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Sample records for acoel isodiametra pulchra

  1. The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela with a discussion on the neuroanatomy of the Xenacoelomorpha and its evolutionary implications

    Achatz Johannes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acoels are microscopic marine worms that have become the focus of renewed debate and research due to their placement at the base of the Bilateria by molecular phylogenies. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising “model acoel” as it can be cultured and gene knockdown can be performed with double-stranded RNA. Despite its well-known morphology data on the nervous system are scarce. Therefore we examined this organ using various microscopic techniques, including histology, conventional histochemistry, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry in combination with CLSM and discuss our results in light of recently established phylogenies. Results The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra consists of a bilobed brain with a dorsal posterior commissure, a frontal ring and tracts, four pairs of longitudinal neurite bundles, as well as a supramuscular and submuscular plexus. Serotonin-like immunoreactivity (SLI is displayed in parts of the brain, the longitudinal neurite bundles and a large part of the supramuscular plexus, while FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (RFLI is displayed in parts of the brain and a distinct set of neurons, the longitudinal neurite bundles and the submuscular plexus. Despite this overlap SLI and RFLI are never colocalized. Most remarkable though is the presence of a distinct functional neuro-muscular system consisting of the statocyst, tracts, motor neurons and inner muscles, as well as the presence of various muscles that differ with regard to their ultrastructure and innervation. Conclusions The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra consists of an insunk, bilobed brain, a peripheral part for perception and innervation of the smooth body-wall musculature as well as tracts and motor neurons that together with pseudostriated inner muscles are responsible for steering and quick movements. The insunk, bilobed brains with two to three commissures found in numerous acoels are homologous and

  2. To be or not to be a flatworm: the acoel controversy.

    Bernhard Egger

    Full Text Available Since first described, acoels were considered members of the flatworms (Platyhelminthes. However, no clear synapomorphies among the three large flatworm taxa -- the Catenulida, the Acoelomorpha and the Rhabditophora -- have been characterized to date. Molecular phylogenies, on the other hand, commonly positioned acoels separate from other flatworms. Accordingly, our own multi-locus phylogenetic analysis using 43 genes and 23 animal species places the acoel flatworm Isodiametra pulchra at the base of all Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. By contrast, novel data on the distribution and proliferation of stem cells and the specific mode of epidermal replacement constitute a strong synapomorphy for the Acoela plus the major group of flatworms, the Rhabditophora. The expression of a piwi-like gene not only in gonadal, but also in adult somatic stem cells is another unique feature among bilaterians. These two independent stem-cell-related characters put the Acoela into the Platyhelminthes-Lophotrochozoa clade and account for the most parsimonious evolutionary explanation of epidermal cell renewal in the Bilateria. Most available multigene analyses produce conflicting results regarding the position of the acoels in the tree of life. Given these phylogenomic conflicts and the contradiction of developmental and morphological data with phylogenomic results, the monophyly of the phylum Platyhelminthes and the position of the Acoela remain unresolved. By these data, both the inclusion of Acoela within Platyhelminthes, and their separation from flatworms as basal bilaterians are well-supported alternatives.

  3. Posterior regeneration in Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha)

    Perea-Atienza, Elena; Botta, Maria; Salvenmoser, Willi; Gschwentner, Robert; Egger, Bernhard; Kristof, Alen; Martinez, Pedro; Achatz, Johannes Georg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Regeneration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but the capacity to restore damaged or missing tissue varies greatly between different phyla and even within the same phylum. However, the distantly related Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes share a strikingly similar stem-cell system and regenerative capacity. Therefore, comparing the underlying mechanisms in these two phyla paves the way for an increased understanding of the evolution of this developmental process. T...

  4. Acoel flatworms are not platyhelminthes: evidence from phylogenomics.

    Hervé Philippe

    Full Text Available Acoel flatworms are small marine worms traditionally considered to belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that acoels are not members of Platyhelminthes, but are rather extant members of the earliest diverging Bilateria. This result has been called into question, under suspicions of a long branch attraction (LBA artefact. Here we re-examine this problem through a phylogenomic approach using 68 different protein-coding genes from the acoel Convoluta pulchra and 51 metazoan species belonging to 15 different phyla. We employ a mixture model, named CAT, previously found to overcome LBA artefacts where classical models fail. Our results unequivocally show that acoels are not part of the classically defined Platyhelminthes, making the latter polyphyletic. Moreover, they indicate a deuterostome affinity for acoels, potentially as a sister group to all deuterostomes, to Xenoturbellida, to Ambulacraria, or even to chordates. However, the weak support found for most deuterostome nodes, together with the very fast evolutionary rate of the acoel Convoluta pulchra, call for more data from slowly evolving acoels (or from its sister-group, the Nemertodermatida to solve this challenging phylogenetic problem.

  5. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    Sprecher, Simon G; Bernardo-Garcia, F Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  6. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    Simon G. Sprecher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths.

  7. Graptemys pulchra Baur 1893: Alabama Map Turtle

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Godwin, James C.; McCoy, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Alabama Map Turtle, Graptemys pulchra (Family Emydidae), is a moderately large riverine species endemic to the Mobile Bay drainage system of Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Sexual size dimorphism is pronounced, with adult females (carapace length [CL] to 273 mm) attaining more than twice the size of adult males (CL to 117 mm). The species is an inhabitant of relatively large, swift creeks and rivers, often with wide sandbars. Stream sections open to the sun and with abundant basking sites in the form of logs and brush are preferred. Six to seven clutches of 4–7 eggs are laid each year on river sandbars. Although the species is locally abundant, populations are threatened by habitat destruction, declines in their prey base, commercial collection, and vandalism. It is listed as a Species of Special Concern in Alabama.

  8. Chemical mediation of bacterial surface colonisation by secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra

    Maximilien, Ria; de Nys, Rocky; Holmström, Carola; Gram, Lone; Givskov, Michael Christian; Crass, Kathy; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Steinberg, Peter

    1998-01-01

    . pulchra the most. As inhibition of growth did not provide an adequate explanation for the inverse relationship between levels of furanones and bacteria abundance on D. pulchra, we proceeded to investigate the effects of these metabolites on other bacterial characteristics relevant to colonisation...

  9. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Cuspidaria pulchra and isolated compounds.

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; Bertanha, Camila S; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Tavares, Denise C; Gimenez, Valéria M M; Silva, Márcio L A; Cunha, Wilson R; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated the in vitro inhibitory activity of the crude ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of Cuspidaria pulchra (Cham.) L.G. Lohmann against 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). The bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-butanol fraction, which displayed the highest activity, led to the isolation of three compounds: caffeoylcalleryanin (1), verbascoside (2) and 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (3). Assessment of the ability of the isolated compounds to inhibit 15-LOX revealed that compounds 1, 2 and 3 exerted strong 15-LOX inhibitory activity; IC50 values were 1.59, 1.76 and 2.35 μM respectively. The XTT assay showed that none of the isolated compounds seemed to be significantly toxic. PMID:25428032

  10. Chemical mediation of bacterial surface colonisation by secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra

    Maximilien, Ria; de Nys, Rocky; Holmström, Carola;

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of halogenated furanones from the red alga Delisea pulchra on colonisation of surfaces by marine bacteria. Bacterial abundance on the surface of D. pulchra, assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was significantly lower than on the surfaces of 3 co-occurrin......We investigated the effects of halogenated furanones from the red alga Delisea pulchra on colonisation of surfaces by marine bacteria. Bacterial abundance on the surface of D. pulchra, assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was significantly lower than on the surfaces of 3 co...... experimentally investigated inhibition of marine bacteria by furanones, initially testing the effects of crude extract of D. pulchra (about 50 % of which is furanones) on the growth of 144 strains of bacteria isolated from the surfaces of D. pulchra, nearby rocks, or a co-occurring alga (Sasgassum vestitum......, suggesting that swarming may be ecologically important in these systems. Overall, we found that the effects of furanones on bacteria varied among (1) furanones, (2) bacterial phenotypes, (3) different isolates and (4) different sources of isolation (e.g. rocks or algae). This differential inhibition of...

  11. Structure of the central nervous system of a juvenile acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    Bery, Amandine; Cardona, Albert; Martinez, Pedro; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-09-01

    The neuroarchitecture of Acoela has been at the center of morphological debates. Some authors, using immunochemical tools, suggest that the nervous system in Acoela is organized as a commissural brain that bears little resemblance to the central, ganglionic type brain of other flatworms, and bilaterians in general. Others, who used histological staining on paraffin sections, conclude that it is a compact structure (an endonal brain; e.g., Raikova 2004; von Graff 1891; Delage Arch Zool Exp Gén 4:109-144, 1886). To address this question with modern tools, we have obtained images from serial transmission electron microscopic sections of the entire hatchling of Symsagittifera roscoffensis. In addition, we obtained data from wholemounts of hatchlings labeled with markers for serotonin and tyrosinated tubulin. Our data show that the central nervous system of a juvenile S. roscoffensis consists of an anterior compact brain, formed by a dense, bilobed mass of neuronal cell bodies surrounding a central neuropile. The neuropile flanks the median statocyst and contains several types of neurites, classified according to their types of synaptic vesicles. The neuropile issues three pairs of nerve cords that run at different dorso-ventral positions along the whole length of the body. Neuronal cell bodies flank the cords, and neuromuscular synapses are abundant. The TEM analysis also reveals different classes of peripheral sensory neurons and provides valuable information about the spatial relationships between neurites and other cell types within the brain and nerve cords. We conclude that the acoel S. roscoffensis has a central brain that is comparable in size and architecture to the brain of other (rhabditophoran) flatworms. PMID:20549514

  12. How Delisea pulchra furanones affect quorum sensing and swarming motility in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    Rasmussen, T B; Manefield, M; Andersen, J B;

    2000-01-01

    Halogenated furanones produced by the benthic marine macroalga Delisea pulchra inhibit swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1. This study demonstrates that exogenously added furanones control transcription of the quorum sensing regulated gene swrA in competition with the cognate signal mo...

  13. Dissociation of Circadian and Circatidal Timekeeping in the Marine Crustacean Eurydice pulchra

    Zhang, L.; Hastings, M. H.; Green, E. W.; Tauber, E.; Sládek, Martin; Webster, S. G.; Kyriacou, C. P.; Wilcockson, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 19 (2013), s. 1863-1873. ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : tidal rhythms * circadian rhythms * circatidal oscillator * Eurydice pulchra * casein kinase 1 * clock genes, chromatophore Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.916, year: 2013

  14. BOMBACACEAE NEOTROPICAE NOVAE VEL MINUS COGNITAE VII. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE PACHIRA PULCHRA PLANCH. & LIND. EX TRIANA & PLANCH

    FERNÁNDEZ-ALONSO JOSÉ LUIS

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aclara la identidad de Pachira pulchra, especie poco conocida descrita del nortede la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia y se complementa su descripción al darse aconocer sus frutos y semillas. Se incluye una clave para el grupo de especiesandinas del género Pachira, relacionadas con la que se comenta en este trabajo.

  15. Bombacaceae neotropicae novae vel minus cognitae vii. redescubrimiento de pachira pulchra planch. & lind. ex triana & planch

    Fernández-Alonso, José Luis; Sánchez Montaño, Luis Roberto; GALINDO-T., ROBINSON

    2013-01-01

    Se aclara la identidad de Pachira pulchra, especie poco conocida descrita del nortede la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia y se complementa su descripción al darse aconocer sus frutos y semillas. Se incluye una clave para el grupo de especiesandinas del género Pachira, relacionadas con la que se comenta en este trabajo.

  16. BOMBACACEAE NEOTROPICAE NOVAE VEL MINUS COGNITAE VII. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE PACHIRA PULCHRA PLANCH. & LIND. EX TRIANA & PLANCH

    FERNÁNDEZ-ALONSO JOSÉ LUIS; SÁNCHEZ MONTAÑO LUIS ROBERTO; GALINDO-T. ROBINSON

    2003-01-01

    Se aclara la identidad de Pachira pulchra, especie poco conocida descrita del nortede la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia y se complementa su descripción al darse aconocer sus frutos y semillas. Se incluye una clave para el grupo de especiesandinas del género Pachira, relacionadas con la que se comenta en este trabajo.

  17. Fildesia Pulchra,, gen. et sp. nov.-Leaf fossil from lower Tertiary from Fildes peninsula, King George Island, Antartic

    The present paper describes Fildesia pulchra gen. et sp. nov., a compound leaf collected at Fossils Hill, Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica) in vulcanoclastics of probably early Tertiary age. (author)

  18. Characteristics of hemolytic activity induced by skin secretions of the frog Kaloula pulchra hainana

    Wei, Shuangshuang; Chi, Tingting; Meng, Aiyun; Chen, Congwei; An, Tianchen; Wang, Manchuriga; Zhang, Yingxia

    2013-01-01

    Background The hemolytic activity of skin secretions obtained by stimulating the frog Kaloula pulchra hainana with diethyl ether was tested using human, cattle, rabbit, and chicken erythrocytes. The skin secretions had a significant concentration-dependent hemolytic effect on erythrocytes. The hemolytic activity of the skin secretions was studied in the presence of osmotic protectants (polyethylene glycols and carbohydrates), cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, and K+), or antioxidants (ascorbic...

  19. Survival, regeneration and leaf biomass changes in woody plants following spring burns in Burkea africana—Ochna pulchra Savanna*

    M. C. Rutherford

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two intensities of spring burn on various aspects of woody plants of a Burkea africana—Ochna pulchra Savanna after one growth season are given. Mortality of woody plants was very low with, for example, that of individuals of Ochna pulchra being between 1 and 5%. Some species where the above-ground parts were often burned away completely, as in  Grewia flavescens, no mortality of individuals occurred. Basal regeneration shoot mass was found to depend parabolically on plant height while the ratio of leaf to twig mass in basal shoot regeneration varied inversely with plant height in  Ochna pulchra. The ability of  Ochna pulchra plants to produce new basal shoots appeared to not only depend on size of the plant but also on the number of basal shoots present prior to the fire. In live Ochna pulchra plants basal regeneration shoot biomass per individual was found to increase exponentially with greater reduction in canopy leaf biomass. This relation was also affected by possible direct heat effects. Basal shoot regeneration mass was found to vary greatly with species and varied from 0,7 g/individual for  Dichapetalum cymosum to 285,6 g/individual for Euclea natalensis. There was a clear tendency for non-suffrutex shrub species to have greater mean basal regeneration shoot mass per plant than that of most tree species. There was a compensatory effect in  Ochna pulchra between number and size of basal regeneration shoots. Standing dead woody plant individuals (before the burn were either felled by fire or apparently unaffected by fire and there was no selectivity by species. Results of the present study are generally supported by other work on the effects of fire in savanna and some other vegetation types.

  20. Inhibitory effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra on swarming motility of Proteus mirabilis

    Gram, Lone; de Nys, R.; Maximilien, R.; Givskov, Michael Christian; Steinberg, P.; Kjelleberg, S.

    1996-01-01

    Abnormal, uncoordinated swarming motility of the opportunistic human pathogen Proteus mirabilis was seen when a crude extract of the Australian red alga Delisea pulchra was added to the medium, This occurred at concentrations at which growth rate, swimming motility, cell elongation, polynucleation...

  1. Inhibitory effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra on swarming motility of Proteus mirabilis

    Gram, Lone; de Nys, R.; Maximilien, R.;

    1996-01-01

    Abnormal, uncoordinated swarming motility of the opportunistic human pathogen Proteus mirabilis was seen when a crude extract of the Australian red alga Delisea pulchra was added to the medium, This occurred at concentrations at which growth rate, swimming motility, cell elongation, polynucleation...... of furanones on swarming motility by P. mirabilis...

  2. Community structure and functional gene profile of bacteria on healthy and diseased thalli of the red seaweed Delisea pulchra.

    Neil Fernandes

    Full Text Available Disease is increasingly viewed as a major factor in the ecology of marine communities and its impact appears to be increasing with environmental change, such as global warming. The temperate macroalga Delisea pulchra bleaches in Southeast Australia during warm summer periods, a phenomenon which previous studies have indicated is caused by a temperature induced bacterial disease. In order to better understand the ecology of this disease, the bacterial communities associated with threes type of samples was investigated using 16S rRNA gene and environmental shotgun sequencing: 1 unbleached (healthy D. pulchra 2 bleached parts of D. pulchra and 3 apparently healthy tissue adjacent to bleached regions. Phylogenetic differences between healthy and bleached communities mainly reflected relative changes in the taxa Colwelliaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Thalassomonas and Parvularcula. Comparative metagenomics showed clear difference in the communities of healthy and diseased D. pulchra as reflected by changes in functions associated with transcriptional regulation, cation/multidrug efflux and non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. Importantly, the phylogenetic and functional composition of apparently healthy tissue adjacent to bleached sections of the thalli indicated that changes in the microbial communities already occur in the absence of visible tissue damage. This shift in unbleached sections might be due to the decrease in furanones, algal metabolites which are antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing. This study reveals the complex shift in the community composition associated with bleaching of Delisea pulchra and together with previous studies is consistent with a model in which elevated temperatures reduce levels of chemical defenses in stressed thalli, leading to colonization or proliferation by opportunistic pathogens or scavengers.

  3. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; V.M.M. Gimenez; P.M. Pauletti; M. Groppo; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W. R.; C.H.G. Martins

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial ac...

  4. Effects of temperature stress and aquarium conditions on the red macroalga Delisea pulchra and its associated microbial community

    Enrique eZozaya-Valdés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increase in the rate and severity of diseases affecting habitat-forming marine organisms, such as corals, sponges and macroalgae. Delisea pulchra is a temperate red macroalga that suffers from a bleaching disease that is more frequent during summer, when seawater temperatures are elevated and the alga’s chemical defense is weakened. A bacterial cause for the disease is implied by previous studies showing that some isolated strains can cause bleaching in vitro and that host-associated microbial communities are distinct between diseased and healthy individuals. However, nothing is known about the successional events in the microbial community that occur during the development of the disease. To study this aspect in the future, we aimed here to develop an experimental setup to study the bleaching disease in a controllable aquarium environment. Application of a temperature stress (up to 27° C did not cause a clear and consistent pattern of bleaching, suggesting that temperature alone might not be the only or main factor to cause the disease. The results also showed that the aquarium conditions alone seem to be sufficient to produce bleaching symptoms. Microbial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting and sequencing showed significant changes after 15 days in the aquarium, indicating that the native microbial associates of D. pulchra are not stably maintained. Microbial taxa that were enriched in the aquarium-held D. pulchra thalli, however did not match on a taxonomic level those that have been found to be enriched in natural bleaching events. Together our observations indicate that environmental factors, other than the ones investigated here, might drive the bleaching disease in D. pulchra and that the aquarium conditions have substantial impact on the algal-associated microbiome.

  5. Effects of Temperature Stress and Aquarium Conditions on the Red Macroalga Delisea pulchra and its Associated Microbial Community

    Zozaya-Valdés, Enrique; Roth-Schulze, Alexandra J.; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the rate and severity of diseases affecting habitat-forming marine organisms, such as corals, sponges, and macroalgae. Delisea pulchra is a temperate red macroalga that suffers from a bleaching disease that is more frequent during summer, when seawater temperatures are elevated and the alga’s chemical defense is weakened. A bacterial cause for the disease is implied by previous studies showing that some isolated strains can cause bleaching in vitro and that host-associated microbial communities are distinct between diseased and healthy individuals. However, nothing is known about the successional events in the microbial community that occur during the development of the disease. To study this aspect in the future, we aimed here to develop an experimental setup to study the bleaching disease in a controllable aquarium environment. Application of a temperature stress (up to 27°C) did not cause a clear and consistent pattern of bleaching, suggesting that temperature alone might not be the only or main factor to cause the disease. The results also showed that the aquarium conditions alone are sufficient to produce bleaching symptoms. Microbial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting and sequencing showed significant changes after 15 days in the aquarium, indicating that the native microbial associates of D. pulchra are not stably maintained. Microbial taxa that were enriched in the aquarium-held D. pulchra thalli, however, did not match on a taxonomic level those that have been found to be enriched in natural bleaching events. Together our observations indicate that environmental factors, other than the ones investigated here, might drive the bleaching disease in D. pulchra and that the aquarium conditions have substantial impact on the alga-associated microbiome. PMID:26925036

  6. Isopimarane diterpenoids from Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes collected in Myanmar and their Vpr inhibitory activity.

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ito, Takuya; Matsui, Takashi; Aimaiti, Simayijiang; Kodama, Takeshi; Ngwe, Hla; Okamoto, Yasuko; Tanaka, Masami; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory gene of HIV-1, plays important roles in viral pathogenesis. Screening of Myanmar medicinal plants that are popular as primary treatments for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems revealed the potent anti-Vpr activity of the CHCl3-soluble extract of Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes, in comparison with that of the positive control, damnacanthal. Fractionation of the active CHCl3-soluble extract led to the identification of 30 isopimarane diterpenoids, including kaempulchraols A-W (1-23). All isolates were assayed for anti-Vpr activity against TREx-HeLa-Vpr cells, in which Vpr expression is tightly regulated by tetracycline. Kaempulchraols B (2), D (4), G (7), Q (17), T (20), U (21), and W (23) exhibited potent anti-Vpr activity, at concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 6.25μM. The structure-activity relationships of the active kaempulchraols suggested that the presence of a hydroxy group at C-14 in an isopimara-8(9),15-diene skeleton and the presence of an acetoxy group at C-1 or C-7 in an isopimara-8(14),15-diene skeleton are the critical factors for the inhibitory effects against TREx-HeLa-Vpr cells. PMID:26916438

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mottled skate: Raja pulchra (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Jeong, Dageum; Kim, Sung; Kim, Choong-Gon; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-05-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a mottled skate, Raja pulchra was sequenced as being circular molecules of 16,907 bp including 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and an AT-rich control region. The organization of the PCGs is the same as those found in other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand is composed of 29.8% A, 28.0% C, 27.9% T, and 14.3% G with a bias toward A + T slightly. Twelve of 13 PCGs are initiated by the ATG codon while COX1 starts with GTG. Only ND4 harbors the incomplete termination codon, TA. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA with the exception of [Formula: see text] which has a reduced DHU arm. This mitogenome will provide essential information for better phylogenetic resolution and precision of the family Rajidae and the genus Raja as well as for establishment of a fish stock recovery plan of the species. PMID:25317638

  8. Survival, regeneration and leaf biomass changes in woody plants following spring burns in Burkea africana—Ochna pulchra Savanna*

    M. C. Rutherford

    1981-01-01

    Effects of two intensities of spring burn on various aspects of woody plants of a Burkea africana—Ochna pulchra Savanna after one growth season are given. Mortality of woody plants was very low with, for example, that of individuals of Ochna pulchra being between 1 and 5%. Some species where the above-ground parts were often burned away completely, as in  Grewia flavescens, no mortality of individuals occurred. Basal regeneration shoot mass was found to depend parabolically on plant height wh...

  9. Redescription of Odontostilbe pulchra (Gill, 1858) (Teleostei: Characidae: Cheirodontinae), and description of two new species from the río Orinoco basin

    Cristina M. Bührnheim; Luiz R. Malabarba

    2007-01-01

    Odontostilbe pulchra, previously considered species inquirenda in Cheirodontinae and doubtfully assigned from the río Orinoco basin, is redescribed with the rediscovery of two syntypes. Originally described to the Island of Trinidad, O. pulchra is widespread in Venezuela, the río Orinoco basin, in smaller coastal drainages of northern South America, in the Lake Valencia system, and río Essequibo basin. A punctual occurrence in the upper rio Negro, near southernmost headwaters of the río Orino...

  10. Calcium isotope fractionation in coccoliths of cultured Calcidiscus leptoporus, Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera foliosa

    Gussone, Nikolaus; Langer, Gerald; Geisen, Markus; Steel, Blair A.; Riebesell, Ulf

    2007-08-01

    Four species of marine calcifying algae, the coccolithophores Calcidiscus leptoporus, Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera foliosa were grown in laboratory cultures under temperatures varying between 14 and 23 °C, and one species, C. leptoporus, under varying [CO 32-], ranging from 105 to 219 μmol/kg. Calcium isotope compositions of the coccoliths resemble in both absolute fractionation and temperature sensitivity previous calibrations of marine calcifying species e.g. Emiliania huxleyi (coccolithophores) and Orbulina universa (planktonic foraminifera) as well as inorganically precipitated CaCO 3, but also reveal small species specific differences. In contrast to inorganically precipitated calcite, but similar to E. huxleyi and O. universa, the carbonate ion concentration of the medium has no statistically significant influence on the Ca isotope fractionation of C. leptoporus coccoliths; however, combined data of E. huxleyi and C. leptoporus indicate that the observed trends might be related to changes of the calcite saturation state of the medium. Since coccoliths constitute a significant portion of the global oceanic CaCO 3 export production, the Ca isotope fractionation in these biogenic structures is important for defining the isotopic composition of the Ca sink of the ocean, one of the key parameters for modelling changes to the marine Ca budget over time. For the present ocean our results are in general agreement with the previously postulated and applied mean value of the oceanic Ca sink (Δ sed) of about - 1.3‰, but the observed inter- and intra-species differences point to possible changes in Δ sed through earth history, due to changing physico-chemical conditions of the ocean and shifts in floral and faunal assemblages.

  11. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury

    Tibouchina pulchra saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF) and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O3) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12,895 ppb h-1, respectively, for the three treatments. After 25 days of exposure (AOT40 = 3871 ppb h-1), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O3 chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 60 days of exposure (AOT40 = 910 ppb h-1). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 19% in NF + O3 and 1% in the NF treatment; and the average leaf area injured was 7% within the NF + O3 and 0.2% within the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was mostly explained by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r2 = 0.89; p < 0.05). - Tibouchina pulchra, a tropical species widely used in Brazilian landscapes as an ornamental tree, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone air pollution

  12. Genomes and virulence factors of novel bacterial pathogens causing bleaching disease in the marine red alga Delisea pulchra.

    Neil Fernandes

    Full Text Available Nautella sp. R11, a member of the marine Roseobacter clade, causes a bleaching disease in the temperate-marine red macroalga, Delisea pulchra. To begin to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underpinning the ability of Nautella sp. R11 to colonize, invade and induce bleaching of D. pulchra, we sequenced and analyzed its genome. The genome encodes several factors such as adhesion mechanisms, systems for the transport of algal metabolites, enzymes that confer resistance to oxidative stress, cytolysins, and global regulatory mechanisms that may allow for the switch of Nautella sp. R11 to a pathogenic lifestyle. Many virulence effectors common in phytopathogenic bacteria are also found in the R11 genome, such as the plant hormone indole acetic acid, cellulose fibrils, succinoglycan and nodulation protein L. Comparative genomics with non-pathogenic Roseobacter strains and a newly identified pathogen, Phaeobacter sp. LSS9, revealed a patchy distribution of putative virulence factors in all genomes, but also led to the identification of a quorum sensing (QS dependent transcriptional regulator that was unique to pathogenic Roseobacter strains. This observation supports the model that a combination of virulence factors and QS-dependent regulatory mechanisms enables indigenous members of the host alga's epiphytic microbial community to switch to a pathogenic lifestyle, especially under environmental conditions when innate host defence mechanisms are compromised.

  13. Halogenated furanones from the red alga, Delisea pulchra, inhibit carbapenem antibiotic synthesis and exoenzyme virulence factor production in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora

    Manefield, M.; Welch, M.; Givskov, Michael Christian; Salmond, G.P.C.; Kjelleberg, S.

    2001-01-01

    The plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora regulates expression of virulence factors and antibiotic production via an N-3- oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) dependent quorum sensing mechanism. The marine alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones known to antagonise 3-oxo-C6-HSL...

  14. Redescription and taxonomical considerations about Aonchotheca (Aonchotheca) pulchra n. comb. (Enoplida: Trichuridae), a nematode of Nyctinomops spp.

    Cardia, Daniel Fontana Ferreira; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Fornazari, Felipe; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Langoni, Helio; Nascimento, Adjair Antônio do; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2014-01-01

    Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934) are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided. PMID:25271463

  15. Redescription of Odontostilbe pulchra (Gill, 1858 (Teleostei: Characidae: Cheirodontinae, and description of two new species from the río Orinoco basin

    Cristina M. Bührnheim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Odontostilbe pulchra, previously considered species inquirenda in Cheirodontinae and doubtfully assigned from the río Orinoco basin, is redescribed with the rediscovery of two syntypes. Originally described to the Island of Trinidad, O. pulchra is widespread in Venezuela, the río Orinoco basin, in smaller coastal drainages of northern South America, in the Lake Valencia system, and río Essequibo basin. A punctual occurrence in the upper rio Negro, near southernmost headwaters of the río Orinoco, extends its distribution to the Amazon basin. Additionally, two new species of Odontostilbe from the río Orinoco basin are described.Odontostilbe pulchra, anteriormente considerada como species inquirenda em Cheirodontinae e registrada com dúvidas para a bacia do río Orinoco, é redescrita com a redescoberta de dois síntipos. Descrita originalmente para a ilha de Trinidad, O. pulchra apresenta-se largamente distribuída na Venezuela, incluindo a bacia do río Orinoco, pequenas bacias costeiras do norte da América do Sul, no sistema do lago Valencia e bacia do río Essequibo. Uma ocorrência pontual na região superior do rio Negro, próximo às cabeceiras do río Orinoco, estende sua distribuição para a bacia Amazônica. Adicionalmente, são descritas duas novas espécies de Odontostilbe da bacia do Orinoco.

  16. Halogenated furanones from the red alga, Delisea pulchra, inhibit carbapenem antibiotic synthesis and exoenzyme virulence factor production in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora

    Manefield, M.; Welch, M.; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    2001-01-01

    activity. We have tested the effects of a halogenated furanone on the production of carbapenem, cellulase and protease in E. carotovora. Despite differences in the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbapenem and exoenzyme production each was inhibited by the algal metabolite. We present evidence to......The plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora regulates expression of virulence factors and antibiotic production via an N-3- oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) dependent quorum sensing mechanism. The marine alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones known to antagonise 3-oxo-C6-HSL...

  17. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    R. Lucarini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP. It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05 and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05, respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1.

  18. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts.

    Lucarini, R; Tozatti, M G; Silva, M L A; Gimenez, V M M; Pauletti, P M; Groppo, M; Turatti, I C C; Cunha, W R; Martins, C H G

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  19. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  20. Characterization of Flavonoids in the Ethomedicine Fordiae Cauliflorae Radix and Its Adulterant Millettiae Pulchrae Radix by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn

    Lan-Lan Fan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fordiae Cauliflorae Radix (FC, the root of Fordia cauliflora Hemsl and Millettiae Pulchrae Radix [MP, the root of Millettia pulchra (Benth. Kurz var. laxior (Dunn Z. Wei], which go under the same local name of “Daluosan”, have long been used in Southern China for the treatment of stroke, paralysis, dementia in children, Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases. The same local name and similar functions always confuse users. To further utilize these two ethnodrugs and identify them unambiguously, an HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn method was developed to separate and characterize the flavonoids in FC and MP. A total of 41 flavonoids were detected, of which six compounds were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based on their tandem mass spectrometry data obtained in the positive ion detection mode. Nineteen of these characterized compounds are reported from these two plants for the first time.

  1. Establishing the redox potential of Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native tree species from the Atlantic Rain Forest, in the vicinity of an oil refinery in SE Brazil.

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Domingos, Marisa

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to establish the seasonal variations in the redox potential ranges of young Tibouchina pulchra plants growing in the Cubatão region (SE Brazil) under varying levels of oxidative stress caused by air pollutants. The plants were exposed to filtered air (FA) and non-filtered air (NFA) in open-top chambers installed next to an oil refinery in Cubatão during six exposure periods of 90 days each, which included the winter and summer seasons. After exposure, several analyses were performed, including the foliar concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione in its reduced (AsA and GSH), total (totAA and totG) and oxidized forms (DHA and GSSG); their ratios (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG); the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR); and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The range of antioxidant responses in T. pulchra plants varied seasonally and was stimulated by high or low air pollutant concentrations and/or air temperatures. Glutathione and APX were primarily responsible for increasing plant tolerance to oxidative stress originating from air pollution in the region. The high or low air temperatures mainly affected enzymatic activity. The content of MDA increased in response to increasing ozone concentration, thus indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance may not have been reached. PMID:24407781

  2. 花狭口蛙海南亚种皮肤分泌物的溶血活性研究%Hemolytic Activity of Skin Secretion from Kaloula pulchra hainana

    陈聪伟; 迟婷婷; 韦双双; 关怀; 满初日嘎; 张英霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]观察花狭口蛙海南亚种皮肤分泌物溶血活性并探讨不同因素对其溶血活性的影响.[方法]采用花狭口蛙皮肤分泌物对健康小鼠红细胞进行溶血试验,并分析了渗透性保护剂、糖类、金属离子以及抗氧化剂等不同因素对其溶血活性的影响.[结果]渗透保护剂明显抑制花狭口蛙皮肤分泌物的溶血活性,而糖类、抗氧化剂和金属离子等几乎都无抑制作用.[结论]花狭口蛙海南亚种皮肤分泌物通过在细胞膜表面形成孔道而发挥溶血活性.%[Objective] To observe hemolytic activity of skin secretion from Kaloula pulckra hainana and to investigate factors affecting its he molytic activity. [ Method] Hemolytic reaction of mouse red blood cells was observed after incubated with the skin secretion from Kaloula pul ckra hainana. Its hemolytic activity was observed after the skin secretion from Kaloula pulchra hainana was treated with osmoprotectant, sac charides, metal ions and antioxidants. [ Result] The hemolytic activity of the skin secretion from Kaloula pulchra hainana was obviously inhib ited by the osmoprotectant, but saccharides, metal ions and antioxidants almost had no inhibitory effect. [ Conclusion] The skin secretion from Kaloula pulchra hainana plays its hemolytic activity through pore-forming protein.

  3. Structure of the central nervous system of a juvenile acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    Bery, Amandine; Cardona, Albert; Martinez, Pedro; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The neuroarchitecture of Acoela has been at the center of morphological debates. Some authors, using immunochemical tools, suggest that the nervous system in Acoela is organized as a commissural brain that bears little resemblance to the central, ganglionic type brain of other flatworms, and bilaterians in general. Others, who used histological staining on paraffin sections, conclude that it is a compact structure (an endonal brain; e.g., Raikova 2004; von Graff 1891; Delage Arch Zool Exp Gén...

  4. Spawning Characteristics and Artificial Hatching of Female Mottled Skate, Beringraja pulchra in the West Coast of Korea

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Jo, Yeong-Rok; Kang, Duk-Yong; Jeong, Gyeong-Suk; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2013-01-01

    The gonadsomatic index (GSI) of mottled skate was the highest in April, GSI and HSI showed a reverse phase for its reproductive cycle. The fish had one pair of egg capsules, having 1 to 7 fertilized eggs, and spawned all the year round. When surveying the reproductive characteristics of females over 63 ㎝ in disc width, we found the spawning peak was between April to June, and the appearance ratio of egg capsules was the highest in May (32.1%). The eggs were hatched at 8°C, 13°C, 18°C, water t...

  5. Epidemiology of Powdery Mildew on Resistant and Susceptible Flowering Dogwood Cultivars

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pulchra (syn. Microsphaera pulchra) is an important disease on flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) in the Eastern United States. Temporal progress of powdery mildew on flowering dogwood cultivars with different levels of resistance was investigated in the field in 2...

  6. A new species of Tephritis Latreille (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Turkey

    KÜTÜK, Murat; BAYRAK, Neslihan; HAYAT, Rüstem

    2012-01-01

    Tephritis ozaslani sp. nov. is described from Artvin Province of Turkey and placed in the T. pulchra species group. The key to the T. pulchra group is provided, which includes 9 species. The main characters that distinguish the new species from the closely resembling Palaearctic species, T. cometa israilis Freidberg, T. acanthiophilopsis Hering, T. erdemlii Kütük, T. divisa Rondani, T. recurrens Loew, T. merzi Freidberg & Kütük, and T. hurvitzi Freidberg, are discussed. In addition, Inula...

  7. Neuroglobins, Pivotal Proteins Associated with Emerging Neural Systems and Precursors of Metazoan Globin Diversity

    Lechauve, Christophe; Jager, Muriel; Laguerre, Laurent; Kiger, Laurent; Correc, Gaëlle; Leroux, Cédric; Vinogradov, Serge; Czjzek, Mirjam; Marden, Michael C.; Bailly, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Neuroglobins, previously thought to be restricted to vertebrate neurons, were detected in the brain of a photosymbiotic acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and in neurosensory cells of the jellyfish Clytia hemisphaerica. For the neuroglobin of S. roscoffensis, a member of a lineage that originated either at the base of the bilateria or of the deuterostome clade, we report the ligand binding properties, crystal structure at 2.3 Å, and brain immunocytochemical pattern. We also describe in situ ...

  8. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  9. Cymothoide Isopoden van de Nederlandse kust en de Zuidelijke Noordzee

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    In het in 1956 uitgegeven deel betreffende de Isopoda in de serie „Fauna van Nederland" (Holthuis, 1956) werden van de familie Cymothoidae twee genera (Aega en Eurydice) voor Nederland genoemd, met drie soorten (Aega rosacea Risso, Aega psora (L.) en Eurydice pulchra Leach). Volgens moderne opvattin

  10. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae)?

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Šlechtová, Vera; Sember, Alexandr; Ráb, Petr

    2016-01-01

    One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies), since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae) and Sinibotia (Botiinae). In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes) differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44%) and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%), and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from L

  11. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. II

    Ubirajara Ribeiro Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta segunda contribuição à fauna dos Cerambycidae do Estado do Maranhão arrolam-se 123 espécies das quais 114 constituem novos registros. Novas espécies descritas em Cerambycinae: Ophtalmoplon similis (Hexoplonini, Gorybia bispinosa (Piezocerini, Aneuthetochorus punctatus, Minibidion bicolor (Ibidionini, Piezophidion thoracicum (Elaphidionini, Temnopis rubricollis (Oemini; em Lamiinae: Anobrium minimum (Pteropliini, Cacostola bimaculata, C. parafusca, Trestonia rugosicollis (Onciderini, Eupromerella maculosa, E. picturata, Nesozineus unicolor (Acanthoderini, Piruana pulchra (Desmiphorini, Pachypeza ferruginea (Hippopsini.This is the second contribution for the cerambycid fauna of Maranhão state, Brazil, which deals with 123 species of which 114 are new records for the state. New species described in Cerambycinae: Ophtalmoplon similis (Hexoplonini, Gorybia bispinosa (Piezocerini, Aneuthetochorus punctatus, Minibidion bicolor (Ibidionini, Piezophidion thoracicum (Elaphidionini, Temnopis rubricollis (Oemini; in Lamiinae: Anobrium minimum (Pteropliini, Cacostola bimaculata, C. parafusca, Trestonia rugosicollis (Onciderini, Eupromerella maculosa, E. picturata, Nesozineus unicolor (Acanthoderini, Piruana pulchra (Desmiphorini, Pachypeza ferruginea (Hippopsini.

  12. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J.; Labrecque,Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new...

  13. Bemerkenswerte neuere Pflanzenfunde in Südwest-Niedersachsen – 1. Fortsetzung

    Feder, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Bemerkenswerte Funde des Jahres 2000 von Gefäßpflanzen aus Südwest-Niedersachsen werden als Ergänzung zur Flora von Weber (1995) mitgeteilt. 128 Pflanzenarten wurden erstmalig nachgewiesen, beispielsweise Anthriscus caucalis, Asplenium trichomanes, Calystegia pulchra, Cyperus esculentus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eragrostis minor, Euphorbia maculata, Panicum dichotomiflorum, Saxifraga granulata und Setaria pumila. 108 von ihnen scheinen fest eingebürgert. Sechs Pflanzenarten, die als verschollen...

  14. Fast procedure for reconstruction of full-atom protein models from reduced representations

    Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    We introduce PULCHRA, a fast and robust method for the reconstruction of full-atom protein models starting from a reduced protein representation. The algorithm is particularly suitable as an intermediate step between coarse grained model-based structure prediction and applications requiring an all-atom structure, such as molecular dynamics, protein-ligand docking, structure-based function prediction, or assessment of quality of the predicted structure. The accuracy of the method was tested on...

  15. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea margi...

  16. Eukaryotic interference with homoserine lactone mediated procaryotic signalling

    Givskov, Michael Christian; de Nys, Rocky; Gram, Lone; Maximilien, Ria; Eberl, Leo; Molin, Søren; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    1996-01-01

    Acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) plays a widespread role in intercellular communication among bacteria. The Australian macroalga Delisea pulchra produces secondary metabolites which have structural similarities to AHL molecules. We report here that these metabolites inhibited AHL......-controlled processes in prokaryotes. Our results suggest that the interaction between higher organisms and their surface-associated bacteria may be mediated by interference with bacterial regulatory systems....

  17. Variable production of transparent exopolymeric particles by haploid and diploid life stages of coccolithophores grown under different CO2 concentrations

    Pedrotti, M. L.; Fiorini, S.; Kerros, M.E.; Middelburg, J.J.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The production of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) by the coccolithophores, Emiliania huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Syracosphaera pulchra was investigated in batch cultures. The abundance, size spectra and carbon content of TEP were examined during the exponential growth phase of both haploid and diploid life stages grown under ambient (400 atm) and elevated (760 atm) CO2 partial pressure (pCO(2)) conditions. Results showed species- and life stage-specific differences in TEP pro...

  18. Antimicrobial activity observed among cultured marine epiphytic bacteria reflects their potential as a source of new drugs.

    Penesyan, Anahit; Marshall-Jones, Zoe; Holmstrom, Carola; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2009-07-01

    The surfaces of marine eukaryotes provide a unique habitat for colonizing microorganisms where competition between members of these communities and chemically mediated interactions with their host are thought to influence both microbial diversity and function. For example, it is believed that marine eukaryotes may use their surface-associated bacteria to produce bioactive compounds in defence against competition and to protect the host against further colonization. With the increasing need for novel drug discovery, marine epibiotic bacteria may thus represent a largely underexplored source of new antimicrobial compounds. In the current study, 325 bacterial isolates were obtained from the surfaces of marine algae Delisea pulchra and Ulva australis. Thirty-nine showed to have antimicrobial activity and were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The majority of those isolates belonged to Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Interestingly, the most commonly isolated bacterial strain, Microbulbifer sp., from the surface of D. pulchra has previously been described as an ecologically significant epibiont of different marine eukaryotes. Other antimicrobial isolates obtained in this study belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Phylogenetically, little overlap was observed among the bacteria obtained from surfaces of D. pulchra and U. australis. The high abundance of cultured isolates that produce antimicrobials suggest that culturing remains a powerful resource for exploring novel bioactives of bacterial origin. PMID:19453738

  19. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm bacteria by a halogenated furanone compound

    Hentzer, Morten; Riedel, Kathrin; Rasmussen, Thomas B;

    2002-01-01

    Novel molecular tools have been constructed which allow for in situ detection of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The reporter responds to AHL activation of LasR by expression of an unstable version of the green-fluorescent protein (Gfp...... macroalga Delisea pulchra, is capable of interfering with AHL-mediated quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa. It is demonstrated that the furanone compound specifically represses expression of a PlasB-gfp reporter fusion without affecting growth or protein synthesis. In addition, it reduces the production of...

  20. LATE LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC SPUMELLARIA (RADIOLARIA FROM THE DINARIDES OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    UGUR KAGAN TEKIN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A limestone sample from southern Bosnia and Herzegovina near Fojnica town yielded extremely abundant and well-preserved radiolarians. The radiolarians are late Ladinian in age and clearly indicate the Spongoserrula fluegeli Subzone of Muelleritortis cochleata Zone based on the index forms and associated fauna. A highly diverse spumellarian fauna is described from this sample. Within the defined spumellarian fauna, five genera (Ligulatubus, Tubospongopallium, Hexacatoma, Octostella and Discofulmen seventeen species (Dumitricasphaera galeata, D. trialata, Spongostylus bosniensis, Spongopallium crassum, Ligulatubus yaoi, Tubospongopallium gracile, T. kozuri, T. tornatum, Archaeospongoprunum globosum, Veghicyclia cruciforma, V. krystyni, Hexacatoma elegantissima, H. nobleae, Octostella pulchra, Pentaspongodiscus similediscus, Discofulmen dumitricai, D. ishidai are new.

  1. New species and new records of Notonecta (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae from Brazil

    Julianna F. Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Notonecta itatiaia sp. nov. is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro. Like other Notonecta species that occurs in Brazil, N. itatiaia has no remarkable diagnostic features than the shape of genital capsule. Along with the first description of a Notonecta from Brazil in eighty years, N. disturbata is newly recorded from the states of Pará, Piauí and São Paulo, and N. pulchra from Pará. A key to species of Notonecta (males occurring in Brazil is given.

  2. Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  3. A taxonomic study of the beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure) from China, with notes on the genus and species worldwide (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Diplopterinae).

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Zongqing

    2015-01-01

    Four taxa of beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure, 1864) from South China are described and illustrated, viz., two new species D. elliptica sp. n. and D. naevus sp. n., one new subspecies D. nigrescens guani subsp. n. and one widespread known species D. punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822). The genus and known species from around the world are discussed based on types and other specimens. D. pulchra Anisyutkin, 2007 is now regarded as a junior synonym of D. bicolor Hanitsch, 1925. Whether the populations of D. punctata represent or not different species needs to be studied in the future. A key, a distribution map, and photos of species are provided. PMID:26624027

  4. 中药水蛭品种考证及资源可持续利用发展探讨%Species study on Chinese medicine leech and discussion on its resource sustainable utilization

    张卫; 张瑞贤; 李健; 梁飞; 钱忠直

    2013-01-01

    该文通过系统地本草文献梳理与研究指出,传统中医使用的水蛭是生于水中,个头较小且能吸食人及牛马血的水蛭.具有这些特性的水蛭的品种有日本医蛭Hirudo nipponia Whitman、丽医蛭H.pulchra Song、南京牛蛭Poecilobdella nanjingensis sp.Nov.、菲牛蛭P.manillensis (Lesson)以及湖北牛蛭P.hubeiensis Yang 5个品种,与2010年版《中国药典》水蛭项下所规定的动物品种来源不完全一致.建议《中国药典》修改并补充水蛭的品种来源,保留原有日本医蛭H.nipponica Whitman,增补菲牛蛭P.manillensis (Lesson),暂时保留宽体金线蛭Whitmania pigra Whitman、尖细金线蛭W.acranulata Whitman,并进一步加强丽医蛭H.pulchra Song、南京牛蛭P.nanjingensis sp.Nov.以及湖北牛蛭P.hubeiensis Yang的化学成分和药理作用以及资源分布的研究,以待作为药用品种补充.%Through systemically sorting and studying literature of Chinese medicine,this article pointed out that leech used by the traditional Chinese medicine in ancient time has the features of small,living in water,able to suck blood of animal and people.The species of leeches having these features were Hirudo nipponia Whitman,H.pulchra Song,Poecilobdella nanjingensis sp.Nov.,P.manillensis (Lesson) and P.hubeiensis Yang,which were not fully coincidence with the species recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia of 2010 edition.We suggests that species of leech in Chinese Pharmacopeia be revised:H.nipponica Whitman should be kept,P.manillensis (Lesson) should bc added in,Whitmania pigra Whitman and W.acranulata Whitma should be temporarily reserved,and H.pulchra Song,P.nanjingensis sp.Nov.,and P.hubeiensis Yang should be considered.

  5. Five Ochna species have high antibacterial activity and more than ten antibacterial compounds

    Jacobus N. Eloff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New measures to control infections in humans and other animals are continuously being sought because of the increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. In a wide tree screening survey of the antimicrobial activity of extracts of tree leaves (www.up.ac.za/phyto, Ochna pulchra, a small tree found widely in southern Africa, had good antibacterial activity. We therefore investigated the antibacterial activity of acetone leaf extracts of some other available Ochna spp. Antibacterial activity and the number of antibacterial compounds in acetone leaf extracts of Ochna natalitia, Ochna pretoriensis, O. pulchra, Ochna gamostigmata and Ochna serullata were determined with a tetrazolium violet serial microplate dilution assay and bioautography against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria commonly associated with nosocomial infections. The percentage yields of the extracts varied from 2.5% to 8%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the five species ranged from 40 µg/mL to 1250 µg/mL. E. coli was sensitive to all the extracts. The O. pretoriensis extract was the most active with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.065 mg/mL and 0.039 mg/mL against E. coli and E. faecalis, respectively. The O. pretoriensis extract also had the highest total activities of 923 mL/g and 1538 mL/g, indicating that the acetone extract from 1 g of dried plant material could be diluted to 923 mL or 1538 mL and would still kill these bacteria. Based on the bioautography results, the two most active species, O. pretoriensis and O. pulchra, contained at least 10 antibacterial compounds with similar Rf values. Some of these antibacterial compounds were polar and others were non-polar. Variation in the chemical composition of the species

  6. Redescription of Placobdella Multistriata ( Johansson, 1909 (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae

    J. H Oosthuizen

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of a large number of specimens of Placobdella multistriata (Johansson, 1909 revealed the unsatisfactory nature of the information currently available on this leech. The reason is evidently the fact that previous workers had very limited and poorly prepared material at their disposal. In some instances, this even resulted in the description of non-existent species-taxa. In view of this unsound state of affairs, a redescription of P. multistriata is provided and evidence adduced for the amalgamation of Placobdella pulchra Moore, 1939, P. auroguttata Moore, 1939 and P. unita Moore, 1958 with P. multistriata.

  7. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of five Indigofera species (Fabaceae) from Burkina Faso.

    Bakasso, S; Lamien-Meda, A; Lamien, C E; Kiendrebeogo, M; Millogo, J; Ouedraogo, A G; Nacoulma, O G

    2008-06-01

    Aqueous acetone extracts prepared from five Indigofera species of Burkina Faso, namely Indigofera colutea (Burm.) Murril., I. macrocalyx Guilld et Perr., I. nigritana Hook f., I. pulchra willd. and I. tinctoria L., were investigated for their phytochemical composition and their antioxidant activities. Standard methods and TLC were used to screen the phytochemical composition. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods, respectively. These extracts were also evaluated for their antioxidant potentials using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assays. Flavonoids, saponins, quinones, sterols/triterpenes and tannins were present in all these species except for I. pulchra where quinones were not found. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin and myricetin in I. colutea; gallic acid, quercitrin, myricetin in I. tinctoria; galangin and myricetin in I. macrocalyx were identified by thin layer chromatography. Among these, I. colutea, I. tinctoria, I. nigritana and I. macrocalyx, which had the highest phenolic content, were also found to possess the best antioxidant activities. The results indicated a good correlation between antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (puses. PMID:18817242

  8. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  9. Four Newly Recorded Free-living Marine Nematodes(Comesomatidae) from the East China Sea

    HUA Er; ZHANG Zhinan

    2007-01-01

    Three species in genus Sabatieria and one in genus Cervonema from the East China Sea were recorded. S. breviseta is characterized by uniformly punctuated coarse dots, large amphids of 5.5 turns (♂) and prominent gubemaculum median piece. The characters of S. breviseta agree quite well with the European original descriptions and only differ in the male amphid tums (5.5 vs.4.0 tums) and unmodified preanal supplements (5-7 vs. 6). S. pulchra can be recognized by amphid 2.75 turns, irregularly arranged lateral dots, and the first three supplements anterior to the anus, which are more widely spaced than the following ones. The excretory system of S. breviseta and S. pulchra shows sexual dimorphism. S. celtica is defined by amphids 2.00-2.25 turns, weakly developed pharyngeal bulb, curved apophyses and 12-13 conspicuous supplements. C. deltensis is characterized by amphids 4.75 tums, ovate pharyngeal posterior bulb, sperm dimorphism, 7 thin preanal supplements, and long tail cylindrical portion (50%-53% of tail length).All the three Sabatieria species are for the first time recorded in Chinese waters. C. deltensis was originally isolated from the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and newly recorded in the East China Sea.

  10. Recent records of alien anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam

    Christy, M.T.; Clark, C.S.; Gee, D.E., II; Vice, D.; Vice, D.S.; Warner, M.P.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Eight anuran species were recorded for the first time in Guam in the period May 2003-December 2005, all apparently the result of arrivals to the island since 2000. Three of the eight species (Rana guentheri, Polypedates megacephalus, and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) had well-established breeding populations by 2005. A further three (Fejevarya cf. livinocharis, Fejervarya cancrivora, and Microhyla pulchra) were recorded from a number of individuals, but it is not known whether these species have established breeding populations. Two species (Kaloula pulchra and Eleutherodactylus coqui) appear to be incidental transportations to the island that have not established. Before 2003, five anuran species, all introductions, had been recorded from Guam. Three of these, Polypedates leucomystax, Pseudacris regilla, and Kaloula picta, were detected on Guam in incoming cargo but destroyed. Two species established: Bufo marinus was deliberately introduced and the Australian hylid Litoria fallax was probably an accidental introduction. Successful establishment of anurans on Guam has increased the risk of frog introductions to nearby islands. By providing additional food sources for the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), anuran introductions have increased the chance that B. irregularis might substantially increase in numbers and in turn increase the risk of the snake being accidentally transported to other islands. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  11. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  12. Coupled long-term summer warming and deeper snow alters species composition and stimulates gross primary productivity in tussock tundra.

    Leffler, A Joshua; Klein, Eric S; Oberbauer, Steven F; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase summer temperature and winter precipitation throughout the Arctic. The long-term implications of these changes for plant species composition, plant function, and ecosystem processes are difficult to predict. We report on the influence of enhanced snow depth and warmer summer temperature following 20 years of an ITEX experimental manipulation at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Winter snow depth was increased using snow fences and warming was accomplished during summer using passive open-top chambers. One of the most important consequences of these experimental treatments was an increase in active layer depth and rate of thaw, which has led to deeper drainage and lower soil moisture content. Vegetation concomitantly shifted from a relatively wet system with high cover of the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum to a drier system, dominated by deciduous shrubs including Betula nana and Salix pulchra. At the individual plant level, we observed higher leaf nitrogen concentration associated with warmer temperatures and increased snow in S. pulchra and B. nana, but high leaf nitrogen concentration did not lead to higher rates of net photosynthesis. At the ecosystem level, we observed higher GPP and NEE in response to summer warming. Our results suggest that deeper snow has a cascading set of biophysical consequences that include a deeper active layer that leads to altered species composition, greater leaf nitrogen concentration, and higher ecosystem-level carbon uptake. PMID:26747269

  13. Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii. PMID:23355699

  14. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do estado do Maranhão, Brasil: III

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e quatro espécies são registradas para o Estado do Maranhão: Prioninae (uma, Disteniinae (uma, Cerambycinae (49 e Lamiinae (33. O número total de espécies assinaladas para o Estado eleva-se a 367. Nove novas espécies são descritas em Cerambycinae: Chlorida inexpectata sp. nov. (Bothriospilini; Jupoata germana sp. nov. (Cerambycini; Eburodacrys separatus sp. nov. e Eburodacrys cincora sp. nov. (Eburiini; Ectenessa affinis sp. nov. (Ectenessini; Minibidion bicolor sp. nov. (Ibidionini, Tropidiina; Compsibidion maculatum sp. nov. e Compsibidion ytu sp. nov. (Ibidionini,Ibidionina; Ideratus beatus sp. nov. (Ideratini. Três espécies são descritas em Lamiinae: Aerenea gibba sp. nov. (Compsosomatini; Mimasyngenes barbozai sp. nov. (Desmiphorini; Cacostola exilis sp. nov. (Onciderini. Uma variação no colorido de Adesmus paradiana Galileo & Martins, 2004 é observada. Corrigenda de Piruana pulchra Martins et al., 2009 para Piruauna pulchra (Desmiphorini.

  15. Animal phylogeny and large-scale sequencing: progress and pitfalls%动物系统发育和大规模测序:进展和问题

    Henner BRINKMANN; Hervé PHILIPPE

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenomics, the inference of phylogenetic trees using genome-scale data, is becoming the rule for resolving difficult parts of the tree of life. Its promise resides in the large amount of information available, which should eliminate stochastic error. However, systematic error, which is due to limitations of reconstruction methods, is becoming more apparent. We will illustrate, using animal phylogeny as a case study, the three most efficient approaches to avoid the pitfalls of phylogenomics: (1) using a dense taxon sampling, (2) using probabilistic methods with complex models of sequence evolution that more accurately detect multiple substitutions, and (3) removing the fastest evolving part of the data (e.g., species and positions). The analysis of a dataset of 55 animal species and 102 proteins (25712 amino acid positions) shows that standard site-homogeneous model inference is sensitive to long-branch attraction artifact, whereas the site-heterogeneous CAT model is less so. The latter model correctly locates three very fast evolving species, the appendicularian tunicate Oikopleura, the acoel Convoluta and the myxozoan Buddenbrockia. Overall, the resulting tree is in excellent agreement with the new animal phylogeny, confirming that "simple" organisms like platyhelminths and nematodes are not necessarily of basal emergence. This further emphasizes the importance of secondary simplification in animals, and for organismal evolution in general.

  16. Expression pattern of Piwi-like genes in adult Myzostoma cirriferum (Annelida).

    Weigert, Anne; Helm, Conrad; Hausen, Harald; Zakrzewski, Anne-C; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Piwi-like genes are a subgroup of Argonaute genes which participate as gene regulators by gene silencing. In most bilaterians, such as mouse, human, insects, and zebrafish, their expression is mostly limited to gonadal stem cells. But there are some striking exceptions to this pattern; flatworms and acoels also express Piwi-like genes in somatic stem cells, due to their unique replacement system. Annelid species like Capitella teleta and Platynereis dumerilii express these genes in cells of the posterior growth zone as well as in gonadal stem cells. To investigate the expression pattern of Piwi-like genes in another annelid, we established in situ hybridization for adult Myzostoma cirriferum. Piwi-like gene transcripts recovered in an mRNA-seq library of pooled adult stages of M. cirriferum were expanded using RACE PCR, cloned and sequenced. ML analysis confirmed the identity of both transcripts as part of the Piwi1-like or Piwi2-like subfamily of Argonaute proteins. The results of in situ hybridization studies show that the expression of both Piwi-like genes, Mc-Piwi1 and Mc-Piwi2, is clearly located only in gonadal stem cells, and as such we did not find any evidence for the existence of a posterior growth zone nor expression in somatic stem cells. PMID:23609434

  17. Isoprene emissions from a tundra ecosystem

    M. J. Potosnak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Whole-system fluxes of isoprene from a~moist acidic tundra ecosystem and leaf-level emission rates of isoprene from a common species (Salix pulchra in that same ecosystem were measured during three separate field campaigns. The field campaigns were conducted during the summers of 2005, 2010 and 2011 and took place at the Toolik Field Station (68.6° N, 149.6° W on the north slope of the Brooks Range in Alaska, USA. The maximum rate of whole-system isoprene flux measured was over 1.2 mg C m−2 h−1 with an air temperature of 22 ° C and a PAR level over 1500 μmol m−2 s−1. Leaf-level isoprene emission rates for S. pulchra averaged 12.4 nmol m−2 s−1 (27.4 μg C gdw−1 h−1 extrapolated to standard conditions (PAR = 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 and leaf temperature = 30° C. Leaf-level isoprene emission rates were well characterized by the Guenther algorithm for temperature, but less so for light. Chamber measurements from a nearby moist acidic tundra ecosystem with less S. pulchra emitted significant amounts of isoprene, but at lower rates (0.45 mg C m−2 h−1. Comparison of our results to predictions from a global model found broad agreement, but a detailed analysis revealed some significant discrepancies. An atmospheric chemistry box model predicts that the observed isoprene emissions have a significant impact on Arctic atmospheric chemistry, including the hydroxyl radical (OH. Our results support the prediction that isoprene emissions from Arctic ecosystems will increase with global climate change.

  18. Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia.

    Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md

    2009-12-01

    A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Puddle Frog (Occidozyga lima), Taiwanese Giant Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), and Banded Bullfrog (Kaluola pulchra) were rare during the sampling period, and only one Paddy Frog (Hylarana erythraea) was captured. A simple identification key for the anurans of this area is included for use by scientists and laymen alike. PMID:24575178

  19. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  20. Morphological and molecular study of the poorly known species Pseudanisakis rajae (Yamaguti, 1941) (Nematoda: Acanthocheilidae) from elasmobranchs in the Yellow Sea and Taiwan Strait off the coast of China.

    Li, Liang; Gibson, David I; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Ascaridoid nematodes identified as Pseudanisakis rajae (Yamaguti, 1941) were collected from the skates Bathyraja smirnovi (Soldatov & Pavlenko), Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle) and Raja pulchra Liu (Rajiformes: Rajidae) in the Yellow Sea and Taiwan Strait off the coast of China. Their examination using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy revealed erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, necessitating the redescription of this little known species. In addition, specimens of P. rajae collected from the three different hosts were characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. These new morphological and molecular data enabled an updated diagnosis of this nematode and the presentation of an identification key to the species of Pseudanisakis Layman & Borovkova, 1926. PMID:22183921

  1. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  2. Survey of the marine benthic infauna collected from the United States radioactive waste disposal sites off the Farallon Islands, California. Final report

    Benthic biological samples were taken in 1977 from the vicinity of the Farallon Islands radioactive waste disposal sites for characterization of the infaunal macroinvertebrates and foraminifera. A total of 120 invertebrate species were collected, of which 75 species (63 percent) were polychaetes. Forty-three of these polychaete species have not previously been reported from depths greater than 1000m. A total of 1044 macroinvertebrate specimens were collected of which 54 percent were polychates. Only the nematods were present at all six benthic stations, but the community structure was dominated by the polychaetes Tauberia gracilis, Allia pulchra, Chaetozone setosa, and Cossura candida. Living and dead foraminifera were reported. The possible role of polychaetes in bioturbation and in the marine food chain is briefly discussed with respect to the various polychaete feeding mechanisms

  3. Synthetic furanones inhibit quorum-sensing and enhance bacterial clearance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.; Hentzer, Morten;

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections by killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth, but resistance to antibiotics can develop readily. The discovery that bacterial quorum-sensing regulates bacterial virulence as well as the formation of biofilms opens up new ways to...... control certain bacterial infections. Furanone compounds capable of inhibiting bacterial quorum-sensing systems have been isolated from the marine macro alga Delisea pulchra. Objectives: Two synthetic furanones were tested for their ability to attenuate bacterial virulence in the mouse models of chronic...... lung infection by targeting bacterial quorum-sensing without directly killing bacteria or inhibiting their growth. Methods: Study I. Mice with Escherichia coli MT102 [luxR-PluxI-gfp(ASV)] lung infection were injected intravenously with N-acyl homoserine lactones with or without furanones to test the...

  4. Graptemys pearlensis Ennen, Lovich, Kreiser, Selman, and Qualls 2010 – Pearl River Map Turtle

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Jones, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pearl River Map Turtle, Graptemys pearlensis (Family Emydidae), is a moderate-sized aquatic turtle endemic to the Pearl River drainage of Louisiana and Mississippi. This taxon has long been a cryptic species, as it was considered part of G. pulchra before 1992 and part of G. gibbonsi until 2010. Graptemys pearlensis exhibits sexual dimorphism, with adult females being considerably larger (carapace length to 295 mm) than adult males (CL to 121 mm). In the 1960s and 1970s, the species was commonly found in higher abundance than the sympatric G. oculifera, a federally listed species. However, due to habitat degradation and the precipitous decline of native mollusks, the species is now found in lower numbers than G. oculifera throughout much of its range. The current IUCN Red List status is Endangered; however, very little is known about the natural history and ecology of the species, which will make conservation efforts challenging.

  5. Graptemys gibbonsi Lovich and McCoy -- Pascagoula Map Turtle

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    DEFINITION. The Pascagoula Map Turtle, Graptemys gibbonsi, is a large riverine species that exhibits pronounced sexual dimorphism, where females attain a maximum carapace length (CL) of 295 mm and males a maximum of 141 mm (Lovich et al. 2009). Mean adult female CL (248 mm) can be well over twice the mean CL of adult males (104 mm; Gibbons and Lovich 1990, Lovich et al. 2009). In addition, females have conspicuously enlarged heads (37.9 mm, SD = 14.0 mm) with broad alveolar surfaces (12.1 mm, SD = 4.9) compared to males (head width – 16.4 mm, SD = 1.1 mm; alveolar width – 4.3 mm, SD = 0.40 mm; Lindeman, unpublished data). Males have longer tails with the vent posterior to the edge of the carapace. Both sexes have relatively flat plastrons. Similar to other species within the pulchra clade, Graptemys gibbonsi possess a high-domed shell with a median keel. The median carapace keel is composed of prominent spines on the posterior portions of the second and third vertebrals. A broken black stripe, most pronounced anteriorly, marks the median keel of the vertebrals, and pleural scutes 1– 3 have a network of intersecting yellow lines or circular yellow markings on the distal parts. The plastron is pale yellow with dark pigment on some seams. Ground color of the head and limbs is brown to olive with light yellow or yellowish-green stripes and blotches. The yellow pigment on the upper marginal scutes is wide in comparison to other members of the pulchra clade.

  6. Production, exportation and preservation of silicoflagellates in Alfonso Basin, Gulf of California

    Martínez-López, Aída; Álvarez-Gómez, Irela G.; Pérez-Cruz, Ligia; Verdugo-Díaz, Gerardo; Villegas-Aguilera, María Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Limited areas of sea floor have the physiochemical conditions that allow for the formation and preservation of high resolution (yearly or close to yearly) laminated sediments that can function as a historic proxy for past oceanographic and climate conditions. We evaluated and established the fidelity of the sedimentary record in recording these signals by analyzing silicoflagellates production, changes in species composition, skeletal settling and their subsequent burial in bottom sediments at Alfonso Basin. The data series from December 2005 to February 2008 showed similar tendencies in both the vertical flux and overlying euphotic zone (Zeu) production of silicoflagellates. Both series were numerically dominated by Octactis pulchra with maxima values being recorded for the mixed water column period. Observed differences occurred during the studied years in both magnitude and in flux composition. The presence of a mixed assemblage with (warm-temperate-cold) species such as Dictyocha fibula var. robusta, Dictyocha epiodon and Distephanus speculum could be explained by a synchronization of trends between a predominantly positive Pacific Decadal Oscillation and a positive North Pacific Gyre Oscillation climate phases that were the background conditions underlying the early 2006 through 2007 El Niño event. A Morisita's similarity index value of 97.5% between winter trap and Zeu samples combined with an annualized settling factor of 0.45, suggests that Alfonso Basin is a favorable settling environment for silicoflagellates. However, core-top sediments showed an attenuation of record fidelity (burial factor = 0.25) resulting in a modified record for the production and settling of skeletons. O. pulchra that were not preserved in sediments as the dominant species and with this removal, the signal was also lost of the highest silicoflagellate production season (Mixing-cyclonic eddy periods) from the sedimentary record of the Alfonso Basin.

  7. Free-Nematodes in the NW Black Sea meiobenthos - diversity, abundance, distribution and importance as indicator of hypoxic waters

    Muresan, M.; Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study performed within EU FP7 Hypox Project was to get deeper knowledge about species of nematodes that could be indicators for stressful biotic conditions as low oxygen concentration due to phenomena of seasonal hypoxia. The Nematodes come from meiobenthos sampling (using a multi corer with 4 tubes, Mark II type, lowered into the sea from R/V "Mare Nigrum" board) performed in May and September 2010 and April 2011 along four transects crossing the Romanian continental shelf from where 87 meiobenthos samples were collected. In the studied area 96 species of nematodes were found. The authors analyzed the nematodes populations' distribution on four profiles: Sf. Gheorghe, Portita, Constanta and Mangalia. The qualitative and quantitative structure of nematodes populations was compared. 41 species were found on Mangalia profile, 47 species on Portita profile, 48 species on Constanta profile and 85 species on Sf. Gheorghe profile. The greatest densities were found on Constanta profile with an average of 369.607indvs/m-2. The most frequent and abundant species were: Sabatieria pulchra, Sabatieria abyssalis, Terschellingia longicaudata, Viscosia cobbi, Axonolaimus ponticus. The species assemblages were assessed for depth gradient distribution, 7 depth intervals being set from 20 to 210 m. The greatest diversity was noted in 61-100 m depth interval, while the lowest between 0-20 m. On the contrary, in terms of density of individuals (indvs/m-2), highest densities were obtained in shallow waters between 21-30 m. As far as the depth increases, the species assemblages change, becoming more favorable to species like Halalaimus ponticus, Metachromadora macrouthera, Halanonchus bullatus, Linhomoneidae species. However, on the first place still remained Sabatieria abyssalis. The vertical distribution of nematodes in sediments was analyzed for the surface layer 0-5 cm and sub-surface layer 5-10 cm, the dominant species in both layers being: Sabatieria pulchra, S

  8. La Concepción de María en el tiempo. Recuperación de fórmulas tempranas de representación de la Inmaculada Concepción en la retórica visual del virreinato de Nueva España

    Doménech García, Sergi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a genuine aspect of conceptionist visual rhetoric during the Viceroyalty of New Spain: the recycling of Immaculate Conception earlier types of representation that, with the consolidation of the image of the Immaculate derived from the Tota Pulchra, had fallen deprecated in the peninsular art. The tendency of artists and patrons towards these typologies reveals a key aspect to understand the definition of Hispanic culture during the centuries of the Baroque. In the peripheral areas of the Empire, instead of continuous affirmation of the existence of a single Hispanic world, the springs of control over the religious image allowed variability in the implementation of the Catholic principles. The article analyses the recovery of this visual tradition and its correspondence with the literature of devotion and the sermons of the time.En este trabajo se aborda un aspecto genuino de la retórica visual concepcionista en el virreinato de Nueva España: el reciclaje de tipologías tempranas de representación de la Inmaculada Concepción que, con la consolidación de la imagen de la Inmaculada, derivada de la Tota Pulchra, habían caído en desuso en el arte peninsular. La inclinación de artistas y mecenas hacia estas tipologías revela un aspecto clave para entender la definición de la cultura hispánica en los siglos del barroco. En los espacios periféricos del Imperio, lugar de continua afirmación de la existencia de un único mundo hispánico, los resortes de control sobre la imagen religiosa permitieron la variabilidad en la ejecución del ideario católico. El artículo analiza la base de la recuperación de esta tradición visual y su correspondencia con la literatura de devoción y los sermones de la época.

  9. Gas exchange, growth, and chemical parameters in a native Atlantic forest tree species in polluted areas of Cubatão, Brazil.

    Moraes, R M; Delitti, W B C; Moraes, J A P V

    2003-03-01

    The Atlantic forest species near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil have been subjected to heavy air pollution for decades. In this study, we used some physiological parameters (gas exchange, growth and chemical contents) to biomonitor the effects of air pollution on Tibouchina pulchra, one of the most common tree species in this forest. Under standardized conditions, saplings were exposed to the environment from April to July and from July to September of 1998, at three different sites in the vicinity of the industrial complex: the Valley of Pilões River (VP), the control area; the Valley of Mogi River (VM), near fertilizer, metallurgical, and cement industries sustaining high concentrations of fluorides, N and S oxides, and particulate materials; and Caminho do Mar (CM), near petrochemical industries under N and S oxides, photooxidants, and organic compounds. Plants exposed to CM and VM conditions presented visible injuries, reductions in net photosynthesis, growth parameters, and ascorbate concentrations, and increased F, N, and S foliar concentrations. These results indicate that the environmental conditions around these industries are still harmful to plants. PMID:12651190

  10. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:25959379

  11. Assessing redox potential of a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: a successful evaluation of oxidative stress associated to a new power generation source of an oil refinery.

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-15

    The antioxidant responses in saplings of Tibouchina pulchra (a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest) exposed around an oil refinery in the city of Cubatão (SE Brazil), varied during the exchange of its power generation source, from boilers fueled with oil to a thermoelectric fueled with natural gas. The redox potential changed in response to an interaction of air pollution and meteorological parameters, indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance was not reached after the exchange of the power generation system. The gain in environmental quality in the region was not achieved as expected due the technological modernization, at least relative to oxidative stressors. These conclusions were based on results of analyses of enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR); non-enzymatic antioxidants: reduced, oxidized and total ascorbic acid (AsA, DHA, totAA) and glutathione (GSH, GSSG, totG), their redox state (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG) and an indicator of lipid peroxidation (MDA). We also applied exploratory multivariate statistics in order to verify if the temporal sequence of changes in the plant redox capacity coincided with changes in the profile of air pollution, climatic conditions or with their interactions and if the environmental benefits that would supposedly be promoted by the mentioned exchange of power generation system were achieved in the region. PMID:26851758

  12. Conformational landscape of an amyloid intra-cellular domain and Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm in protein dynamics

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng

    2016-07-01

    The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm is proposed as a framework, to investigate the conformational landscape of intrinsically unstructured proteins. A universal Cα-trace Landau free energy is deduced from general symmetry considerations, with the ensuing all-atom structure modeled using publicly available reconstruction programs Pulchra and Scwrl. As an example, the conformational stability of an amyloid precursor protein intra-cellular domain (AICD) is inspected; the reference conformation is the crystallographic structure with code 3DXC in Protein Data Bank (PDB) that describes a heterodimer of AICD and a nuclear multi-domain adaptor protein Fe65. Those conformations of AICD that correspond to local or near-local minima of the Landau free energy are identified. For this, the response of the original 3DXC conformation to variations in the ambient temperature is investigated, using the Glauber algorithm. The conclusion is that in isolation the AICD conformation in 3DXC must be unstable. A family of degenerate conformations that minimise the Landau free energy is identified, and it is proposed that the native state of an isolated AICD is a superposition of these conformations. The results are fully in line with the presumed intrinsically unstructured character of isolated AICD and should provide a basis for a systematic analysis of AICD structure in future NMR experiments.

  13. Egg numbers and fecundity traits in nine species of Mantella poison frogs from arid grasslands and rainforests of Madagascar (Anura, Mantellidae

    Andreone, F.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The body size and number of eggs in dissected females were analysed in nine species of the Malagasy frog genus Mantella basing upon preserved specimens. These species were distinguished in terms of habitat and grouped as ‘grassland species’ (included M. betsileo, M. expectata, M. viridis, and ‘rainforest species’ (M. baroni, M. crocea, M. cowani, M. laevigata, M. nigricans, M. pulchra. The species with the lowest egg - number was M. cowani with a mean egg number of 37 ± 15, while the species with the highest egg-number was M. viridis with 115 ± 21 eggs. In general, the grassland species are characterised by a higher number of relatively small eggs. Moreover, their fecundity was positively and significantly correlated to femalebody size. Rainforest species were smaller in size and with a lower number of eggs. We interpreted these differences as possible consequences of habitat adaptations. Among the studied species, the Critically Endangered Mantella cowani is also featured by a low number and large size of eggs. This is likely correlated with the high elevation site of the central highlands where this species occurs.

  14. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  15. Distribution and biomass of arrow worms (Chaetognatha) in Golfo de Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.

    Hossfeld, B

    1996-12-01

    The chaetognath species guild was analyzed from samples collected during the cruise of the German RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 and February, 1994, finding the following ten species of the genera Sagitta and Krohnitta: S. enflata, S. hexaptera, S. pacifica, S. neglecta, S. regularis, S. bedoti, S. friderici, S. popovicii, S. pulchra and K. pacifica. Because of their distributional patterns in the study area these species were ascribed to the following ecological groups: neritic, semi-neritic and oceanic. A strong gradient in species richness from offshore to inshore waters (8 to one respectively) was found in both gulf systems. Inshore chaetognaths were dominated by juveniles and adults of S. friderici in Golfo de Nicoya and by S. popovicii in Golfo Dulce. Biomass spectra were more continuous and of wider range in the Golfo Dulce area showing a dominance of larger chaetognaths, suggesting a more general developed pelagic system in Golfo Dulce, where larger chaetognaths might structure the plankton community by strong grazing pressure from above. PMID:9393651

  16. [Interrelation between the sexual and digestive systems of chaetognaths (Chaetognatha)].

    Mishin, V L

    1980-12-01

    Histological and histochemical investigations on structure of the reproductive and digestive systems have been performed in two cold-water (Sagitta elegans, Sagitta maxima) and in four tropical (Sagitta bipunctata), Flaccisagitta hexaptera, Sagitta pulchra, Ferosagitta ferox) species of Chaetognatha. There is no essential seasonal difference in structure of the intestinal epithelial cells. There is not any storage of nutritional substances. Chaetognatha seem to feed actively during their whole life cycle. Some features of alimentary oogenesis have been revealed, although, in the whole, their ova mature according to the solitary type. At initial stages of oogenesis the nuclear apparatus is inactivated (condensed chromosomes form a ball--caryosphere); cells of the micropilar apparatus perform the function of the nutritive cells. The remaining period of oogenesis (synthesis of protein and lipid yolk) is performed according to the solitary type (the nucleoplasm contains chromosomes of the "lamp brush" type). A possibility whether nutritive substances can diffuse from the digestive tract into the coelomic fluid and into the ovarian cavity towards the developing ova is discussed. PMID:7195701

  17. Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists

    Manefield, Michael; Harris, Lachlan; Rice, Scott A.; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections. PMID:10788385

  18. XANTHOLININI DELLA CINA, DELLA REGIONE ORIENTALE E DELL’AUSTRALIA. NUOVE SPECIE E NUOVI DATI GEONEMICI (COLEOPTERA, STAPHYLINIDAE

    Arnaldo Bordoni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’autore descrive Erymus sinicus n. sp. del Fujian, affine a E. dalianus Bordoni dello Yunnan; Atopolinus brunneus n. sp. del Sichuan, affine a A. mirandus Bordoni del Meghalaya. Vengono forniti nuovi dati geonemici sugli Xantholinini della Cina e della Corea. L’autore descrive inoltre Thyreocephalus nigricantis n. sp. della Penisola Malese, affine a T. perakensis Bordoni della stessa Malesia, T. catastrophicus n. sp. delle isole della Sonda, caratteristico per la forma e la punteggiatura del capo, e Symilla cardamonica n. sp. del Tamil Nadu (India, affine a S. pulchra Bordoni e S. deplumis Bordoni dell’India meridionale e fornisce nuovi dati geonemici per altri Xantholinini della Regione Orientale. L’autore descrive infine Australinus bispinosus n. sp. dell’Australia, affine a A. sexsulciceps (Lea della stessa isola e Mitomorphus habbemanus n. sp. dell’Irian Jaya, isolato dalle congeneri per dimensioni, colorazione e punteggiatura; sono elencati nuovi dati geonemici relativi ad altri Xantholinini dell’Australia. Le seguenti specie sono nuove per le regioni indicate: Stenistoderus sinicus (Corea, Thyreocephalus amphidaseus (Pakistan, Adhavara ferrugunea (Cina, Phacophallus japonicus (Cambogia, Xanthophius filum (Cambogia, Yunna micophora (Shaanxi.

  19. Structure and floristic composition of the vegetation of the biological corridor between national parks Purace and cave Guacharos

    The floristic composition and structure of disturbed and non disturbed vegetation at the biological corridor located among the National Natural Parks Purace, Cueva de los Guacharos was studied based on 16 plots in three localities of the Huila Department, Colombia, between 1950 and 2450 m. A total of 1.5 ha was sampled. The Cyatheo - Cecropion angustifoliae alliance was defined. It includes the associations Ladenbergio macrocarpae - Elaeagietum myrianthae and Guettardo hirsutae - Hedyosmetum translucidi. At the less disturbed areas the communities Helicostylis tovarensis - Alfaroa williamsii, Quercus humboldtii - Wettinia fascicularis and Weinmannia pubescens - Clusia dixonii were found. The community Baccharis nitida and Saurauia pulchra was found in the most disturbed areas. The basal area value per species was similar for all the associations. The community Quercus humboldtii and Wettinia fascicularis showed the highest basal area value, 7.3 and 4.6 m2. Regarding forest tall, an average of 11 m was found in the associations, with values from 10 to 15 m. An average of 13 m was found in the communities, with variations from 7 to 17 m. The dominant stratum in both cases was the arboreal inferior. The importance indexes show an equal representativeness of the species inside each unit, with the exception of the Quercus humboldtii and Wettinia fascicularis community. The best represented families regarding their species number are Lauraceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataceae

  20. Species composition and seasonal abundance of Chaetognatha in the subtropical coastal waters of Hong Kong

    Tse, P.; Hui, S. Y.; Wong, C. K.

    2007-06-01

    Species composition, species diversity and seasonal abundance of chaetognaths were studied in Tolo Harbour and the coastal waters of eastern Hong Kong. Tolo Harbour is a semi-enclosed and poorly flushed bay with a long history of eutrophication. It opens into the eastern coast of Hong Kong which is fully exposed to water currents from the South China Sea. Zooplankton samples were collected monthly from July 2003 to July 2005 at six stations. Twenty species of chaetognaths were identified. They included six species of the genus Aidanosagitta ( Aidanosagitta neglecta, Aidanosagitta delicata, Aidanosagitta johorensis, Aidanosagitta regularis, Aidanosagitta bedfordii and Aidanosagitta crassa), four species of the genus Zonosagitta ( Zonosagitta nagae, Zonosagitta bedoti, Zonosagitta bruuni and Zonosagitta pulchra), three species of the genus Ferosagitta ( Ferosagitta ferox, Ferosagitta tokiokai and Ferosagitta robusta) and one species each from the genera Serratosagitta ( Serratosagitta pacifica), Decipisagitta ( Decipisagitta decipiens), Flaccisagitta ( Flaccisagitta enflata), Krohnitta ( Krohnitta pacifica), Mesosagitta ( Mesosagitta minima), Pterosagitta ( Pterosagitta draco) and Sagitta ( Sagitta bipunctata). The most abundant species were Flaccisagitta enflata, A. neglecta and A. delicata. Averaged over the entire study period, the densities of Flaccisagitta enflata, A. neglecta and A. delicata were 9.3, 6.6 and 5.2 ind. m -3, respectively. Overall, these species constituted 39.7%, 28.2% and 22.0% of all chaetognaths collected in the study. Averaged over the entire study, the density of most of the low abundance species was <0.6 ind. m -3. Flaccisagitta enflata occurred throughout the year at all sampling stations. Aidanosagitta neglecta occurred at all sampling stations, but was most common in summer. Aidanosagitta delicata was most common in Tolo Harbour during summer. Tolo Harbour supported larger populations, but fewer species of chaetognaths than the

  1. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  2. Differential Impacts of Virus Diversity on Biomass Production of a Native and an Exotic Grass Host.

    Erin A Mordecai

    Full Text Available Pathogens are common and diverse in natural communities and have been implicated in the success of host invasions. Yet few studies have experimentally measured how pathogens impact native versus exotic hosts, particularly when individual hosts are simultaneously coinfected by diverse pathogens. To estimate effects of interactions among multiple pathogens within host individuals on both transmission of pathogens and fitness consequences for hosts, we conducted a greenhouse experiment using California grassland species: the native perennial grass Nassella (Stipa pulchra, the exotic annual grass Bromus hordeaceus, and three virus species, Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV, Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV, and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV. In terms of virus transmission, the native host was less susceptible than the exotic host to MAV. Coinfection of PAV and MAV did not occur in any of the 157 co-inoculated native host plants. In the exotic host, PAV infection most strongly reduced root and shoot biomass, and coinfections that included PAV severely reduced biomass. Infection with single or multiple viruses did not affect biomass in the native host. However, in this species the most potentially pathogenic coinfections (PAV + MAV and PAV + MAV + RPV did not occur. Together, these results suggest that interactions among multiple pathogens can have important consequences for host health, which may not be predictable from interactions between hosts and individual pathogens. This work addresses a key empirical gap in understanding the impact of multiple generalist pathogens on competing host species, with potential implications for population and community dynamics of native and exotic species. It also demonstrates how pathogens with relatively mild impacts independently can more substantially reduce host performance in coinfection.

  3. Genetic variation of Kaempferia (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand based on chloroplast DNA (psbA-trnH and petA-psbJ) sequences.

    Techaprasan, J; Klinbunga, S; Ngamriabsakul, C; Jenjittikul, T

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation and species authentication of 71 Kaempferia accessions (representing 15 recognized, six new, and four unidentified species) found indigenously in Thailand were examined by determining chloroplast psbA-trnH and partial petA-psbJ spacer sequences. Ten closely related species (Boesenbergia rotunda, Gagnepainia godefroyi, G. thoreliana, Globba substrigosa, Smithatris myanmarensis, S. supraneanae, Scaphochlamys biloba, S. minutiflora, S. rubescens, and Stahlianthus sp) were also included. After sequence alignments, 1010 and 865 bp in length were obtained for the respective chloroplast DNA sequences. Intraspecific sequence variation was not observed in Kaempferia candida, K. angustifolia, K. laotica, K. galanga, K. pardi sp nov., K. bambusetorum sp nov., K. albomaculata sp nov., K. minuta sp nov., Kaempferia sp nov. 1, and G. thoreliana, for which more than one specimen was available. In contrast, intraspecific sequence polymorphisms were observed in various populations of K. fallax, K. filifolia, K. elegans, K. pulchra, K. rotunda, K. marginata, K. parviflora, K. larsenii, K. roscoeana, K. siamensis, and G. godefroyi. A strict consensus tree based on combined psbA-trnH and partial petA-psbJ sequences revealed four major groups of Kaempferia species. We suggest that the genus Kaempferia is a polyphyletic group, as K. candida was distantly related and did not group with other Kaempferia species. Polymorphic sites and indels of psbA-trnH and petA-psbJ can be used as DNA barcodes for species diagnosis of most Kaempferia and outgroup species. Nuclear DNA polymorphism should be examined to determine if there has been interspecific hybridization and chloroplast DNA introgression in these taxa. PMID:20927714

  4. 北部湾海域毛颚类种类组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of Chaetognatha in Beibu Bay

    杜飞雁; 李纯厚; 贾晓平

    2004-01-01

    为了解和掌握北部湾渔场生态环境的动态变化规律,1998年2月~1999年5月对北部湾海域进行了4个航次生态环境综合调查.结果表明,北部湾毛颚类以暖水种为主,主要种类有肥胖箭虫(Sagitta enflata)、小箭虫(S. neglecta)、百陶箭虫(S. bedoti)、凶型箭虫(S. ferox)、规则箭虫(S. regularis)、太平洋撬虫(Krohnitta pacifica)、太平洋箭虫(S. pacifica)、美丽箭虫(S. pulchra)等;记录到的22种中,有13种周年出现,9种季节性出现;夏季出现种类最多,达21种.冬季、秋季和春季分别为16、15种和14种.聚类分析结果表明:北部湾毛颚类为一个结构稳定的群落,在秋、冬季又可大致分为2个亚群.由各季相似性矩阵的第1主坐标与水温、盐度的相关系数分析表明:水温、盐度仅在冬季对毛颚类群落分化产生显著影响,其他季节影响较小.

  5. Litter production in different successional stages of a subtropical secondary rain forest, in Antonina, PR

    Kauana Melissa Cunha Dickow

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Cachoeira River Natural Reserve, in Antonina, Paraná state, Brazil. The main goal was to assess the litter production of secondary tropical rain forests in different sucessional stages (initial, medium and advanced stages. The litter fall was collected every 3 weeks during four years (2004 to 2007, in circular litter traps of 0.25m2, distributed in 30 plots of 100m2 of area. A total of 60 litter traps were installed in an area of 3000m2. The litter fall collected at each retrieval date was dried, separated into fractions (leaves, twigs, reproductive organs and miscellaneous and weighed. Leaves of some tree species were selected from the total litter for a specific study of their contribution to the total litter. The average annual litter production for the three years was 5201, 5399 and 5323 kg.ha-1.year-1, and the percentage contribution of the leaf fraction was 77, 75 and 68%, in the initial, medium and advanced sucessional stages, respectively. The leaf litter fraction produced in the initial stage was dominated by the species Tibouchina pulchra (jacatirão (75%, but in the medium and advanced stages the dominance of only one tree species in leaf litter fraction did not occur. The production of twigs and reproductive organs did not differ statistically among the sucessional stages. The production of miscellaneous fraction was higher in the advanced stage and did not differ between the initial and medium stages. In general, the differences in litter production were little along the sucessional stage in the area of the study.

  6. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera deposited in the collection of Radoszkowski in the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków

    Paolo Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A critical and annotated catalogue of 183 types of Hymenoptera Chrysididae belonging to 124 taxa housed in the Radoszkowski collection is given. Radoszkowski type material from other institutes has also been checked. Six lectotypes are designated in Kraków (ISEA-PAN: Chrysis acceptabilis Radoszkowski, 1891; C. persica Radoczkowsky, 1881; C. daphnis Mocsáry, 1889; C. lagodechii Radoszkowski, 1889; C. remota Mocsáry, 1889 and C. vagans Radoszkowski, 1877. The lectotype of Brugmoia pellucida Radoszkowski, 1877 is designated in Moscow (MMU. Four new combinations are proposed: Philoctetes araraticus (Radoszkowski, 1890, comb. n.; Pseudomalus hypocrita (du Buysson, 1893, comb. n.; Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893, comb. n.; and Chrysura mlokosewitzi (Radoszkowski, 1889, comb. n.. Ten new synonyms are given: Chrysis auropunctata Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of C. angolensis Radoszkovsky, 1881; C. chrysochlora Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. and C. viridans Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of C. keriensis Radoszkowski, 1887; C. angustifrons var. ignicollis Trautmann, 1926, syn. n. of C. eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893; C. maracandensis var. simulatrix Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of C. maracandensis Radoszkowski, 1877; C. pulchra Radoszkovsky, 1880, syn. n. of Spinolia dallatorreana (Mocsáry, 1896; C. rubricollis du Buysson, 1900, syn. n. of C. eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893; C. subcoerulea Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of C. chlorochrysa Mocsáry, 1889; C. therates Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of C. principalis Smith, 1874; and Notozus komarowi Radoszkowski, 1893, syn. n. of Elampus obesus (Mocsáry, 1890. One species is revaluated: Chrysis chalcochrysa Mocsáry, 1887. Chrysis kizilkumiana Rosa is the new name for C. uljanini Radoszkowski & Mocsáry, 1889 nec Radoszkowski, 1877. Pictures of seventy-seven type specimens are given.

  7. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

    KC Dukka B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

  8. Marine zooplankton studies in Brazil: a brief evaluation and perspectives

    Rubens M. Lopes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine zooplankton research in Brazil has been primarily descriptive, with most studies focusing on community structure analysis and related issues. The composition and spatial distribution of several taxonomic groups are currently well known, although less-abundant and small-sized taxa as well as initial stages of almost all species have received little attention. Some numerically important taxa such as heterotrophic protists, ctenophores, acoel turbellarians and ostracods remain virtually unstudied. Large sectors of the continental shelf have not been sampled in detail, particularly those areas influenced by the North Brazil Current (5ºN-15ºS. Zooplankton abundance and biomass in offshore waters have seldom been quantified, and information on the distribution and vertical migration of meso- and bathypelagic species are lacking. Additional faunistic assessments must target those less-studied taxa and geographical locations. However, priority in ecological studies should be given to process-oriented investigations aimed at understanding the mechanisms controlling zooplankton distribution, trophic interactions within pelagic food webs and production cycles in relation to the physical environment. An effort should be made to incorporate state-of-the-art sampling technology and analytical methods into future research projects.As pesquisas sobre o zooplâncton marinho no Brasil têm sido primariamente descritivas, com a maioria dos estudos enfocando a análise da estrutura da comunidade e assuntos relacionados. A composição e a distribuição espacial de muitos grupos taxonômicos encontram-se bem estudadas, embora os táxons menos abundantes e de menores dimensões, assimcomo os estágios iniciais do ciclo de vida da maioria das espécies, tenham recebido pouca atenção. Alguns táxons numericamenteimportantes encontram-se pouco estudados, como no caso dos protistas heterotróficos, ctenóforos, turbelários acelos e ostrácodes. Amplos

  9. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal

  10. Zingiberaceae Diversity in Khao Nan and Khao Luang National Parks, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

    Napat KITTIPANANGKUL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiberaceae diversity in Khao Nan and Khao Luang National Parks was determined from September 2006 - August 2007. Twenty-nine species in 11 genera in 3 tribes of the family were collected from 9 stations, less than     30 % of the Zingiberaceae recorded in southern Thailand. Tribe Alpinieae, the highest diversity, comprises 5 genera and 15 species. Tribe Zingibereae, the second highest diversity, includes 5 genera and 12 species. The lowest diversity, tribe Globbeae consists of only 2 species in the genus Globba. The checklist, illustrations and distributions of the 29 species found are given. Most species of Zingiberaceae in this study grow in a Tropical Evergreen Rain Forest. Four species, Amomum sp., Globba leucantha, Boesenbergia basispicata and B. plicata grow in the Lower Montane Rain Forest. Soils at the stations where most species are found are partly composed of sand. Only 1 species, Amomum aculeatum is found in a loam soil type. There are few species found in the interior part of the forest and they are less abundant and sparsely distributed. The diversity of species is mostly distributed at an altitude of 90 - 300 m and the number of species decrease as the altitude increases. It is observed that at least 6 species of Zingiberaceae of Khao Nan National Park are also found in the northern part of Khao Luang National Park, such as Zingiber newmanii which is distributed around the Klong Klai Basin. At least 5 species, due to their bright distinctive flower parts, could be developed to be ornamental plants, i.e. Alpinia mutica, A. zerumbet, Etlingera fulgens, Curcuma rubescens and Z. newmanii, in addition to the well known ornamental species such as E. elatior, C. aurantiaca and Kaempferia pulchra. Eight species are edible, i.e. Amomum biflorum, E. elatior, E. fulgens, E. littoralis, C. longa, C. zedoaria, Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet. The seeds of 3 species, Z. newmanii, E. fulgens and E. elatior may prove to be important

  11. Analysis on the characteristics of macrobenthis community in the North-west Daya Bay Of South China Bay in spring%大亚湾西北部春季大型底栖动物群落特征

    杜飞雁; 林钦; 贾晓平; 杨圣云; 马胜伟; 陈海刚; 李纯厚

    2011-01-01

    community. The dominant macrobenthic species of group I were Timoclea scabra, Nephtys oligobranchia, Theora lata, Sigambra hanaokai, dycinde gurjanvae, Prionospio malmgreni, Timoclea scabra, Turritella baclllum, Corophium tridentium, Phyllodocidae und. , Nectoneanthes alatopalpis, Ericthonius pugnax, Pseudopythina sp. And Stylochus ijimai. Species belonging to this group distributed in the nearshore area of Aotou Harbor and Nanhai Petrochemicals Basement Group Ⅱ assemblage includes Paphia undulata, Timoclea scabra, Corophium uenoi, Prionospio malmgreni, Sigambra hanaokai, Ophelia acuminata, Mediomastus sp. , Nephtys oligobranchia, Moerella culver, Corophium lamellatum, Paraprionospio pinnata and Prionospio pulchra. These species distributed mainly around theChunzhou Island where suspended long line culture of oyster was common. The discriminating species for Group Ⅰ were S. Hanaokai, N. Soligobranchia, P. Malmgreni, N. Alatopalpis and E. Pugnax while group II were C. Uenoi, P. Malmgreni, S. Hanaokai, N. Oligobranchia, T. Scabra, M. Sp. , Phyllodocidae und. , P. Pinnata, 0. Acuminata, C. Lamellatum, M. Cther and Chaetozone sp. Group Ⅲ assemblage were mainly found in the west side of Mabianzhou, where it was a fishing ground for Arthropoda in Daya Bay. Group IV was distributed in area where main shipping routes passed through, in the east side of area of Group II and in between the area of Group Ⅰ and Ⅲ. For each community group, while group Ⅱ Group I was dominated by Annelida and Arthropoda while Group Ⅱwas dominated by arthropoda, annelida and mollusca; such difference is mainly because of the difference in habitat conditions. Diversity of macrobentho community was highest in GroupⅢ , followed by Group Ⅱ , Group I and then Group Ⅳ. Poor habitat condition caused by pollution, sedimentation and other human disturbances were the main reasons for the differences in diversity between groups. In general, macrobenthos community in the North-west Daya Bay of