We would like to acknowledge the help received by the various people who assisted in the production of this book. Special thanks go to the teams of unversity dons, in both France and Nigeria who worked on the translation of the original English and French texts into Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Also acknowledged is the assistance to the translators of members of the French NGO, Diffusion Multilingue de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l'Homme, which assisted the translators, and the Agence...
Many individuals have in different ways helped the research project that culminated in this publication. We would like to thank all those who assisted us in the preparation of this book. A special mention of the contributions of the members of the Steering Committee is deserved. The members, namely Abebe Mulatu, Bezawork Shimelash, Dominique Francke, Laura Bourassa, Million Habte, and Stephane Balland have spent several days over a number of months devising the research plan, supervising the ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so
Murray, Carol Garboden
The language used by adults in an early childhood setting is one of the most telling indicators of the values of a center. Each center has its own culture of language that consists of often heard phrases and scripts used when teaching and caring for young children. Listening closely to words, tones, and scripts--educators tune into what is unseen,…
In this paper, which is in four parts, I make a plea to those involved in research into mathematics teaching and learning of the need to acknowledge, however their work is framed, that it will be located in a culture, not always visible to a reader, that should be made explicit. In the first part I examine three key models of culture and their significance for education. In the second I further highlight the impact of culture on what children are expected by critiquing various models of curri...
Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.
Carlisle, S.; Hanlon, P.; Hannah, M
The relationship between social position and health has been the focus of extensive public health debate. In the UK and elsewhere, most researchers have focused on physical aspects of health, using indicators such as mortality and morbidity to draw a picture of profound and widening social inequalities. This paper draws attention to the (neglected) influence of contemporary culture on wellbeing, arguing that the social meanings created within consumer culture possess symbolic force that ca...
Carlisle, Sandra; Hanlon, Phil; Hannah, Margaret
The relationship between social position and health has been the focus of extensive public health debate. In the UK and elsewhere, most researchers have focused on physical aspects of health, using indicators such as mortality and morbidity to draw a picture of profound and widening social inequalities. This paper draws attention to the (neglected) influence of contemporary culture on wellbeing, arguing that the social meanings created within consumer culture possess symbolic force that can add to wider inequalities. The possession of greater material and cultural resources by people of higher social status enables them to label their preferred forms of consumption and lifestyle as desirable and legitimate, thus conveying messages about superior taste and social distinction. Symbolic rather than material forms of inequality are implicated here, with consequences for the psychological wellbeing of disadvantaged people. This paper argues that analyses of inequality need broadening to include such considerations. However, there are implications for efforts to address health inequalities because this analysis suggests that if some forms of social inequality are removed, elements within society would be motivated to invent new forms to replace them. Therefore, this article suggests processes whereby people can develop the self-awareness needed to resist the glossy illusions of the good life represented by modern consumer capitalism. PMID:18234253
Mjeku, Majlinda; Nathan J. Gomes
The IEEE 802.11e Medium Access Control (MAC) for Quality-of-Service (QoS) support in 802.11 networks defines burst transmission and new acknowledgment (ACK) operations as optional mechanisms for increasing channel utilization. In this paper, we investigate how the performance of these new features is affected by the presence of fiber delay in high speed Wireless LAN (WLAN) over fiber networks. It is shown that the negative effect of the fiber delay on the throughput performance of the 802.11 ...
The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...
De La Mare, Danielle M.
Social identity is central to communication and culture, and while many intercultural communication textbooks devote much more space to the topic than they have in the past, undergraduate students continue to understand social identity in largely superficial terms. In order for them to grasp its complexity and its relationship to communication,…
Because of different geographical environment, historical story, and psychic conditions, there exists distinct culture differences between china and western countries among varified nations. Therefore, we acknowledge that concrete understanding of the culture difference mkes the very basis of the acquisition of English language for students, and thus they are likely to have an enhancement in interpersonal ability.
Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob
Purpose - Purpose: Intercultural communication problems are most often argued to be caused by differences in cultural values. In this exploratory paper, we argue that attention should not only be directed at national differences. Alternatively, we argue that more interest should be paid to the ac......Purpose - Purpose: Intercultural communication problems are most often argued to be caused by differences in cultural values. In this exploratory paper, we argue that attention should not only be directed at national differences. Alternatively, we argue that more interest should be paid...... to the actual use of those differences in communication. Design/methodology/approach - Methodology: Ethnographic field study including 12 interviews and observations. Findings - Findings: We use a short case on interaction between expatriates and local managers in a Chinese subsidiary of a Danish multinational...
ZHANG Fu-sheng; HUA Qing-liang
For historical, regional or other reasons, there are some great differences between the Chinese and the English culture. Generally, the keynote of the western culture is the superiority of lust, while the Chinese culture stresses on reservation and compromise. The westerners emphasize individualism, while the Chinese lay stress on context. Different cultures contribute to different habits, characters and behaviors as well as different registers.Cultural differences can directly lead to information loss, information misleading, thus result in obstacles in communication. This essay will have a detailed analysis on the cultural differences and their influence on communication.
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner
and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised...... and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to...... acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process...
Morgan, Stephanie J
This report summarises the results of a major survey carried out by the National Outsourcing Association and Kingston Business School, on the impact of both national and organisational culture on outsourcing contracts. The survey results were supported by a series of interviews exploring the issues in relationship management which are also summarised in this report. Clients, Suppliers and Independent Consultants were included from both public and private sector organisations with over 100 man...
Perez Huber, Lindsay
Using the critical race "testimonios" of ten Chicana undergraduate students at a top-tier research university, Lindsay Perez Huber interrogates and challenges the racist nativist framing of undocumented Latina/o immigrants as problematic, burdensome, and "illegal." Specifically, a community cultural wealth framework (Yosso, 2005) is utilized and…
The purpose of this paper is to summarize findings obtained from the CRES (Control Room Evaluation System) and also to provide a general discussion of cross-cultural research in the nuclear power plant industry. The first half of this paper presents an overview of the CRES program. This is followed by discussions of cross-cultural research, including: (1) cross-cultural differences identified in the CRES data; (2) general concerns about cross-cultural research; and (3) roles of cross-cultural research. 5 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
In the first half of this paper it is argued that cultural geography is a dynamic and diverse field that extends well beyond a single branch of human geography. The boundaries between it and other sub-disciplines are often blurred. People have «different» encounters with cultural geography depending on their sub-disciplinary convergences. People also have different encounters with cultural geography depending on where they live and work. «Place matters» in the construction, production and rep...
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA
Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.
Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation...
Festivals are precious cultural heritage of different countries,so differentfestivals can reflect different cultures. This article discusses cultural differences in Chinese and western festivals, aiming to promote cross-culture communication.
Tempelaar, D.T.; Rienties, B.C.; Giesbers, S.J.H.; Schim van der Loeff, S.; Van den Bossche, P.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Milter, R.G.
Cultural differences in learning-related dispositions are investigated amongst 7,300 first year students from 81 different nationalities, using the framework of Hofstede (Culture’s consequences: international differences in work-related values. Sage, Beverly Hills, 1980). Comparing levels and interc
The objective of this bachelor thesis is to compare cultural differences in marketing communication and manners between the Czech and the Chinese market. Because of its recent launch in the Chinese market, the Czech company KOH-I-NOOR HARDTMUTH has been used as an example to demonstrate this. One of the main goal of this thesis is to analyze the behaviour of Chinese business society as oppose to the European, especially the Czech society. Particularly, which cultural dimensions were used to f...
Zeynep Gultekin; Cemil Ulukan
Assurance of efficiency and productivity of multinational teams necessitates policies, rules, and procedures covering underlying characteristics of team members’ home country cultures, potential cross-cultural conflicts and their solutions, cultural awareness in the organization, and harmonization mechanisms for different cultures with the organizational culture, etc. In spite of ever-increasing importance, studies addressing multinational teams and cultural differences simultaneously are ins...
Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…
Full Text Available To the Editor: We found an error in our published article: Park SJ, Shin JI. Complications of nephrotic syndrome. Korean J Pediatr 2011;54:322-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2011.54.8.322 The funding acknowledgment in this article was omitted as published. Additional acknowledgment is as follows: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF and was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0013789. The authors apologize for any inconvenience this mistake may have caused.
Votkina, D. E.
The paper is devoted to cultural diversity around the world. The author investigates traditions, behavior patterns and communication styles that vary between different cultural communities. The article highlights the importance of respectful dealing with rules of conduct in various cultures to improve the effectiveness of intercultural communication. Статья посвящена культурным различиям в разных странах мира. Автор исследует традиции, особенности поведения и стили общения, являющиеся отличит...
Nowadays translation is regarded essentially as a cross-cultural communication, and cultural differences pose major barriers in translating. After a brief overview of cultural differences in translation, this paper mainly explores foreignizing and domesticating methods in dealing with cultural differences and those possible factors affecting the choice of them.
Angelica NECULĂESEI; Maria TĂTĂRUŞANU
In the historical Romanian provinces, Moldova, Transylvania, Walachia, differences due to cul-tural history, the structure of ethnic, religious, but also neighboring peoples belonging to different cultures were outlined, over time. These cultural differences impact the conduct of their employees, bearing with them the cultural specificity fingerprint of the environment in which they live. The research hypothesis consisted of the statement used in the title, that there are some cultural differ...
Advertising language can be regarded as a special art which mixes cultural backgrounds and the tendency of the times.People from different regions understand advertising culture in different ways.Thus,if people want to overcome the difficulties carried by two cultural backgrounds and linguistic habits,they must make the translation fit the local linguistic and cultural characteristics.
Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.
In this article we describe cross-cultural aspects in the context of safety management. When working abroad, cross-cultural differences ask for other competencies to enhance safe behaviour than at home due to cultural and language differences. In this wiki some guidance is given on aspects of cultur
The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English gives an explanation that culture is the customs, beliefs, art, music, and all the other products of human thought made by particular group of people at a particular time. Different nations have differ-ent cultures. Various cultural factors result in different language forms. China and America are distinct in languages, customs, be-haviors, values and many other aspects. It is the many differences between Chinese and Americans that constitute their own dis-tinct cultures. We can see that people bring along their culture with them and stick to their cultural norms in their daily life.
This article analyzes the relationship of cultural differences on international business negotiations. And also, it emphases on the importance of understanding and mastering cultural differences in international business negotiations.
Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.
International business negotiation is playing a more and more important role in modem society.We can see clearly that there are great differences in international business negotiation.Specially,culture can influence negotiating styles in different ways,because negotiators from another nation are different in language,beliefs,behaviors manners,and way of thinking,value and attitudes and so on.Different cultures express different ways of doing business.Even though negotiators are well prepared,it is not so easy to reach a satisfactory agreement between negotiators across cultures.Negotiations can be easily broken down due to a lack of mutual understanding of the cultures.Culture affects negotiation even before negotiators meet face to face.Therefore,learning the opponent’s culture and having a good understanding of how cultural differences affect negotiation will be critically important if one wants to succeed in cross-cultural negotiations.
Full Text Available Biblios wish to acknowledge the support of the following professionals who participated in the review process of submissions for our issue 60.ReviewersAndré Ancona Lopez (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilGildenir Carolino Santos (Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, BrasilJacira Gil Bernardes (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, BrasilRodrigo Donoso Vegas (Universidad de Chile - UCHILE, ChileSaúl Hiram Souto Fuentes (Universidad de Monterrey - UDEM, MéxicoReviewers invitedAlejandro Uribe Tirado (Universidad de Antioquia - UDEA, ColombiaFernanda Passini Moreno (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilJosé Bernal Rivas Fernández (Universidad de Costa Rica - UCR, Costa RicaMarta Lígia Pomim Valentim (Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, BrasilOrlando Corzo Cauracurí (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos - UNMSM, PerúTerezinha Elisabeth da Silva (Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, BrasilZaira Regina Zafalon (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCAR, BrasilIn the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.
This paper makes an analysis on the Cultural difference in the teaching. Culturaldifference can be reflected in many aspects in the teaching, so the foreign language teachersshould fill their course with cultural factors.
Clemens B. Fell
Due to globalization, organizations face the challenges of international personnel selection. Systematic cross-cultural differences in applicants’ behavior are a threat for the utility and fairness of personnel selection. This dissertation is the first to examine on a large scale how countries’ cultural characteristics can explain cross-cultural differences in faking behavior. Across three large-scale studies, meaningful country-level relationships between culture and faking were identified. ...
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;
Responsibility, Acknowledgement Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories. According to international research, back conditions rank among the costliest conditions worldwide. A thorough review...... of qualitative studies. The synthesis takes form of three stages which overlaps to some degree: the free "line by line coding" of the findings of primary studies; the organzation of these "free codes" into related areas to construct "descriptive themes" and the development of "analytical themes". The...... of the literature in the field has further revealed that back conditions are associated with heavy personal costs. It is therefore of utmost importance that these conditions are dealt with as efficiently and effectively as possible as failure to do so can have severe implications for society as a...
Means, A; MacKenzie Davey, Kate; Dewe, Philip
Multicultural teams are increasingly common and provide a challenge to achieving the integration associated with greater effectiveness. The vague and abstract nature of many definitions of culture can make the difficulties in acknowledging and addressing difference challenging. This longitudinal study of a multicultural team follows the anthropological roots of cultural studies to focus on the material role of food and drink in team development. In an empirical, ethnographically oriented stud...
cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.
Cultural difference is one of the greatest hinders in the intercultural communication. This thesis focuses on displaying cultural differences of etiquette in nonverbal communication. It lays emphasis on the comparisons in China (mainly Han Nationality)and Western (mainly Britain and American) as well as the different culture backgrounds that bring about the etiquette variations. These comparative analyses help people smooth the paths of social intercourse and establish pleasant, comfortable, and cooperative relationships.
Cultural difference is one of the greatest hinders in the intercultural communication. This thesis focuses on displaying cultural differences of etiquette in nonverbal communication. It lays emphasis on the comparisons in China (mainly Han Nationality) and Western (mainly Britain and American) as well as the different culture backgrounds that bring about the etiquette variations. These comparative analyses help people smooth the paths of social intercourse and establish pleasant, comfortable, and cooperative relationships.
The film Dark Matter, based on the actual event of Chinese student Lu Gang shooting in America, tells the protagonist Liu Xing's cultural tragedy. Through the analysis of cultural differences in Black Matter from the perspective of Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions, this paper explores the reasons for Liu Xing's failure of across-cultural communication, which gives us thought on how to improve intercultural communication in the context of globalization.
Gholamreza Taleghani; Davood Salmani; Ali Taatian
Leadership is in fact a process of influencing followers. Characteristics of leadership arefunctions of time and situation and differ in different cultures and countries. Managers ofinternational organizations should obtain enough knowledge of these cultural characteristics anddifferences and should have the utmost versatility while executing their leadership tasks. In thispaper we have conducted a survey of the relation between cultures and styles of leadership indifferent countries. At firs...
With more and more frequent interaction between China and the West, translation plays an extremely important role in communication. Translation is no longer viewed as simple linguistic transference between two languages; cultural factors should be taken into consideration in translation process. This paper tries to analyze how the cultural differences should be dealt with in translation process. Three concrete methods are proposed to deal with different kinds of cultural factors: literal tran...
Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion
It is argued in this paper that it is difficult for a learner to have a good command of English in the context in China where learners are not iramersed in the Engush language because of cultural differences which are explored under four categories.The four issues of cultural differences in language learning discussed are essential in the formation of schemata which are very important in communication and language learning.
It is argued in this paper that it is difficult for a learner to have a good command of English m the contextin China where learners are not immersed m the English language because of cultural differences which are explored under four categories. The four issues of cultural differences in language learning discussed are essential in the formation of schemata which are very important in communication and language learning.
Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.
participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies a...
With economic globalization and China’s entry into WTO, commercial contacts among various countries are bound to be increasingly substantial. As a result, negotiation among people who come from different cultural backgrounds will certainly become a universal issue that arouses concern among people in different countries.
All the team of the Théodora Foundation and the members of its Board warmly thank everyone who contributed to the collection organized after the death of our colleague and friend Hubert Muller Created 11 years ago, the Théodora Foundation's goal was to relieve the suffering of hospitalized children through laughter. Thanks to your gift of 850 CHF, hospitalized children will receive a tender and funny visit from one of the Théodora Foundation's Dream Doctors. The Foundation dedicates to everyone who participated the magic moments of joy and happiness lived by each small patient during one of these visits. We express here our deep gratitude to Hubert's family for this gesture and hope that they find comfort in knowing that Hubert's memory will live through these children, for whom this sum will help to relieve the difficulty of their every day lives. In the name of the Safety Commission
Liz, Adrian and Alan Spinks wish to extend their heartfelt thanks to all of their friends and colleagues at CERN for your sympathy, your help and support during this difficult period following our loss of Lorna. We would also like to pay tribute to the generosity of your contributions resulting in a donation of over 20,000FF to the DIRE Association (see letter below).
Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Singh, Tejinder
tifrLogo Vishwa Mimansa An interpretative exposition of the Universe Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) 14th-19th December, 2011 GOA, India (The conference component of the ICTS Programme: Frontiers of Cosmology and Gravitation 1st-23rd December, 2011) The Silver Jubilee Meeting of the ICGC series organized jointly by International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, TIFR & Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG) Publication sponsor: Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and the Allied Trusts Editors: B S Sathyaprakash and Tejinder P Singh Assistant Editor: V Chellathurai Conference Co-sponsors: Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune Association of Friends of Astronomy, Goa Centre for AstroParticle Physics, SINP, Kolkata Department of Science, Technology and Environment, Goa Foundational Questions Institute, USA Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad Infosys Science Foundation, Bangalore Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai iagrgicts
In February 2009, the University of Utrecht welcomed Claudio Magris as its first writer-in-residence, in a new and ambitious programme launched in order to bring the Utrecht academic community in close contact with some of the world’s finest and most accomplished poets and writers. While at Utrecht University, Claudio Magris delivered the first Romano Guarnieri Lecture in Italian Studies on ‘Before the Law. Literature and Justice’ and engaged in a public debate on Europe with the Dutch minist...
The Advisory and Editorial Boards of the Asian Journal of Andrology (AJA) wish to thank the following scientists for their unique contribution to AJA in reviewing the papers (including papers published and rejected) of this issue:
The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems benefits from the following Organizer, Co-organizers and Sponsors. Tsinghua UniveristyJiangsu Univeristy Tsinghua UniveristyJiangsu Univeristy State Key LaboratoryXi'an University State Key Laboratory ofXi'an University of Technology Hydroscience and Engineering, China CAUHarbin China Agricultural UniversityNational Engineering Center of Hydropower Equipment (Harbin Electric Machinery Co Ltd) DongfangToshiba Hydro Power Dongfang Electric Machinery Co LtdToshiba Hydro Power (Hangzhou) Co Ltd ZhejiangVoith Hydro Zhejiang Fuchunjiang HydropowerVoith Hydro Alstom Hydro Alstom Hydro
Marianna D. Birnbaum
Many years ago, when I was writing about the Fuggers, a famous German banking family, I came across a statement made by one of their business agents, Hans Dernschwam, who traveled widely in the Ottoman Empire (1553–55). Dernschwam noted that Jews enjoyed a privileged position under Turkish rule; in particular, the head of one family, a “Portuguese woman,” dared to dress and behave like a European aristocrat, surrounding herself with luxuries and servants. I made a mental note to return to tha...
Although distribution of European and Latin American films in the United States has fallen off in recent years, there are a number of small distributors who still acquire new material, add it to their collection of older films, and help keep the tradition alive. I wish to thank the following distributors who supplied the films that made the writing of this book possible: Cinema Five, Corinth Films, Films Inc.-Audio Brandon, New Line Cinema, New Yorker Films, Unifilm. The motion picture divisi...
This book is the result of a collective work. The Vox Internet Research Programme could not have been possible without the precious contribution of many people. We take the opportunity to thank all speakers and participants, from France and abroad, to our workshops and conferences. Beyond our warm thanks to the contributors, we are particularly grateful to the members of the Vox Internet scientific committee and other colleagues: Philippe Barbet, Pierre-Jean Benghozi, Jacques Berleur, Danièle...
The Meeting was sponsored by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the Società Italiana di Fisica (SIF), the European Physics Society (EPS), the University of Pisa and the University of Siena.
正Meteorological and Environmental Research[ISSN:2152-3940] is acomprehensive meteorological and environmental scientific journal contains strong technicality and high orientation in China,being published monthly in Rhode Island,USA.It has been included by Chemical Abstracts,CABI,Cambridge Scientific Abstracts,EBSCO,and CNKI.
Meteorological and Environmental Research[ISSN:2152-3940] is acomprehensive meteorological and environmental scientific journal contains strong technicality and high orientation in China,being published monthly in Rhode Island,USA.It has been included by Chemical Abstracts,CABI,Cambridge Scientific Abstracts,EBSCO,and CNKI.
Robert A. Peña
Full Text Available The relationships between student achievement, student culture and practitioners' attitudes and expectations were investigated. Student achievement was defined as academic performance but also included perceptions, rationales and explanations for student behaviors and conduct. Student culture described student's Mexican American origins, customs and beliefs. Practitioners' attitudes described how middle school personnel perceived Mexican American high and underachieving students generally, and practitioners' expectations described how personnel interacted and behaved toward Mexican American students. Results indicated that Mexican American students perceived themselves and school personnel perceived these students as different from Anglo students. Mexican American cultural traditions were also perceived as inferior and disadvantageous by high achieving Mexican American students and by personnel. Underachieving Mexican American students generally valued their cultural traditions more positively than high achieving students becoming resistant to learning when these traditions were marginalized in school. Student achievement was also related to student compliance, student appearance, styles in written and verbal communication and practitioners' perceptions about the willingness of Mexican American students to practice and support Anglo norms. These findings are congruent with theories that discuss relationships between student achievement, student culture and practitioners' attitudes and expectations. Theories about school failure occurring less frequently in minority groups that are positively oriented toward their own and the dominant culture were contradicted and not supported in this research.
This paper aims at study the politeness in the pragmatic framework and reviews the main studies of politeness by western and Chinese scholars.Meanwhile,the writer tries to reveal the cultural difference existing in politeness by comparative study of western and Chinese language.
Full Text Available According to recent cross-cultural studies there exist culturally based differences between visual perception and the related cognitive processes (attention, memory. According to current research, East Asians and Westerners percieve and think about the world in very different ways. Westerners are inclined to attend to some focal object (a salient object within a perception field that is relatively big in size, fast moving, colourful focusing on and analyzing its attributes. East Asians on the other hand are more likely to attend to a broad perceptual field, noticing relationships and changes. In this paper we want to describe the recent findings in the field and propose some directions for future research.
Wine culture is a culture between material and spirit. It takes the material as the carrier and it contains profound spirit in material life. China has a deep and long source of drinking culture, which has a complete seepage into the different domains of human life. As a special way of culture, drinking culture has a unique status in Chinese traditional culture. Today, the West's wine drinking culture, to a large extent, has an impact of China's liquor drinking culture. This article analyzes ...
Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn
We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music. PMID:22367155
» is one of the categories that allow a deeper insight and a better perception of the way the ideals of citizenship have helped people to overcome exclusion. As the articles show, access to citizenship differs from context to context. Citizenship is never only a legal status: it has to do with cultural...... diversity, with recognition of difference, with access to professions and hierarchies on the labour market, not least in universities with traditions in political as well as visual representation. The collection is an introduction to new research in the field of European gender studies.......The articles in this book share a dedication to broadening and stretching the scholarly field of feminist citizenship studies and invite the reader to reflect on the many different ways citizenship is formed in contemporary Europe. They do so by stretching the concept of citizenship itself, going...
Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan
Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…
Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…
Scientific Projects today have increased in complexity, requiring multidisciplinarity, and requiring a mix of diverse individuals from different countries who must be integrated into an effective project. Effective team building is one of the prime responsibilities of the project manager. When the project is supported by a funding, the integration and the implication of the different partners are quite easy. Particularly when partners are developing high-performing teams. However, management of research project requires further skills when the budget is not very high and/or when partners are from non-European countries and are not using the same vocabulary. The various cultures, values, beliefs and social usages, particularly with Mediterranean countries cause a special style of communication for an individual or group of individuals. This communication style participates in the success of the project and encompasses a lot of diplomatic skills which will be highlighted.
钟维维; 裘瑜; 陈佳颖
Colors are embodied with different meanings and symbols in different countries. Not only should we understand their basic and literal meanings, but also we should focus on their deep contents in symbolic meanings, because their symbolic meanings vary from culture to culture. The differences in the symbol of colors are due to different cultures and history back-grounds as well as aesthetic psychology. This paper, mainly based on the Chinese and western culture, approaches the symbols of colors represented in the two different cultures through analyzing the different understanding of colors, which can help us under-stand culture difference in colors better during intercultural com-munication.
青岛大学音乐学院，山东 青岛 266000
Because of the differences in environment and products, different cultures may be formed in east and west, the social characteristics of material and spiritual life integrated embodiment through Chinese and west food cultures. The author focuses on analysis and comparison in cross-cultural differences of diet idea, diet object and way of eating in China and western countries, the deep-seated causation which induces the differences in food cultures is revealed. Under the background of western economic and cultural integration, communication in food cultures increased, which will certain accelerate Chinese food cultures developed and spread al over the world.
Rofess, Sakander; Mahmood, Muhammad Asim
This paper investigates Pakistani doctoral thesis acknowledgements from genre analysis perspective. A corpus of 235 PhD thesis acknowledgements written in English was taken from Pakistani doctoral theses collected from eight different disciplines. HEC Research Repository of Pakistan was used as a data sources. The theses written by Pakistani…
Davidoff, Jules B.; Fonteneau, Elisabeth; Goldstein, Julie
Perceptual similarity was examined in a remote culture (Himba) and compared to that of Western observers. Similarity was assessed in a relative size judgement task and in an odd-one-out detection task. Thus, we examined the effects of culture on what might be considered low-level visual abilities. For both tasks, we found that performance was affected by stimuli that were culturally relevant to the tasks. In Experiment 1, we showed that the use of cow stimuli instead of the standard circles i...
From illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary teaching, and the ctmtparison of some major differences between English and Chinese words, this paper emphasizes the indivisible relationship between vocabulary and culture. International cultural exchange occurring more and more often, this paper attempts to guide students to better understand the cultural connotation of vocabulary, enhance their awareness towards the target culture, improve their comtprehensive language skills, and, develop their cross-cultural communicative ctmtpetence.
Lee, JH; Hu, X
Prior research suggests that listeners from different cultural backgrounds appreciate music differently. Although music mood/emotion is an important part of music seeking and appreciation, few cross-cultural music information retrieval (MIR) studies focus on music mood. Moreover, existing studies on cross-cultural music perception often only compare listeners from two cultures, in most cases, Western vs. Non-western cultures. In order to fill these gaps, this study compares music mood percept...
Language and culture are interacting. Learning a language must understand the culture. The lack of cultural knowledge will lead to students’mistakes in daily English,therefore,in English teaching,the cultural differences between Chinese and Western as an important question is put forward. Then,from the cultural differences between Chinese and western,I discuss the reasons for mistakes in daily English and then how to teaching.
Ahn, Hyun Seon; Usher, Ellen L.; Butz, Amanda; Bong, Mimi
Background: The potential role of culture in the development and operation of self-efficacy has been acknowledged by researchers. Clearer understanding of this cultural impact will benefit from research that shows how the same efficacy information is evaluated across cultures. Aims: We tested whether two sources of self-efficacy information…
When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc.A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture.Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.
When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc. A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture. Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.
study and research in language,society and cultural difference field is very interesting and meaningful.knowing the diversity of different culture we could get to know people from different cultural background easier and better and we could contribute a better understanding and relationship between each other.educators could make the process of teaching and facilitating much more efficient when the target learners are coming from different cultural or language background.
Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.
Diet is absolutely necessary in the life of mankind, and even in the existence or development It is also the one of the basic form of social life. However under the difference cultural background, having different diet idea and diet custom, then finally form the different dietary culture, Certainly, the Chinese and western dietary have a large number of difference, This paper analyzed the specific characteristic on the difference between Chinese and western dietary culture. From this paper the Chinese and western dietary culture is difference in concepts, contents, patterns, dining eti-quette, and tableware. It is still significant to study the dietary cultures of Chinese and western dietary. By the analysis of the difference between Chi-nese and western dietary cultures, we can comprehend the respective cultural tradition of Chinese and west. And we can also improve and create the culture of china.
color words may show different cultural connotation of each language in some degree. While translating, we should handle color words appropriately according to cultural differences in both the original and target language. This paper brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words.
Full Text Available Through making a brief comment on the relationship between the culture studies and translation, the essay contrasts the cultural differences between Western countries, especial America and China, and explores the foreign cultural influence on Chinese traditional culture brought by the translations.
Through making a brief comment on the relationship between the culture studies and translation, the essay contrasts the cultural differences between Western countries, especial America and China, and explores the foreign cultural influence on Chinese traditional culture brought by the translations.
Sun Wen Xu; Jing Jing
Culture is about survival of the human species. One key goal in the study of cultures is in assessing the survival and predictability of values across the history of humankind. As for China and USA, both countries have their own cultures. of course, they have a lot of difference between each other. Every culture has its own reason to exist in the world.
Vijay Pothukuchi; Fariborz Damanpour; Jaepil Choi; Chao C Chen; Seung Ho Park
This study examines the effect of dimensions of national and organizational culture differences on international joint venture (IJV) performance. Based on data from a survey of executives from joint ventures between Indian partners and partners from other countries, we found that the presumed negative effect from culture distance on IJV performance originates more from differences in organizational culture than from differences in national culture.© 2002 JIBS. Journal of International Busines...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.564 Acknowledging time. Acknowledging time of intermittent automatic train-stop device shall be not more than 30 seconds....
Full Text Available Increasingly, advertising examples are being analyzed and used as yet another form of communication, on account of their ubiquity (e.g. billboards, Internet, television, magazines. Designed to compel us to purchase products, advertisements have the potential to greatly impact our lives. They show current trends in social preferences, they reveal cultural values and norms of the target audience and, finally, they can be the mirror of the times people live in. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the findings in previously carried–out research relating to cross–cultural content analysis of advertisements. The reports have addressed both linguistic and extra–linguistic features and trends in advertising and emphasized language– and culture–specific elements. This paper also gives ideas for future studies, since nowadays, due to international marketing and increasing globalization there are more cultural transfers to be explored, as cultures are coming in contact far more frequently.
The interactions between teachers and students are often influenced by the factor of cultural differences. The author mainly analyzes the American teacher-Chinese student interactions under the influence of cultural differences with the theory of Hofstede's four value dimensions. The author also puts forward some suggestions to promote cross-cultural communication in the classrooms.
Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne; Anderson, Jim
Rogoff (2003) argues that "Human development is a cultural process….People develop as participants in cultural communities" (p. 3). Children develop within families, and different cultures reflect differences in how they structure activity for this development. For example, middle class North American families generally would not permit…
Politeness, as a linguistic phenomenon, pervades almost all the civilized social-cultures and languages, which works as a sort of softening agent to smoothen the course of communication. As people from different cultures may view differently on what politeness is and how to be polite, misunderstandings may arise if cultural differences are neglected in cross-cultural commu-nication. This thesis is intended to make a comparative study of cultural differences in politeness between English and Chinese, first from the disparity in their conceptions of politeness,and then proceeds to discuss the underlying psychological factor. Lastly, based on the awareness of these cultural differences and the knowledge of the cause of the differences, this paper proposes some applicable advice to achieve successful cross-cultural communication.
Zhao Dan; Liu Yi
Due to the rich content of cultural iden￣tity, the research related to this aspect involves many disciplines, including anthropology, sociolo￣gy, psychology, philosophy, literature, religion and education,etc. Based on their own academic back￣ground,scholars have done a lot of research on va￣rious aspects of the cultural identity of ethnic mi￣norities. This article classifies cultural identity in￣fluenced by different cultures, and focuses on a study of the impact and role of different cultural forms on the ethnic minorities’ cultural identity. The influences on the cultural identity of ethnic mi￣norities include the following.
Virbickaité, Darija, 1986-
Culture is one of the factors that distinguishes nations from each another. Nowadays, not only are people moving around the world, but organizations are engaging in international business or merging together. Organizations, no matter how big they are, have developed their values and beliefs among the employees inside the company, creating some sort of the organizational culture that also differs from country to country. Being unfamiliar with a different culture and its organizational culture,...
Idioms can reflect a nation just like a mirror.As a special form of language,idioms carry a large amount of cultural information such as history,geography,religion,custom,nationality,psychology,etc.,and therefore idioms are closely related to culture.Thus people can know much about culture by studying idioms and in turn get better understanding of idioms by learning the cultural background behind idioms.In order to communicate with each other fluently,the study of the relationship between the idiom and culture is significant and urgent.This paper analyzes the main causes of cultural differences in English and Chinese idioms and illustrates the manifestations of cultural differences.The aim of this thesis is to enhance language learners’ intercultural awareness of comprehending and utilizing idioms from different cultures precisely and accurately.
Heffernan, Troy; Morrison, Mark; Basu, Parikshit; Sweeney, Arthur
Australian universities have been active participants in the transnational education market over the past twenty years. Many Australian universities have structured various forms of franchising arrangements with universities and other education providers, particularly with educational institutions in China. However, the cultural differences…
Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.
The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.
This paper aims to understand the similarities and differences between Chinese and Indonesia Culture. In order to achieve this goal, five culture aspect were analyzed. They are (1) greeting and farewell; (2) thanks and apologies; (3) honorifics and Qianci; (4) praise and politely refuse; (5) dinner and gifts. The research used comparative study method. By analyzing the five aspects of the Indonesia and Chinese culture, research concludes that the Chinese and Indonesian culture hav...
Sun; Wen; Xu; Jing; Jing
Culture is about survival of the human species.One key goal in the study of cultures is in assessing the survival and predictability of values across the history of humankind.As for China and USA,both countries have their own cultures.of course,they have a lot of difference between each other.Every culture has its own reason to exist in the world.
MATSUNAGA, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi
Individuals who have been exposed to two different musical cultures (bimusicals) can be differentiated from those exposed to only one musical culture (monomusicals). Just as bilingual speakers handle the distinct language-syntactic rules of each of two languages, bimusical listeners handle two distinct musical-syntactic rules (e.g., tonal schemas) in each musical culture. This study sought to determine specific brain activities that contribute to differentiating two culture-specific tonal str...
Color relates to people very closely; with the development of society and culture, people’s understanding of color is not confided to the visual characteristics of color itself, besides, people give color cultural connotation and actual meanings. In language, the unique glamour that the color words demonstrate makes people regard them with special esteem. Color words describe colors of nature with different cultural implications. They have unique linguistic functions and symbolic connotations. Colors play an indispensable part in our life and it's an effective way to learn the different culture. There is an increase in mis-understanding and communicative barriers because of frequent cross-cultural communication. Chinese and English color words possess different cultural meanings and connotation due to the difference in customs and habits, history and traditions, religions and beliefs, geographic locations, national psychology and ways of thinking. Thus, it’s easy to make mistakes on understanding and comprehension. The methods used in the research procedure are like this: collect some representative color words both from Chinese and English and take them as samples, then make a comparison between cultural connotations. According to the comparison, make a summary about the differences of color words between China and England. This thesis brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words. Color words in learning English is very important. It can help us t make a better understanding of the culture difference of both nations, and achieve the effective cross-culture communication.
today,the world is fast developing in the age of economic globalization.business contacts among nations get increasingly close,which has brought more and more opportunities for business field.economic interdependence is much productive to the cooperation between companies.and the successful business,to a great extent,depends on the mutually beneficial negotiation.negotiators from different countries come together and discuss their common and conflicting interests; meanwhile,they bring different cultures to the negotiating table,which have important impacts on negotiation.culture forges values and religious belief that define one' s thinking and behavior.therefore,negotiators with different cultural backgrounds employ different negotiating strategies.cultural differences will certainly result in cultural conflicts,especially for enormous differences between the eastern culture and western culture.thus,to negotiate effectively,negotiators should have a good understanding of culture and cultural differences.more importantly,they should know how negotiation is affected by culture.in doing so,negotiators can predict the process and adjust strategies in order to reach a satisfactory agreement
Chung, Hyun Soo; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Saul Barry
characteristics that manifest themselves in teaching and learning practices substantially different from Western cultures. We need to consider how to balance standardization in debriefing with a culture-sensitive interpretation of simulation-based learning so that learners receive the maximum benefit from......Debriefing plays a critical role in facilitated reflection of simulation after the experiential component of simulation-based learning. The concept of framing and reflective learning in a debriefing session has emanated primarily from Western cultures. However, non-Western cultures have significant...... debriefing sessions. Our goal was to raise awareness of cultural differences and stimulate work to make progress in this regard....
Wiseman, Richard L.
Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…
the translation of idioms in English and Chi-nese exists a big difference, which is affected by differ-ent cultures. According to the origin of any idiom, no matter it is Chinese idiom or English idiom, cultural background belongs to one's country must be reflected. China and Western countries both have long histories, which fertilized their own brilliant cultures, which are influenced by their individual environment, history, re-ligion and so on. In this paper, the author will analyze four cultural divergences resulting in differences in translating Chinese idioms and English idioms.
EĞİNLİ, Ayşen Temel
People may face various difficulties (language, eating and drinking culture, social interactions etc.) in the process of the adaptation to a new culture. Experiencing the feeling of''otherness" in the new culture and offacing of new experiences creates pressure on the person. This condition which is a mixture of excitement, anxiety, uncertainty, fear etc. and which makes a person feel lost is named as culture shock. The culture shock is a problem which is faced particularly by managers, diplo...
In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned. PMID:22897089
Tang, Li; Hu, Guangyuan; Liu, Weishu
Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (WoS) began systematically collecting acknowledgment information in August 2008. Since then, bibliometric analysis of funding acknowledgment (FA) has been growing and has aroused intense interest and attention from both academia and policy makers. Examining the distribution of FA by citation index database, by language, and by acknowledgment type, we noted coverage limitations and potential biases in each analysis. We argue that in spite of its great value, bib...
The communication of people partially is the communication of cultures. Culture has a direct effect on international commercial activities in all aspects. Different conceptions about time, space, equality, law and the like, lead people to deal with things in different ways. So to know cultures of the counterpart is to facil-itate our enterprises so as to have a smooth and successful communication in commercial activity.
Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate cultural differences in coordination decisions in a coordination game with considering IDS context. IDS context is introduced into a coordination game since it recently draws more and more people’s attention. The concepts of individualism/collectivism as the key aspects of culture variability are introduced into the cultural differences study. It is assumed that Chinese people are more collectivistic and more likely to coordinate each ot...
With the fast-pacing of globalization, cross-cultural communications are becoming increasingly frequent. Translation of the literary works, or novels is one of the most popular models of cultural exchange. While the translation of novel titles comes with first importance as successful translation of the titles facilitates a bird’s eye view of the whole context. However, the transla-tion of novel titles is no easy without consideration of cultural differences which directly influence people’s thoughts and under-standing. Therefore, translating novel titles requires an overall analysis of such cultural elements as religion, cultural images, way of thinking, and historical allusions.
Economic globalization is necessary,which results in worldwide economic freedom and development,and promote the contact along countries,regions with enterprises.Culture differences of Euro-America and Japanese provide a train of thought for local enterprises improvement.Therefore,we analyzed excellent ideas of Euro-America and Japanese culture to build better adaptive local enterprise culture.
In order to improve their abilities in cross-cultural communication, language learners should develop not only their language competence, but also communicative competence. This paper presents an understanding on the general cultural differences between the west and China by applying the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Bond, and points out…
Song of Solomon is Toni Morrison’s masterpiece which describes the effort of black people to find the root of their tradi⁃tional culture. Morrison shows us different attitudes of black people towards traditional culture through different characters and por⁃trays us a picture of the life of black people in that age.
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…
This paper intends to analyze the cultural differences between English and Chinese color words.The differences are mainly embodied in the historical tradition,the national psychology and religion,life habits and emotional color,etc.
Contrast this to be adopted in terms of both language and cultural background reflected in the meaning of life,and address,social etiquette,gender,emotional,and other areas to explore differences in how English vocabulary teaching in the financial and cultural knowledge in the language,into a culture of moderation,thereby enhancing the efficiency of teaching vocabulary to the real purpose of teaching vocabulary.
Carine Peeters; Catherine Dehon; Patricia Garcia-Prieto
Contrasting with extant research centred on the organizational challenges of sourcing services in culturally distant countries, we show that cultural differences between home and host countries do not prevent firms from achieving their cost savings targets. Instead, the effect is positive, both for the captive and outsourcing governance models. Using insight from social psychology research and the theory of organizations, we build the argument that the positive effect is due to cultural diffe...
Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Cheng, Tessa K; Waddar, Mahadevi
A growing body of research has shown that Western vegetarians report more concern for animal welfare and environmental sustainability, and endorse more liberal values than do Western omnivores. However, despite the prevalence of Indian vegetarianism, its psychological associations and underpinnings remain largely unexamined. In Study 1, we find that Euro-American vegetarians are more concerned than omnivores with the impact of their daily food choices on the environment and animal welfare, show more concern for general animal welfare, and endorse universalistic values more, yet among Indian participants, these differences are not significant. In Study 2, we show that Indian vegetarians more strongly endorse the belief that eating meat is polluting, and show a heightened concern for the conservative ethics of Purity, Authority, and Ingroup relative to their omnivorous peers, whereas these differences are largely absent among Euro-Canadians and Euro-Americans. PMID:24045211
Fritz, Wolfgang; Möllenberg, Antje; Chen, Guo-Ming
As a main dimension of intercultural communication competence, intercultural sensitivity has increasingly gained attention in research in different disciplines. In the United States, Chen and Starosta have developed an instrument, comprising 5 factors with 24 items, for measuring intercultural sensitivity. In this study, we tested Chen and Starosta's instrument in a German sample by using confirmatory factor analysis. Overall, the results showed that the instrument holds satisfactorily. Altho...
Keddie, Amanda; Niesche, Richard
In this paper, the focus is on how a group of Australian educators support student equity through cultural recognition. Young's theorising of justice is drawn on to illuminate the problematic impacts arising from the group's efforts to value students' cultural difference associated, for example, with quantifying justice along distributive lines…
Advertising is not only a kind of business activity,but also a means of cultural communication.?When it comes to interpreting advertising language,different cultures and traditions are taken into consideration.Meanwhile distinct features are represented in Chinese and western advertisements.
Leung, Angela K-Y; Cohen, Dov
The CuPS (Culture × Person × Situation) approach attempts to jointly consider culture and individual differences, without treating either as noise and without reducing one to the other. Culture is important because it helps define psychological situations and create meaningful clusters of behavior according to particular logics. Individual differences are important because individuals vary in the extent to which they endorse or reject a culture's ideals. Further, because different cultures are organized by different logics, individual differences mean something different in each. Central to these studies are concepts of honor-related violence and individual worth as being inalienable versus socially conferred. We illustrate our argument with 2 experiments involving participants from honor, face, and dignity cultures. The studies showed that the same "type" of person who was most helpful, honest, and likely to behave with integrity in one culture was the "type" of person least likely to do so in another culture. We discuss how CuPS can provide a rudimentary but integrated approach to understanding both within- and between-culture variation. PMID:21244179
Maral, Begüm; Baybars, Miray; Bayraktaroğlu, Gül
Every nation has its own way of living, traditions, values, and norms. The cultural practices vary among the countries all over the world. The advertisement itself, the messages conveyed and the actors performing in it depend on the cultural characteristics of the country. The development level of the countries may have an impact on the cultural values of individuals; hence on the consumption behavior and marketing applications. Individual cultural differences may call for certain adaptations...
Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong
Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950224
Schwartz, Aliza J; Boduroglu, Aysecan; Gutchess, Angela H
Cultural differences occur in the use of categories to aid accurate recall of information. This study investigated whether culture also contributed to false (erroneous) memories, and extended cross-cultural memory research to Turkish culture, which is shaped by Eastern and Western influences. Americans and Turks viewed word pairs, half of which were categorically related and half unrelated. Participants then attempted to recall the second word from the pair in response to the first word cue. Responses were coded as correct, as blanks, or as different types of errors. Americans committed more categorical errors than did Turks, and Turks mistakenly recalled more non-categorically related list words than did Americans. These results support the idea that Americans use categories either to organize information in memory or to support retrieval strategies to a greater extent than Turks and suggest that culture shapes not only accurate recall but also erroneous distortions of memory. PMID:24628532
Great opportunities together with great challenges are brought to the development of Chinese economy with the glo-balization of the world economy. Foreign businessmen want to share the market of China, while Chinese enterprisers with a broader sight have been thinking about selling products to international markets. Languages and cultures of different nations have their own characteristics. In order to communicate with each other, human beings must make use of the methods of translation. Thus, it shows that translation, which is a social activity of inter-language, inter-culture and inter-community, is linked closely to culture. Meanwhile, the features of translation represent similarly in advertising translation. Generally speaking, when doing ad-vertising translation, it can not only focus on language differences between the two sides, but also pay attention to cultural differ-ences. Or else it would be difficult to translate satisfying advertisements.By taking examples from Chinese-English and English-Chinese, this paper compares the different aspects between Chinese and Western thinking sets, traditional ideas and values in order to reflect differences of advertising translation based on different cultures. Finally, it will sum up some strategies of inter-cultural advertising translation.
Matsumoto, David; Grissom, Robert J.; Dinnel, Dale L.
Recommends four measures of cultural effect size appropriate for cross-cultural research (standardized difference between two sample means, probabilistic superiority effect size measure, Cohen's U1, and point biserial correlation), demonstrating their efficacy on two data sets from previously published studies and arguing for their use in future…
Johanson, M; Polsa, P E; Törnroos, J
The paper analyses business networks in three different cultural settings: West-European, Russian and Chinese. In the conceptual and comparative paper theoretical perspectives as well as practical business matters in the three settings are highlighted and analysed. The theory concerns culture and business networks and the role of transition in the case of Russia and China. In the end core elements of the different network types are presented and compared together with implications.
Liu, Anqing; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Žukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Prančiskas; Shur, Michael
The preferences to color quality of illumination were investigated for American and Chinese subjects using a solid-state source of white light with the continuously tunable color saturation ability and correlated color temperature of quadrichromatic blends. Subjects were asked to identify both most natural and preferred blends. For very familiar objects, cultural differences did not affect the average of the selected blends. For less familiar objects (various paintings), cultural differences ...
as a common morality,politeness is the symbol of human civilization and a primary principle abided by people in interpersonal communication.However,the standard and the way of expression of politeness are fluctuated with different culture.This essay takes analysis on different connotations of"modesty" lying in the western culture and eastern culture deeply and explains the cause for that,for the purpose of helping people avoid pragmatic mistake in intercultural communication at the best to achieve considerable communicative effect.
Liu, Anqing; Žukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Prančiskas; Shur, Michael
The preferences to color quality of illumination were investigated for American and Chinese subjects using a solid-state source of white light with the continuously tunable color saturation ability and correlated color temperature of quadrichromatic blends. Subjects were asked to identify both most natural and preferred blends. For very familiar objects, cultural differences did not affect the average of the selected blends. For less familiar objects (various paintings), cultural differences in the average selected blends depended on the level of the familiarity of the content. An unfamiliar painting also showed preferences to color temperature being dependent on the cultural background. In all cases, the American subjects exhibited noticeably wider distributions.
It is an urgent priority for cultivating the media character acknowledge and media literacy of university students to suit the modern society progress. However,the university students still consider themselves as a “recipient” as their media character. Moreover,they also lack of speculative knowledge and moral idea. The education of media literacy should not be neglected in University and it is necessary for the students to comprehend the knowledge of media literacy and the capability of media message analysis.%如何培养大学生的媒介认知与媒介素养，已经成为高校培养适应现代社会发展需要的复合型人才的当务之急。当代大学生对自身的媒介角色仍然定位为“受众”，媒介素养不足主要表现在理论知识和道德观念两个方面。高校要高度重视媒介素养教育，将其纳入通识教育的内容，通过系统的教育，让大学生掌握媒介素养的基本知识，提高对媒介信息的鉴别、分析能力。
This qualitative study charted the implications and potentialities of embracing a design culture within contemporary education. Unlike the positivist scientific paradigm which dissects and analyzes, a design philosophy offers a unifying logic that facilitates change, acknowledges complexity, and shapes possibilities (Nelson & Stolterman,…
Full Text Available Research on generic structures of acknowledgements in dissertations has gradually drawn attention in various contexts. However, there is relatively scant research on the ways in which acknowledgements are written by authors with mutually similar cultural backgrounds but in two different academic environments and language contexts. To fill this gap, this study compared 60 PhD dissertation acknowledgements written by Taiwanese postgraduates in Taiwan, an EFL context, with another 60 written by Taiwanese scholars who obtained their doctorates in the United States, an ESL context. The focus was on the generic structures and linguistic features of the writing styles of the two groups. The study aimed to investigate whether divergences existed in the two different academic and language settings, but with the writers sharing the same cultural and language background. If such divergences did exist, the likely causes would be explored. The results revealed that firstly, the participants in both contexts generally followed a three-tier structure when writing their dissertation acknowledgements, namely, reflecting, thanking, and announcing moves. However, academic conventions, institutional preferences and the language context, together with socio-cultural factors, affected their construction of moves/steps and their choice of linguistic elements. It was found that the rhetorical language in both corpora was relatively direct, emotional and precise.Keywords: genre analysis, dissertation acknowledgements, generic structure, speech acts, rhetorical choices, contextual influences, keyword analysis
Osman, Suzanne L
Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. PMID:26490506
Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner; Singh, J.D
This paper seeks to examine cross cultural differences in the ways people regulate their mood states with special emphasis put on the role of consumption. This issue is virtually unexplored in the extant literature. After briefly introducing the essence of mood regulation and culture we integrate...
Puglisi, Dick J.; Hoffman, Alan J.
Argues that educational models based upon socioeconomic norms which are Anglo and middle class do not meet the needs of minority group children. Suggests that educational models will better serve minority group children if they are based on cultural differences instead of cultural disadvantagement. (Author/DB)
IntroductionFood culture is the sum of human dietary behavior,conception,technology and its products.It shows human natural choiceand dietary way of life that is suited to special geographical environment and humane environment through common practice.Cultural differences between
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on leadership style and various aspects of different leadership style. Some firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership while many studies indicate that firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership. This paper reviews recent advances on leadership style and various aspects of organizational cultures completed during the past few years. The paper concentrates on recently published articles appeared in the world.
Gamic Race: Logics of Difference in Videogame Culture makes race central to the study of videogames and videogame cultures. The project emphasizes the need for critical race theory in game studies to understand how race is informed and reshaped by the logics of gameplay resulting in the multi-layered, politically complex, and agile concept of gamic race. Displaced racialization, the project's other key concept, revises former studies of race in digital media that focus predominantly on repres...
Mostafa Emami; Mohammad Javad Esfahani; Mahmoud Malmir
During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on leadership style and various aspects of different leadership style. Some firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership while many studies indicate that firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership. This paper reviews recent advances on leadership style and various aspects of organizatio...
Beugelsdijk, S.; van Schaik, A.B.T.M.
In this paper we study the cultural aspects of the ‘Europe of the regions’. We try to explain value differences in European regions. In explaining value differences between regions we build on Inglehart, who has described and empirically analysed the relationship between cultural values and economic development (1990, 1997, 2000). Inglehart has shown that economic development is linked with systematic changes in basic values. Inglehart’s main argument is that economic development has a number...
Every country in the world has titles since the ancient times which describe a person's social status or economic power.But because of the different cultures,there are many difficulties in the title translation.This dissertation talks about the cultural differences from these aspects: history,religion,thought,country situation,custom,and economy.And also,this dissertation gives five principles to the title translation.They are principles of levels,principles of changelessness,principles of shortness and conciseness,principles of common use,principles of exceptions.
Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J
Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures. PMID:26621713
Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G
Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences. PMID:24708499
Marcos, Mari-Carmen; Garc??a-Gavilanes, Ruth Olimpia; Bataineh, Emad; Pasarin, Lara
The main goal of this research is to investigate how people with different cultural background differ in their interaction style and visual behavior on search engine results pages (SERP), more specifically between groups from the Middle Eastern region vs. Western Europe. We conducted a controlled eye-tracking experiment to explore and evaluate the visual behavior of Arabs and Spaniard users when scanning through the first page of the search results in Google. Big differences can be observ...
People in different parts of the world undergo traumatic experiences. Mental health professionals seek ways to support trauma survivors as they process trauma and continue their lives. The aim of this qualitative research was to explore how professional helpers in different cultures describe psychosocial support and what kinds of interventions they consider helpful and effective. Questionnaires were sent by email to several professional helpers in different countries and snowball sampling was...
Writing in any language involves more than grammar, vocabulary and spelling. There are thought connections and or-ganization patterns that extend beyond sentences and go deeper than the surface meaning of sentences. This paper compares the differences between English writing and Chinese writing, and explores their cultural traditions.
Kail, Robert V.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Ferrer, Emilio; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua
The aim of the present work was to examine cultural differences in the development of speed of information processing. Four samples of US children ("N" = 509) and four samples of East Asian children ("N" = 661) completed psychometric measures of processing speed on two occasions. Analyses of the longitudinal data indicated…
<正>Ⅰ.Introduction The aim of foreign language teaching is not only to make students get familiar with the knowledge of Western countries,but also to cultivate the students’competence in intercultural communication,this paper will list some cultural differences between China and Western counrties,then present some personal opinions on how to cultivate students’competence in
Shali Wu; Barr, Dale J.; Timothy Matthew Gann; Boaz Keysar
Individuals from East Asian (Chinese) backgrounds have been shown to exhibit greater sensitivity to a speaker's perspective than Western (US) participants when resolving referentially ambiguous expressions. We show that this cultural difference does not reflect better integration of social information during language processing, but rather is the result of differential correction: in the earliest moments of referential processing, Chinese participants showed equivalent egocentric interfe...
Tyson, G. A.; Hubert, Carol J.
Examined lay explanations for juvenile delinquency given by Australian adolescents from either collectivist (Asian) or individualist (Australian) cultural backgrounds. Student surveys indicated that, after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables, there were small differences between the groups, with individualistic teens tending to…
Some language features are described that could account for feelings of people from different cultures not being on the same "wave length" when they communicate with each other in business negotiations. Candlin's explanatory approach involving a "top-down, bottom-up" methodology is used. It views language as being indeterminate and allows language…
Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.
With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multi
Working in a Chinese studies department based in Europe, I am often confronted with the challenges not only of working with cultural difference, but also of working with the concept of “culture” in itself – one of the most famously difficult concepts in the social sciences and humanities. Further, recent socioeconomic changes in China—and the new media dynamics of the “Chinese Internet”—have produced new situations requiring socio-cultural analysis, but lacking a clear theoretical or methodol...
Culture is the kernel and connotation of the country and it is also the irreplaceable soul for the country. The modern Olympic Games is the comprehensive and international sport competition which is with a long history, a large scope and the top level all over the world. It is expressed the culture of the country in the every aspect of the preparation and holding of the Olympic Games. In this paper, it is explored the difference of Chinese and British culture in the oral command, theme, design concepts of the main stadium, emblem and sport events of the Olympic Games through the introduction and comparison of the 4th, 14th London Olympic Games, 29th Beijing Olympic Games and the 30th London Olympic Games.
Gelfand, Michele J; Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa; Leslie, Lisa M; Lun, Janetta; Lim, Beng Chong; Duan, Lili; Almaliach, Assaf; Ang, Soon; Arnadottir, Jakobina; Aycan, Zeynep; Boehnke, Klaus; Boski, Pawel; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chan, Darius; Chhokar, Jagdeep; D'Amato, Alessia; Ferrer, Montse; Fischlmayr, Iris C; Fischer, Ronald; Fülöp, Marta; Georgas, James; Kashima, Emiko S; Kashima, Yoshishima; Kim, Kibum; Lempereur, Alain; Marquez, Patricia; Othman, Rozhan; Overlaet, Bert; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Peltzer, Karl; Perez-Florizno, Lorena R; Ponomarenko, Larisa; Realo, Anu; Schei, Vidar; Schmitt, Manfred; Smith, Peter B; Soomro, Nazar; Szabo, Erna; Taveesin, Nalinee; Toyama, Midori; Van de Vliert, Evert; Vohra, Naharika; Ward, Colleen; Yamaguchi, Susumu
With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change. PMID:21617077
Astroglial cells are frequently involved in malignant transformation. Besides apoptosis, necroptosis, a different form of regulated cell death, seems to be related with glioblastoma genesis, proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion. In the present work we elucidated mechanisms of necroptosis in cultured astrocytes, and compared them with apoptosis, caused by staurosporine. Cultured rat cortical astrocytes were used for a cell death studies. Cell death was induced by different concentrations of staurosporine, and modified by inhibitors of apoptosis (z-vad-fmk) and necroptosis (nec-1). Different forms of a cell death were detected using flow cytometry. We showed that staurosporine, depending on concentration, induces both, apoptosis as well as necroptosis. Treatment with 10−7 M staurosporine increased apoptosis of astrocytes after the regeneration in a staurosporine free medium. When caspases were inhibited, apoptosis was attenuated, while necroptosis was slightly increased. Treatment with 10−6 M staurosporine induced necroptosis that occurred after the regeneration of astrocytes in a staurosporine free medium, as well as without regeneration period. Necroptosis was significantly attenuated by nec-1 which inhibits RIP1 kinase. On the other hand, the inhibition of caspases had no effect on necroptosis. Furthermore, staurosporine activated RIP1 kinase increased the production of reactive oxygen species, while an antioxidant BHA significantly attenuated necroptosis. Staurosporine can induce apoptosis and/or necroptosis in cultured astrocytes via different signalling pathways. Distinction between different forms of cell death is crucial in the studies of therapy-induced necroptosis
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee
This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries. PMID:19661101
Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Adamle, Kathleen; Chiang, Ling-Chun
Humor has been recognized by nurse researchers and practitioners as a constructive therapeutic intervention and has shown positive psychological and physiological outcomes for patient care. Because cross-cultural research on humor is sparse, this preliminary study investigates how nursing faculty members approach teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom and clinical education in different countries. Through an investigation of classroom (didactic) education and clinical practicum with direct patient care, the study may elucidate the linkage between theory and practice as well as how nursing faculty members view therapeutic humor in general. Researching nursing faculty teaching practices and viewpoints of therapeutic humor may help reveal cultural differences in the use of humor in healthcare settings. This cross-cultural study included 40 nursing faculty at three nursing programs: two in the United States and one in Taiwan. A qualitative approach was used to perform content analysis on responses to the open-ended questionnaires. Research findings revealed cultural differences between faculties from the two countries. Taiwanese faculty members indicated that they teach more theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom than do nursing faculty members from the United States. However, nursing faculty members in Taiwan reported that they observe and practice less therapeutic humor in clinical settings out of respect for the cultural value of "reverence of illness" operating within Taiwanese society. Therapeutic humor was family centered and interdependent on relationships, roles, duties, and responsibilities of family members. In contrast, the U.S. faculty members stated that they teach less theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom but observe and practice humor more in clinical settings. United States faculty approached teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom on an informal basis because the subject was not part of
Roth, Benjamin S.
This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…
I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis of...
The thesis deals with business ethics in context with cultural differences of individual nations. The first chapter describes ethics etymology and clarifies the distinction between ethical conflict and dilemma. The second chapter gives an answer to the question why we should act ethically and illustrates the implementation of ethics to the business environment. Furthermore, the thesis deals with international ethics. It demonstrates the ethics in multinational corporations and points out to t...
Wu, Shali; Barr, Dale J.; Gann, Timothy M.; Keysar, Boaz
Individuals from East Asian (Chinese) backgrounds have been shown to exhibit greater sensitivity to a speaker’s perspective than Western (U.S.) participants when resolving referentially ambiguous expressions. We show that this cultural difference does not reflect better integration of social information during language processing, but rather is the result of differential correction: in the earliest moments of referential processing, Chinese participants showed equivalent egocentric interferen...
This paper provides an overview of the main theoretical elements and empirical underpinnings of executive compensation system designs. It is argued that the components affecting CEO pay studied up to today including e.g. company size, performance, industry, and ownership structure are not enough to explain the differences observed in international executive pay. Thus, the analysis is expanded to take into consideration also geographical and cultural influences. In this study geographical dist...
Full Text Available Sensory consequences resulting from own movements receive different neural processing compared to externally generated sensory consequences (e.g., by a computer, leading to sensory attenuation, i.e., a reduction in perceived loudness or brain evoked responses. However, discrepant findings exist from different cultural regions about whether sensory attenuation is also present for sensory consequences generated by others. In this study, we performed a cross culture (between Chinese and British comparison on the processing of sensory consequences (perceived loudness from self and others compared to an external source in the auditory domain. We found a cultural difference in processing sensory consequences generated by others, with only Chinese and not British showing the sensory attenuation effect. Sensory attenuation in this case was correlated with independent self-construal scores. The sensory attenuation effect for self-generated sensory consequences was not replicated. However, a correlation with delusional ideation was observed for British. These findings are discussed with respects to mechanisms of sensory attenuation.
[Abstract]Color is closely related to people's life.The color words not only express the color itself,but also imply the culture of a country. During the intercultural communication, there are many differences in the use of color words as wel as the understanding of the same color due to different living environment,social backgrounds, aesthetic levels.A comparison between them can help us to have a better understanding of these color words and improve our intercultural communication ability in case of embarrassment.
Ojeda, Natalia; Aretouli, Eleni; Peña, Javier; Schretlen, David J
Ethnicity and cultural experience can affect neuropsychological performance, but they are rarely assessed in historical context. Attention measures are considered strongly biologically determined and therefore potentially culture-fair. In this study, we assessed the cross-cultural equivalence of Spanish and English versions of the Trail Making Test (TMT; Reitan, 1958, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271-276) and the Brief Test of Attention (BTA; Schretlen et al., 1996, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 80-89) in two large samples of Americans (N = 203) and Spaniards (N = 213), divided into younger and older subgroups. The older Spaniards lived under Franco's political regime (1936-1975), whereas the Americans never experienced such repression. Overall, TMT performance was culture-sensitive, whereas BTA performance was not. However, when both groups were stratified by age, cultural differences in TMT performance were restricted to older participants, suggesting that historical experience across generations might have contributed to the observed differences in cognitive performance. Even such basic cognitive processes as attention, working memory, and resource sharing might be shaped to some degree by historical experiences that contribute to cultural differences. PMID:25418760
Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33. Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.
Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent from which 22 samples (55 percent yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.
Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.
Kim, Bokyung; Sung, Young Shin; McClure, Samuel M
People generally prefer to receive rewarding outcomes sooner rather than later. Such preferences result from delay discounting, or the process by which outcomes are devalued for the expected delay until their receipt. We investigated cultural differences in delay discounting by contrasting behaviour and brain activity in separate cohorts of Western (American) and Eastern (Korean) subjects. Consistent with previous reports, we find a dramatic difference in discounting behaviour, with Americans displaying much greater present bias and elevated discount rates. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that differences in discounting may arise from differential involvement of either brain reward areas or regions in the prefrontal and parietal cortices associated with cognitive control. We find that the ventral striatum is more greatly recruited in Americans relative to Koreans when discounting future rewards, but there is no difference in prefrontal or parietal activity. This suggests that a cultural difference in emotional responsivity underlies the observed behavioural effect. We discuss the implications of this research for strategic interrelations between Easterners and Westerners. PMID:22271781
Lawson, Anton E.; Bealer, Jonathan M.
To test the hypothesis that cultural diversity contributes to the development of formal reasoning, samples of adolescents from three predominately white middle-class communities located in areas that varied in the extent to which they offered cultural diversity (i.e., rural, suburan homogeneous, suburban heterogeneous) were administered a test of formal reasoning and a test of analytical intelligence. Results showed significant differences in formal reasoning in favor of the suburban heterogeneous sample on complex reasoning items. The suburban groups showed equal performance (but superior to the rural Ss) on the test of analytical intelligence. On the less complex reasoning items and on one item embedded in a rural farming context, the rural Ss showed relatively better performance. Implications for using science instruction to promote formal reasoning are discussed.
In an era of globalization and information explosion, culture difference has become one of those frequently-mentioned things. This paper is to make an detailed analysis of culture differences between China and Japan by paying more attention to a“not-very-decent-aspect”, namely, the toilets, and therefore, to explore the different cultural elements rooted in different toileting habits and attached cultures.
Translation is the communication between two language and cultures,different ethnic groups have different culture.In business communication,the differences between different cultures have great influence on business English translation.we should not only focus on the translation skills,but also improve our cultural apprehension,only in this way can we grasp the essence of business English translation.
Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.
It is universally acknowledged that English has gained popularity among Chinese learners since the adoption of policy of reform and opening-up. Also, Chinese government has given English priority as it is a required subject in compulsory education. Cultural conflicts may be arisen according to discrepancies in scientific outlook, education. Thereby, this essay will attach importance to analyzing cultural differences and impacts.
Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise
Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751631
Luhrmann, Tanya M; Padmavati, R; Tharoor, Hema; Osei, Akwasi
This study compares 20 subjects, in each of three different settings, with serious psychotic disorder (they meet inclusion criteria for schizophrenia) who hear voices, and compares their voice-hearing experience. We find that while there is much that is similar, there are notable differences in the kinds of voices that people seem to experience. In a California sample, people were more likely to describe their voices as intrusive unreal thoughts; in the South Indian sample, they were more likely to describe them as providing useful guidance; and in our West African sample, they were more likely to describe them as morally good and causally powerful. What we think we may be observing is that people who fall ill with serious psychotic disorder pay selective attention to a constant stream of many different auditory and quasi-auditory events because of different "cultural invitations"-variations in ways of thinking about minds, persons, spirits and so forth. Such a process is consistent with processes described in the cognitive psychology and psychiatric anthropology literature, but not yet described or understood with respect to cultural variations in auditory hallucinations. We call this process "social kindling." PMID:26349837
Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela; Pinborg, Anja; Rasmussen, S;
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in birthweight distribution in ART singletons born after IVF culture in two different culture media? SUMMARY ANSWER: There is no effect of culture media on both crude and adjusted birthweight distributions in ART singletons from nulliparous mothers. WHAT IS...... KNOWN ALREADY: Studies on human ART singletons have reported a difference in birthweight in singletons following IVF culture in different culture media. However, other studies comparing different culture media have not shown any significant differences in birthweight. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This...... study was a retrospective comparison of birthweights in IVF/ICSI singletons conceived after fresh embryo transfer following embryo culture in Cook or Medicult medium and in a national cohort of naturally conceived singletons in nulliparous women. The study compares four independent groups consisting of...
Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin
Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms. PMID:26750123
Liliana G Gigova; Natalia J Ivanova
Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus.
Full Text Available Individuals from East Asian (Chinese backgrounds have been shown to exhibit greater sensitivity to a speaker's perspective than Western (US participants when resolving referentially ambiguous expressions. We show that this cultural difference does not reflect better integration of social information during language processing, but rather is the result of differential correction: in the earliest moments of referential processing, Chinese participants showed equivalent egocentric interference to Westerners, but managed to suppress the interference earlier and more effectively. A time-series analysis of visual-world eyetracking data found that the two cultural groups diverged extremely late in processing, between 600-1400 ms after the onset of egocentric interference. We suggest that the early moments of referential processing reflect the operation of a universal stratum of processing that provides rapid ambiguity resolution at the cost of accuracy and flexibility. Late components, in contrast, reflect the mapping of outputs from referential processes to decision-making and action planning systems, allowing for a flexibility in responding that is molded by culturally specific demands.
Wu, Shali; Barr, Dale J; Gann, Timothy M; Keysar, Boaz
Individuals from East Asian (Chinese) backgrounds have been shown to exhibit greater sensitivity to a speaker's perspective than Western (U.S.) participants when resolving referentially ambiguous expressions. We show that this cultural difference does not reflect better integration of social information during language processing, but rather is the result of differential correction: in the earliest moments of referential processing, Chinese participants showed equivalent egocentric interference to Westerners, but managed to suppress the interference earlier and more effectively. A time-series analysis of visual-world eye-tracking data found that the two cultural groups diverged extremely late in processing, between 600 and 1400 ms after the onset of egocentric interference. We suggest that the early moments of referential processing reflect the operation of a universal stratum of processing that provides rapid ambiguity resolution at the cost of accuracy and flexibility. Late components, in contrast, reflect the mapping of outputs from referential processes to decision-making and action planning systems, allowing for a flexibility in responding that is molded by culturally specific demands. PMID:24348368
Peter Van Petegem
Full Text Available The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP is a popular measure of environmental concern and pro-environmental orientation of adults, which has recently been modified for use with children. For this paper, we have collected questionnaires from 1586 children from three different countries and continents (i.e. Zimbabwe, Belgium and Vietnam. In this paper we will present the NEP-scores and the search for dimensionality of the scales, across the different populations, by means of factor analyses. The results indicate that there is a clear and highly significant cultural influence on the environmental worldview of children, when developed and developing countries are compared. Such differences are important for those designing and evaluating environmental education initiatives because such initiatives need to be rooted in the local specific situation – both physically and attitudinally.
Full Text Available Employee benefits are all forms of counter services granted by anentity in return to services given by the employees. This category includes onlythe benefits covered by the entity, not those from the state or the employee onthe payroll. The employer counting and presenting all the benefits of theemployees, including those provided on the basis of official programs or otherofficial contracts between the entity and the individual employees, groups ofemployees or their representatives, those established on the basis of legalprovisions or by contracts at the level of activity sector, through which theentities are required to contribute to national programs, as well as thoseresulting from unofficial practices give rise to an implicit obligation.Acknowledging and especially assessing these benefits are issues demandingspecial attention.
In the world, one popular country of destination is UK with its higher education environment. International students arrive in the UK from all around the world and for many students this is their first experience of living in new society. Because of culture difference, International students may face some difficulties.
in different contexts. Two organisations in Thailand and one organisation in The Netherlands were selected to serve as case studies. The impact of culture was explored as a contextual background.Research methodsBased on literature review an overview of performance measurement systems and measures has been developed. The list of corporate real estate performance measures has been classified in six categories according to Bradley (2002 and subsequently compared with the findings from the case studies. The six categories include: 1 stakeholder perception, 2 financial health, 3 organisational development, 4 productivity, 5 environmental responsibility and 6 cost efficiency. The impact of workplace change was examined using the work environment diagnosis instrument (WODI questionnaire which evaluates employees’ responses to the changed work environment in three areas: employee satisfaction, perceived productivity support and prioritised aspects (Maarleveld, et al., 2009. The Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI; Cameron and Quinn, 2006 was used to assess organisational culture. National culture was measured by using the Value Survey Module 94 (VSM94; Hofstede, 1997.Research findingsThe conceptual framework that came to the fore from the literature review showed to be useful for both theoretical understanding of performance measurement and practical applications. Proposed performance measures have been applied in all three case studies but in different ways. The three case studies showed that performance measurement of an organisation is multi-dimensional. It includes several performance criteria and performance measures beyond cost efficiency. All seven performance criteria mentioned by Sink and Tuttle (1989 have been applied in all three cases including effectiveness, efficiency, quality, productivity, quality of worklife, innovation and profitability. The four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard (financial, customer, internal business process
Kikulwe, Enoch M.; Nassul S. Kabunga; Qaim, Matin
Most micro-level studies on the impact of agricultural technologies build on cross-section data, which can lead to unreliable impact estimates. Here, we use panel data covering two time periods to estimate the impact of tissue culture (TC) banana technology in the Kenyan small farm sector. TC banana is an interesting case, because previous impact studies showed mixed results. We combine propensity score matching with a difference-in-difference estimator to control for selection bias and accou...
The present work compares the effect of γ-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G1 phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G2 phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G1 phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture
Castelli, Germano; Galante, Antonella; Lo Verde, Vincenza; Migliazzo, Antonella; Reale, Stefano; Lupo, Tiziana; Piazza, Maria; Vitale, Fabrizio; Bruno, Federica
The aim of this study is to improve the cultivation of Leishmania promastigotes without the use of common, semisolid culture media such as Evans' modified Tobie's medium (EMTM), liquid RPMI 1640, and Peptone-yeast extract medium (P-Y). Although EMTM medium permits the growth of a high number of parasites, it is technically difficult to prepare as it requires the use of fresh rabbit blood from animals bred on farms, while RPMI 1640 and P-Y show lower growth rates than the EMTM. There is, therefore, a need to develop new blood-free and time-saving culture systems. The aim of this paper is to propose new modified microbiological media, named RPMI-PY and Tobie-PY, to isolate Leishmania and cultivate parasites for research and diagnostic purposes. This study compares classic culture media to the new media, RPMI-PY and Tobie-PY, and demonstrates that the new media have superior performance in terms of time and parasitic load. The growth rate of the parasite was significantly higher at 24, 48, and 72 hr cultivation, based on counts using Bürker's chambers, when compared to classic media. This study was carried out at the National References Centre for Leishmaniasis (C.Re.Na.L.) where the isolation procedures are conducted daily from a number of different biological matrices. PMID:24350586
Idioms can reflect a nation just like a mirror. As a special form of language, idioms carry a large amount of cultural information such as history, geography, religion, custom, nationality, psychology, etc., and therefore idioms are closely related to culture. Thus people can know much about culture by studying idioms and in turn get bet er understanding of idioms by learning the cultural background behind idioms. In order to communicate with each other fluently, the study of the relationship between the idiom and culture is significant and urgent. This paper analyzes the main causes of cultural dif erences in English and Chinese idioms and il ustrates the manifestations of cultural dif erences. The aim of this thesis is to enhance language learners' intercultural awareness of comprehending and utilizing idioms from dif erent cultures precisely and accurately.
Tarragüel Pueyo, Luis Felipe; Wu, WanChun
The relation between Culture and Business has caught researchers’ attention long ago; itis not hard to find studies relating to these topics. According to Hofstede et al. (2010, p.18), Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2012, p. 8), and Erez and Gati (2004, p. 5),culture can be defined in many levels, for example, organizational culture, and national culture. The field of Business also contains several disciplines, for example, International Business Management, Project Management, and Project G...
As china’s reform and opening up and the gradual establishment of market economy, we have been setting up more and more contact with the whole world. However, cultural difference is an obstacle for both sides. In order to communicate more convenient with western countries, translation is a necessary tool. With translation, we can do business more directly with other countries, improving our fame and comprehensive national strength. But if you want foreigners to purchase your products you have to translate your advertisement slogan which can make foreigners understand the advantages of your products. We can find that the slogan of an ad is often composed of only few words. But what it expresses is profound and lasting. When compile slogans, many rhetoric devices are used. Such as simile、repetition、parallelism and exaggeration.
Full Text Available This article looks at Palestinian immigrants in contemporary Honduras. It questions the general assumption that Palestinians have successfully assimilated into predominantly mestizo societies. It shows that the Palestinian community has maintained various features and references, such as their religious affiliation and their activity in commerce and trade, that make them a culturally differentiated group. This article also explores why, against the recent backdrop of multiculturalism, the Palestinian immigrant community have not mobilized an ethnic identity in order to gain access to resources or demand collective recognition. Furthermore, it shows that Palestinian immigrants have benefitted from various macro and local political and economic factors and policies that contributed to the accumulation of different forms of capital throughout the 20th century.
Inchaurralde Besga, Carlos
Content vocabulary may have different connotative values and different denotational meanings in different languages according to cultural idiosyncracy, manifested in culture-specific "key" meanings and culture-related scripts. Our claim here is that, even in all these cases involving the use of background knowledge with culturally-determined differences in different languages, there is still room for transfer of a core meaning, which makes translation possible and allows transcultural communi...
With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A...... developing cultural sensitivity and growing personally. The international learning experiences as a context for developing cultural sensitivity was characterized by periods of psychological stress in the beginning of the exchange, involvement with the people in the host culture, direct patient contact...
AKDENİZ, Defne; AYTEMİZ SEYMEN, Oya
This study aimed to test whether national culture and organizational cultures were isomorphic in accommodation establishments, through Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. Based on data from a survey of 142 employees from multinational hotels in Istanbul, the existence and degree of difference between national and organizational culture were tested. The new culture scores were calculated by calculation formulas derived from the mean scores of each culture dimension. The most important result of th...
In the foreign education, the importance of teaching of foreign culture has been widely recognized. How to teach culture in foreign language education is faced by language educators all over the world. The question is very complicated since the answer relies on our understanding of the relation between the home culture and foreign culture, the relation between language and culture. This article deals with the deep connotation of English culture. It sets forth the differences between Chinese a...
Translation is the communication between two language and cultures,different ethnic groups have different culture.In business communication,the differences between different cultures have great influence on business English translation.we should not only focus on the translation skills,but also improve our cultural apprehension,only in this way can we grasp the essence of business Engl ish translation.
Angelica-Nicoleta ONEA (NECULÃESEI)
This article makes a series of methodological clarifications that are of the uttermost importance for the construction of cultural/intercultural research. The cultural and intercultural diagnosis meth-ods that might be used, as well as the difficulties that might arise in this type of research, generally valid difficulties, but also difficulties derived from the particularities of a specific culture, which could be avoided if identified in time, are revised. Other methodological clarification...
Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing
Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…
Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [73As]arsenite (iAsIII; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAsIII to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAsIII than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAsIII was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAsIII and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to the interspecies differences in the
Cole, Pamela M.; Bruschi, Carole J.; Tamang, Babu L.
Two studies examined beliefs about revealing emotion among children from Brahman, Tamang and American cultures. Findings indicated three distinct cultural patterns: Tamang were more likely to appraise difficult situations in terms of shame, while the others endorsed anger. Brahmins were more likely not to communicate negative emotion. Americans…
Gomez, Martin Omar; Marcoulides, George A.; Heck, Ronald H.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model of school culture and examine data from schools in Southern California to identify educationally important aspects of teacher-perceived cultural variables and how these perceptions differentially impact school performance in K-8 and middle school structures.…
Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal
This article intends to discuss safety culture in the Danish construction industry and aims to demonstrate the value of this understanding in relation to preventive activities in the everyday working environment. The article discusses how safety culture is defined and understood. A short...
Rowe-Jones, Julian M
The purpose of facial aesthetic surgery is to improve the patient's psychological well-being. To achieve this, the surgeon must understand the patient's body image and their aesthetic and psychological expectations. These factors must be judged in the context of their cultural background. The patient's cultural values must also be understood to optimize the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:25049120
Church, A Timothy; Ortiz, Fernando A; Katigbak, Marcia S; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Emerson, Alice M; Vargas Flores, José de Jesús; Ibáñez Reyes, Joselina
A new measure of implicit theories or beliefs regarding the traitedness versus contextuality of behavior was developed and tested across cultures. In Studies 1 (N = 266) and 2 (N = 266), these implicit beliefs dimensions were reliably measured and replicated across U.S. college student samples and validity evidence was provided. In Study 3, their structure replicated well across an individualistic culture (the United States; N = 249) and a collectivistic culture (Mexico; N = 268). Implicit trait and contextual beliefs overlapped only modestly with implicit entity theory beliefs and were predicted by self-construals in ways that generally supported cultural psychology hypotheses. Implicit trait beliefs were fairly strongly endorsed in both cultures, suggesting that such beliefs may be universally held. PMID:12916574
While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…
Humans' communication behaviors, in a rough way, can be classified into verbal communication and nonverbal communication. Kinesics, which is mainly concerned with postures, gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact etc, plays an important role in nonverbal communication. This paper will focus on discussing the cultural differences of Kinesics between China and America in order to increase the learners' awareness of nonverbal communication and improve their ability of intercultural communication.%人类的交际行为大致可以分为两种:言语交际和非言语交际.体态语(身势语)在非言语交际中具有重要作用,其主要涉及姿态、手势、面部表情和目光接触等.本文将主要讨论中美两国在体态语方面的文化差异,旨在增强学习者的非言语交际意识,提高他们的跨文化交际能力.
Rakauskas, Michael E; Ward, Nicholas J; Gerberich, Susan G
The prevailing risk of traffic fatalities is much larger in rural areas compared to urban areas. A number of explanations have been offered to explain this including road design, emergency medical service proximity, and human factors. This research explored the potential contribution of rural driver attitudes that may underlie the increased fatal crash risk in rural environments. This analysis examined differences between rural and urban drivers in terms of self-reported risk taking for driving behaviors associated with fatal crashes and attitudes toward safety interventions using a large-scale survey. The results suggested that rural drivers engage in riskier behavior, such as not wearing seatbelts, because they have lower perceptions of the risks associated with such behaviors. Results also suggested that vehicle type (e.g., pickup trucks versus passenger vehicles) may be related to seatbelt compliance and frequency of driving under the influence of alcohol. Rural drivers perceived the utility of government-sponsored traffic safety interventions to be lower than their urban counterparts. This study provides insights into the role of the human factor in rural fatal crashes and provides policy suggestions for developing safety interventions that are designed with respect to the psychosocial factors that define the rural culture. PMID:19664429
Dunkel, Amanda; Meierewert, Sylvia
This article examines the impact of different cultural standards on the processes and performances of Austrian, Spanish, German and Hungarian task groups. We therefore analyzed 201 qualitative interviews with Austrians, Spaniards, Germans and Hungarians, which were conducted from 1996 to 2001. This paper uses the cultural standard framework as its theoretical background as well as the concepts of team development. The emphasis of our research is on those culture standards that have been ident...
Svendsen, Anne Sakseide
Culture is an important business element which can make the difference between success and failure for businesses that will expand abroad. The differences between two cultures do not have to vary to a large extent, but they still have to be considered. Hence knowledge about culture plays an important role in a company's decision making process. This master thesis is focused on selected aspects of cultural differences and their influence on the international marketing mix. The first part of th...
Full Text Available The cultural difference has found expression in gravity model to analyze its influences on inbound tourists, exemplified by Zhejiang Province. The results shows :on one hand, negative effects are considered to exist; on other hands, the inbound tourists are mostly attracted by cultural differences, exemplified by Zhejiang Province. Cultural difference is both positive and negative and the undertaking tourism development should take cultural ingredients into consideration and the development and marketing of inbound tourism should be carried out effectively.
With the development of globalization, intercultural contact is becoming increasingly axiomatic and pervasive;however, the values and behaviors of a particular culture may not be understandable and family values may not be acceptable in another culture. Therefore, communication among people from different cultures will become more complex. This paper aims at revealing some different family values possessed by Chinese and Americans and intends to introduce that different cultures have a strong impact on the family values.
Farran, Lama K.; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yoo, Hyunjoo; Oller, D. Kimbrough
Infant-directed speech (IDS) provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply...
Sam, David L; Berry, John W
In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented. PMID:26162193
With the increasing cultural exchanges between China and the rest of the world, especially with the Western countries, the film has gradually stood out as an important media of communication. Film title, as one of the most influential factors of a good film, has always been the general impression of the film for audience. Base on that point, we can see that film title plays an important role in the process of culture exchange. Therefore, in view of the cultural medium function of the film tit...
Elena Viktorovna Noskova; Irina MatveevnaRomanova
The article notes that globalization and the development of international trade leads to an increase in the flow of goods, services, and ideas across borders and cultures, as well as reduction of technological barriers that increases the relevance of cross-cultural research. The purpose of this study is to develop methodological tools to assess the effect of cross-cultural differences in the consumer behavior in the fish and seafood market. A cultural model, reflecting a set of cultural value...
There are many reasons why conflicts occur during the interaction between Chinese and Western people. This paper is to ex-pound on the reasons from historical perspective- - historical origins of cultural development between China and the West.
Lala, Noreen; Sun, Jing; Lu, He
Context: Previous studies have tried to find out the role of national culture in context of cross-border M&A and further tested the relationship with performance. However, the results seem to be inconclusive. Purpose: We will do a literature review based on peer reviewed articles regarding how national culture relates to the performance of cross-border M&A. Methodology: Literature review is based on various journals, academic articles, books through electronic databases and librar...
Gift giving is a common courtesy existing in many cultures. However, because of cultural differences, the gift giving customs vary from country to country. The research aims to find out the differences in cultural values between Chinese and the western people and their effects on gift giving behaviors.
Iivonen, M.; Sonnenwald, D. H.; Parma, M; Poole-Kober, E.
In the paper the need to understand cultural differences is discussed. The authors show how cultural differences can be analyzed. They also describe how cultural information was exchanged and analyzed during the library and information studies course that was taught via the Internet simultanously in Finland and North Carolina. In addition, the authors discuss how libraries could use experiences of the common class when they act in a multicultural environment. In the paper, culture is defin...
This study presents the relationship between six typologies of cultural differences and the learning styles of Kolb's learning model. Several cross-cultural studies about learning styles indicate that learning styles may differ from one culture to another, but few studies have addressed the question of which culture is related to which learning style or ability. The present study concerns this inquiry. Exploration of this inquiry has been made in two parts. The first part investigates concept...
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Wicki, Matthias; Windlin, Béat;
analyses confirmed that adolescents from southern/central European countries drank more frequently, but those from northern Europe reported being drunk more often. The strong indirect effects demonstrate that some of the cultural differences in drinking are because of higher levels of social, enhancement......PURPOSE: To test whether differences in alcohol use between boys and girls and between northern and southern/central Europe are mediated by social, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. METHODS: Cross-sectional school-based surveys were conducted among 33,813 alcohol-using 11- to 19-year......-olds from northern Europe (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Poland, Scotland, and Wales) and southern/central Europe (Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, and Switzerland). RESULTS: Particularly in late adolescence and early adulthood, boys drank more frequently and were more often drunk than...
Because of differences in habits and customs, logical thinking, as well as cultural values between Chinese and English, there are pragmatics differences in social greetings, thanks, banquets, invitations, and apologies language communication occa-sions. Thus, it is important to explore the language habits with different culture backgrounds of language communications and lan-guage features and study the pragmatic failure led by people using a foreign language because of the differences of social and cul-tural factors.
This chapter aims at analysing some characteristics of the innovation process, focusing on two factors that may determine the innovative capacity of a country: social capital and culture. The main objective is to explain that social capital can have positive effects on the equality level of an economy, while having not always positive effect on innovation.
With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.
Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas
The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…
Jones, Johnny L.
Schools can no longer be responsible for only the cognitive domain of the child. They must also expand to include the affective domain. When it comes to the corporal punishment or discipline of a disruptive black child, the child's cultural history and history of alienation must be considered. And, because it is the teacher who controls rewards…
Clark, Lesley A.; Halford, Graeme S.
Urban and rural Aboriginal- and Anglo-Australian children were tested for reading and math achievement, for nonverbal psychometric test intelligence, and for three cognitive styles. Psychometric intelligence was clearly a more powerful predictor of the effects of culture and location on school achievement than was cognitive style. (Author/CMG)
Full Text Available Latin American academic programs and research centers are based on the assumption that Latin America is more than an arbitrary geographic expression: it defines a coherent cultural region, having people with distinctive values and worldviews that make them think differently and behave differently from people of other cultures. But the existence of meaningful cultural areas has been challenged from different perspectives. The question is: Does Latin America constitute a coherent cultural region? This is part of the broader question, do coherent cultural zones exist? This, in turn, involves a still more basic question: Does culture constitute a stable variable that has significant impact on political, economic and social life? Does culture matter? The World Values Surveys conducted in over 90 societies enable us to answer these questions. These survey data reveal an astonishingly high degree of constraint between the basic values held by peoples of different societies, including Latin America.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of leader- member exchange to burnout syndrome in different organizational cultures. Sample of the study is constituted by 183 participants who work in life insurance companies which represent organic organizational culture and non-life insurance companies which represent mechanical organizational culture. As a result of regression and correlation analysis, it is determined that leader-member exchange in organic organizational culture affects organizational culture negatively and in higher level compared to mechanical organizational cultures.
Mohammad Sogir Hossain Khandoker; Md. Omar Faruque; Md Khalilur Rahman
Cultural variety in perception to diversity addresses a marketing instrument for which substantial culturaldisparity to be expected. Consumers’ perceptions of variety differ from the actual variety provided by amanufacturer or trader. Literature indicates that consumers’ benefits and cost of perceive variety differmethodically across cultures. Self-sufficient consumers in idiosyncratic cultures place a quality on choice, onvariety seeking and on personal sovereignty. Current cultu...
Erdem Kırkbeşoğlu; Şule Tuzlukaya
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of leader- member exchange to burnout syndrome in different organizational cultures. Sample of the study is constituted by 183 participants who work in life insurance companies which represent organic organizational culture and non-life insurance companies which represent mechanical organizational culture. As a result of regression and correlation analysis, it is determined t...
The literature concerning the corporate culture of the United States is a starting point for comparing the institutions of different cultures. However, teaching about the cultural context of business is not simply a matter of describing non-American companies in American terms, and American-born language teachers usually have little experience…
David K Tse; June Francis; Jan Walls
A study on conflict resolution strategies of Canadian and Chinese (Peoples Republic of China) executives was conducted. Responses to two types of joint project conflicts—task-related and person-related with potential partners from their own culture or from the other culture—were examined. Neither group of executives altered its strategy when negotiating across cultures. Chinese executives were more likely to avoid conflicts but recommended more negative strategies (discontinue negotiation; wi...
Reading is an indispensable part in our daily life.As the interaction between home and abroad is greatly enhanced by the economic development nowadays,practical reading strategies can improve our understanding and help us better deal with various communication problems.Teaching reading in college is difficult in all aspects.This paper aims to identify the problems of reading teaching in college from two aspects.Firstly,it analyses several cross -culture barriers.Then,the principles of introducing culture in reading teaching were discussed.With the discussion above,this paper tries to implement the student -centered concept in col-lege English reading teaching,add more interactions in class,strengthen the results of the class and improve the learning efficiency.
Silvia Romero; Belen Fernandez-Feijoo
This paper looks at culture differences in sustainability reporting among countries. The authors use data from the survey conducted by KPMG in 2008 within 22 countries, applying Hofstedeâ€™s framework. The authors find an effect of culture on the interest in highlighting the credibility of sustainability reports in different countries. Level of corporate social responsibility disclosure, on the other hand, does not change with cultural differences, but with the levels of enforcement of the re...
Alena A. Ponomareva; Elena Kardanova; M. S. Hannula; Anita Pipere; M. Lepik
Globalization has led to a large number of cross-cultural studies in different areas, especially in education and psychology. Researchers have to use multiple-language versions of tests and questionnaires and to involve individuals from different languages and cultures. The question of measurement of cross-cultural differences comes to the fore. This paper aims to measure lower secondary school mathematics teachers’ beliefs in Estonia, Latvia and Russia. It will consider thier perspectives on...
The famous Chinese classic novel A Dream of Red Mansions has two complete English translation versions; one was translated by Chinese translator Yang and the other by foreign translator David Hawkes. By comparing the materials cited from the two different English renditions, this paper considers to study on the cultural differences in them, especially the functions of translators’ different cultural backgrounds in translating. It argues that the variations of translators’ cultural backgrounds...
Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Lopes, Rui Costa
The social psychological literature considers two main perspectives on the study of perceived cultural differences between majorities and minorities: one proposes that perception of cultural differences is an antecedent of prejudice and another states that the attribution of cultural differences to minorities is already a hidden expression of racial prejudice. This paper offers further support to this latter perspective. One hundred and ninety-four participants answered a question...
Hameed, Nazia; Shaikh, Maqbool Uddin; Hameed, Fozia; Shamim, Azra
Rapid development of Internet and information technologies has gifted us with a new and diverse mode of learning known as e-learning. In the current era, e-learning has made rapid, influential, universal, interactive, vibrant, and economic development. Now e-learning has become a global mode of education. E-learning means the use of internet, computer and communications technologies to acquire education. Learners with diverse social, cultural, economic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds f...
Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E
To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480
Eva-Maria Metcalf; Tradução de Newton de Castro Pontes
This article is descriptive in nature, presenting a student-faculty project in which participants translated a short children’s story from German into English in order to explore the cultural embeddedness of language and the hermeneutic nature of translation. By reflecting on issues surrounding the translation of children’s literature and by imitating the situation of a professional translator, project participants gained insight into the workings of language and the complexities associated w...
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur in response to traumatic experiences. Research has shown that the trauma memory may become central to a survivor’s life story and result in a trauma-centred identity. Posttraumatic changes to identity vary across cultures. Trauma-centred identity has been found to be positively associated with PTSD symptoms in individualistic cultures, but not in collectivistic cultures. Cultural differences have also be...
Therw are many cultural differences in China and English-speaking Countries.They will cause communication problems if you don't know them.This paper states one of thenr-the differences in politeness principle.And it helps people communicate properly when you are in different cultural background.