radioactive and toxic waste disposal, dam foundation site investigations, etc. In the present work, the effect that fractures have upon some geophysical parameters which can easily be determined from the analysis of conventional normal resistivity logs is examined and a new technique for the on-site processing of resistivity logging data is introduced. Using a microcomputer in series with the logging unit, a zonation process was applied to the logs, which were interpreted in terms of a series of beds, each having a specific thickness and resistivity, and a new parameter defined by the difference between transverse and longitudinal resistivities was computed (T-L log). In almost all the cases that the method was applied, the obtained results were satisfactory and the microcomputer-based software and hardware package that was developed for the automatic processing of the data proved to be very efficient.

  17. Website entries from a web log file perspective : a new log file measure

    Mayr, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    Web log files record user transactions on webservers and offer due to their extent, their properties and potential an excellent investigation field for contemporary information and online behaviour studies [see also Nicholas et al., 1999]. Web log files actually offer the possibility to extract information about user access pattern, site visibility and site interlinking [see also Thelwall, 2001]. Furthermore web log file are excellent sources for informational investigations such as tracking ...

  18. LOG2MARKUP: State module to transform a Stata text log into a markup document

    2016-01-01

    log2markup extract parts of the text version from the Stata log command and transform the logfile into a markup based document with the same name, but with extension markup (or otherwise specified in option extension) instead of log. The author usually uses markdown for writing documents. However...... other users may decide on all sorts of markup languages, eg HTML or LaTex. The key is that markup of Stata code and Stata output can be set by the options....

  19. La logística integral como ventaja competitiva y sistema logístico

    Mario Anselmo Martínez gallardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la logística integral como una ventaja competitiva y el sistema logístico. Es opinión de los autores que la logística integral es esencial para el intercambio de mercancías, toda vez que reduce costos y hace más ágil la actividad comercial. La utilización de esta logística representa una ventaja competitiva con respecto de otras empresas por la optimización del capital y ahorro de tiempo.

  20. Acoustic streaming in microchannels

    Tribler, Peter Muller

    , and experimental results for the streaming-induced drag force dominated motion of particles suspended in a water-filled microchannel supporting a transverse half-wavelength resonance. The experimental and theoretical results agree within a mean relative dierence of approximately 20%, a low deviation given state......This thesis presents studies of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic channels, which is a steady flow of the fluid initiated by the interactions of an oscillating acoustic standing wave and the rigid walls of the microchannel. The studies present analysis of the acoustic resonance......, the acoustic streaming flow, and the forces on suspended microparticles. The work is motivated by the application of particle focusing by acoustic radiation forces in medical, environmental and food sciences. Here acoustic streaming is most often unwanted, because it limits the focusability of particles...

  1. Vibro-acoustics

    Nilsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  2. Springer handbook of acoustics

    2014-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays  and acoustic emission.  Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...

  3. Recent developments in nuclear oil well logging

    The paper reviews some of the significant developments in nuclear logging over the last seven years, a period which has seen the refinement of existing techniques, plus development of new logs. Density measurements, which make use of the photoelectric effect to distinguish between major rock types, are now common. Spectral gamma ray measurements of natural radioactivity and neutron induced radiation make possible elemental analysis from logging data. Familiar logs, such as compensated neutron and density, have undergone improvements in data analysis for thin bed identification. Nuclear measurements while drilling have greatly advanced in recent years with the introduction of neutron porosity and gamma ray density measurements, in addition to natural gamma ray counting. Multiple radioactive isotopes are now injected into formations and detected by their spectral gamma ray signatures. Computer simulations of logging tool responses have gained wide use in the modelling of these tools and in determining their environmental corrections. Monte Carlo codes now routinely run on small computers and parallel processors, whereas they once required large mainframe computers. (author). 86 refs

  4. Nuclear borehole logging techniques for coal quality

    The progress achieved by nuclear logging in the coal industry has been significant. The 'in-situ' information about coal seams provided by borehole logging can significantly reduce exploration and development costs. Nuclear borehole logging is used routinely in the exploration for coal and is getting more acceptance in the mining stage for quality control. Nuclear borehole logging is used to delineate the coal strata and to determine their thickness, depth, ash content, calorific value and Fe and Si content of ash. Two techniques have been developed in the last 7 years for coal logging in boreholes: (i) The spectrometric gamma-gamma for the determination of ash content in coal; and (ii) the prompt neutron-gamma method for the determination of ash, calorific value, Si and Fe in coal. In this paper both gamma-gamma and neutron-gamma techniques were developed for delineating the coal seams and predicting the ash content in coal. The neutron-gamma technique is superior because it can also determine the Si and Fe content of coal and it can sample a larger volume of coal. The neutron-gamma technique is less affected by the rugosity and condition of the borehole. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Well logging with natural gamma radiation

    An invention is described for use in natural gamma radiation well logging in which measurements taken in a borehole are used in the search for valuable underground resources such as oil or gas. The invention comprises deriving a log of natural gamma radiation detected in selected energy windows for a selected borehole depth interval and converting it into a log of the selected subsurface materials, e.g. Th, U, K. This log is corrected for the effects of 1) either a gamma ray emitter in the borehole fluid, e.g. potassium salts and/or 2) a gamma ray attenuator in the borehole fluid, e.g. a strong attenuator such as barite and/or hematite. The Th, U, K log is particularly useful in the exploration of oil and gas resources since the Th, U, K concentrations are a good indication as to the presence, type and volume of shale and clay in the formations surrounding the borehole. (U.K.)

  6. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  7. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  8. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  9. Acoustic dispersive prism

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.

  10. DNF Sampling for ProbLog Inference

    Shterionov, Dimitar Sht; Mantadelis, Theofrastos; Janssens, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Inference in probabilistic logic languages such as ProbLog, an extension of Prolog with probabilistic facts, is often based on a reduction to a propositional formula in DNF. Calculating the probability of such a formula involves the disjoint-sum-problem, which is computationally hard. In this work we introduce a new approximation method for ProbLog inference which exploits the DNF to focus sampling. While this DNF sampling technique has been applied to a variety of tasks before, to the best of our knowledge it has not been used for inference in probabilistic logic systems. The paper also presents an experimental comparison with another sampling based inference method previously introduced for ProbLog.

  11. Differential Forms on Log Canonical Spaces

    Greb, Daniel; Kovacs, Sandor J; Peternell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with differential forms on log canonical varieties. It is shown that any p-form defined on the smooth locus of a variety with canonical or klt singularities extends regularly to any resolution of singularities. In fact, a much more general theorem for log canonical pairs is established. The proof relies on vanishing theorems for log canonical varieties and on methods of the minimal model program. In addition, a theory of differential forms on dlt pairs is developed. It is shown that many of the fundamental theorems and techniques known for sheaves of logarithmic differentials on smooth varieties also hold in the dlt setting. Immediate applications include the existence of a pull-back map for reflexive differentials, generalisations of Bogomolov-Sommese type vanishing results, and a positive answer to the Lipman-Zariski conjecture for klt spaces.

  12. Investigations of the Stenlille-4 borehole logs

    The report contains analyses of the Stenlille-4 borehole logs. They include an interpretation of nuclear logs by use of the NULIP-5 programme. Furhter a number of possible clay indicators has been investigated. The TDT-logs have been analysed to obtain Σa for pure clay and sand. The relation between the natural gamma count rate and the volume percent of clay has been investigated. Finally a number of cross plots has been made. From these the density of pure sand and clay and the absorption cross section of sand, clay, and salt water has been obtained. The analyses seem to confirm that the interpretation programme NULIP-5 yields consistent results. (author)

  13. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    ... org Connect with us! What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Each heading slides to reveal information. Important Points ... Neuroma Important Points To Know About an Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, ...

  14. Applications of TMD pulsed neutron logs in unusual downhole logging environments

    The Welex Thermal Multigate Decay logging system utilizes a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator and two gamma ray detectors to obtain measurements of the capture cross sections of downhole formations. The composite decay curve from both formation and borehole capture ganna rays is detected, and is separated into the two individual components. The paper begins with a brief review of the TMD logging system with emphasis on the physical significance of all the quality control and new support curves. The bulk of the paper is then placed on log examples in unusual borehole conditions: logs run across intervals where borehole conditions change; logs run in air filled boreholes; logs run in badly washed out boreholes; logs run through stuck drill pipe/collars; logs run in flowing wells. The supplemental TMD curves in these situations identify the presence of gravel packs and packers, changes in borehole fluid salinity, possible communication between zones, and water and oil producing perforations. Gas in the borehole can also be differentiated from gas in the formation

  15. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jakob, Riko

    various queries about the convex hull in optimal O(log n) worst-case time. The data structure requires O(n) space. Applications of the new dynamic convex hull data structure are improved deterministic algorithms for the k-level problem and the red-blue segment intersection problem where all red and all...

  16. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  17. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Strategies for Mining Web Logs: A Survey

    Ms. Neha G. Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of e-commerce and mobile-based commerce, the role of web user on World Wide Web has become pivotal enough to warrant studies to further understand the user’s intent, navigation patterns on websites and usage needs. Using web logs on the servers hosting websites, site owners and in turn companies can extract information to better understand and predict user’s needs, tailoring their sites to meet such needs. Through this paper, an effort is being made to analyze and survey few of the popular web log mining strategies.

  19. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  20. Benefit Analysis for Geothermal Log Interpretation

    Rigby, F.A.

    1980-12-16

    Formation evaluation is of great importance in geothermal development because of the high capital costs and the fact that successful exploration will only pay off through a subsequent decision to construct a power plant or other utilization facility. Since much formation data is available from well logging, development of new techniques of log interpretation for application to geothermal wells is called for. An analysis of potential nearterm benefits from this program and the types of formation data called for is discussed. Much useful information can be developed by adaptation of techniques used in oil and gas reservoirs, but the different demands of geothermal development from hydrocarbon production also open up new data requirements.

  1. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-12

    The results of investigations carried out into the availability and suitability of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of logging tools for geothermal wells are summarized. Design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes for application to the development of high temperature well logs are discussed. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data is presented in the appendix. (MHR)

  2. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    into studies of smartphones in everyday life. Through an illustrative study, we explore a more nuanced perspective on what can be considered “log data” and how these types of data can be collected and analysed. A qualitative approach to log data analysis offers researchers new opportunities to situate...... serve as cues to instigate discussion and reflection as well as act as resources for contextualizing and organizing related empirical material. In the discussion, the advantages of a qualitative perspective for research designs are assessed in relation to issues of validity. Further perspectives on the...

  3. CS model coil experimental log book

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  4. Reservoir analysis by well log data

    Kok, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering; Gokcal, B.; Ersoy, G. [Tulsa Univ., OK (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-04-15

    The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the reservoir sections by well log data. Well logs are used to examine the porosity, water saturation and true resistivity properties of the reservoir. Throughout the project, the data is processed using geostatistical tests that are frequency, histograms, auto-correlation, cross-correlations, linear and multiple regression analysis to find the relations between the variables. Statistical analyses are performed using SPSS software. From the output of the software, the data of the reservoir section would be improved resulting in a higher efficiency in the usage of the data. (Author)

  5. Kaizen aplicado à logística

    Santos, Ana Catarina Almeida

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho propõe alcançar um aumento de produtividade e consequente redução de custos e desperdícios ajudando o departamento logístico da Empresa Revigrés – Industria de Revestimentos de Grés, Lda, a tornar-se mais eficiente, através da aplicação da filosofia kaizen que propõe melhorias no desempenho por implementação de pequenas ações. O objetivo deste projeto é a melhoria do departamento logístico globalmente, para isso houve o recurso a pesquisas e levantamento ...

  6. Acoustic Imaging of Snowpack Physical Properties

    Kinar, N. J.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of snowpack depth, density, structure and temperature have often been conducted by the use of snowpits and invasive measurement devices. Previous research has shown that acoustic waves passing through snow are capable of measuring these properties. An experimental observation device (SAS2, System for the Acoustic Sounding of Snow) was used to autonomously send audible sound waves into the top of the snowpack and to receive and process the waves reflected from the interior and bottom of the snowpack. A loudspeaker and microphone array separated by an offset distance was suspended in the air above the surface of the snowpack. Sound waves produced from a loudspeaker as frequency-swept sequences and maximum length sequences were used as source signals. Up to 24 microphones measured the audible signal from the snowpack. The signal-to-noise ratio was compared between sequences in the presence of environmental noise contributed by wind and reflections from vegetation. Beamforming algorithms were used to reject spurious reflections and to compensate for movement of the sensor assembly during the time of data collection. A custom-designed circuit with digital signal processing hardware implemented an inversion algorithm to relate the reflected sound wave data to snowpack physical properties and to create a two-dimensional image of snowpack stratigraphy. The low power consumption circuit was powered by batteries and through WiFi and Bluetooth interfaces enabled the display of processed data on a mobile device. Acoustic observations were logged to an SD card after each measurement. The SAS2 system was deployed at remote field locations in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. Acoustic snow properties data was compared with data collected from gravimetric sampling, thermocouple arrays, radiometers and snowpit observations of density, stratigraphy and crystal structure. Aspects for further research and limitations of the acoustic sensing system are also discussed.

  7. A sonic well log of the basement complex of the Walvis Ridge

    Rabinowitz, Philip D.; Borella, Peter E.

    1984-03-01

    A sonic well log was obtained within the basement complex of the Walvis Ridge during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 74. The top of the basement complex is characterized by smooth acoustic reflectors. The rocks recovered within the basement complex consist of basalts with intercalated sediments. According to the log ˜-50% of the upper 75 m of basement are igneous rocks and the other 50% sedimentary. Sonobuoy results indicate that the ratio of sediments to basalt increases with depth for an additional 225 m until a typical oceanic velocity structure is observed. Paleontological results suggest that the processes forming this upper 300 m of the basement complex was accomplished within a short time interval.

  8. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-36. ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission source * wave propagation * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  9. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself Post-treatment Post-treatment ... Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself Post-treatment Post-treatment ...

  10. Advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China

    The paper discuses principle of X-ray fluorescence logging, and introduces advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China. By 2009, third generation XRF logging instrument has been developed in China, and good logging result has been obtained in Lala copper mine. (authors)

  11. CNPC makes major breakthrough in array lateral logging technology

    2011-01-01

    On October 12, 2011, the array lateral logging tool independently developed by CNPC Well Logging Company was successfully put to use at two production wells at Changqing Oilfield, obtaining high quality logging information. CNPC becomes the second company after Schlumberger in the world to master the array lateral logging technology, which can effectively identify layers as thin as 0.3 meter.

  12. ADN* Density log estimation Using Rockcell*

    This work is intended to inform on the possibilities of estimating good density data in zones associated with sliding in a reservoir with ADN* tool with or without ADOS in string in cases where repeat sections were not done, possibly due to hole stability or directional concerns. This procedure has been equally used to obtain a better density data in corkscrew holes. Density data (ROBB) was recomputed using neural network in RockCell* to estimate the density over zones of interest. RockCell* is a Schlumberger software that has neural network functionally which can be used to estimate missing logs using the combination of the responses of other log curves and intervals that are not affected by sliding. In this work, an interval was selected and within this interval twelve litho zones were defined using the unsupervised neural network. From this a training set was selected based on intervals of very good log responses outside the sliding zones. This training set was used to train and run the neural network for a specific lithostratigraphic interval. The results matched the known good density curve. Then after this, an estimation of the density curve was done using the supervised neural network. The output from this estimation matched very closely in the good portions of the log, thus providing some density measurements in the sliding zone. This methodology provides a scientific solution to missing data during the process of Formation evaluation

  13. Neutron generator for the array borehole logging

    LuHong-Bo; ZhongZhen-Qian; 等

    1998-01-01

    The performance mechanism of the array neutron generator to be used to porosity logging is presented.The neutron generator utilizes a drive-in target ceramic neutron tube,which cursts nerutron with fast-slow period selectively pressure.Regulation of the neutron tube is accomplished by pulse width modulation.The high voltage power supply is poerated at optimum frequency.

  14. Neutron logging in partially saturated media

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory the behavior of epithermal neutron logging equipment in large holes in partially saturated alluvium and in ashfall and ashflow tuff is being studied. Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations indicate that the number of epithermal neutrons from either a fission or 14-MeV source depends not only on the water content of the medium, but also on its bulk density. Curves as functions of both parameters have been developed and an interpolation method devised. Attempts to calibrate neutron logs by comparing log-measured water content with water content from cores result in unacceptably large errors. Part of the error is due to the fact that commercial neutron logs are quite sensitive to hold size variations. It is shown that with proper shielding the hole size effect can be eliminated. An effort is in progress to study the two water contents, bulk density, and material type in a number of holes to determine whether core data calibration would be satisfactory with proper corrections

  15. Lianas and logging in West Africa

    Parren, M.P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The role of lianas in relation to logging activities is analysed in a lowland moist forest in Cameroon. Lianas are an abundant, diverse, and conspicuous growth form in nearly all tropical forests. Lianas are mostly seen as a nuisance by foresters. Cutting of liana stems is an important operation in

  16. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  17. On existence of log minimal models II

    Birkar, Caucher

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the existence of log minimal models in dimension $d$ essentially implies the LMMP with scaling in dimension $d$. As a consequence we prove that a weak nonvanishing conjecture in dimension $d$ implies the minimal model conjecture in dimension $d$.

  18. Advances in nuclear oil well logging

    A review is given of some of the significant developments in nuclear logging over the last several years based on publications in scientific journals in the United States and in Europe. Density measurements which make use of the photoelectric effect to distinguish major rock types are now common. Spectral γ-ray measurements of natural radioactivity and neutron-induced radiations make possible elemental analysis from logging data. Familiar logs such as the compensated neutron and density have undergone improvements in data analysis for thin bed identification. Nuclear measurements while drilling have greatly advanced in recent years with the introduction of neutron porosity and γ-ray density measurements in addition to natural γ-ray counting. Multiple radioactive isotopes are now injected into formations and detected by their spectral γ-ray signatures. Computer simulations of logging tool responses have gained wide use in modeling tools and determining their environmental corrections. Monte Carlo codes now routinely run on small computers and parallel processors, whereas they once required large mainframe computers. (Author)

  19. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  20. The Design Log: A New Informational Tool

    Spivak, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The design log is a record of observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, and performance specifications for each space in a structure. It is a systematic approach to design that integrates information about user needs with traditional architectural programming and design. (Author/MLF)

  1. Precision Prediction of the Log Power Spectrum

    Repp, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    At translinear scales, the log power spectrum captures significantly more cosmological information than the standard power spectrum. At high wavenumbers $k$, the cosmological information in the standard power spectrum $P(k)$ fails to increase in proportion to $k$ due to correlations between large- and small-scale modes. As a result, $P(k)$ suffers from an information plateau on these translinear scales, so that analysis with the standard power spectrum cannot access the information contained in these small-scale modes. The log power spectrum $P_A(k)$, on the other hand, captures the majority of this otherwise lost information. Until now there has been no means of predicting the amplitude of the log power spectrum apart from cataloging the results of simulations. We here present a cosmology-independent prescription for the log power spectrum, and we find this prescription to display accuracy comparable to that of Smith et al. (2003), over a range of redshifts and smoothing scales, and for wavenumbers up to $1....

  2. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    D'Souza, Subas

    2013-01-01

    A starter guide that covers Apache Flume in detail.Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop is intended for people who are responsible for moving datasets into Hadoop in a timely and reliable manner like software engineers, database administrators, and data warehouse administrators

  3. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    2010-10-01

    ....68). (i) An entry at the beginning of operations in each mode of operation, and thereafter at... observation must be included in each log entry. The following information must be entered: (1) All stations... part. (iii) An entry of each test and activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) pursuant to...

  4. OPAC User Logs: Implications for Bibliographic Instruction.

    Kern-Simirenko, Cheryl

    1983-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of typical online public access catalogs (OPACs) and examines patron use via printouts of transaction logs for three separate systems. Desirable features of OPACs (mnemonic search commands, boolean operators, forgiveness or automatic truncation, browsing a subject heading index, suggestive prompts) and need for…

  5. Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.

    Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274

  6. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  7. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  8. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will...... present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  9. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-09-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but potentially overlook important geomorphic responses on shorter time scales immediately following timber harvest. Sediments fluxes are commonly estimated from linear regression of intermittent measurements of water and sediment discharge using sediment rating curves (SRCs). However, these often unsatisfactorily reproduce non-linear effects such as discharge-load hystereses. We resolve such important dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3 min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~ 0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~ 80% of the total sediment load was transported during rare but high magnitude runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. The variability of sediment flux of these rare events spans four orders of magnitude. In particular dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more moderate events. We show that QRFs outperforms traditional SRCs in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment discharge at high temporal resolution.

  10. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  11. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 in 2009 and 2010

    Haemaelaeinen, H. [Geopros Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2009 and 2010. The total length of the borehole OL-KR19 is 544,34 m, 241,80 m of which was covered by 121 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR45 is 1023,30 m long and 63 similar tests were made in it covering 126,00 m of the hole and OL-KR46 600,10 m long, 151 tests made covering 301,35 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  12. Computers and advanced technology applied to uranium borehole logging systems

    A minicomputer has been employed in a uranium borehole logging system to provide digital data acquisition, real time processing for log output, magnetic tape recording, and on-site log analysis procesing for two nuclear logging techniques: spectral gamma ray and prompt fission neutron. A downhole digital data acquisition system (BDATS) is being built. It can acquire and transmit borehole instrument signals without present limitations and degradation experienced in the analog transmisison mode, which is due to the logging system's electrical cable and is present on all logging system cables. The BDATS can replace the data acquisition instrumentation at the surface. A fiber optic logging cable is being developed that can directly replace the electrician conductor logging cable. This should improve the data transmission capabilities of logging systems at least ten-fold when coupled with digital data transmission systems and minicomputer based logging systems. A feasibility study, prototype cable and light transducer system has been completed. 6 refs

  13. Empirical analysis of Android logs using self-organizing maps

    Finickel, Eric; Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Beck, Frederic; Festor, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an empirical analysis of the logs generated by the logging system available in Android environments. The logs are mainly related to the execution of the different components of applications and services running on an Android device. We have analysed the logs using self organizing maps where our goal is to establish behavioural fingerprints of Android applications. Each fingerprint is build using information available in logs and related to the structure of an applica...

  14. HMR Log Analyzer: Analyze Web Application Logs Over Hadoop MapReduce

    Sayalee Narkhede; Tripti Baraskar

    2013-01-01

    In today’s Internet world, log file analysis is becoming a necessary task for analyzing the customer’sbehavior in order to improve advertising and sales as well as for datasets like environment, medical,banking system it is important to analyze the log data to get required knowledge from it. Web mining is theprocess of discovering the knowledge from the web data. Log files are getting generated very fast at therate of 1-10 Mb/s per machine, a single data center can generate tens of terabytes ...

  15. penentuan kualitas batubara berdasarkan log gamma ray, log densitas dan analisis parameter kimia

    afriani, yulia

    2015-01-01

    The research has been carried to determine coal quality at coal mine pit 2a South Block Lamin Project PT Mega Alam Sejahtera Berau East Borneo. The method that used in this research is well logging namely gamma ray log and density log to determine subsurface profile with 13 drilling point. From results of the analysis and interpretation of data obtained by the value of the average density is 1.63 g / cc, shale volume average of 0.2%, The average of ash conten 6:46%, average calorie of 5103.5...

  16. An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-03-24

    Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The oil and gas industry has led in most of the attempts to develop this type of telemetry system; however, very substantial efforts have also been made through government sponsored work in the geothermal industry. None of these previous attempts have lead to a commercial telemetry system. Conceptually, the problem looks easy. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quite low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal Waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested

  17. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry–Perot resonance. - Highlights: • Expression of transmission coefficient of an acoustic grating with curled slits. • Non-dispersive and tunable effective medium parameters for the acoustic grating. • A flat acoustic focusing lens with gradient index by using the acoustic grating

  18. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; KIRKEGAARD, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to inve...

  19. Underwater Applications of Acoustical Holography

    P. C. Mehta

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the basic technique of acoustical holography. Requirements for recording the acoustical hologram are discussed with its ability for underwater imaging in view. Some practical systems for short-range and medium-range imaging are described. The advantages of acoustical holography over optical imaging, acoustical imaging and sonars are outlined.

  20. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be...

  1. Tunable acoustic metamaterials

    Babaee, Sahab; Viard, Nicolas; Fang, Nicholas; Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    We report a new class of active and switchable acoustic metamaterials composed of three-dimensional stretchable chiral helices arranged on a two-dimensional square lattice. We investigate the propagation of sounds through the proposed structure both numerically and experimentally and find that the deformation of the helices can be exploited as a novel and effective approach to control the propagation of acoustic waves. The proposed concept expands the ability of existing acoustic metamaterials since we demonstrate that the deformation can be exploited to turn on or off the band gap, opening avenues for the design of adaptive noise-cancelling devices.

  2. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  3. LogBase: A Scalable Log-structured Database System in the Cloud

    Vo, Hoang Tam; Wang, Sheng; Agrawal, Divyakant; Chen, Gang; Ooi, Beng Chin

    2012-01-01

    Numerous applications such as financial transactions (e.g., stock trading) are write-heavy in nature. The shift from reads to writes in web applications has also been accelerating in recent years. Write-ahead-logging is a common approach for providing recovery capability while improving performance in most storage systems. However, the separation of log and application data incurs write overheads observed in write-heavy environments and hence adversely affects the write throughput and recover...

  4. EDZ09 project and related EDZ studies in ONKALO 2008-2010

    drilled parallel to the tunnel; (3) seismic tomography between two pairs of drillholes inclined forward from the tunnel in a horizontal plane at the tunnel wall level and in a vertical plane from the tunnel floor. The surveys in these holes also included geological core logging, geophysical logging, acoustic and optical drillhole imaging, differential flow logging, borehole radar measurements, and water loss measurements. Additionally, differential flow logging, water loss measurements and interference tests were conducted in three parallel drillholes inclined forward from the tunnel at tunnel floor level. Repeated investigations performed after the tunnel excavation included: (1) a reflection seismic single-hole survey carried out in the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (2) seismic tomography between the tunnel wall and the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (3) seismic tomography between the horizontally located drillholes in the wall, and between sub-vertically located drillholes in the floor; (4) borehole radar reflection in the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (5) optical and acoustic imaging in drillholes in the horizontal plane in the wall and in a sub-vertical plane in the floor; and (6) differential flow logging and water loss measurements in the holes in the sub-vertical plane in the floor and in the parallel sub-vertical holes in the floor

  5. EDZ09 project and related EDZ studies in ONKALO 2008-2010

    Mellanen, S. [Genpro Solutions Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtimaeki, T. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Heikkinen, E. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland) Water and Environment; Mustonen, S.; Norokallio, J.

    2010-12-15

    drilled parallel to the tunnel; (3) seismic tomography between two pairs of drillholes inclined forward from the tunnel in a horizontal plane at the tunnel wall level and in a vertical plane from the tunnel floor. The surveys in these holes also included geological core logging, geophysical logging, acoustic and optical drillhole imaging, differential flow logging, borehole radar measurements, and water loss measurements. Additionally, differential flow logging, water loss measurements and interference tests were conducted in three parallel drillholes inclined forward from the tunnel at tunnel floor level. Repeated investigations performed after the tunnel excavation included: (1) a reflection seismic single-hole survey carried out in the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (2) seismic tomography between the tunnel wall and the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (3) seismic tomography between the horizontally located drillholes in the wall, and between sub-vertically located drillholes in the floor; (4) borehole radar reflection in the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (5) optical and acoustic imaging in drillholes in the horizontal plane in the wall and in a sub-vertical plane in the floor; and (6) differential flow logging and water loss measurements in the holes in the sub-vertical plane in the floor and in the parallel sub-vertical holes in the floor.

  6. Learning from Logged Implicit Exploration Data

    Strehl, Alex; Kakade, Sham

    2010-01-01

    We provide a sound and consistent foundation for the use of \\emph{nonrandom} exploration data in "contextual bandit" or "partially labeled" settings where only the value of a chosen action is learned. The primary challenge in a variety of settings is that the exploration policy, in which "offline" data is logged, is not explicitly known. Prior solutions here require either control of the actions during the learning process, recorded random exploration, or actions chosen obliviously in a repeated manner. The techniques reported here lift these restrictions, allowing the learning of a policy for choosing actions given features from historical data where no randomization occurred or was logged. We empirically verify our solution on a reasonably sized set of real-world data obtained from an online advertising company.

  7. Reservoir characterization using nuclear geochemical logs

    Advances in the technique of nuclear spectroscopy logging have resulted in ability to determine continuous, in situ abundances of most major rock-forming elements. If the use of log-derived geochemistry is to be applied widely, quality assessment must be improved to cover a wider variety of environments. A case study of a producing well from the Gulf of Mexico exposes some of the problems in the processing of the geochemical data, quantitatively assesses the accuracy of that data in comparison to core measurements, and examines the validity of an elemental uncertainty estimate. Neutron transport simulations studies show the measurement of Al to be particularly sensitive to borehole environmental effects. (author). 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Assessment of radiation safety in well logging

    Radiation safety assessments required by current regulations are a means to verify compliance with the requirements. Different methods have been used for this purpose. In the paper the results of applying the method of risk matrices, applied for the first time in the practice of well logging are exposed. For each initiating event frequency of occurrence, the severity of its consequences and the probability of failure of the barriers identified were evaluated. Starting from these assumptions, the risk associated is determined for each of the identified accident sequences, using for this the SEVRRA code 'Risk Assessment System', originally designed for use in radiotherapy. As an result sequences increased risk associated with the practice of well logging were identified, which is the starting point for the further implementation of a coherent program of dose optimization in practice.

  9. Forecasting Monthly Prices of Japanese Logs

    Tetsuya Michinaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasts of prices can help industries in their risk management. This is especially true for Japanese logs, which experience sharp fluctuations in price. In this research, the authors used an exponential smoothing method (ETS and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to forecast the monthly prices of domestic logs of three of the most important species in Japan: sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc. Endl., and karamatsu (Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi (Lamb. Carr.. For the 12-month forecasting periods, forecasting intervals of 80% and 95% were given. By measuring the accuracy of forecasts of 12- and 6-month forecasting periods, it was found that ARIMA gave better results than did the ETS in the majority of cases. However, the combined method of averaging ETS and ARIMA forecasts gave the best results for hinoki in several cases.

  10. In situ acoustic properties of pelagic carbonate sediments on the Ontong Java Plateau

    Fulthorpe, Craig S.; Schlanger, Seymour O.; Jarrard, Richard D.

    1989-04-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau, with its thick, capping sequence of Cretaceous and Cenozoic pure pelagic carbonate sediments, forms an ideal setting for the study of the acoustic properties of this lithology on an oceanic rise. Borehole logs, recorded on Deep Sea Drilling Project leg 89 at site 586, provided detailed data on in situ acoustic properties of Pleistocene to early Miocene sediments to a depth of 623 m below seafloor. Comparison of these logging results and the sonobuoy-based results of Johnson et al. (1978) with previous laboratory measurements from the Ontong Java Plateau shows that velocity/depth functions determined from the logging and sonobuoy methods are concordant but diverge significantly from functions derived from laboratory measurements. Log densities and compressional velocities exceed those measured by laboratory techniques; the density discrepancy is strongly influenced by laboratory method. The differences between log and laboratory compressional velocities are greater than and extend to greater depths than those between densities. These differences can be attributed to reductions in the frame bulk modulus and dynamic rigidity, caused by the removal of overburden pressure in the absence of significant porosity rebound. Agreement of site 586 log velocities with velocities derived from the earlier sonobuoy measurements across the plateau argues for the interpretation that both methods measure in situ values. The disagreement between the site 586 log results and the sonobuoy results with both the empirical velocity/depth function of Carlson et al. (1986) and the empirical velocity/porosity function of Raymer et al. (1980) supports the conclusion that pelagic carbonate sediments on oceanic plateaus and rises have unique acoustic properties, primarily arising from the presence of intraparticle porosity, and should not be grouped with other oceanic lithologies in acoustic modeling studies.

  11. Batch processing: definition and event log identification

    Martin, Niels,; SWENNEN, Marijke; Depaire, Benoit; Jans, Mieke; CARIS, An; Vanhoof, Koen

    2015-01-01

    A resource typically executes a particular activity on a series of cases. When a resource performs an activity on several cases simultaneously, (quasi-) sequentially or concurrently, this is referred to as batch processing. Given its influence on process performance, batch processing needs to be taken into account when modeling business processes for performance evaluation purposes. This paper suggests event logs as an information source to gain insight in batching behavior. It marks a first ...

  12. Exploiting log files in video retrieval

    Hopfgartner, F.; Urruty, T.; Villa, R.; Gildea, N.; Jose, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    While research into user-centered text retrieval is based on mature evaluation methodologies, user evaluation in multimedia retrieval is still in its infancy. User evaluations can be expensive and are also often non-repeatable. An alternative way of evaluating such systems is the use of simulations. In this poster, we present an evaluation methodology which is based on exploiting log files recorded from a user-study we conducted.

  13. Method and apparatus for neutron well logging

    An improved technique is described for determining the characteristics of the earth formations (porosity, the presence of gas and the depth of invasion) surrounding a borehole by means of a dual-detector neutron logging system which is provided with a neutron-emitting source that continuously irradiates the formation under study, the resulting neutron population being sampled by a pair of neutron detectors spaced at different distances from the source. (UK)

  14. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Useful design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes are discussed for application to the development of high temperature well logs. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data are presented in the appendix.

  15. Aether: A scalable approach to logging

    Johnson, Ryan; Pandis, Ippokratis; Stoica, Radu; Athanassoulis, Manos; Ailamaki, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    The shift to multi-core hardware brings new challenges to database systems, as the software parallelism determines performance. Even though database systems traditionally accommodate simultaneous requests, a multitude of synchronization barriers serialize execution. Write-ahead logging is a fundamental, omnipresent component in ARIES-style concurrency and recovery, and one of the most important yet-to-be addressed potential bottlenecks, especially in OLTP workloads with small and frequent cha...

  16. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  17. Experimental Study of Rock Drill-ability Anisotropy by Acoustic Velocity

    2006-01-01

    Rock drill-ability anisotropy has significant effects on directional drilling and deviation control. Its evaluation is an important but difficult research subject. Definitions of drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy of rock are given in this paper. The acoustic velocities and the drill-ability parameters of several rock samples from the Engineering Center for Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) are respectively measured with the device for testing the rock drill-ability and the ultrasonic testing system in laboratory, so that their drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy are respectively calculated and discussed in detail by using the experimental data. On the basis of these experimental results and calculations, correlations between drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy of the rock samples are illustrated through regression analyses. Thus, a mathematical model developed may be used to evaluate the rock drill-ability anisotropy with the acoustic logging or seismic data to a certain extent.

  18. Basis of interpretation for SNG-logs

    The contents of potassium, uranium and thorium have been measured in a number of Danish sedimentary rock types. This was done by use of γ-spectrometry on 250 rock samples and by use of spectral natural gamma logging (SNG-logs) in 25 wells of well-documented constructions. The analysed rock types included most of the common sedimentary rocks found in Danish strata from the quaternary, tertiary and upper cretaceous periods. The median grain size, the sorting coefficient, the clay content etc. were measured by use of sieve and settling analysis for most of the 250 rock samples considered. Further for all the samples an assessment was made of their colour, mineral compositions, lime content and content of organic material. The results of these investigations are presented together with a description of the geology of the rock types. By comparing the measured K, U and Th contents and the rock types, median grain size, content of organic material etc. of the samples, correlations between sedimentary rocks and their content of K, U and Th were established. Based on these correlations a guide for interpretation of SNG-logs from most Danish wells has been set up. (author)

  19. Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials

    Ming-Hui Lu; Liang Feng; Yan-Feng Chen

    2009-01-01

    Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surf...

  20. Acoustic integrated extinction

    Norris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross-section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. [1] derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency.

  1. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  2. Principles of musical acoustics

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  3. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  4. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  5. Acoustic Igniter Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  6. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  7. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Full Text Available ... treatment Summary Types Of Post-treatment Issues Resources Medical Resources Considerations When Selecting a Healthcare Professional Healthcare ... ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma ...

  8. Acoustic coherent perfect absorbers

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of achieving acoustic coherent perfect absorbers. Through numerical simulations in two dimensions, we demonstrate that the energy of coherent acoustic waves can be totally absorbed by a fluid absorber with specific complex mass density or bulk modulus. The robustness of such absorbing systems is investigated under small perturbations of the absorber parameters. We find that when the resonance order is the lowest and the size of the absorber is comparable to the wavelength in the background, the phenomenon of perfect absorption is most stable. When the wavelength inside both the background and the absorber is much larger than the size of the absorber, perfect absorption is possible when the mass density of the absorber approaches the negative value of the background mass density. Finally, we show that by using suitable dispersive acoustic metamaterials, broadband acoustic perfect absorption may be achieved. (papers)

  9. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  10. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  11. Fast computerized technology for optimizing logging spacing and devising metrological and interpretation means for nuclear logs

    Presented is a beta-version of computerized technology for interactive modeling ('mathematical workbench') of the following phases of designing the nuclear logging tools: 1. Optimization of spacings and measurement modes of nuclear logging systems; 2. Interpretation and theoretical-and-metrological support of existing and future logging systems; 3. Assessing the efficiency of different nuclear logging systems under new geological and technical conditions. The technology is presented as an integrated software package of applied programs DELTA which includes: (i) a graphical interface providing the problem statement, data input/output, and a control to solution of problems 1-3; (ii) a package of applied programs POLE which provides fast 3-D on-line numerical modeling of nuclear-geophysical fields and vectorization of solutions in a given range of geological and technical well logging conditions (intelligence core of the package with solvers of direct problems); (iii) a set of problem-oriented processing programs which allow one to calculate necessary functionals from modeled radiation fields - response of logging tools, partial and complete errors of a sought formation parameter and target functions, solve problems 1-3 and output the results. The present version of package DELTA covers all the methods and modifications of nuclear logging: thermal NNL, epithermal NNL, multispaced NNL, NGL, PNNL-M, and C/O log in vertical, inclined, and horizontal wells. DELTA offers the following functional capabilities in making the optimization of a nuclear log: (i) selection of an arbitrary set of sought characteristics of spacing: number and length of spacing, type and sensitive zone of detectors, spectrum and yield of a source, material of a screen, position and width of recording channels, etc.; (ii) solution of optimization problems for arbitrary geological and technical conditions, including horizontal wells, with due regard of invasion zone, casing, etc.; (iii) high efficient

  12. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables. PMID

  13. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga

    Plzeň : University of West Bohemia, 2009 - (Adámek, V.; Zajíček, M.). s. 1-2 ISBN 978-80-7043-824-4. [Výpočtová mechanika 2009. 09.11.2009-11.11.2009, Nečtiny] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission source * wave propagation * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  14. The autonomous acoustic buoy

    Pellicer, Francisco; Reitsma, Robert; Agüera, Joaquín; Marinas, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The Acoustic Buoy is a project between the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics (LAB) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). In areas that the human activities produce high noise levels, such as oil exploration or construction, there is a need to monitor the environment for the presence of cetaceans. Another need is for fishing, to prevent endangered species from being killed. This can be done with an Autonomous Acoustic Buoy (AAB). Mooring or anchoring at to the seaflo...

  15. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  16. Wavefront modulation and subwavelength diffractive acoustics with an acoustic metasurface.

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront-shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality to their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of an acoustic metasurface based on tapered labyrinthine metamaterials. The demonstrated metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law, but also exhibits various unique properties such as conversion from propagating wave to surface mode, extraordinary beam-steering and apparent negative refraction through higher-order diffraction. Such designer acoustic metasurfaces provide a new design methodology for acoustic signal modulation devices and may be useful for applications such as acoustic imaging, beam steering, ultrasound lens design and acoustic surface wave-based applications. PMID:25418084

  17. Final Report: Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    Normann, Randy A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  18. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    Normann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  19. Evaluation of performance of Son Tek Argonaut acoustic doppler velocity log in tow tank and sea

    Joseph, A.; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Dias, M.; Tengali, S.; Methar, A.

    and inconsistent within the towing speed band of approx. or equal to plus or minus 50 cm/s. Outside of this band, its motion speed output exhibited unexpectedly large error (within the range of -52% and -72% of towing speed) as a result of a computational error...

  20. Acoustic vector sensor signal processing

    SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.

  1. Generalized localization for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in L log +L log + log +L

    For an arbitrary open set Ω subset of I2=[0,1)2 and an arbitrary function f element of L log +L log + log +L(I2) such that f=0 on Ω the double Fourier series of f with respect to the trigonometric system Ψ=E and the Walsh-Paley system Ψ=W is shown to converge to zero (over rectangles) almost everywhere on Ω. Thus, it is proved that generalized localization almost everywhere holds on arbitrary open subsets of the square I2 for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in the class L log +L log + log +L (in the case of summation over rectangles). It is also established that such localization breaks down on arbitrary sets that are not dense in I2, in the classes ΦΨ(L)(I2) for the orthonormal system Ψ=E and an arbitrary function such that ΦE(u)=o(u log + log +u) as u→∞ or for ΦW(u)=u( log + log +u)1-ε, 0<ε<1

  2. Generalized localization for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in L\\log^+L\\log^+\\log^+L

    Bloshanskaya, S. K.; Bloshanskii, I. L.; Y Roslova, T.

    1998-06-01

    For an arbitrary open set \\Omega\\subset I^2= \\lbrack 0,1)^2 and an arbitrary function f\\in L\\log^+L\\log^+\\log^+L(I^2) such that f=0 on \\Omega the double Fourier series of f with respect to the trigonometric system \\Psi=\\mathscr E and the Walsh-Paley system \\Psi=W is shown to converge to zero (over rectangles) almost everywhere on \\Omega. Thus, it is proved that generalized localization almost everywhere holds on arbitrary open subsets of the square I^2 for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in the class L\\log^+L\\log^+\\log^+L (in the case of summation over rectangles). It is also established that such localization breaks down on arbitrary sets that are not dense in I^2, in the classes \\Phi_\\Psi(L)(I^2) for the orthonormal system \\Psi=\\mathscr E and an arbitrary function such that \\Phi_{\\mathscr E}(u)=o(u\\log^+\\log^+u) as u\\to\\infty or for \\Phi_W(u)=u(\\log^+\\log^+u)^{1-\\varepsilon}, 0<\\varepsilon<1.

  3. The Research of Through-casing Resistivity Logging Logging Calibration System Leakage Current Measurement Method

    ZHANG Jiatian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the logging principle of through-casing resistivity logging technology, finds a phenomenon that the leakage current measurements are susceptible to sufferring interferences. The through-casing resistivity logging technology in Russia and that of Schlumberger are studied, and the system of through-casing resistivity logging is established to improve the accuracy of calibrating, testing and measuring of the instrument. In this paper, distribution parameters of the form is replaced by the lumped parameter, and precision resistor array simulation in formation leakage current and scale pool simulation in different resistivity of formation are conducted, which make the dynamic range of the simulation in formation resistivity of the medium increase to 1- 300 Ω·m and meet the requirement of through-casing resistivity logging technology measurement range, 1 Ω·m ~ 100 Ω·m. Since the measuring signals of calibration acquisition and processing systems are extremely weak and calculation signals need to tell the nV (nanovolts level, the high accurate data acquisition system of 24 digits is applied.

  4. CNPC Sees Rapid Growth in Overseas Oil Logging Service Business

    2004-01-01

    @@ CNPC Logging Technology Service Co Ltd has made breakthrough in market development in the first two months of this year by signing the logging technological service contract with Repsol in Libya, creating a good start for 2004.

  5. Frequency Domain Filtering Correction of Log Data from a Corkscrew Borehole%螺纹井眼测井曲线频域滤波校正

    赵永刚; 冉利民; 吴非

    2012-01-01

    In the process of oil exploration and development, some boreholes show a corkscrew shape due to the influence of drilling technology. The corkscrew borehole will affect the well logs and the log data will display fluctuations, which causes trouble to the calculation of reservoir parameters and log interpretation. Analyzed is the influence of corkscrew borehole on different logging curves, such as compensated density log and neutron log, electrical log, acoustic log, dual-induction log and array induction log, etc. Based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectrum analysis on the well logs, we use a corresponding low-pass filter for process the log data filtering processing. After frequency domain filtering correction, the influence of corkscrew borehole on the logging curves has been remarkably weakened, and the log curves have been optimized. Practical application in well ZJ28 of Zhenjing oilfield shows that this correction method is effective, the influence of corkscrew borehole on the log curves have been eliminated, and the processed log curves can correctly reflect formation physical properties.%油田勘探开发中由于钻井工艺的影响,会出现螺纹状井眼现象,导致测井曲线出现起伏,给储层参数计算及测井解释带来严重影响.分析了螺纹井眼对补偿密度和中子、电法、声波、双感应、阵列感应等测井曲线的影响.根据快速傅里叶变换进行了测井曲线的频谱分析,设计相应的低通滤波器对测井曲线进行滤波处理,使测井曲线上螺纹井眼的影响明显减弱,测井资料得到优化.应用该方法对镇泾油田ZJ××井实际测井资料进行处理,处理结果验证了校正方法的有效性,经过校正的曲线消除了螺纹井眼对测井曲线的影响,能反映地层的真实物理性质.

  6. Ecosystem carbon dynamics in logged forest of Malaysian Borneo

    Saner, P G

    2009-01-01

    The tropical rainforest of Borneo is heavily disturbed by logging, to date less than half of the original forest cover remains. To counteract such development logged forest is rehabilitated to regenerate its natural protective function. In this thesis we consider the carbon budget of logged forest and the ecology of the trees that are planted for rehabilitation. We show that the logged forest under study differs from unlogged forest due to the lack of the dominant trees and hence the organic ...

  7. On conditional independence and log-convexity

    Matúš, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1137-1147. ISSN 0246-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence * Markov properties * factorizable distributions * graphical Markov models * log-convexity * Gibbs-Markov equivalence * Markov fields * Gaussian distributions * positive definite matrices * covariance selection model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/matus-0386229.pdf

  8. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating...

  9. Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials

    Ming-Hui Lu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surface evanescent waves have also been recognized to play key roles to reach acoustic subwavelength imaging and enhanced transmission.

  10. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  11. SNG-logs and core measurements in boreholes at Skagen

    Spectral Natural Gamma logs (SNG-logs) have been used in boreholes at Skagen (Jutland, Denmark) in order to elucidate some geologic reasons for the town Skagen sinking into the ground. Results of measurements - the SNG-logs and core measurements - are reported and discussed in the present report. (EG)

  12. Radiation incidents in oil well logging industry: an analysis

    Well logging sources are being used for exploratory down hole evaluation technique to find out detailed structural mapping of geological formation in oil, gas and coal industry. Around 443 sources are used for oil well logging in India. Radiation incidents occurred so far in the oil well logging industry are described in this paper. (author)

  13. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic...... properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of application that an acoustic simulation programme can have during an architectural...... the first phases in the architectural process and set out a reverse strategy for simulation programmes to do so - from developing acoustics from given spaces to developing spaces from given acoustics...

  14. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am241Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  15. Public PCs: Log Out or Lose Out

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you regularly use one of the public Windows or Linux terminals in the CERN library or in front of the Users' Office? Or do you often give presentations or run meetings, workshops or conferences? Did you recently attend a training session in the CERN Training Centre? If you answered at least once with “yes”, we have a plea for you: LOG OUT when done in order to protect your data!   You might recall that CERN considers that “Your Privacy is Paramount”. But this does not come for free. In the few past months, we have received several reports from vigilant people who have spotted open user sessions on public PCs at CERN. Those users simply forgot to log out once their work, training or meeting was over. Their session continued without them being present. Worse, with CERN using a central Single Sign-On (SSO) portal, their login credentials would allow a malicious person at CERN to use those credentials to access that user’s mailbox, DFS ...

  16. Logging Data High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy

    Li Hongqi; Xie Yinfu; Sun Zhongchun; Luo Xingping

    2006-01-01

    The recognition and contrast of bed sets in parasequence is difficult in terrestrial basin high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. This study puts forward new methods for the boundary identification and contrast of bed sets on the basis of manifold logging data. The formation of calcareous interbeds, shale resistivity differences and the relation of reservoir resistivity to altitude are considered on the basis of log curve morphological characteristics, core observation, cast thin section, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the thickness of calcareous interbeds is between 0.5 m and 2 m, increasing on weathering crusts and faults. Calcareous interbeds occur at the bottom of Reservoir resistivity increases with altitude. Calcareous interbeds may be a symbol of recognition for the boundary of bed sets and isochronous contrast bed sets, and shale resistivity differences may confirm the stack relation and connectivity of bed sets. Based on this, a high-rcsolution chronostratigraphic framework of Xi-1 segment in Shinan area, Junggar basin is presented, and the connectivity of bed sets and oil-water contact is confirmed. In this chronostratigraphic framework, the growth order, stack mode and space shape of bed sets are qualitatively and quantitatively described.

  17. Wavefront Modulation and Subwavelength Diffractive Acoustics with an Acoustic Metasurface

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality as their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a desig...

  18. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  19. Min-cuts and Shortest Cycles in Planar Graphs in O(n log log n) Time

    \\L\\kacki, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    We present a deterministic O(n log log n) time algorithm for finding shortest cycles and minimum cuts in planar graphs. The algorithm improves the previously known fastest algorithm by Italiano et al. in STOC'11 by a factor of log n. This speedup is obtained through the use of dense distance graphs combined with a divide-and-conquer approach.

  20. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  1. Seamount acoustic scattering

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  2. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  3. Practical acoustic emission testing

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  4. Use of pulsed neutron logging to evaluate perforation washing

    This invention relates to the use of pulsed neutron logging techniques before and after perforation washing operations are performed to evaluate the degree of success of the perforation washing operations. Well logging operations of a type designed to respond to the difference between a formation immediately behind the well sheath and voids in the formation are performed both before and after the perforation washing operation. differences between the two resulting logs are then indicative of voids created by perforation washing. In a preferred embodiment, pulsed neutron logging is used as the logging technique, while a weighted brine having a high absorption cross section to pulsed neutrons is used as the perforation washing fluid

  5. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  6. A New Wave of Acoustics.

    Beyer, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)

  7. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    Rasmussen, Knud

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  8. Strong acoustic wave action

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  9. Acoustic black holes

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  10. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This structural chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  11. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  12. Plutonium waste crib logging using the prompt fission neutron uranium logging system

    Sandia Laboratories' Uranium Logging Project has demonstrated their prompt fission neutron (PFN) logging system at the Hanford, WA, site for Rockwell-Hanford Operations (RHO). The dates of the demonstration were July 31 through August 2, 1979. The purpose was to show RHO the capabilities of the system for measuring plutonium concentration. An underground effluent disposal crib associated with their processing facilities was used as the test site. The performance criterion was to be able to detect a 10 nCi/g concentration of plutonium. Six test wells penetrating the crib were logged, as were three other wells. The PFN tool was able to maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio even under the most extreme conditions of high count rate and high background. The wells at the center of the crib indicated very high concentrations of plutonium, while those at the periphery indicated much less. Concentrations estimated to be lower than 10 nCi/g were detected. Comparisons with core data were not made. The technique used to obtain physical samples for analysis did not follow uranium-exploration coring practice so comparisons were not possible. The data interpretation model used was originally developed for uranium and was modified to calculate plutonium concentration. Results indicated that the operation of a PFN logging system by RHO personnel would provide a suitable technique for monitoring transuranic waste storage sites

  13. Automated lithology prediction from PGNAA and other geophysical logs

    Different methods of lithology predictions from geophysical data have been developed in the last 15 years. The geophysical logs used for predicting lithology are the conventional logs: sonic, neutron-neutron, γ (total natural-γ) and density (backscattered γ-γ). The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is another established geophysical logging technique for in situ element analysis of rocks in boreholes. The work described in this paper was carried out to investigate the application of PGNAA to the lithology interpretation. The data interpretation was conducted using the automatic interpretation program LogTrans based on statistical analysis. Limited test suggests that PGNAA logging data can be used to predict the lithology. A success rate of 73% for lithology prediction was achieved from PGNAA logging data only. It can also be used in conjunction with the conventional geophysical logs to enhance the lithology prediction

  14. Automated lithology prediction from PGNAA and other geophysical logs.

    Borsaru, M; Zhou, B; Aizawa, T; Karashima, H; Hashimoto, T

    2006-02-01

    Different methods of lithology predictions from geophysical data have been developed in the last 15 years. The geophysical logs used for predicting lithology are the conventional logs: sonic, neutron-neutron, gamma (total natural-gamma) and density (backscattered gamma-gamma). The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is another established geophysical logging technique for in situ element analysis of rocks in boreholes. The work described in this paper was carried out to investigate the application of PGNAA to the lithology interpretation. The data interpretation was conducted using the automatic interpretation program LogTrans based on statistical analysis. Limited test suggests that PGNAA logging data can be used to predict the lithology. A success rate of 73% for lithology prediction was achieved from PGNAA logging data only. It can also be used in conjunction with the conventional geophysical logs to enhance the lithology prediction. PMID:16140021

  15. Automated lithology prediction from PGNAA and other geophysical logs

    Borsaru, M. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld 4069 (Australia)]. E-mail: mihai.borsaru@csiro.au; Zhou, B. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld 4069 (Australia); Aizawa, T. [Suncoh Consultants Co., Ltd, 1-8-9, Kameido, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 136-8522 (Japan); Karashima, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center, 9F Meiji Seimei Mita Building, 3-14-10 Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Suncoh Consultants Co., Ltd, 1-8-9, Kameido, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 136-8522 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    Different methods of lithology predictions from geophysical data have been developed in the last 15 years. The geophysical logs used for predicting lithology are the conventional logs: sonic, neutron-neutron, {gamma} (total natural-{gamma}) and density (backscattered {gamma}-{gamma}). The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is another established geophysical logging technique for in situ element analysis of rocks in boreholes. The work described in this paper was carried out to investigate the application of PGNAA to the lithology interpretation. The data interpretation was conducted using the automatic interpretation program LogTrans based on statistical analysis. Limited test suggests that PGNAA logging data can be used to predict the lithology. A success rate of 73% for lithology prediction was achieved from PGNAA logging data only. It can also be used in conjunction with the conventional geophysical logs to enhance the lithology prediction.

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of Web Log Files for Mining

    Vikas Verma

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web is a global village and rich source of information. Day by day number of web sites and its users are increasing rapidly. Information extracted from WWW may sometimes do not turn up to desired expec-tations of the user. A refined approach, referred as Web Mining, which is an area of Data Mining dealing with the extraction of interesting knowledge from the World Wide Web, can provide better result. While surfing the web sites, users interactions with web sites are recorded in web log file. These Web Logs are abundant source of information. Such logs when mined properly can provide useful information for decision making. Mining of these Web Logs is referred to as Web Log Mining. This paper analyses web log data of NASA of the month of August 1995 of 15.8MB and depicts certain behavioral aspects of users using web log mining.

  17. Use of acoustic monitoring system for debris flow discharge evaluation

    Galgaro, A. G.; Tecca, P. R.; Genevois, R.; Deganutti, A. M.

    2003-04-01

    In 1997 an automated system for monitoring of debris flows has been installed in the Acquabona channel Dolomites, Italy. Induction geophones, with a specific frequency of 10 Hz, measure the amplitude of vertical ground vibrations generated by the passage of a flowing mass along the channel. Continuous acoustic logs and ultrasonic hydrograph recorded at the lower-channel measurement station for the debris flow of August 17, 1998, show a striking correspondence. This correspondence, already observed in different flow sites, is represented by the best fit between flow depth and flow sensor amplitude. Average front velocity for surges, calculated from the signal peak time shift and the distance between the sensors along the flow path, range between 2.00 and 7.7 m/s. As the ultrasonic sensor provides a way to measure the variation of the flow section area with the flow depth, the debris flow peak discharge may be estimated; obtained values of debris flow peak discharge range from 4 and 30 m3/s. Volumes were calculated by integrating instantaneous discharges through the hydrograph and by integrating the geophone log (acoustic flux). Volumes of 13700 m3 and 15500 m3 have been respectively obtained. The slight difference between the two values may result from the fact that acoustic records: i) are sensitive to the high frequencies, typical of the debris flow tails; ii) sum up the contributions sent by the whole flowing mass, while the ecometer detect the flow depth at every time at only one section. As a consequence the rising of the whole geophone log gives a higher value at the integration result. This only acoustic system can give a reasonably proxy for discharge and total volumes involved, which are among the most important parameters for debris flow hazard assessment and planning countermeasures. This methodology can be used in other debris flow sites if they are calibrated by the acoustic characterization of debris, obtained by both seismic surveys and SPT tests, and

  18. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-11-25

    Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.

  19. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens

    Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution

  20. Gain stabilization for radioactivity well logging apparatus

    Gain stabilization is provided for well logging apparatus of the type having a scintillation crystal optically coupled to a photomultiplier in a sonde to detect radiation in the borehole and formation elements in response to neutron bombardment. The gain stabilization apparatus includes a light emitting diode driven by a pulser to furnish regular scintillations to the photomultiplier, resulting in a stabilization pulse which is furnished to a spectrum stabilizer at the surface. The light emitting diode is provided with means for mounting the LED between the scintillation crystal and the photomultiplier, and for providing optical coupling such that the scintillations from the LED are sensed by and pass through the same system as the operative scintillations from the detector crystal. The mounting means may be provided with a groove for locating temperature-compensating elements. (author)

  1. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) pressure test

    Thirud, Aase P.

    2003-07-01

    Statoil and Halliburton have completed a successful test of a new ground-breaking formation evaluation technology on the Norwegian shelf. An LWD formation tester, the GeoTapTM sensor, was used to quantify formation pressure during drilling operations. The inaugural job was completed by Halliburton's Sperry-Sun product service line onboard the Bideford Dolphin at the Borg Field while drilling a horizontal production well in the Vigdis Extension development. The GeoTap tool, part of Sperry-Sun's StellarTM MWD/LWT suite, was run in combination with a complete logging-while-drilling sensor package and the Geo-Pilot rotary steerable drilling system. Repeat formation pressures were taken and successfully transmitted to surface. This is the first time this type of technology has been successfully applied on the Norwegian shelf.

  2. Relationship of pore and permeability models between NMR log and conventional log in tight sandstone gas reservoir

    For establishing a good log petrophysical model and evaluating productivity of tight sandstone gas reservoir in Tabamiao area of Ordos basin accurately, NMR porosity data of Section 3 of the wells were compared with the core porosity values for 14 cores. A linear relationship was observed. A comparison between the NMR permeability and core permeability gave similar result. This indicates a linear relationship between the porosity and permeability from NMR log and conventional log. Using the NMR porosity and permeability and conventional log data, accurate conventional log porosity model and permeability model were established. As NMR log avoids the non-parallelism of depths with conventional log and the pore-permeability model established by incontinuous core data causes no error, the new models are more appropriate for the porosity and permeability estimation of the gas formation. (authors)

  3. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  4. COMBUSTION ACOUSTICS DIAGNOSTICS

    This is an Exploratory Research Project that was awarded by APPCD for research on developing an acoustic flame condition monitor. It will involve a bench scale experiment of 4-6 weeks duration to record adjacent audible energy of a Bunsen burner. The experiment will require a d...

  5. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  6. Mapping permeable fractures at depth in crystalline metamorphic shield rocks using borehole seismic, logging, and imaging

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of major fluid pathways in subsurface exploration can be identified by understanding the effects of fractures, cracks, and microcracks in the subsurface. Part of a feasibility study of geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of the investigation of subsurface fluid pathways in the Precambrian basement rocks. One of the selected sites for this study is in the Fort McMurray area, where the deepest well drilled in the oilsands region in Northeastern Alberta is located. This deep borehole has a depth of 2.3 km which offers substantial depth coverage to study the metamorphic rocks in the Precambrian crystalline basement of this study area. Seismic reflection profiles adjacent to the borehole reveal NW-SE dipping reflectors within the metamorphic shield rocks some of which appear to intersect the wellbore. An extensive logging and borehole seismic program was carried out in the borehole in July, 2011. Gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, acoustic televiewer, electrical resistivity, and full-waveform sonic logs were acquired to study the finer scale structure of the rock formations, with vertical resolutions in the range of 0.05 cm to 80 cm. These logs supplement earlier electrical microscanner images obtained by the well operator when it was drilled. In addition, we are also interested in identifying other geological features such as zones of fractures that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The interpretation of the borehole logs reveals a highly conductive 13 m thick zone at 1409 m depth that may indicate communication of natural brines in fractures with the wellbore fluid. The photoelectric factor and magnetic susceptibility also appear anomalous in this zone. Formation MicroImager (FMI) log was used to verify the presence of fractures in the borehole in this conductive zone. This fracture zone may coincide with the dipping seismic reflectors in the

  7. Intelligent approaches for the synthesis of petrophysical logs

    Rezaee, M. Reza; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Alizadeh, Pooya Mohammad

    2008-03-01

    Log data are of prime importance in acquiring petrophysical data from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Reliable log analysis in a hydrocarbon reservoir requires a complete set of logs. For many reasons, such as incomplete logging in old wells, destruction of logs due to inappropriate data storage and measurement errors due to problems with logging apparatus or hole conditions, log suites are either incomplete or unreliable. In this study, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were used as intelligent tools to synthesize petrophysical logs including neutron, density, sonic and deep resistivity. The petrophysical data from two wells were used for constructing intelligent models in the Fahlian limestone reservoir, Southern Iran. A third well from the field was used to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results showed that fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were successful in synthesizing wireline logs. The combination of the results obtained from fuzzy logic and neural networks in a simple averaging committee machine (CM) showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimations. This committee machine performed better than fuzzy logic or the neural network model in the problem of estimating petrophysical properties from well logs.

  8. Intelligent approaches for the synthesis of petrophysical logs

    Log data are of prime importance in acquiring petrophysical data from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Reliable log analysis in a hydrocarbon reservoir requires a complete set of logs. For many reasons, such as incomplete logging in old wells, destruction of logs due to inappropriate data storage and measurement errors due to problems with logging apparatus or hole conditions, log suites are either incomplete or unreliable. In this study, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were used as intelligent tools to synthesize petrophysical logs including neutron, density, sonic and deep resistivity. The petrophysical data from two wells were used for constructing intelligent models in the Fahlian limestone reservoir, Southern Iran. A third well from the field was used to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results showed that fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were successful in synthesizing wireline logs. The combination of the results obtained from fuzzy logic and neural networks in a simple averaging committee machine (CM) showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimations. This committee machine performed better than fuzzy logic or the neural network model in the problem of estimating petrophysical properties from well logs

  9. Fractured-aquifer hydrogeology from geophysical logs: Brunswick group and Lockatong Formation, Pennsylvania

    Morin, R.H.; Senior, L.A.; Decker, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Brunswick Group and the underlying Lockatong Formation are composed of lithified Mesozoic sediments that constitute part of the Newark Basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. These fractured rocks form an important regional aquifer that consists of gradational sequences of shale, siltstone, and sandstone, with fluid transport occurring primarily in fractures. An extensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained in seven wells located at the borough of Lansdale, Pennsylvania, in order to better characterize the areal hydrogeologic system and provide guidelines for the refinement of numerical ground water models. Six of the seven wells are approximately 120 m deep and the seventh extends to a depth of 335 m. Temperature, fluid conductivity, and flowmeter logs are used to locate zones of fluid exchange and to quantify transmissivities. Electrical resistivity and natural gamma logs together yield detailed stratigraphic information, and digital acoustic televiewer data provide magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall from which almost 900 fractures are identified. Analyses of the geophysical data indicate that the aquifer penetrated by the deep well can be separated into two distinct structural domains, which may, in turn, reflect different mechanical responses to basin extension by different sedimentary units: 1. In the shallow zone (above 125 m), the dominant fracture population consists of gently dipping bedding plane partings that strike N46??E and dip to the northwest at about 11 degrees. Fluid flow is concentrated in the upper 80 m along these subhorizontal fractures, with transmissivities rapidly diminishing in magnitude with depth. 2. The zone below 125 m marks the appearance of numerous high-angle fractures that are orthogonal to the bedding planes, striking parallel but dipping steeply southeast at 77 degrees. This secondary set of fractures is associated with a fairly thick (approximately 60 m) high-resistivity, low-transmissivity sandstone unit that

  10. Fractured-aquifer hydrogeology from geophysical logs; the passaic formation, New Jersey

    Morin, R.H.; Carleton, G.B.; Poirier, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Passaic Formation consists of gradational sequences of mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone, and is a principal aquifer in central New Jersey. Ground-water flow is primarily controlled by fractures interspersed throughout these sedimentary rocks and characterizing these fractures in terms of type, orientation, spatial distribution, frequency, and transmissivity is fundamental towards understanding local fluid-transport processes. To obtain this information, a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs was collected in 10 wells roughly 46 m in depth and located within a .05 km2 area in Hopewell Township, New Jersey. A seemingly complex, heterogeneous network of fractures identified with an acoustic televiewer was statistically reduced to two principal subsets corresponding to two distinct fracture types: (1) bedding-plane partings and (2) high-angle fractures. Bedding-plane partings are the most numerous and have an average strike of N84??W and dip of 20??N. The high-angle fractures are oriented subparallel to these features, with an average strike of N79??E and dip of 71??S, making the two fracture types roughly orthogonal. Their intersections form linear features that also retain this approximately east-west strike. Inspection of fluid temperature and conductance logs in conjunction with flowmeter measurements obtained during pumping allows the transmissive fractures to be distinguished from the general fracture population. These results show that, within the resolution capabilities of the logging tools, approximately 51 (or 18 percent) of the 280 total fractures are water producing. The bedding-plane partings exhibit transmissivities that average roughly 5 m2/day and that generally diminish in magnitude and frequency with depth. The high-angle fractures have average transmissivities that are about half those of the bedding-plane partings and show no apparent dependence upon depth. The geophysical logging results allow us to infer a distinct hydrogeologic structure

  11. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik) (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch)

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL) with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik) system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL...

  12. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal Borehole Televiewer

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  13. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal borehole televiewer

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  14. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL monocable winch system could be applied practically and reduce impact on residual stand and soil damage. Using this technology has many advantages, among others: cost efficiency, locally made, environmental friendly, and high local community participation. Application of  the monocable winch  system in reduced impact logging is an effort to reduce economical and environment  damages when compared to conventional system of ground based skidding with bulldozer system. The aim of this research is to verify the efficiency (operational cost, effectiveness (productivity and  time consumption of monocable winch system. The results  indicate that the implementation monocable winch system, has reduced the soil damage as much as 8% ha-1.  The skidding cost  with monocable system is Rp95.000 m-3. This figure is significantly cheaper if compare with ground base skidding with bulldozer system in which the skidding cost around Rp165.000 m-3.Keywords: mononocable winch, productivity,  skidding cost, reduced impact logging, local community

  15. Use of borehole-geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize crystalline rock for nuclear-waste storage, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Manitoba, and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory, Ontario, Canada

    A number of borehole methods were used in the investigation of crystalline rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory in Canada. The selection of a crystalline-rock mass for the storage of nuclear waste likely will require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock mass. Although coring of at least one hole in each new area is essential, methods for making in-situ geophysical and hydrologic measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. Borehole-geophysical logging techniques permit the lateral extrapolation of data from a core hole. Log response is related to rock type, alteration, and the location and character of fractures. The geophysical logs that particularly are useful for these purposes are the acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform, neutron and gamma, resistivity, temperature, and caliper. The acoustic-televiewer log of the borehole wall can provide high resolution data on the orientation and apparent width of fractures. In situ hydraulic tests of single fractures or fracture zones isolated by packers provide quantitative information on permeability, extent, and interconnection. The computer analysis of digitized acoustic waveforms has identified a part of the waveform that has amplitude variations related to permeabilities measured in the boreholes by packer tests. 38 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs

  16. An improved process event log artificial negative event generator.

    vanden Broucke, Seppe; De Weerdt, Jochen; Vanthienen, Jan; Baesens, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Process mining is the research area that is concerned with knowledge discovery from event logs and is often situated at the intersection of the fields of data mining and business process management. Although the term entails a collection of a-posteriori analysis methods for extracting knowledge from event logs, most of the attention in the process mining literature has been given to process discovery techniques, focusing specifically on the extraction of control-flow models from event logs. P...

  17. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  18. Prospects of Research on Cable Logging in Forest Engineering Community

    Cavalli, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of researches on cable logging carried out in the past 12 years (2000–2011) as found in the scientific literature at international level is proposed in order to evaluate which have been the main topics of interest of the researchers and to evaluate the evolution of the research in the field of cable logging in the next future. International scientific literature on cable logging was extracted from the main databases, scientific journals and conference proceedings on forest enginee...

  19. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-01-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  20. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  1. Acoustic nonlinearity of ultrasonic wave by crack face contacting effect

    Nonlinear acoustic effect accompanied by the propagation of ultrasonic wave has been discussed from log time before and the effort to evaluate material degradation or degree of damage by measuring this effect has been tried in recent. The mechanism for the generation of nonlinear acoustic effect was proposed by several researchers and these previous studies have identified two primary sources of the nonlinearity. One source is the anharmonicity of lattice itself. The other source is associated with the contribution of dislocation displacement. In this paper, an another new source of nonlinearity generated due to the partial contact of crack face when the ultrasonic wave passes through tiny crack is considered. At first, the mechanism of the generation of acoustic nonlinearity at the crack face by half wave model was explained and the relationship between the separation distance of crack faces and. the magnitude of nonlinearity was investigated quantitatively by fourier transform of the half wave and computer simulation. In next, the existence of the proposed new source of nonlinearity at crack face was shown experimentally in the actual case, SAM signal obtained for the Newton ring. From the result, we confirmed that the crack face contacting effect should be considered as a additive source of acoustic nonlinearity when we apply the ultrasonic nonlinearity analysis to the evaluation of material degradation.

  2. Geologic implications of large-scale trends in well-log response, northern Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Well-log response in lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks in the northern Green River basin, Wyoming, is examined. Digitally recorded well-log data for selected wells located throughout the basin were processed by computer and displayed as highly compressed depth-scale plots for examining large-scale geologic trends. Stratigraphic units, formed under similar depositional conditions, are distinguishable by differing patterns on these plots. In particular, a strong lithologic contrast between Tertiary and underlying Upper Cretaceous non-marine clastic rocks is revealed and correlated through the study area. Laboratory analysis combined with gamma-ray spectrometry log data show that potassium feldspars in the arkosic Tertiary sandstones cause the contrast. The nature and extent of overpressuring has been examined. Data shift on shale conductivity and shale acoustic transit-time plots, previously ascribed to changes in pore pressure, correspond to stratigraphic changes and not necessarily with changes in pore pressure as indicated by drilling-mud weights. Gulf Coast well-log techniques for detecting overpressuring are unreliable and ineffectual in this basin, which has experienced significantly different geologic depositional and tectonic conditions

  3. APPLICATIONS OF BOREHOLE-ACOUSTIC METHODS IN ROCK MECHANICS.

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic-logging methods using a considerable range of wavelengths and frequencies have proven very useful in the in situ characterization of deeply buried crystalline rocks. Seismic velocities are useful in investigating the moduli of unfractured rock, and in producing a continuous record of rock quality for comparison with discontinuous intervals of core. The considerable range of frequencies makes the investigation of scale effects possible in both fractured and unfractured rock. Several specific methods for the characterization of in situ permeability have been developed and verified in the field.

  4. Backhoe loaders as base machines in logging operations.

    Johansson, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    Time studies and an ergonomic assessment were carried out in logging operations for three logging machines based on backhoe loader chassis. The time studies were completed with a follow-up study of one backhoe loader-based single-grip harvester. The studies indicated a productivity at the same level as that of specialized Nordic logging machines. Ergonomics also proved to be good. Mean ground pressure exerted by the backhoe loader-based logging machines was a little higher than for some of th...

  5. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  6. Allied health applications of a computerized clinical log database system.

    Boyce, K E; Winn, J S; Anderson, S L; Bryant, B G

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary research in the development and use of computerized clinical log records began in 1987 in an allied health college at a midwestern academic health center. This article reviews development and implementation of a computerized system for managing clinical log records to improve and enhance allied health educational programs in the radiation sciences. These clinical log databases are used for quantitative and qualitative analyses of student participation in clinical procedures, and educational planning for each student. Collecting and recording data from clinical log records serves as a valuable instructional tool for students, with both clinical and didactic applications. PMID:10389054

  7. Using a Log Analyser to Assist Research into Haptic Technology

    Jónsson, Fannar Freyr; Hvannberg, Ebba Þóra

    Usability evaluations collect subjective and objective measures. Examples of the latter are time to complete a task. The paper describes use cases of a log analyser for haptic feedback. The log analyser reads a log file and extracts information such as time of each practice and assessment session, analyses whether the user goes off curve and measures the force applied. A study case using the analyser is performed using a PHANToM haptic learning environment application that is used to teach young visually impaired students the subject of polynomials. The paper answers six questions to illustrate further use cases of the log analyser.

  8. Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining

    Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

    2012-11-01

    Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

  9. Mining Interesting Knowledge from Web-Log

    ZHOU Hong-fang; FENG Bo-qin; HEI Xin-hong; LU Lin-tao

    2004-01-01

    Web-log contains a lot of information related with user activities on the Internet.How to mine user browsing interest patterns effectively is an important and challengeable research topic.On the analysis of the present algorithm's advantages and disadvantages, we propose a new concept: support-interest.Its key insight is that visitor will backtrack if they do not find the information where they expect.And the point from where they backtrack is the expected location for the page.We present User Access Matrix and the corresponding algorithm for discovering such expected locations that can handle page caching by the browser.Since the URL-URL matrix is a sparse matrix which can be represented by List of 3-tuples, we can mine user preferred sub-paths from the computation of this matrix.Accordingly, all the sub-paths are merged, and user preferred paths are formed.Experiments showed that it was accurate and scalable.It's suitable for website based application, such as to optimize website's topological structure or to design personalized services.

  10. Natural gamma radiation borehole logging system

    A borehole logging system employs a gamma-ray detector for measuring the natural gamma radiation of the earth formations surrounding a borehole. Three energy band selectors, each employing a discriminator and count rate meter, separate the output of the gamma-ray detector into potassium, uranium, and thorium energy band signals. A first operational amplifier determines the difference between the potassium energy band signal and those portions of the uranium and thorium energy band signals which represent the influence of uranium and thorium gamma radiation within the potassium energy band, this difference representing the correct potassium gamma radiation. A second operational amplifier determines the difference between the uranium energy band signal and that portion of the thorium energy band signal which represents the influence of the thorium gamma radiation within the uranium energy band, this difference representing the correct uranium gamma radiation. A third operational amplifier determines the difference between the thorium energy band signal and that portion of the uranium energy band signal which represents the influence of the uranium gamma radiation within the thorium energy band, this difference representing the correct thorium gamma radiation

  11. The influence of clay minerals on acoustic properties of sandstones

    Hansen, Olav

    1997-12-31

    This thesis aims to provide better understanding of the relationship between the acoustic properties and the petrophysical/mineralogical properties in sand-prone rock. It emphasizes the influence of clay minerals. The author develops a method to deposit clay minerals/mineral aggregates in pore space of a rigid rock framework. Kaolinite aggregates were flushed into porous permeable Bentheimer sandstone to evaluate the effect of pore filling minerals on porosity, permeability and acoustic properties. The compressional velocity was hardly affected by the clay content and it was found that the effect of minor quantities of pore filling minerals may be acoustically modelled as an ideal suspension, where the pore fluid bulk modulus is modified by the bulk modulus of the clay minerals. The influence of clays on acoustic velocities in petroleum reservoir rocks was investigated through ultrasonic measurements of compressional- and shear-waves on core material from reservoir and non-reservoir units on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The measured velocities decrease as the porosity increases, but are not strongly dependent on the clay content. The measured velocities are less dependent on the petrophysical and lithological properties than indicated by previous authors and published mathematical models, and stiffness reduction factors are introduced in two of the models to better match the data. Velocities are estimated along the wellbores based on non-sonic well logs and reflect well the actual sonic log well measurements. In some wells the compressional velocity cannot be modelled correctly by the models suggested. Very high compressional wave anisotropy was measured in the dry samples at atmospheric conditions. As the samples were saturated, the anisotropy was reduced to a maximum of about 30% and decreases further upon pressurization. Reservoir rocks retrieved from 2500 m are more stress dependent than those retrieved from less than 200 m depth. 168 refs., 117 figs., 24

  12. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  13. Acoustics Discipline Overview

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Annual Review, a summary of the progress made in 2007 in acoustics research under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes highlights from in-house and external activities including partnerships and NRA-funded research with industry and academia. Brief progress reports from all acoustics Phase 1 NRAs are also included as are outlines of the planned activities for 2008 and all Phase 2 NRAs. N+1 and N+2 technology paths outlined for Subsonic Fixed Wing noise targets. NRA Round 1 progressing with focus on prediction method advancement. NRA Round 2 initiating work focused on N+2 technology, prediction methods, and validation. Excellent partnerships in progress supporting N+1 technology targets and providing key data sets.

  14. Acoustic methodology review

    Schlegel, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    It is important for industry and NASA to assess the status of acoustic design technology for predicting and controlling helicopter external noise in order for a meaningful research program to be formulated which will address this problem. The prediction methodologies available to the designer and the acoustic engineer are three-fold. First is what has been described as a first principle analysis. This analysis approach attempts to remove any empiricism from the analysis process and deals with a theoretical mechanism approach to predicting the noise. The second approach attempts to combine first principle methodology (when available) with empirical data to formulate source predictors which can be combined to predict vehicle levels. The third is an empirical analysis, which attempts to generalize measured trends into a vehicle noise prediction method. This paper will briefly address each.

  15. Acoustic Tractor Beam

    Démoré, Christine E. M.; Dahl, Patrick M.; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P.; Spalding, Gabriel C.

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system.

  16. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms of...... descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  17. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Hora P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the acoustic emission (AE source modeling by means of FEM system COMSOL Multiphysics. The following types of sources are used: the spatially concentrated force and the double forces (dipole. The pulse excitation is studied in both cases. As a material is used steel. The computed displacements are compared with the exact analytical solution of point sources under consideration.

  18. The acoustics of snoring.

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of

  19. Scientific LogAnalyzer: a web-based tool for analyses of server log files in psychological research.

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Stieger, Stefan

    2004-05-01

    Scientific LogAnalyzer is a platform-independent interactive Web service for the analysis of log files. Scientific LogAnalyzer offers several features not available in other log file analysis tools--for example, organizational criteria and computational algorithms suited to aid behavioral and social scientists. Scientific LogAnalyzer is highly flexible on the input side (unlimited types of log file formats), while strictly keeping a scientific output format. Features include (1) free definition of log file format, (2) searching and marking dependent on any combination of strings (necessary for identifying conditions in experiment data), (3) computation of response times, (4) detection of multiple sessions, (5) speedy analysis of large log files, (6) output in HTML and/or tab-delimited form, suitable for import into statistics software, and (7) a module for analyzing and visualizing drop-out. Several methodological features specifically needed in the analysis of data collected in Internet-based experiments have been implemented in the Web-based tool and are described in this article. A regression analysis with data from 44 log file analyses shows that the size of the log file and the domain name lookup are the two main factors determining the duration of an analysis. It is less than a minute for a standard experimental study with a 2 x 2 design, a dozen Web pages, and 48 participants (ca. 800 lines, including data from drop-outs). The current version of Scientific LogAnalyzer is freely available for small log files. Its Web address is http://genpsylab-logcrunsh.unizh.ch/. PMID:15354696

  20. Particle Filter Based Fault-tolerant ROV Navigation using Hydro-acoustic Position and Doppler Velocity Measurements

    Zhao, Bo; Blanke, Mogens; Skjetne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fault tolerant navigation system for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The navigation system uses hydro-acoustic position reference (HPR) and Doppler velocity log (DVL) measurements to achieve an integrated navigation. The fault tolerant functionality is based on a modied p...

  1. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  2. Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  3. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  4. 多元Log-PH分布的CTE风险度量%Conditional Tail Expectations for Multivariate Log Phase Type Distributions

    戴泽兴; 王传玉; 方颢

    2014-01-01

    CTE风险度量是一种关于重尾分布考虑了分位点以上部分平均损失的重要的度量方法.从一元Log-PH分布和多元PH分布的CTE风险度量研究,推广到多元Log-PH分布的CTE风险度量.结合文献[7]给出的次序统计量方法,运用多元Log-PH分布的Markov链性质,求解出多元Log-PH分布的CTE风险度量表达式.

  5. Borehole logging at the COSC-1 drill hole: a new dataset of in-situ geophysical properties through the lower Seve Nappe Complex

    Berthet, Théo; Alm, Per-Gunnar; Wenning, Quinn; Almqvist, Bjarne; Kück, Jochem; Hedin, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) drilling project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program was designed to study mountain building processes in a deeply eroded Paleozoic orogen. The first half of this project, COSC-1, targeted the lower part of the high grade Seve Nappe Complex and its basal thrust zone near Åre in the Jämtland county, Sweden. From May to August 2014, the COSC drilling crew drilled to a depth of 2496 m from the surface with an almost fully recovered core sample. During this drilling period, four borehole-logging runs have been conducted by Lund University with a low impact on drilling schedule and two supplementary ones once the drilling was completed. Three-Arm Caliper, Electrical Logging, Sidewall Density, Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity, High Resolution Acoustic Televiewer and Full Waveform Sonic sondes have been used to investigate in-situ physical properties of the borehole. In addition, the ICDP operational support group has conducted two continuous borehole-logging runs from the surface to the bottom of the COSC-1 borehole in September and October. Due to technical problems, some of the planned logging have not been completed, however natural gamma, rock resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature and fluid conductivity have been measured all along the borehole. We used the continuous natural gamma log from the ICDP logging group as the depth reference to depth-match and stack the composite borehole logging done during the drilling. These borehole logging operations result in reliable continuous data of resistivity, density, velocity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature, fluid conductivity, pressure, diameter as well as an image (amplitude and travel time of reflected ultrasounds) of the borehole till its bottom. Only the density, velocity and image datasets stop at 1600 m depth due to instrumentation limits. Preliminary conclusions from

  6. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  7. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  8. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  9. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  10. Magneto-photo-acoustic imaging

    Qu, Min; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Truby, Ryan; Homan, Kimberly; Joshi, Pratixa; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Sokolov, Konstantin; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Magneto-photo-acoustic imaging, a technique based on the synergy of magneto-motive ultrasound, photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging, is introduced. Hybrid nanoconstructs, liposomes encapsulating gold nanorods and iron oxide nanoparticles, were used as a dual-contrast agent for magneto-photo-acoustic imaging. Tissue-mimicking phantom and macrophage cells embedded in ex vivo porcine tissue were used to demonstrate that magneto-photo-acoustic imaging is capable of visualizing the location of cel...

  11. Room acoustic auralization with Ambisonics

    Polack, Jean-Dominique; Leão Figueiredo, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    International audience During the year of 2009, the room acoustics group of the LAM (Équipe Lutheries, Acoustique, Musique de l’Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert - Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris) performed a series of acoustical measurements in music halls in Paris. The halls were chosen in regarding their importance to the historic, architectural or acoustic domains. The measured ensemble of fourteen rooms includes quite different architectural designs. The measurements were carri...

  12. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  13. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be part of the batch record. The persons performing and double-checking the cleaning and... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  14. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  15. Remote measuring equipment and process for logging data transmission

    This invention concerns logging processes and systems in general and remote measurement processes and systems for transmitting to the surface information coming from logging probes in particular. According to the process the bottom probe includes a memory unit with numerous places, each permitting storage and read-out

  16. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source. PMID:27447306

  17. On log del Pezzo surfaces in large characteristic

    Cascini, Paolo; Tanaka, Hiromu; Witaszek, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    We show that any Kawamata log terminal del Pezzo surface over an algebraically closed field of large characteristic is globally F-regular or it admits a log resolution which is liftable to characteristic zero. As a consequence, we prove the Kawamata-Viehweg vanishing theorem for klt del Pezzo surfaces of large characteristic.

  18. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  19. Truck acoustic data analyzer system

    Haynes, Howard D.; Akerman, Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2006-07-04

    A passive vehicle acoustic data analyzer system having at least one microphone disposed in the acoustic field of a moving vehicle and a computer in electronic communication the microphone(s). The computer detects and measures the frequency shift in the acoustic signature emitted by the vehicle as it approaches and passes the microphone(s). The acoustic signature of a truck driving by a microphone can provide enough information to estimate the truck speed in miles-per-hour (mph), engine speed in rotations-per-minute (RPM), turbocharger speed in RPM, and vehicle weight.

  20. A Logical Method for Policy Enforcement over Evolving Audit Logs

    Garg, Deepak; Datta, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    We present an iterative algorithm for enforcing policies represented in a first-order logic, which can, in particular, express all transmission-related clauses in the HIPAA Privacy Rule. The logic has three features that raise challenges for enforcement --- uninterpreted predicates (used to model subjective concepts in privacy policies), real-time temporal properties, and quantification over infinite domains (such as the set of messages containing personal information). The algorithm operates over audit logs that are inherently incomplete and evolve over time. In each iteration, the algorithm provably checks as much of the policy as possible over the current log and outputs a residual policy that can only be checked when the log is extended with additional information. We prove correctness and termination properties of the algorithm. While these results are developed in a general form, accounting for many different sources of incompleteness in audit logs, we also prove that for the special case of logs that m...

  1. A time-driven transmission method for well logging networks

    Wu Ruiqing; Chen Wei; Chen Tianqi; Li Qun

    2009-01-01

    Long delays and poor real-time transmission are disadvantageous to well logging networks consisting of multiple subnets. In this paper, we proposed a time-driven transmission method (TDTM) to improve the efficiency and precision of logging networks. Using TDTM, we obtained well logging curves by fusing the depth acquired on the surface, and the data acquired in downhole instruments based on the synchronization timestamp. For the TDTM, the precision of time synchronization and the data fusion algorithm were two main factors influencing system errors. A piecewise fractal interpolation was proposed to fast fuse data in each interval of the logging curves. Intervals with similar characteristics in curves were extracted based on the change in the histogram of the interval. The TDTM is evaluated with a sonic curve, as an example. Experimental results showed that the fused data had little error, and the TDTM was effective and suitable for the logging networks.

  2. Borehole fluid dynamic temperature logging to evaluate fracture hydraulic properties

    A borehole fluid dynamic temperature logging method was developed to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity of fractures intercepted by a borehole. This is different from conventional temperature logs that are measured in a non-flowing borehole, in that in our case the borehole is pumped at a constant flow rate. Thus we call it dynamic temperature logging method. The method involves the flushing of the wellbore with water of a known temperature (different from that of fracture fluids) and then pumping the well at a small flow rate Q. Under this constant flow rate, a sequence of temperature logs is measured at specified time intervals. Distinctive features in the logs develop as fluid from each fracture inflow point enters the borehole. This methodology is being developed to evaluate fracture flow properties at potential nuclear waste repositories

  3. Data Interpretation Technology for Continuous Measurement Production Profile Logging

    Junfeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Up till now, there is no production logging data interpretation module in CIFLog, which is the 3rd generation well-logging software platform in China. So the situation has a strong impact on its promotion and utilization. In this paper, firstly, the authors introduce the characteristics of the existing and mature logging interpretation software, and design the data interpretation module functions for continuous measurement production profile logging based on JAVA-NetBeans. Secondly, the calculation methods of apparent fluid velocity, holdup, superficial velocity and flow rate of each phase are presented. Thirdly, eight module functions including wellbore message, curve value, physical parameters, and parameter settings are described. Finally, the authors has analyzed three-phase flow production profile logging data of X well using this module, which includes seven parameters of continuous measurement, and provided the result chart and table. In a word, the practice has proved that the module application effect is good.

  4. Navjot's nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast Asia.

    Wilcove, David S; Giam, Xingli; Edwards, David P; Fisher, Brendan; Koh, Lian Pin

    2013-09-01

    In 2004, Navjot Sodhi and colleagues warned that logging and agricultural conversion of Southeast Asia's forests were leading to a biodiversity disaster. We evaluate this prediction against subsequent research and conclude that most of the fauna of the region can persist in logged forests. Conversely, conversion of primary or logged forests to plantation crops, such as oil palm, causes tremendous biodiversity loss. This loss is exacerbated by increased fire frequency. Therefore, we conclude that preventing agricultural conversion of logged forests is essential to conserving the biodiversity of this region. Our analysis also suggests that, because Southeast Asian forests are tightly tied to global commodity markets, conservation payments commensurate with combined returns from logging and subsequent agricultural production may be required to secure long-term forest protection. PMID:23764258

  5. Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility

    Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

    2011-01-01

    Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

  6. Cased-hole log analysis and reservoir performance monitoring

    Bateman, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses vital issues, such as the evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and their production. Topics include the cased-hole logging environment, reservoir fluid properties; flow regimes; temperature, noise, cement bond, and pulsed neutron logging; and casing inspection. Production logging charts and tables are included in the appendices. The work serves as a comprehensive reference for production engineers with upstream E&P companies, well logging service company employees, university students, and petroleum industry training professionals. This book also: ·       Provides methods of conveying production logging tools along horizontal well segments as well as measurements of formation electrical resistivity through casing ·       Covers new information on fluid flow characteristics in inclined pipe and provides new and improved nuclear tool measurements in cased wells ·       Includes updates on cased-hole wireline formation testing  

  7. Log-concavity property for some well-known distributions

    G. R. Mohtashami Borzadaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesting properties and propositions, in many branches of science such as economics have been obtained according to the property of cumulative distribution function of a random variable as a concave function. Caplin and Nalebuff (1988,1989, Bagnoli and Khanna (1989 and Bagnoli and Bergstrom (1989 , 1989, 2005 have discussed the log-concavity property of probability distributions and their applications, especially in economics. Log-concavity concerns twice differentiable real-valued function g whose domain is an interval on extended real line. g as a function is said to be log-concave on the interval (a,b if the function ln(g is a concave function on (a,b. Log-concavity of g on (a,b is equivalent to g'/g being monotone decreasing on (a,b or (ln(g" 6] have obtained log-concavity for distributions such as normal, logistic, extreme-value, exponential, Laplace, Weibull, power function, uniform, gamma, beta, Pareto, log-normal, Student's t, Cauchy and F distributions. We have discussed and introduced the continuous versions of the Pearson family, also found the log-concavity for this family in general cases, and then obtained the log-concavity property for each distribution that is a member of Pearson family. For the Burr family these cases have been calculated, even for each distribution that belongs to Burr family. Also, log-concavity results for distributions such as generalized gamma distributions, Feller-Pareto distributions, generalized Inverse Gaussian distributions and generalized Log-normal distributions have been obtained.

  8. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  9. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Lift-Off Acoustics

    Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janie D.

    2011-01-01

    The lift-off acoustic (LOA) environment is an important design factor for any launch vehicle. For the Ares I vehicle, the LOA environments were derived by scaling flight data from other launch vehicles. The Ares I LOA predicted environments are compared to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) preliminary results.

  10. Scaling of Teak (Tectona grandis Logs by the Xylometer Technique: Accuracy of Volume Equations and Influence of the Log Length

    Kouami Kokou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of ten methods of scaling (Smalian, Huber, Newton, Neloïd, paraboloid, cone, paracone, cylinder, truncated cone and truncated Neloïd was evaluated on logs of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 m cut to different heights of 27 teak trees. For this purpose, the volumes estimated by the ten formulas were compared with real volumes obtained by the technique of xylometer. The results obtained showed that the method of Huber was more efficient to calculate the volume of logs throughout the stem when the length was 0.5 m. For the other length logs, it was also the best formula when the logs came from the base of the stem. The formulas of Newton and Smalian gave in the center and top of the stem, in the case of 1 m and 2 m logs, relatively similar results and were better than other methods of scaling. As might be expected, the dendrometric method (cylinder, paraboloid, Neloïd, cone gave worse results regardless of the length of logs considered. With logs of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 m long, truncated forms of cone and Neloïd could also be used without significant errors in estimating the volume of teak logs. The model scaling obtained for the entire tree expresses the logarithm of the volume against the logarithm of the diameter and the logarithm of height.

  11. 78 FR 44957 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS Form...

    2013-07-25

    ... Final Rule; FR citation: 67 FR 76908 and the CDC Interim Final Rule 42 CFR Part 73 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Interim Final Rule; FR citation: 67 FR 76886, inter alia. Information... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS...

  12. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem

  13. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha−1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha−1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha−1) and carbon emissions (18–28 tC ha−1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and

  14. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  15. Taming Acoustic Cavitation

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Enriquez, Oscar R; Versluis, Michel; Prosperetti, Andrea; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show acoustic cavitation occurring from pits etched on a silicon surface. By immersing the surface in a liquid, gas pockets are entrapped in the pits which upon ultrasonic insonation, are observed to shed cavitation bubbles. Modulating the driving pressure it is possible to induce different behaviours based on the force balance that determines the interaction among bubbles and the silicon surface. This system can be used for several applications like sonochemical water treatment, cleaning of surfaces with deposited materials such as biofilms.

  16. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  17. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology – ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  18. Lecture Notes On Acoustics

    This book mentions string vibration and wave, one-dimension wave and wave equation, characteristic impedance, governing equation of string, and wave energy from string, wave equation of wave and basic physical quantity like one-dimension wave equation, sound unit, sound intensity and energy, sound movement in a surface of discontinuity with transmission loss of sound by partition, and Snell's law, radiation, scatter and diffraction and sound in closed space with Sabine's theory, sound characteristic of closed space and duct acoustics.

  19. Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs

    Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

    2009-05-26

    Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

  20. Numerical simulation of responses for cased-hole density logging

    Wu, Wensheng; Fu, Yaping; Niu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Stabilizing or stimulating oil production in old oil fields requires density logging in cased holes where open-hole logging data are either missing or of bad quality. However, measured values from cased-hole density logging are more severely influenced by factors such as fluid, casing, cement sheath and the outer diameter of the open-hole well compared with those from open-hole logging. To correctly apply the cased-hole formation density logging data, one must eliminate these influences on the measured values and study the characteristics of how the cased-hole density logging instrument responds to these factors. In this paper, a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique was used to calculate the responses of the far detector of a cased-hole density logging instrument to in-hole fluid, casing wall thickness, cement sheath density and the formation and thus to obtain influence rules and response coefficients. The obtained response of the detector is a function of in-hole liquid, casing wall thickness, the casing's outer diameter, cement sheath density, open-hole well diameter and formation density. The ratio of the counting rate of the detector in the calibration well to that in the measurement well was used to get a fairly simple detector response equation and the coefficients in the equation are easy to acquire. These provide a new way of calculating cased-hole density through forward modelling methods.

  1. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  2. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  3. Acoustic engineering and technology '90

    Acoustic monitoring, testing and diagnosis in machines, production processes and products enhance the uptimes and profitability of machinery and plants. 18 papers discuss the current state of the art of acoustic monitoring systems including integrated factory planning as well as industrial health, and noise protection. (DG)

  4. Acoustic Metamaterials and Phononic Crystals

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive book presents all aspects of acoustic metamaterials and phononic crystals. The emphasis is on acoustic wave propagation phenomena at interfaces such as refraction, especially unusual refractive properties and negative refraction. A thorough discussion of the mechanisms leading to such refractive phenomena includes local resonances in metamaterials and scattering in phononic crystals.

  5. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    Tarver, D. Kent

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  6. LogCauchy, log-sech and lognormal distributions of species abundances in forest communities

    Yin, Z.-Y.; Peng, S.-L.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.; Chen, Z.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Species-abundance (SA) pattern is one of the most fundamental aspects of biological community structure, providing important information regarding species richness, species-area relation and succession. To better describe the SA distribution (SAD) in a community, based on the widely used lognormal (LN) distribution model with exp(-x2) roll-off on Preston's octave scale, this study proposed two additional models, logCauchy (LC) and log-sech (LS), respectively with roll-offs of simple x-2 and e-x. The estimation of the theoretical total number of species in the whole community, S*, including very rare species not yet collected in sample, was derived from the left-truncation of each distribution. We fitted these three models by Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear regression and measured the model fit to the data using coefficient of determination of regression, parameters' t-test and distribution's Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. Examining the SA data from six forest communities (five in lower subtropics and one in tropics), we found that: (1) on a log scale, all three models that are bell-shaped and left-truncated statistically adequately fitted the observed SADs, and the LC and LS did better than the LN; (2) from each model and for each community the S* values estimated by the integral and summation methods were almost equal, allowing us to estimate S* using a simple integral formula and to estimate its asymptotic confidence internals by regression of a transformed model containing it; (3) following the order of LC, LS, and LN, the fitted distributions became lower in the peak, less concave in the side, and shorter in the tail, and overall the LC tended to overestimate, the LN tended to underestimate, while the LS was intermediate but slightly tended to underestimate, the observed SADs (particularly the number of common species in the right tail); (4) the six communities had some similar structural properties such as following similar distribution models, having a common

  7. MEMS Based Acoustic Array

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikaza (Inventor); Humphreys, William M. (Inventor); Arnold, David P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention described and shown in the specification aid drawings include a combination responsive to an acoustic wave that can be utilized as a dynamic pressure sensor. In one embodiment of the present invention, the combination has a substrate having a first surface and an opposite second surface, a microphone positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having an input and a first output and a second output, wherein the input receives a biased voltage, and the microphone generates an output signal responsive to the acoustic wave between the first output and the second output. The combination further has an amplifier positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having a first input and a second input and an output, wherein the first input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the first output of the microphone and the second input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the second output of the microphone for receiving the output sinual from the microphone. The amplifier is spaced from the microphone with a separation smaller than 0.5 mm.

  8. Acoustics and Hearing

    Damaske, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  9. Musical acoustics demonstrations

    Hoekje, P. L.

    2003-10-01

    The ASA Musical Acoustics Demonstrations website (trial version at http://www.bw.edu/~phoekje) includes sound files, video clips, program code listings, and other material for demonstrations related to musical acoustics. Many of the sound demonstrations may be experienced either as expositions, in which the phenomena are explained before they are presented, or as experiments, in which the explanation comes after listeners have had the opportunity to draw their own conclusions. Suggestions are provided for apparatus construction and classroom experiments, as well as for building simple musical instruments. Software is recommended if it is available free and compatible with multiple personal computer operating systems. For example, Audacity (http://audacity.sourceforce.net) is a sound file editor and analyzer that can be used to visually represent sounds and manipulate them. Source files are included for the synthesized sound examples, which were created in Csound (http://csounds.com), so that interested users may create their own variations. Source code is also included for visual demonstrations created in Visual Python and Python (http://www.python.org), an efficient, high level programming language. Suggestions, criticisms, and contributions are always welcome! [Work supported by ASA and Baldwin-Wallace College.

  10. Time-reversal acoustics

    Fink, Mathias [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle de la Ville de Paris, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR CNRS 7587, 10 Rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: mathias.fink@espci.fr

    2008-10-15

    Time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) refocus an incident acoustic field to the position of the original source regardless of the complexity of the propagation medium. TRM's have now been implemented in a variety of physical scenarios from MHz ultrasonics with order centimeter aperture size to hundreds/thousands of Hz in ocean acoustics with order hundred meter aperture size. Common to this broad range of scales is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations at all scales that the more complex the medium between the probe source and the TRM, the sharper the focus. The relation between the medium complexity and the size of the focal spot is studied in this paper. It is certainly the most exciting property of TRM compared to standard focusing devices. A TRM acts as an antenna that uses complex environments to appears wider than it is, resulting for a broadband pulse in a refocusing quality that does not depend of the TRM aperture. In this paper, we investigate the time-reversal approach in various media of increasing complexity and we discuss the link existing between time-reversal approach and local helioseismology where Green's functions can be extracted from diffusive noise.

  11. Log files as a tool for improving Internet dictionaries

    Henning, Bergenholtz.; Johnsen, Mia

    2005-01-01

    lexicographers to monitor user behaviour in a different and much more precise way. Analyses of log files reveal exactly which lemmas and which types of information have been requested, and, perhaps more significantly, which lemmas and which types of information have been requested but were not found...... in the dictionary. Furthermore, log files allow lexicographers to see the types of information which have not, or not yet, been searched for. All in all, log files may thus be used as a tool for improving internet dictionaries - and perhaps also printed dictionaries - quite considerably....

  12. Efficient Web Log Mining using Doubly Linked Tree

    Jain, Ratnesh Kumar; Kasana, Dr. R. S.; Jain, Dr. Suresh

    2009-01-01

    World Wide Web is a huge data repository and is growing with the explosive rate of about 1 million pages a day. As the information available on World Wide Web is growing the usage of the web sites is also growing. Web log records each access of the web page and number of entries in the web logs is increasing rapidly. These web logs, when mined properly can provide useful information for decision-making. The designer of the web site, analyst and management executives are interested in extracti...

  13. O Dispositivo e os Fluxos Logísticos

    Roldão José

    2005-01-01

    O objectivo deste trabalho é, no quadro de um novo Dispositivo territorial, contribuir para o desenho dos fluxos logísticos e para a revisão das Bases Gerais do Sistema Logístico do Exército. Voltado para a componente territorial, este trabalho avalia o impacto que as alterações na arquitectura do novo dispositivo terão no desenho dos fluxos materiais e informacionais, procurando estudar toda a cadeia de abastecimentos e implementar melhorias no sistema de apoio logístico. ...

  14. Nuclear cross section library for oil well logging analysis

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) Project of the EU Community's 5th Programme a special purpose multigroup cross section library to be used in the deterministic (as well as Monte Carlo) oil well logging particle transport calculations was prepared. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at the detector positions of the logging tool, and their use for the interpretation of the neutron logging measurements was studied. Preparation and testing of this library is described. (author)

  15. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  16. Workflow logs analysis system for enterprise performance measurement

    2005-01-01

    Workflow logs that record the execution of business processes offer very valuable data resource for real-time enterprise performance measurement. In this paper, a novel scheme that uses the technology of data warehouse and OLAP to explore workflow logs and create complex analysis reports for enterprise performance measurement is proposed. Three key points of this scheme are studied: 1) the measure set; 2) the open and flexible architecture for workflow logs analysis system; 3) the data models in WFMS and data warehouse. A case study that shows the validity of the scheme is also provided.

  17. Mining access logs with predictive analytics to improve student performance

    Corrigan, Owen,; Glynn, Mark; Smeaton, Alan F.; Smyth, Sinead

    2015-01-01

    Access log files are an important part of the development of computing, developed to keep a record of what has been happening in a system so that it can be subsequently searched as part of debugging or error-fixing. That’s how access logs started, mostly used as some form of record for forensic investigation and not much value beyond that. With the advent of new techniques for data analytics, however, access log files are suddenly becoming quite valuable when they are mined, as opposed to sea...

  18. Preparation of new radiotracer used for well logging

    131Ba-GTP is a new radioactive tracer for well logging. This tracer has been prepared as microspheres by 'Sol-Gel' method. The 131Ba-GTP tracer has very high resolving power and accuracy in oil well logging. It has the excellent characteristics satisfying the requirements of well logging. It has been used to determine the water intake profiles of the flooding water wells in many oil fields in China. The profiles can provide valuable data for the secondary oil recovery engineers to select and to abjust the injecting water schemes. (author)

  19. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  20. Acoustic monitoring method and device

    The present invention provides a method of eliminating resonance noises upon acoustically monitoring the operation state of power plants and plant equipments whether they are normal or not, to improve sensitivity for detecting abnormalities. Namely, a microphone detects acoustic signals including leaking sounds and converts them into electric signals. An amplifier amplifies the electric signals to an appropriate level. A noise eliminating section eliminates resonance noises other than the leaking sounds. An abnormality judging section judges presence of abnormality based on the level of the acoustic signals of the leaking sounds. With such a constitution, a plurality of resonance noises generated also during normal plant operation are automatically eliminated. Since resonance noises as a factor of lowering the sensitivity for abnormal sound detection are not included in the acoustic signals, the sensitivity for the abnormal sound detection is improved. Accordingly, the performance of the acoustic monitoring device is improved. (I.S.)