WorldWideScience

Sample records for aconitum cammarum

  1. Clinical and therapeutic potential of Aconitum heterophyllum

    Sadia Khurshid; Muhammad Shoaib Amjad; Kainat Fatima Malik; Sidra Sabir; Saboon

    2015-01-01

    Aconitum heterophyllum is a plant that has very important medicinal value. Lots of phytochemical constituents (metabolites) are extracted from this plant, especially diterpene alkaloids which are the main compounds having pharmacological activities such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Study of the structures of these compounds was done by the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance.

  2. Clinical and therapeutic potential of Aconitum heterophyllum

    Sadia Khurshid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum heterophyllum is a plant that has very important medicinal value. Lots of phytochemical constituents (metabolites are extracted from this plant, especially diterpene alkaloids which are the main compounds having pharmacological activities such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Study of the structures of these compounds was done by the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance.

  3. NEW NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE ROOTS OF ACONITUM GENICULATUM

    ZHENG-BANG LI; LIANG XU; XI-XIAN JIAN; FENG-PENG WANG

    2001-01-01

    Four new norditerpenoid alkaloids, geniculatines A (1), B (4), C (7) and D (8), were isolated from the roots of Aconitum geniculatum Fletcher, and their structures were elucidated by spectral methods.

  4. Study on Metabolites of Aconitum Alkaloids in Human Urine

    SUN Ying; ZHANG Hong-gui; ZHONG Da-fang; ZHANG Han-qi

    2003-01-01

    @@ The aconite belongs to plants of genus Aconitum in family of Ranunculacea and have notable clinical functions intreating rheumatic arthritis, heart failure, etc. However, accidents of aconitine(from aconite) poisoning frequently occurto many people taking these herbs.

  5. Microcalorimetry studies of the antimicrobial actions of Aconitum alkaloids.

    Shi, Yan-bin; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei; Wei, Ting; Lin, Gui-mei

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic activity of organisms can be measured by recording the heat output using microcalorimetry. In this paper, the total alkaloids in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis were extracted and applied to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of alkaloids on bacteria growth was studied by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves were plotted with a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter and parameters such as growth rate constant (μ), peak-time (Tm), inhibitory ratio (I), and enhancement ratio (E) were calculated. The relationships between the concentration of Aconitum alkaloids and μ of E. coli or S. aureus were discussed. The results showed that Aconitum alkaloids had little effect on E. coli and had a potentially inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus. PMID:26238544

  6. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Aconitum gymnandrum

    Ling-Li Zheng; Dan Wang; Yuan-Yuan Li; Hong-Yan Peng; Ming-Yong Yuan; Feng Gao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aconitum gymnandrum is a Chinese traditional herb used as carminative and analgesic. In this study, A. gymnandrum was used as an experimental matrix. Materials and Methods: Optimized ultrasonic extraction technology of total flavonoids from the A. gymnandrum Maxim was studied by using the methodology of single factor and orthogonal design to study the effects of operation conditions, such as ethanol content, ultrasonic wave power, temperature, ultrasonic wave radiation time, and t...

  7. 3-Deoxyaconitine from the root of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx.

    Feng Gao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 8β-acetoxy-14α-benzoyloxy-N-ethyl-13β,15α-dihydroxy-1α,6α,16β-trimethoxy-4β-methoxymethyleneaconitane, C34H47NO10, is a typical aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid, and was isolated from the roots of the Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. The molecule has an aconitine carbon skeleton with four six-membered rings and two five-membered rings, whose geometry is similar to these observed in other C19-diterpenoid alkaloids; both of five-membered rings have the envelope configurations and the six-membered N-containing heterocyclic ring displays a chair conformation. Intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding occurs. Weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal structure.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Aconitum gymnandrum

    Ling-Li Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aconitum gymnandrum is a Chinese traditional herb used as carminative and analgesic. In this study, A. gymnandrum was used as an experimental matrix. Materials and Methods: Optimized ultrasonic extraction technology of total flavonoids from the A. gymnandrum Maxim was studied by using the methodology of single factor and orthogonal design to study the effects of operation conditions, such as ethanol content, ultrasonic wave power, temperature, ultrasonic wave radiation time, and the ratio of sample weight to solvent volume. Result: Through the orthogonal experiment, the optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: Ultrasonic power 100 W, ultrasonic temperature 45°C, 60% ethyl alcohol, extraction time 30 min, and solid-liquid ratio 1:20. Conclusion: Under the optimum parameters, the extraction ratio of total flavonoids from the A. gymnandrum Maxim is about 1.278%.

  9. Flowering, pollen production and insect visitation in two Aconitum species (Ranunculaceae

    Sebastian Antoń

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering phenology, diurnal dynamics of blooming, insect visitation and pollen production in Aconitum lycoctonum L. and Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux were investigated in 2012–2013 in the Lublin area, SE Poland. Flowering of A. lycoctonum occurred in June/July, whereas A. carmichaelii bloomed in September/October. Both Aconitum species differed in terms of the diurnal pattern of flowering. The flowers of A. lycoctonum started opening at 5.00, whereas those of A. carmichaelii started blooming at 8.00 (GMT+2h. The species differed in the number of anthers per flower, the size of anthers, and the mass of pollen produced in anthers. As a result, the flowers of A. lycoctonum produced less pollen (mean = 1.0 mg per 10 flowers than the flowers of A. carmichaelii (mean = 8.2 mg per 10 flowers. The estimated pollen yield was 0.2 g per m2 for A. lycoctonum and 1.6 g per m2 for A. carmichaelii. The flowers of both Aconitum species were foraged exclusively by bumblebees with the predominance of the long-tongued Bombus hortorum. Nectar was a more attractive floral reward than pollen. The propagation of Aconitum lycoctonum and A. carmichaelii in ornamental gardens may support the conservation of bumblebees whose populations are steadily declining.

  10. Quantitative Enhancement of Active Content and Biomass of Two Aconitum Species Through Suitable Cultivation Technology

    Raman BAHUGUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High altitude medicinal plants are facing problem due to their unsustainable utilization. So, the cultivation of these plants with appropriate technology may fulfill the demand of pharmaceutical industry and may also promote the conservation at their natural habitat. Highly important two species of Aconitum were studied for the enhancement of net profit by applying protected farming system. Both the experimental species were grown under natural and greenhouse conditions. Very positive results were obtained in plants of both Aconitum species grown under greenhouse as compared to natural conditions. Enhancement in yield was 12 and 9 times high in Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle and Aconitum balfourii Stapf. respectively grown under greenhouse as compared to natural condition. Pseudoaconitine and aconitine were also observed high in greenhouse grown (0.51% and 0.42% respectively than naturally grown plants (0.49% and 0.40% respectively. The quantity of atisine and aconitine was also found high (0.35% & 0.27% respectively in greenhouse than naturally grown plants (0.19% & 0.16% respectively. It was noticed that plant height, leaf number, and average length of tubers were high in plants grown inside greenhouse in contrast to natural habitat. Almost five and two folds more tubers were found in A. balfourii and A. heterophyllum respectively in plants grown under greenhouse in comparison to natural conditions.

  11. Two new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from roots Aconitum hemsleyanium var. atropurpureum

    Pei Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    A new franchetine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid 3-hydroxyfranchetine 1 and a new aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid atropurpursine 2 have been isolated from the roots of Aconitum hemsleyanium var.atropurpureum.The structures of these new alkaloids were established on the basis of spectral data.

  12. Study of Single-dose Toxicity of Aconitum Kusnezoffii Reichb. Pharmacopuncture in Rats

    Kim, JaeKyoun; Kim, Sungha; Lee, Sangmi; Jeong, Hohyun; Park, Manyong; Kim, Dong-Woung; Song, Bong-Keun; Lee, Jong-Deok; Kim, SungChul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to analyze the singledose toxicity of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. pharmacopuncture (AKRP). Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTRI), an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Twenty (20) Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. The animals were divided into four groups of five animals per group: group 1 (G1) being the control ...

  13. Study of Single-dose Toxicity of Aconitum Kusnezoffii Reichb. Pharmacopuncture in Rats

    Kim JaeKyoun; Kim Sungha; Lee Sangmi; Jeong Hohyun; Park Manyong; Kim Dong-Woung; Song Bong-Keun; Lee Jong-Deok; Kim Sungchul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to analyze the singledose toxicity of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. pharmacopuncture (AKRP). Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTRI), an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Twenty (20) Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. The animals were divided into four groups of five animals per group: group 1 (G1) being the contr...

  14. Biological and Pharmacological Properties of Aconitum chasmanthum

    Saeed Anwar; Bashir Ahmad; Muhammad Subhan; Waseem Gul; Nazar-ul-Islam

    2003-01-01

    Crude methanolic (90%) extract of Aconitum chasmanthum as well as various fractions of the same obtained by using different solvent systems were screened for biological and pharmacological activities such as antifungal, antibacterial, insecticidal and Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities. It was observed that the antifungal activity varies from negligible to strong depending upon the solvent system used for the extraction. All the fractions exhibited remarkable antifungal activity against Tricho...

  15. Aconitum Alkaloid Poisoning Related to the Culinary Uses of Aconite Roots

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these “food supplements”, relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19–45 and two reports of cases (n = 15–156 managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50–500 g instead of 3–30 g per person and types (raw instead of processed of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw “caowu” (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled “caowu” developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots.

  16. Floral Biology of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.: A Critically Endangered Alpine Medicinal Plant of Himalaya, India

    NAUTIYAL, Bhagwati P.; NAUTIYAL, Mohan C.

    2009-01-01

    Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. is a critically endangered wild medicinal herb of alpine Himalaya and cultivation is recommended owing to its large demand in the herbal market and to ensure the conservation of wild habitats. Therefore, observations on floral biology, pollen germination, pollination, and fruit and seed setting after implying different breeding systems were carried out for its successful domestication and improvement in cultivation practices. The study reveals that the plants grow...

  17. Quantitative Enhancement of Active Content and Biomass of Two Aconitum Species Through Suitable Cultivation Technology

    Raman BAHUGUNA; Vinay PRAKASH; Hemlata BISHT

    2013-01-01

    High altitude medicinal plants are facing problem due to their unsustainable utilization. So, the cultivation of these plants with appropriate technology may fulfill the demand of pharmaceutical industry and may also promote the conservation at their natural habitat. Highly important two species of Aconitum were studied for the enhancement of net profit by applying protected farming system. Both the experimental species were grown under natural and greenhouse conditions. Very positive results...

  18. [CHROMATOSPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LAPPACONITINE IN THE UNDERGROUND PARTS OF ACONITUM ORIENTALE MILL, GROWING IN GEORGIA].

    Kintsurashvili, L

    2016-05-01

    Aconitum orientale Mill (family Helleboraceae) is a perennial herb. It is spread in forests of the west and the east Georgia and in the subalpine zone. The research objects were underground parts of Aconitum orientale Mill, which were picked in the phase of fruiting in Borjomi in 2014. We had received alkaloids sum from the air-dry underground parts (1.5 kg) with chloroform extract which was alkalined by 5% sodium carbonate. We received the alkaloids sum of 16.5 g and determined that predominant is pharmacologically active diterpenic alkaloid - Lappaconitine, which is an acting initial part of the antiarrhythmic drug "Allapinin". The chromatospectrophotometrical method of quantitative analysis of Lappaconitine is elaborated for the detection of productivity of the underground parts of Aconitum orientale Mill. It was determined that maximal absorption wave length in ultra-violet spectrum (λmax) is 308 nm; It is established that relative error is norm (4%) from statical processing of quantitative analysis results. We determined that the content of Lappaconitine in the underground parts of Aconitum orientale Mill is 0.11-0.13% in the phase of fruiting. In consequence of experimental data Aconitum orientale Mill is approved as the raw material to receive pharmacologically active Lappaconitine. PMID:27348177

  19. Analysis of Norditerpenoid Alkaloids Extracted from Aconitum sinomantanum Nakai by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    2006-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(ESI-MS) was applied simultaneously in determining norditerpenoid alkaloids from the roots of Aconitum sinomantanum Nakai (RAS) based on molecular mass information. The tandem mass spectra(ESI-MSn) provided the alkaloidal structural information, through which the existence of these alkaloids was further confirmed. Accordingly, six known norditerpenoid alkaloids were simultaneously determined on the basis of their ESI-MSn spectra. Furthermore, based on the diagnostic fragmentation pathways of alkaloidal MSn, a rapid method for direct detection and characterization of alkaloids from an ethanolic extract of RAS was described.

  20. Investigation of Aconitine-type Alkaloids from Processed Tuber of Aconitum carmiechaeli by HPLC-ESI-MS/MSn

    YUE Hao; PI Zi-feng; ZHAO Yu-feng; SONG Feng-rui; LIU Zhi-qiang; LIU Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction Aconitine-type alkaloids isolated from the roots of Aconitum carmiechaeli show a potential toxicity and a broad spectrum of bioactivity[1-4]. On the basis of the C8-substituent of C19-diterpenoid skeleton, aconitinetype alkaloids can be divided into diester-diterpenoid alkaloids( DDAs), monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids(MDAs), and lipo-alkaloids( Fig. 1 ).

  1. Antioxidant and Nephroprotective Activities of Aconitum heterophyllum Root in Glycerol Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats

    Eerike, Madhavi; Raghuraman, Lakshmipathy Prabhu; Rajamanickam, Maignana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and nephroprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root (EEAHR) in glycerol induced acute renal failure (ARF) in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods In vitro antioxidant activity of EEAHR was assessed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay), nitric oxide radical scavenging (NO assay), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 assay) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) scavenging activity assays. In vivo study, rats were divided into four groups of six each for assessing the nephroprotective activity. Group-1 received normal saline, group-2 received 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg) alone, group-3 received glycerol and 250 mg/kg of EEAHR and group-4 received glycerol and 500 mg/kg of EEAHR. The renal injury and recovery was measured by serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total proteins, albumin, urine output and histopathological changes. Results In vitro antioxidant activity of root extract was found to be equal to Vitamin C and in an in vivo study root extract treated animals showed significant attenuation of biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the kidney compared to glycerol treated group and it was found to be more significant with the extract at 500 mg/kg than 250mg/kg. Conclusion The present study revealed that Aconitum heterophyllum root has shown antioxidant and nephroprotective activities. PMID:27134892

  2. 3-Deoxy­aconitine from the root of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx.

    Gao, Feng; Zhu, Shou-An; Xiong, Shi-Jun

    2010-01-01

    The title compound (systematic name: 8β-acet­oxy-14α-benzo­yloxy-N-ethyl-13β,15α-dihydr­oxy-1α,6α,16β-trimeth­oxy-4β-methoxy­methyl­eneaconitane), C34H47NO10, is a typical aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid, and was isolated from the roots of the Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. The mol­ecule has an aconitine carbon skeleton with four six-membered rings and two five-membered rings, whose geometry is similar to these observed in other C19-diterpenoid alkaloids; both of five-membered rings have ...

  3. Study of Single-dose Toxicity of Aconitum Kusnezoffii Reichb. Pharmacopuncture in Rats

    Kim JaeKyoun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to analyze the singledose toxicity of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. pharmacopuncture (AKRP. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTRI, an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Twenty (20 Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. The animals were divided into four groups of five animals per group: group 1 (G1 being the control group with each animal receiving an injection of 0.3 ml of saline and groups 2, 3, and 4 (G2, G3, and G4 being the experimental groups with each animal receiving an injection of 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 ml of AKRP, respectively. This study was conducted with the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the 4 groups, and the LD50 of AKRP administered via IV was higher than 1.77 ml/kg. Some changes in the weights of the male rates were observed between the control group and the experimental groups, but no significant differences were noted in the weights of the female rats. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we stained representative sections of each specified organ with Hematoxylin & Eosin for light microscopic examination. The results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusions: The above findings suggest that Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. pharmacopuncture is a relatively safe treatment. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

  4. Record of Borearctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae larva on Aconitum rubicundum Fischer (Ranunculaceae in Eastern Siberia

    Oleg E. Berlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we report the first record of Borearctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846 (Erebidae: Arctiinae larva on a native host plant, Aconitum rubicundum Fischer (Ranunculaceae. This aconite species is a close relative of A. lycoctonum, which is widespread across Eurasia, but has a scattered distribution in Fennoscandia. The majority of B. menetriesii localities are situated within the distribution range of A. lycoctonum and other aconite taxa, which are diverse and widespread in the Eastern Palaearctic. However, only two of the six westernmost B. menetriesii localities in Finland are in accordance with sporadic records of A. lycoctonum. Our record confirms that B. menetriesii is a polyphagous species like most other boreal Arctiinae. We have expanded the list of a few Lepidoptera species which can use Aconitum spp. as suitable host plants despite the fact that they are poisonous for insects because of high alkaloid content.

  5. Record of Borearctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846) (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) larva on Aconitum rubicundum Fischer (Ranunculaceae) in Eastern Siberia

    Oleg E. Berlov; Ivan Bolotov

    2015-01-01

    In this note we report the first record of Borearctia menetriesii (Eversmann, 1846) (Erebidae: Arctiinae) larva on a native host plant, Aconitum rubicundum Fischer (Ranunculaceae). This aconite species is a close relative of A. lycoctonum, which is widespread across Eurasia, but has a scattered distribution in Fennoscandia. The majority of B. menetriesii localities are situated within the distribution range of A. lycoctonum and other aconite taxa, which are diverse and widespread in the Easte...

  6. AFLP analysis reveals infraspecific phylogenetic relationships and population genetic structure of two species of Aconitum in Central Europe

    Józef Mitka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of two Aconitum species endemic to the Carpathian Mountains and Sudetes was studied. A reticulate evolution between them was earlier postulated as an effect of secondary contact. The genetic diversity at the individual and taxonomic levels was examined across the entire geographical ranges of the taxa in 11 populations based on 247 AFLP markers found in 112 individuals in the Sudetes and Western Carpathians. The overall genetic differentiation was greater within the Sudetic A. plicatum (FST = 0.139, P < 0.001 than within the Carpathian A. firmum (FST = 0.062, P < 0.001, presumably due to the long-lasting geographic isolation between the Giant Mts and Praděd (Sudetes populations of the species. Interestingly, relatively distant and presently isolated populations of A. plicatum and A. f. subsp. maninense share a part of their genomes. It could be an effect of their common evolutionary history, including past and present reticulations. The introgression among infraspecific taxa of Aconitum is common, probably as a result of seed dispersal within a distance of ca. 20 km (Mantel’s r = 0.36, P = 0.01. Aconitum f. subsp. maninense had the highest genetic diversity indices: Nei’s h and rarefied FAr, and divergence index DW (P ≤ 0.05, pointing to its presumably ancient age and long-term isolation.

  7. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Hypaconitine after Oral Administration of Pure Hypaconitine, Aconitum carmichaelii Extract and Sini Decoction to Rats

    Wen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypaconitine (HC is one of the main aconitum alkaloids in Aconitum carmichaelii (AC, which is considered to be effective on cardiovascular disease, although it also has high toxicity. Sini Decoction (SND, composed of Aconitum carmichaelii, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Zingiber officinale, is a traditional Chinese multi-herbal formula for recuperating the depleted yang. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of HC in rat plasma after oral administration of HC, AC extract and SND, and investigate the effect of other two herbal ingredients on absorption, metabolism and elimination of HC. A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine HC in rat plasma. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: HC, AC and SND group. Plasma concentrations of HC were determined at designated points after oral administration, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there was obvious difference (p < 0.05 on the pharmacokinetic parameters among three groups. Compared with AC group, Tmax, Cmax, k, AUC(0-24 and AUC(0-∞ decreased in SND group, while t1/2 and MRT had been lengthened, which indicated that the ingredients in other two herbs could influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of HC.

  8. Antiviral anthraquinones and azaphilones produced by an endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. from Aconitum carmichaeli.

    Zhang, Shou-Peng; Huang, Rong; Li, Fang-Fang; Wei, Hong-Xia; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Xie, Xiao-Song; Lin, Dong-Guo; Wu, Shao-Hua; He, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A new hydroanthraquinone derivative, 6-O-demethyl-4-dehydroxyaltersolanol A (1), and two new azaphilones, 8,11-didehydrochermesinone B (6) and (7S)-7-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-isochromene-6,8-dione (8), along with five known analogues (2-5 and 7), were isolated from the culture broth of Nigrospora sp. YE3033, an endophytic fungus obtained from Aconitum carmichaeli. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Biological activity test indicated that compounds 1-3, and 7 exhibited the inhibitory effects on influenza viral strain of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) with the IC50 values of 2.59, 8.35, 7.82, and 0.80μg/mL, respectively, while the low cytotoxicity of 7 with the CC50 value of 184.75μg/mL, displaying a promising potential of 7 in the development of anti-influenza A virus drugs. PMID:27233986

  9. Evaluation of antifungal and antioxidant potential of two medicinal plants:Aconitum heterophyllum and Polygonum bistorta

    Neelma Munir; Wasqa Ijaz; Imran Altaf; Shagufta Naz

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To focus on the evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of two endangered medicinal plants Aconitum heterophyllum (A. heterophyllum) and Polygonum bistorta (P. bistorta). Materials: Plant extracts were obtained by using microwave assisted extraction method. The in vitro antifungal activity of A. heterophyllum and P. bistorta extracts were determined by measuring diameters of inhibitory zones of these extracts against Aspergillus niger and Alternalia solani. Results:Methanolic extract of A. heterophyllum showed significant (P≤0.05) antifungal activity against both the tested organisms. It was also observed that ethanolic extracts of P. bistorta also had good antifungal activity against the tested fungal strains as compared to the methanolic extracts. It showed significant antifungal activity (P≤0.05) against both the tested strains. Antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllum and P. bistorta were also measured using a radical scavenging method. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. Conclusions:It was observed that A. heterophyllum and P. bistorta have significant antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activity was recorded in methanolic extract of A. heterophyllum as compared to its ethanolic extract. However, in case of P. bistorta ethanolic extract of the plant exhibited higher antioxidant potential than methanolic extracts. Hence both of these plants have significant antimicrobial as well as antioxidant potential.

  10. Paper chromatography of anthocyanins in two species of Aconitum from the Tatry .Mts.: A. variegatum (L. Rchb., and A. napellus ssp. skerisorae (Gayer Seitz.

    M. Krzakowa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on phenolic compounds occurence and variation in the two Aconitum species were reported in our previous paper (Szweykowski, Krzakowa, 1977a and b. A modified extraction method allowed us to get additional data on anthocyanin variation in flowers of the same species. In addition one albino plant of A. variegatum was also investigated in this respect.

  11. BIO-ANALYTICAL STUDIES ON THE PROCESS OF DETOXIFICATION AND SAFETY EVALUATION OF ACONITUM LACINIATUM AND ABRUS PRECATORIUS FOR USE IN AYURVEDIC PREPARATIONS

    R. T. Sane

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to have bio-analytical approach for detoxification process of two poisonous plant materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seed which are used in Ayurvedic preparations.Materials and Methods: For both the species proximate analysis was carried out. For the same plants HPTLC fingerprinting was compared , before and after detoxification process, using triphala quath. Infra red spectral studies for Abrus precatorius species (red and white were compared, with respect to detoxification process. Protein fingerprinting was carried out for various Aconitum species available in the market. In support of the results obtained from the above methods for detoxification, safety evaluation , post single dose administration, C1- post single dose administration]was done using albino mice as the study model for Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seeds- red and white.Outcome Measures: Comparison of the results for the crude poisonous herbal material with the material obtained after detoxification in triphala quath. Results: HPTLC fingerprinting, Infra red spectral studies, safety evaluation study (animal toxicity showed that process of detoxification for the above mentioned plant materials using triphala quath is effective and less time consuming.Conclusions: The study highlights that the commonly used poisonous crude herbal materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seeds - red and white can be safely used in Ayurvedic preparations, after detoxification using triphala quath.

  12. A Note on the Floral Morphology of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. (Ranunculaceae - An Important Temperate Medicinal Plant

    Ravinder Raina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. (Ranunculaceae, commonly known as Atish, is an important endangered (IUCN, 1993 temperate medicinal plant (Fig.1 distributed between 2400 and 4500 m amsl in temperate and alpine regions of the Himalaya. Distribution and morphology of this species has been extensively documented by various workers from time to time (Hooker and Thomson, 1872; Collett, 1902; Kirtikar& Basu 1975; Blatter, 1984; Polunin & Stainton, 1984; Prajapati et al., 2007 and Nautial et al., 2009. However, its floral description especially perianth as described by these workers appears to be incomplete. Its perianth has been described as (i “Raceme many flowered, helmet shortly beaked……flowers more than 1 inch long, bright blue, greenish blue with purple veins. Helmet half as high as long” (Hooker & Thomson, 1872, (ii “Flowers 1 in. long, dull green-blue with purple veins; helmet pointed in front, top rounded; lateral sepals as long as the helmet” (Collett, 1902, (iii “sepals more or less blue or violet, rarely whitish, with dark conspicuous veins, finely pubescent or glabrous; upper sepal almost vavicular obliquely erect, shortly or obscurely beaked, 18-20 mm. high and as long from tip to base, widest (8-9 mm. above the middle, lateral margin sinous, lateral sepal very oblique and broadly obovate with dark tips, 14-20 mm. long, 12-20 mm broad, not clawed; lower sepals elliptic, obtuse or subacute, 8-10 mm long; nectaries glabrous, extinguisher-shaped; claw erect, 16-18 mm. long, hood short (up to 4 mm. and very wide, more or less gibbous above, lip very short and broad, obtusely 2-lobed or entire” (Kirtikar & Basu, 1975, (iv “More than 1 inch long flower, dull green purple or dull green-blue with dark purple veins. Sepals 5, petal like, erect, the upper one (helmet pointed in front, top rounded; lateral sepals as long as the helmet” (Blatter, 1984, (v “Flowers 2.5-3 cm, usually in lax spike-like cluster with very variable

  13. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses].

    Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings. PMID:27071248

  14. Antisecretory and antimotility activity of Aconitum heterophyllum and its significance in treatment of diarrhea

    Satyendra K Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The roots of the plant Aconitum heterophyllum (EAH are traditionally used for curing hysteria, throat infection, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, diabetes, and diarrhea. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism involved in the anti-diarrheal activity of roots of A. heterophyllum. Materials and Methods: Ant-diarrheal activity of ethanol extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg p.o. was evaluated using fecal excretion and castor oil-induced diarrhea models, while optimized dose, that is, 100 mg/kg p.o. was further subjected to small intestinal transit, intestinal fluids accumulation, PGE 2 -induced enteropooling and gastric emptying test. To elucidate the probable mechanism, various biochemical parameters and Na + , K + concentration in intestinal fluids were also determined. Further, antibacterial activity of extract along with its standardization using aconitine as a marker with the help of HPLC was carried out. Results: The results depicted a significant (P < 0.05 reduction in normal fecal output at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. of extract after 5 th and 7 th h of treatment. Castor oil-induced diarrhea model demonstrated a ceiling effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. with a protection of 60.185% from diarrhea. EAH at 100 mg/kg p.o. also showed significant activity in small intestinal transit, fluid accumulation, and PGE 2 -induced enteropooling models, which also restored the altered biochemical parameters and prevented Na + and K + loss. The extract with 0.0833% w/w of aconitine depicted a potential antibacterial activity of extract against microbes implicated in diarrhea. Conclusion: The study concluded antisecretory and antimotility effect of A. heterophyllum, which mediates through nitric oxide path way.

  15. Hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of Aconitum heterophyllum wall ex Royle and the mechanism of action in diet-induced obese rats

    Arun Koorappally Subash; Anu Augustine

    2012-01-01

    Aconitum heterophyllum is an endangered Himalayan plant included in "lekhaneyagana," a pharmacological classification mentioned by Charaka in "Charakasamhita" which means reduce excess fat. The subterranean part of the plant is used for the treatment of diseases like nervous system disorders, fever, diarrhea, obesity, etc. In the present study, we are reporting the hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of A. heterophyllum. The methanol extract of A. heterophyllum was orally administered i...

  16. Hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of Aconitum heterophyllum wall ex Royle and the mechanism of action in diet-induced obese rats.

    Arun Koorappally Subash; A Augustine

    2012-01-01

    Aconitum heterophyllum is an endangered Himalayan plant included in "lekhaneyagana," a pharmacological classification mentioned by Charaka in "Charakasamhita" which means reduce excess fat. The subterranean part of the plant is used for the treatment of diseases like nervous system disorders, fever, diarrhea, obesity, etc. In the present study, we are reporting the hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of A. heterophyllum. The methanol extract of A. heterophyllum was orally administered i...

  17. The Role of Late-Acting Self-Incompatibility and Early-Acting Inbreeding Depression in Governing Female Fertility in Monkshood, Aconitum kusnezoffii

    Hao, Yi-Qi; Zhao, Xin-Feng; She, Deng-Ying; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Da-yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Reduced seed yields following self-pollination have repeatedly been observed, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive when self-pollen tubes can readily grow into ovaries, because pre-, post-zygotic late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI), or early-acting inbreeding depression (ID) can induce self-sterility. The main objective of this study was to differentiate these processes in Aconitum kusnezoffii, a plant lacking stigmatic or stylar inhibition of self-pollination. We performed a hand-...

  18. BIO-ANALYTICAL STUDIES ON THE PROCESS OF DETOXIFICATION AND SAFETY EVALUATION OF ACONITUM LACINIATUM AND ABRUS PRECATORIUS FOR USE IN AYURVEDIC PREPARATIONS

    R. T. Sane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to have bio-analytical approach for detoxification process of two poisonous plant materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root) and Abrus precatorius (seed) which are used in Ayurvedic preparations.Materials and Methods: For both the species proximate analysis was carried out. For the same plants HPTLC fingerprinting was compared , before and after detoxification process, using triphala quath. Infra red spectral studies for Abrus precatorius species (red and wh...

  19. Monoester-Diterpene Aconitum Alkaloid Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: Predominant Role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5

    Ling Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum, widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis for thousands of years, is a toxic herb that can frequently cause fatal cardiac poisoning. Aconitum toxicity could be decreased by properly hydrolyzing diester-diterpene alkaloids into monoester-diterpene alkaloids. Monoester-diterpene alkaloids, including benzoylaconine (BAC, benzoylmesaconine (BMA, and benzoylhypaconine (BHA, are the primary active and toxic constituents of processed Aconitum. Cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes protect the human body by functioning as the defense line that limits the invasion of toxicants. Our purposes were to identify the CYP metabolites of BAC, BMA, and BHA in human liver microsomes and to distinguish which isozymes are responsible for their metabolism through the use of chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the metabolites. A total of 7, 8, and 9 metabolites were detected for BAC, BMA, and BHA, respectively. The main metabolic pathways were demethylation, dehydrogenation, demethylation-dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and didemethylation, which produced less toxic metabolites by decomposing the group responsible for the toxicity of the parent compound. Taken together, the results of the chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes experiments demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 have essential functions in the metabolism of BAC, BMA, and BHA.

  20. Holocene history of Aconitum in the Polish Western Carpathians and adjacent regions: long-distance migrations or cryptic refugia?

    Agnieszka Sutkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum lasiocarpum (Rchb. Gáyer and A. variegatum L. are forest species with overlapped geographical ranges in the Beskid Niski and Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie Depression (W. Carpathians. They form here a hybrid zone. The cytogenetic evidences based on the Giemsa C-banding in A. variegatum showed the same cytotype in the Silesian Upland and the Moravskoslezské Beskids, pointing to the role of the Moravian Gate in the migrations of plants from the Moravian glacial forest refugium. Another linked the Małopolska Upland (Ojców with the two Carpathian regions, including the Pieniny Mts. The result points to the two hypothesis. Firstly, there existed glacial forest cryptic refugia in both regions, or the Małopolska’s population is secondary in relation to the Pieniny Mts. ISSR analysis of A. moldavicum showed relationships between one of the Małopolska’s population and the Podolian populations. The Holocene migrations of the species from the Beskid Niski to the Małopolska region were also probable. The refugial character of the Pieniny Mts. was corroborated by their close relation to the relictual populations of A. moldavicum Hacq. from the Nizke Tatry.

  1. Cyperus rotundus, a substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum: Studies on the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution).

    Venkatasubramanian, Padma; Kumar, Subrahmanya K; Nair, Venugopalan S N

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of a desired first choice medicinal herb, classical Ayurveda recommends use of a functionally similar substitute. Post 16th century Ayurvedic texts and lexicons give specific examples of possible substitutes. Here we report a preliminary study of one such Ayurvedic substitution pair: Musta (Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperaceae), a common weed, for the rare Himalayan species, Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle; Ranunculaceae). The study's strategy was to use modern phytochemical and pharmacological methods to test the two herbs for biochemical and metabolic similarities and differences, and literary studies to compare their Ayurvedic properties, a novel trans-disciplinary approach. No previous scientific paper has compared the two herbs' bioactivities or chemical profiles. Despite being taxonomically unrelated, the first choice, but relatively unavailable (Abhava) plant, A. heterophyllum, and its substitute (Pratinidhi) C. rotundus, are not only similar in Ayurvedic pharmacology (Dravyaguna) profile, but also in phytochemical and anti-diarrheal properties. These observations indicate that Ayurveda may attach more importance to pharmacological properties of raw drugs than to their botanical classification. Further research into the nature of raw drugs named could open up new areas of medicinal plant classification, linking chemistry and bioactivity. Understanding the logic behind the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution) could lead to new methods of identifying legitimate drug alternatives, and help solve industry's problems of crude drug shortage. PMID:21829299

  2. Distribution of toxic alkaloids in tissues from three herbal medicine Aconitum species using laser micro-dissection, UHPLC-QTOF MS and LC-MS/MS techniques.

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Ho, Alan; Wong, LaiLai; Yong, Peng; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2014-11-01

    Aconite poisoning continues to be a major type of poisoning caused by herbal drugs in many countries. Nevertheless, despite its toxic characteristics, aconite is used because of its valuable therapeutic benefits. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of toxic alkaloids in tissues of aconite roots through chemical profiling. Three species were studied, all being used in traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda), namely: Aconitum carmichaelii, Aconitum kusnezoffii and Aconitum heterophyllum. Laser micro-dissection was used for isolation of target microscopic tissues, such as the metaderm, cortex, xylem, pith, and phloem, with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) employed for detection of metabolites. Using a multi-targeted approach through auto and targeted LC-MS/MS, 48 known compounds were identified and the presence of aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine that are the biomarkers of this plant was confirmed in the tissues. These results suggest that the three selected toxic alkaloids were exclusively found in A. carmichaelii and A. kusnezoffii. The most toxic components were found in large A. carmichaelii roots with more lateral root projections, and specifically in the metaderm, cork and vascular bundle tissues. The results from metabolite profiling were correlated with morphological features to predict the tissue specific distribution of toxic components and toxicity differences among the selected species. By careful exclusion of tissues having toxic diester diterpenoid alkaloids, the beneficial effects of aconite can still be retained and the frequency of toxicity occurrences can be greatly reduced. Knowledge of tissue-specific metabolite distribution can guide users and herbal drug manufacturers in prudent selection of relatively safer and therapeutically more effective parts of the root. The information provided from

  3. Optimization of High Temperature Baking Technology of Aconitum carmichaeli%川乌高温烘制工艺优选

    林华; 方莉; 邓广海; 龚又明

    2012-01-01

    目的:优选川乌高温烘制工艺.方法:HPLC和滴定法测定炮制品中6种生物碱和总生物碱的含量,并以此为指标,选取烘制时间、烘制温度及软化方式等为考察因素,采用正交试验法综合评价其高温烘制工艺.结果:川乌高温烘制的最佳工艺为A5B3C1,即川乌经润透法处理,110℃烘制8h.结论:该优选工艺简单可行且易于控制,可替代川乌传统炮制工艺.%Objective; To optimize high temperature baking process of Aconitum carmichaeli. Method: With the content of six kinds of alkaloid and total alkaloids in processed products were determined by HPLC and titration method, and with them as indexes, taking baking time, baking temperature and softening method as factors, orthogonal test was used to comprehensive evaluate high temperature baking technology of A. carmichaeli. Result; Optimum high temperature baking technology of A. carmichaeli was AsBiC1, as that of A. carmichaeli was treatmented by moistening method, baked 8 h at 110 t. Conclusion; This optimized technology was simple, practical and easy to control, it could be instead of traditional processing technology of A. carmichaeli as a new method.

  4. Identification of Oxygenated Fatty Acid as a Side Chain of Lipo-Alkaloids in Aconitum carmichaelii by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and a Database

    Ying Liang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipo-alkaloid is a kind of C19-norditerpenoid alkaloid usually found in Aconitum species. Structurally, they contain an aconitane skeleton and one or two fatty acid moieties of 3–25 carbon chains with 1–6 unsaturated degrees. Analysis of the lipo-alkaloids in roots of Aconitum carmichaelii resulted in the isolation of six known pure lipo-alkaloids (A1–A6 and a lipo-alkaloid mixture (A7. The mixture shared the same aconitane skeleton of 14-benzoylmesaconine, but their side chains were determined to be 9-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid, 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid and 10-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid, respectively, by MS/MS analysis after alkaline hydrolysis. To our knowledge, this is the first time of the reporting of the oxygenated fatty acids as the side chains in naturally-occurring lipo-alkaloids. In order to identify more lipo-alkaloids, a compound database was established based on various combinations between the aconitane skeleton and the fatty acid chain, and then, the identification of lipo-alkaloids was conducted using the database, UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and MS/MS. Finally, 148 lipo-alkaloids were identified from A. carmichaelii after intensive MS/MS analysis, including 93 potential new compounds and 38 compounds with oxygenated fatty acid moieties.

  5. Preparative separation of C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx by pH zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    Liu, Dahui [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming (China); Shu, Xikai; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Lei; Huang, Luqi, E-mail: wxjn1998@126.com [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xi, Xingjun; Zheng, Zhenjia [China National institute of Standardization, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    The technique of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to preparatively separate three C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from the crude extracts of Aconitum carmichaelii for the first time using a two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v). Mesaconitine (I), hypaconitine (II), and deoxyaconitine (III) were obtained from 2.5 g of the crude alkaloids in a one-step separation; the yields were 4.16%, 16.96%, and 5.05%, respectively. The purities of compounds I, II, and III were 93.0%, 95%, and 96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of the three compounds were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and NMR. (author)

  6. Mother root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux exerts antinociceptive effect in Complet Freund’s Adjuvant-induced mice: roles of dynorpin/kappa-opioid system and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 ion channel

    Wang, Chao; Sun, Danni; LIU, CHUNFANG; Zhu, Chunyan; Jing, Xianghong; Chen, Shuping; LIU, CUILING; Zhi, Kai; Xu, Tengfei; Wang, Hui; Liu, Junling; Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhiqiang; Lin, Na

    2015-01-01

    Background Processed Chuanwu (PCW), the mother root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeauxv, has been widely used as a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine for pain relieve for over two millennia clinically. However, its action on chronic inflammatory pain has not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of PCW in complete freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced mice and its possible mechanisms associated with opioid system and TRPV1 ion channel. Methods Male ICR mice were intraplan...

  7. 乌头属药物资源的化学和生物学研究进展%Recent advances in the chemical and biological studies of Aconitum pharmaceutical resources

    郝大程; 顾晓洁; 肖培根; 许利嘉; 彭勇

    2013-01-01

    毛莨科乌头属药用植物含有二萜生物碱、多糖、黄酮类等药物活性成份,促进了对其化学分类学、分子分类学和药理学的研究.作为药用植物亲缘学的继续深入研究,本文综述乌头属的植物化学、化学分类、分子生物学和系统发育等方面的近期进展及其与乌头药效和毒性的关联.近年在多种乌头植物中发现了更多二萜生物碱,以C19:Ⅲ,aconitine类型最多.综述了近年发现的乌头生物碱和提取物,以及乌头多糖和其它成分的生物活性.国产乌头亚属中乌头组基于形态学的11系分类未得到化学分类和分子系统发育研究的支持.基于细胞核和叶绿体DNA序列的分子系统树将形态极相近的9系分为两群,一为甘青乌头系,圆叶乌头系,保山乌头系和短柄乌头系;另一为乌头系,兴安乌头系,显柱乌头系,蔓乌头系和准噶尔乌头系,化学分类数据支持此分群.为了乌头资源的可持续利用和发现高效低毒的新化合物,有必要将近年涌现的新技术用于乌头研究.系统生物学和组学技术将在促进乌头生物活性化合物研究中发挥关键作用.%Many herbal medicines have so far been utilized for the treatment of various ailments since the beginning of Chinese civilization.Aconitum is a botanical source for various pharmaceutically active components,which has been commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years.Increasing interest in Aconitum pharmaceutical resources has led to further discoveries of diterpenoid alkaloids,polysaccharides,flavonoids and many other compounds in various Aconitum species,and to investigations on their chemotaxonomy,molecular phylogeny and pharmacology.In continuation with our studies on Aconitum pharmacophylogeny,here we review the phytochemistry,chemotaxonomy,molecular biology and phylogeny of Aconitum and their relevance to therapeutic efficacy and toxicity.An exhaustive literature survey is

  8. Research on Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products treatment for immunologic function of mice%新疆准噶尔乌头生品及其炮制品对小鼠免疫功能影响研究

    赵翡翠; 卢军; 姜林; 聂继红

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products treatment on immunologic function of mice.Methods:Setting up immune paranormal and immunosuppressive mice model,mice were randomly divided into normal group,model group,positive group,Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products; in humoral immunology experiment,except normal group,each group was given drug intragastrically for 7 days,determined content of serum hemolysin in cellular immunology experiment,except normal group,each group was given drug intragastrically for 14 days,determined content of CD4+ and CD8+.Results:The contents of serum hemolysin were all lower to immune supernormal model group,Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of pharmacopeia method had statistical significance (P<0.01),the content of serum hemolysin were all higher to immunosuppression model group,Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of pharmacopeia method had statistical significance (P<0.01).There were no significant differences between Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products with immune supernormal model group in CD4+,CD8+ and CD+4+/CD8+.CD4+ of Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of pharmacopeia method and document group were higher compared with immune supernormal model group (P<0.05).CD8+ of Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of document group were higher compared with immunosuppression model group (P<0.05).CD4+/CD8+ of Aconitum soongaricum processed products of Kazakhs group were lower compared with immunosuppression model group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Aconitum soongaricum and its processed products of pharmacopeia method and document group have bidirectional control effects on humoral and cell immunological function,while Aconitum soongaricum processed products of Kazakhs group has inhibiting effect on humoral and cell immunological function.%目的:研究准噶尔乌头生品及其3种炮制品对小鼠免疫功能的影响.方法:昆明

  9. Hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of Aconitum heterophyllum wall ex Royle and the mechanism of action in diet-induced obese rats

    Arun Koorappally Subash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum heterophyllum is an endangered Himalayan plant included in "lekhaneyagana," a pharmacological classification mentioned by Charaka in "Charakasamhita" which means reduce excess fat. The subterranean part of the plant is used for the treatment of diseases like nervous system disorders, fever, diarrhea, obesity, etc. In the present study, we are reporting the hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of A. heterophyllum. The methanol extract of A. heterophyllum was orally administered in diet-induced obese rats. After four weeks treatment, blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum lipids and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT. Liver was collected for the assay of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR. The fecal samples were also collected to estimate the fecal fat content. The A. heterophyllum treatment markedly lowered total cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B concentrations in blood serum. It also showed positive effects (increase on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations. On the other hand, A. heterophyllum treatment lowered HMGR activity, which helps to reduce endogenous cholesterol synthesis and also activated LCAT, helping increase in HDL-c. An increase in fecal fat content is also an indication of the hypolipidemic effect of A. heterophyllum. The significant hypolipidemic effect of A. heterophyllum may be linked to its ability to inhibit HMGR activity and block intestinal fat absorption. The increase in HDL-c may be linked to its ability to activate LCAT enzyme.

  10. Accelerated solvent extraction and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatographic purification of yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom.

    Shu, Xi-Kai; Li, Jia; Liu, Feng; Lin, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao; Song, Chun-Xia

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to seek an efficient method to extract and purify yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom. by accelerated solvent extraction combined with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The major extraction parameters for accelerated solvent extraction were optimized by an orthogonal test design L9 (3)(4). Then a separation and purification method was established using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:2:8, v/v) with 10 mM triethylamine in the upper phase and 10 mM HCl in the lower phase. From 2 g crude extract, 224 mg of 8-deacetylyunaconitine (I) and 841 mg of yunaconitine (II) were obtained with a purity of over 98.0%. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23784883

  11. Aconitum carmichaelii protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity via B-cell lymphoma-2 protein-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Ki Mo; Choi, Songie; Oh, Dal-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported the clinical profile of processed Aconitum carmichaelii (AC, Aconibal(®)), which included inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 activity in healthy male adults. CYP2E1 is recognized as the enzyme that initiates the cascade of events leading to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity. However, no studies have characterized its role in APAP-induced hepatic injury. Here, we investigated the protective effects of AC on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction. AC (5-500μg/mL) significantly inhibited APAP-induced reduction of glutathione. In addition, AC decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein levels (% change 46.63) in mitochondria. Moreover, it increased Bcl-2 (% change 55.39) and cytochrome C levels (% change 38.33) in mitochondria, measured using immunofluorescence or a commercial kit. Furthermore, cell membrane integrity was preserved and nuclear fragmentation inhibited by AC. These results demonstrate that AC protects hepatocytes against APAP-induced toxicity by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26895385

  12. Hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of Aconitum heterophyllum wall ex Royle and the mechanism of action in diet-induced obese rats.

    Arun Koorappally Subash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum heterophyllum is an endangered Himalayan plant included in "lekhaneyagana," a pharmacological classification mentioned by Charaka in "Charakasamhita" which means reduce excess fat. The subterranean part of the plant is used for the treatment of diseases like nervous system disorders, fever, diarrhea, obesity, etc. In the present study, we are reporting the hypolipidemic effect of methanol fraction of A. heterophyllum. The methanol extract of A. heterophyllum was orally administered in diet-induced obese rats. After four weeks treatment, blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum lipids and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT. Liver was collected for the assay of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR. The fecal samples were also collected to estimate the fecal fat content. The A. heterophyllum treatment markedly lowered total cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B concentrations in blood serum. It also showed positive effects (increase on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations. On the other hand, A. heterophyllum treatment lowered HMGR activity, which helps to reduce endogenous cholesterol synthesis and also activated LCAT, helping increase in HDL-c. An increase in fecal fat content is also an indication of the hypolipidemic effect of A. heterophyllum. The significant hypolipidemic effect of A. heterophyllum may be linked to its ability to inhibit HMGR activity and block intestinal fat absorption. The increase in HDL-c may be linked to its ability to activate LCAT enzyme.

  13. The role of late-acting self-incompatibility and early-acting inbreeding depression in governing female fertility in monkshood, Aconitum kusnezoffii.

    Yi-Qi Hao

    Full Text Available Reduced seed yields following self-pollination have repeatedly been observed, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive when self-pollen tubes can readily grow into ovaries, because pre-, post-zygotic late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI, or early-acting inbreeding depression (ID can induce self-sterility. The main objective of this study was to differentiate these processes in Aconitum kusnezoffii, a plant lacking stigmatic or stylar inhibition of self-pollination. We performed a hand-pollination experiment in a natural population of A. kusnezoffii, compared seed set among five pollination treatments, and evaluated the distribution of seed size and seed set. Embryonic development suggested fertilization following self-pollination. A partial pre-zygotic LSI was suggested to account for the reduced seed set by two lines of evidence. The seed set of chase-pollination treatment significantly exceeded that of self-pollination treatment, and the proportion of unfertilized ovules was the highest following self-pollination. Meanwhile, early-acting ID, rather than post-zygotic LSI, was suggested by the findings that the size of aborted selfed seeds varied continuously and widely; and the selfed seed set both exhibited a continuous distribution and positively correlated with the crossed seed set. These results indicated that the embryos were aborted at different stages due to the expression of many deleterious alleles throughout the genome during seed maturation. No signature of post-zygotic LSI was found. Both partial pre-zygotic LSI and early-acting ID contribute to the reduction in selfed seed set in A. kusnezoffii, with pre-zygotic LSI rejecting part of the self-pollen and early-acting ID aborting part of the self-fertilized seeds.

  14. Studies on Methods for Breaking Dormancy and Dormancy Feature of Aconitum flavum Seed%伏毛铁棒锤种子休眠与破除休眠方法研究

    郭继元; 彭励; 徐青; 王俊

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the reason of seed dormancy and the methods of relieving the seed dormancy in Aconitum flavum, using the TTC method to determinate the seed activity of Aconitum flavum, while using the runing water washing the seed, the different stratification treatment, and the GA3 soaking the seed to determine them the influence on seed germination, in addition detecting the inhibitory activity of extract of the seed in Aconitum flavum on the seed in cabbage and Aconitum flavum. The seed viability of Aconitum flavum up to 90%, seed bibulous reach saturated with 14 h, and seed coat permeability was good. When the extracts concentration of seed kernel was 0.8 g/mL, the seed germination rate in cabbage was only 38.3%. It was indicating that the seed contained the endogenous inhibitor. The method of running water washing can be partially to remove the inhibitors and improve the germination rate. The low temperature and poikilothermic stratification treatment can effectively break the dormancy of seed, especially in low temperature stratification,the germination rate of seed up to 79.67%. 200 μg/mL GA3 with 24 h treatment on seed was best for germination, and the germination rate can be to 82%.%为探讨伏毛铁棒锤种子休眠原因及破除种子休眠的方法,利用TTC法测定伏毛铁棒锤种子活性;流水冲洗种子、不同层积方式处理、赤霉素浸种处理,测定其对种子萌发的影响;测定伏毛铁棒锤种子提取物对白菜、伏毛铁棒锤种子的抑制活性.结果表明,伏毛铁棒锤种子生活力可达到90%,14 h种子吸水达到饱和,种皮透水性较好,种仁粗提物浓度为0.8 g/mL时,白菜种子发芽率仅为38.3%,说明种子含有内源性抑制物质.流水冲洗种子可以部分地去除抑制物,提高萌发率;低温层积和变温层积可以有效地打破休眠,尤其低温层积,发芽率达到79.67%;200μg/mL赤霉素处理24 h对种子萌发效果最好,发芽率高达82%.

  15. The formulation and preparation process of Aconitum coreanum film-coating tablets%关白附薄膜包衣片的处方和制备工艺研究

    陈粱; 刘建平; 王广基; 孙建国; 刘静涵; 杨春华

    2011-01-01

    目的:研制关白附薄膜包衣片,为临床提供服用方便、疗效明显的抗房颤口服新药.方法:使用新型的直接压片辅料,筛选可压性和流动性良好的处方,运用全粉末直接压片技术制备关白附总碱盐片,并对其进行薄膜包衣.结果:优化后的处方流动性良好,片剂外观色泽均匀,硬度、片重差异、崩解时限等指标均符合《中华人民共和国药典》2010年版的要求,包衣后药物的引湿性有明显的改善.结论:采用全粉末压片技术制备关白附总碱盐片并用欧巴代进行包衣,有效地降低了药物的吸湿性,该工艺操作简单可行,适合工业化生产.%Objective: To prepare the Aconitum coreanum film-coating tablets,in order to provide a more convenient and effective formulation for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Methods.-New direct compression excipients were used to screen a formulation with good flowability and compressibility. Aconitum coreanum alkaloids salt tablets were prepared by direct powder compression process, and then coated with thin film. Results: The optimized formulation displays a good flowability. The appearance, hardness, weight difference and disintegration time of the tablets were in line with the relevant requirements of Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China(2010 edition). The hygroscopicity of the tablet was significantly decreased after film-coating. Conclusion: The hygroscopicity of Aconitum coreanum alkaloids salt tablets prepared by direct compression process and coated with opadry is decreased significantly. The preparation process is simple,practical,and suitable for industrial production.

  16. Effects of Different Fertilizer Levels on Yield of Aconitum transsectum Diels%不同有机肥和磷肥施用量对直缘乌头产量的影响

    陈翠; 徐中志; 康平德; 候志江; 杨少华

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究有机肥和磷肥不同梯度施肥水平对直缘乌头产量的影响。方法:采用单因素随机设计研究有机肥和磷肥对直缘乌头块根商品产量、苗块根产量及总产量的影响。结果:直缘乌头商品块根产量与有机肥施用量呈正相关关系,有机肥施用量高于200kg/667m2对苗块根的产生没有显著差异,在中等以下的土壤肥力条件下,有机肥最佳施用量为300kg/667m2。直缘乌头栽培对磷肥较为敏感,过量磷肥易对商品块根的生长可产生肥害,磷肥最佳施用量为30kg/667m2。结论:施用适量的有机肥和磷肥可显著提高直缘乌头产量。%Objective]The study is on the the effect of different fertilizer levels on yield of Aconitum transsectum Diels.[Method]To adopt different grading levels amount of organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer to study the output of transsectum big roots used as commodity,small roots used as seedling and total yield.[Results]The per unit area yield of of Transsectum big roots was positively correlated with the amount of organic fertilizer;Organic fertilizer above 2 000kg/667m2 has no remarkable difference on small roots For soil fertility below medium,the suitable amount of organic fertilizer is 3 000kg/667m2;Transsectum are quite sensitive to phosphate fertilizer,overdose would be harmful to the gowth of big roots.[Conclution]Appropriate organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer can improve remarkably the output of Aconitum transsectum Diels.

  17. FIVE NEW NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM ACONITUM SINOMONTANUM

    FENG-PENG WANG; CHONG-SHENG PENG; XI-XIAN JIAN; DONG-LIN CHEN

    2001-01-01

    From the roots of A conitum sinomontanum, five new norditerpenoid alkaloids, sinomontanitines A (1) and B (2), sinomontanines A (3), B (4) and C (5), were isolated together with the known alkaloids lappaconitine (6) and ranaconitine (7), The structures of the new alkaloids were determined by spectral analysis.

  18. Analysis of Integral Structure of Chemical Components in Aconitum Kusnezoffii Flower and Its Extract by Infrared Spectroscopy%蒙药草乌花及其提取物化学成分的红外光谱法整体结构解析

    图雅; 白金亮; 周群; 孙素琴

    2011-01-01

    Infrared spectrum changing rules of chemical components of Aconitum kusnezoffii and its extract by different solvents were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. The results showed that there was abundance of polyose in the Aconitum kusnezoffii flowers, as the IR absorption peaks of polyose in the drug was observed. The IR spectra of ether and ethenol extract were similar,the strong absorption peaks of carbonyl and saturated alkyl groups could be detected, and this suggested that there were many low polarity chemical components like fatty acids. The differences between them were more obvious in the second derivative infrared spectroscopy. Fatty acids were detected in the water extract and structural information was obtained by analyzing the infrared spectroscopy. The method of analyzing the drugs by comparing the IR spectra of crude drugs, different solvents extractives and different extract process, could observe the changing rules of the chemical components of crude drugs. This method could be applied to the quality control, macrotrace and identification of extraction process.%采用傅立叶变换红外光谱法并借助于二阶导数谱以及二维相关红外光谱(2D-FTIR)研究了蒙药草乌花原药材及不同溶剂提取物(依次采用乙醚,乙醇和水提取)所含化学成分的红外谱图整体变化规律.结果显示:在草乌花原药材中具有明显的多糖类化合物的红外特征吸收峰,证明该药材中含有大量多糖类成分.草乌花药材乙醚和醇提物的红外光谱较相似,有较强的羰基吸收峰(1734和1713 cm)和饱和烷基的特征吸收峰(2960,2920和2851 cm),说明二者含有大量的脂肪酸(酯)等低极性成分.在分辨率较高的二阶导数谱中,两者的差异更为明显,水提物中含有脂肪酸(酯)类化合物,红外光谱法可以提供大量的结构信息.

  19. Mountain aphid and parasitoid guilds on Aconitum spp. in Europe

    Havelka, Jan; Tomanović, Ž.; Kos, K.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Janeček, J.; Pons, X.; Rakhshani, E.; Starý, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-61. ISSN 1721-8861 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development(RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphis * Aphididae * parasitoids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2014 http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol67-2014-057-061havelka.pdf

  20. Environ: E00576 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available cup family) Aconitum kusnesoffii, Aconitum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others...E00576 Aconitum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum kusnesoffii, Aconitum [TAX:49188] Ranunculaceae (butter... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00576 Aconitum tuberous root ...

  1. Environ: E00577 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available TAX:49188] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others...E00577 Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum triphyllum, Aconitum [... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00577 Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root ...

  2. Phenetic variability of Aconitum lasiocarpum (Rchb. Gáyer (Ranunculaceae: extension of taxonomic and geographic

    Józef Mitka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A. lasiocarpum has provoked a long-standing debate over its systematic and geographic status. Present taxonomic and chorological studies offer a proposal for the solution of these problems. In their result, a taxon described by Zapałowicz (1908 was rediscovered, now treated as A. lasiocarpum subsp. kotulae comb. nov. It occurs far beyond hitherto admitted borders of A. lasiocarpum subsp. lasiocarpum, reaching the Sanok-Jasło Basin, the Tatra Mts. and Babia Góra Mt. in the Western Carpathians, and Podolye on Ukraine. A hybrid between A. lasiocarpum and A. variegatum subsp. variegatum was also described for the first time. The nothospecies, A. x pawlowskii nothosp. nov., occurs in scattered localities in the Western Carpathians: in Poland (Beskid Niski, Tatras, Gorce Mts. and Babia Góra Mt. and in Slovakia (Slovenské Rudohorie, Nizke Tatry Mts. and Muranska Planina Plateau, within the range of A. variegatum subsp. variegatum. The new (notho taxa enable more precise shaping the geographical borders of both A. lasiocarpum subsp. lasiocarpum and A. variegatum subsp. variegatum in the Carpathians.

  3. Environ: E00580 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available cup family) Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root ... ...E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum coreanum [TAX:662772] Ranunculaceae (butter

  4. Embryotoxicity and Teratogenecity of Aconitum in Rats%乌头类中药的胚胎毒性及致畸性

    肖凯; 李宏霞; 王亚其; 王莉; 彭成; 郭立; 刘玉清

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究乌头类中药盐附子、生川乌、生草乌的胚胎毒性及致畸性.方法:选用SD大鼠,实验分为5组:盐附子1.14 g生药/kg,3.43 g生药/kg;10.30 g生药/kg,生川乌13.0 g生药/kg;生草乌8.3 g生药/kg,另设阴性对照(蒸馏水)组和阳性对照(维生素A)组,试验组和阴性对照组大鼠于妊娠第7至16天,阳性对照组大鼠于妊娠第9至12天灌胃给药.结果:盐附子10.30 g生药/kg剂量组和生川乌13.0 g生药/kg剂量组、生草乌8.3 g生药/kg剂量组对大鼠都出现了轻微母体毒性(孕鼠体重增加缓慢和摄食量减少);与阴性对照组比较,生草乌8.3 g生药/kg剂量组出现胎鼠身长减小,胸骨骨化数减少(P<0.05);其余无异常.结论:在本实验条件下,乌头类中药盐附子、生川乌、生草乌对大鼠均无致畸作用;生草乌8.3 g生药/kg有一定的胚胎毒性.

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Aconitum Alkaloids in Raw and Processed Chuanwu and Caowu by HPLC in Combination with Automated Analytical System and ESI/MS/MS

    Aimin Sun; Bo Gao; Xueqing Ding; Chi-Ming Huang; Paul Pui-Hay But

    2012-01-01

    HPLC in combination with automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS was used to analyze aconitine (A), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), and their benzoyl analogs in the Chinese herbs Caowu and Chuanwu. First, an HPLC method was developed and validated to determine A, MA, and HA in raw and processed Caowu and Chuanwu. Then an automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS were applied to analyze these alkaloids and their semihydrolyzed products. The results obtained from automated analytical sy...

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Aconitum Alkaloids in Raw and Processed Chuanwu and Caowu by HPLC in Combination with Automated Analytical System and ESI/MS/MS

    Aimin Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HPLC in combination with automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS was used to analyze aconitine (A, mesaconitine (MA, hypaconitine (HA, and their benzoyl analogs in the Chinese herbs Caowu and Chuanwu. First, an HPLC method was developed and validated to determine A, MA, and HA in raw and processed Caowu and Chuanwu. Then an automated analytical system and ESI/MS/MS were applied to analyze these alkaloids and their semihydrolyzed products. The results obtained from automated analytical system are identical to those from ESI/MS/MS, which indicated that the method is a convenient and rapid tool for the qualitative analysis of herbal preparations. Furthermore, HA was little hydrolyzed by heating processes and thus it might account more for the toxicity of processed aconites. Hence, HA could be used as an indicator when one alkaloid is required as a reference to monitor the quality of raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu. In addition, the raw and processed Chuanwu and Caowu can be distinguished by monitoring the ratio of A and MA to HA.

  7. An Application of Tripterygium Wilfordii Aconitum Carmichaeli Root and Bee Venom in Rheumatic Disease Treatment%雷公藤、附子、蜂毒在风湿病中的应用

    黄胜光; 谭宁; 朱辉军

    2011-01-01

    雷公藤、附子、蜂毒在中医治疗风湿病的领域中历史悠久且应用广泛.作者回顾了历代医家对其的认识,并阐述了其现代研究热点,并在长期临床实践的基础上,总结其应用的特点及需要注意的问题.%Tripterygium wilfordii, Aeonitum carmichaeli root and Bee venom have been widely used to treat rheumatic disease for centuries.The author summarizes the experiences and opinions of ancient Chinese medicine doctors about the three traditional Chinese medicines, the focus of current research, the application features and the important facts based on years of clinical experience.

  8. Selección de reseñas bibliográficas de interés fitofarmacéutico. V(Ranunculales)

    Ruiz Téllez, Trinidad

    1988-01-01

    Aislamiento y uso como medicamento de polisacáridos de Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. Hikino, H./Jpn. Kokai Tokyo Koho JP 60,231,616 / Patente JP60,231,616/ Abril 1984. Se aislaron e identificaron los polisacáridos Aconitano A, B y C procedentes de extractos de la raíz de Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. Se demostró su actividad hipoglucemiante e inmunosupresora.

  9. Effects of plant growth regulator HKL-4 on change of endogenous hormones in roots of Aconitum coreanum seedlings%植物生长调节物质HKL-4对栽培黄花乌头幼苗根内源激素变化动态的影响

    王秀英; 张大惠; 李恩彪

    2010-01-01

    用植物生长调节物质HKL-4处理黄花乌头,研究其苗期根系内源激素水平动态变化,为黄花乌头的优质高产栽培提供依据.在黄花乌头幼苗4片叶时用HKL-4喷施,定期取样,液氮冷冻20 min,转入-40 ℃下保存,用ELISA方法测定黄花乌头根内源激素.数据分析结果表明,植物生长调节物质HKL-4能提高黄花乌头幼根内源IAA、Z+ZR、ABA及GA3的含量,其中以IAA、Z+ZR含量变化显著.处理组的IAA含量及[IAA/(Z+ZR)]含量始终高于对照,表明用HKL-4喷施黄花乌头的叶片,能显著促进黄花乌头根生长.

  10. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF TRIKARSHIKA CHURNA: A POPULAR POLYHERBAL ANTIOXIDANT

    Jayanta kumar maji; Shukla V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ancient Ayurvedic lexicon highlights a polyherbal formulation Trikarshika for appetite enhancing, digestive, febiruge actions. Trikarshika is made of equal quantity of dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Root of Aconitum heterophyllum wall. and rhizome of Cyperus pangorei Linn. In present study polyherbal formulation Trikarshika in standardization context with in vitro antioxidant activity. Pharmacognostical study has been incorporated as qualitative standardization of raw materia...

  11. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2005-06-01

    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  12. Inhibitory effects by ayurvedic plants on prostate enlargement induced in rats

    Rahul K Dumbre; Manisha B Kamble; Patil, Vijay R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ayurveda recommends several plants and plant preparation for conditions of urogenital disorders as per its principles. Objectives: Ayurvedic plants Tamala (Cinnamomum tamala); Daruhalad (Berberis aristata); Ativish (Aconitum heterophyllum) were studied for mechanisms of prostatic hyperplasia induced in rats. Materials and Methods: Prostatic enlargement was induced in castrated rats by testosterone injection s.c. for 21 days and simultaneously plants were dosed orally daily. On day...

  13. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart; Carolin Mayer; Mathieu Jonard; Valérie Cawoy

    2012-01-01

    In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering peri...

  14. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Lijuan Ma; Ronghui Gu; Li Tang; Ze-E Chen; Rong Di; Chunlin Long

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constit...

  15. Recent experiences in application of homeopathy in farm animals

    Fidelak, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This RCCT should assess the efficacy of a fixed homeopathic combination for therapy of bovine clinical mastitis in order to minimize the use of antibiotics. Methods In a German organic dairy herd of about 300 cows cases of clinical mastitis received a homeopathic therapy using a predetermined treatment protocol and a certain diagnostic pattern. For treatment of acute mastitis the following remedies were used: Phytolacca, Bryonia, Echinacea and Belladonna or Aconitum depend...

  16. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  17. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  18. The distribution of vascular plants in Banronsan (Mt.) at Jeongseon Gangwon-do, Korea

    Jeong-Won Jang; Jong-Cheol Yang; Su-Young Jung; Hye-Jeong Lee 167; Ju-Eun Yun; Chin Chang; Hee-Suk Hwang; Kae-Sun Chang; Seung-Hwan Oh; You-Mi Lee

    2014-01-01

    To study the distribution of vascular plants in Banronsan (Mt.) located in Jeongseon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea. The vascular flora in Banronsan (Mt.) were surveyed a total of four times-three times from May 2010 to October 2010, and once in August 2012. This result revealed 447 taxa in total: 89 families, 278 genera, 390 species, four subspecies, 47 varieties, and six form. In the flora of this area, 15 taxa were Korean endemic plants including Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai, Lysimachia coreana Naka...

  19. О НОВЫХ И НАИБОЛЕЕ РЕДКИХ ВИДАХ ТАМБОВСКОЙФЛОРЫ. СООБЩЕНИЕ 4

    Соколов, Александр; Соколова, Людмила

    2014-01-01

    В работе сообщаются сведения о новых (Astragalus pubiflorus (Pall.)) DC., Veronica persica Poir., Dipsacus strigosus Willd. ex Roem. et Schult.) и наиболее редких (Ephedra distachya L., Stipa lessingiana Trin. et Rupr., S. pulcherrima C. Koch, Rhynchospora alba (L.) Vahl, Carex humilis Leysser, Veratrum nigrum L., Anthericum ramosum L., Lilium martagon L., Ceratocarpus arenarius L., Arenaria procera Spreng., Silene sibirica (L.) Pers., Actaea spicata L., Aconitum anthora L., Clematis integrif...

  20. THE COPĂCEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN BĂLA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MUREŞ COUNTY

    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copăcel hill, between Băla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Pawł species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copăcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  1. 由青藤属植物、乌头、芍药等植物提取物组成的制剂治疗关节炎及疼痛

    高展(摘)

    2007-01-01

    本品由青藤属(Sinomenium spp.)植物、乌头Aconitum carmichaeli Debx.、芍药Paeonia lactiflora Pall.、牡丹Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.和姜黄Curcuma longa L.提取物组成。将上述植物粉碎后,用溶剂提取至少1次,提取液浓缩、合并即得。本品可治疗关节炎及相关的炎症(如类风湿性关节炎和强直性脊柱炎),缓解疼痛,也可作为营养物。

  2. Two new varieties of the Ranunculaceae from Sichuan%四川毛茛科两新变种

    张文锦; 陈光后

    2001-01-01

    @@1 彭州岩乌头 新变种 图1   Aconitum racemulosum Franch. Var. Pengzhouense W. J. Zhang et G. H. Chen, var. Nov. Fig. 1   A. Rhombifolium Chen var. Pengzhouense W. J. Chang et G. H. Chen in West China Journ. Pharm. Scien. 10(1): 54, fig. 2. 1995, nom. Nud.   A var. Racemuloso recedit carpellis folliculisque albido-puberulis, sepalis superioribus extra pubescentibus.   Sichuan (四川): Pengzhou (彭州),Dabao (大宝), Donglinsi (东林寺), alt. 2500 m, 1998-09-23, X. D. Zhang et al. (张晓冬等) 98-9-3 (holotype, PE, here designated; is otype, in Herbarium of School of Pharmacy, West China University of Medical Sciences (WCU)).

  3. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  4. The phylogenetic significance of fruit structures in ranunculaceae of china

    The external and internal structures of fruits from 95 taxa representing 27 Ranunculaceae genera of China were studied. The results show that Ranunculaceae could be divided into 4 groups based on the fruit types, epidermal surface, vascular bundle, mesocarp cell, and endocarp cell structures: Group 1: follicle or achene, branching or branching and anastomosing vascular bundles, mesocarp parenchyma, and endocarp with one layer of lignified cells (including Aconitum and other genera); Group 2: achene, vascular bundle branching, mesocarp lignified, endocarp with one layer of irregular and partly lignified cells (Thalictrum only); Group 3: achene, endocarp with multilayered thick-walled cells (including Adonis, Batrachium and Ranunculus); Group 4: achene, two non-branching vascular bundles, and endocarp with one layer of fibers (including Anemone, Clematis and Pulsatilla). This study show that the fruit structures of Ranunculaceae could provide morphological and anatomical evidences for molecular phylogeny. (author)

  5. Insecticidal activity of extracts from 1 0 species of plants against maj or pests of wolfberry in Ningxia%10种植物粗提物对枸杞主要害虫的杀虫活性

    王芳; 南宁丽; 周一万; 张蓉; 张兴

    2013-01-01

    试验选取宁夏地区10种植物粗提物对枸杞主要害虫枸杞蚜虫(Aphis sp.)、蓟马(Tetranychus kanza-wai )、木虱若虫(Poratrioza sinica )进行杀虫活性筛选.结果表明:披针叶黄华(Thermopsis lanceolata )、乳浆大戟(Euphorbia esula)、狼毒(Stellera camaejasme)和伏毛铁棒锤(Aconitum flavum)对枸杞主要害虫具有较好的杀虫活性,经过毒力回归分析,4种植物乙醇提取物对枸杞蚜虫的LC50值分别为258.90、303.79、529.73和822.90 mg/L,尤其以披针叶黄华和乳浆大戟效果较为明显,可进一步分离纯化,提高杀虫活性.%This paper reported bioactivity screening of extracts from 10 plants in Ningxia against major pests of wolfberry,including wolfberry aphids,thrips and psyllid nymph.The results showed that four spe-cies of plants which included Thermopsis lanceolata,Euphorbia esula,Stellera camaejasme,Aconitum fla-vum possessed strong biological activities against major pests on wolfberry.The regression analysis demon-strated,the LC50 of ethanol extracts from four species of plants to wolfberry aphids were 258.90,303.79, 529.73 and 822.90 mg/L,respectively especially T.lanceolata and E.esula,which were worth to be studied deeply.

  6. 商品白附片、黑顺片的质量分析%Quality analysis of the commodities Baifupian and Heishunpian

    王诒纯; 黄勤挽; 马逾英; 杨枝中

    2011-01-01

    目的 对商品白附片、黑顺片进行纯度分析,了解其质量现状.方法水分、灰分、总灰分、生物碱含量的测定采用《中国药典》2010年版附录方法;胆巴残留量的测定采用EDTA滴定法和银量法;各纯度指标间的相关性分析采用SPSS统计软件.结果通过分析50批样品,有19批水分含量高于现行药典规定的15%,最高为26.77%;总灰分最高为22.59%,最低为1.50%,平均8.23%;酸不溶性灰分最高为1.69%,最低为0.01%,平均0.18%;有13批单酯型生物碱的含量低于现行药典规定的0.01%,最低为0.004%;有12批双酯型生物碱的含量高于现行药典规定的0.02%,最高为0.11%.胆巴的残留量为0.64%~23.45%,正常加工的“清水片”为0.64% ~4.64%,平均2.21%;“含胆片”为5.77%~23.45%,平均10.77%.样品的含水量与胆巴残留量有显著的相关性;总灰分与胆巴残留最有高度显著的相关性;酸不溶性灰分、单酯型生物碱、双酯型生物碱含量与胆巴残留量均无相关性.结论文中方法为附子纯度指标的选择及限量规定提供了参考依据.%OBJECTIVE To analyse the purity of the commodities Baifupian and Heishunpian.to know about their quanlity. METHODS The content of water,total ash,acid insoluble ash and alklodid were examined by the methods of Chinese Pharmacopoeia( edition 2010). EDTA titration and argentometry were used to determine the residual content of danba. SPSS statistical software was utilized to analyse the correlation of impurities. RESULTS Though the analysis of 50 batches of samples,the water content of 19 baches were higher than the current phamacopoeia( 15% ) , with the highest value of 26.77% . The highest,minimum and average value of the total ash were 22.59% , 1.50% and 8.23% , respectively. The highest, minimum and average value of the acid insoluble ash were 1.69% , 0.01% and 0.18% , respectively. The content of the monoester - aconitum alkaloids in 13 batches were

  7. Simultaneous use of traditional Chinese medicine (Si-Ni-Tang to treat septic shock patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Wu Shin-Hwar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though there are continually upgraded recommendations for managing sepsis, such as "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock", mortality is still high. Si-Ni-Tang, a remedy documented in Shanghan Lun, a medical collection from ancient China, is used for treating patients with sepsis and septic shock. Using a well-designed clinical trial, we are eager to survey the effectiveness of the concurrent use of this remedy in restoring these patients' hemodynamic status, or "Yang Qi". Methods/Design Patients admitted to our medical intensive care units with the diagnosis of septic shock, defined as persistent hypotension induced by sepsis despite adequate fluid resuscitation, are eligible for participation. The inclusion criteria include: age from 20 to 85 years, conditions meeting the definition of septic shock, use of vasopressors within 24 hours of entering the study, and use of a nasogastric tube for feeding. The enrolled patients are randomly allocated either to the Si-Ni-Tang group or the placebo group. The prescription of the trial drugs (Si-Ni-Tang/placebo is 2.25 grams 4 times a day for 7 days or till shock reversal (if shock reversal occurs in less than 7 days. Data, including duration of vasopressor infusion, gender, age, co-morbidities, APACHE II score, predicted mortality, ICU mortality, ICU length of stay, hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, source of sepsis, and culture results, are collected for the following analysis. Discussion Si-Ni-Tang is composed of processed Zingiber officinale, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Aconitum carmichaeli. Zingiber officinale and Glycyrrhiza uralensis are found to have the ability to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production, to inhibit lipopolisaccharide-induced macrophage activation and function, and to lessen the bacterial load and suppress acute and chronic inflammation. Aconitum carmichaeli is known to have

  8. An optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for benzoylmesaconine determination in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi, aconite roots and its products

    Xu Hongxi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoylmesaconine (BMA is the main Aconitum alkaloid in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi, aconite roots with potent pharmacological activities, such as analgesia and anti-inflammation. The present study developed a simple and reliable method using BMA as a marker compound for the quality control of processed aconite roots and their products. Methods After extraction, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC determination of BMA was conducted on a RP-C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and aqueous phase, containing 0.1% phosphoric acid adjusted with triethylamine to pH 3.0. Results A distinct peak profile was obtained and separation of BMA was achieved. Method validation showed that the relative standard deviations (RSDs of the precision of BMA in all intra-day and inter-day assays were less than 1.36%, and that the average recovery rate was 96.95%. Quantitative analysis of BMA showed that the content of BMA varied significantly in processed aconite roots and their products. Conclusion This HPLC method using BMA as a marker compound is applicable to the quality control of processed aconite roots and their products.

  9. Serum Pharmacochemistry Analysis Using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS after Oral Administration to Rats of Shenfu Decoction

    Jia-le He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study the serum pharmacochemistry of SFD as well as the material basis through analyzing the constituents absorbed in blood. The SFD was orally administrated to Wistar rats at 20 g·kg−1, and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC fingerprints of SFD were created. Serum samples were collected for analysis, and further data processing used MarkerLynx XS software. 19 ginsenosides and 16 alkaloids were detected in SFD. The absorption of alkaloids (mainly monoester diterpenoid alkaloids increased when Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. was combined with Panax ginseng, while the ginsenosides remained stable. Diester diterpenoid alkaloids were not present in the serum samples. A suitable serum pharmacochemistry method was successfully established to study pharmacological effects and potential improvements in formulation. This may also be useful for toxicity reduction. We suspect that the increased absorption of the monoester diterpenoid alkaloids from the mixture of Panax and Radix, compared to the Panax only extract, may be the reason for the combination of the two herbs in popular medicine formulas in China.

  10. POPULATION STATUS ANDCONSERVATION PR IORITIZATION OF SOME THREATENED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KASHMIR HIMALAYAS

    Bilal Ahmad Baig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Himalaya is credited all over the world as a treasure ofmedicinal and aromatic plants, which in turn prove as treasures of bioactive agents. These medicinal plants taking refuge in the sub alpine and alpine zones are facing the brunt of varied threats. Strategies have been proposed by various environmentalists to conserve biodiversity at regional, national and global levels. Assessment of plant populations is one of the basic activities of conservation biology that can be mainly valuable for sustaining species with minor populations. In the present study, threat status of the 6 medicinal plant species (Arnebia benthamiI Wall. Ex G. Don, Meconopsis aculeate Royle, Rheum webbianum Royle, Aconitum heterophyllum Wallish Ex Royle, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle and Aquilegia fragrans Benth. have been assessed in accordance with IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria 2010 version 8.1 following Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels 2003 version 3.0criteria. Out of 6 species, 2 were categorized as vulnerable, 3 species as endangered and 1 species as critically endangered. The three factors of over exploitation, overgrazing and habitat degradation have been known as main threats to the medicinal plants. Consequently, monitoring of population and habitats, development of conservative protocol and establishment of species in-situ conditions has been proposed.

  11. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  12. Inhibitory effects by ayurvedic plants on prostate enlargement induced in rats

    Rahul K Dumbre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda recommends several plants and plant preparation for conditions of urogenital disorders as per its principles. Objectives: Ayurvedic plants Tamala (Cinnamomum tamala; Daruhalad (Berberis aristata; Ativish (Aconitum heterophyllum were studied for mechanisms of prostatic hyperplasia induced in rats. Materials and Methods: Prostatic enlargement was induced in castrated rats by testosterone injection s.c. for 21 days and simultaneously plants were dosed orally daily. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and prostate was removed; weight and volume of prostate was measured; histopathology performed. Inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan in rat hind paw and inhibition was studied by measuring rat paw oedema at different time points. Results: Tamala showed significant effect where it reduced prostatic enlargement and improved hyperplastic changes, while Daruhalad and Ativisha did not show any significant effect. All of them showed mild to moderate anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Study concludes that Tamala may benefit in prostate disorder by virtue of inhibition of androgen mechanisms in prostate and modulating inflammatory mediators in prostate. Daruhalad and Ativisha did not show any effect in this model of prostate enlargement while the anti-inflammatory effect may propose one of the useful properties when included in various formulations.

  13. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering periods and same main pollinators. The effects of abundance (5, 25 and 100 individuals and proximity (0 and 15 m of the alien on visitation rate, insect behaviour, pollen deposition and reproductive success of both natives were investigated during 2 flowering seasons. We used centred visitation rates as they can be directly interpreted as a positive or negative effect of the invasive.Both abundance and proximity of the alien increased bumblebee visitation rates to both natives. On the other hand, abundance of the exotic species had a slight negative effect on honeybee visits to natives while its proximity had no effect. The behaviour of bumblebees changed as visitors left significantly more often the native plants for I. glandulifera when its abundance increased. As a consequence of this “inconstancy”, bees deposited considerable quantities of alien pollen on native stigmas. Nevertheless, this interspecific pollen transfer did not decrease seed set in natives. Self-compatibility and high attractiveness of both native species probably alleviate the risk of altered pollinator services and reproductive success due to the invader in natural populations.

  14. Clinical study of the Immunoglobululin Enhancing effect of "Bala compound" on Infants.

    Appaji, Rao R; Sharma, R D; Katiyar, G P; Sai, Prasad A J V

    2009-01-01

    Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients ofAtibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. 'Bala compound" was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of 'Bala compoumd" PMID:22557316

  15. Clinical study of the Immunoglobululin Enhancing effect of “Bala compound” on Infants

    Appaji, Rao R.; Sharma, R.D.; Katiyar, G. P.; Sai, Prasad A.J.V.

    2009-01-01

    Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients of Atibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. ‘Bala compound” was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of ‘Bala compoumd” PMID:22557316

  16. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Stomach, Diabetes, and Ophthalmic Diseases in Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan

    Muhammad Waseem; M. Amin Ullah Shah; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Iqbal Muhammad; Rabia Afza; Saeeda Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The present paper represents the ethnopharmacological survey of Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan. The study revealed that 12 plant species belonging to 11 famihes were used for the treatment of stomach, diabetes and ophthalmic diseases by the local people in Sudhan GaB. Achillea millefolium, Aconitun heterophyllum, Berberis lycium, Polygonum amplexicaule, Mentha longifolia, Paeonia emodi, Plantago lanceolata were locally used for stomach related problemstreatment; Berberis lycium, Skimmia lareola, Solanum dulcamara for diabetes and Geranium wallichianum, Artemisia vulgaris, Solanum dulcamara, and Corydalis crassifolia used for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. Two species Berberis lycium and Solanum dulcamara have multipurpose value. Former is used to treat stomach as well as diabetes while latter is used to treat not only to diabetes but also ophthalmic diseases. According to IUCN categories, out of these 12 plant species collected and marketed, Polygonum amplexicaule and Paeonia emodi are endangered, Aconitum heterophyllum; Berberis lycium species are vulnerable while Plantago lanceolata and Skimmia lareola species are rare.The availability of these medicinal plants has decreased during the past 20 years and these are facing a drastic biotic pressure due to their extensive usage and non-scientific methods of collection. It is quite evident that these valuable native medicinal plants species are going to decline in number and ultimately will become extinct if no timely proper conservation strategies are adopted.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats

    Jiangang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT in myocardial infarction (MI rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses.

  18. Patch Departure Behavior of Bumble Bees: Rules and Mechanisms

    Dale E. Taneyhill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I present an increment-decay model for the mechanism of bumble bees' decision to depart from inflorescences. The probability of departure is the consequence of a dynamic threshold level of stimuli necessary to elicit a stereotyped landing reaction. Reception of floral nectar lowers this threshold, making the bee less likely to depart. Concurrently the threshold increases, making departure from the inflorescence more probable. Increments to the probability of landing are an increasing, decelerating function of nectar volume, and are worth less, in sequence, for the same amount of nectar. The model is contrasted to threshold departure rules, which predict that bees will depart from inflorescences if the amount of nectar in the last one or two flowers visited is below a given level. Field tests comparing the two models were performed with monkshood (Aconitum columbianum. Treated flowers contained a descending series of nectar volumes (6 to 0 L of 30 % sucrose solution. The more nectar that bees encountered in the treated flowers, the more likely they were to remain within the inflorescence after subsequently visiting one to three empty flowers. I discuss the differences between rules and mechanisms in regard to cognitive models of foraging behavior.

  19. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants

    Santosh Kumar Maurya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species, Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β-asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process.

  20. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants.

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Seth, Ankit; Laloo, Damiki; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Gautam, Dev Nath Singh; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species), Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β-asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process. PMID:26283803

  1. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF TRIKARSHIKA CHURNA: A POPULAR POLYHERBAL ANTIOXIDANT

    Jayanta kumar maji

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Ayurvedic lexicon highlights a polyherbal formulation Trikarshika for appetite enhancing, digestive, febiruge actions. Trikarshika is made of equal quantity of dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Root of Aconitum heterophyllum wall. and rhizome of Cyperus pangorei Linn. In present study polyherbal formulation Trikarshika in standardization context with in vitro antioxidant activity. Pharmacognostical study has been incorporated as qualitative standardization of raw materials used. Trikarshika stands with the 4.25% w/w of total ash and acid insoluble ash 3% may be due to its inorganic content. Trikarshika contains 15.9% w/w water soluble extractives, which indicate that it is easily soluble in water. Methanol extract of Trikarshika gives 9 and 7 spot on short long UV respectively when separated on planer chromatographic method, which indicate that its chemical components easily separable. Total phenolic content was given satisfactory linearity against gallic acid equivalents (R2 = 0.99. Total flavonoids content was given satisfactory linearity against quercetin equivalent (R2 = 0.98. Total tannin was estimated 2.11% w/w. These pharmacognostical, physicochemical and analytical parameter will help to establish further standards of Ayurvedic drugs assure their safety, purity and efficacy.

  2. Biological characteristics of 9 wild flower species seeds%9种野生花卉种子生物学特性研究

    王荷; 郝爽; 刘燕

    2009-01-01

    该文研究了9种野生花卉的千粒重、含水量、种子形态及种子萌发特性.试验结果表明,在设定的温度范围15~25 ℃内,种子萌发难易度有明显不同.大花剪秋萝(Lychnis fulgens)和狭苞橐吾(Ligularia intermedia)较易萌发,发芽历程短,萌发的最适温度分别为25 ℃和20 ℃,发芽率分别达到97.3%和100%;芹叶铁线莲(Clematis aethusifolia)、短尾铁线莲(Clematis brevicaudata)和棉团铁线莲(Clematis hexapetala)发芽历程长,种子始发芽晚,在20 ℃条件下发芽率均达到最高,分别为88%,84%和57.3%.野罂粟(Papaver nudicaule)、牛扁(Aconitum barbatum var puberlum)、草本威灵仙(Veronicastrum sibiricum)和金莲花(Trollius chinensis)发芽率低,在试验条件下种子最高萌发率分别为29%,20%,17%和4.0%.

  3. Poisonous Properties of Larkspur (Delphinium spp.

    Olsen, John D.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Some members of the tribe DelphineaeWarming are useful as forage for grazing cattle or as a source of medicaments for man. However, under certain circumstances their consumption results in poisoning, apparently because of norditerpenoid alkaloids. At least 150 diterpenoid alkaloids have been identified in Delphinium. In this report, factors influencing the alkaloid content and the toxicity of the plant are discussed. Relative change in content of eight alkaloids at four stages of growth of Delphinium occidentale (Watson Watson is reported . The most dominant alkaloids in nine species of Delphinium are listed. Toxicity of eight species was compared al the flower stage of growth using a mouse assay with D. barbeyi; (Huth Huth being about four times more toxic than D. glaucescens Rydb. or D. geyeri Greene and about ten times more toxic than Consolida CV., D. accidentale, or Aconitum columbianum var. columbianum Nutt. (vegetative stage. Stress by aphid infestation or relatively low water availability had little if any effect on toxicity of D. barbeyi and D. occidentale, respectively. From chemical analysis of D. barbeyi tested previously in cattle. the LD50 for a s ingle intraruminal dose of methyllycaconitine was estimated to be less than 6.3 mg/kg body wt.

    [ca] Alguns membres de la tribu Delphineae Warming són emprats com a farratge per a bestiar de pastura o com a font de medicaments per a l'home. Tanmateix, sota determinades circumstàncies, el seu consum esdevé intoxicació. aparentment per causa d'alcaloides norditerpènics. Al menys 150 alcaloides diterpènics han estat identificats en Delphinium. En aquest treball es discuteixen els factors que influeixen en el contingut alcalòidic, i, per tant, en la toxicitat de la planla. Es reporten els canvis relatius en el contingut de vuit alcaloides en Quatre estadis de

  4. Assays of homeopathic remedies in rodent behavioural and psychopathological models.

    Bellavite, Paolo; Magnani, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Conforti, Anita

    2009-10-01

    The first part of this paper reviews the effects of homeopathic remedies on several models of anxiety-like behaviours developed and described in rodents. The existing literature in this field comprises some fifteen exploratory studies, often published in non-indexed and non-peer-reviewed journals. Only a few results have been confirmed by multiple laboratories, and concern Ignatia, Gelsemium, Chamomilla (in homeopathic dilutions/potencies). Nevertheless, there are some interesting results pointing to the possible efficacy of other remedies, and confirming a statistically significant effect of high dilutions of neurotrophic molecules and antibodies. In the second part of this paper we report some recent results obtained in our laboratory, testing Aconitum, Nux vomica, Belladonna, Argentum nitricum, Tabacum (all 5CH potency) and Gelsemium (5, 7, 9 and 30CH potencies) on mice using ethological models of behaviour. The test was performed using coded drugs and controls in double blind (operations and calculations). After an initial screening that showed all the tested remedies (except for Belladonna) to have some effects on the behavioural parameters (light-dark test and open-field test), but with high experimental variability, we focused our study on Gelsemium, and carried out two complete series of experiments. The results showed that Gelsemium had several effects on the exploratory behaviour of mice, which in some models were highly statistically significant (p test performed. Finally, some methodological issues of animal research in this field of homeopathy are discussed. The "Gelsemium model" - encompassing experimental studies in vitro and in vivo from different laboratories and with different methods, including significant effects of its major active principle gelsemine - may play a pivotal rule for investigations on other homeopathic remedies. PMID:19945676

  5. The herbal extract KCHO-1 exerts a neuroprotective effect by ameliorating oxidative stress via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation.

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Song, Bong-Keun; Son, Ilhong; Kim, Dong-Woung; Kang, Dae-Gil; Lee, Ho-Sub; Oh, Hyuncheol; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-06-01

    KCHO-1 is a novel product comprised of 30% ethanol extracts obtained from nine medical herbs, which are commonly used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. The nine herbs include Curcuma longa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Gastrodia elata, Chaenomeles sinensis, Polygala tenuifolia, Paeonia japonica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Atractylodes japonica and processed Aconitum carmichaeli. Recent studies have reported the beneficial effects of these herbs. The present study aimed to investigate the direct neuroprotective effects of KCHO‑1 on HT22 mouse hippocampal cells, and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms. KCHO‑1 significantly suppressed glutamate‑ and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced cell damage, and reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, KCHO‑1 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of heme oxygenase (HO)‑1. Tin protoporphyrin, which is an inhibitor of HO activity, partially suppressed the effects of KCHO‑1. Furthermore, KCHO‑1 significantly upregulated nuclear factor erythroid‑derived 2‑related factor‑2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. Extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) activation also appeared to be associated with KCHO‑1‑induced HO‑1 expression, since the ERK inhibitor PD98059 suppressed HO‑1 expression and prevented KCHO‑1‑induced cytoprotection. The results of the present study suggested that KCHO‑1 may effectively prevent glutamate‑ or H2O2‑induced oxidative damage via Nrf2/ERK mitogen‑activated protein kinase‑dependent HO‑1 expression. These data suggest that KCHO‑1 may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27082826

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in an Italian cohort of pediatric headache patients: the tip of the iceberg.

    Dalla Libera, D; Colombo, B; Pavan, G; Comi, G

    2014-05-01

    The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in paediatric populations is considerably increased, especially for pain and chronic conditions, as demonstrated by epidemiological surveys both in Europe and in the USA. In our study, CAM was used in 76 % patients of a cohort of 124 children affected by headache (age 4-16 years; 67 % female; 70 % migraine without aura, 12 % migraine with aura, 18 % tensive headache according to IHS criteria) consecutively recruited at a Pediatric Headache University Center. CAM was used as preventive treatment in 80 % cases. The main reasons for seeking CAM were: the wish of avoiding chronic use of drugs with their related side effects, the desire of an integrated approach, the reported inefficacy of conventional medicine, and a more suitable children disposition to CAM than to pharmacological compound. Female gender, younger age, migraine without aura, parents' higher educational status, maternal use of CAM and other associated chronic conditions, correlated with CAM use (p minerals supplements (40 %) with magnesium, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, vitamin B6 or B12, Multivitamin compounds; Homeopathy (47 %) with Silicea, Ignatia Amara, Pulsatilla, Aconitum, Nux Vomica, Calcarea phosphorica; physical treatment (45 %) such as Ayurvedic massage, shiatsu, osteopathy; yoga (33 %); acupuncture (11 %). CAM-often integrated with conventional care-was auto-prescribed in 30 % of the cases, suggested by non-physician in 22 %, by the General Practitioner in 24 % and by paediatrician in 24 %. Both general practitioners and neurologists were mostly unaware of their patients' CAM use. In conclusion, neurologists should inquire for CAM use and be prepared to learn about CAM therapies or to directly interact with CAM trained experts, in order to coordinate an integrative approach to health, as especially required in paediatric headache patients and their parents. Further studies are required to investigate safety and efficacy of CAM in pediatric headache

  7. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic diversity of ranunculaceae medicinal compounds.

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Wang, Ping; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The wide-reaching distributed angiosperm family Ranunculaceae has approximately 2200 species in around 60 genera. Chemical components of this family include several representative groups: benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA), ranunculin, triterpenoid saponin and diterpene alkaloid, etc. Their extensive clinical utility has been validated by traditional uses of thousands of years and current evidence-based medicine studies. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies of plant-based natural products are an indispensable part of comprehensive medicinal plant exploration, which could facilitate conservation and sustainable utilization of Ranunculaceae pharmaceutical resources, as well as new chemical entity development with improved DMPK parameters. However, DMPK characteristics of Ranunculaceaederived medicinal compounds have not been summarized. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga) and goldenseal (Hydrastis) raise concerns of herbdrug interaction. DMPK studies of other Ranunculaceae genera, e.g., Nigella, Delphinium, Aconitum, Trollius, and Coptis, are also rapidly increasing and becoming more and more clinically relevant. In this contribution, we highlight the up-to-date awareness, as well as the challenges around the DMPK-related issues in optimization of drug development and clinical practice of Ranunculaceae compounds. Herb-herb interaction of Ranunculaceae herb-containing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula could significantly influence the in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds thereof, which may partially explain the complicated therapeutic mechanism of TCM formula. Although progress has been made on revealing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T) of Ranunculaceae compounds, there is a lack of DMPK studies of traditional medicinal genera Aquilegia, Thalictrum and Clematis. Fluorescent probe compounds could be promising substrate, inhibitor and/or inducer in future DMPK studies of Ranunculaceae compounds. A better

  8. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    Yang, Cuiping, E-mail: yangsophia76@hotmail.com; Zhang, Tianhong, E-mail: wdzth@sina.com; Li, Zheng, E-mail: lizh2524@126.com; Xu, Liang, E-mail: wj24998@163.com; Liu, Fei, E-mail: liufeipharm@163.com; Ruan, Jinxiu, E-mail: ruanjx1936@yahoo.com.cn; Liu, Keliang, E-mail: keliangliu55@126.com; Zhang, Zhenqing, E-mail: zhangzhenqingpharm@163.com

    2013-12-15

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup −5} to 2.85 × 10{sup −5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max

  9. Habitat Range of two Alpine Medicinal Plants in a Trans-Himalayan Dry Valley, Central Nepal

    Bharat Babu SHRESTHA; Pramod Kumar JHA

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the habitat range of threatened Himalayan medicinal plants which are declining in their abundance due to high anthropogenic disturbances is essential for developing conservation strategies and agro-technologies for cultivation. In this communication, we have discussed the habitat range of two alpine medicinal plants, Aconitum naviculare (Briihl) Stapf and Neopierorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennel) Hong in a trans-Himalayan dry valley of central Nepal, Manang district. They are the most prioritized medicinal plants of the study area in terms of ethnomedicinal uses. A. naviculare occurs on warm and dry south facing slopes between 4090-4650 m asl along with sclerophyllous and thorny alpine scrubs, while N. serophulariiflora is exclusively found on cool and moist north facing slope between 4o0o and 4400 m asl where adequate water is available from snow melt to create a suitable habitat for this wetland dependent species. The soil in rooting zone of the two plants differs significantly in organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N) and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Due to cool and moist condition of N. scrophulariiflora habitat, accumulation of soil OC is higher, but soil N content is lower probably due to slow release from litter, higher leaching loss and greater retention in perennial live biomass of the plant. The C/N ratio of soil is more suitable in A. navuculare habitat than that of N scrophulariiflora for N supply. Warm and sunny site with N rich soft can be suitable for cultivation of A. naviculare, while moist and cool site with organic soil for N. scrophulariiflora. The populations of both the plants are fragmented and small. Due to collection by human and trampling damage by livestock, the population of A. naviculare was found absent in open areas in five of the six sampling sites and it was confined only within the bushes of alpine scrubs. For N. serophulariiflora, high probability of complete receding of small glaciers may

  10. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10−5 to 2.85 × 10−5 cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–12h) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the Cmax and AUC of aconitine. • P

  11. Aconitine-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload causes arrhythmia and triggers apoptosis through p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rats

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Hong; Meng, Xiang-bao [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Hu, Jin; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Bo [Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Xu, Hui-bo, E-mail: xhb_6505@163.com [Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sun_xiaobo163@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Aconitine is a major bioactive diterpenoid alkaloid with high content derived from herbal aconitum plants. Emerging evidence indicates that voltage-dependent Na{sup +} channels have pivotal roles in the cardiotoxicity of aconitine. However, no reports are available on the role of Ca{sup 2+} in aconitine poisoning. In this study, we explored the importance of pathological Ca{sup 2+} signaling in aconitine poisoning in vitro and in vivo. We found that Ca{sup 2+} overload lead to accelerated beating rhythm in adult rat ventricular myocytes and caused arrhythmia in conscious freely moving rats. To investigate effects of aconitine on myocardial injury, we performed cytotoxicity assay in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), as well as measured lactate dehydrogenase level in the culture medium of NRVMs and activities of serum cardiac enzymes in rats. The results showed that aconitine resulted in myocardial injury and reduced NRVMs viability dose-dependently. To confirm the pro-apoptotic effects, we performed flow cytometric detection, cardiac histology, transmission electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay. The results showed that aconitine stimulated apoptosis time-dependently. The expression analysis of Ca{sup 2+} handling proteins demonstrated that aconitine promoted Ca{sup 2+} overload through the expression regulation of Ca{sup 2+} handling proteins. The expression analysis of apoptosis-related proteins revealed that pro-apoptotic protein expression was upregulated, and anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 expression was downregulated. Furthermore, increased phosphorylation of MAPK family members, especially the P-P38/P38 ratio was found in cardiac tissues. Hence, our results suggest that aconitine significantly aggravates Ca{sup 2+} overload and causes arrhythmia and finally promotes apoptotic development via phosphorylation of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. - Highlights: • Aconitine-induced Ca

  12. Experimental induced wound cicatrisation after highly diluted products treatment

    Dorly de Freitas Buchi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin is an attractive target to study extracellular matrix, due to abundance in Connective tissue. In cases of injuries the first step is an inflammatory reaction and subsequent the healing that involves several changes in the matrix. These changes are fundamental to inflammatory cells activities allowing healing. Highly diluted products were shown to facilitate inflammatory mediators and to activate immune cells in vivo and in vitro, thus it can be effective to wound healing. Aims: This study aims to evaluate highly diluted products effects on inflammation and cicatrization process. Methodology: Three compounds (M8 (Aconitum napellus 20dH, Arsenicum album 18dH, Asa foetida 20dH, Calcarea carbonica 16dH, Conium maculatum 17dH, Ipecacuanha 13dH, Phosphorus 20dH, Rhus toxicodendron 17dH, Silicea 20dH, Sulphur 24dH, Thuja occidentalis 19dH, M1 (Chelidonium majus 20dH, Cinnamon 20dH, Echinaceae purpurea 20dH, Gelsemium sempervirens 20dH plus all M8 compounds and Curcuma cH30 – simple product, were manipulated as a gel and applied on mice dorsal flank after incision and suture (approximately 1 cm and three points, for 3 consecutive days. After the treatments the scars were evaluated macroscopically, the animals were killed, the skin samples collected, fixed and processed for Hematoxilin-Eosin (HE and Masson Tricromic (to observe the collagen fibers type I. The slices were analyzed and images collected by a light microscope Olympus BX51 with camera attached Olympus DP72. Results: It was observed a higher and faster rate of tissue epithelization in the treated groups after three days of gel-product application. This could be observed in lower rates in the control group (no treatment - Figure 1 and 2. Regeneration and organization of connective tissue were proportional to epithelization the treated groups. We also observed evidences of changes in amount of neutrophils and fibroblasts, resulting in changes in the

  13. Oral, topical, and inhalation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 to treat inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs

    Carolina de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x, dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Aims: To describe different routes of M8 administration associated with oral pyroxican (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat dogs with IMC. Methodology: Three female dogs with 10 years old median age were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (HV-UFPR with cytological and clinical diagnosis of IMC. Patients were treated with oral (0.5 mL,q12h, topical (q12h and inhalatory (2 mL, q24h, through an ultrasonic inhalation device M8, and oral pyroxican (0.3mg/kg, q24h.Thoracic radiographs showed pulmonary metastasis in all dogs. Results: 7 days after initiating treatment all patients had clinical improvement. It was observed reduction on mammary glands inflammation and decreased pain sensitivity. One patient had 8 month of complete remission. The other two patients died 1 and 2 month after initial treatment. However none of the patients had pulmonary progressive disease, showed by radiographic examinations. Owners revealed treatment satisfaction in regards to quality of life improvement, easy M8 administration, good M8

  14. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    Shrestha Keshab P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest

  15. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 as adjuvant treatment of inflammatory mammary carcinoma in a dog

    Simone Domit Guérios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2,3]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of a 10%-20% concentration of Calcarea carbonica, Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album, Asa foetida, Conium maculatum, Ipecacuanha, Phosphorus, Rhus tox, Silicea, Sulphur, and Thuya occidentalis, all in decimal dilutions of Hahnemann in distilled water and submitted to vigorous shaking. Aim: Describe an association of M8 and piroxicam (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat a dog with IMC. Discussion: A 7 years old, mixed breed intact female dog was presented to the Federal University of Parana - Veterinary Hospital, Curitiba (HV-UFPR for mammary glands examination. The owners related inflammation of mammary glands with clinical course of approximately 10 days, which was treated for mastitis (cephalexin and metergoline without clinical improvement. Clinical examination revealed erythema, increased skin warmth, pain on palpation, and plaque involving the 4th and 5th right mammary glands. Abdominal ultrasound and serum biochemistry were unremarkable. Thoracic radiographs showed suspicious images of pulmonary metastasis. Fine needle biopsy was taken for cytologic examination. Cytological interpretation was a malignant epithelial neoplasm, probably a mammary carcinoma. Diagnosis of IMC was based on clinical signs and cytopathology. Dog was treated with oral (0.5 mL and topical M8 twice a day for 15 days, and pyroxican, 0.3mg/kg, PO, q24h. Clinical improvement was observed 7 days after starting

  16. Aconitine-induced Ca2+ overload causes arrhythmia and triggers apoptosis through p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rats

    Aconitine is a major bioactive diterpenoid alkaloid with high content derived from herbal aconitum plants. Emerging evidence indicates that voltage-dependent Na+ channels have pivotal roles in the cardiotoxicity of aconitine. However, no reports are available on the role of Ca2+ in aconitine poisoning. In this study, we explored the importance of pathological Ca2+ signaling in aconitine poisoning in vitro and in vivo. We found that Ca2+ overload lead to accelerated beating rhythm in adult rat ventricular myocytes and caused arrhythmia in conscious freely moving rats. To investigate effects of aconitine on myocardial injury, we performed cytotoxicity assay in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), as well as measured lactate dehydrogenase level in the culture medium of NRVMs and activities of serum cardiac enzymes in rats. The results showed that aconitine resulted in myocardial injury and reduced NRVMs viability dose-dependently. To confirm the pro-apoptotic effects, we performed flow cytometric detection, cardiac histology, transmission electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay. The results showed that aconitine stimulated apoptosis time-dependently. The expression analysis of Ca2+ handling proteins demonstrated that aconitine promoted Ca2+ overload through the expression regulation of Ca2+ handling proteins. The expression analysis of apoptosis-related proteins revealed that pro-apoptotic protein expression was upregulated, and anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 expression was downregulated. Furthermore, increased phosphorylation of MAPK family members, especially the P-P38/P38 ratio was found in cardiac tissues. Hence, our results suggest that aconitine significantly aggravates Ca2+ overload and causes arrhythmia and finally promotes apoptotic development via phosphorylation of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. - Highlights: • Aconitine-induced Ca2+ overload causes arrhythmia in rats.

  17. Research on Molecular Mechanism of “Yin Asthenia with Internal Heat” in Asthenia Hot Syndrome Rats by Gene Chip Technology%基因芯片技术研究虚热证大鼠阴虚内热的分子机制

    韩冰冰; 王世军

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过基因芯片技术研究虚热证大鼠肝全基因表达谱的改变,阐释虚热证大鼠“阴虚内热”的分子机制.方法:使用中药复方附子、肉桂、干姜建立虚热证大鼠模型,应用基因芯片检测各组大鼠肝脏基因表达,筛选差异表达基因,进行基因功能分类注释,荧光定量PCR验证芯片结果.结果:虚热模型组与空白对照组比较有99条基因差异表达,主要涉及防御应答,固醇代谢等功能.结论:虚热证阴虚内热的分子机制可能与刺激应答相关基因及固醇代谢相关基因两类基因的异常表达相关.%To explain molecular mechanism of “Yin Asthenia with Internal Heat” in asthenia hot syndrome rats by analysis the whole gene expression profile of the hver in rats with asthenia hot syndrome.Methods:The Asthenia hot syndrome rats models were induced by compound preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Aconitum carmichaeli,Cinnamomi Cortex,Rhizoma Zingiberis.The liver gene expression in each group was detected by gene chip.We selected the differential expression genes and conducted the significant analysis on the genetic function of differential genes.A part of genes were selected to test the accuracy of results by RT-PCR.Results:As compared to the control group,in asthenia hot model group there were 99 strips of differential expression gene,mainly about function of defense response and sterol metabolic process.Conclusion:The abnormal expression of genes about defense response and sterol metabolic process in asthenia hot syndrome rats is possibly related to the substance foundation of asthenia hot syndrome.

  18. The Effects of Different Controlling Measures for Grassland Community in Nalati Grassland%不同防除措施对那拉提草地群落的影响

    陈净彤; 安沙舟; 王卫; 张鲜花; 邓丽茸

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究不同措施防除有毒植物白喉乌头(Aconitum leucostomum Worosch)对草地植物群落的影响,探究不同防除措施下白喉乌头与草地群落植物变化规律.[方法]应用草地生态学、草地资源学的理论及方法,选取7个不同措施处理的典型样地实地调查,2010年7月中旬测定植被相关指标,运用方差分析方法进行比较.[结果](1)各处理样地中白喉乌头种群的结构各指标在1%、5%水平下存在显著差异.(2)白喉乌头种群结构指标最小值均出现在放牧刈割及围栏挖除样地;围栏刈割与放牧挖除两个样地的处理对白喉乌头种群的控制效果次之.(3)各样地中的各经济类群重要值的方差比较显示,围栏刈割处理对草地植物群落有较好影响,样地中单子叶植物重要值能达到0.366±0.031的较高水平,豆科植物重要值达到0.057±0.023;围栏挖除控制毒草重要值的效果最好,能控制在0.02的较低水平;放牧刈割样地控制毒草重要值效果其次,能达到0.03.(4)草场质量指数分析发现,围栏处理及对毒草的各种控制措施对各样地的草场质量均存在1%水平下的显著影响,并且在1%水平下的呈现显著交互作用;草场质量指数最大值出现在围栏刈割样地1.296 2±0.049 6,围栏下再配合各种防治手段能较好的提高草地质量.[结论]放牧刈割、围栏挖除处理对白喉乌头种群控制效果较其他处理效果好;围栏刈割处理中草地优良牧草能达到较好水平;围栏挖除控制毒草重要值的效果最好;围栏刈割处理样地草场质量指数最高.%[ Objective ] For the different controlling measures of poisonous plants Aconitum leucostomum on grassland plant community. Exploring the different controlling measures effects on the A. leucostomum in grassland community. [ Method ] Application of grassland ecology, grassland resource theory and methods, the seven different measures were

  19. Flora of Wild Seed Plants in Yundingshan Nature Reserve in Shanxi%山西云顶山自然保护区野生种子植物区系研究

    刘莹; 张峰; 梁小明; 张伟林

    2012-01-01

    relationship in the floristic elements and vegetation components between Yundingshan Nature Reserve and Pangquangou Nature Reserve, less similarity with Wutai Mountains,and the least similarity with Zhongtiao Mountains. Moreover, G/yc/ne soja being under the national first class protection, and Aconitum smithii, Rhodiola rosea and Codonopsis pilosula being under provincial protection were also found during this study.

  20. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Tangjang Sumpam

    2011-10-01

    religious scripts in Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.

  1. Species Diversity and Population Status of Threatened Plants in Different Landscape Elements of the Rohtang Pass,Western Himalaya

    K.N.Singh; Gopichand; Amit Kumar; Brij Lal; N.P.Todaria

    2008-01-01

    .25 individuals/m2),Picrorhiza kurrooa(19.83 individuals/m2)and Rhododendron anthopogon(26.23 individuals/25m2)was highest.Aconitum heterophyllum was recorded for the lowest density(1 individual/m2).It was observed that the distribution of medicinal plants was very habitat-specific.Lower soil pH in most of the LSEs reflected its acidic nature.A significant positive correlation of Shannon diversity was found with soil organic matter,carbon content available and total nitrogen.Considering the continuous pressure of anthropogenie activities,this paper suggests effective ecotourism planning and plant conservation mechanisms to protect valuable plant bioresource at the Rohtang Pass.

  2. Evaluation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 on milk parameters in the dairy cow

    Daniel Ollhoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Any dairy herd that continually has a somatic cell count (SCC above 200,000 cells/ml has an indication of mammary gland inflammation (mastitis. Routine use of antibiotics to prevent mastitis is prohibited by organic farming regulations. This limitation has lead researchers to focus on cows natural defense mechanisms [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x. Dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. This medication has enhanced immune system responses both in vitro and in vivo in a murine model [2]. Aims In the present study, we investigate the response of dairy cows after M8 treatment. Methodology The study was performed as a randomized, observer double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, with a stratified design, using lactation number and SCC as stratification factors. The study sample consisted of 42 lactating dairy cows (Holstein in one high producing dairy herd with 52 cows in milk in southern Brazil, divided into two experimental groups (n=21. Exclusion criteria were cows with clinical mastitis or receiving any other medical treatment. Pre- and post-milking teat disinfection was practiced in the herd. All cows were clinically examined, with udder and milk samples being appraised according to Rosenberger (1990 [3]. During 3 months one group received daily M8 treatment, the other placebo. Oral administration of 5 ml/day/cow was performed using an automatic dosage dispenser. Monthly, milk production, SCC, fat and total protein content were carefully recorded for each animal by an official milk recording program. SCC were log transformed for analysis. ANOVA and Tukey test were

  3. Plausibility of the implausible: is it possible that ultra-high dilutions ‘without biological activity’ cause adverse effects?

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    intermediate to high propensity to produce at least one of the five symptoms that define ALTE, when given in homeopathic dilutions. Two of these (Veratrum album and Cuprum metallicum have an intermediate-to-high propensity to produce three of the four possible ALTE symptoms”. The authors conclude that “it is unlikely that the ALTE following ingestion of GCB was a toxic reaction to any of the drug’s component”, proposing the ‘homeopathic theory’ (pathogenetic manifestations [15] as explanation for this linkage. In view of these results, it can be inferred that AEs caused by homeopathic medicines at potencies ≥ 6C ‘are more closely related to the imponderable effects of ultra-high dilutions than the toxic (allergic effects of substances’. Accordingly, other case reports cited in that review described serious AEs with potencies of this magnitude, including the occurrence of ‘drug rash with eosinophilia and severe pulmonary involvement’ after using Sedativ PC (complex homeopathic medicine with 6 ingredients in 6CH [16], and the occurrence of ‘heart disease and bladder cancer’ with a complex homeopathic medicine in very high potencies (Aconitum napellus, Barytacarbonica, Cantharis vesicatoria, Gambogia, Pulsatilla nigricans and Rhus toxicodendron at 1000c, M or 10M potencies [17], discarding any influence of ‘toxicity of substances’. Similarly, in a systematic review on information regarding adverse effects of homeopathic medicines including 19 reports of clinical trials, 19 case (or case series reports and 15 homeopathic pathogenetic trials, Dantas and Rampes [18] concluded that “the mean incidence of AEs of homeopathic medicines (ultra-high dilutions was greater than placebo (9.4/6.1 in controlled clinical trials”, including mostly headaches, tiredness, skin eruptions, dizziness, bowel dysfunction such as diarrhea or loose stools and, more frequently, aggravations of symptoms following the administration of homeopathic medicines. Countering

  4. 脾阳虚证大鼠棕色脂肪组织和解偶联蛋白1关联性的研究%Experimental Research on Relationship between Brown Adipose Tissue and Uncoupling Protein 1 in Rats with Spleen Yang Deficiency Syndrome

    吴云起; 唐汉庆; 吴翠松; 劳传君; 庞广福

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship and mechanism about brown adipose tissue, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), high fatty diet and Chinese herbal decoction during the process of energy metabolism. Method: Rats were divided into four groups (n = 16 each). ①Control group was fed with ordinary food, also ig given 0.9% NaCl 10 g·kg-1 during d70-d98 daily. The ability of ISO deducing heat generating was tested on d98, and the curve of the rectal temperature was monitored, and the peak within two hours and the area under the curve were determined.②Yang deficiency syndrome group: the same procedure was carried out as the control group except removing brown adipose tissue on d42. ③Spleen yang deficiency syndrome group: the same procedure was carried out as the yang deficiency syndrome group except of being fed with high fatty diet (including 83% ordinary diet,15% triglycerides,2% cholesterol) from d49 to d98 and placed in 19 ℃ environment every other day. ④Chinese herbal decoction group: the same procedure was carried out as the spleen yang deficiency syndrome group except giving 4 g·kg-1 ig daily with Aconitum Lizhong decoction and the body weight was measured every week. The index of the weight growth rate, the peak of temperature and the area under the temperature curve were all investigated. The content of UCP1 was determined by using brown adipose tissue. Result: ①Weight growth rate: compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, weight growth rate in spleen yang deficiency syndrome group was lower( P < 0. 01 ); compared with spleen yang deficiency syndrome group, weight growth rate was higher in the Chinese herbal decoction group (P < 0.01 ). ②Temperature: compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, the temperature peak of heat generating in spleen yang deficiency syndrome group was higher(P < 0.01 ); compared with spleen yang deficiency syndrome group, temperature peak of heat generating was higher in Chinese herbal decoction group ( P